WorldWideScience

Sample records for seaweed

  1. Seaweeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    in the synchronous spawning, is a critical factor in the life history of marine organisms. ..... port to balance cargo load. Invasive ... Negative effects of seaweeds include ma- ... India INSPIRE faculty award for funding this work, including research ...

  2. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  3. Seaweed Bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti

    . In conclusion, two brown seaweeds, Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida, inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities due to their content of several bioactive components with a potential use for future functional foods. Their effects on the postprandial insulin response and the in vitro findings...

  4. Functional hydrocolloids from seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    The global production of seaweeds continues to grow for production of food hydrocolloids, i.e. carbohydrate polymers that form viscous suspensions and gels in water. Because of their unique gelling properties seaweed hydrocolloids are used in various food and pharmaceutical applications. Asian...

  5. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  6. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  7. The potential health benefits of seaweed and seaweed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Edible seaweeds have historically been consumed by coastal populations across the globe. Today, seaweed is still part of the habitual diet in many Asian countries. Seaweed consumption also appears to be growing in popularity in Western cultures, due both to the influx of Asian cuisine as well as notional health benefits associated with consumption. Isolates of seaweeds (particularly viscous polysaccharides) are used in an increasing number of food applications in order to improve product acce...

  8. Dietary seaweed and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed as an ingredient is growing in popularity largely due to its perceived health-giving properties supported by findings from epidemiological studies.\\ud Increased seaweed consumption has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases however there is a paucity of evidence for health benefits derived from robust randomised controlled trials (RCT). Emerging data from short-term RCT\\ud involving seaweed isolates are promising. Further investigation of seaweed as a wholefood ingredient is ...

  9. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  11. [The use of seaweeds in rehabilitative medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G N

    2010-01-01

    This literature review supplemented by the results of original investigations presents data on seaweed composition and possibility of inclusion of seaweeds as foodstuffs and/or additives in the combined treatment of various diseases and clinical conditions, such as vitamin deficiency, insufficiency of microelements, etc. The use of seaweeds for external therapy in the form of algal applications, seaweed baths and coatings, etc. is considered. The most rational methods for using different species of seaweeds in rehabilitative medicine are discussed.

  12. Seaweed and Biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiradze, K. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Black Sea has a sensitive ecosystem, vulnerable to the potential impacts by climate, water quality, pollution and etc. Successfully restoring and sustaining healthy Black Sea aqua cultural farming will require concreted action by private sector, civil society, farmer organizations and other stakeholders. But to achieve agri-environmental goals at scale, well-organized policy goals, framework and strategy for Sea Agriculture Green energy, Algae Biomass, Sapropel Production, aquacultures farming are essential for Georgian Farmers. But we must recognizes the most sustainable and at least risky farming systems will be those that build in aqua cultural, environmental, and social management practices resilient to climate ch ange and other risks and shocks evident in Georgia and whole in a Black Sea Basin Countries. Black Sea has more than 600 kinds of seaweeds; these species contain biologically active substances also present in fish - vitamins and omega fatty acids. The task is to specify how Black Sea seaweeds can be used in preparing nutrition additives, medicines and cosmetic products. As elsewhere around the world, governments, civil society, and the private sector in Georgia should work together to develop and implement `Blue Economy' and Green Growth strategies to generate equitable, sustainable economic development through strengthening Sea Agriculture. We are very interested to develop Black Sea seaweed plantation ad farming for multiply purposes fo r livestock as food additives, for human as great natural source of iodine as much iodine are released by seaweeds into the atmosphere to facilitate the development of better models or aerosol formation and atmospheric chemistry. It is well known, that earth's oceans are thought to have absorbed about one quarter of the CO2 humans pumped into the atmosphere over the past 20 years. The flip side of this process is that, as they absorb co2, oceans also become more acidic with dramatic consequences for sea life

  13. Seagrass Biomass and Productivity in Seaweed and Non-Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seagrass beds are often subjected to stress resulting from natural and human activities. In this study, the shoot density, biomass and growth characteristics of Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides were measured to assess the impact of seaweed farming activities on seagrass meadows at Marumbi, Chwaka Bay and ...

  14. Commercial Seaweed Farming in Zanzibar Coastal Villages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing the competitive potential of Zanzibar seaweed farming for the ... business model and level of value addition initiatives on seaweed farming. It applied both descriptive statistics and regression analysis in order to achieve results. ... This is contributed by various constraints such as small farm size, lack of ...

  15. Seaweed: Promising plant of the millennium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweeds, one of the important marine living resources could be termed as the futuristically promising plants. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine in the orient as well as in the west, since ancient times. Although, seaweeds...

  16. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  17. The seaweed holobiont: understanding seaweed-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Suhelen; Harder, Tilmann; Burke, Catherine; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    Seaweeds (macroalgae) form a diverse and ubiquitous group of photosynthetic organisms that play an essential role in aquatic ecosystems. These ecosystem engineers contribute significantly to global primary production and are the major habitat formers on rocky shores in temperate waters, providing food and shelter for aquatic life. Like other eukaryotic organisms, macroalgae harbor a rich diversity of associated microorganisms with functions related to host health and defense. In particular, epiphytic bacterial communities have been reported as essential for normal morphological development of the algal host, and bacteria with antifouling properties are thought to protect chemically undefended macroalgae from detrimental, secondary colonization by other microscopic and macroscopic epibiota. This tight relationship suggests that macroalgae and epiphytic bacteria interact as a unified functional entity or holobiont, analogous to the previously suggested relationship in corals. Moreover, given that the impact of diseases in marine ecosystems is apparently increasing, understanding the role of bacteria as saprophytes and pathogens in seaweed communities may have important implications for marine management strategies. This review reports on the recent advances in the understanding of macroalgal-bacterial interactions with reference to the diversity and functional role of epiphytic bacteria in maintaining algal health, highlighting the holobiont concept. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Life cycle assessment of seaweed biomethane, generated from seaweed sourced from integrated multi-trophic aquaculture in temperate oceanic climates

    OpenAIRE

    CZYRNEK-DELETRE MAGDALENA; ROCCA STEFANIA; AGOSTINI ALESSANDRO; GIUNTOLI JACOPO; MURPHY JERRY

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed is a third generation renewable gaseous fuel. The advantage of seaweed for biofuel is that it does not compete directly or indirectly for land with food, feed or fibre production. Furthermore, the integration of seaweed and salmon farming can increase the yield of seaweed per hectare, while reducing the eutrophication from fish farming. So far, full comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of seaweed biofuel are scarce in the literature; current studi...

  19. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  20. Seaweed: A valuable marine plant source

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweed, one of the components of seashore, is the most unique and important marine living resource. Its multi-ranged applications are of economic as well as ecological importance. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine...

  1. In vitro prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.

  2. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  3. Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is a famous delicacy in some parts of the Asia and also a well-known source of important food hydrocolloids, such as agar, alginates, and carrageenan. In addition to the food value of seaweed, several health benefits have also been reported to be present in this valuable food source. It is presumed that the unique features of the marine environment, where the seaweeds are grown, are mainly responsible for most of its properties. Among the functional effects of the seaweed, nutritional and health-related benefits have been widely studied. Compared to the terrestrial plants and animal-based foods, seaweed is rich in some health-promoting molecules and materials such as, dietary fiber, ω-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids, and vitamins A, B, C, and E. In this chapter, the nutritive value of seaweed and the functional effects of its soluble fiber are discussed with a special reference to the digestive health promotion of human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seaweed technology for India for the twentyfirst century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.

    , underwater diving, tissue culture, genetic engineering, molecular biology, improvisation in cultivation and processing of seaweeds, popularization and utilization of seaweeds for food, feed, fertilizers, drugs and other economically important products...

  5. Seaweed utilization and its present status in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    various applied aspects like evaluation of seaweed resources, utilization, management, harvesting techniques and conservation in India. there seems to be a vast potential of using seaweeds for food, feed, fertilization and medicine in the 21st century...

  6. Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed | Jang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae (seaweed) into mono sugar using the following parameters such as: Amount of biomass, catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time. The major component of Ulva pertusa (green seaweed), Laminaria japonica (brown seaweed) and Gelidium amansii ...

  7. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  8. Seaweeds as source of the essential elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, C.R.; Maihara, V.A.; Alves, C.B.L.; Silva, P.S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Overtime seaweeds have been used as a food mainly due to their high nutritional value. This type of food is considered as functional food and contributes to the nutritional human requirements, being beneficial to human health. In this study 13 edible seaweed samples acquired in the marked of São Paulo city were analyzed and the concentrations of elements Cl. K. Mg. Mn and Na were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The following edible seaweeds were analyzed: Nori (Porphyra umbilicates); Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme); Kombu (Laminaria sp.) and Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) species from China, USA, Japan and South Korea. The Undaria pinnatifida species presented the highest Na concentration and the lowest K level. The highest variation was obtained for Mn in the Porphyra umbilicates species. (author)

  9. Seaweeds as source of the essential elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, C.R.; Maihara, V.A.; Alves, C.B.L.; Silva, P.S.C., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: cassiomen@hotmail.com, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Overtime seaweeds have been used as a food mainly due to their high nutritional value. This type of food is considered as functional food and contributes to the nutritional human requirements, being beneficial to human health. In this study 13 edible seaweed samples acquired in the marked of São Paulo city were analyzed and the concentrations of elements Cl. K. Mg. Mn and Na were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The following edible seaweeds were analyzed: Nori (Porphyra umbilicates); Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme); Kombu (Laminaria sp.) and Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) species from China, USA, Japan and South Korea. The Undaria pinnatifida species presented the highest Na concentration and the lowest K level. The highest variation was obtained for Mn in the Porphyra umbilicates species. (author)

  10. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  11. Feeding trials of green seaweed Ulva fasciata

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, J.M.; Qasim, R.

    1993-01-01

    For the nutritional evaluation of green seaweed Ulva fasciata, a feeding trial was performed in albino rats. The results indicated that the 20% replacement of seaweed U. fasciata instead of carrot or lettuce in rad diet causes no harmful effects, as evident by a non-significant change in blood constituents and serum enzyme levels. The weight gain observed in rats with U. fasciata diet was same as that of control diet. The true digestibility ratio of U. fasciata was 80.20% with carrot and 83.4...

  12. Activation analysis of some seaweeds of Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Myint, Aye Myint [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-11-01

    Activation analysis of some seaweed samples occurring off the coastline areas of Myanmar is described. Na, K and I were determined using Am(Be) radionuclide neutron source and low level [beta]-counting. (author) 3 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  13. Seaweed tablet: a natural source of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Ambal, Wilhelmina O.; Monroyo, Evangelina C.; Bonifacio, Teresita S.; Sison, Fe M.

    1997-01-01

    Species of seaweeds namely: Halymenia durvillaei, Laurencia flexilis and Sargassum gigantifolium were processed into dried form and formulated as tablet. Prior to tablet formulation, the seaweeds were assayed for iodine and trace elements. The seaweeds that exhibited significance values of iodine and trace elements were further analyzed for the presence of heavy metals followed by acute oral toxicity test (LD 50 ). Among the seaweeds evaluated, H. durvilaei was found to contain high level of iodine (0.255% w/w) and magnesium (1.65% w/w) with sufficient amount of zinc (25.69 ppm) and phosporous (11.68 ppm). Analysis of heavy metals showed minute amount of mercury (0.0055 ppm), cadmium (0.67 ppm) and lead (1.80 ppm). The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of H. durvillaei administered orally in Swiss male mice is 119.1489 ± 4.9873 g/kg. Tablet formulation was based on the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 0.15 mg. of iodine per adult and children. The final product was comparable to imported Kelp pills (available in the local market) in terms of physical properties and iodine content. (Author)

  14. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  15. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  16. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Kraan, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products...... and vice versa. Scientific research on bioactive compounds in seaweed usually takes place on just a few species and compounds. This paper reviews worldwide research on bioactive compounds, mainly of nine genera or species of seaweed, which are also available in European temperate Atlantic waters, i...... described in this review. This applies either to the choice of high value-added bioactive products to be exploited in an available species or to the choice of seaweed species when a bioactive compound is desired. Data are presented in tables with species, effect and test organism (if present) with examples...

  17. Effects of Seaweed Substitution on Breadmaking. : (IV) Ulva pertusa

    OpenAIRE

    筒井, 知己; 金井, 節子; 牛腸, ヒロミ; 小見山, 二郎; ツツイ, トモミ; カナイ, セツコ; ゴチョウ, ヒロミ; コミヤマ, ジロウ; TOMOMI, TSUTSUI; SETSUKO, KANAI; HIROMI, GOCHO; JIRO, KOMIYAMA

    2003-01-01

    Physical properties of wheat flour replaced with 0.5 to 1.5 % of seaweed Ulva pertusa (WFRS) and baking properties of them were estimated. Water absorption capacity of WFRS increased gradually as seaweed level increased. Among the bread made from WFRS, the bread made from wheat flour replaced with 0.5% of seaweed showed better loaf volume and also showed better sensory evaluation score. Electronic nose analysis concurred with sensory descriptor ratings.

  18. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (Plemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  19. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  20. Spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Du Hai; Sim, Jillian Ooi Lean; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Moi, Phang Siew

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to represent spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia. Seaweeds have been collected since 1984 along coastlines of 4675 km of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, there is no seaweed database and they cannot be displayed in a geographic view. Therefore, a database with 805 georeferenced observations was setup and GIS is used to analyze seaweed diversity based on this database. The highest number of observations is 94 which occur along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of species richness is 82 which are also along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Rhodophyta has the highest species richness while Chlorophyta has the least species richness.

  1. Seaweed Investment as Application in Development of Minapolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Consequences of regional autonomy is not easy, this is because a required area should look for alternative sources of financing regional. One of the sources of financing in the Brebes district is the development of seaweed cultivation to be exported to other countries. The calculations show that the investment in seaweed farming is feasible to be developed because of the many advantages gained than seaweed farming. The first advantage of the presence of a source of income for local communities and Brebes district, opening job opportunities broadly, to develop products made from seaweed such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, herbs, jelly, and so forth.

  2. Hiding and feeding in floating seaweed: Floating seaweed clumps as possible refuges or feeding grounds for fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Messiaen, Marlies; O'Flynn, Sarah; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Floating seaweed is considered to be an important habitat for juvenile fishes due to the provision of food, shelter, a visual orientation point and passive transport. The importance of the presence of the highly dynamical seaweed clumps from the North Sea to juvenile neustonic fishes was investigated by analysing both neuston samples (without seaweed) and seaweed samples concerning fish community structure, and length-frequency distributions and feeding habits of five associated fish species. While the neustonic fish community was mainly seasonally structured, the seaweed-associated fish community was more complex: the response of the associated fish species to environmental variables was species specific and probably influenced by species interactions, resulting in a large multivariate distance between the samples dominated by Chelon labrosus and the samples dominated by Cyclopterus lumpus, Trachurus trachurus and Ciliata mustela. The results of the stomach analysis confirmed that C. lumpus is a weedpatch specialist that has a close spatial affinity with the seaweed and feeds intensively on the seaweed-associated invertebrate fauna. Similarly, C. mustela juveniles also fed on the seaweed fauna, but in a more opportunistic way. The shape of the size-frequency distribution suggested enhanced growth when associated with floating seaweed. Chelon labrosus and T. trachurus juveniles were generally large in seaweed samples, but large individuals were also encountered in the neuston. The proportion of associated invertebrate fauna in their diet was of minor importance, compared to the proportions in C. lumpus. Individuals of Syngnathus rostellatus mainly fed on planktonic invertebrates but had a discontinuous size-frequency distribution, suggesting that some of the syngnathids were carried with the seaweed upon detachment and stayed associated. Floating seaweeds can therefore be regarded as ephemeral habitats shared between several fish species (mainly juveniles) that use

  3. Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

    2013-03-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  4. Seaweeds in Two Oceans: Beta-Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus J. Smit; Albertus J. Smit; John J. Bolton; Robert J. Anderson; Robert J. Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Several species assembly mechanisms have been proposed to structure ecological communities. We assess the biogeography of seaweeds along 2,900 km of South Africa's coastline in relation to a thermal gradient produced by the Agulhas Current, and contrast this with the environmental structure created by the Benguela Current. We subdivided the coastline into “bioregions” to examine the regional patterning. To investigate the assembly mechanisms, we decomposed Sørensen's β-diversity into “turnove...

  5. The economic feasibility of seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den Sander W.K.; Duijn, van Arie Pieter; Bartelings, Heleen; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Poelman, Marnix

    2016-01-01

    Seaweeds are increasingly seen as an alternative to land-grown products in food and feed applications. Interest in production of seaweeds in temperate waters is rising, in particular in combination with offshore wind energy generation. This article reports an investigation of the economic

  6. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  7. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  8. The seaweeds of Angola: the transition between tropical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed flora of Angola is relatively poorly known. Most of the 124 records listed for the country come from a 1974 British Natural History Museum expedition to the central and southern parts of that country. Previous biogeographic studies treated the Angolan seaweed flora as a whole and grouped it with those of ...

  9. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  10. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  11. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-α concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-α concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-α concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  12. The deep processing of seaweed industrial waste--Influence of several fermentation on seaweed waste of feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shipeng; Zhang, Shuping

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on several factors on the effects of fermented seaweed feed, and obtains the optimal fermentation process through the analysis of nutrients. Through the experiment we can get, Seaweed waste fermented the best feed when adding 1% of microbial agents and 0.5% of corn powder, fermenting for 15 days.

  13. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  14. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  15. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  16. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05. In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05. However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05. Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05. In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01. IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05 and in

  17. Green and golden seaweed tides on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetacek, Victor; Zingone, Adriana

    2013-12-05

    Sudden beaching of huge seaweed masses smother the coastline and form rotting piles on the shore. The number of reports of these events in previously unaffected areas has increased worldwide in recent years. These 'seaweed tides' can harm tourism-based economies, smother aquaculture operations or disrupt traditional artisanal fisheries. Coastal eutrophication is the obvious, ultimate explanation for the increase in seaweed biomass, but the proximate processes that are responsible for individual beaching events are complex and require dedicated study to develop effective mitigation strategies. Harvesting the macroalgae, a valuable raw material, before they beach could well be developed into an effective solution.

  18. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  19. The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The antibacterial activity of extracts from 26 marine Rhodophyceae (8 Ceramiales, 7 Gelidiales, 9 ... seaweed extracts as a source of antibacterial compounds. ... Macroalgae are a rich source of natural bioactive products.

  20. Monitoring of uranium isotopes in seaweeds and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Balram; Mehendarge, S.T.; Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the concentration of uranium in seawater and different types of seaweed found along the coast line of Tarapur marine environment. The seaweeds are the trend indicators of heavy metals and radionuclides present in the aquatic environment. Seaweeds also serve as a food to the marine organisms and thus can enter the human being through food chain. The higher concentration of uranium in seafood may have radiological impact on human health. The Tarapur Atomic Power Station is adjoined to the sea and has a rocky surface area, which act as a good dwelling for the growth and survival of marine biota. In present study, separation and measurements were made to determine the uranium concentration in seaweed seawater at Tarapur coastal environment

  1. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  2. Seaweed survival after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tâmega, F. T. S.; Figueiredo, M. A. O.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Bonaldo, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the survival of seaweed (macroalgae and cyanobacteria) after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus, in northeastern Brazil. Samples of S. trispinosus feces were collected, inoculated on filter paper, and kept in the laboratory and field for 60 and 30 d, respectively. Comparisons of samples inoculated with feces to those without (controls) revealed a marked increase in the abundance and diversity of seaweed in samples inoculated with feces in both laboratory and field experiments. These results were consistent between summer and winter, although the seaweed species differed. A total of one cyanobacterium and 16 macroalgal taxa (nine rhodophytes, five heterokontophytes, and two chlorophytes) were recorded in the inoculated samples. Rhodophyta also presented the highest abundance across treatments, possibly because of their higher resistance to parrotfish digestion, greater ingestion, or both. The survival of cyanobacteria and macroalgae after consumption by S. trispinosus suggests that parrotfishes may contribute to seaweed dispersion on tropical reefs.

  3. Prophylactic antioxidants and phenolics of seagrass and seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    KEY WORDS: Antioxidant; Total Phenols; Total Flavonoids; FRAP; TEAC; Seagrass;. Seaweed; Seasonal ... ozone (O3) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) are not free radicals but can ... oxygen during respiration and from the synthesis of complex ...

  4. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... compositions of these five industrial red seaweeds were evaluated. Protein, lipid and total phenolic content, total amino acid and composition, fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and pigment composition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is potential possibility to develop a method...

  5. Application of natural seaweed modified mortar for sustainable concrete production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M. N. I.; Zularisam, A. W.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii (gel) and Gracilaria Sp. modified mortar on the properties of sustainable concrete was investigated. Pre-experiment and main-experiment was conducted to carry out this study. Pre-experiment was conducted to study the compressive strength of the sustainable concrete. The main-experiment studied the compressive and splitting strength. Results showed that seaweed modified mortar yielded satisfactory compressive and splitting strength of 30 MPa and 5 MPa at 28 days.

  6. A compiled checklist of seaweeds of Sudanese Red Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Abdel Rahim Osman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present an updated and compiled checklist of Sudanese seaweeds as an example for the region for conservational as well as developmental purposes. Methods: The checklist was developed based on both field investigations using line transect method at 4 sites along the Red Sea coast of Sudan and review of available studies done on Sudanese seaweeds. Results: In total 114 macroalgal names were recorded and were found to be distributed in 16 orders, 34 families, and 62 genera. The Rhodophyceae macroalgae contained 8 orders, 17 families, 32 genera and 47 species. The Phaeophyceae macroalgae composed of 4 orders, 5 families, 17 genera, and 28 species. The 39 species of the Chlorophyceae macroalgae belong to 2 classes, 4 orders, 12 families, and 14 genera. The present paper proposed the addition of 11 macroalgal taxa to be included in Sudan seaweeds species list. These include 3 red seaweed species, 1 brown seaweed species and 7 green seaweed species. Conclusions: This list is not yet inclusive and it only represents the macroalgal species common to the intertidal areas of Sudan Red Sea coast. Further investigation may reveal the presence of more species. While significant levels of diversity and endemism were revealed for other groups of organisms in the Red Sea region, similar work still has to be performed for seaweeds. Considering the impact of climate change on communities’ structure and composition and the growing risk of maritime transportation through the Red Sea particularly that may originate from oil tankers as well as that may emanate from oil exploration, baseline data on seaweeds are highly required for management purposes.

  7. Biosorption of lanthanides using three kinds of seaweed biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Nobuo; Wang, Yudan; Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of seaweed biomass as sorbent for rare earth elements (REEs), sorption experiment from aqueous solutions containing known amount of lanthanide (La, Eu or Yb) using three kinds of Ca-loaded dried seaweeds (brown algae: Sargassum hemiphyllum, green algae: Ulva pertusa and red algae: Schizymenia dubyi) in single component system was explored. Furthermore, the sorption mechanism of these elements was investigated by applying Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to the data obtained. In addition, to confirm the characteristics of the seaweed biomasses, the surface morphology of the biomass before and after metal adsorption was determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The morphology of Sargassum hemiphyllum and Ulva pertusa surface has hardly changed even after exposing to metals. On the other hand, the change of the surface condition on Schizymenia dubyi after adsorption was observed. (2) Adsorption isotherms using the seaweed biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for lanthanide. These adsorption may have occurred mainly by monolayer reaction because of better-fitting for Langmuir model. (3) The seaweed biomasses could be an efficient sorbent for REEs. Particularly, Ulva pertusa is found to be a promising biosorbent for removing La. (4) Ion-exchange process is considered to be the main mechanism responsible for the sorption of lanthanide ion onto the seaweed biomass. (author)

  8. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bouga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed (edible algae is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224 were identified. Only 22 products (10% stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18% provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503 and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520. While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content.

  9. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouga, Maria; Combet, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content). PMID:28231201

  10. Seaweed as source of energy. I: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.S.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Biogas was produced from seaweed by making use of alginate-digesting marine bacteria that were isolated from decomposing seaweed and can digest seaweed carbohydrates (agar and alginic acid). Laboratory digesters containing 100 g seaweed were inoculated with 50 mL broth cultures of different seaweed-derived bacterial strains, and the maximum amount of degradation obtained was 28% (compared with 13% for a bacteria-free digestion). Cow dung was added as a source of methanogenic bacteria, and the amount of biogas produced was more than double the amount obtained when seaweed and cow dung were digested in the absence of the seaweed-derived bacteria. Adding a small amount of Ulva to the seaweed digester increased the production of biogas.

  11. The Roles of Seaweed on Climate Change, Food Security and Natural Product

    OpenAIRE

    A. Niarthiningsih; Wahyudin, Elly

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the potential role of seaweed in reducing global warming and climate change, contributing to food security and producing natural products. The role of seaweed on controlling climate change is through reducing carbon dioxide and converting seaweed into the bio fuel. The use of bio-fuel could reduce the traditional hydrocarbon as energy that produces carbon emission. Fresh and processed seaweed are commonly used as a food. This may contribute significantly to ...

  12. The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed biofilter Ulva reticulata was grown at two stocking densities (1 and 3 kg m-2) in a low cost integrated system in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The seaweed was stocked in 2 m2 cages made of 1 inch netting material placed at the outflow of fish ponds. Control seaweed was grown at the fish pond inflow channel.

  13. Seaweeds for umami flavour in the New Nordic Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouritsen Ole G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of the term 'umami' for the fifth basic taste and for describing the sensation of deliciousness is finding its way into Western cuisine. The unique molecular mechanism behind umami sensation is now partly understood as an allosteric action of glutamate and certain 5'-ribonucleotides on the umami receptors. Chefs have started using this understanding to create dishes with delicious taste by adding old and new ingredients that enhance umami. In this paper, we take as our starting point the traditional Japanese soup broth dashi as the 'mother' of umami and demonstrate how dashi can be prepared from local, Nordic seaweeds, in particular the large brown seaweed sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima and the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata, possibly combined with bacon, chicken meat or dried mushrooms to provide synergy in the umami taste. Optimal conditions are determined for dashi extraction from these seaweeds, and the corresponding glutamate, aspartate and alaninate contents are determined quantitatively and compared with Japanese dashi extracted from the brown seaweed konbu (Saccharina japonica. Dulse and dashi from dulse are proposed as promising novel ingredients in the New Nordic Cuisine to infuse a range of different dishes with umami taste, such as ice cream, fresh cheese and bread.

  14. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  15. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2016-01-28

    In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.

  16. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.

  17. The circular economy of seaweed as nutrient management instrument for biobased production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Bruhn, Annette

    portfolio (processing and cascade utilization) are needed for a seaweed biorefinery industry to become economically viable. The break-even point for the MAB3 EP biorefinery system is obtained by an increase in the seaweed productivity of a factor 2 to 4. Development of seaweed cultivation technology......A comparative analysis of the environmental and economic performance of seaweed production and biorefinery systems were modelled within the project MAB3 (www.mab3.dk). A framework for integrated sustainability modelling of the circular economy of offshore seaweed production and biorefinery systems...

  18. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Seaweed For Advanced Biochar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoso Tirto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii is a potential source of biomaterialIts high moisture content makes it suitable for hydrothermal conversion process since it doesn’t need to utilize dry feedstock. The aim of this study is to convert the biomass of red seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii into alternative fuels and high value biomaterials using hydrothermal process. The hydrothermal process seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii produce two types of products, liquid product and char (solid. This research focus on the char product. The char from hydrothermal process was then activated using the tubular furnace. The yield for activated char is 7.5 % and results of SEM analysis of activated char showed the formation of allotropes carbon include carbon micro spheres, carbon micro fibres and graphene. These structures have encountered application in a wide range of technological fields, such as adsorption, catalysis, hydrogen storage or electronics.

  20. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  1. Comprehensive chlorophyll composition in the main edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Ríos, José Julián; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Roca, María

    2017-08-01

    Natural chlorophylls present in seaweeds have been studied regarding their biological activities and health benefit effects. However, detailed studies regarding characterization of the complete chlorophyll profile either qualitatively and quantitatively are scarce. This work deals with the comprehensive spectrometric study of the chlorophyll derivatives present in the five main coloured edible seaweeds. The novel complete MS 2 characterization of five chlorophyll derivatives: chlorophyll c 2 , chlorophyll c 1 , purpurin-18 a, pheophytin d and phytyl-purpurin-18 a has allowed to obtain fragmentation patterns associated with their different structural features. New chlorophyll derivatives have been identified and quantified by first time in red, green and brown seaweeds, including some oxidative structures. Quantitative data of the chlorophyll content comes to achieve significant information for food composition databases in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seaweed utilization for integrated bioenergy and fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    and processing of seaweed compared to other energies and protein production technologies. Optimization of cultivation design could reduce externalities generated by the materials use. Optimization of storage methods, e.g. drying, is necessary to reduce the total energy consumption. Improvement......Linear production systems are not environmentally sustainable since they produce waste at a higher rate than nature is able to absorb. Creation of closed-loop production processes aiming at generating zero-waste is the foundation for a circular economy. Offshore seaweed cultivation can play a key...... role to transform linear production systems into biobased circular flows. Seaweed can absorb manmade emissions to water, while producing valuable compounds that can re-enter the economic system. In the thesis, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyze the environmental performance...

  3. Biosystem of seaweed beds coexisting with power plants; Denryoku hatsudensho to kyoseisuru moba no seitaikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    Recently, seaweed beds on the coasts of Japan are decreasing rapidly, and it has been demanded that they should be restored. As one of the restoring methods, plans are investigated to utilize coast structures near power plants and wave absorbing dykes, which are artificial seaweed beds with dense seaweed forests and offer favorable areas for living creatures, for the purpose of building new seaweed beds and marine pastures. For seaweed bed building projects, it is necessary to show the economical effect of seaweed beds. Recently, absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphoric acid dissolved in the sea has been attracting attention as a role of seaweed beds. Creation of Zostera beds is a difficult enterprise. The mound creation of the seaweed bed at Ikata, Aichi Prefecture, Japan is successful because there is a good seaweed bed in the periphery which can supply sufficient seeds (spores) to the bed. With the development of the seaweed bed, a concrete block rocky beach reef was developed which is provided with a function of dwelling places for shells and lobsters. The Fishery Ministry is promoting a large scale ocean pasture plan on the coast of Japan with the target period of the 21st century, and extension of seaweed bed areas is considered to be the major project. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Factors that influence the increase of Eucheuma cottonii Seaweed farmers’ income in Bantaeng, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusni Fitri Y. Rusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is one of the marine production that authentically potential to be increased its production in quantity and quality. In economic side, it is not only for country’s foreign exchange earnings but also for a source of income to the seaweed farmers. The aims of research were to elaborate the influencing use of seed, number of labor, and farming experience on seaweed production in Bantaeng Regency and to analyze the influencing production to the farmers’ income. The research was conducted in Bantaeng Regency and the data were obtained through observation and structured interview. The samples were selected purposively consisting of 94 seaweed farmers using cobb-douglas and simple linear regression analysis. The results of the research indicated that; (a regression coefficient variable in use of seed had influence to the increased of seaweed production but regression coefficient variable number of labor didn’t have to influence to increased seaweed production. For regression coefficient variable of farming experience also had influence to the increased seaweed production.Cobb-Douglas analysis indicated that production function in factors use of seed, number of labor and farming experience had  significantly affected to the seaweed production. In simple linear regression analysis, regression coefficient of seaweed production variable explained if seaweed production increases, farmers’ income would be increase too.  Keywords : Seaweed, Cobb-Douglas, Production, Farmers’ Income.

  5. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor

    will generate new valuable products that may help lessen coastal pollution by seaweeds and create new seaweed-based resources. Thus, utilization of these natural resources is of great importance. The objectives of this PhD study were to develop a technology to extract bioactive compounds from nuisance brown...... seaweeds, and investigate their bioactivity. To this effect, designed optimized extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and/or crude fucoidan from brown seaweed were performed, and the bioactivity of the isolated FCSPs was investigated. Moreover, to assess the potential of seaweed...... to assimilate nitrogen-based nutrients, a technology for accurate monitoring of differential seaweed growth responses to nutrient assimilation was also developed. Fucoidan is a term used to describe a class of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed, which contains substantial amounts of fucose...

  6. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  7. Seaweeds from the Portuguese coast: A potential food resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C.; Machado, S.; Vieira, E. F.; Morais, S.; Teles, M. T.; Correia, M.; Carvalho, A.; Domingues, V. F.; Ramalhosa, M. J.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Antunes, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Portuguese coast presents a large amount of potentially edible seaweeds that are underexploited. The identification of different macroalgae species and their availability in the northern and central coast of the continental territory was assessed. The nutritional value of seaweeds is discussed based on a literature review (when available) focused on data for species collected in Portugal with the aim to define the most important nutritional parameters that should be characterized in the samples. Possible health concerns related with the presence of contaminants are also considered.

  8. Sourcing and bioprocessing of brown seaweed for maximizing glucose release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin

    maximum levels of glucose. The first requirement was to develop a robust methodology, including acid hydrolysis and analytical composition analysis, to quantitatively estimate the carbohydrate composition of the brown seaweeds. The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds...... with lower enzyme loading. Simple application of only the cellulase preparation enabled the release of only half of the present glucose after 8 h. Analysis after the enzymatic treatment indicated a potential extraction of proteins from the solid residue and the sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan solubilized...

  9. Salinity critical threshold values for photosynthesis of two cosmopolitan seaweed species: providing baselines for potential shifts on seaweed assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Ventura, Robson; Barufi, José Bonomi; Horta, Paulo Antunes

    2013-10-01

    Climate change has increased precipitation in several South American regions leading to higher freshwater inputs into marine systems with potential to cause salinity declines along the coast. The current salinity profile on the southern coast of Brazil was surveyed during four years providing a baseline of the current salinity pattern in the region. Additionally, the effects of salinity decreases on the photosynthesis of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca and Sargassum stenophyllum were investigated in laboratory. Seaweeds were cultured at salinities 5, 15 and 34 and at the mean winter and summer temperatures. Photosynthetic performance was measured following 24 and 96 h from the beginning of experiment. U. lactuca remained practically unaltered by low salinities while S. stenophyllum presented declines of important photosynthetic parameters. This is due to the different regulation abilities of energy distribution at the PSII of the two species. These differences have potential to lead to seaweed community shifts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seaweeds in Two Oceans: Beta-Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus J. Smit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species assembly mechanisms have been proposed to structure ecological communities. We assess the biogeography of seaweeds along 2,900 km of South Africa's coastline in relation to a thermal gradient produced by the Agulhas Current, and contrast this with the environmental structure created by the Benguela Current. We subdivided the coastline into “bioregions” to examine the regional patterning. To investigate the assembly mechanisms, we decomposed Sørensen's β-diversity into “turnover” (βsim and “nestedness-resultant” (βsne dissimilarities, and used distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA to relate them to the Euclidean thermal difference, dE, and geographical distance. Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM were used as an additional set of spatial constraints. Variation partitioning was then used to find the relative strengths of thermal and spatially-structured thermal drivers. Spatial and environmental predictors explained 97.9% of the total variation in βsim and the thermal gradient accounted for 84.2% of this combined pool. βsim was the major component of overall β-diversity in the Agulhas Current region, suggesting niche influences (environmental sorting as dominant assembly process there. The much weaker thermal gradient in the Benguela Current-influenced region resulted in a high amount of βsne that could indicate neutral assembly processes. The intensification of upwelling during the mid-Pliocene 4.6–3.2 Ma (i.e., historical factors were likely responsible for setting up the strong disjunction between the species-poor west coast and species-rich south and east coast floras, and this separation continues to maintain two systems of community structuring mechanisms in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean influenced sides of South Africa.

  11. Seaweeds and the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekoll, M.S.; Deysher, L.; Dean, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    A three-year study, initiated in 1989, has evaluated the response of subtidal and intertidal seaweed communities to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities. The project was part of the coastal habitat injury assessment research sanctioned under the natural resource damage assessment program. A stratified random design was used to select oiled sites for the study. Paired control (unoiled) sites were then matched to the oiled sites. The most consistent effect found in subtidal populations in Prince William Sound was the higher relative abundance of small-size classes of kelps at the oiled sites, indicating the prior disappearance of larger plants. This disappearance was possibly caused by activities associated with the cleanup operations. Intertidal populations of algae were affected by the spill and cleanup in all three major areas studied: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet-Kenai, and Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula. The most obvious effect was a significant removal of the dominant intertidal plant Fucus gardneri from the mid and upper intertidal zones. The limited dispersal of this plant combined with the relatively harsh conditions of the upper intertidal will cause a slow recovery of the upper intertidal zone in the affected areas. Effects of the spill extended to other algal species. Species such as Cladophora, Myelophycus, Odonthalia, Palmaria, and Polysiphonia showed decreases in their percent cover at oiled sites. Only Gloiopeltis populations appeared to increase in percent cover in oiled areas. In both the Cook Inlet-Kenai and the Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula areas Fucus populations appeared to be enhanced in the lower intertidal zone - between 2 and 3 meters below the high-tide mark - in 1991

  12. Evaluation of Iodine Bioavailability in Seaweed Using in Vitro Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-González, M Raquel; Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-09-27

    Due to the high levels of iodine present in seaweed, the ingestion of a large amount of this type of food can produce excessive intake of iodine. However, the food after ingestion undergoes different chemistry and physical processes that can modify the amount of iodine that reaches the systemic circulation (bioavailability). Studies on the bioavailability of iodine from food are scarce and indicate that the bioavailable amount is generally lower than ingested. Iodine in vitro bioavailability estimation from different commercialized seaweed has been studied using different in vitro approaches (solubility, dialyzability, and transport and uptake by intestinal cells). Results indicate that iodine is available after gastrointestinal digestion for absorption (bioaccessibility: 49-82%), kombu being the seaweed with the highest bioaccessibility. The incorporation of dialysis cell cultures to elucidate bioavailability modifies the estimation of the amount of iodine that may reach the systemic circulation (dialysis, 5-28%; cell culture, ≤3%). The paper discusses advantages and drawbacks of these methodologies for iodine bioavailability in seaweed.

  13. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial property of seaweeds of southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... high antibacterial activity than other members of the algae tested in the present ... study confirmed the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antibacterial compounds. ... marine algae belonging to families such as Chlorphyceae .... seasons, method, organic solvents used for extraction of bioactive ...

  14. Consequences and Challenges of Tourism and Seaweed Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hard work for limited returns, seaweed has become highly significant in boosting women's empowerment ... serve as the major determinants of life and .... resources in flexible ways to curtail risks and .... and real benefits to the people living in .... lose their jobs if and when occasional visitors .... An owner has to try to balance.

  15. The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Several macroalgae produce bioactive metabolites in response to ecological ... in particular marine bacteria by effective antifouling mechanisms (Hellio et ... The ability of seaweeds to produce secondary meta- bolites of ..... Inhibition of the development of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) by extracts of ...

  16. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  17. EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ARSENOSUGARS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SEAWEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenosugars, mostly in the form of dimethylarsinylribosides, are widely found in marine plants. Since the first arsneosugar was identified in 1982, fifteen arsenosugars have been isolated and identified as algal constituents. Seaweed has been a popular dietary food in Asian Pac...

  18. Kainic acid in the seaweed Palmaria palmata (Dulse)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Olesen, Pelle Thonning

    2018-01-01

    Twenty samples of the seaweed Palmaria palmata (dulse) purchased mainly from commercial internet shops on the European market were analysed by a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method for the content of kainic acid, a naturally occurring neurotoxic compound...

  19. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The biochemical composition of red seaweeds,Catenella repens was investigated in this present study along with subsequent analysis of relevant physico-chemical variables.In this study, the relationship between the nutritive components of this species and the ambient environmental parameters was established.

  20. A conceptual mitigation model for asymmetric information of supply chain in seaweed cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Betaubun, Kamilius D.; Marimin; Djatna, Taufik

    2017-10-01

    Seaweed cultivation has a better advantage over other fisheries activity in terms of easiness on conducting the production and multiplier effect on coastal community welfare. The effect of seaweed farming on the prosperity of coastal community in Southeast Maluku started to take place in 2008, although in 2012 either number of production and workforce is declining rapidly. By solving this problem, this article also provided with identifying and analyzing the supply chain of seaweed cultivation in Southeast Maluku. Based on this analysis we have found that one of the main reasons of declining seaweed production and the number seaweed farmers was asymmetric information that occurred on seaweed supply chain in Southeast Maluku. The component of asymmetric risk was the quality of the seeds, price, information and technology and the knowledge of actual market of seaweed, especially by seaweed farmers. Therefore, it is essential to make a conceptual model on mitigation of asymmetric information on the supply chain of seaweed production. We proposed a conceptual model based on four perspectives, first was goal, criteria and sub-criteria, actor and the solution to mitigate asymmetric information supply chain on seaweed cultivation.

  1. Seaweed Fortification on Crispy Enbal as Local Food of Kei Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasabessy, Ismael; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    One of health problems phenomenon in Indonesian and the world is increasing the degenerative disease because human’s bad habits of eating that having less fiber. Source of fiber which is relatively abundant in eastern Indonesia is seaweed that is very precise to fortified on local food that aims to be more nutritious and economically valuable. The purpose of this study is to got appropriate seaweed fortification technique to produce Seaweed Crispy Enbal (SCE) as typical food from Kei islands that rich in fiber and preferred by consumers. The research was done in two stages. The first stage is to analyze quality of fiber and HCN content of seaweed and enbal flour as SCE raw material, and the two-stage is fortified fiber to enbal lempeng using two types of raw materials, namely pulp seaweed and flour seaweed. The results showed that the fiber content of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii and flour enbal respectively 7.01% and 4%, while HCN content less than 3 mg/kg. Fortification techniques using pulp seaweed better than others. It is because pulp seaweed produces seaweed crispy enbal with high value of sensory (really like) with having fiber content is 7.48%.

  2. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  3. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  4. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  5. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi; Agusti, Susana; Lin, Fang; Li, Ke; Pan, Yaoru; Yu, Yan; Zheng, Yuhan; Wu, Jiaping; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3's of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  6. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi

    2017-04-21

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3\\'s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  7. Pond culture of seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Haipeng; Peng, Pengfei

    2013-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum is widely distributed throughout the coastal waters of Asia and has high commercial value. In recent years, its natural biomass has declined due to over-exploitation and environmental pollution. To seek for a feasible way to culture this seaweed efficiently, we designed a simple long-line system in a shrimp pond for the culture during winter, and the growth and nutritional composition of the seaweed were examined. Results show that the culture system was durable and flexible allowing S. hemiphyllum to grow vertically off the muddy bottom of the pond. Although the length of pondcultured S. hemiphyllum was inhibited by water depth, the weight-specific growth rate ((1.65±0.17)%/d) was nearly three times higher than that of wild plants ((0.62±0.19)%/d). The crude protein (6.92%±0.88%) and ash content (21.52%±0.07%) of the pond-cultured seaweed were significantly lower than those of the wild plants (9.38%±0.43% and 26.93%±0.07%, respectively); however, crude fat (1.01%±0.04%) was significantly higher than that of the wild plants (0.87%±0.02%). In addition, the nutritional composition of both pond-cultured and wild S. hemiphyllum was comparable to or even higher than those of other common seaweeds being used as food and/or aquaculture fodder. Future studies shall be focused on the impact of environmental parameters on its growth and nutritional composition.

  8. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  10. The Influence of 5% KOH Immersion for Seaweed as Raw Materials for Air Freshener Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riardi Pratista Dewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of submersion KOH 5% for seaweed as raw materials products air freshener gel has been studied. Seaweed in Indonesia has a big potentially and it is commonly used in food products, beverages, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This research aims to use seaweed as a feedstock gel air freshener. Soaking seaweed with KOH was conducted to determine the nature of the water content and gel strength of the gel air freshener products generated given the scent of oranges and cloves. KOH concentration used was 5%. The results showed the water content of seaweed with KOH soaked lower than without KOH, whereas the gel strength with marinated seaweed KOH higher than without KOH. The results of organoleptic test, in this case the sense of smell, the air freshener gel product indicates that the product that uses citrus scent perfuming/lemon, panelists preferred more than the product is scented gel air freshener clove oil.

  11. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Screening of seaweeds in the East China Sea as potential bio-monitors of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaoru; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Holmer, Marianne; Li, Ke; Wu, Jiaping; Lin, Fang; Yu, Yan; Xu, Jiang; Zhou, Chaosheng; Huang, Zhixing; Xiao, Xi

    2018-03-30

    Seaweeds are good bio-monitors of heavy metal pollution and have been included in European coastal monitoring programs. However, data for seaweed species in China are scarce or missing. In this study, we explored the potential of seaweeds as bio-monitor by screening the natural occurring seaweeds in the "Kingdom of seaweed and shellfish" at Dongtou Islands, the East China Sea. Totally, 12 seaweed species were collected from six sites, with richness following the sequence of Rhodophyta > Phaeophyta > Chlorophyta. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, As) in the seaweeds was determined, and the bioaccumulation coefficient was calculated. A combination of four seaweeds, Pachydictyon coriaceum, Gelidium divaricatum, Sargassum thunbergii, and Pterocladiella capillacea, were proposed as bio-monitors due to their high bioaccumulation capabilities of specific heavy metals in the East China Sea and hence hinted the importance of using seaweed community for monitoring of pollution rather than single species. Our results provide first-hand data for the selection of bio-monitor species for heavy metals in the East China Sea and contribute to selection of cosmopolitan bio-monitor communities over geographical large area, which will benefit the establishment of monitoring programs for coastal heavy metal contamination.

  13. Taxonomy of economic seaweeds : with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Isabella A; Norris, James N

    1985-01-01

    The value of any seaweed crop is enhanced by the name under which the seaweed is sold, for the kind and quality of the seaweed product is announced with its name. Thus, though chemists may say that the agar from Gelidium species is the same as that from Gracilaria species, industry will pay more for Gelidium than for Gracilaria. (It might be so because the agarose fraction is higher in Gelidium, and agarose commands a higher price on its own.) In the case of the seaweeds that produce the coll...

  14. Distribution of metals and metalloids in dried seaweeds and health risk to population in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Bai-Fen; Han, Jian-Long

    2018-02-23

    Concern about metals and metalloids, especially heavy metals in seaweeds has risen due to potential health risk. This study investigated the distribution of 10 metals and metalloids in 295 dried seaweeds (brown and red) and estimated the possible health risk via hazard index (HI). Elements in seaweeds can be sequenced in descending order by mean values: Al > Mn > As > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > Se > Pb > Hg. The levels of Cd, Cu, Mn and Ni in red seaweeds were significantly higher than those in brown seaweeds (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed contents of Ni-Cr (r = 0.59, P < 0.01) in seaweeds had moderate positive correlations. Seaweeds from different geographical origins had diverse element distribution. Risk assessment showed that HI at mean level was less than the threshold of 1. It indicates that for the general people there is low health risk to these elements by the intake of seaweeds. Furthermore, in terms of the confirmative toxicity of some metals, such as Cd, Pb and Hg, surveillance of metals in seaweeds should be performed continuously.

  15. Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Solanki, Himanshu K

    2014-05-25

    Polysaccharides have been gaining interesting and valuable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields. As they are derived from the natural source, they are easily available, non-toxic, cheap, biodegradable and biocompatible. Carrageenan is one among them, which fulfills the criteria of polysaccharide; it is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed (Rhodophyceace) known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss, and Carraigin. A demand based on its application has been widely increasing in food and pharmaceutical sectors. Carrageenan has gained wide applications in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food industries. Through keen references of the reported literature on carrageenan, in this review, we have described about carrageenan, its properties, extraction and refining, and its food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. A review of extractions of seaweed hydrocolloids: Properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The term hydrocolloid generally refers to substances that form gels or provide viscous dispersion in the presence of water. Alginate, agar, and carrageenan are three commercially valuable hydrocolloids derived from certain brown and red seaweed and each has their distinct physicochemical properties (i.e. functional and bioactive. Various applications of these seaweed hydrocolloids as thickeners, stabilizers, coagulants and salves (in the wound and burn dressings and materials to produce bio-medical impressions in the food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries are highlighted in this review. Although the existing industrial methods of extraction for these seaweed hydrocolloids are well-established, still growing demand has exposed certain limitations of those methods, notably efficiency and product consistency. In order to achieve targeted hydrocolloids for specific purposes and functionalities, some novel and green extraction methods have also been proposed and discussed. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE, enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized solvent extractions (PSE, reactive extrusion and photobleaching process are selectively presented as highly promising candidates that can avoid the use of chemicals and provide novel means of access to seaweed hydrocolloids with both economic and environmental benefits. However, this review does not provide the ‘best’ method or procedure as many are still under development. Hence, the review gives ‘food for thought’as to new processes which might be adopted industrially and concluded that further research is required in order to contribute additional new knowledge and refinement to this field of study.

  18. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kellogg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  19. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  20. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuel Production from Macroalgae (Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Soleymani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD. By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production level of dry seaweed to meet 0.93 ($/L for ethanol fuel and 0.07 $/kW-h for electricity was found to be 0.68 and 3.7 million tonnes (dry basis, respectively. At the moment, biofuel production from seaweed has been determined not to be economically feasible, but achieving economic production may be possible by lowering production costs and increasing the area under cultivation.

  1. Bioprospecting for bioactives from seaweeds: potential, obstacles and alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential sources of high biotechnological interest due to production of a great diversity of compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activities. On the other hand, there is an urgent need for management options for a sustainable approach to the use of marine organisms as a source of bioactive compounds. This review discusses the bioprospection for bioactive seaweed compounds as pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents, encompassing their potential and possible obstacles and alternatives. In spite of their potential, research on pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents from seaweeds includes mainly the search for molecules that exhibit these biological activities, but lacks of consideration of fundamental and limiting aspects such as the development of alternatives to sustainable supply. However, for the complete development of pharmaceuticals and antifouling compounds in Brazil, marine bioprospection should be more comprehensive, associating the search for molecules with an analysis of their supply. In this way, it is possible to promote sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity, as well as to assert the economic development of Brazil.

  2. Bioprospecting for bioactives from seaweeds: potential, obstacles and alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential sources of high biotechnological interest due to production of a great diversity of compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activities. On the other hand, there is an urgent need for management options for a sustainable approach to the use of marine organisms as a source of bioactive compounds. This review discusses the bioprospection for bioactive seaweed compounds as pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents, encompassing their potential and possible obstacles and alternatives. In spite of their potential, research on pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents from seaweeds includes mainly the search for molecules that exhibit these biological activities, but lacks of consideration of fundamental and limiting aspects such as the development of alternatives to sustainable supply. However, for the complete development of pharmaceuticals and antifouling compounds in Brazil, marine bioprospection should be more comprehensive, associating the search for molecules with an analysis of their supply. In this way, it is possible to promote sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity, as well as to assert the economic development of Brazil.

  3. Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Netten, C.; Hoption Cann, S.A.; Van Netten, J.P.; Morley, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Edible seaweed products have been used in many countries, specifically Japan, as a food item. Recently these products have become popular in the food industry because of a number of interesting medicinal properties that have been associated with certain edible marine algae. Very little control exists over the composition of these products, which could be contaminated with a number of agents including heavy metals and certain radioactive isotopes. Fifteen seaweed samples (six local samples from the coast of British Columbia, seven from Japan, one from Norway and one undisclosed) were obtained. All samples were analyzed for multiple elements, using ICP mass spectrometry and for radioactive constituents. It was found that six of eight imported seaweed products had concentrations of mercury orders of magnitude higher than the local products. Lead was found at somewhat higher concentrations in only one local product. Laminaria japonica had the highest level of iodine content followed by Laminaria setchellii from local sources. Only traces of cesium-137 were found in a product from Norway and radium-226 was found in a product from Japan. Arsenic levels were found to be elevated. In order to estimate the effect of these levels on health, one needs to address the bioavailability and the speciation of arsenic in these samples

  4. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25341030

  5. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  6. Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Netten, C. [Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, James Mather Building, University of British Columbia, 5804 Fairview Avenue, V6T 1Z3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hoption Cann, S.A.; Van Netten, J.P. [Special Development Laboratory, Royal Jubilee Hospital, V8X 1P2 Victoria, BC (Canada); Morley, D.R. [Radiation Protection Branch, Ministry of Health, 4940 Canada Way, V5G 4K6 Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2000-06-08

    Edible seaweed products have been used in many countries, specifically Japan, as a food item. Recently these products have become popular in the food industry because of a number of interesting medicinal properties that have been associated with certain edible marine algae. Very little control exists over the composition of these products, which could be contaminated with a number of agents including heavy metals and certain radioactive isotopes. Fifteen seaweed samples (six local samples from the coast of British Columbia, seven from Japan, one from Norway and one undisclosed) were obtained. All samples were analyzed for multiple elements, using ICP mass spectrometry and for radioactive constituents. It was found that six of eight imported seaweed products had concentrations of mercury orders of magnitude higher than the local products. Lead was found at somewhat higher concentrations in only one local product. Laminaria japonica had the highest level of iodine content followed by Laminaria setchellii from local sources. Only traces of cesium-137 were found in a product from Norway and radium-226 was found in a product from Japan. Arsenic levels were found to be elevated. In order to estimate the effect of these levels on health, one needs to address the bioavailability and the speciation of arsenic in these samples.

  7. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuel Production from Macroalgae (Seaweed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohsen; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-11-26

    A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD). By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production level of dry seaweed to meet 0.93 ($/L) for ethanol fuel and 0.07 $/kW-h for electricity was found to be 0.68 and 3.7 million tonnes (dry basis), respectively. At the moment, biofuel production from seaweed has been determined not to be economically feasible, but achieving economic production may be possible by lowering production costs and increasing the area under cultivation.

  8. Texture and quality properties of Chinese fresh egg noodles formulated with green seaweed (Monostroma nitidum) powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H C; Wu, L-C

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fresh Chinese noodles made with different levels of green seaweed. Green seaweed powder was incorporated in proportions of 4%, 6%, and 8% in noodles, which were made with or without additional eggs. Proximate compositions, cooking properties, textural intensities, and sensory qualities of noodles were assessed. The addition of seaweed powder increased the crude fiber contents of raw fresh noodles; the fiber contents were 0.100%+/- 0.015 to 0.449%+/- 0.013 for noodles made with eggs from 0% to 8% additional seaweed and 0.247%+/- 0.018 to 0.344%+/- 0.021 for those without eggs. Higher cooking yields were found in the noodles, due to water absorption during cooking by the fibers and polysaccharides in the seaweed. Significantly higher cooking yields (P seaweed powder; water uptake readings measured 2.39 +/- 0.38 and 2.43 +/- 0.25 g H(2)O/g noodle for samples made without and with eggs, respectively. Higher water absorption by the seaweed led to softer and spongier textural intensities in the noodles. Breaking energy of cooked fresh egg noodles were 28.94 +/- 3.42 to 6.43 +/- 1.01 N x mm for 8% to 0% additional seaweed, and the intensities decreased as the amount of seaweed increased; the same pattern was observed in noodles without eggs, where readings were 8.66 +/- 1.02 to 3.49 +/- 0.25 N x mm. Capacities of extensibility measured 61.81 +/- 2.04 to 30.74 +/- 0.90 mm for fresh egg noodles with additional seaweed powder from 0% to 8%, and 47.46 +/- 2.41 to 28.36 +/- 2.25 mm for cooked fresh noodles without eggs. The results from Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that textural parameters were influenced not only by additional eggs and seaweed powder, but also by cooking properties.

  9. Antifungal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of some seaweeds against common soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2017-01-01

    Total 32 species of different seaweeds belonging to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan to investigate their antifungal activity. Most of the seaweeds inhibited growth of Fusarium oxypsorum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The highest antifungal activities were observed in Sargasssum tenerrimum in both aqueous and methanolic extracts as compared to other seaweeds. (author)

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  11. Characterization of alginates from Ghanaian brown seaweeds: Sargassum spp. and Padina spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Alginates of four locally harvested Ghanaian brown seaweeds from the Sargassum and Padina genus were assessed for their rheological and chemical characteristics. The seaweeds contained 16–30% by weight of alginate assessed as the sum of d-mannuronic acid (M) and l-guluronic acid (G). In compariso...

  12. Biorefinery of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima for fuels and chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Blaauw, R.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Wal, van der H.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Hal, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds (also called macroalgae) are considered a potential biomass feedstock for biorefineries for production of energy and chemicals. In this study, a biorefinery strategy for the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima is described. Fresh S. latissima harvested at the Irish coast contained glucose

  13. Enzymatic saccharification of seaweeds into fermentable sugars by xylanase from marine Bacillus sp. strain BT21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Pankaj; Khandeparker, Rakhee; Amberkar, Ujwala; Khodse, Vishwas

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of seaweed biomass was studied using xylanase produced from marine bacteria Bacillus sp. strain BT21 through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran. Three types of seaweeds, Ahnfeltia plicata , Padina tetrastromatica and Ulva lactuca , were selected as representatives of red, brown, and green seaweeds, respectively. Seaweed biomass was pretreated with hot water. The efficiency of pretreated biomass to release reducing sugar by the action of xylanase as well as the type of monosaccharide released during enzyme saccharification of seaweed biomass was studied. It was seen that pretreated biomass of seaweed A. plicata, U. lactuca , and P. tetrastroma , at 121 °C for 45 min, followed by incubation with 50 IU xylanase released reducing sugars of 233 ± 5.3, 100 ± 6.1 and 73.3 ± 4.1 µg/mg of seaweed biomass, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis illustrated the release of xylose, glucose, and mannose during the treatment process. Hot water pre-treatment process enhanced enzymatic conversion of biomass into sugars. This study revealed the important role of xylanase in saccharification of seaweed, a promising feedstock for third-generation bioethanol production.

  14. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  15. Development of seaweed soup as a space food using radition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Cho, Won Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    This study was conducted to develop Korean seaweed soup as a space food and to evaluate the hygienic safety and storage stability of the irradiated dried seaweed soup. The values of pH and acidity of the gamma-irradiated seaweed soup less than 10 kGy were not changed. However, the redness (a value) and the yellowness (b value) of the freeze-dried seaweed soup increased as irradiation dose increased, while the Hunter's color of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The hardness of seaweed irradiated over 10 kGy decreased as irradiation dose increased. The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried seaweed soup without deterioration of sensory quality. Mutagenicity of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 30 kGy, which is triple times of the optimum sterilization dose, was not observed. And, quality characteristics of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 10 kGy were not significantly changed during the storage at various temperatures for 90 days (p>0.05)

  16. Development of seaweed soup as a space food using radition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Cho, Won Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop Korean seaweed soup as a space food and to evaluate the hygienic safety and storage stability of the irradiated dried seaweed soup. The values of pH and acidity of the gamma-irradiated seaweed soup less than 10 kGy were not changed. However, the redness (a value) and the yellowness (b value) of the freeze-dried seaweed soup increased as irradiation dose increased, while the Hunter's color of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The hardness of seaweed irradiated over 10 kGy decreased as irradiation dose increased. The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried seaweed soup without deterioration of sensory quality. Mutagenicity of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 30 kGy, which is triple times of the optimum sterilization dose, was not observed. And, quality characteristics of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 10 kGy were not significantly changed during the storage at various temperatures for 90 days (p>0.05)

  17. Observation of Wild Seaweed Species in Labuhanbua Waters, Indonesia: a preliminary assessment for aquaculture development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed industry has been growing up and is supplied by either wild or cultivated seaweed crops. This study was aimed to present relevant information regarding ecological availability of wild seaweed in Labuhanbua coastal waters, Sumbawa Regency, West Nusa Tenggara and potential use of important species as candidate species for aquaculture. 46 sampling stations were determined along line transects perpendicular to coastal line; and seaweeds sampling were conducted during low tide by using 1 x 1 m2 quadrat transect. Field data consist of in-situ parameter including number of seaweed species and coverage area of each species; and ex-situ parameters consist of carbohydrate, protein, total C, total N, and total P content of seaweeds. The results showed that 33 species were found and three species has the most widely distribu tion, i.e. Padina sp., Dictyota dichotoma, and Gracilaria salicornia. Turbinaria, Dictyota, Padina, Stoechospermum, Hydroclathrus, Halimeda, and Chaetomorpha might be some important species that could be develop as aquaculture species candidates among other uncultivated species that were found along this study location. They have potencies as human food, livestock feed, neutraceuicals, cosmetics, pulp, textile, biofuel and any other industries; but conversely, they were found in lower density at Labuhanbua coastal waters. These species should be develop through aquaculture technology, involve genetic improvement and possibly genetic engineering. Commercial scale cultivation of those important seaweed species will contribute to industrial needs and prevent decreasing of wild seaweed availability in natural ecosystem.

  18. Differential response of fish assemblages to coral reef-based seaweed farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available As the global demand for seaweed-derived products drives the expansion of seaweed farming onto shallow coral ecosystems, the effects of farms on fish assemblages remain largely unexplored. Shallow coral reefs provide food and shelter for highly diverse fish assemblages but are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities. We hypothesized that the introduction of seaweed farms into degraded shallow coral reefs had potential to generate ecological benefits for fish by adding structural complexity and a possible food source. We conducted 210 transects at 14 locations, with sampling stratified across seaweed farms and sites adjacent to and distant from farms. At a seascape scale, locations were classified by their level of exposure to human disturbance. We compared sites where (1 marine protected areas (MPAs were established, (2 neither MPAs nor blast fishing was present (hence "unprotected", and (3 blast fishing occurred. We observed 80,186 fish representing 148 species from 38 families. The negative effects of seaweed farms on fish assemblages appeared stronger in the absence of blast fishing and were strongest when MPAs were present, likely reflecting the positive influence of the MPAs on fish within them. Species differentiating fish assemblages with respect to seaweed farming and disturbance were typically small but also included two key target species. The propensity for seaweed farms to increase fish diversity, abundance, and biomass is limited and may reduce MPA benefits. We suggest that careful consideration be given to the placement of seaweed farms relative to MPAs.

  19. Differential response of fish assemblages to coral reef-based seaweed farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, J J

    2015-01-01

    As the global demand for seaweed-derived products drives the expansion of seaweed farming onto shallow coral ecosystems, the effects of farms on fish assemblages remain largely unexplored. Shallow coral reefs provide food and shelter for highly diverse fish assemblages but are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities. We hypothesized that the introduction of seaweed farms into degraded shallow coral reefs had potential to generate ecological benefits for fish by adding structural complexity and a possible food source. We conducted 210 transects at 14 locations, with sampling stratified across seaweed farms and sites adjacent to and distant from farms. At a seascape scale, locations were classified by their level of exposure to human disturbance. We compared sites where (1) marine protected areas (MPAs) were established, (2) neither MPAs nor blast fishing was present (hence "unprotected"), and (3) blast fishing occurred. We observed 80,186 fish representing 148 species from 38 families. The negative effects of seaweed farms on fish assemblages appeared stronger in the absence of blast fishing and were strongest when MPAs were present, likely reflecting the positive influence of the MPAs on fish within them. Species differentiating fish assemblages with respect to seaweed farming and disturbance were typically small but also included two key target species. The propensity for seaweed farms to increase fish diversity, abundance, and biomass is limited and may reduce MPA benefits. We suggest that careful consideration be given to the placement of seaweed farms relative to MPAs.

  20. A Triple P review of the feasibility of sustainable offshore seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Stuiver, M.; Veenstra, F.A.; Bikker, P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Palstra, A.P.; Broeze, J.; Jansen, H.M.; Jak, R.G.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Kals, J.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Duijn, van A.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the potential of seaweed, cultivated in the North Sea, as a sustainable and profitable resource for feed and non-food applications. Seawood production can take place as part of multi-use platforms at sea (MUPS). A review of the state-of-the-art in seaweed production and its

  1. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Paul; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Wikselaar, van Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; Hal, van Jaap W.; Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Cone, John W.; López-Contreras, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically

  2. Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-04-12

    Seaweed aquaculture, the fastest-growing component of global food production, offers a slate of opportunities to mitigate, and adapt to climate change. Seaweed farms release carbon that maybe buried in sediments or exported to the deep sea, therefore acting as a CO2 sink. The crop can also be used, in total or in part, for biofuel production, with a potential CO2 mitigation capacity, in terms of avoided emissions from fossil fuels, of about 1,500 tons CO2 km−2 year−1. Seaweed aquaculture can also help reduce the emissions from agriculture, by improving soil quality substituting synthetic fertilizer and when included in cattle fed, lowering methane emissions from cattle. Seaweed aquaculture contributes to climate change adaptation by damping wave energy and protecting shorelines, and by elevating pH and supplying oxygen to the waters, thereby locally reducing the effects of ocean acidification and de-oxygenation. The scope to expand seaweed aquaculture is, however, limited by the availability of suitable areas and competition for suitable areas with other uses, engineering systems capable of coping with rough conditions offshore, and increasing market demand for seaweed products, among other factors. Despite these limitations, seaweed farming practices can be optimized to maximize climate benefits, which may, if economically compensated, improve the income of seaweed farmers.

  3. Copper Contamination Impairs Herbivore Initiation of Seaweed Inducible Defenses and Decreases Their Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria M Warneke

    Full Text Available Seaweed-herbivore interactions are often mediated by environmental conditions, yet the roles of emerging anthropogenic stressors on these interactions are poorly understood. For example, chemical contaminants have unknown consequences on seaweed inducible resistance and herbivore response to these defenses despite known deleterious effects of contaminants on animal inducible defenses. Here, we investigated the effect of copper contamination on the interactions between a snail herbivore and a brown seaweed that displays inducible resistance to grazing. We examined seaweed inducible resistance and its effectiveness for organisms exposed to copper at two time points, either during induction or after herbivores had already induced seaweed defenses. Under ambient conditions, non-grazed tissues were more palatable than grazed tissues. However, copper additions negated the preference for non-grazed tissues regardless of the timing of copper exposure, suggesting that copper decreased both how herbivores initiated these inducible defenses and their subsequent effectiveness. Copper decreased stimulation of defenses, at least in part, by suppressing snail grazing pressure-the cue that turns inducible defenses on. Copper decreased effectiveness of defenses by preventing snails from preferentially consuming non-grazed seaweed. Thus, contaminants can potentially stress communities by changing seaweed-herbivore interactions mediated via inducible defenses. Given the ubiquity of seaweed inducible resistance and their potential influence on herbivores, we hypothesize that copper contamination may change the impact of these resistant traits on herbivores.

  4. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  5. Seaweeds in closed systems; Zeewieren in gesloten systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P. ' t [Koers en Vaart, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, J. [Hortimare, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Seaweed is a potential source of green raw materials. They are used for human consumption, contain specific thickening agents such as alginates and carrageenans, and can be applied as growth-promoting fertilizers, in animal feed and for the cultivation of shellfish (abalones). In addition, extracts from seaweed are used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products and seaweeds also constitute a possible source of biofuels. Seaweed can possibly also serve as a protein platform for catering to the steadily growing demand for fish protein and soy protein. Though the Netherlands has a good reputation in offshore and hydraulic engineering as well as in seed cultivation and improvement, the knowledge of cultivating and harvesting seaweed is very limited. With the advent of wind farms in the North Sea and the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf, the opportunities for cultivating seaweed are now also being explored. Both extensive and intensive cultivation systems as used in agriculture and horticulture are being considered. Certain applications of seaweed require more controlled cultivation conditions. This is the case with specific plant substances, nutritional factors and with the propagation of seaweed for large-scale cultivation. Wherever the value of the cultivated seaweed increases, and hence the need for harvest security and risk control, closed systems are probably the best approach. As the cultivation conditions can be more easily controlled in closed systems, the yields are expected to be bigger, the quantities of plant substances more consistent and the overall quality better. In addition, pests are easier to control or prevent. In contrast with land-based seaweed cultivation, closed systems benefit from the abundant availability of clean and relatively low-mineral seawater. This makes it possible to control the temperature with the aid of seawater. The concept of seaweed in closed systems is in some ways comparable to greenhouse horticulture. Given

  6. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anticancer Effects of Different Seaweeds on Human Colon and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Moussavou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents.

  8. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p < 0.05. These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  9. Potential of Homestay Tourism Based on Seaweed Cultivation from the Views of Seaweed Cultivators in District of Semporna Sabah, East Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Rosazman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community participation in tourism development especially among fisherman and farmers has begun to given serious attention by the government whereby the communities are given opportunities to engage in tourism development programmes in order to enhance their quality of life. In order to encourage local community participation in tourism development in rural areas, participants’ perceptions regarding tourism activities are important aspect to be sought. Good or bad perceptions from the community towards tourism development are important because it can determine the success of the programme. Firstly, this paper aims to explore the views or perceptions of seaweed cultivators towards homestay tourism which is based on seaweed cultivation in the District of Semporna, Sabah. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches have been applied in this study, such as the usage of the face to face interviews survey using survey questionnaires and field observation as primary methods. The findings show that the majority of the respondents have a positive perception of homestay tourism based on seaweed cultivation, such as the acceptance of visits by the tourists to their working place. Seaweed cultivators agreed that this tourism activity bring additional income to them. Activities that can become tourist attractions include tying seaweed seeds on a casino table. Moreover, the tourists have an opportunity to take a boat to see the seaweed farm, and take pictures of seaweed activities and so on. These findings also revealed that the majority of the respondents assumed that the visits of the tourists would motivate them to carry out the activity with more enthusiasm. This shows that seaweed cultivation could become a new tourism product which has great potential to develop in the district of Semporna, Sabah.

  10. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  11. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja

    Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled...

  12. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal with the assessment of the chemical composition of carbohydrate, protein, phenol, flavanoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid and antifungal activity of various marine seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat during September, 2013. Methods: Biochemical compounds of selected seaweeds were quantified and antifungal activity of these species belonging to red, green, and brown seaweeds was explored and the seaweeds were extracted in acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Results: The carbohydrate content was highest in Cystoseira indica Mairh, protein was highest in Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh and phenol content was highest in Padina boergesenii; flavanoid content was found greater in Cystoseira indica, chlorophyll content was found greater in Monostroma latissimum Wittrock and carotenoid content was more in Dictyopteris acrostichoides Bornet. The highest inhibiting effect was noted for Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh and Turbinaria ornata J. Agardh belonging to brown algae, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium janthinellum in chloroform extracts and ethanolic extracts, which caused opportunistic infection of HIV-infected person, lung disease, aspergillosis, and otomycosis (fungal ear infections. Conclusions: The study reveals that the seaweeds contain high amount of biochemical constituents. Besides, the crude extracts of the seaweeds showed promising activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Therefore, seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat region are biochemical compounds with potential capacity which make them useful for screening natural products for pharmaceutical industry.

  13. Family vs Village-Based: Intangible View on the Sustainable of Seaweed Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Yuliana K.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.

    2017-10-01

    Compare to other fishery activities for instance fish mariculture and catching fisheries, seaweed farming is considered easier. Also, the market for seaweed is wider and will keep growing. Thus, makes seaweed farming as one of the fastest commodity to improve the welfare of a coastal community. There are technical and non-technical factors in seaweed farming management, for non-technical on this intangible factors vary between family-based and village-based management, therefore aimed of this study was to simulate farmers decision to choose between family-based and village-based on seaweed managing system trigger by intangible factors. We conducted our study in Southeast Maluku, data collecting conducted from October to December 2016 by depth interview and questionnaires on seaweed farmers. We used logistic regression to compare each intangible factors on family and village-based seaweed farming management. The result showed that for family-based management farmers were willing to transfer their knowledge among each member in the household. For village-based revealed that farmers with higher education background tend to work on village-based, also, the result also stated that in village-based management member were those who have better capability and skill, at the same time village-based management had a small probability for conflict to occur compared to family-based.

  14. Porosity structure of green polybag of medium density fiberboard from seaweed waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, M. A.; Subekti, S.; Lamid, M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Kurnia, H.; Rifadi, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    The last decade shown that the needs Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) rapidly growing in Asia Pacific and Europe up to more 15 % per year. MDF made up of fibers lignoselulosa which combined with synthetic resin or tied other suitable but high temperatures and pressure. Technology engineering for green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria verrucosa is an alternative effort for ecosystem stability and technological innovations that is environmentally friendly. Structure porosity from the shape of green polybag shows that performance seaweed waste of K. alvarezii is better than seaweed waste of G. verrucosa. The circulation of water happened more optimal in green polybag formed from MDF of seaweed waste of K. alvarezii with size porosity 3.976 µm, while size porosity of seaweed waste of G. verrucosa measurable 4.794 µm. Structure of green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste showed that C components greater 50 % to K. alvarezii while C components less than 50 % to G. verrucosa. This resulted in the ties to structure of MDF stronger found in green polybag derived from seaweed waste of K. alvarezii than G. verrucosa.

  15. IN VITRO GROWTH RATE OF Kappaphycus alvarezii MICROPROPAGULE AND EMBRYO BY ENRICHMENT MEDIUM WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Suryati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of micropropagule and embryo of seaweed depend on nutrient and fertilizer used. Seaweed has been reported contain hormone regulators such as auxine, cytokinine, gibbereline, and various minerals applied in stimulating the growth ocra plant and wheat culture. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential of Kappaphycus alvarezii extract and its optimal concentration in accelerating of Kappaphycus alvarezii micropropagule and embryo growth. Micropropagule and embryo produced through callus induction were planted into PES 1/20 liquid medium supplemented with seaweed extract at the concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μL in 10 mL of medium. The results showed that medium enrichment with 50 μL of seaweed extract had the highest survival rate and growth of thallus. In addition, this concentration was also resulted in a good performance of K. alvarezii thallus with the lighter color. The advantage of this study for seaweed cultivation in Indonesia, among others, seaweed can be used as fertilizer, especially in the maintenance of seaweed seed, so that cultivation can be better develop.

  16. Acute Post-Prandial Cognitive Effects of Brown Seaweed Extract in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (Polyphenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group. Computerized measures of episodic memory, attention and subjective state were completed at baseline and 5 times at 40 min intervals over a 3 h period following lunch, with either seaweed or placebo consumed 30 min prior to lunch. Analysis was conducted with linear mixed models controlling for baseline. Seaweed led to significant improvements to accuracy on digit vigilance (p = 0.035 and choice reaction time (p = 0.043 tasks. These findings provide the first evidence for modulation of cognition with seaweed extract. In order to explore the mechanism underlying these effects, future research should examine effects on cognition in parallel with blood glucose and insulin responses.

  17. Seaweeds: an opportunity for wealth and sustainable livelihood for coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebours, Céline; Marinho-Soriano, Eliane; Zertuche-González, José A; Hayashi, Leila; Vásquez, Julio A; Kradolfer, Paul; Soriano, Gonzalo; Ugarte, Raul; Abreu, Maria Helena; Bay-Larsen, Ingrid; Hovelsrud, Grete; Rødven, Rolf; Robledo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The European, Canadian, and Latin American seaweed industries rely on the sustainable harvesting of natural resources. As several countries wish to increase their activity, the harvest should be managed according to integrated and participatory governance regimes to ensure production within a long-term perspective. Development of regulations and directives enabling the sustainable exploitation of natural resources must therefore be brought to the national and international political agenda in order to ensure environmental, social, and economic values in the coastal areas around the world. In Europe, Portugal requires an appraisal of seaweed management plans while Norway and Canada have developed and implemented coastal management plans including well-established and sustainable exploitation of their natural seaweed resources. Whereas, in Latin America, different scenarios of seaweed exploitation can be observed; each country is however in need of long-term and ecosystem-based management plans to ensure that exploitation is sustainable. These plans are required particularly in Peru and Brazil, while Chile has succeeded in establishing a sustainable seaweed-harvesting plan for most of the economically important seaweeds. Furthermore, in both Europe and Latin America, seaweed aquaculture is at its infancy and development will have to overcome numerous challenges at different levels (i.e., technology, biology, policy). Thus, there is a need for regulations and establishment of "best practices" for seaweed harvesting, management, and cultivation. Trained human resources will also be required to provide information and education to the communities involved, to enable seaweed utilization to become a profitable business and provide better income opportunities to coastal communities.

  18. Seaweed as bio indicators for monitoring toxic element pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Osae, E.K.; Carboo, D.; Seku, F.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve seaweed species were sampled from June 1996 to August 1997 along the coast of Southern Ghana which is being washed by the Gulf of Guinea (part of Atlantic ocean). Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to measure the concentration of twenty six chemical elements, with the aim of selecting suitable seaweeds for bio-monitoring. Al, As, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V were found in most of the seaweed species. The high values of the metal concentrations in the macro algae suggest that these marine organisms can be used as biological indicators for studying coastal pollution. (author)

  19. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  20. Ethnobotany Study of Seaweed Diversity and Its Utilization in Warambadi, Panguhalodo Areas of East Sumba District

    OpenAIRE

    Anggadiredja, Jana Tjahjana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the ethnobotany study of seaweed diversity in Warambadi –Panguhalodo areas of East Sumba District, the island of Sumba. The study recorded19 genera of 54 species of seaweed, which were utilized as food or edible seaweed.The group consisted of 17 species of green algae, 17 species of red algae, and 20species of brown algae. The study also reported that 18 genera of 38 species weretraditionally utilized for medicinal purposes as herbal medicine. The herbal speciesconsisted of...

  1. Seaweed as source of energy. 1: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasa R.P.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-09-01

    Only certain marine bacteria capable of digesting the special type of polysaccharide - agar and alginic acid can bring about the biodegradation of these substances and utilise them as carbon source to produce the organics which will be utilised by the methane bacteria to produce methane. When bacterial strain was used in conjunction with cowdung as a source of methane bacteria in seaweed digester, production of biogas from seaweed was accelerated. Adding of small amount of Ulva to seaweed digester increased the output of gas. (Refs. 4).

  2. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  3. Conceptual design of pilot scale solar dryer for seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" >Roche-Delgado, Liset; Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" >Hernández-Touset, Juan Pedro; Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" >García-Rodríguez, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    Drying algal biomass with the use of solar radiation is an economical and environmentally compatible option. The aim of this work was to design an indirect solar dryer with natural air circulation for seaweeds drying. The equipment supports discrete quantities of wet biomass and is protected from environmental situations that may damage the product; it does not need electricity to operate and the construction and operating costs are low. This comprises a collector made of copper plates for air circulation, heated by solar radiation, a glass cover and drying trays with a wooden structure. The dryer was designed to obtain 0, 3 kg / day of dry biomass. The methodology allows construction and operation of a flexible solar dryer in different operating conditions for research on seaweeds. Correspondingly with environmental and operating conditions the design included estimation of drying time, the determination of drying area, number of trays, air flow from the collector to the trays, collector sizing; heat transfer area, temperature reached by air and collector efficiency. (author)

  4. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  5. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  6. Determination of the functional properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjamsiah; Nazaruddin Ramli; Rusli Daik; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii powder prepared by spray drying (SD), freeze drying (FD) and sun drying(SND) were determined their functional properties such as swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), viscosity and gel strength. The study showed that the Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder obtained by FD and SND have the ability to swell to 25 mL/ g and 50 mL/ g respectively, while the SD powder formed a homogeneous solution and it exhibited highly viscous solution (SWC 100 mL/ g). The WHC of SND powder (30.67 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (21.33 g/ g) and SD (4.67 g/ g) powders. The OHC of FD powder (19.81 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the SD (5.11 g/ g) and SND (4.67 g/ g) powders. While the viscosity of the FD, SND and SD powders were 0.22, 0.17 and 0.06 Pa.s respectively. Meanwhile, the gel strength of the SD powder (82.77 gf) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (57.1 gf) and SND (35.01 gf) powders. These results on determination of functional properties shows that the SD powder had the most potential to be applied as a viscosity modifier in the manufacturing of beverages.(author)

  7. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  8. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  9. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield, selectivity (purity, high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  10. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-11-22

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  11. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  12. Anti-influenza activity in the Indian seaweeds - A preliminary investigation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Rodrigues, R.; Kotnala, S.

    Antiviral activity in four commercially important seaweeds namely; Spatoglossum asperum J. Ag., Padina tetrastromatica Hauck, Sargassum tenerrimum J. Ag. and Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kuetz was studied on fragments of chorion...

  13. Exploiting biological activities of brown seaweed Ecklonia cava for potential industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-03-01

    Seaweeds are rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, proteins, polysaccharides and various functional polyphenols. Many researchers have focused on brown algae as a potential source of bioactive materials in the past few decades. Ecklonia cava is a brown seaweed that is abundant in the subtidal regions of Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This seaweed attracted extensive interest due to its multiple biological activities. E. cava has been identified as a potential producer of wide spectrum of natural substances such as carotenoids, fucoidans and phlorotannins showing different biological activities in vital industrial applications including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and functional food. This review focuses on biological activities of the brown seaweed E. cava based on latest research results, including antioxidant, anticoagulative, antimicrobial, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, antitumour and anticancer effects. The facts summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of E. cava and its derivatives and potentially enable their use as functional ingredients in potential industrial applications.

  14. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  15. Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Wu, Jiaping; Xiao, Xi; Bruhn, Annette; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    also help reduce the emissions from agriculture, by improving soil quality substituting synthetic fertilizer and when included in cattle fed, lowering methane emissions from cattle. Seaweed aquaculture contributes to climate change adaptation by damping

  16. Drying Kinetics Analysis of Seaweed Gracilaria changii using Solar Drying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Ahmad Fudholi; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Muhammad Yahya

    2012-01-01

    A solar drying system suitable for agricultural and marine products have been designed, constructed and evaluated under Malaysia climatic conditions. The solar drying system has been constructed and evaluated for the drying of seaweed Gracilaria changii. The initial and final moisture content of seaweed are 95 % (wet basis) and 10 % (product basis), respectively. The drying time was about 7 hours at average solar radiation of 593 W/ m 2 and air flow rate of 0.0613 kg/ s. Three different thin-layer drying models were compared with experimental data, during the drying of seaweed using the solar drying system at average temperature and humidity of about 50 degree Celsius and 20 %, respectively. The one with highest R2 and lowest MBE and RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. The study showed that the Page model was better fit to drying seaweed compared to the other models (Newton model, and Henderson and Pabis model). (author)

  17. Methodology for quantitative determination of the carbohydrate composition of brown seaweeds (Laminariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk; Deutschle, A. L.; Saake, B.

    2014-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima were compared by different high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) methods after different acid hydrolysis treatments or a cellulase treatment. A two-step treatment...

  18. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  19. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, N; Santoso, M; Damayanti, S; Kartawinata, T.G

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was use...

  20. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  1. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SEAWEED (Kappaphycus alvarezii AQUACULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania Erlania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is an important aquaculture commodity that could contribute on climate change mitigation, related to its ability on absorbing CO2, as one of the green house gases, through photosynthesis. This study aimed to analyze seaweed potencies on carbon sequestration in the context of climate change mitigation while still resulting optimum production as primary purpose and to analyze the carrying capacity of Gerupuk Bay in order to manage sustainability of seaweed aquaculture. Seaweed, (Kappaphycus alvarezii was cultivated with long-line system in Gerupuk Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, during five months for three cultivation cycles. Samplings were conducted at days-15, 30, and 45 with CO2 absorption rates as main parameters. Water carrying capacity was calculated to determine the ability of Gerupuk Bay waters for supporting development of sustainable seaweed aquaculture. The results showed that absorption rates of CO2 by seaweed (K. alvarezii were different at each sampling days of cultivation periods; the highest value was at 10-20 days of cultivation. CO2 absorption analysis resulted based on sampling days of cultivation period could be appl ied to formulate the strategies for management of sustainable seaweed aquaculture, with optimal production and positively contributed to the environment. However, waters carrying capacity should also be considered as major aspect in the application of seaweed cultivation management, thus it can run continuously without causing conflicts with other interests.

  3. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  4. Seaweed temporal distribution in southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia and isolation of endophytic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainee, Nur Farah Ain; Ismail, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Ismail, Asmida

    2018-04-01

    Temporal study of seaweeds was carried out between on February 2015 and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu at Pengerang, Johor, Malaysia. The research objectives were to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the presence of fungal endophyte in the seaweed. The diversity of seaweed in the sampling site was calculated by using quadrat with 25 meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were identified and processed in laboratory and kept for reference in the Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The specimen for fungal endophyte isolation was collected randomly by choosing the complete thallus, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in freezer until used. From this study, a total of 29 species have been successfully identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and a significant change in community structure was noted. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. Eighteen seaweed species were screened for the presence of fungal endophyte, Sargassum polycystum shows the highest number of fungal endophyte. This study documented the seaweed diversity in two sites at Pengerang, Johor that accommodates fungal endophytes.

  5. Bioactivity and phytochemical constituents of marine red seaweeds (Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad M. Mohy El-Din

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. The antibacterial activity of Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea were analyzed against human pathogenic bacteria. The present study was performed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of seaweeds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. In this study, we estimated phenols, flavonoids, tannins, pigments and mineral contents and determined the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected seaweeds. Phytochemicals were extracted from the three seaweeds using various solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. Among the various extracts, the methanolic extract was found to have the highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. We evaluated the seaweeds against Vibrio fluvialis, and Pterocladia capillacea was the most effective at controlling its growth. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded in the methanol extract. The chemical constituents of the seaweeds were characterized by GC–MS, which showed that they contain organic compounds, such as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.

  6. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  7. The Effect of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Liver of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIK WRESDIYATI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD was reported decreased in the liver and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study was conducted to observe the effect of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii powder on the profile of blood cholesterol and the level of SOD in liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats by using immunohistochemical technique. Twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into four groups; (i negative control group (A, (ii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 5% seaweed powder (B, (iii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 10% seaweed powder (C, and (iv Positive control group or hypercholesterolemia group (D. The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Hypercholesterolemia condition (> 130 mg/dl, except group A, was achieved by feeding the rats with commercial diet containing 1% cholesterol. Drinking water was given ad libitum for 40 days. The results showed that seaweed powder decreased the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride, and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL and SOD status in the liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats. The treatment of 10% seaweed powder gave better results than that of 5%. These results suggested that dietary fiber such in the seaweed powder has antioxidant activity.

  8. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  9. The Effects of Using Seaweed (E. Cottonii on Physical Quality and Organoleptic of Chicken Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was experimental method with Completely Random Design.  Seaweed used to chicken nuggets in the vary concentration, namely: 0% (F0, 10% (F1, 20% (F2, 30% (F3, 40% (F4. The observed variables were texture, water holding capacity (WHC, pH, and organoleptic quality of chicken nuggets. Collected data were analyzed using analisys variation method and followed by Duncan analysis if the result on the previous analysis showed significant difference. The  result  showed  that  chicken  nuggets  using  seaweed  gave highly significant effect  (P<0.01 on  texture, WHC, pH, and   organoleptic quality. The best result was chicken nuggets made with used of seaweed  10%;  7.97 N of texture; 4.50% of WHC; 6.16 of pH; 6.98 of texture organoleptic score; and 6.26 of taste organoleptic score. The conclusion of this research was the using of seaweed to chicken nuggets gave a significant effect on  texture, WHC, pH, and organoleptic quality. Based on the result, it suggested that using 10% of seaweed to make chicken nugeets.   Keyword : water holding capacity, chicken nuggets, seaweed

  10. Biogas production generated through continuous digestion of natural and cultivated seaweeds with dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Wall, David M; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-11-01

    The technical feasibility of long term anaerobic mono-digestion of two brown seaweeds, and co-digestion of both seaweeds with dairy slurry was investigated whilst increasing the organic loading rate (OLR). One seaweed was natural (L. digitata); the second seaweed (S. Latissima) was cultivated. Higher proportions of L. digitata in co-digestion (66.6%) allowed the digester to operate more efficiently (OLR of 5kgVSm(-3)d(-1) achieving a specific methane yield (SMY) of 232LCH4kg(-1)VS) as compared to lower proportions (33.3%). Co-digestion of 66.6% cultivated S. latissima, with dairy slurry allowed a higher SMY of 252LCH4kg(-1)VS but at a lower OLR of 4kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Optimum conditions for mono-digestion of both seaweeds were effected at 4kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Chloride concentrations increased to high levels in the digestion of both seaweeds but were not detrimental to operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Potential Role of Seaweeds in the Natural Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.; Mendonça, Carla; Cabrita, Ana R. J.

    2016-08-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the effects of five seaweeds (Ulva sp., Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima, Gigartina sp., and Gracilaria vermiculophylla) on gas and methane production and ruminal fermentation parameters when incubated in vitro with two substrates (meadow hay and corn silage) for 24 h. Seaweeds led to lower gas production, with Gigartina sp. presenting the lowest value. When incubated with meadow hay, Ulva sp., Gigartina sp. and G. vermiculophylla decreased methane production, but with corn silage, methane production was only decreased by G. vermiculophylla. With meadow hay, L. ochroleuca and S. latissima promoted similar methane production as the control, but with corn silage, L. ochroleuca increased it. With the exception of S. latissima, all seaweeds promoted similar levels of total volatile fatty acid production. The highest proportion of acetic acid was produced with Ulva sp., G. vermiculophylla, and S. latissima; the highest proportion of butyric acid with the control and L. ochroleuca; and the highest proportion of iso-valeric acid with Gigartina sp. These results reveal the potential of seaweeds to mitigate ruminal methane production and the importance of the basal diet. To efficiently use seaweeds as feed ingredients with nutritional and environmental benefits, more research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying seaweed and substrate interactions.

  12. The seaweed fly (Coelopidae) can facilitate environmental survival and transmission of E. coli O157 at sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinscoe, Isobel; Oliver, David M; Gilburn, Andre S; Quilliam, Richard S

    2018-06-19

    The sustainable management of recreational beaches is essential for minimising risk of human exposure to microbial pathogens whilst simultaneously maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Decaying seaweed on public beaches is gaining recognition as a substrate for microbial contamination, and is a potentially significant reservoir for human pathogens in close proximity to beach users. Closely associated with beds of decaying seaweed are dense populations of the seaweed fly (Coelopidae), which could influence the spatio-temporal fate of seaweed-associated human pathogens within beach environments. Replicated mesocosms containing seaweed inoculated with a bioluminescent strain of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7, were used to determine the effects of two seaweed flies, Coelopa frigida and C. pilipes, on E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics. Multiple generations of seaweed flies and their larvae significantly enhanced persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in simulated wrack habitats, demonstrating that both female and male C. frigida flies are capable of transferring E. coli O157:H7 between individual wrack beds and into the sand. Adult fly faeces can contain significant concentrations of E. coli O157:H7, which suggests they are capable of acting as biological vectors and bridge hosts between wrack habitats and other seaweed fly populations, and facilitate the persistence and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 in sandy beach environments. This study provides the first evidence that seaweed fly populations inhabiting natural wrack beds contaminated with the human pathogen E. coli O157:H7 have the capacity to amplify the hazard source, and therefore potential transmission risk, to beach users exposed to seaweed and sand in the intertidal zone. The risk to public health from seaweed flies and decaying wrack beds is usually limited by human avoidance behaviour; however, seaweed fly migration and nuisance inland plagues in urban areas could increase human exposure routes beyond the

  13. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis on the hydrocolloids extracted from H. musciformis (and K. alvarezii) indicated κ-carrageenan, C. crenulata hydrocolloids were mainly ι-carrageenan, and the H. dentata hydrocolloids were agar. Gelling temperatures ranged from 32 to 36 °C for the κ-carrageenan hydrocolloid samples...... comparable with κ-carrageenan from K. alvarezii, whereas the H. dentata agar properties were different from those of a commercial agar sample. This work shows that certain red seaweed species in Ghana contain hydrocolloids with desirable properties for high value applications....... and Cryptonemia crenulata, expected to hold carrageenan, contained 21–26% by weight of galactose. A commercial Kappaphycus alvarezii carrageenan sample had 30% galactose residues by weight. Hydropuntia dentata, expected to contain agar, contained 15% by weight of galactose-monomers. Fourier transform infrared...

  14. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates from red seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Noseda, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) produce, as their principal photosynthetic metabolites, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and polyols. The former are heterosides consisting of galactose and glycerol and are produced by all the orders of Phodophyta except the ceramiales. They are named: floridoside [α-D-galactopyranosyl (1->2)-glycerol], isofloridoside D-form [α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->)D-glycerol] and L-form [α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->1)-L-glycerol] (Meng et al., 1987, Karsten et al., 1993). The Ceramiales synthesize the chemically related digeneaside [α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-L-glycerate] (Kirst, 1980). Some of the red seaweeds also produce polyols such as dulcitol and D-sorbitol (Karsten et al., 1992). (author)

  15. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates from red seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Noseda, M.D. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1997-12-31

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) produce, as their principal photosynthetic metabolites, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and polyols. The former are heterosides consisting of galactose and glycerol and are produced by all the orders of Phodophyta except the ceramiales. They are named: floridoside [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl (1->2)-glycerol], isofloridoside D-form [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->)D-glycerol] and L-form [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->1)-L-glycerol] (Meng et al., 1987, Karsten et al., 1993). The Ceramiales synthesize the chemically related digeneaside [{alpha}-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-L-glycerate] (Kirst, 1980). Some of the red seaweeds also produce polyols such as dulcitol and D-sorbitol (Karsten et al., 1992). (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  16. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii

  17. Iodine-129 in human thyroids and seaweed in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of I-129 and the ratios of I-129/I-127 in normal human thyroids collected in Tianjin, China, and some seaweed samples from the Chinese coast were determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean I-129/I-127 ratio in these thyroids was found to be 1.13 x 10(-9), which is two...... orders of magnitude higher than the level of the pre-nuclear era, but one order of magnitude lower than the level in Europe in the post-nuclear era. There is no significant difference between the ratio of I-129/I-127 in the thyroids for the post-nuclear era from China and other areas, which...

  18. Essential and toxic elements in seaweeds for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Cantaluppi, C; Ceccotto, F; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Feduzi, L

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, and I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by energy-dispersive polarized x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 14 seaweeds purchased in local specialty stores in Italy and consumed by humans. The differences in elements between the algae species reached up to 2-4 orders of magnitude. Lithothamnium calcareum showed the highest levels of Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Ti. Palmaria palmata showed the highest concentrations of K, Rb, and Cl. The highest content of S was in Chondrus crispus. Laminaria digitata contained the highest concentrations of total As, Cd, Sn, Br, and I. The highest concentration of Zn was in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Ulva lactuca displayed the highest levels of Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb. Iodine levels ranged from 3.4 in Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7316 mg/kg(dry) in Laminaria digitata. The nutrimental importance of essential elements was assessed using nutritional requirements. The results showed that the consumption of algae might serve as an important source of the essential elements. Health risk due to the toxic elements present in seaweed was estimated using risk estimators. Total As, Cd, and Pb concentrations ranged from <1 to 67.6, to 7.2 and to 6.7 mg/kg(dry) respectively; therefore, their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers, but the concentrations of these elements should be controlled to protect the consumer against potential adverse health risks.

  19. Analysis of Technetium Species and Fractions in Natural Seaweed Using Biochemical Separation and ICP-MS Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin

    2016-01-01

    An extremely high accumulation and retention of technetium in marine plants, especially brown seaweed, makes it a unique bioindicator of technetium. In the present work, a novel approach was developed for the speciation analysis of technetium in seaweed, wherein a series of biochemical separations....... Besides the inorganic species of TcO4-, most of technetium (>75%) combined with organic components of seaweed such as algin, cellulose, and pigment. This investigation could provide important fundamental knowledge for studying the processes and mechanisms of 99Tc accumulation in the natural seaweed....

  20. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  1. Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R; Franke, Adrian A; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2009-05-01

    Seaweed and soy foods are consumed daily in Japan, where breast cancer rates for postmenopausal women are significantly lower than in the West. Likely mechanisms include differences in diet, especially soy consumption, and estrogen metabolism. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women participated in this double-blind trial of seaweed supplementation with soy challenge. Participants were randomized to 7 wk of either 5 g/d seaweed (Alaria) or placebo (maltodextrin). During wk 7, participants also consumed a daily soy protein isolate (2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight). After a 3-wk washout period, participants were crossed over to the alternate supplement schedule. There was an inverse correlation between seaweed dose (mg/kg body weight) and serum estradiol (E2) (seaweed-placebo = y = -2.29 x dose + 172.3; r = -0.70; P = 0.003), [corrected] which was linear across the range of weights. Soy supplementation increased urinary daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and O-desmethylangolensin (P = 0.0001) and decreased matairesinol and enterolactone (P seaweed plus soy (SeaSoy) increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHE) (P = 0.0001) and the ratio of 2-OHE:16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE(1)) (P = 0.01). For the 5 equol excretors, soy increased urinary equol excretion (P = 0.0001); the combination of SeaSoy further increased equol excretion by 58% (P = 0.0001). Equol producers also had a 315% increase in 2:16 ratio (P = 0.001) with SeaSoy. Seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria.

  2. A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEAWEED AGRO INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTHEAST MALUKU DISTRICT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Picaulima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we aimed to create a model of seaweed agro-industry development in the Southeast Maluku district of Indonesia. Data collected from respondents (n = 250 included information related to agro-seaweed, seaweed farming, and seaweed product marketing. Data collection included primary and secondary data sources, while the methods of analysis used structure model equations. We tested eight factors that influence the development of agro-seaweed industries in the southeast Maluku regency, namely, raw materials, human resources, technology, markets, infrastructure, policy, institutional, and capital, and concluded that all proposed hypotheses are proved correct because the value critical ratio ≥ 1.96, only the facilities and infrastructure factors were identified as significantly affecting the development of an agro-seaweed facility in southeast Maluku. We also found that optimal development of an agro-business in southeast Maluku will depend on relevant local government support and require cooperation between the internal local government, academia, the private sector, and the public. Development of human resources through formal and informal education programs directed at local business and focused on seaweed-based products will help to build business continuity by avoiding collusion and nepotism. Increased cooperation will also be required between government, employers, and the fishery community to monitor the sustainability and environmental impacts of the seaweed agro-industry in this region.

  3. Preparation of substituting seaweed field mounds accompanying site preparation for No.3 plant in Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Oshima, Teruhiko; Fujisaki, Yuichi; Saeki, Taketoshi

    1987-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. is constructing No.3 plant adjacently to No.1 and No.2 plants in operation in Ikata Nuclear Power Station. In the coastal area of Iyo-nada, many seaweed fields are distributed, which are important biologically and for fishery. In the works of site preparation for No.3 plant, a part of the site is created by reclamation of sea area, therefore the natural seaweed fields in the area disappear. From the viewpoint of various circumstances and environment preservation, it was decided to create about 60,000 m 2 of seaweed field mounds on the seabed around the site as the substitute for disappearing natural seaweed fields. The Seaweed Field Study Group composed of the men of learning and experience was organized to obtain the guidance on the possibility of creating artificial seaweed fields, the techniques for creation and the effect on environment accompanying the creation of mounds. The creation works were started in October, 1985, and are in progress smoothly utilizing effectively the stones and rocks cut in the site preparation works. The topographic and geological features, sea conditions, the present state of seaweed fields, the experiment on creating artificial seaweed fields, the design and construction of mounds and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  4. Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of iodide…

  5. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ15N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two coastal sites (COU, GM) in the Bay of Seine affected by summer seaweed beachings. • The same temporal dynamics of the algal δ 15 N at the two sites. • N and P concentrations in seawater of the two sites dominated by riverine sources. • A coupling between seaweed beachings and N sources of intertidal macroalgae. - Abstract: A fine-scale survey of δ 15 N, δ 13 C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM ∗ , COU ∗ ). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ 15 N signatures and N contents at GM ∗ and COU ∗ . Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ 15 N at GM ∗ were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae

  6. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  7. Seaweed Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles: Preparation and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances and increasing amounts of research on the utilization of natural polymeric materials as drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Seaweed polysaccharides are abundant resources and have been extensively studied for several biological, biomedical, and functional food applications. The exploration of seaweed polysaccharides for drug delivery applications is still in its infancy. Alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, and laminarin are polysaccharides commonly isolated from seaweed. These natural polymers can be converted into nanoparticles (NPs by different types of methods, such as ionic gelation, emulsion, and polyelectrolyte complexing. Ionic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexing are commonly employed by adding cationic molecules to these anionic polymers to produce NPs of a desired shape, size, and charge. In the present review, we have discussed the preparation of seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs using different types of methods as well as their usage as carriers for the delivery of various therapeutic molecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, anti-cancer drugs, and antibiotics. Seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs exhibit suitable particle size, high drug encapsulation, and sustained drug release with high biocompatibility, thereby demonstrating their high potential for safe and efficient drug delivery.

  8. The Effect of Seaweed Glue in the Separation of Copper–Molybdenum Sulphide Ore by Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation separation of chalcopyrite from molybdenite was studied using seaweed glue (SEG as a depressant. Flotation process and mechanism were examined by response surface methodology, flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra. Response surface methodology with a Box–Behnken design suggested the optimal reagent schedule: pH 4, depressant seaweed glue 197 mg/L, collector amyl xanthate 16 mg/L and frother (methyl isobutyl carbinol 20 mg/L, and selective separation of chalcopyrite and molybdenite was achieved by flotation. Comparison of SEG and traditional depressants indicated that the SEG could achieve a similar separation efficiency, and exhibited the advantages of environmental compatibility and economic adaptability. Co-adsorption of seaweed glue and amyl xanthate occurred on the surface of molybdenite, and is explained to happen through distinct mechanisms due to the heterogeneous nature of the surface. It is likely that seaweed glue depresses molybdenite by covering the dixanthogen resulting from adsorption of xanthate ions. It is shown that seaweed glue is as effective a depressant of Cu/Mo separation as cyanide.

  9. Implications of drying temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Majid Khan Majahar; Fudholi, Ahmad; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, Jumat; Yasir, Suhaimi Md

    2017-11-01

    A Low Temperature and Humidity Chamber Test tested in the Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Experiments are attempted to study the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed Kappaphycus species Striatum besides to develop a model to estimate the drying curves. Simple method using a excel software is used in the analysis of raw data obtained from the drying experiment. The values of the parameters a, n and the constant k for the models are determined using a plot of curve drying models. Three different drying models are compared with experiment data seaweed drying at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C and relative humidity 20, 30 and 40% for seaweed. The higher drying temperatures and low relative humidity effects the moisture content that will be rapidly reduced. The most suitable model is selected to best describe the drying behavior of seaweed. The values of the coefficient of determination (R2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are used to determine the goodness or the quality of the fit. The Page model is showed a better fit to drying seaweed. The results from this study crucial for solar dryer development on pilot scale in Malaysia.

  10. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kametani, Takuji; Maruyama, Toshiroh

    2005-05-01

    The growth of dense green seaweed mats of Ulva spp. is an increasing problem in estuaries and coasts worldwide. The enormous amount of Ulva biomass thus becomes a troublesome waste disposal problem. On the other hand, it has been revealed that nonliving seaweed biomass, particularly brown seaweeds, has a high capacity for assimilating heavy metals. In this study, the possibility of using Ulva seaweed biomass as a biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals was examined. After processing, the biomass material was very easy to separate from the aqueous solution using a mesh. The sorption capacity of Cd on Ulva biomass increased upon pretreatment with alkali solution. The outstanding function of the biosorbent was demonstrated at around pH 8. On the basis of the Langmuir isotherms of Cd, Zn and Cu using the alkali-pretreated biomass, the parameters q(m) and b were determined to be within the narrow range of 60-90 mg/g and 0.03-0.04 L/mg, respectively, for each metal. Given the q(m) and b values, Ulva seaweed is a good biosorbent material for removing heavy metals. In an experiment using artificial wastewater containing Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni, it was possible to remove each metal simultaneously using Ulva biomass. Adsorption by Ulva biomass is effective for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

  11. Photosynthetic response of two seaweed species along an urban pollution gradient: evidence of selection of pollution-tolerant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, F; Bonomi Barufi, J; Horta, P A

    2012-11-01

    Urbanization leads to the expansion of ephemeral seaweed species and the decline of important perennial, canopy-forming seaweed species. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to these changes is a current challenge. In the present study, laboratory assays and field transplantations were performed with two seaweed species: the perennial, canopy-forming seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum and the ephemeral seaweed Ulva lactuca. Photosynthetic efficiency was assessed using modulated chlorophyll fluorometry. Brief exposure to urban waters does not appear to be a major stressor to the photosynthetic efficiency of either species. However, after 26 days of transplantation in urban waters, S. stenophyllum declined, whereas U. lactuca had enhanced photosynthetic efficiency. This difference reflects their divergent abilities to regulate the energy distribution at the PSII and shows that urban stressors alter these mechanisms. Our results provide evidence of the physiological causes for the decline of Sargassum species and the expansion of Ulva species in impacted urban areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Jung, Sera; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA), a red seaweed species, is a popular source of food and chemicals due to its high galactose and glucose content. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioethanol production from autoclave-treated GA (ATGA). The proposed method involved autoclaving GA for 60min for hydrolysis to glucose. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation processing (SHF) achieved a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.33mg/mL, with a conversion yield of 74.7% after 6h (2% substrate loading, w/v). In contrast, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced an ethanol concentration of 3.78mg/mL, with an ethanol conversion yield of 84.9% after 12h. We also recorded an ethanol concentration of 25.7mg/mL from SSF processing of 15% (w/v) dry matter from ATGA after 24h. These results indicate that autoclaving can improve the glucose and ethanol conversion yield of GA, and that SSF is superior to SHF for ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Enzymatic desulfation of the red seaweeds agar by Marinomonas arylsulfatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Duan, Delin; Fu, Xiaoting

    2016-12-01

    Agar and sulfated galactans were isolated from the red seaweeds Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis and Gelidium amansii. A previously purified arylsulfatase from Marinomonas sp. FW-1 was used to remove sulfate groups in agar and sulfated galactans. After enzymatic desulfation, the sulfate content decreased to about 0.16% and gel strength increased about two folds. Moreover, there was no difference between the DNA electrophoresis spectrum on the gel of the arylsulfatase-treated agar and that of the commercial agarose. In order to reveal the desulfation ratio and site, chemical and structural identification of sulfated galactan were carried out. G. amansii sulfated galactan with 7.4% sulfated content was composed of galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose. Meanwhile, G. lemaneiformis sulfated galactan with 8.5% sulfated content was composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose, 2-O-methyl-3,6-anhydro-l-galactose and xylose. Data from 13 C NMR, FT-IR, GC-MS provided evidence of sulfate groups at C-4 and C-6 of d-galactose and C-6 of l-galactose both in GRAP and GEAP. Data from GC-MS revealed that desulfation was carried out by the arylsulfatase at the sulfate bonds at C-4 and C-6 of d-galactose and C-6 of l-galactose, with a desulfation ratio of 83.4% and 86.0% against GEAP and GRAP, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of fermented seaweed sauce prepared from nori (Pyropia yezoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Motoharu; Kurushima, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kenji; Murata, Yuko; Touhata, Ken; Ishida, Noriko; Niwa, Kentaro; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed. As for their food safety, arsenic was detected at a 0.8 mg/100 g level in total, but inorganic arsenic was not detected (<0.05 mg/100 g) and not regarded as a problem. Allergy-causing substances contained in wheat, soy beans, and crustaceans were not detected (<0.1 mg/100 g) with NSs. These results suggest that the nori sauce has a high potential as a novel nutritional source for humans. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation and certification of Sargasso seaweed reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kensaku

    1988-01-01

    Sargasso seaweed reference material was prepared from Sargassum felvellum obtained from an unpolluted area in Japan. The sargasso samples were washed, freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved to pass a 80-mesh screen and finally homogenized. Collaborative studies on the elemental analysis of the sargasso reference material were performed using various analytical techniques. Certified values are provided for Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn, based on results of determinations by at least three independent analytical techniques. Reference values are reported for Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Cs, Hg, I, P, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti and U. The sargasso certified reference material contains high levels of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, I, Br, As and U, while the concentration of trace elements may be considered to be at the lower end of the range of reported values for marine brown algae. The sargasso sample will be of practical use in marine and environmental sciences as a certified reference material having an elemental composition close to background levels.

  16. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N.; Santoso, M.; Yanuar, A.; Damayanti; Kartawinata, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) which is still far below the maximum tolerable level. (author)

  17. Seaweed Bioactive Compounds against Pathogens and Microalgae: Potential Uses on Pharmacology and Harmful Algae Bloom Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrifi, Soukaina El Amrani; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oudra, Brahim; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2018-02-09

    Cyanobacteria are found globally due to their adaptation to various environments. The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms is not a new phenomenon. The bloom-forming and toxin-producing species have been a persistent nuisance all over the world over the last decades. Evidence suggests that this trend might be attributed to a complex interplay of direct and indirect anthropogenic influences. To control cyanobacterial blooms, various strategies, including physical, chemical, and biological methods have been proposed. Nevertheless, the use of those strategies is usually not effective. The isolation of natural compounds from many aquatic and terrestrial plants and seaweeds has become an alternative approach for controlling harmful algae in aquatic systems. Seaweeds have received attention from scientists because of their bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-microalgae, and antioxidant properties. The undesirable effects of cyanobacteria proliferations and potential control methods are here reviewed, focusing on the use of potent bioactive compounds, isolated from seaweeds, against microalgae and cyanobacteria growth.

  18. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  19. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria...... digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility...... of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development...

  20. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (combined production of fish, mussels and seaweed)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    The Danish marine aquaculture has, despite the huge potential, only been slowly increasing the last 25 years because of the imposed limits to the nitrogen (N) released to the environment. Mussels, seaweed and other organisms have been successfully tested as biofilters in integrated multi-trophic ......The Danish marine aquaculture has, despite the huge potential, only been slowly increasing the last 25 years because of the imposed limits to the nitrogen (N) released to the environment. Mussels, seaweed and other organisms have been successfully tested as biofilters in integrated multi......, mineral and vitamin content and profiles were monitored to evaluate the nutritional value and harvest time of the seaweed biomass. Sugarkelp showed to be efficient for bioremediation of nitrogen, with environmental and potentially economic benefits (e.g. waste water management and for production...

  1. Utilization of cast seaweed and waste from pectin production for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, A M; Christensen, T B; Kjær, T

    2011-01-01

    and cast seaweed (winter sample): 118 ml CH4 g VS-1. The predicted annual biogas production of the plant was 5.4 million m3 CH4. An environmental assessment concluded that a biogas plant using the aforementioned organic materials will reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 25,000 tons CO2 year-1 and 40......,000 tons CO2 year-1 depending on the type of energy utilization. Reduction of nutrients in the coastal zone by removal of seaweed was found to be of high value.......The paper describes a preliminary study on the environmental consequences of realizing a biogas plant using locally available biomass fractions in Solrød, Denmark. The biomass, which will be used at the plant, will consist of: cast seaweed (app. 20,000 tons year-1), waste from pectin production...

  2. Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Schoener, Thomas W

    2011-01-28

    The effect of environmental change on ecosystems is mediated by species interactions. Environmental change may remove or add species and shift life-history events, altering which species interact at a given time. However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. In a Caribbean island system, a major manifestation of environmental change is seaweed deposition, which has been linked to eutrophication, overfishing, and hurricanes. Here, we show in a whole-island field experiment that without seaweed two predators--lizards and ants--had a substantially greater-than-additive effect on herbivory. When seaweed was added to mimic deposition by hurricanes, no interactive predator effect occurred. Thus environmental change can substantially restructure food-web interactions, complicating efforts to predict anthropogenic changes in ecosystem processes.

  3. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  4. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60 Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60 Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60 CoCl 2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60 Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60 CoCl 2 . This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  5. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingridy Simone Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  6. Phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of selected species of seaweeds from Danish coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Water and ethanolic extracts of 16 species of seaweeds collected along the Danish coasts were screened for antioxidant activities using four in vitro antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating and liposome model system......). Furthermore their effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil was evaluated by an accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of seaweed species evaluated. Ethanol was more efficient for polyphenol...... extraction than water. Polysiphonia fucoides and all the Fucus species tested showed highest radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system and in fish oil and were high in phenolic content. These seaweeds could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants...

  7. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark – an instrument for circular nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Tørring, Ditte; Bruhn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km2 in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km2. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq......The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill...... disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from...

  8. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content......The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria....../kg CP). Digestible rumen escape protein (DEP) varied significantly between species (P Laminaria, Mastocarpus and Palmaria can supply...

  9. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  10. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria......, Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content...... for Pelvetia (90 g/kg DM). Spring samples were higher in CP than autumn samples. The effective degradability estimated at 5% rumen passage rate (ED5) of CP varied between species (P Ulva (240 g...

  11. Sensitivity and Acclimation of Three Canopy-Forming Seaweeds to UVB Radiation and Warming

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Olsen, Ylva S.; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Wernberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Canopy-forming seaweeds, as primary producers and foundation species, provide key ecological services. Their responses to multiple stressors associated with climate change could therefore have important knock-on effects on the functioning of coastal ecosystems. We examined interactive effects of UVB radiation and warming on juveniles of three habitat-forming subtidal seaweeds from Western Australia–Ecklonia radiata, Scytothalia dorycarpa and Sargassum sp. Fronds were incubated for 14 days at 16–30°C with or without UVB radiation and growth, health status, photosynthetic performance, and light absorbance measured. Furthermore, we used empirical models from the metabolic theory of ecology to evaluate the sensitivity of these important seaweeds to ocean warming. Results indicated that responses to UVB and warming were species specific, with Sargassum showing highest tolerance to a broad range of temperatures. Scytothalia was most sensitive to elevated temperature based on the reduced maximum quantum yields of PSII; however, Ecklonia was most sensitive, according to the comparison of activation energy calculated from Arrhenius’ model. UVB radiation caused reduction in the growth, physiological responses and thallus health in all three species. Our findings indicate that Scytothalia was capable of acclimating in response to UVB and increasing its light absorption efficiency in the UV bands, probably by up-regulating synthesis of photoprotective compounds. The other two species did not acclimate over the two weeks of exposure to UVB. Overall, UVB and warming would severely inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of these canopy-forming seaweeds and decrease their coverage. Differences in the sensitivity and acclimation of major seaweed species to temperature and UVB may alter the balance between species in future seaweed communities under climate change.

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta and its microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Louisi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome. Results A total of 6 transcriptomes were obtained from specimens of L. dendroidea sampled in three different coastal locations of the Rio de Janeiro state. Functional annotations revealed predominantly basic cellular metabolic pathways. Bacteria was the dominant active group in the microbiome of L. dendroidea, standing out nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic Proteobacteria. The analysis of the relative contribution of each domain highlighted bacterial features related to glycolysis, lipid and polysaccharide breakdown, and also recognition of seaweed surface and establishment of biofilm. Eukaryotic transcripts, on the other hand, were associated with photosynthesis, synthesis of carbohydrate reserves, and defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of terpenoids through the mevalonate-independent pathway. Conclusions This work describes the first transcriptomic profile of the red seaweed L. dendroidea, increasing the knowledge about ESTs from the Florideophyceae algal class. Our data suggest an important role for L

  13. Sensitivity and Acclimation of Three Canopy-Forming Seaweeds to UVB Radiation and Warming

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi

    2015-12-02

    Canopy-forming seaweeds, as primary producers and foundation species, provide key ecological services. Their responses to multiple stressors associated with climate change could therefore have important knock-on effects on the functioning of coastal ecosystems. We examined interactive effects of UVB radiation and warming on juveniles of three habitat-forming subtidal seaweeds from Western Australia–Ecklonia radiata, Scytothalia dorycarpa and Sargassum sp. Fronds were incubated for 14 days at 16–30°C with or without UVB radiation and growth, health status, photosynthetic performance, and light absorbance measured. Furthermore, we used empirical models from the metabolic theory of ecology to evaluate the sensitivity of these important seaweeds to ocean warming. Results indicated that responses to UVB and warming were species specific, with Sargassum showing highest tolerance to a broad range of temperatures. Scytothalia was most sensitive to elevated temperature based on the reduced maximum quantum yields of PSII; however, Ecklonia was most sensitive, according to the comparison of activation energy calculated from Arrhenius’ model. UVB radiation caused reduction in the growth, physiological responses and thallus health in all three species. Our findings indicate that Scytothalia was capable of acclimating in response to UVB and increasing its light absorption efficiency in the UV bands, probably by up-regulating synthesis of photoprotective compounds. The other two species did not acclimate over the two weeks of exposure to UVB. Overall, UVB and warming would severely inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of these canopy-forming seaweeds and decrease their coverage. Differences in the sensitivity and acclimation of major seaweed species to temperature and UVB may alter the balance between species in future seaweed communities under climate change.

  14. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Siobhan; McLoughlin, Peter; O'Donovan, Orla

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11′53.68′N, 6°49′34.64′W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. - Highlights: ► Three main classes of seaweed were collected from the South-East coast of Ireland. ► Metal levels (total, intracellular and surface-bound) in four seaweed species were determined. ► Metal levels of seawater and sediment samples collected from the same location were quantified. ► The Concentration Factors for P. lanosa, A. nodosum, F. vesiculosus and Ulva sp., were calculated. ► Interspecies variations in seaweed metal concentrations were demonstrated. - This study, reports the most comprehensive uptake efficiencies and distributions of metals in four main seaweed sps., with P. lanosa demonstrating excellent bioaccumulation ability.

  15. A study on lead-210 distribution in seaweeds of the Krusadai island, Gulf of Mannaar, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Shahul, P.; Ravikumar, S.; Masilamani, V.

    1998-01-01

    Presented here is the natural radioactivity distribution of a beta emitting radionuclide, 210 Pb in water, sediment and some economically important seaweeds collected from Krusadai island in the south east coast of India. It is observed that the dissolved 210 Pb concentration in sea water was found to be 4.20 mBq -1 and the activity in sediment was found to be 27.60 Bq kg -1 . The 210 Pb was observed to be non-uniformly distributed among the seaweeds which maintain the following descending order: Ulva reticulata (4.40 Bq kg -1 )>Hypnea valentiae (2.75 Bq kg -1 )> Gracilaria edulis (2.38 Bq kg -1 )>Sargasum wightii (1.86 Bq kg -1 )> Sargassum ilicifolium (1.82 Bq kg -1 )> Cystophyllum murictum (1.53 Bq kg -1 )> Turbinaria conoides (1.48 Bq kg -1 )>Gelidiella acerosa (1.45 Bq kg -1 ). The general range of concentration factors for the algae varies between 10 2 and 10 3 . This study also measured the 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios in water, sediment and seaweeds of Krusadai island. The results demonstrate that while dissolved 210 Pb ratios in sea water are less than unity (0.66), there is a gradual enhancement of these ratios in island sediment (1.31) and seaweeds (4.00 - 16.27). Significantly high ratios were recorded in some seaweed species like Cystophyllum murictum and Sargassum wightii with a typical range observed from 16.27 to 11.88. The significance of 210 Pb in the seaweeds is discussed. (author)

  16. Evaluation of World View-2 Satellite Data for Mapping Seaweed Beds Along Karachi Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish Siddiqui, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION One of the important components for the coastal system are seaweeds. Seaweed provides numerous ecosystem facilities such as; habitats, fishing nursery grounds, feed production for aquatic biota, and ability to absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and carbon fixation for seawater purification. It's an important coastal resource that has great economic potential due to its utilization in food, cosmetics and industrial products. It also plays an important role in aquaculture and fish breeding. The habitats of many sea species rely on seaweeds for their shelter and food requirements. Seaweed resources are present along Pakistan coastal areas mainly around Karachi shoreline and there exists a potential market for seaweed in the country that is yet untapped. Not only this but the seaweed resources in Pakistan are still unexplored and unmapped. The need to preserve and map seaweed sites along Karachi coast is, cannot be overlooked due to the economic potential of seaweed. To protect marine biodiversity, regular monitoring and mapping of seaweeds are important in order to regulate their growth and their dependent species to maintain their biological associations. The main purpose of this study is to map naturally existing seaweed resources along the Karachi coast and identify the environmental parameters which impact seaweed growth in coastal waters of Karachi using geospatial techniques. To estimate marine resources such as seaweed over a certain area using traditional methods require an extensive amount of labor, cost and time. Remote sensing techniques, on the other hand, offer a good alternative to performing studies on a larger scale using minimum resources as compared to the conventional methods. DATA AND DATA SOURCES WorldView-2 images of 2 meter multispectral and 0.5 meter panchromatic and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daily composite of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product of 250 meter resolutions are used in this

  17. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. In this presentation we will discuss results from our ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains...... such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models...

  18. Screening for the presence of antimicrobial activity in few Indian seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Garg, Aakriti; Chatterji, A.

    ). Chemical variation in the tropical seaweed Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae). Phytochem., 24, 1279-1283. Jimenez-Escrig, Antonio and Goni, Isabel Cambrodón.(1999). A., Evaluación nutricional y efectos fisiológicos de macroalgas marinas comestibles.... Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 49: 114–120 Goñi. Mabeau, S. and Fleurence J. (1993). Seaweed in food products: biochemical and nutritional aspects. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 4, 103–107. Olesen, P.E., Maretaki A. and Almodovar L...

  19. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values...... for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation...

  20. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    results compared to production cost of €209-672 kg-1 N removed and €1,013 kg-1 N removed for respectively Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, a commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producer claims that production costs are less than €10 kg-1...... N removed. This up-scaled and commercial figure makes the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and bio-fouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall biofilter...

  1. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark — An instrument for circular nutrient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghetta, Michele; Tørring, Ditte; Bruhn, Annette; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km"2 in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km"2. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq. and 16.58 kg PO_4"3"− eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and > 100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and > 100% of the target). - Highlights: • Offshore seaweed production for nutrient

  2. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark — An instrument for circular nutrient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghetta, Michele [Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Tørring, Ditte [Orbicon A/S, Jens Juuls Vej 16, 8260 Viby (Denmark); Bruhn, Annette [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Thomsen, Marianne, E-mail: mth@envs.au.dk [Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km{sup 2} in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km{sup 2}. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq. and 16.58 kg PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and > 100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and > 100% of the target). - Highlights: • Offshore seaweed production

  3. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Bai

    Full Text Available Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  4. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shaofeng; Chen, Huahai; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Yu, Hongwei D; Wang, Xin; Yin, Yeshi

    2017-01-01

    Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  5. Effect of seaweed on mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties of thermoplastic sugar palm starch/agar composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of thermoplastic sugar palm starch/agar (TPSA) blend containing Eucheuma cottonii seaweed waste as biofiller. The composites were prepared by melt-mixing and hot pressing at 140°C for 10min. The TPSA/seaweed composites were characterized for their mechanical, thermal and biodegradation properties. Incorporation of seaweed from 0 to 40wt.% has significantly improved the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the TPSA/seaweed composites. Scanning electron micrograph of the tensile fracture showed homogeneous surface with formation of cleavage plane. It is also evident from TGA results that thermal stability of the composites were enhanced with addition of seaweed. After soil burial for 2 and 4 weeks, the biodegradation of the composites was enhanced with addition of seaweed. Overall, the incorporation of seaweed into TPSA enhances the properties of TPSA for short-life product application such as tray, plate, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Arsenic removal from water using iron-coated seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bárbara R C; Pintor, Ariana M A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S; Santos, Sílvia C R

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic is a semi-metal element that can enter in water bodies and drinking water supplies from natural deposits and from mining, industrial and agricultural practices. The aim of the present work was to propose an alternative process for removing As from water, based on adsorption on a brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum), after a simple and inexpensive treatment: coating with iron-oxy (hydroxides). Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were studied and modeled in terms of As oxidation state (III and V), pH and initial adsorbate concentration. Maximum adsorption capacities of 4.2 mg/g and 7.3 mg/g were obtained at pH 7 and 20 °C for arsenite and arsenate, respectively. When arsenite was used as adsorbate, experimental evidences pointed to the occurrence of redox reactions involving As(III) oxidation to As(V) and Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II), with As(V) uptake by the adsorbent. The proposed adsorption mechanism was then based on the assumption that arsenate was the adsorbed arsenic species. The most relevant drawback found in the present work was the considerable leaching of iron to the solution. Arsenite removal from a mining-influenced water by adsorption plus precipitation was studied and compared to a traditional process of coagulation/flocculation. Both kinds of treatment provided practically 100% of arsenite removal from the contaminated water, leading at best in 12.9 μg/L As after the adsorption and precipitation assays and 14.2 μg/L after the coagulation/flocculation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved

  8. The effect of chronic seaweed subsidies on herbivory: plant-mediated fertilization pathway overshadows lizard-mediated predator pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Takimoto, Gaku; Yang, Louie H; Wright, Amber N; Schoener, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Flows of energy and materials link ecosystems worldwide and have important consequences for the structure of ecological communities. While these resource subsidies typically enter recipient food webs through multiple channels, most previous studies focussed on a single pathway of resource input. We used path analysis to evaluate multiple pathways connecting chronic marine resource inputs (in the form of seaweed deposits) and herbivory in a shoreline terrestrial ecosystem. We found statistical support for a fertilization effect (seaweed increased foliar nitrogen content, leading to greater herbivory) and a lizard numerical response effect (seaweed increased lizard densities, leading to reduced herbivory), but not for a lizard diet-shift effect (seaweed increased the proportion of marine-derived prey in lizard diets, but lizard diet was not strongly associated with herbivory). Greater seaweed abundance was associated with greater herbivory, and the fertilization effect was larger than the combined lizard effects. Thus, the bottom-up, plant-mediated effect of fertilization on herbivory overshadowed the top-down effects of lizard predators. These results, from unmanipulated shoreline plots with persistent differences in chronic seaweed deposition, differ from those of a previous experimental study of the short-term effects of a pulse of seaweed deposition: while the increase in herbivory in response to chronic seaweed deposition was due to the fertilization effect, the short-term increase in herbivory in response to a pulse of seaweed deposition was due to the lizard diet-shift effect. This contrast highlights the importance of the temporal pattern of resource inputs in determining the mechanism of community response to resource subsidies.

  9. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  10. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Ilamathi Jayaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; Edward Gnana Jothi George

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days) and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass ...

  12. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Seaweed Impacts on Seagrasses: Generalities and Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Wernberg, T.; Engelen, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    review of available published manipulative experiments (all conducted at the patch-scale), to test which attributes of seaweeds and seagrasses (e.g., their abundances, sizes, morphology, taxonomy, attachment type, or origin) influence impacts. Weighted and unweighted meta-analyses (Hedges d metric) of 59...

  14. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2017-08-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development of large-scale cost-effective butanol production based on (ensiled) seaweed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Abreu, Maria Helena; Araujo, Rita; Bruhn, Annette; Coates, Juliet C; De Clerck, Olivier; Katsaros, Christos; Robaina, Rafael R; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles - from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms - using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. The Footprint of Continental-Scale Ocean Currents on the Biogeography of Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Waters, Jonathan M.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Kraft, Gerald T.; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A.; Gurgel, Carlos F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales. PMID:24260352

  17. SPARK-UP; Seaweed Production And Refining of Kelp, Ulva and Palmaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wald, J.; Visser, de W.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Werf, van der A.K.; Deelman, Berth-Jan; Helmendach-Nieuwenhuize, Carola

    2016-01-01

    In het SPARK-UP project, waarin de partners Arkema, PRI-WUR en North Seaweed samenwerkten aan de ontwikkeling van toepassing van zeewier in de biobased economy, is de afgelopen jaren veel werk verzet. In een bassin op het terrein van Arkema, heeft PRI een teeltsysteem opgezet en in gebruik genomen,

  18. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and lipoxygenase (LOX which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants.

  19. Optimization on Pretreatment Conditions of Seaweed Liquid Waste for Bio ethanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Zatul-Iffah Zakaria; Dachyar Arbain; Mohd Noor Ahmad; Mohd Irfan Hatim Mohamed Dzahir

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed liquid waste (SLW) from a non-conventional seaweed (Gracilaria sp.) drying process where the seaweed is ruptured and filter-squeezed has been investigated. The liquid contains proteins and minerals which potentially pollute the environment if it is not been properly treated. For that reason, this paper deals with study on the feasibility of SLW utilization as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. The fermentation of bio ethanol production was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which ethanol produced was measured by gas chromatography. In order to increase its fermentable sugar content, the SLW was treated with dilute acid. Center composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) had been used to optimize the sugar content by varying the parameters involved in the dilute acid pretreatment conditions. These are sulphuric acid concentration (M), temperature (degree Celsius) and seaweed waste concentration (g/ ml). It was obtained that the R 2 value reached 0.97 indicating that the model is acceptable. The three parameters showed p-value less than 0.05 suggesting their significance interactions. The optimization resulted 25 times improvement of reducing sugar concentration. The reducing sugar resulting from the optimized pretreatment was later used as fermentation medium to produce ethanol up to 123.197 mg/ l. (author)

  20. Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasue, Anita; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits. As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration. The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder (SWP) and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. The fresh Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweeds were washed, soaked in distilled water overnight, dried in a cabinet dryer at 40°C for 24 hours and ground into fine powder using universal miller. There were five different percentages of SWP incorporated into bun that were formulation A - control (0% SWP), B (3% SWP), C (6% SWP), D (9% SWP) and E (12% SWP). All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis. Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC (35.07 GAE, mg/100g) and DPPH activity (49.02%) maximized when 12% SWP was incorporated into the flour (P<0.05). The incorporation of the SWP also gives significant effects towards the texture of the bun where the bun becomes harder and denser as compared to the control.

  1. Effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on the immune performance of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Okamura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Eisaku; Tamura, Katsuo; Shimizu, Yuuko; Suda, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2011-04-01

    In pig production, dietary additive antibiotics are usually used for growth stimulation and disease prevention, although there is public concern about the increased incidence of resistant antibiotics and food safety. It is possible that such antibiotics might be replaced by naturally derived products such as seaweed and licorice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on enhancing the immune function in swine. The animals of each group (eight animals per group) were sensitized at day 42 and 49, and the immunoglobulin production and the expression of cytokines were detected by the ELISA and real-time PCR. As the results, saliva IgA production of the seaweed-treated group increased around five times compared to that of control (day 56). Delayed hypersensitivity reaction and IgG production of the seaweed-treated group increased around 1.8-2.0 times. In addition, enhanced saliva IgA production was detected at day 50 (around two times) and day 51 (around five times) by the licorice treatment, and lower expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α messenger RNA at day 51 (around 1/25) was observed in the licorice treatment. We conclude that the replacement of antibiotics by naturally derived dietary additives might be feasible for immune system enhancement. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Nutritional status and effect of seaweed chocolate on anemic adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thahira Banu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the nutritional status, develop a product incorporating seaweed and assess its impact on anemic adolescent girls. Five hundred adolescent girls in the age group of 15–18 years were selected from a women's college at Kilakarai, Tamil Nadu, India as the target group to find the prevalence of anemia. Among the 500 subjects 100 with a hemoglobin level of 7–9 g/dL (moderate anemia were selected by purposive sampling technique for supplementation. Seaweed incorporated chocolate was formulated, standardized, tested for consumer acceptability and in vitro iron bioavailability and supplemented to the selected subjects. The result of the study indicates that seaweed chocolate developed obtained the highest score for overall acceptability, 56 mg of iron/100 g and 11.80 mg of bioavailable iron. The results were found to be promising as there was a significant increase in hemoglobin, TIBC, MCH, MCV, serum iron and serum ferritin levels in the selected subjects. Seaweeds are a less consumed natural resource but abundantly available in the coastal areas of India as they are rich source of nutrients and can be used as an effective therapeutic and nutrient adjunct.

  3. The role of seaweed bioactives in the control of digestion: implications for obesity treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D; Houghton, David; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Seaweeds are an underutilised nutritional resource that could not only compliment the current western diet but potentially bring additional health benefits over and above their nutritional value. There are four groups of seaweed algae; green algae (Chlorophyceae), red algae (Rhodophycae), blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Seaweeds are rich in bioactive components including polysaccharides and polyphenols. Polysaccharides content, such as fucoidan, laminarin, as well as alginate is generally high in brown seaweeds which are also a source of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, phlorotannin, stilbenes and lignans. These components have been shown to reduce the activity of digestive enzymes, modulating enzymes such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pepsin and lipase. This review discusses the effect of several of these components on the digestive processes within the gastrointestinal tract; focusing on the effect of alginate on pancreatic lipase activity and its potential health benefits. Concluding that there is evidence to suggest alginate has the potential to be used as an obesity treatment, however, further in vivo research is required and an effective delivery method for alginate must be designed.

  4. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Smyth, Thomas J; Soler-Vila, Anna; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2013-12-01

    To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 53.6 and 44.7 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.49 μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Development of Seaweed-based Biopolymers for Edible Films and Lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.

    2017-04-01

    Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) as one of important groups of biopolymers play an important role in human life. Biopolymers have been studied regarding their film-forming properties to produce edible films intended as food packaging and active ingredient carriers. Edible film, a thin layer or which is an integral part of food and can be eaten together with, have been used to avoid food quality deterioration due to physico-chemical changes, texture changes, or chemical reactions. Film-forming materials can be utilized individually or as mixed composite blends. Proteins and polysaccharides used for their mechanical and structural properties, and hydrophobic substances (lipids, essential oils, and emulsifiers) to provide good moisture barrier properties. In addition, bioactive substances from marine natural products, including seaweeds, have been explored for being used in the fields of medicine, food science, pharmaceutical science, biochemistry, and glycobiology. Among them, lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins from seaweeds have recently been remarked. Lectins (hemagglutinins) are widely distributed in nature and also good candidates in such prospecting of seaweeds. They are useful as convenient tools to discriminate differences in carbohydrate structures and reveal various biological activities through binding and interacting to carbohydrates, suggesting that they are promising candidates for medicinal and clinical application.

  6. Potential seaweed-based food ingredients to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2016-01-01

    Brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has a high potential as a source of natural antioxidants due to a high diversity of bioactive compounds in its composition. In this study, four extracts were characterized with respect to composition of bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant properties and their...

  7. Improvement in the bioenergetics system of plants under metal stress environment via seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Askari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Hg and its remediation through seaweeds on seedlings were escorted in a greenhouse experiment in a randomized block design. The effects of Hg were monitored in relation with bioenergetics system of Trigonella foenumgraecum plant at test site scale. Plants that were exposed to Hg, showed affect in diverse ways, including affinity to suffer in morphological as well as on sugar metabolism. The stress imposed by Hg exposure also extends to chloroplast pigments that lead to the distorted photosynthetic apparatus. The outcomes of reduced contents of photosynthetic machinery related with reduced contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate contents of plants. These contents plays vital rule for providing bioenergy to the plant growth regulation. It was suggested that Hg is lethal for plant bioenergetics system due to which plants fail to survive under stress. The lethal effects of Hg were tried to remediate through green seaweeds (Codium iyengrii). It was observed that seaweeds successfully controlled the mobility of Hg metal and improves the plant growth regulatory system at lower applied dose only. While at higher dose of Hg, seaweeds were also effective but to a certain limits. It was established that continuous addition of Hg in soil and aquatic resources execute to the plant productivity. It is demand of time to develop alternative eco-friendly remediation technologies for controlling, cleaning Hg-polluted zones. (author)

  8. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A

  9. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa, Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results: Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC 50 value (0.055 6依0.010 3 µg/mL, (0.067 5依0.136 0 µg/mL and (0.066 1 依0.007 6 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  10. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now performing uranium testing. We surveyed the distribution of background environmental radiation and radioactive materials around the plant before its full operation and studied causes of their fluctuation. The 99 Tc concentrations of edible seaweed (Konbu) collected in the northern part of Japan are reported here. Since the plant will release small amounts of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater near the plant might possibly increase in the future. Seaweeds are important food items in Japan, and concentrate some radionuclides in seawater. Therefore, the 99 Tc concentrations in edible seaweeds before the full plant's operation are important to investigate the effect of the plant on the local environmental radioactivity. However, there are few reports of concentrations in edible seaweeds in the world, including those of Japan. Because concentrations of this nuclide in a general environmental sample are extremely low, it is difficult to determine them using conventional radioanalytical techniques. In this study, Tc in a sample was simply and rapidly separated from matrix elements by a solid phase chromatographic resin and an anion exchange resin, successively. The nuclide was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Radioactivity of 137 Cs in the sample was also measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. In 2004, fishing industry cooperative associations of Aomori, Iwate and Hokkaido provided 15 edible seaweed (Konbu) samples, 11 Laminaria japonica and one each of L. ochotensis, L. angustata L. diabolica and L. longissima. Concentrations of 99 Tc in L. japonica ranged from 3.9 to 74 mBq kg -1 -dry, and mean value was 31 mBq kg -1 -dry. Concentrations in other edible seaweeds in Hokkaido were 3.4 - 6.2 mBq kg -1 -dry, except for L. longissima, which was lower than the detection limit (2.4 mBq kg -1 -dry

  11. Characterization of edible seaweed harvested on the Galician coast (northwestern Spain) using pattern recognition techniques and major and trace element data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; García-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, María Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2010-02-10

    Major and trace elements in North Atlantic seaweed originating from Galicia (northwestern Spain) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Br and I) and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) (As). Pattern recognition techniques were then used to classify the edible seaweed according to their type (red, brown, and green seaweed) and also their variety (Wakame, Fucus, Sea Spaghetti, Kombu, Dulse, Nori, and Sea Lettuce). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used as exploratory techniques, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used as classification procedures. In total, t12 elements were determined in a range of 35 edible seaweed samples (20 brown seaweed, 10 red seaweed, 4 green seaweed, and 1 canned seaweed). Natural groupings of the samples (brown, red, and green types) were observed using PCA and CA (squared Euclidean distance between objects and Ward method as clustering procedure). The application of LDA gave correct assignation percentages of 100% for brown, red, and green types at a significance level of 5%. However, a satisfactory classification (recognition and prediction) using SIMCA was obtained only for red seaweed (100% of cases correctly classified), whereas percentages of 89 and 80% were obtained for brown seaweed for recognition (training set) and prediction (testing set), respectively.

  12. Serum IGF-1 concentrations change with soy and seaweed supplements in healthy postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R; Savarese, Todd M; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations.

  13. Antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities in selected seaweed species from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Ruiz, Idalia; López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Velázquez, Carlos; Nieves-Soto, Mario; Hurtado-Oliva, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    Context Seaweeds from the Mexican Pacific Ocean have not been evaluated as a source of chemoprotectants. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate chemopreventive activities of the seaweeds Phaephyceae - Padina durvillaei (Dictyotaceae) - Rodhophyceae - Spyridia filamentosa (Spyridiaceae), Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariaceae) - and Chlorophyceae - Ulva expansa (Ulvaceae), Codium isabelae (Codiaceae), Rhizoclonium riparium (Cladophoraceae) and Caulerpa sertularioides (Caulerpaceae). Materials and methods Methanol, acetone and hexane seaweed extracts were assessed at 30 and 3 mg/mL on antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays), 0.003-3.0 mg/plate on antimutagenic activity against AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 tester strains in Ames test, and 12.5 to 100 μg/mL on antiproliferative activity on Murine B-cell lymphoma. Phenols, flavonoids and pigments content were also assessed as antioxidant compounds. Results Extraction yield was higher in methanol than in acetone and hexane extracts (6.4, 2.7 and 1.4% dw). Antioxidant capacity was higher in brown and green than in red seaweed species, particularly in P. durvillaei extracted in acetone (EC50  value= 16.9 and 1.56 mg/mL for DPPH and ABTS). Flavonoids and chlorophylls were identified as mainly antioxidant components; particularly in hexane extracts, which were correlated with the antioxidant capacity. Highest mutagenesis inhibition (> 40%) occurred in R. riparium at the lowest concentration assayed (0.003 mg/plate), while highest antiproliferative inhibition (37 and 72% for 12.5 and 25 μg/mL) occurred in C. sertularioides. Discussion and conclusion Flavonoids and chlorophylls explained the chemopreventive activities assessed in S. filamentosa, R. riparium and C. sertularioides. These seaweeds have a high potential as a source of novel chemoprotectants.

  14. Sea-to-land transfer of technetium-99 through the use of contaminated seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Shona; Salt, Carol A.; Howard, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner gives rise to a potential pathway for the transfer of Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from marine to terrestrial ecosystems and thence to man. However, to date there is little information on the extent of the release of 99 Tc from seaweed into soil and the mechanisms involved. This pot experiment has shown that 99 Tc is released fairly rapidly from Fucus vesiculosus into a sandy coastal soil. Despite low temperature conditions, 60% of the 99 Tc added with the seaweed had accumulated in the soil 15 weeks after addition. Concurrent CO 2 monitoring (used as a measure of microbial decomposition or catabolism) suggested that the initial 99 Tc release (up to 40% in the first 8 weeks) was due to leaching from the seaweed and that microbial decomposition was responsible for the release of the remaining 99 Tc in the latter phase (12-15 weeks)

  15. Selection of sustainable seaweed and grouper aquaculture development strategy: a case of Pulau Panjang, Serang Regency Banten Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarwo, P. A.; Fitriyanny, W. P.; Heriati, A.; Hakim, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Due to their high-income contribution, seaweed and grouper aquacultures are important activities in Pulau Panjang community. Determining alternative strategies in developing sustainable aquaculture for seaweed and grouper and their priority factors from theses aquaculture activities are done using TOPSIS and AHP analysis. It was found that the development strategy that must be taken is the option to maintain aquaculture activities, while, environment factor is the highest priority to maintain seaweed and grouper aquaculture in Pulau Panjang. Then three priorities are obtained from environment factor. The first is to maintain the water quality by the growth requirements of seaweed and grouper by encouraging the formation of “Environmental Community Awareness” that involved the active participation of the community to maintain quality and carrying capacity of the environment. Second is to use of natural or artificial coastal protectors (soft structure). The third priority strategy is integration and real implementation of heavy metal pollution control between government, industry sector and society.

  16. Inhibitory effects of edible seaweeds, polyphenolics and alginates on the activities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2018-01-01

    Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibition......,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was found to be a potent inhibitor of α-amylase with an IC50 value of 0.046 ± 0.004 mg/ml. Alginates found in brown seaweeds appeared to be potent inhibitors of α-amylase activity with an IC50 of (0.075 ± 0.010–0.103 ± 0.017) mg/ml, also a mixed-type inhibition. Overall, the findings provide...... information that crude extracts of brown edible seaweeds, phenolic compounds and alginates are potent α-amylase inhibitors, thereby potentially retarding glucose liberation from starches and alleviation of postprandial hyperglycaemia....

  17. Seaweed as innovative feedstock for energy and feed – Evaluating the impacts through a Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Romeo, Daina; D'Este, Martina

    2017-01-01

    a comparative Life Cycle Assessment of five scenarios identifying the critical features affecting resource efficiency and environmental performance of the systems with the aim of providing decision support for the design of future industrial scale production processes. The results show that all scenarios......Offshore cultivation of seaweed provides an innovative feedstock for biobased products supporting blue growth in northern Europe. This paper analyzes two alternative exploitation pathways: energy and protein production. The first pathway is based on anaerobic digestion of seaweed which is converted...... into biogas, for production of electricity and heat, and digestate, used as fertilizer; the second pathway uses seaweed hydrolysate as a substrate for cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae. As a result the seaweed sugars are consumed while new proteins are produced enhancing the total output. We performed...

  18. Influence of seaweed liquid fertilizer of ulva lactuca on the seed germination, growth, productivity of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisarla Divya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is an attempt to study the influence of seaweed liquid fertiliger (SLF extracted from the marine green algae ulva lactuca on the growth parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus (l medikus. The seeds were soaked in different concentrations of SLF viz., 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20% and control for 6h. The foliar spry was applied twice at four concentrations of seaweed extract. The maximum growth was recorded at 5% concentration viz., seed germination, shoot length, root length, no. of flowers, no. of fruits, fresh weight and dry weight when compare to control and remaining concentrations of seaweed extract. The seaweed extract are found effective in increasing the growth parameters.

  19. Seasonal variations in the biochemical composition of some common seaweed species from the coast of Abu Qir Bay, Alexandria, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Shafay, Shimaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Variations in protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, moisture, fatty acid and aminoacid contents of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta),Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet(Rhodophyta) were studied seasonally from spring to autumn 2010. The seaweeds were collected from a rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya on the coast of Abu Qir Bay east of Alexandria, Egypt. Remarkable seasonal variations were recorded in the levels of the studied pa...

  20. Thermal, mechanical, and physical properties of seaweed/sugar palm fibre reinforced thermoplastic sugar palm Starch/Agar hybrid composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of sugar palm fibre (SPF) on the mechanical, thermal and physical properties of seaweed/thermoplastic sugar palm starch agar (TPSA) composites. Hybridized seaweed/SPF filler at weight ratio of 25:75, 50:50 and 75:25 were prepared using TPSA as a matrix. Mechanical, thermal and physical properties of hybrid composites were carried out. Obtained results indicated that hybrid composites display improved tensile and flexural properties accompanied with lower impact resistance. The highest tensile (17.74MPa) and flexural strength (31.24MPa) was obtained from hybrid composite with 50:50 ratio of seaweed/SPF. Good fibre-matrix bonding was evident in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph of the hybrid composites' tensile fracture. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis showed increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding following the addition of SPF. Thermal stability of hybrid composites was enhanced, indicated by a higher onset degradation temperature (259°C) for 25:75 seaweed/SPF composites than the individual seaweed composites (253°C). Water absorption, thickness swelling, water solubility, and soil burial tests showed higher water and biodegradation resistance of the hybrid composites. Overall, the hybridization of SPF with seaweed/TPSA composites enhances the properties of the biocomposites for short-life application; that is, disposable tray, plate, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental And Area Support Capability Analysis For Seaweed Mariculture Development In Hading Bay Of East Flores Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominikus K. Da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract East Flores regency has adequate marine resources potentials to develop seaweed aquaculture area. Animportant aspect of seaweed aquaculture is the site selection. Site selection is based on the marine area extent and its ecological quality. The objectives of the study were to analyze the water ecology and its support capability and to determine the best site for continuous seaweed mariculture in Hading Bay of East Flores Regency. The study used descriptive method. It was conducted in Hading Bay Lewolema District East Flores Regency in March 2015. Data analysis was done using GIS based on area suitability value and the method applied in the mariculture was long line method. Total Hading Bay water territory was864676 ha. Site Awas135345 ha site B was 474222 ha and site C was 255108 ha. Area with S1 category was 729331 ha extended in Site B and C. Area with S2 category was 135345 ha as extended in Site A. Water territory support capability was 778208 ha. The number of seaweed mariculture units was 194552 units and seaweed territory capacity was 99. Hading Bay waster has the capacity and area support capability for K. alvareziiseaweed mariculture site. Site A was categorized S2 on suitability class and site B and C were categorized S1 on suitability class. The results showed different quality of water territory in those three sites was not significant and still in normal range of K. alvarezii seaweed mariculture development.

  2. Seasonal variation in biomass and species composition of seaweeds stranded along Port Okha, northwest coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Mukund C.; Reddy, C. R. K.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2008-06-01

    Port Okha coast, which is known for its luxuriant growth of a diverse assemblage of seaweeds on Saurashtra coast, is found to have abundant quantities of seaweeds being drifted and washed ashore every year. Studies conducted for quantifying the stranded seaweeds from May 2004 to April 2005 showed an average biomass value of 3.10 kg fresh wt/m2/month with maximum being 6.60 kg fresh wt/m2 in April. The stranded weeds constituted a total of 62 species during the entire study period. Of this, Rhodophyta ranked high with 26 species followed by Chlorophyta with 22 species and Phaeophyta with 14 species. The stranded seaweeds that were washed ashore provide valuable floristic information about the intertidal and near shore sub-tidal algae of the respective regions. Although natural senescence of seaweeds is one of the major factors, strong currents primarily forced by tides, also contribute to the uprooting and subsequent drifting of seaweeds on to the beach. This ultimately causes changes in floristic features of the existing algal beds.

  3. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  4. New Insights on the Terpenome of the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisi Souza de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest.

  5. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. Bioactive components like polyphenols have been identified in marine algae. In this presentation we will discuss results from our...... ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different...

  6. Reduction of 131I content in leafy vegetables and seaweed by cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shun-ichi; Takizawa, Yukio; Abe, Touru

    1987-01-01

    Decontamination ratios of 131 I were obtained from leafy vegetables samples and an edible seaweed sample (Papenfussiella kuromo) after cooking. Samples obtained in Akita City were contaminated with fallout 131 I from the Soviet Chernobyl reactor accident. The decontamination ratio of 131 I content in washed spinach samples to that in raw materials was 0.83 ± 0.21. The ratio of 131 I content in leafy vegetables and edible wild grass samples boiled in water to that in washed samples was 0.51 ± 0.19 on an average. The overall decontamination ratio for leafy vegetables was 0.42 ± 0.19, while the decontamination ratio after cooking was 0.68 for the seaweed sample. (author)

  7. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  8. New Insights on the terpenome of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Louisi Souza; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; de Oliveira, Aline Santos; Hill, Lilian Jorge; Paradas, Wladimir Costa; Salgado, Leonardo Tavares; Thompson, Cristiane Carneiro; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-02-10

    The red seaweeds belonging to the genus Laurencia are well known as halogenated secondary metabolites producers, mainly terpenoids and acetogennins. Several of these chemicals exhibit important ecological roles and biotechnological applications. However, knowledge regarding the genes involved in the biosynthesis of these compounds is still very limited. We detected 20 different genes involved in the biosynthesis of terpenoid precursors, and 21 different genes coding for terpene synthases that are responsible for the chemical modifications of the terpenoid precursors, resulting in a high diversity of carbon chemical skeletons. In addition, we demonstrate through molecular and cytochemical approaches the occurrence of the mevalonate pathway involved in the biosynthesis of terpenes in L. dendroidea. This is the first report on terpene synthase genes in seaweeds, enabling further studies on possible heterologous biosynthesis of terpenes from L. dendroidea exhibiting ecological or biotechnological interest.

  9. Neurotoxins in the polar fraction of the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Rozas

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic activity of polar substances extracted from the red seaweed Galaxaura marginata was investigated in pharmacological assays, using seaweed collected at São Sebastião channel (45º25' W; 26º49' S in the northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. High concentration of the polar fraction (PF and PF filtered through a membrane (1000 Da intraperitoneally (IP injected in mice were lethal, inducing ataxia, disorientation, and severe muscle atonia prior to death. The same symptoms preceding death were described in mice and rat tested with neuroexcitatory amino acids (NEA, suggesting that some PF components cross the blood-brain barrier, the same as NEA. However, the HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis did not show the presence of the known neuroexcitatory amino acids, kainic acid, domoic acid and NMDA. We conclude that G. marginata possess substances with neurotoxic and lethal activities.

  10. First Results on the Concentration of 137Cs in Seaweed at the South of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjon, G.; Garcia-Leon, M.

    First results on 137Cs in seaweed samples collected along the coast of the South of Spain during 1988 and 1989 are presented in this work. 137Cs was determined by direct HPGe γ-spectrometry. Typical 137Cs levels between 0.6 and 3.1 mBq/g dry weight have been found in a wide variety of seaweed species (Fucus, Ulva, Halopteris, Codium, Corallina, etc.). Such results are in close agreement with activities obtained by another researchers at the coasts of Galicia (NW of Spain). They ranged from 0.7 to 1.7 mBq/g dry weight in Fucus species, and were attributed essentially to fallout. On the other hand, the comparison of our data with others shows that they are, respectively, 10 and 100 times lower than activities found at Sweden after the Chernobyl event, and in the vicinity of Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant…

  11. AquaMUNE, a brown seaweed extract, improves metabolism, immune response, energy and chelates heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has shown interest in the curative powers of ocean plants, many of which appear to possess powerful anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, and immuno-suppressive properties. AQUAMune, a brown seaweed extract developed by Aqua-10 Laboratories, has gained marketing rights for use as a nutritional supplement. Research shows that it acts as a receptor blocker for many pathogens, including Salmonella, and is effective against Haemophilus pneumonia. AQUAMune is also reported to inhibit outbreaks of genital herpes. Other marine plants are also showing positive curative powers. Evidence reveals that a red marine algae from the Philippines has selective antitumor properties; and that carageenans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides, appear to have anti-viral capabilities. Seaweeds act as natural chelators of heavy metals that improve metabolism in cells, increase ATP production, body temperature, energy levels, and immune function.

  12. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Periaswamy Sivagnanam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v. The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  13. Cloning and Functional Characterization of Cycloartenol Synthase from the Red Seaweed Laurencia dendroidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Calegario

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea belongs to the Rhodophyta, a phylum of eukaryotic algae that is widely distributed across the oceans and that constitute an important source of bioactive specialized metabolites. Laurencia species have been studied since 1950 and were found to contain a plethora of specialized metabolites, mainly halogenated sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes that possess a broad spectrum of pharmacological and ecological activities. The first committed step in the biosynthesis of triterpenes is the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene, an enzymatic reaction carried out by oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs, giving rise to a broad range of different compounds, such as the sterol precursors cycloartenol and lanosterol, or triterpene precursors such as cucurbitadienol and β-amyrin. Here, we cloned and characterized the first OSC from a red seaweed. The OSC gene was identified through mining of a L. dendroidea transcriptome dataset and subsequently cloned and heterologously expressed in yeast for functional characterization, which indicated that the corresponding enzyme cyclizes 2,3-oxidosqualene to the sterol precursor cycloartenol. Accordingly, the gene was named L. dendroidea cycloartenol synthase (LdCAS. A phylogenetic analysis using OSCs genes from plants, fungi and algae revealed that LdCAS grouped together with OSCs from other red algae, suggesting that cycloartenol could be the common product of the OSC in red seaweeds. Furthermore, profiling of L. dendroidea revealed cholesterol as the major sterol accumulating in this species, implicating red seaweeds contain a 'hybrid' sterol synthesis pathway in which the phytosterol precursor cycloartenol is converted into the major animal sterol cholesterol.

  14. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-308 radionuclides in seaweed mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.; Lopez, J.J.; Noshkin, V.

    1989-12-01

    The results of an intercomparison exercise on a sample of mixed seaweeds from the Mediterranean Sea, IAEA-308, designed for the determination of artificial and natural radionuclide levels, are reported. The data from 67 laboratories representing 33 countries have been evaluated. The recommended median values, with confidence intervals, for the most frequently measured radionuclides 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu, 241 Am, 40 K, 210 Pb and 228 Th are given. Refs and tabs

  15. Application of gamma irradiation for the enhanced physiological properties of polysaccharides from seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Jae-Hun; Byun, Myung-Woo; Soo Chun, Byeong; Hyun Ahn, Dong; Hwang, Young-Jeong; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Gwang Hoon; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides from seaweeds, fucoidan and laminarin, were irradiated with gamma rays, and their structural changes and anti-oxidative activities were investigated. The gamma irradiation decreased the average molecular weights of polysaccharides, and UV spectra of irradiated polysaccharides showed increases in the numbers of carboxyl and carbonyl groups and double bonds. DPPH radical scavenging ability and reducing power of the gamma irradiated polysaccharides were significantly higher than those non-irradiated.

  16. Arsenic: bioaccessibility from seaweed and rice, dietary exposure calculations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Esther F A; Janssen, Paul J C M; de Wit-Bos, Lianne

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a metalloid that occurs in food and the environment in different chemical forms. Inorganic arsenic is classified as a class I carcinogen. The inorganic arsenic intake from food and drinking water varies depending on the geographic arsenic background. Non-dietary exposure to arsenic is likely to be of minor importance for the general population within the European Union. In Europe, arsenic in drinking water is on average low, but food products (e.g. rice and seaweed) are imported from all over the world including from regions with naturally high arsenic levels. Therefore, specific populations living in Europe could also have a high exposure to inorganic arsenic due to their consumption pattern. Current risk assessment is based on exposure via drinking water. For a good estimation of the risks of arsenic in food, it is important to investigate if the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic from food is different from drinking water. The present study further explores the issue of European dietary exposure to inorganic arsenic via rice and seaweed and its associated health risks. The bioavailability of inorganic arsenic was measured in in vitro digestion experiments. The data indicate that the bioavailability of inorganic arsenic is similar for rice and seaweed compared with drinking water. The calculated dietary intake for specific European Union populations varied between 0.44 and 4.51 µg kg⁻¹ bw day⁻¹. The margins of exposure between the inorganic intake levels and the BMDL0.5 values as derived by JECFA are low. Decreasing the intake of inorganic arsenic via Hijiki seaweed could be achieved by setting legal limits similar to those set for rice by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in July 2014.

  17. Simple growth patterns can create complex trajectories for the ontogeny of constitutive chemical defences in seaweeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Paul

    Full Text Available All of the theory and most of the data on the ecology and evolution of chemical defences derive from terrestrial plants, which have considerable capacity for internal movement of resources. In contrast, most macroalgae--seaweeds--have no or very limited capacity for resource translocation, meaning that trade-offs between growth and defence, for example, should be localised rather than systemic. This may change the predictions of chemical defence theories for seaweeds. We developed a model that mimicked the simple growth pattern of the red seaweed Asparagopsis armata which is composed of repeating clusters of somatic cells and cells which contain deterrent secondary chemicals (gland cells. To do this we created a distinct growth curve for the somatic cells and another for the gland cells using empirical data. The somatic growth function was linked to the growth function for defence via differential equations modelling, which effectively generated a trade-off between growth and defence as these neighbouring cells develop. By treating growth and defence as separate functions we were also able to model a trade-off in growth of 2-3% under most circumstances. However, we found contrasting evidence for this trade-off in the empirical relationships between growth and defence, depending on the light level under which the alga was cultured. After developing a model that incorporated both branching and cell division rates, we formally demonstrated that positive correlations between growth and defence are predicted in many circumstances and also that allocation costs, if they exist, will be constrained by the intrinsic growth patterns of the seaweed. Growth patterns could therefore explain contrasting evidence for cost of constitutive chemical defence in many studies, highlighting the need to consider the fundamental biology and ontogeny of organisms when assessing the allocation theories for defence.

  18. Host specificity and coevolution of Flavobacteriaceae endosymbionts within the siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Hollants, J.; Leliaert, F.; Verbruggen, H.; De Clerck, O.; Willems, A.

    2013-01-01

    The siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis harbors complex intracellular bacterial communities. Previous studies demonstrated that certain species form close, obligate associations with Flavobacteriaceae. A predominant imprint of host evolutionary history on the presence of these bacteria suggests a highly specialized association. In this study we elaborate on previous results by expanding the taxon sampling and testing for host–symbiont coevolution Therefore, we optimized a PCR protocol to directl...

  19. Designing Food Cultures:Propagating the consumption of seaweed in the Azores Islands through recipes

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution will present and discuss a pilot study that has set out to investigate ways of studying and revitalizing the foraging and consumption of seaweed in the Azores islands. Taking participatory action research (PAR) and its motto of developing forms of ‘knowledge in practice’ and within a community of interest of lay people, this contribution will present this initial study and the researcher’s attempt to establish conversations with local stakeholders regarding issues of sustain...

  20. Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable “green procedures”. Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. Result The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM –EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm. PMID:24298944

  1. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,AFU.; Portela,MCC.; Sousa,MB.; Martins,FS.; Rocha,FC.; Farias,DF.; Feitosa,JPA.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water reten...

  2. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-05-29

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone-methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  3. Antibacterial and anticancer activity of seaweeds and bacteria associated with their surface

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal-Gómez, Luis J; Soria-Mercado, Irma E; Guerra-Rivas, Graciela; Ayala-Sánchez, Nahara E

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae and bacteria are an inexhaustible source of chemical compounds that produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Marine bacteria have become an important target for the biotechnology industry because of the large number of bioactive compounds recently discovered from them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activities of extracts from the seaweeds Egregia menziesii, Codium fragile, Sargassum muticum, Endarachne binghamia...

  4. Proteins and Carbohydrates from Red Seaweeds: Evidence for Beneficial Effects on Gut Function and Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl E. Cian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid” and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR, Toll-like receptors (TLR and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.

  5. Air drying modelling of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed a source of hybrid carrageenan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, Santiago; Torres, Maria D.; Chenlo, Francisco; Moreira, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    Water sorption isotherms from 5 up to 65 °C and air drying kinetics at 35, 45 and 55 °C of Mastocarpus stellatus seaweed were determined. Experimental sorption data were modelled using BET and Oswin models. A four-parameter model, based on Oswin model, was proposed to estimate equilibrium moisture content as function of water activity and temperature simultaneously. Drying experiments showed that water removal rate increased significantly with temperature from 35 to 45 °C, but at higher temperatures drying rate remained constant. Some chemical modifications of the hybrid carrageenans present in the seaweed can be responsible of this unexpected thermal trend. Experimental drying data were modelled using two-parameter Page model (n, k). Page parameter n was constant (1.31 ± 0.10) at tested temperatures, but k varied significantly with drying temperature (from 18.5 ± 0.2 10-3 min-n at 35 °C up to 28.4 ± 0.8 10-3 min-n at 45 and 55 °C). Drying experiments allowed the determination of the critical moisture content of seaweed (0.87 ± 0.06 kg water (kg d.b.)-1). A diffusional model considering slab geometry was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of water during the falling rate period at different temperatures.

  6. Studies on transfer and accumulation of 106Ru from seaweed to fish through crustacea, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with transfer and accumulation of 106 Ru in a model of the graizing food chain of marine organisms: the radioactive sea water → seaweed (Chondrus crispus) → crustacea (prawn, Palaemon serratus) → fish (plaice, Pleuronectes platessa). The seaweeds were cultured in the radioactive sea waters A (filtrated and circulated through sandy mud, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant after addition of 106 Ru), B (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased and atteined to constant) and C (not filtrated and circulated, the radioactive concentration decreased, but did not attein to constant), respectively, and investigated accumulations of 106 Ru. Thereafter, accumulations of 106 Ru in prawns and plaice by the ingestions of their diets (the seaweeds contaminated with 106 Ru in each water and the meats of prawns accumulated 106 Ru from each diet, respectively), were investigated and compared with those from the radioactive sea waters reported previously. It was shown that 106 Ru would be accumulated by the prawns from the sea water A about 3 times higher than from the contaminated diet in this water, however from the contaminated diets in the waters B and C about 2 times, respectively, higher than from each water. While, accumulations of 106 Ru by the plaice from each diet were negligible in comparison with those from each water. No higher concentrations of 106 Ru were observed in these organisms from lower to higher in the trophic level. (author)

  7. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ(15)N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    A fine-scale survey of δ(15)N, δ(13)C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM(∗), COU(∗)). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ(15)N signatures and N contents at GM(∗) and COU(∗). Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ(15)N at GM(∗) were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Red Seaweed Gelidiella acerosa of Chabahar Coastal Waters, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostaffa Ghaffari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect the body against oxidative damages. Today, seaweeds have attracted attention in researches on natural antioxidants. In the present study, antioxidant properties of red algae Gelidiella acerosa, were investigated. Methods: Antioxidant properties of seaweed extract were investigated by three methods of DPPH free radical scavenging, reduction power, and metal chelating activity using methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-hexane solvents. Data analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA. Results: The highest percentage of DPPH radical scavenging was for 1 mg/ml concentration of n-hexane extract with 71.7±6.1% and IC50 value (1.7mg/ml. In reduction power assay, the concentration of 1mg/ml of ethyl acetate extract (0.6±0.0 was higher than other extracts. Metal chelating activity of methanol had the highest percentage in all concentrations, and in all three method, there was a direct relationship between extract concentration, radical inhibition power, and radical absorption. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, the antioxidant properties of seaweed was efficient and can be the basis for further studies to find new pharmaceutical compounds for the treatment of many diseases, such as cancer. Also, after preclinical and clinical studies, the extract can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  9. Evaluation of ethanol production and bioadsorption of heavy metals by various red seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, In Yung; Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ethanol production and bioadsorption with four red seaweeds, Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, Kappaphycus alvarezii and Eucheuma denticulatum. To produce ethanol, thermal acid hydrolysis, enzymatic saccharification and fermentation was carried out. After pretreatment, 38.5, 39.9, 31.0 and 27.5 g/L of monosaccharides were obtained from G. amansii, G. verrucosa, K. alvarezii and E. denticulatum, respectively. Ethanol fermentation was performed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129 adapted to 80 g/L galactose. The ethanol productions by G. amansii, G. verrucosa, K. alvarezii and E. denticulatum were 18.8 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.49, 19.1 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.48, 14.5 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.47 and 13.0 g/L with Y EtOH = 0.47, respectively. The waste seaweed slurries after the ethanol fermentation were reused to adsorb Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II). Using langmuir isotherm model, Cu(II) had the highest affinity for waste seaweeds with the highest q max and electronegativity values among three heavy metals.

  10. Prebiotic evaluation of red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) using in vitro colon model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajury, Dayang Marshitah; Rawi, Muhamad Hanif; Sazali, Iqbal Hakim; Abdullah, Aminah; Sarbini, Shahrul Razid

    2017-11-01

    Red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) cultivated from Sabah (RSS) and Langkawi (RSL) were digested using in vitro mouth, gastric and duodenal model. The digested seaweed then fermented in a pH-controlled batch culture system inoculated with human faeces to mimic the distal colon. Bacterial enumeration were monitored using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, and the fermentation end products, the short chain fatty acids (SCFA), were analysed using HPLC. Both RSS and RSL showed significant increase of Bifidobacterium sp.; from log 10 7.96 at 0 h to log 10 8.72 at 24 h, and from log 10 7.96 at 0 h to log 10 8.60 at 24 h, respectively, and shows no significant difference when compared to the Bifidobacterium sp. count at 24 h of inulin fermentation. Both seaweeds also showed significant increase in total SCFA production, particularly acetate and propionate. Overall, this data suggested that K. alvarezii might have the potential as a prebiotic ingredient.

  11. Antibacterial polyketides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens associated with edible red seaweed Laurenciae papillosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna; Joy, Minju

    2017-03-01

    Heterotrophic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens associated with edible red seaweed, Laurenciae papillosa was used to isolate antibacterial polyketide compounds. Antibacterial activity studies integrated with the outcome obtained by polyketide synthetase (pks) coding genes established that seaweed-affiliated bacterial flora had a wide-ranging antibacterial activities and potential natural product diversity, which proved that the bacterium is valuable reservoir of novel bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity-guided isolation of 3-(octahydro-9-isopropyl-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-yl)-2-methylpropyl benzoate and methyl 8-(2-(benzoyloxy)-ethyl)-hexahydro-4-((E)-pent-2-enyl)-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate of polyketide origin, with activity against human opportunistic food pathogenic microbes, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of B. amyloliquefaciens. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that hydrophobic descriptor of the polyketide compounds significantly contribute towards its antibacterial activity. Seaweed-associated microorganisms were shown to represent a potential source of antimicrobial compounds for food and health benefits. The antibacterial polyketide compounds described in the present study may find potential applications in the food industry to reduce food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Seaweed hydrocolloid production: an update on enzyme assisted extraction and modification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-05-27

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids.

  13. Toxic effect of metal cation binary mixtures to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Colepicolo, Pio

    2014-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria domingensis is an important resource for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries. G. domingensis is at a part of the food web foundation, providing nutrients and microelements to upper levels. As seaweed storage metals in the vacuoles, they are considered the main vectors to magnify these toxic elements. This work describes the evaluation of the toxicity of binary mixtures of available metal cations based on the growth rates of G. domingensis over a 48-h exposure. The interactive effects of each binary mixture were determined using a toxic unit (TU) concept that was the sum of the relative contribution of each toxicant and calculated using the ratio between the toxicant concentration and its endpoint. Mixtures of Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Zn(II)/Ca(II) demonstrated to be additive; Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Mg(II), Cu(II)/Ca(II), Zn(II)/Mg(II), and Ca(II)/Mg(II) mixtures were synergistic, and all interactions studied with Cd(II) were antagonistic. Hypotheses that explain the toxicity of binary mixtures at the molecular level are also suggested. These results represent the first effort to characterize the combined effect of available metal cations, based on the TU concept on seaweed in a total controlled medium. The results presented here are invaluable to the understanding of seaweed metal cation toxicity in the marine environment, the mechanism of toxicity action and how the tolerance of the organism.

  14. Chemical analysis and toxicity of seaweed extracts with inhibitory activity against tropical fruit anthracnose fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Levi Pompermayer; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Colepicolo Neto, Pio; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Yokoya, Nair S

    2014-07-01

    Banana and papaya are among the most important crops in the tropics, with a value amounting to millions of dollars per year. However, these fruits suffer significant losses due to anthracnose, a fungal disease. It is well known that certain seaweed extracts possess antifungal activity, but no published data appear to exist on the practical application of this property. In the present study, five organic Brazilian seaweed extracts were screened for their activity against banana and papaya anthracnose fungi. Furthermore, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the extracts were evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality assay and the Allium cepa root-tip mutagenicity test respectively, while their major components were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Strong fungus-inhibitory effects of Ochtodes secundiramea and Laurencia dendroidea extracts were observed on both papaya (100 and 98% respectively) and banana (89 and 78% respectively). This impressive activity could be associated with halogenated terpenes, the major components of both extracts. Only Hypnea musciformis extract showed cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results of this study suggest the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antifungal agents with low toxicity to control anthracnose in papaya and banana during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories

  16. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Rhein-Knudsen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids.

  17. Worldwide Laboratory Comparison on the Determination of Radionuclides in IAEA-446 Baltic Sea Seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The Radiometrics Laboratory of the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco has been providing quality products and services for the past forty years, including the organization of interlaboratory comparisons, the production of reference and certified reference materials and the provision of training. More than 45 reference materials have been produced, including a wide range of marine sample matrices and radionuclide concentrations. As part of these activities, a new interlaboratory comparison was organized to provide participating laboratories with the opportunity to test the performance of their analytical methods on a seaweed sample with elevated radionuclide levels due to the effects of the Chernobyl accident on the Baltic Sea region. The material used in the analysis of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in seaweed was the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus). It is expected that the sample, after successful certification, will be issued as a certified reference material for analysing radionuclides in seaweed. The participating laboratories were informed that the IAEA publication would contain a list of the laboratories and the results and descriptions of the interlaboratory comparisons, but that the results would not be attributed to individual laboratories.

  18. Polonium-210 in seaweeds of the Krusadai island, Gulf of Mannar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Shaheed, K.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    1997-01-01

    The concentration of 210 Po, an alpha emitter of the natural uranium series was measured in some commercial seaweeds, collected from Krusadai island, the south east coast of Tamil Nadu. The concentration of 210 Po in water and sediment samples was found to be 2.80 mBq/l and 36.2 Bq/kg respectively. The 210 Po was observed to be non-uniformly distributed among the seaweeds, which maintained the following descending order: Ulva reticulata (30.0 Bq/kg > Cystophyllum murictum (24.9 Bq/kg) > Sargassum wightti (22.1 Bq/kg) > Sargassum ilicifolium (19.6 Bq/kg) > Hypnea valentiae (15.09 Bq/kg) > Gracilaria follifera (14.87 Bq/kg) > Gracilaria edulis (10.12 Bq/kg) > Turbinaria conoides (8.5 Bq/kg) > Gelidiella acerosa (5.80 Bq/kg). The general range of CF s for the macro algae varies between 10 3 and 10 4 . The distribution of 210 Po in the seaweeds and its relation to the protein content is discussed. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Evaluation of Nutritional Composition of The Dried Seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk Waters, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    The nutritional composition of the dried seaweed Ulva lactuca from Pameungpeuk waters, including proximate, vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and heavy metal has been carried out. The objective of this present study is to know the nutritional composition of the dried seaweed U. lactuca for utilisation in human nutrition in the future. Results show that carbohydrate was the major component in the proximate analysis of U. lactuca in the present study. The carbohydrate content was 58.1%. Moisture, ash, protein and fat content were 16.9%, 11.2%, 13.6% and 0.19% respectively, while dietary fibre was 28.4%. The vitamin A content was examined in this study less than 0.5 IU/100 mg while vitamin B1 (thiamine) and vitamin B2 (riboflavin) were 4.87 mg/kg and 0.86 mg/kg respectively. The calcium content was 1828 mg/100 g higher than other minerals. The heavy metal content examined in this study were lower than the limit of the quality criteria applied to edible seaweeds sold in Indonesia. Based on the results of this study show that U. lactuca has potential to be developed as an alternative source of a healthy food for human in the future.

  20. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish, seafood and seaweeds--exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, Monika; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Szynal, Tomasz; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Postupolski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish, seafood and seaweeds are foodstuffs that significantly contribute to dietary arsenic intake. With the exception of some algal species, the dominant compounds of arsenic in such food products are the less toxic organic forms. Both the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and EFSA recommend that speciation studies be performed to determine the different chemical forms in which arsenic is present in food due to the differences in their toxicity. Knowing such compositions can thus enable a complete exposure assessment to be made. Determination of total and inorganic arsenic contents in fish, their products, seafood and seaweeds present on the Polish market. This was then followed by an exposure assessment of consumers to inorganic arsenic in these foodstuffs. Total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 55 samples of fish, their products, seafood as well as seaweeds available on the market. The analytical method was hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), after dry ashing of samples and reduction of arsenic to arsenic hydride using sodium borohydride. In order to isolate only the inorganic forms of arsenic prior to mineralisation, samples were subjected to concentrated HCl hydrolysis, followed by reduction with hydrobromic acid and hydrazine sulphate after which triple chloroform extractions and triple 1M HCl re-extractions were performed. Exposure of adults was estimated in relation to the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) that resulted in a 0.5% increase in lung cancer (3.0 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day). Mean total arsenic content from all investigated fish samples was 0.46 mg/kg (90th percentile 0.94 mg/kg), whilst the inorganic arsenic content never exceeded the detection limit of the analytical method used (0.025 mg/kg). In fish products, mean total arsenic concentration was

  1. Path analyses of the influence of substrate composition on nematode numbers and on decomposition of stranded seaweed at an Antarctic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkemade, R.; Van Rijswijk, P.

    Large amounts of seaweed are deposited along the coast of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. The stranded seaweed partly decomposes on the beach and supports populations of meiofauna species, mostly nematodes. The factors determining the number of nematodes found in the seaweed packages were studied. Seaweed/sediment samples were collected from different locations, along the coast near Arctowski station, covering gradients of salinity, elevation and proximity of Penguin rookeries. On the same locations decomposition rate was determined by means of permeable containers with seaweed material. Models, including the relations between location, seaweed and sediment characteristics, number of nematodes and decomposition rates, were postulated and verified using path analysis. The most plausible and significant models are presented. The number of nematodes was directly correlated with the height of the location, the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and the salinity of the sample. Nematode numbers were apparently indirectly dependent on sediment composition and water content. We hypothesize that the different influences of melt water and tidal water, which affect both salinity and water content of the deposits, are important phenomena underlying these results. Analysis of the relation between decomposition rate and abiotic, location-related characteristics showed that decomposition rate was dependent on the water content of the stranded seaweed and sediment composition. Decomposition rates were high on locations where water content of the deposits was high. There the running water from melt water run-off or from the surf probably increased weight losses of seaweed.

  2. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  3. Extraction and detection of arsenicals in seaweed via accelerated solvent extraction with ion chromatographic separation and ICP-MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, P.A.; Shoemaker, J.A.; Wei Xinyi; Brockhoff-Schwegel, C.A.; Creed, J.T. [Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Div., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. The effect of the experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time, and solvent composition) on the extraction efficiencies of arsenicals from seaweed was investigated. The extraction efficiencies for ribbon kelp (approximately 72.6%) using the ASE were fairly independent (< 7%) of pressure, static time and particle size after 3 ASE extraction cycles. The optimum extraction conditions for the ribbon kelp were obtained by using a 3 mL ASE cell, 30/70 (w/w) MeOH/H{sub 2}O, 500 psi (1 psi = 7 KPa), ambient temperature, 1 min heat step, 1 min static step, 90% vol. flush, and a 120 s purge. Using these conditions, two other seaweed products produced extraction efficiencies of 25.6% and 50.5%. The inorganic species present in the extract represented 62.5% and 27.8% of the extracted arsenic. The speciation results indicated that both seaweed products contained 4 different arsenosugars, DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), and As(V). One seaweed product also contained As(III). Both of these seaweed products contained an arsenosugar whose molecular weight was determined to be 408 and its structure was tentatively identified using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS). (orig.)

  4. Acclimation of bloom-forming and perennial seaweeds to elevated pCO2 conserved across levels of environmental complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong; Schaum, Charlotte-Elisa; Lin, Fan; Sun, Ke; Munroe, James R; Zhang, Xiao W; Fan, Xiao; Teng, Lin H; Wang, Yi T; Zhuang, Zhi M; Ye, Naihao

    2017-11-01

    Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO 2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom forming/nonbloom forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an indoor mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO 2 levels ranging from 400 to 2,000 μatm. We find that, across all scales of the experimental setup, ephemeral species of the genus Ulva increase their photosynthesis and growth rates in response to elevated pCO 2 the most, whereas longer-lived perennial species show a smaller increase or a decrease. These differences in short-term growth and photosynthesis rates are likely to give bloom-forming green seaweeds a competitive advantage in mixed communities, and our results thus suggest that coastal seaweed assemblages in eutrophic waters may undergo an initial shift toward communities dominated by bloom-forming, short-lived seaweeds. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Seasonal variations in biomass and species composition of seaweeds along the northern coasts of Persian Gulf (Bushehr Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadolahi-Sohrab, A.; Garavand-Karimi, M.; Riahi, H.; Pashazanoosi, H.

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the seasonal variations of seaweed biomass and species composition at six different sites along the coastal areas in Bushehr Province. Sampling depths varied among sites, from 0.3 to 2.0 m below mean sea level. A total of 37 (i.e., 10 Chlorophyta, 12 Phaeophyta and 15 Rhodophyta) seaweed species were collected. Studies were conducted for quantifying the seaweeds during four seasons from October 2008 until July 2009. During present research, Ulva intestinalis and Cladophora nitellopsis of green, Polycladia myrica, Sirophysalia trinodis and Sargassum angustifolium of brown and Gracilaria canaliculata and Hypnea cervicornis of red seaweeds showed highest biomass in coastal areas of Bushehr Province. The Cheney`s ratio of 2.1 indicated a temperate algal flora to this area. All sites exhibited more than 50% similarity of algal species, indicating a relatively homogenous algal distribution. Total biomass showed the highest value of 3280.7 ± 537.8 g dry wt m - 2 during summer and lowest value of 856.9 ± 92.0 g dry wt m - 2 during winter. During this study, the highest and lowest seaweed biomass were recorded on the site 2 (2473.7 ± 311.0 g dry wt m - 2) and site 5 (856.7 ± 96.8 g dry wt m - 2), respectively.

  6. Fermentation of seaweed flour with various fermenters to improve the quality of fish feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of fermentor for dry matter digestibility (DMD, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and the chemical composition of fermented seaweed. Five types of seaweed were used as substrates included green strain of Kappaphycus alvarezii, brown strain of K. alvarezii, Gracilaria gigas, Sargassum sp., and Caulerpa sp. The treatments were four fermentors, namely Bacillus sp. 2 mL/100 g of seaweed flour; 1.5% of tape yeast as a source of Rhizopus sp.; 1.5% of baker’s yeast as a source of Saccharomyces sp.; a mix of Bacillus sp., tape yeast of Rhizopus sp. and baker’s yeast of Saccharomyces sp. with compositions of 1 mL+1 g+1 g/100 g of seaweed flour; and control treatment. The results showed an increase in the percentage of DMD (21.94–27.76% and OMD (8.35–11.66% of all seaweed fermented using fermentor compared to control (DMD of 17.65–20.36% and OMD of 4.36–5.98%. Moreover, the highest result was obtained by the fermentor mix (DMD of 24.86–27.76% and OMD of 10.02–11.66%. Similar result was also found in the chemical composition of fermented seaweed, there was increase in protein content of 9.23–15.93% and nitrogen free extract (NFE of 56.05–70.26% in each seaweed treated with fermentation using fermentors, compared to controls (protein of 8.82–11.54% and NFE of 52.26–65.72%. Furthermore, the highest value was shown by seaweed fermented with mixed fermentors (protein of 9.92–15.93% and NFE of 58.47–70.26%. Yet, the opposite result was present in the ash, crude fiber, and fat content of seaweed fermented using fermentors of which the lowest value was found in treatment of mixed fermentor. Keywords: fermentation, fermentor, seaweed, quality, feed ingredients  ABSTRAK  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi berbagai jenis fermentor terhadap kecernaan bahan kering (KBK, kecernaan bahan organik (KBO, dan komposisi kimia rumput laut terfermentasi. Lima jenis rumput

  7. Morphological Characteristics and Habitats of Red Seaweed Gracilaria spp. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) in Santubong and Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Nur Arif; Hassan, Ruhana; Harith, Mohd Nasarudin; Sah, Amir Shah Ruddin Md

    2018-03-01

    Red seaweed Gracilaria , one of the largest genus in Division Rhodophyta inhabits Sarawak coastal water. This study was designed to identify the species of Gracilaria using morphological approach and to assess selected water quality parameters in Gracilaria habitats. Three field samplings were carried out in Santubong and Asajaya, Sarawak from November 2013 to December 2014. Overall, three species were identified namely Gracilaria changii , G. blodgettii and G. coronopifolia , attached to net of cage culture in Santubong and root of mangrove trees in Asajaya. In addition, three different taxa of aquatic macroinvertebrates (polychaete, small crab, bivalve) and single species of red seaweed ( Acanthophora sp.) were observed in Gracilaria assemblages. An estimate of 37% to 40% of the upper part of the cage net in Santubong was covered by seaweeds and only 16% to 20% in Asajaya's mangrove. The study had provided better information on identification of Gracilaria and their habitat in Sarawak. Future work involving DNA barcoding of each species is in progress.

  8. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The average body weight (5.320 ± 0.018, percent weight gain (227.66 ± 0.28, specific growth rate (2.080 ± 0.015, hepatosomatic index (1.197 ± 0.00 and viscerosomatic index (4.421 ± 0.150 were significantly increased in the fish feed with seaweed containing 5% of Sargassum wightii (S. wightii when compared with other seaweeds and control diet. Hotwater extract of S. wightii (1% was significantly enhanced the immune response in fish when compared with other diets (0.5% and 2%. S. wightii showed good immunostimulation properties. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry result showed that the hot-water extract of S. wightii seaweed contained fatty acids. Conclusions: Trash fish feed will reduce the production cost and also provide evidence that aqueous leaf extract of S. wightii (1% was added to a formulated fish diet which could activate the non-specific immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Mugil cephalus.

  9. [Serial Food Poisoning Outbreaks Caused by Norovirus-Contaminated Shredded Dried Laver Seaweed Provided at School Lunch, Tokyo, 2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somura, Yoshiko; Kimoto, Kana; Oda, Mayuko; Okutsu, Yuta; Kato, Rei; Suzuki, Yasunori; Siki, Dai; Hirai, Akihiko; Akiba, Tetsuya; Shinkai, Takayuki; Sadamasu, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, four food poisoning outbreaks occurred in Tokyo, involving ten schools. Shredded dried laver seaweed processed by a single food manufacturer in December 2016 was provided in common for the school meals that caused all four outbreaks. Of 4,209 persons exposed, 1,193 (28.3%) had symptoms of gastroenteritis. Norovirus (NoV) GII was detected in 207 (78.1%) of 265 cases by real-time RT-PCR. Thirty-one shredded dried laver seaweed samples were examined and seven (22.6%) of them were positive for NoV GII. PCR fragments of NoV ORF1/2 junction region (302 bp) from seven shredded dried laver seaweed samples and 20 clinical samples derived from the four outbreaks were sequenced. All of them displayed complete homology, and the genotype was classified as GII.17. A nearly full-length sequence (7,420 bp) of NoV RNA derived from a case was obtained by next-generation sequencer analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to the same cluster as Hu/GII/JP/2015/GII.P17_GII.17/Kawasaki308. Thus, our investigation elucidated that the causative agent of these four serial food poisoning outbreaks was NoV GII.17 and the infectious source was a single batch of shredded dried laver seaweed. The water activity of the shredded dried laver seaweed was found to be 0.119 to 0.129. It was epidemiologically clarified that NoV does not lose infectivity for about two months even in the dry state. We conclude that a large diffuse outbreak of food poisoning caused by NoV GII.17 contamination of shredded dried laver seaweed had occurred in Tokyo. Our elucidation of the causative agent indicated that the food poisoning outbreaks in multiple areas of Japan, including Tokyo, during January to February 2017 were caused by the same contaminated food.

  10. A physicochemical study of Al(+3) interactions with edible seaweed biomass in acidic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodeiro, Pablo; López-García, Marta; Herrero, Luz; Barriada, José L; Herrero, Roberto; Cremades, Javier; Bárbara, Ignacio; Sastre de Vicente, Manuel E

    2012-09-01

    In this article, a study of the Al(+3) interactions in acidic waters with biomass of different edible seaweeds: brown (Fucus vesiculosus, Saccorhiza polyschides), red (Mastocarpus stellatus, Gelidium sesquipedale, Chondrus crispus), and green (Ulva rigida, Codium tomentosum), has been performed. The influence of both, the initial concentration of metal and the solution pH, on the Al-uptake capacity of the biomass has been analyzed. From preliminary tests, species Fucus vesiculosus and Gelidium sesquipedale have been selected for a more exhaustive analysis. Sorption kinetic studies demonstrated that 60 min are enough to reach equilibrium. The intraparticle diffusion model has been used to describe kinetic data. Equilibrium studies have been carried out at pH values of 1, 2.5, and 4. Langmuir isotherms showed that the best uptake values, obtained at pH 4, were 33 mg/g for F. vesiculosus and 9.2 mg/g for G. sesquipedale. These edible seaweeds have been found particularly effective in binding aluminum metal ions for most of the conditions tested. Physicochemical data reported at these low pH values could be of interest, not only in modeling aluminum-containing antacids-food pharmacokinetic processes produced in the stomach (pH values 1 to 3) but in remediation studies in acidic waters. Aluminum is thought to be linked to neurological disruptions such as Alzheimer's disease. In this article, the adsorption ability of different types of edible seaweeds toward aluminum has been studied. The choice of low pH values is due to the fact that stomach region is acidic with a pH value between 1 and 3 as a consequence of hydrochloric secretion; so physicochemical data reported in this study could be of interest in modeling drug-food interactions, in particular those referring to aluminum-containing antacids-food pharmacokinetic processes produced in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. The trophic significance of the invasive seaweed Sargassum muticum in sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Olabarria, Celia; Incera, Mónica; Garrido, Josefina

    2010-01-01

    Native and exotic seaweeds frequently lie on the beach and sustain part of the benthic food web. However, the role of exotic seaweeds as food sources for beach consumers has been poorly studied. We studied the temporal and spatial variability in the trophic significance of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum on sandy beaches. We measured the stable isotopes ( δ13C and δ15N) in the tissues of S. muticum and of invertebrate consumers and estimated the dietary biomass proportion of S. muticum during four sampling dates at two beaches and heights on the shore. Samples were collected from eight pitfall traps placed at a distance of 2 m from each other. Detrital macroalgae and seagrasses were also collected by hand within an area of 30 cm around each pitfall trap. We measured the spatial and temporal variability in the isotope composition of the beach consumers and of S. muticum using different models of analyses of variance. We then calculated the biomass proportion of S. muticum to the animal diet with a two-isotopic mixing model. The invasive alga S. muticum seemed to be one of the main food sources for the amphipod Talitrus saltator and, to a less extent, for the isopod Tylos europaeus. The importance of S. muticum was however temporally variable and decreased during spring (in March and May), probably due to the availability of native macrophytes. The supply of invasive wrack to beach food webs thus deserves more attention if we want to understand their role in influencing food web dynamics.

  12. Warming off southwestern Japan linked to distributional shifts of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kouki; Taino, Seiya; Haraguchi, Hiroko; Prendergast, Gabrielle; Hiraoka, Masanori

    2012-11-01

    To assess distributional shifts of species in response to recent warming, historical distribution records are the most requisite information. The surface seawater temperature (SST) of Kochi Prefecture, southwestern Japan on the western North Pacific, has significantly risen, being warmed by the Kuroshio Current. Past distributional records of subtidal canopy-forming seaweeds (Laminariales and Fucales) exist at about 10-year intervals from the 1970s, along with detailed SST datasets at several sites along Kochi's >700 km coastline. In order to provide a clear picture of distributional shifts of coastal marine organisms in response to warming SST, we observed the present distribution of seaweeds and analyzed the SST datasets to estimate spatiotemporal SST trends in this coastal region. We present a large increase of 0.3°C/decade in the annual mean SST of this area over the past 40 years. Furthermore, a comparison of the previous and present distributions clearly showed the contraction of temperate species' distributional ranges and expansion of tropical species' distributional ranges in the seaweeds. Although the main temperate kelp Ecklonia (Laminariales) had expanded their distribution during periods of cooler SST, they subsequently declined as the SST warmed. Notably, the warmest SST of the 1997-98 El Niño Southern Oscillation event was the most likely cause of a widespread destruction of the kelp populations; no recovery was found even in the present survey at the formerly habitable sites where warm SSTs have been maintained. Temperate Sargassum spp. (Fucales) that dominated widely in the 1970s also declined in accordance with recent warming SSTs. In contrast, the tropical species, S. ilicifolium, has gradually expanded its distribution to become the most conspicuously dominant among the present observations. Thermal gradients, mainly driven by the warming Kuroshio Current, are presented as an explanation for the successive changes in both temperate and

  13. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein ( N  × 4.6) kg -1 dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L -1 sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg -1 in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca . The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  14. Hydrogen evolution by fermentation using seaweed as substrates and the contribution to the clean energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Suganuma, T.; Yamaguchi, A. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2001-07-01

    It is an important theme in Japan to use the sea for energy production, because Japan is surrounded by seas on all sides. Brown algae such as Laminaria have high value as the substrate of fermentative hydrogen production, since they have very high growth rate and also have high ability on the productivity of mannitol. I would like to present about the affection of salt concentration on the hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes, and also the contribution on clean energy production by the seaweed cultivation in Japan. (orig.)

  15. Raphides in the Uncalcified Siphonous Green Seaweed, Codium minus (Schmidt P. C. Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Prince

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The vacuole of utricles, the outermost cell layer of the siphonous green seaweed, Codium minus, had numerous single needles and needle bundles. The crystals composing each needle appeared arranged in a twisted configuration, both ends were pointed, and each needle was contained in a matrix or membrane; bundles of needles appeared enclosed by a matrix. Chemical and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the needles consisted of calcium oxalate. This is the first paper on terrestrial plant-like raphides in an alga.

  16. Bio-Prospecting of a Few Brown Seaweeds for Their Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayak, R.C.; Sabu, A.S.; Chatterji, A.

    ), catalases (CAT), glutathione peroxidases (GPX)) and small molecule antioxidants (such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, uric acid and glutathione), forming the first line of defense. The second line of defense against free radical damage is the presence... of various compounds. The method 6 Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine OONO − Oxidative burst 2O 2 − Endogenous factors Exogenous factors H 2 O GPX SOD H 2 O 2 H 2 O+O 2 CAT Iron chelation by seaweed dietary fibers and flavanoids Protein...

  17. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, R. J.; Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Venables, Dean S.; Ceburnis, D.; Ho, K. F.; Chen, Jun; Vogel, A. L.; Küpper, F. C.; Smyth, P. P. A.; Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, D. B.; Berresheim, H.; O'Dowd, Colin D.; Hoffmann, T.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high sour...

  18. Impact of different alginate lyases on combined cellulase–lyase saccharification of brown seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin; Nyffenegger, Christian; Saake, B.

    2016-01-01

    -guluronic acid. When applied together with a fungal cellulase preparation (Cellic®CTec2) at pH 6 and 40 °C on a glucan rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata the viscosity decreased in the initial minutes while measurable alginate degradation occurred primarily within the first 1–2 hours of reaction. Whereas FALy......, indicating that the degradation of mannuronic acid blocks inhibited cellulase catalyzed glucose release from L. digitata. Nevertheless, combined alginate lyase and cellulase treatment for 24 hours released all potential glucose regardless of the applied lyase. The enzymatic treatment moreover induced...

  19. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market......-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids....

  20. The Use of Satellite Imagery in the Monitoring and Forecasting of Sargassum Seaweed in the Caribbean Phase II of the Sargassum Early Advisory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, J.; Webster, R.; Linton, T.; Hill, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, the Southern Caribbean was plagued by an unusually massive amount of seaweed wrack, an event so rare that locals couldn't think of a season where Sargassum had been that abundant, for sixty years. At this time, the SEAS program had been created, however the path of the seaweed from the Atlantic to the beaches of Texas had yet to be determined. This event sparked the idea that seaweed migrated through the Caribbean then North through the Yucatan Peninsula. While this idea was only partially correct, it did initiate the second phase of the SEAS Program. As it turns out, the seaweed drifts through the Northern passages of the Caribbean (Windward, Mona, and Anegada Passages) and migrates westward, rather than entering the Caribbean from the Southeastern islands (the Virgin Islands down to Granada). Monitoring these passes using ground-truthing and local reports has proven difficult, so in order to determine the presence of seaweed, one can use remote sensing. NASA's satellite Landsat 7 produces images of the passes every eight days, allowing the SEAS Team to monitor the Sargassum. These images have a sufficient resolution to see seaweed mats in the ocean. Based on several factors, such as ocean and wind currents, time of the year, and size of seaweed mats, one can ultimately forecast Sargassum as it makes its journey through the loop system. The seaweed is monitored as it migrates westward, and eventually gets pushed North in massive blooms as a result of neritic waters. These blooms can travel North in warm water gyres. The Sargassum can then break off and wash up on the beaches of Texas or get caught in the Gulf Stream where it is flushed out the Florida Straits back into the Atlantic. Remote sensing makes the first ever system of monitoring Sargassum possible and allows for advanced warning of these troublesome seaweed wracks up and down the coast.

  1. [Seasonal variations of metal contents (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in seaweed Ulva lactuca from the coast of El Jadida city (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimoussi, Aziz; Mouzdahir, Abdelkrim; Saih, Abdelkbir

    2004-04-01

    The quality of El Jadida Atlantic coastal water was monitored from April 1998 to March 1999 by measuring hydrological parameters (dissolved oxygen, suspended particulate matter, phosphates and nitrites) and using the seaweed Ulva lactuca as a quantitative bio-indicator of cadmium, copper, iron, manganese and zinc contamination. Metal content in seaweeds, collected every month from four stations characterized by the discharge of urban and industrial waste water, showed significant variations depending on the station and sampling period. However, the seaweed of El Jadida exhibited generally lower contents compared to those of similar species from other geographical areas.

  2. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  3. The potential role of habitat-forming seaweeds in modeling benthic ecosystem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, María; Tajadura, Javier; Díez, Isabel; Saiz-Salinas, José Ignacio

    2017-12-01

    Canopy-forming seaweeds provide specific habitats with key ecological properties and are facing severe declines worldwide with unforeseeable consequences for ecosystem processes. Investigating the loss of such natural habitats in order to develop management strategies for conservation is a major challenge in marine ecological research. This study investigated the shallow rocky bottoms of the southern Bay of Biscay at two sampling times with a view to identifying the effect of canopy seaweed availability on the taxonomic and functional properties of invertebrate multivariate structure, abundance, density, diversity and evenness. The multivariate taxonomic and functional structure of assemblages changed significantly according to canopy availability in terms of taxa and functional groups abundance, but no substantial change was observed in composition. Biogenic habitat simplification resulted in a decrease in total invertebrate abundance and in taxonomic and functional density and diversity, whilst no effects were observed in taxonomic and functional evenness. Loss of canopy involved an impoverishment of the whole community particularly for epiphytic colonial sessile suspension-feeders, but it also extended to non-epiphytic forms. Our results emphasize the importance of canopy decline as a major driver of changes in benthic ecosystem properties and highlight that biogenic space provided by canopy is a limiting resource for the development of rocky subtidal invertebrates.

  4. Antimicrobial polyketide furanoterpenoids from seaweed-associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2017-10-01

    Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay showed that the referral antibiotics tetracycline and ampicillin were active at 25 μg/mL against the test pathogens, whereas the previously undescribed (4E)-methyl 13-((16-(furan-2-yl) ethyl)-octahydro-7-hydroxy-4-((E)-23-methylbut-21-enyl)-2H-chromen-6-yl)-4-methylpent-4-enoate (compound 1) and methyl 3-(hexahydro-9-((E)-3-methylpent-1-enyl)-4H-furo[3,2-g]isochromen-6-yl) propanoate (compound 3) displayed antibacterial activities against the test pathogens at a lesser concentration (MIC subtilis MTCC 10403 demonstrated to represent a potential source of antimicrobial polyketides for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental Evaluation of Seaweeds as a Vector for Microplastics into Marine Food Webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutow, Lars; Eckerlebe, Antonia; Giménez, Luis; Saborowski, Reinhard

    2016-01-19

    The ingestion of microplastics has been shown for a great variety of marine organisms. However, benthic marine mesoherbivores such as the common periwinkle Littorina littorea have been largely disregarded in studies about the effects of microplastics on the marine biota, probably because the pathway for microplastics to this functional group of organisms was not obvious. In laboratory experiments we showed that the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus retains suspended microplastics on its surface. The numbers of microplastics that adhered to the algae correlated with the concentrations of suspended particles in the water. In choice feeding assays L. littorea did not distinguish between algae with adherent microplastics and clean algae without microplastics, indicating that the snails do not recognize solid nonfood particles in the submillimeter size range as deleterious. In periwinkles that were feeding on contaminated algae, microplastics were found in the stomach and in the gut. However, no microplastics were found in the midgut gland, which is the principle digestive organ of gastropods. Microplastics in the fecal pellets of the periwinkles indicate that the particles do not accumulate rapidly inside the animals but are mostly released with the feces. Our results provide the first evidence that seaweeds may represent an efficient pathway for microplastics from the water to marine benthic herbivores.

  6. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro investigating of anticancer activity of focuxanthin from marine brown seaweed species

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    M. Karkhane Yousefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women all over the world. Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer medicines for treating cancer but it has many side effects and cells may become resistant to these chemical medicines. Therefore, finding new compounds of natural origin could be a promising solution to this problem. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anticancer activity of fucoxanthin which is the most important carotenoid found in the marine brown seaweeds and diatoms. fucoxanthin has many properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and etc. due to its unique structure. Samples with different concentrations (10, 25 and 50 µg/ml and at various incubation times were collected (6, 24 and 48 hours from four different species (Padina tenuis, Colpomenia sinuosa, Iyengaria stellate and Dictyota indica of brown seaweeds from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Moreover, the anticancer activity of fucoxanthin-containing extracts on breast cancer cells line and normal human skin fibroblast cells line was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assay to specify the cytotoxic effects. The results showed that fucoxanthin extract from Dictyota. indica at 24-hour treatment and 50 µg/ml concentration has the most effective anticancer activity on the breast cancer cells line, without toxic effects to the normal cells. According to the obtained results, it seems that Dictyota. Indica is a good candidate for further analysis and can be introduced to the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Antiangiogenic, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Endophytic Fungus isolated from seaweed (Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath M. Hulikere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from marine seaweeds are the less studied group of organisms with vast medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antiangiogenic as well as wound healing potential of the endophytic fungus isolated from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. The morphological characters and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis (BLAST search in Gen Bank database was used for the identification of endophytic fungus. The antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungus was assessed by, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The fungal extract was also analysed for reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Antiangiogenic activity of the fungal extract was studied in vitro by inhibition of wound healing scratch assay and in vivo by Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The endophytic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Gen Bank ID – KT384175. The ethyl acetate extract of C. cladosporioides showed a significant antioxidant and angiosuppressive activity. The ESI-LC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of wide range of secondary metabolites. Results suggest that C. cladosporioides extract could be exploited as a potential source for angiogenic modulators.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encinas, Angelica Marie E.

    2015-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to synthesize and characterize kappaphycus seaweed-poly (acrylic) acid superabsorbent hydrogel for agricultural use. The superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), KCSW: PAA hydrogels were synthesized by using gamma radiation technique from Cobalt-60 source at absorbed dose 0f 5, 10 and 15 kGy. The effect of absorbed dose, seaweed concentration, and concentration of acrylic acid on the degree of swelling was studied and optimum swelling conditions were established. Irradiated samples of 3% KCSW, 50% neutralized AAC at an absorbed dose of 10kGy gave the highest degree of swelling and gel fraction and were found to be suitable for application in the agriculture. Samples with different concentrations of acrylic acid were characterized using FTIR and TGA. The water retention experiment in sandy soil showed high water retention capacity of KCSW: PAA hydrogel at a value of 92% for a period of 7 days. Effect of the germination of mung bean showed very promising result of 78% germination.(author)

  10. Analysis of seaweed marketing in warbal village, Southeast Maluku Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumiwa, Bruri B.; Renjaan, Meiskyana R.; B. A Somnaikubun, Glen; Betauubun, Kamilius D.; Hungan, Marselus

    2017-10-01

    Seaweed in Warbal Village, West Kei Kecil Subdistrict, Southeast Maluku Regency has prospects and business opportunities are adequate to give hope to farmers in improving welfare. The fact that seaweed farming has not yet provided better and maximum results as desired by the farmers. This study aims to evaluation the marketing channels, marketing margins and profit share of marketing agencies. The research is located in Warbal Village, West Kei Kecil Subdistrict, Southeast Maluku Regency which is determined purposively. The number of sample is 30 farmers taken by simple random sampling, 2 wholesaler traders and 2 collector traders taken by using snowball method. The data collection methods is interview and questionnaire directly to farmers and marketing agencies, literary method or data collector from institutions related to the research’s aims. The research results show that there is two marketing channel, as follows: Channel I: farmers, wholesaler traders, collector traders, PAP; Channel II: farmers, collector traders, PAP. The magnitude of marketing margins is different between the marketing channels, and so it is with profit share of a marketing agency. On channel I, magnitude margin is IDR 3,250 and profit share is 71.11% on farmers, 17.76% on wholesaler traders and 11.09% on collector traders. On channel II, the magnitude of marketing margin is IDR 1,250 and profit share is 88.88% on farmers and 11.09% to collector traders.

  11. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naihao Ye

    Full Text Available Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1 under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO, Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3, whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2. The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1, respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  12. Taxonomic assessment of seaweed community from the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basic taxonomic information forms the important basis for the documentation, resource management and utilization of marine biodiversity such as seaweeds. A taxonomic assessment of seaweeds in the coastal areas of Bintulu, Sarawak, East Malaysia, was conducted monthly from May 2011 to May 2012. Species composition was recorded following NaGISA protocols, direct observation, and SCUBA and snorkeling techniques. A total of 54 species were identified, classified into Rhodophyta (23 species, Chlorophyta (16 species and Phaeophyta (15 species. The highest abundance was recorded at Kuala Similajau (25 species while the lowest was recorded at Kuala Nyalau (12 species. As the present study was conducted by examining species collected from both rocky shores and the reef area for the first time, a higher number of species was documented compared to previous studies conducted in the same general area but focusing only on particular habitats. Thirty species found in the current survey represent new records for the locality including some with economic potentials.

  13. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in the edible seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanfang; Wu, Jifa; Shang, Derong; Ning, Jinsong; Zhai, Yuxiu; Sheng, Xiaofeng; Ding, Haiyan

    2015-02-01

    The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd were investigated in the edible seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis. The seaweed was exposed to different Cd concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mgl(-1)) for up to 96h. In both the controls (no Cd added) and treatment groups, 41.2-79.2% of Cd was localised in the cell wall, and the proportion of Cd in the cell wall increased with increasing concentrations of Cd and exposure time. In the control groups, 74.8% of Cd was extracted by 1M NaCl, followed by 2% acetic acid, HAC (18.9%). In the treatment groups, most Cd was extracted by 2% HAC. The proportion of Cd extracted by 2% HAC increased with exposure to increasing concentrations of Cd and over time. Cell wall deposition and forming of precipitates with phosphate may be a key strategy to reduce Cd toxicity in P. yezoensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of substituted aryl meroterpenoids from red seaweed Hypnea musciformis as potential antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Joy, Minju; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2016-12-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction of red seaweed Hypnea musciformis was purified to yield three substituted aryl meroterpenoids, namely, 2-(tetrahydro-5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-pentylfuran-3-yl)-ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate (1), 2-2-[(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-oxy]-ethyl-4-methoxy-4-2-[(4-methylpentyl)oxy]-3,4-dihydro-2H-6-pyranylbutanoic acid (2) and 3-((5-butyl-3-methyl-5,6-dihydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)-methyl)-4-methoxy-4-oxobutyl benzoate (3). The structures of these compounds, as well as their relative stereochemistries, were confirmed by exhaustive NMR spectroscopic data analyses. Compound 1 exhibited similar 2,2'-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical inhibiting and Fe(2+) ion chelating activities (IC50 25.05 and 350.7μM, respectively) as that of commercial antioxidant gallic acid (IC50 32.3 and 646.6μM, respectively), followed by 3 (IC50 231.2 and 667.9μM, respectively), and 2 (IC50 322.4 and 5115.3μM, respectively), in descending order of activities. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that the antioxidant activities of these compounds were directly proportional to the steric and hydrophobic parameters. The seaweed derived aryl meroterpenoids might serve as potential lead antioxidative molecules for use in pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of tropical red seaweed, Gracilaria changii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Pei Teng; Matanjun, Patricia

    2017-04-15

    A study on the proximate composition, minerals, vitamins, carotenoids, amino acids, fatty acids profiles and some physicochemical properties of freeze dried Gracilaria changii was conducted. It was discovered that this seaweed was high in dietary fibre (64.74±0.82%), low in fat (0.30±0.02%) and Na/K ratio (0.12±0.02). The total amino acid content was 91.90±7.70% mainly essential amino acids (55.87±2.15mgg -1 ) which were comparable to FAO/WHO requirements. The fatty acid profiles were dominated by the polyunsaturated fatty acids particularly docosahexaenoic (48.36±6.76%) which led to low ω6/ω3, atherogenic, and thrombogenic index. The physicochemical properties of this seaweed namely the water holding and the swelling capacity were comparable to some commercial fibre rich products. This study suggested that G. changii could be potentially used as ingredients to improve nutritive value and texture of functional foods for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of proteins involved in desiccation tolerance in the red seaweed Pyropia orbicularis (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cristoffanini, Camilo; Zapata, Javier; Gaillard, Fanny; Potin, Philippe; Correa, Juan A; Contreras-Porcia, Loretto

    2015-12-01

    Extreme reduction in cellular water content leads to desiccation, which, if persistent, affects the physiology of organisms, mainly through oxidative stress. Some organisms are highly tolerant to desiccation, including resurrection plants and certain intertidal seaweeds. One such species is Pyropia orbicularis, a rhodophycean that colonizes upper intertidal zones along the Chilean coast. Despite long, daily periods of air exposure due to tides, this alga is highly tolerant to desiccation. The present study examined the proteome of P. orbicularis by 2DE and LC-MS/MS analyses to determine the proteins associated with desiccation tolerance (DT). The results showed that, under natural conditions, there were significant changes in the protein profile during low tide as compared to naturally hydrated plants at high tide. These changes were mainly in newly appeared proteins spots such as chaperones, monodehydroascorbate reductase, and manganese superoxide dismutase, among others. Previously undescribed proteins under desiccation conditions included phycobiliproteins, glyoxalase I, and phosphomannomutase. These changes evidenced that several physiological responses involved in DT are activated during low tide, including decreased photosynthetic activity, increased antioxidant capacity, and the preservation of cell physiology by regulating water content, cell wall structure, and cell volume. Similar responses have been observed in resurrection plants and bryophytes exposed to desiccation. Therefore, the coordinated activation of different desiccation tolerance pathways in P. orbicularis could explain the successful biological performance of this seaweed in the upper intertidal rocky zones. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High yield hydrolysis of seaweed-waste biomass using peracetic acid and ionic liquid treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uju, Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Goto, Masahiro; Kamiya, Noriho

    2018-02-01

    Seaweed is one of the most promising bioethanol feedstocks. This water plant has high carbohydrate content but low lignin content, as a result it will be easier to be hydrolysed. This paper described hydrolysis of seaweed-waste biomass from the carrageenan (SWBC) industry using enzymatic saccharification or ionic liquids-HCl hydrolysis. In the first work, SWBC pretreated by peracetic acid (PAA) followed by ionic liquid (IL) caused enhance the cellulose conversion of enzymatic saccharification. At 48h saccharification, the value conversion almost reached 100%. In addition, the untreated SWBC also produced the cellulose conversion 77%. In the second work, SWBC or Bagasse with or without pretreated by PAA was hydrolyzed using ILs-HCl hydrolysis. The ILs used were 1-buthyl-3-methylpyridium chloride, [Bmpy][Cl] and 1-butyl-3-metyl imidazolium chloride ([Bmim][Cl]). [Bmpy][Cl]-HCl hydrolysis produced higher cellulose conversion than [Bmim][Cl]-HCl hydrolysis. The phenomenon was clearly observed on the Bagasse, which without pretreated by PAA. Furthermore, SWBC hydrolyzed by both ILs in the presence low concentration of HCl produced cellulose conversion 70-98% at 60-90 min of hydrolysis time. High cellulose conversion of SWBC on the both hydrolysis was caused by SWBC had the low lignin (4%). Moreover, IL treatments caused lowering of cellulose hydrogen bonds or even changed the cellulose characteristics from cellulose I to cellulose II which easily to be hydrolyzed. In the case of [Bmpy][Cl], this IL may reduce the degree polymerization of celluloses.

  18. Comparative studies of the pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Naihao; Li, Demao; Chen, Limei; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong

    2010-09-10

    Seaweed has attracted considerable attention as a potential biofuel feedstock. The pyrolytic and kinetic characteristics of maize straw and the seaweed Ulva pertusa were studied and compared using heating rates of 10, 30 and 50°C min(-1) under an inert atmosphere. The activation energy, and pre-exponential factors were calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Popescu methods. The kinetic mechanism was deduced by the Popescu method. The results indicate that there are three stages to the pyrolysis; dehydration, primary devolatilization and residual decomposition. There were significant differences in average activation energy, thermal stability, final residuals and reaction rates between the two materials. The primary devolatilization stage of U. pertusa can be described by the Avramic-Erofeev equation (n=3), whereas that of maize straw can be described by the Mampel Power Law (n=2). The average activation energy of maize straw and U. pertusa were 153.0 and 148.7 KJ mol(-1), respectively. The pyrolysis process of U.pertusa would be easier than maize straw. And co-firing of the two biomass may be require less external heat input and improve process stability. There were minor kinetic compensation effects between the pre-exponential factors and the activation energy.

  19. Inhibitory effects of seaweed extracts on the growth of the vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2014-05-01

    Of 44 species of seaweed screened for potential anti-Gardnerella vaginalis activity, 27 (61.4%) showed antimicrobial activity by the agar disk-diffusion method. Among them, the strongest activities against the pathogen were exhibited by Chlorophyta, with Ulva pertusa producing an 11.3-mm zone of inhibition at 5 mg disk⁻¹. The MIC values of U. pertusa extracts against both G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 and KCTC 5097, the main cause of vaginosis, were 312 μg ml⁻¹, while the MIC values against both Candida albicans KCTC 7270 and KCTC 7965, the main cause of candidiasis, were 2.5 mg ml⁻¹. Against Lactobacillus gasseri KCTC 3173 and Lactobacillus jensenii KCTC 5194, members of the normal vaginal microflora, no inhibitory effect was seen even at 10 mg ml⁻¹. To identify the primary active compounds, a U. pertusa powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 were determined to be nitrogenous compounds (156 μg ml⁻¹ of the MIC value). According to these results, it was suggested that extracts of the seaweed U. pertusa are valuable for the development of natural therapeutic agents for treating women with bacterial vaginosis.

  20. Metabolic regulatory oscillations in intertidal green seaweed Ulva lactuca against tidal cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Kushwaha, Hemant R

    2017-11-27

    The survival of wetland plant species largely relies on physiological adaptations essential for submergence and desiccation. Intertidal seaweeds, unlike terrestrial plants, have unique adaptations to submergence and can also sustain desiccation arising from tidal rhythms. This study determined the differential metabolic regulations in the inter-tidal seaweed species Ulva lactuca against the submergence and desiccation. During desiccation, the relative water content of the algal thalli declined with concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, the trends reversed during recovery on re-submergence and attained homeostasis. Metabolite profiling of U. lactuca revealed desiccation induced balance in energy reserve utilization by adjusting carbohydrate metabolism and switch over to ammonia metabolism. Upon re-submergence, thalli showed an increase in fermentative metabolites, pyruvate-alanine conversion, and the GABA shunt. Prolonged submergence induced substrate level phosphorylation mediated sugar biosynthesis while continuing the alternative carbon flux through fermentative metabolism, an increase in osmoprotectants glycine and betaine, sulfur bearing compounds cysteine and hypotaurine, and phenolic compound coniferaldehyde. The determined metabolic regulations in U. lactuca for submergence tolerance provide insights into potential evolutionarily conserved protective mechanisms across the green lineage and also highlights the possible role of sulfur oxoforms as strong free radical scavengers.

  1. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  2. Cloning and Comparative Studies of Seaweed Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The full-length cDNA sequence (3219 base pairs of the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene of Porphyra yezoensis (PyTPS was isolated byRACE-PCR and deposited in GenBank (NCBI with the accession number AY729671. PyTPS encodes a protein of 908 amino acids before a stop codon, and has a calculated molecular mass of 101,591 Daltons. The PyTPS protein consists of a TPS domain in the N-terminus and a putative TPP domain at the C-terminus. Homology alignment for PyTPS and the TPS proteins from bacteria, yeast and higher plants indicated that the most closely related sequences to PyTPS were those from higher plants (OsTPS and AtTPS5, whereas the most distant sequence to PyTPS was from bacteria (EcOtsAB. Based on the identified sequence of the PyTPS gene, PCR primers were designed and used to amplify the TPS genes from nine other seaweed species. Sequences of the nine obtained TPS genes were deposited in GenBank (NCBI. All 10 TPS genes encoded peptides of 908 amino acids and the sequences were highly conserved both in nucleotide composition (>94% and in amino acid composition (>96%. Unlike the TPS genes from some other plants, there was no intron in any of the 10 isolated seaweed TPS genes.

  3. Enteromorpha intestinalis Derived Seaweed Liquid Fertilizers as Prospective Biostimulant for Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetna Mathur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, the potential of seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF of marine algae Enteromorpha intestinalis was evaluated for its effect on seed germination, yield, biochemical parameters and pigment characteristics of Glycine maxE. intestinalis was collected form Mandapam coast of Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, and the dried seaweeds were used for the preparation of SLF. G. max seeds were germinated with four different concentrations (20, 40, 60, and 100% of SLF; its growth and yield parameters were evaluated and compared with chemical fertilizer and control. The morphological and bio-chemical parameters such as seed germination (100%, root (6.6cm and shoot length (5.4 cm, carbohydrates (0.098 mg/g, protein (0.56 mg/g, pigment (0.444 mg/g chl a; 1.073 mg/g chl b; 3.70 mg/g carotenoids of the plant was found maximum at a concentration of 60% SLF. The phenol content (3.25 mg/g was maximum in 40% SLF. The GC-MS analysis of SLF revealed the presence of notable benzoic compounds involved in plant growth promotion. Results showed thatE. intestinalis derived SLF was potential biostimulant forG. max. Thus, marine algae based fertilizer could be an effective and alternate to the chemical fertilizers emphasizing the need for systematic evaluation programme for SLF on various crops.

  4. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  5. Red Seaweed Enzyme-Catalyzed Bromination of Bromophenol Red: An Inquiry-Based Kinetics Laboratory Experiment for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittam, Piyachat; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Promptmas, Chamras; Sriwattanarothai, Namkang; Archavarungson, Nattinee; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2009-01-01

    Haloperoxidase enzymes are of interest for basic and applied bioscientists because of their increasing importance in pharmaceutical industry and environmental cleanups. In a guided inquiry-based laboratory experiment for life-science, agricultural science, and health science undergraduates, the bromoperoxidase from a red seaweed was used to…

  6. Effects of replacing different levels of seaweed Sargassum ilicifolum on performance,blood and ruminal metabolites of Zel lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Valikamal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The seaweeds like Sargassum ilicifolum arecan used for animal nutrition. The aim of this study was evaluated the nutritional value of Sargassum ilicifolum as a food supplement in the diet of sheep. In this experiment were five diets containing zero, 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent of the seaweed were used. A completely randomized design was used to this purpose. In this study, the chemical composition of seaweed(Sargassum ilicifolum, DMdegradability,concentration electrolytes parameter from blood,rumen and performance parameters were measured. Treatment effects on feed intake were not significant(p>0.05. Water consumption increased with increase in algae value in deit. In this investigation in situ degradability of dry matter of seaweed in the intervals 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours was studied, amount of part fast degradability (a and part slow degradability (b for Sargassum illicifolumwere respectively 42% and33.6%. The effective degradability in outflow rates 2%, 5% and 8% were 49.6%, 45.5% and 44.3%, respectively. Effective treatment wasnot significant on the concentration Na and Cl, but was significant on the concentration K (P

  7. Discolored Red Seaweed Pyropia yezoensis with Low Commercial Value Is a Novel Resource for Production of Agar Polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasuga, Keiji; Yamanashi, Tomoya; Nakayama, Shigeru; Ono, Syuetsu; Mikami, Koji

    2018-04-26

    The red seaweed Pyropia yezoensis has been demonstrated to be a novel resource for the production of high-quality agar. P. yezoensis is grown for the food industry in large-scale Japanese mariculture operations. However, discolored P. yezoensis is mostly discarded as an industrial waste, although it has some kind of utility values. Here, we evaluated the utility of discolored P. yezoensis as a resource for agar production. The quality of agar from the discolored seaweed was comparable to that from normal seaweed. In addition, as a distinguishing characteristic, agar yield was higher from discolored seaweeds than from normal types. Moreover, we successfully used agar from discolored P. yezoensis for bacterial plate media and DNA electrophoresis gels without agarose purification. Thus, our results demonstrate that discolored P. yezoensis is suitable for agar production and use in life science research. Diverting discolored P. yezoensis from disposal to agar production provides a solution to the current industrial waste problem in mariculture, as well as a secure source of agar for research purposes.

  8. Global hindcasts and future projections of coastal nitrogen and phosphorus loads due to shellfish and seaweed aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.F.; Pawlowski, M.; Liu, C.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Shumway, S.E.; Glibert, P.M.; Overbeek, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    A model was developed to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for aquaculture production of crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and seaweed, using country production data for the 1970–2006 period from the Food and Agriculture Organization and scenarios based on the Millenium Assessment for

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...

  10. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  11. Effect of additional of Hoodia Gordonii and seaweed powder on the sensory and physicochemical properties of brown rice bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajal, Masturah Ebni; Ghani, Maaruf Abd; Daud, Norlida Mat

    2015-09-01

    Awareness of the nutritional content of food has increased with the emergence of various health products in the market. Cereal bar is one of the beneficial foods among consumer that concern on their healthy food. This study was conducted to develop a brown rice bar that contain active ingredients (H. gordonii and seaweed powder) and to determine the effect on sensory evaluation and physicochemical properties (colour, texture and proximate analysis) of this product. This study consisted of two phases in which the first phase consisted of development of ten formulations including control. All of the formulations were undergo analysis of colour, texture and sensory evaluation. Based on the sensory evaluation, Control (H. gordonii: 0%, seaweed: 0%) and two best formulations that consist of formulation 6 (H. gordonii: 1.6%; seaweed: 2.8%) and formulation 9 (H. gordonii: 2.4%, seaweed: 2.8%) were chosen to undergo the second phase which is proximate analysis. Base on the result, were significant different (p<0.05) on proximate analysis except for the protein and moisture content. Therefore, it can be concluded that H. gordonii is a good source of fiber when adding in a bar.

  12. Seaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer in women: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, Takehiro; Inoue, Manami; Shimazu, Taichi; Sawada, Norie; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-05-01

    Iodine is a suspected risk factor for thyroid cancer. Seaweed accounts for about 80% of Japanese people's iodine intake. We examined the association between seaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer in Japanese women. Women participating in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (n=52 679; age: 40-69 years) were followed up for a mean of 14.5 years; 134 new thyroid cancer cases, including 113 papillary carcinoma cases, were identified. Seaweed consumption was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire and divided into three categories: 2 days/week or less (reference); 3-4 days/week; and almost daily. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Seaweed consumption was clearly associated with an increased risk of papillary carcinoma (HR for almost daily consumption compared with 2 days/week or less=1.71; 95% CI: 1.01-2.90; trend P=0.04). After stratification for menopausal status, an increased risk was observed in postmenopausal women (papillary carcinoma HR for almost daily consumption compared with 2 days/week or less=3.81, 95% CI: 1.67-8.68; trend Pseaweed consumption and the risk of thyroid cancer (especially for papillary carcinoma) in postmenopausal women.

  13. Effects of seaweed-restructured pork diets enriched or not with cholesterol on rat cholesterolaemia and liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz Moreira, Adriana R; García-Fernández, Rosa A; Bocanegra, Aranzazu; Méndez, M Teresa; Bastida, Sara; Benedí, Juana; Sánchez-Reus, M Isabel; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-06-01

    Seaweed enriched-restructured pork (RP) is a potential functional food. However, indications of adverse effects associated with herbal medications, which include among others liver failure, toxic hepatitis, and death have been reported. Cholesterol feeding produces hepatomegalia and fat liver infiltration. The effect of seaweed-RP diet, cholesterol-enriched or not, on plasma cholesterol, liver damage markers, structure, and cytochrome CYP4A-1 were evaluated after 5 wk. Eight rat groups were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93M rodent-diet plus 15% RP. The Cholesterol-control (CC), Cholesterol-Wakame (CW), Cholesterol-Nori (CN) and Cholesterol-Sea Spaghetti (CS) groups respectively consumed similar diets to control (C), Wakame (W), Nori (N), and Sea Spaghetti (S) but as part of hypercholesterolaemic diets. CN and CS significantly blocked the hypercholesterolaemic effect observed in CC group. After 5-wk, N and S diets increased the CYP4A-1 expression. However, seaweed-RPs were unable to reduce the histological liver alterations observed in CC group. Larger and more abundant hepatocellular alterations were found in CS and CN rats suggesting that the hypocholesterolaemic effects of these seaweed-RPs seem to be a two-edged sword as they increased liver damage. Future studies are needed to understand the involved mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Vermicompost and Liquid Seaweed Fertilizer on Morpho-physiological Properties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Heydari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Marigold is an ornamental and medicinal plant and has also industrial in cosmetalogical uses. To evaluate the effects of vermicompost and seaweed fertilizers on some morpho-physiological properties of the plant, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block (RCB design with three replications was conducted in pot in Mianeh. In this experiment, the first factor was vermicompost fertilizer at four levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 t.ha-1 added to the pot soil and the second factor was for levels of liquid seaweed fertilizer (0, 1, 2 and 3 percent sprayed on foliage. The assessed traits were leaf, root and stem dry weights, root volume, number of secondary shoots, plant height, leaf number, flowering period, number of flowers, flower diameter, dry weight of flowers, leaves electrolyte leakage, leaf area (LA and essential oil percentage and yield. The results showed that application of vermicompost increased some traits, including plant height (18.58 cm, number of branches (4.3 branches, root volume (3.4 cm³ and leaf area index (65.55 cm2. Using 3 percent of liquid seaweed fertilizer was also effective. In general, application of 5 tons per hectare of vermicompost with 3 percent of liquid seaweed fertilizer resulted in highest flower and stem dry weights.

  15. Short Communication: Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUKIMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Sukiman, Faturrahman, Rohyani IS, Ahyadi H. 2014. Growth of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii in multi trophic sea farming systems at Gerupuk Bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 82-85. Eucheuma cottonii is a seaweed commodity that has a high economic value because it contains compounds used as raw materials for industries. Various methods of seaweed farming have been developed, one of which is a system of cultivation Multi Trophic Sea Farming. This study aimed to analyze the growth of E. cottonii by observing the production of biomass in four trophic combinations in the system Multi Trophic Sea Farming. The study was conducted in the area of the marine aquaculture Gerupuk bay, Central Lombok, Indonesia. Experiments were performed on four plots cages with trophic combination treatment as follows: K1 (E. cottonii-lobster-abalone, K2 (E. cottonii-abalone-red carp, K3 (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper, and K4 (E. cottonii-abalone-pomfret fish. Seedling of E. cottonii weighing 50 g was tied to a rope and placed at a depth of 5 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm and 150 cm. Measurement of biomass production was done every ten days until the thirtieth day. The highest biomass production of E. cottonii was obtained in K3 trophic combination (E. cottonii-abalone-grouper fish with a depth of seedlings of 5 cm. The combination of K3 trophic is recommended for cultivation of seaweed in the MTSF system.

  16. Antimicrobial, antioxidant properties and chemical composition of seaweeds collected from Saudi Arabia (Red Sea and Arabian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine M.S. Moubayed

    2017-01-01

    FTIR Infrared Spectrometer analysis together with the high performance liquid chromatography provided a detailed description of the possible functional constituents and the major chemical components present in marine macroalgae particularly in brown seaweeds to be mainly of phenolic nature to which the potent antimicrobial activity is being attributed.

  17. Global Hindcasts and Future Projections of Coastal Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loads Due to Shellfish and Seaweed Aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.F.; Pawlowski, M.; Liu, C.; Beusen, A.W.H.; Shumway, S.E.; Glibert, P.M.; Overbeek, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    A model was developed to estimate nitrogen and phosphorus budgets for aquaculture production of crustaceans, bivalves, gastropods, and seaweed, using country production data for the 1970–2006 period from the Food and Agriculture Organi- zation and scenarios based on the Millenium Assessment for

  18. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g/kg of ext...

  19. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithoo-Singh, Paramjeet Kaur; Keng, Fiona S-L; Phang, Siew-Moi; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C; Sturges, William T; Malin, Gill; Abd Rahman, Noorsaadah

    2017-01-01

    Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner) C. Agardh), Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient), 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr 3 ), dibro-momethane (CH 2 Br 2 ), iodomethane (CH 3 I), diiodomethane (CH 2 I 2 ), bromoiodomethane (CH 2 BrI), bromochlorometh-ane (CH 2 BrCl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl 2 ), and dibro-mochloromethane (CHBr 2 Cl). These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH 2 I 2 and CH 3 I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis . The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis ( F v ∕ F m ) prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum

  20. Halocarbon emissions by selected tropical seaweeds: species-specific and compound-specific responses under changing pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramjeet Kaur Mithoo-Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Five tropical seaweeds, Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty Doty ex P.C. Silva, Padina australis Hauck, Sargassum binderi Sonder ex J. Agardh (syn. S. aquifolium (Turner C. Agardh, Sargassum siliquosum J. Agardh and Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh Kützing, were incubated in seawater of pH 8.0, 7.8 (ambient, 7.6, 7.4 and 7.2, to study the effects of changing seawater pH on halocarbon emissions. Eight halocarbon species known to be emitted by seaweeds were investigated: bromoform (CHBr3, dibro­momethane (CH2Br2, iodomethane (CH3I, diiodomethane (CH2I2, bromoiodomethane (CH2BrI, bromochlorometh­ane (CH2BrCl, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2, and dibro­mochloromethane (CHBr2Cl. These very short-lived halocarbon gases are believed to contribute to stratospheric halogen concentrations if released in the tropics. It was observed that the seaweeds emit all eight halocarbons assayed, with the exception of K. alvarezii and S. binderi for CH2I2 and CH3I respectively, which were not measurable at the achievable limit of detection. The effect of pH on halocarbon emission by the seaweeds was shown to be species-specific and compound specific. The highest percentage changes in emissions for the halocarbons of interest were observed at the lower pH levels of 7.2 and 7.4 especially in Padina australis and Sargassum spp., showing that lower seawater pH causes elevated emissions of some halocarbon compounds. In general the seaweed least affected by pH change in terms of types of halocarbon emission, was P. australis. The commercially farmed seaweed K. alvarezii was very sensitive to pH change as shown by the high increases in most of the compounds in all pH levels relative to ambient. In terms of percentage decrease in maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Fv∕Fm prior to and after incubation, there were no significant correlations with the various pH levels tested for all seaweeds. The correlation between percentage decrease in the maximum quantum yield of

  1. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  2. SEAWEED EXTRACTS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR THE ATTENUATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN OBESITY-RELATED PATHOLOGIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Kim, Kui-Jin; You, SangGuan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that seaweed extracts are a significant source of bioactive compounds comparable to the dietary phytochemicals such as onion and tea extracts. The exploration of natural antioxidants that attenuate oxidative damage is important for developing strategies to treat obesity-related pathologies. The objective of this study was to screen the effects of seaweed extracts of 49 species on adipocyte differentiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate their total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Our results show that high total phenol contents were observed in the extracts of Ecklonia cava (see Table 1 for taxonomic authors) (681.1 ± 16.0 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g -1 ), Dictyopteris undulata (641.3 ± 70.7 μg GAE · g -1 ), and Laurencia intermedia (560.9 ± 48.1 μg GAE · g -1 ). In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activities were markedly higher in Sargassum macrocarpum (60.2%), Polysiphonia morrowii (55.0%), and Ishige okamurae (52.9%) than those of other seaweed extracts (P Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, and Grateloupia lanceolata significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the production of ROS was positively correlated with lipid accumulation (R 2  = 0.8149). According to these preliminary results, some of the seaweed extracts can inhibit ROS generation, which may protect against oxidative stress that is linked to obesity. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism between the verified seaweeds and ROS, and the resulting effects on obesity. [Table: see text]. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  3. Effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with seaweed and vitamin E on plasma and milk α-tocopherol and antibody response to immunization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kidane, A; Nesheim, I L; Larsen, H J S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current experiment was to compare the effects of supplementing mid-lactation dairy cows with all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate (SyntvE), RRR-α-tocopheryl acetate (NatvE) or seaweed meal (Seaweed) in the presence of a Control group (no supplemental vitamin E or seaweed......) on the concentration of α-tocopherol in plasma and milk, and antibody response following immunization. The hypothesis was that supplementation of dairy cows with vitamin E, regardless of its form, would increase plasma and milk α-tocopherol compared to the control diet and this incremental response would be bigger...... with NatvE than SyntvE. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that vitamin E, regardless of its form, will provide an improved adaptive immune response to immunization than the Control diet, and cows supplemented with Seaweed meal would produce better adaptive immune response following immunization than cows...

  4. Novel antimicrobial activity of a dichloromethane extract obtained from red seaweed Ceramium rubrum (Hudson (Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae against Yersinia ruckeri and Saprolegnia parasitica, agents that cause diseases in salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurima Cortés

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: These results may constitute a basis for promising future applied research that could investigate the use of C. rubrum seaweed as a source of antimicrobial compounds against fish pathogens.

  5. Acidification increases abundances of Vibrionales and Planctomycetia associated to a seaweed-grazer system: potential consequences for disease and prey digestion efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Tania; Serebryakova, Alexandra; Viard, Frédérique; Serrão, Ester A; Engelen, Aschwin H

    2018-01-01

    Ocean acidification significantly affects marine organisms in several ways, with complex interactions. Seaweeds might benefit from rising CO 2 through increased photosynthesis and carbon acquisition, with subsequent higher growth rates. However, changes in seaweed chemistry due to increased CO 2 may change the nutritional quality of tissue for grazers. In addition, organisms live in close association with a diverse microbiota, which can also be influenced by environmental changes, with feedback effects. As gut microbiomes are often linked to diet, changes in seaweed characteristics and associated microbiome can affect the gut microbiome of the grazer, with possible fitness consequences. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of acidification on the microbiome of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and a native isopod consumer Synisoma nadejda . Both were exposed to ambient CO 2 conditions (380 ppm, pH 8.16) and an acidification treatment (1,000 ppm, pH 7.86) for three weeks. Microbiome diversity and composition were determined using high-throughput sequencing of the variable regions V5-7 of 16S rRNA. We anticipated that as a result of acidification, the seaweed-associated bacterial community would change, leading to further changes in the gut microbiome of grazers. However, no significant effects of elevated CO 2 on the overall bacterial community structure and composition were revealed in the seaweed. In contrast, significant changes were observed in the bacterial community of the grazer gut. Although the bacterial community of S. muticum as whole did not change, Oceanospirillales and Vibrionales (mainly Pseudoalteromonas ) significantly increased their abundance in acidified conditions. The former, which uses organic matter compounds as its main source, may have opportunistically taken advantage of the possible increase of the C/N ratio in the seaweed under acidified conditions. Pseudoalteromonas, commonly associated to diseased

  6. Cerebral CBM1 neuron contributes to synaptic modulation appearing during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusuye, Kenji; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2002-11-01

    The Japanese species Aplysia kurodai feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium with distinctive rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. We have previously shown that the patterned jaw movements during the rejection of Gelidium might be caused by long-lasting suppression of the monosynaptic transmission from the multiaction MA neurons to the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons in the buccal ganglia and that the modulation might be directly produced by some cerebral neurons. In the present paper, we have identified a pair of catecholaminergic neurons (CBM1) in bilateral cerebral M clusters. The CBM1, probably equivalent to CBI-1 in A. californica, simultaneously produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the MA and JC neurons. Firing of the CBM1 reduced the size of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the JC neuron, evoked by the MA spikes, for >100 s. Moreover, the application of dopamine mimicked the CBM1 modulatory effects and pretreatment with a D1 antagonist, SCH23390, blocked the modulatory effects induced by dopamine. It could also largely block the modulatory effects induced by the CBM1 firing. These results suggest that the CBM1 may directly modulate the synaptic transmission by releasing dopamine. Moreover, we explored the CBM1 spike activity induced by taste stimulation of the animal lips with seaweed extracts by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically loaded into a cell body of the CBM1 using a microelectrode. Application of either Ulva or Gelidium extract to the lips increased the fluorescence intensity, but the Gelidium extract always induced a larger change in fluorescence compared with the Ulva extract, although the solution used induced the maximum spike responses of the CBM1 for each of the seaweed extracts. When the firing frequency of the CBM1 activity after taste stimulation was estimated, the Gelidium extract induced a spike activity of ~30 spikes

  7. Studies of seaweeds as indicators of toxic element pollution in Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-I (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, [PAN/TAN] of 1x10 - 4M, [PONPE-20] of 0.1% (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN 0 3, and a temperature of 41 0 C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(III) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare, the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(III) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results

  8. Variation in biochemical constituents and master elements in common seaweeds from Alexandria Coast, Egypt, with special reference to their antioxidant activity and potential food uses: prospective equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mona M; El Zokm, Gehan M; El-Sayed, Abeer A M

    2017-11-25

    Biochemical constituents and master elements (Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg, B, Al, SO 4 2- , Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, and F) were investigated in six different seaweed species from Abu Qir Bay in the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The moisture level ranged from 30.26% in Corallina mediterranea to 77.57% in Padina boryana. On dry weight basis, the ash contents varied from 25.53% in Jania rubens to 88.84% in Sargassum wightii. The protein contents fluctuated from 8.26% in S. wightii to 28.01% in J. rubens. Enteromorpha linza showed the highest lipids (4.66%) and carbohydrate contents (78.95%), whereas C. mediterranea had the lowest lipid (0.5%), and carbohydrate contents (38.12%). Chlorophylls and carotenoid contents varied among the species. Total antioxidant capacity of the tested green seaweeds had the highest activities followed by brown and red seaweeds which had a similar trend of phenol and tannins contents. High reducing power was observed in all tested seaweeds extract except Ulva lactuca. Brown species had the highest amount of elements followed by red and green seaweeds. Notably, SO 4 2- recorded the highest level in the tested green species (108.05 mg/g dry weight (DW)). The Ca/Mg and K/Na ratios reflected highly significant difference between seaweed species. This study keeps an eye on 29 parameters and by applying stepwise multiple regression analysis, prospective equations have been set to describe the interactions between these parameters inside seaweeds. Accordingly, the tested seaweeds can be recommended as a source of healthy food with suitable ion quotient and estimated daily intake values.

  9. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of Algerian green seaweed Ulva lactuca using in vitro gas production technique fior ruminant animals

    OpenAIRE

    Zitouni, Hind; Arhab, Rabah; Boudry, Christelle; Bousseboua, Hacène; Beckers, Yves

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the nutritive value of seaweed Ulva lactuca collected from the Algerian coast by estimation of its chemical composition and fermentation characteristics, comparatively to vetch-oat hay (control), using in vitro gas production technique. Seaweed and control were incubated with rumen liquor taken from fistulated and non lactating cows. Gas production was recorded at: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72h. The in vitro rumen fermentation parameters were measured after 24h ...

  10. PENGARUH KONSUMSI GEL DAN LARUTAN RUMPUT LAUT (Eucheuma cottonii TERHADAP HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA DARAH TIKUS WISTAR [The Consumption Effect of Gel and Solution Types of Eucheuma cottonii Seaweeds on Hypercholesterolemic of Blood Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption effect of gel and solution of Eucheuma cottonii seaweed on blood lipid level were studied on hypercholesterolemic male wistar rat. The rat were made hypercholesterolemic by a ration that contained high lipid and cholesterol, and then they were given standard ration orally and 10, 15, and 20% (w/w feed of gel and solution seaweed parenterally. The results show that the standard ration could not reduce hypercholesterolemic to normal level while gel and solution of the seaweed could. The gel type of the seaweed has higher capacity decrease of cholesterol and triglyceride blood level. The consumption of seaweed gel 20% and 15% could reduce cholesterol to normal level in 9 and 15 days, respectively, while the solution type 20% needed 18 days. The seaweed gel 10%, solution 15% and 10% could reduce blood cholesterol level, but they could not reach to normal level in 18 days.

  11. Effect of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cesar dos Santos Queiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds have important nutraceutical properties, including antioxidant and biological response-modifying qualities. Their dietary supplementation may increase the immune and antioxidant capacity of fish necessary to cope to stressful conditions and minimizing disease outbreaks. There are essentially four major groups of seaweed that can be classified by color, namely green (Chlorophyta, brown/yellow (Phaeophyta, red (Rhodophyta, and blue-green (Cyanophyta. Some green seaweed has active radical scavenging properties. Red and brown have bioactive compounds that play a vital role as antihypertensive and antioxidant. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of seaweed supplementation on growth performance, immune and oxidative stress responses in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata. Three seaweed species, each from one of the following groups, Rhodophyta (R, Phaeophyta (P and Chlorophyta (C, were supplemented to the experimental diets at 2.5% and 7.5% and tested against a control diet (Ctrl with no supplementation. In addition to six diets with seaweed in two different levels of supplementation: R2.5%, P2.5%, C2.5%, R7.5%, P7.5% and C7.5%; a diet with a mix (M, supplemented at 7.5% (2.5% of each algae was also tested. A total of 360 seabream fingerlings, 13.07 ± 0.13cm and 31.17 ± 0.63g were allocated in 24 rectangular tanks, 115L capacity each, with a 4L/min water output connected to a recirculation seawater system. Fish were fed twice a day until satiation and water quality (temperature: 20.5 ºC; D.O.: 8.13 mg/L; Ammonia: 0.5 mg/L Nitrite: 0.5 mg/L were daily monitored. At day 40 of the trial, an intermediate sampling was carried out. Standard zootechnical parameters were measured for the growth performance determination. In addition, blood, liver and intestine samples were collected for the evaluation of the immune (lysozyme and peroxidase and oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase

  12. Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits.

  13. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as a space food sterilized by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Yeon; Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won Jun; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial (Total aerobic count, Coliform, Coagulase positive Staphylococci, Salmonella, Yeast/Mold, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus), Hunter' color values (L*, a*, b*) and organoleptic quality of freeze-dried Miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup in space food, Bacillus cereus was 1 log level while not detected in the sample irradiated at 10 kGy. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried Miyeokguk without deterioration of sensory quality

  14. Carbon nanotubes as nanotexturing agents for high power supercapacitors based on seaweed carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymundo-Piñero, Encarnación; Cadek, Martin; Wachtler, Mario; Béguin, François

    2011-07-18

    The advantages provided by multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as backbones for composite supercapacitor electrodes are discussed. This paper particularly highlights the electrochemical properties of carbon composites obtained by pyrolysis of seaweed/CNTs blends. Due to the nanotexturing effect of CNTs, supercapacitors fabricated with electrodes from these composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared with CNT-free carbons. The cell resistance is dramatically reduced by the excellent conductivity of CNTs and by the good propagation of ions favored by the presence of opened mesopores. As a consequence, the specific power of supercapacitors based on these nanocomposites is very high. Another advantage related to the presence of CNTs is a better life cycle of the systems. The composite electrodes are resilient during the charge/discharge of capacitors; these are able to perfectly accommodate the dimensional changes appearing in the active material without mechanical damages. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as a space food sterilized by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Yeon [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Beom Seok; Park, Jin Gyu; Cho, Won Jun; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial (Total aerobic count, Coliform, Coagulase positive Staphylococci, Salmonella, Yeast/Mold, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus), Hunter' color values (L*, a*, b*) and organoleptic quality of freeze-dried Miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup in space food, Bacillus cereus was 1 log level while not detected in the sample irradiated at 10 kGy. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried Miyeokguk without deterioration of sensory quality.

  16. Toxicity of so-called edible hijiki seaweed (Sargassum fusiforme) containing inorganic arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Konomi, Aki

    2012-07-01

    The UK Food Standards Agency and its counterparts in other countries have warned consumers not to eat hijiki (Sargassum fusiforme; synonym Hizikia fusiformis), a Sargasso seaweed, because it contains large amounts of inorganic arsenic. We investigated dietary exposure of hijiki in weaning male F344/N rats fed an AIN-93G diet supplemented with 3% (w/w) hijiki powder for 7 weeks, compared with those fed only an AIN-93G diet. Body weight, body temperature, blood and tissue arsenic concentrations, plasma biochemistry and hematological parameters were measured. We found that feeding rats a 3% hijiki diet led to a marked accumulation of arsenic in blood and tissues, and evoked a high body temperature and abnormal blood biochemistry including elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase activity and inorganic phosphorus, consistent with arsenic poisoning. These findings should prompt further investigations to identify the health hazards related to consumption of hijiki and related Sargassum species in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  18. Seasonal variation of chemical composition and biomethane production from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-09-01

    Ascophyllum nodosum, an abundant Irish brown seaweed, shows significant seasonal variation in chemical composition and biogas production. The polyphenol content is shown to be a more important factor in biogas production than ash content. High polyphenol content in summer months adversely affected biogas production; suggesting two potential harvest dates, March and October. A. nodosum harvested in October showed a relatively low level of polyphenols (2% of TS) and ash (23% of volatile solids), and exhibited a specific methane yield of 215LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 44% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per wet weight of 47m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in October, which is 2.9 times higher than the lowest value (16m(3)CH4t(-1)), obtained in December. The gross energy yield of A. nodosum based on the optimal biogas production can achieve 116GJha(-1)yr(-1) in October. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seasonal proximate and fatty acid variations of some seaweeds from the northeastern Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim Polat

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal nutritional value of red (Jania rubens, Laurencia papillosa, Spyridia filamentosa and Dasya rigidula and brown macroalgae (Padina pavonia and Stypopodium schimperi was evaluated as a dietary supplement for human and animal nutrition based on proximate and fatty acid profiles. The protein content varied from 0.80% (L. papillosa to 3.41% (J. rubens of wet weight with the highest values in winter. The highest lipid levels were recorded in S. schimperi (2.03% in spring, 2.16% in summer, the lowest in S. filamentosa (0.08% in spring. The ash content of J. rubens (46.11-51.63% was significantly higher than that of the other species (2.28-16.57%. Analysis of the fatty acid composition showed that these seaweed species are very rich in n-3 fatty acids.

  20. Compositional variations of brown seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima in Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin; Nielsen, Mette Møller; Bruhn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Around Denmark, Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima are particularly common macroalgae species and are considered as prospective candidates for biorefineries. In this study, the carbohydrate composition and protein levels of L. digitata and S. latissima from three different sites in Denmark...... were compared for 1 year, and compositional variations of wild L. digitata harvested in August from the North Sea was monitored for 3 years. Glucan levels of L. digitata were consistently higher than those of S. latissima irrespective of harvest site and time of the year. Glucan levels in wild L......, but mannuronic/glucuronic acid ratios differed between species and location from 1.33 to 3.64. Wild L. digitata harvested from the North Sea in August contained >50% glucans by weight and had low ash contents for three consecutive years (2012-2014). Compositional variation of the seaweeds was mainly related...

  1. Structure, conformation in aqueous solution and antimicrobial activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Thanh Van; Truong, Hai Bang; Tran, Nguyen Ha Vy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Bui, Minh Ly; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the structure and investigate the antimicrobial activity of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva reticulata collected at Nha Trang sea of Vietnam by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and SAXS methods. The ulvan is composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose and glucose (mole ratio Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu = 1:0.12:0.1:0.06:0.03), uronic acid (22.5%) and sulphate groups (17.6%). Chemically structural determination showed that the ulvan mainly composed of disaccharide [→4)β-D-GlcA(1→4)α-L-Rha3S-(1→]. The results from SAXS indicated that ulvan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. Ulvan from U. reticulata showed high antimicrobial activity, with inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm against Enterobacter cloace and 18 mm against Escherichia coli.

  2. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  4. Brown seaweed Padina gymnospora is a prominent natural wound-care product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegna P. Baliano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seaweeds are related to anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-noceptive effects. This work aimed to verify the potential of seaweed Padina gymnospora (Kützing Sonder 1871 to improve wound healing in vitro. P. gymnospora was collected at a bethonic area in Espirito Santo. Methanolic extract of P. gymnospora was obtained by percolation. To determine cytotoxicity, colorimetric MTT tests were performed against normal fibroblasts (L929, macrophages (RAW 264.7 and human ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3 cell lines using concentration range of 12–110 µg ml-1. To evaluate in vitro wound healing, monolayer of fibroblasts L929 was seeded and artificial wounded. Cell proliferation was blocked by 5 µg ml-1 Mytomycin C. Nitric oxide inhibition was quantified with Raw 264.7 by Griess reaction. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Eletrospray ionization with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS was applied to detail composition of P. gymnospora methanolic extract. No cytotoxic effect in all cell lines was detected until the maximum concentration of 110 µg ml-1. P. gymnospora promoted significantly migration at the concentration of 25 µg ml-1 (p < 0.05. A prominent inhibition of nitric oxide formation was achieved in a concentration of 20 µg ml-1 of methanolic extract of P. gymnospora (62.06 ± 1.20%. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus could be demonstrated with MIC of 500 µg ml-1. ESI-FT-ICR MS analysis indicated eleven molecules between then, linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid. P. gymnospora favored wound repair in vitro what could be related to its fatty acid composition. In addition, its antimicrobial effect, and NO inhibition activity contribute for a new approach of P. gymnospora as a promise natural product for treatment of cutaneous wound.

  5. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  6. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  7. A Study on Brown Seaweed Therapy ( Sargassum sp. toward MDA Levels and Histological Improvement on Rat Foot Suffering Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (AR, an autoimun disease, is characterized by the inflammation in the joint area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, that increasing levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and the decreasing levels of anti-oxidants. The treated with extract of brown seaweed (Sargassum sp. intended to find out the MDA levels in serum and the histological of the foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats. Malondialdehyde levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat foot joints was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the brown seaweed extract therapy (Sargassum sp. was significantly (p <0.01 reduce levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the serum of 21,24% and improving histological foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats.

  8. Sesquiterpenes from the essential oil of Laurencia dendroidea (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta: isolation, biological activities and distribution among seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Gressler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Two known sesquiterpenes (1R*,2S*,3R*,5S*,8S*,9R*-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo[6.3.0.0(1,5]undecan-2-ol and (1S*,2S*,3S*,5S*,8S*,9S*-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo-[6.3.0.0(1,5]undecan-2-ol were isolated for the first time from the essential oil of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea collected in the Brazilian coast. These compounds were not active against eight bacteria strains and the yeast Candida albicans, but showed some antioxidant activity. Both compounds were also found in other seaweed species showing that they are not exclusive taxonomic markers to the genus Laurencia.

  9. Uptake and depuration of 131I by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea: uptake from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.C.; Vives i Batlle, J.; McDonald, P.; Parker, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Uptake and depuration experiments of 131 I from labelled seaweed (Chondrus crispus) by the edible periwinkle Littorina littorea have been performed. Radioiodine concentrations in winkles during uptake followed first-order kinetics with an uptake half-time of 1 day, and a calculated equilibrium concentration (C ∞ ) of 21 000 Bq kg -1 resulting in a transfer factor of 0.07 with respect to the labelled seaweed used as food. For depuration, a biphasic sequence with biological half-lives of 1 and 24 days was determined. The results suggest that in general, iodine turnover in periwinkles is slower than observed for other molluscs (monophasic biological half-lives in the order of 2-3 days). Both environmental media, food and seawater, can be significant sources of radioiodine for the winkle

  10. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Preparation of Agar-Agar from the Red Seaweed Pterocladia capillacea off the Coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A V; Bekheet, I A

    1976-10-01

    The effect of different treatments on the quality of agar produced from Pterocladia has been studied, and the conditions for the production of material of good quality have been standardized. In the modified process, sun-bleached seaweed was washed well in water, soaked for 24 h, and then ground to a pulp and rinsed again in water. The pulp was then extracted with water (weed-to-water ratio, 1:30) under pressure for 2 h after adjusting the pH to 6 by the addition of acetic acid. The agar gel, after freeze thawing, was bleached with NaClO before drying in a current of hot air. Pretreatment of the seaweed with alkali at 80 degrees C for 2 h prior to extraction was found to improve the quality of agar to a very great extent.

  12. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees.

  13. Canopy-forming seaweeds in urchin-dominated systems in eastern Canada: structuring forces or simple prey for keystone grazers?

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    Caitlin Blain

    Full Text Available Models of benthic community dynamics for the extensively studied, shallow rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada emphasize kelp-urchin interactions. These models may bias the perception of factors and processes that structure communities, for they largely overlook the possible contribution of other seaweeds to ecosystem resilience. We examined the persistence of the annual, acidic (H2SO4, brown seaweed Desmarestia viridis in urchin barrens at two sites in Newfoundland (Canada throughout an entire growth season (February to October. We also compared changes in epifaunal assemblages in D. viridis and other conspicuous canopy-forming seaweeds, the non-acidic conspecific Desmarestia aculeata and kelp Agarum clathratum. We show that D. viridis can form large canopies within the 2-to-8 m depth range that represent a transient community state termed "Desmarestia bed". The annual resurgence of Desmarestia beds and continuous occurrence of D. aculeata and A. clathratum, create biological structure for major recruitment pulses in invertebrate and fish assemblages (e.g. from quasi-absent gastropods to >150,000 recruits kg(-1 D. viridis. Many of these pulses phase with temperature-driven mass release of acid to the environment and die-off in D. viridis. We demonstrate experimentally that the chemical makeup of D. viridis and A. clathratum helps retard urchin grazing compared to D. aculeata and the highly consumed kelp Alaria esculenta. In light of our findings and related studies, we propose fundamental changes to the study of community shifts in shallow, rocky ecosystems in eastern Canada. In particular, we advocate the need to regard certain canopy-forming seaweeds as structuring forces interfering with top-down processes, rather than simple prey for keystone grazers. We also propose a novel, empirical model of ecological interactions for D. viridis. Overall, our study underscores the importance of studying organisms together with cross-scale environmental

  14. Effects of various kinds of edible seaweeds in diets on the development of D-galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in rats.

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    Kawano, Naoko; Egashira, Yukari; Sanada, Hiroo

    2007-08-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of 11 kinds of edible seaweeds (6 brown and 5 red algae) which contain characteristic seaweed dietary fibers on the induction of D-GalN (D-galactosamine)-hepatopathy in rats (Exps. 1 and 2). Then, the efficacy of various components prepared from Gelidium sp., which was found to alleviate the hepatopathy in Exps. 1 and 2, was examined (Exp. 3). The rats were fed the diets containing various kinds of seaweeds (Exps. 1 and 2), or several components of Gelidium sp. such as total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) and dietary fiber-free components (DFFC) (Exp. 3), for 8 d. The rats in all experiments were injected with D-GalN (800 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally at the 7th day to induce liver injury and were sacrificed 24 h after the injection of D-GalN. The serum transaminase activities (ALT and AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined to evaluate the levels of hepatopathy. In Exp. 3, the total GSH concentration in the liver, plasma and cecal contents and organic acid concentration in cecal contents were also evaluated. In Exps. 1 and 2, repressive effects against D-GalN-hepatopathy were shown by four seaweeds Laminaria sp., Gelidium sp., Sargassum fulvellum and Eisenia bicyclis. In Exp. 3, it was found that protective activity in Gelidium sp. against D-GalN-hepatopathy existed not only in the SDF but also in the DFFC fraction. The results in Exp. 3 also indicated that the total GSH but not organic acid concentration in the cecal contents were significantly correlated with serum AST activity, suggesting that the protective effect of Gelidium sp. on D-GalN-hepatopathy in rats is related to GSH metabolism in the intestine.

  15. A comprehensive approach to formulation of seaweed-enriched meat products: From technological development to assessment of healthy properties.

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    Cofrades, S; Benedí, J; Garcimartin, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Jimenez-Colmenero, F

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is influenced by various kinds of factors, among them health implications. Different strategies can be effective in developing meat-based functional foods. These basically entail reducing the presence of compounds with negative health implications and enhancing the presence of beneficial compounds. This article reviews a comprehensive model for the development of meat-based functional foods based on a presentation of the research achieved in terms of the design and development of qualitatively and quantitatively modified meat products (frankfurters, patties and restructured steaks). These were reformulated to incorporate nutrients associated with three different seaweeds (wakame-Undaria pinnatifida; nori-Porphyra umbilicalis; and sea spaghetti-Himanthalia elongata) as sources of bioactive substances, while simultaneously reducing sodium and fat and improving fatty acid profiles. Those seaweeds were chosen, because in terms of composition and health implications, abundance on Spanish coasts, relatively widespread consumption, and suitability in terms of flavour and colour they are better suited than others for use as ingredients in new products. It also discusses the consequences of the use of this type of meat-based functional foods (combination of pork meat and 5% of each seaweed with or without hypercholesterolaemic agent included in the diets) on growing animals (Wistar male rats), and their effects on different aspects of lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress and liver structure. This article, then, reports a comprehensive approach to the production of seaweed-enriched meat products, considering aspects of technological development aimed at achieving the functional effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro bioactive analysis and antioxidant activity of two species of seaweeds from the Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2017-09-25

    Evaluation of in vitro standard antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS + ) radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibitory (or thiobarbituric acid formation inhibitory activity) and ferrous ion (Fe +2 ) chelating activities of different solvent extracts of seaweeds, Jania rubens and Kappaphycus alvarezii collected from the Gulf of Mannar of the Peninsular India, were carried out. The methodology utilised bioactivity-guided extraction of seaweed with effective solvent comprised classical chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The ethyl acetate extraction of seaweeds displayed significantly greater antioxidant activity than dichloromethane and n-hexane extraction. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds with potentially greater antioxidant activities, yielded 6α-methoxy-4bβ-methyl-7β-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9-dodecahydro-2β-phenanthrenol (1) from J. rubens, whereas K. alvarezii yielded 2β-ethyl-9-oxo-5α-vinyl-1,2,5,5a,6,7,8,9-octahydroheptalene-10,1-carbolactone (2) and methyl-2-ethyl-9-oxo-5α-vinyl-1,2,5,5a,6,7,10,10a-octahydroheptalene-1α-carboxylate (3). Compound 1 displayed significantly greater DPPH scavenging activities (IC 50 0.22 mg/mL) than α-tocopherol (IC 50 0.63 mg/mL). The order of DPPH radical-scavenging activities were compounds 1 > 2 > 3.

  17. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

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    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  18. Complete genome sequence of Agarivorans gilvus WH0801(T), an agarase-producing bacterium isolated from seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pujuan; Rui, Junpeng; Du, Zongjun; Xue, Changhu; Li, Xiangzhen; Mao, Xiangzhao

    2016-02-10

    Agarivorans gilvus WH0801(T), an agarase-producing bacterium, was isolated from the surface of seaweed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, which consists of one circular chromosome of 4,416,600 bp with a GC content of 45.9%. This genetic information will provide insight into biotechnological applications of producing agar for food and industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Seaweed fails to prevent ocean acidification impact on foraminifera along a shallow-water CO2 gradient.

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    Pettit, Laura R; Smart, Christopher W; Hart, Malcolm B; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2015-05-01

    Ocean acidification causes biodiversity loss, alters ecosystems, and may impact food security, as shells of small organisms dissolve easily in corrosive waters. There is a suggestion that photosynthetic organisms could mitigate ocean acidification on a local scale, through seagrass protection or seaweed cultivation, as net ecosystem organic production raises the saturation state of calcium carbonate making seawater less corrosive. Here, we used a natural gradient in calcium carbonate saturation, caused by shallow-water CO2 seeps in the Mediterranean Sea, to assess whether seaweed that is resistant to acidification (Padina pavonica) could prevent adverse effects of acidification on epiphytic foraminifera. We found a reduction in the number of species of foraminifera as calcium carbonate saturation state fell and that the assemblage shifted from one dominated by calcareous species at reference sites (pH ∼8.19) to one dominated by agglutinated foraminifera at elevated levels of CO2 (pH ∼7.71). It is expected that ocean acidification will result in changes in foraminiferal assemblage composition and agglutinated forms may become more prevalent. Although Padina did not prevent adverse effects of ocean acidification, high biomass stands of seagrass or seaweed farms might be more successful in protecting epiphytic foraminifera.

  20. In vitro fermentation and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides derived from agar and alginate seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramnani, Priya; Chitarrari, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran; Grant, John; Hotchkiss, Sarah; Philp, Kevin; Campbell, Ross; Gill, Chris; Rowland, Ian

    2012-02-01

    Fermentation properties and prebiotic potential of novel low molecular weight polysaccharides (LMWPs) derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds was investigated. Ten LMWPs were supplemented to pH, temperature controlled anaerobic batch cultures inoculated with human feces from three donors, in triplicate. Microbiota changes were monitored using Fluorescent in-situ hybridization and short chain fatty acids, the fermentation end products were analysed using gas chromatography. Of the ten LMWPs tested, Gelidium seaweed CC2253 of molecular weight 64.64 KDa showed a significant increase in bifidobacterial populations from log(10) 8.06 at 0 h to log(10) 8.55 at 24 h (p = 0.018). For total bacterial populations, alginate powder CC2238 produced a significant increase from log(10) 9.01 at 0 h to log(10) 9.58 at 24 h (p = 0.032). No changes were observed in the other bacterial groups tested viz. Bacteroides, Lactobacilli/Enterococci, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium histolyticum. The polysaccharides also showed significant increases in total SCFA production, particularly acetic and propionic acids, indicating that they were readily fermented. In conclusion, some LMWPs derived from agar and alginate bearing seaweeds were fermented by gut bacteria and exhibited potential to be used a novel source of prebiotics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biotransformation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by Scheffersomyces stipitis during ethanol fermentation of hydrolysate of the seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Chae Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Shin, Myung Kyo; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2013-07-01

    The seaweed, Gelidium amansii, was fermented to produce bioethanol. Optimal pretreatment condition was determined as 94 mM H2SO4 and 10% (w/v) seaweed slurry at 121°C for 60 min. The mono sugars of 43.5 g/L with 57.4% of conversion from total carbohydrate of 75.8 g/L with G. amansii slurry 100g dcw/L were obtained by thermal acid hydrolysis pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. G. amansii hydrolysate was used as the substrate for ethanol production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). The ethanol concentration of 20.5 g/L was produced by Scheffersomyces stipitis KCTC 7228. The effect of HMF on ethanol production by S. stipitis KCTC 7228 was evaluated and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was converted to 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran. The accumulated 2,5-bis-hydroxymethylfuran in the medium did not affect galactose and glucose uptakes and ethanol production. Biotransformation of HMF to less inhibitory compounds by S. stipitis KCTC 7228 could enhance overall fermentation yields of seaweed hydrolysates to ethanol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Uptake of heavy metals and arsenic in black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae grown on seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancarosa, Irene; Liland, Nina S; Biemans, Daan; Araujo, Pedro; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan; Amlund, Heidi

    2018-04-01

    The black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) is one of the most promising insect species for use in animal feed. However, studies investigating feed and food safety aspects of using black soldier fly as feed are scarce. In this study, we fed black soldier fly larvae feeding media enriched with seaweed, which contains naturally high concentrations of heavy metals and arsenic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential transfer of such undesirable substances from the feeding media to the larvae. The larvae accumulated cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic. Concentrations of these elements in the larvae increased when more seaweed was added to the feeding media. The highest retention was seen for cadmium (up to 93%) and the lowest for total arsenic (up to 22%). When seaweed inclusion exceeded 20% in the media, this resulted in larval concentrations of cadmium and total arsenic above the current European Union maximum levels for these elements in complete feed. Our results confirm that insect larvae can accumulate heavy metals and arsenic when present in the feeding media. A broader understanding of the occurrence of these undesirable substances in processed larvae products is needed to assess feed and food safety. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Morphological Characteristics and Habitats of Red Seaweed Gracilaria spp. (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) in Santubong and Asajaya, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Nur Arif; Hassan, Ruhana; Harith, Mohd Nasarudin; Sah, Amir Shah Ruddin Md

    2018-01-01

    Red seaweed Gracilaria, one of the largest genus in Division Rhodophyta inhabits Sarawak coastal water. This study was designed to identify the species of Gracilaria using morphological approach and to assess selected water quality parameters in Gracilaria habitats. Three field samplings were carried out in Santubong and Asajaya, Sarawak from November 2013 to December 2014. Overall, three species were identified namely Gracilaria changii, G. blodgettii and G. coronopifolia, attached to net of cage culture in Santubong and root of mangrove trees in Asajaya. In addition, three different taxa of aquatic macroinvertebrates (polychaete, small crab, bivalve) and single species of red seaweed (Acanthophora sp.) were observed in Gracilaria assemblages. An estimate of 37% to 40% of the upper part of the cage net in Santubong was covered by seaweeds and only 16% to 20% in Asajaya’s mangrove. The study had provided better information on identification of Gracilaria and their habitat in Sarawak. Future work involving DNA barcoding of each species is in progress. PMID:29644017

  4. The effect of seasonal variation on biomethane production from seaweed and on application as a gaseous transport biofuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-06-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed may be used as a transport biofuel. Seasonal variation will have an effect on this industry. Laminaria digitata, a typical Irish brown seaweed species, shows significant seasonal variation both in proximate, ultimate and biochemical composition. The characteristics in August were optimal with the lowest level of ash (20% of volatile solids), a C:N ratio of 32 and the highest specific methane yield measured at 327LCH4kgVS(-1), which was 72% of theoretical yield. The highest yield per mass collected of 53m(3)CH4t(-1) was achieved in August, which is 4.5 times higher than the lowest value, obtained in December. A seaweed cultivation area of 11,800ha would be required to satisfy the 2020 target for advanced biofuels in Ireland, of 1.25% renewable energy supply in transport (RES-T) based on the optimal gross energy yield obtained in August (200GJha(-1)yr(-1)). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutritional and Chemical Composition and Antiviral Activity of Cultivated Seaweed Sargassum naozhouense Tseng et Lu 

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    Yonghong Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sargassum naozhouense is a brown seaweed used in folk medicine and applied for thousands of years in Zhanjiang, Guangdong province, China. This study is the first time to investigate its chemical composition and antiviral activity. On the dry weight basis, this seaweed was constituted of ca. 35.18% ash, 11.20% protein, 1.06% lipid and 47.73% total carbohydrate, and the main carbohydrate was water-soluble polysaccharide. The protein analysis indicated the presence of essential amino acids, which accounted for 36.35% of the protein. The most abundant fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0, C18:1 and C20:4. The ash fraction analysis indicated that essential minerals and trace elements, such as Fe, Zn and Cu, were present in the seaweed. IR analysis revealed that polysaccharides from cultivated S. naozhouense may be alginates and fucoidan. The polysaccharides possessed strong antiviral activity against HSV-1 in vitro with EC50 of 8.92 μg/mL. These results demonstrated cultivated S. naozhouense has a potential for its use in functional foods and antiviral new drugs.

  6. Assessment of the Bacteriocinogenic Potential of Marine Bacteria Reveals Lichenicidin Production by Seaweed-Derived Bacillus spp.

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    Gillian E. Gardiner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (1 to assess the bacteriocinogenic potential of bacteria derived mainly from seaweed, but also sand and seawater, (2 to identify at least some of the bacteriocins produced, if any and (3 to determine if they are unique to the marine environment and/or novel. Fifteen Bacillus licheniformis or pumilus isolates with antimicrobial activity against at least one of the indicator bacteria used were recovered. Some, at least, of the antimicrobials produced were bacteriocins, as they were proteinaceous and the producers displayed immunity. Screening with PCR primers for known Bacillus bacteriocins revealed that three seaweed-derived Bacillus licheniformis harbored the bli04127 gene which encodes one of the peptides of the two-peptide lantibiotic lichenicidin. Production of both lichenicidin peptides was then confirmed by mass spectrometry. This is the first definitive proof of bacteriocin production by seaweed-derived bacteria. The authors acknowledge that the bacteriocin produced has previously been discovered and is not unique to the marine environment. However, the other marine isolates likely produce novel bacteriocins, as none harboured genes for known Bacillus bacteriocins.

  7. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

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    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  8. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  9. Sulphur fate and anaerobic biodegradation potential during co-digestion of seaweed biomass (Ulva sp.) with pig slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peu, P; Sassi, J-F; Girault, R; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, Patricia; Béline, F; Dabert, P

    2011-12-01

    Seaweed (Ulva sp.) stranded on beaches were utilized as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in three-month co-digestion tests in pilot scale anaerobic digesters in the laboratory. The methanogenic potential of Ulva sp. was low compared to that of other potential co-substrates available for use by farmers: 148 N m3CH4/t of volatile solids or 19 N m3CH4/t of crude product. When used as a co-substrate with pig manure (48%/52% w/w), Ulva sp. seaweed did not notably disrupt the process of digestion; however, after pilot stabilisation, biogas produced contained 3.5% H2S, making it unsuitable for energy recovery without treatment. Sequentially addition of the sulphate reduction inhibitor, potassium molybdate, to a final concentration of 3mM, temporarily reduced H2S emissions, but was unable to sustain this reduction over the three-month period. According to these pilot tests, the use of seaweed stranded on beaches as co-substrate in farm-based biogas plants shows some limitations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Seaweed consumption and prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan: Baseline data from the Kyushu Okinawa Maternal and Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Arakawa, Masashi

    2014-09-03

    Seaweed is a popular traditional food in Japan and is a rich source of bioactive metabolites. The neuroprotective properties of seaweed have attracted attention; to date, however, there has been no epidemiological evidence regarding the relationship between seaweed consumption and depression. The current cross-sectional study investigated the association between seaweed consumption and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japan. Study subjects were 1745 pregnant women. Depressive symptoms were defined as present when subjects had a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale score of 16 or higher. Dietary consumption during the preceding month was assessed using a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Adjustment was made for age; gestation; region of residence; number of children; family structure; history of depression; family history of depression; smoking; secondhand smoke exposure at home and at work; job type; household income; education; body mass index; and intake of fish and yogurt. The prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy was 19.3%. After adjustment for possible dietary and non-dietary confounding factors, higher seaweed consumption was independently associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy: the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for depressive symptoms during pregnancy in the first, second, third, and fourth quartiles of seaweed consumption were 1 (reference), 0.72 (0.51 - 1.004), 0.71 (0.50 - 1.01), and 0.68 (0.47 - 0.96), respectively (P for trend = 0.03). The present results suggest that seaweed consumption may be inversely associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in Japanese women.

  11. O-heterocyclic derivatives with antibacterial properties from marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis associated with seaweed, Sargassum myriocystum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Chakraborty, Rekha Devi; Raola, Vamshi Krishna; Joy, Minju

    2017-01-01

    The brown seaweed, Sargassum myriocystum associated with heterotrophic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10407 (JF834075) exhibited broad-spectra of potent antibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. B. subtilis MTCC 10407 was found to be positive for polyketide synthetase (pks) gene, and therefore, was considered to characterize secondary metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, two new antibacterial O-heterocyclic compounds belonging to pyranyl benzoate analogs of polyketide origin, with activity against pathogenic bacteria, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of B. subtilis MTCC 10407. In the present study, the secondary metabolites of B. subtilis MTCC 10407 with potent antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens was recognized to represent the platform of pks-1 gene-encoded products. Two homologous compounds 3 (3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-(5-(2-ethylbutyl)-5,6-dihydro-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl)-butyl benzoate) and 4 [2-(8-butyl-3-ethyl-3,4,4a,5,6,8a-hexahydro-2H-chromen-6-yl)-ethyl benzoate] also have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of host seaweed S. myriocystum. The two compounds isolated from ethyl acetate extract of S. myriocystum with lesser antibacterial properties shared similar structures with the compounds purified from B. subtilis that suggested the ecological and metabolic relationship between these compounds in seaweed-bacterial relationship. Tetrahydropyran-2-one moiety of the tetrahydropyrano-[3,2b]-pyran-2(3H)-one system of 1 might be cleaved by the metabolic pool of seaweeds to afford methyl 3-(dihydro-3-methyl-2H-pyranyl)-propanoate moiety of 3, which was found to have no significant antibacterial activity. It is therefore imperative that the presence of dihydro-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl propanoate system is essentially required to impart the greater activity. The direct involvement of polarisability (Pl) with

  12. Feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck, 1816 on seaweeds

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    Camilla Ferreira Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds exhibit different strategies to minimize the damage caused by herbivores and also to influence the feeding preference of these consumers. This study evaluated the feeding preference of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus through multiple-choice experiments using the seaweeds Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., and Ulva sp. In order to verify the importance of morphological and chemical aspects on this feeding preference, two assay-types were carried out using live and powdered macroalgae, respectively. Two different methods were employed to analyze the results obtained: comparison between biomass losses versus autogenic changes, and inclusion of autogenic values in biomass loss through herbivory. In both experiments a clear differential consumption of certain species of seaweeds by L. variegatus was observed, in the following decreasing order of preference: C. racemosa ≈ Ulva sp. > O. obtusiloba ≈ Sargassum sp. > P. brasiliense > D. menstrualis. It was also verified that both methods of analysis used yielded similar results. According to the results obtained, feeding preference of L. variegatus is probably established by the defensive chemicals produced by P. brasiliense and D. menstrualis, and by morphological aspects of C. racemosa, Ulva sp., O. obtusiloba and Sargassum sp.As macroalgas apresentam diversos tipos de estratégias para minimizar os danos gerados por herbívoros que influenciam a preferência alimentar dos consumidores. Este estudo avaliou a preferência alimentar do ouriço-do-mar Lytechinus variegatus em experimentos de múltipla escolha utilizando as macroalgas bentônicas Caulerpa racemosa, Dictyota menstrualis, Osmundaria obtusiloba, Plocamium brasiliense, Sargassum sp., e Ulva sp. Para verificar a importância dos aspectos morfológicos e químicos na preferência, os ensaios foram realizados com algas vivas e em pó, respectivamente. Foram

  13. Studies of seaweeds as an indicators of toxic element pollution in Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ- ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, (PAN/TAN) of 1 x l0 -4 M. (PONPE-20) of 0.1 % (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN0 3 , and a temperature of 41°C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(lIl) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(lII) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results

  14. Immunomodulatory Effects of Dietary Seaweeds in LPS Challenged Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar as Determined by Deep RNA Sequencing of the Head Kidney Transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P.; Kals, Jeroen; Blanco Garcia, Ainhoa; Dirks, Ron P.; Poelman, Marnix

    2018-01-01

    Seaweeds may represent immuno-stimulants that could be used as health-promoting fish feed components. This study was performed to gain insights into the immunomodulatory effects of dietary seaweeds in Atlantic salmon. Specifically tested were 10% inclusion levels of Laminaria digitata (SW1) and a commercial blend of seaweeds (Oceanfeed®) (SW2) against a fishmeal based control diet (FMC). Differences between groups were assessed in growth, feed conversion ratio and blood parameters hematocrit and hemoglobin. After a LPS challenge of fish representing each of the three groups, RNAseq was performed on the head kidney as major immune organ to determine transcriptomic differences in response to the immune activation. Atlantic salmon fed with dietary seaweeds did not show major differences in performance in comparison with fishmeal fed fish. RNAseq resulted in ∼154 million reads which were mapped against a NCBI Salmo salar reference and against a de novo assembled S. salar reference for analyses of expression of immune genes and ontology of immune processes among the 87,600 cDNA contigs. The dietary seaweeds provoked a more efficient immune response which involved more efficient identification of the infection site, and processing and presentation of antigens. More specifically, chemotaxis and the chemokine-mediated signaling were improved and therewith the defense response to Gram-positive bacterium reduced. Specific Laminaria digitata effects included reduction of the interferon-gamma-mediated signaling. Highly upregulated and specific for this diet was the expression of major histocompatibility complex class I-related gene protein. The commercial blend of seaweeds caused more differential expression than Laminaria digitata and improved immune processes such as receptor-mediated endocytosis and cell adhesion, and increased the expression of genes involved in response to lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory response. Particularly, expression of many important immune

  15. Fucans, but not fucomannoglucuronans, determine the biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina brown seaweed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O Croci

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides from Laminaria saccharina (new name: Saccharina latissima brown seaweed show promising activity for the treatment of inflammation, thrombosis, and cancer; yet the molecular mechanisms underlying these properties remain poorly understood. The aim of this work was to characterize, using in vitro and in vivo strategies, the anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-angiogenic, and anti-tumor activities of two main sulfated polysaccharide fractions obtained from L. saccharina: a L.s.-1.0 fraction mainly consisting of O-sulfated mannoglucuronofucans and b L.s.-1.25 fraction mainly composed of sulfated fucans. Both fractions inhibited leukocyte recruitment in a model of inflammation in rats, although L.s.-1.25 appeared to be more active than L.s.-1.0. Also, these fractions inhibited neutrophil adhesion to platelets under flow. Only fraction L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0, displayed anticoagulant activity as measured by the activated partial thromboplastin time. Investigation of these fractions in angiogenesis settings revealed that only L.s.-1.25 strongly inhibited fetal bovine serum (FBS induced in vitro tubulogenesis. This effect correlated with a reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels in L.s.-1.25-treated endothelial cells. Furthermore, only parent sulfated polysaccharides from L. saccharina (L.s.-P and its fraction L.s.-1.25 were powerful inhibitors of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF induced pathways. Consistently, the L.s.-1.25 fraction as well as L.s.-P successfully interfered with fibroblast binding to human bFGF. The incorporation of L.s.-P or L.s.-1.25, but not L.s.-1.0 into Matrigel plugs containing melanoma cells induced a significant reduction in hemoglobin content as well in the frequency of tumor-associated blood vessels. Moreover, i.p. administrations of L.s.-1.25, as well as L.s.-P, but not L.s.-1.0, resulted in a significant reduction of tumor growth when inoculated into syngeneic mice

  16. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Elisabete; Azevedo, Vitor; Melo, Tânia; Rego, Andreia M; V Evtuguin, Dmitry; Domingues, Pedro; Calado, Ricardo; Pereira, Rui; Abreu, Maria H; Domingues, Maria R

    2018-01-17

    Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for "sushi" preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n -3 and n- 6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica : the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA) framework. Both the blades (gametophyte) and conchocelis (sporophyte) are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q-Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS) platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis): 14/15 glycolipids (GLs), 93/79 phospholipids (PLs), and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4( n -6) and 20:5( n -3) fatty acids that contribute to n -3 and n -6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs' profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n -6 and n -3 precursors and in both life stages of Porphyra

  17. High-Resolution Lipidomics of the Early Life Stages of the Red Seaweed Porphyra dioica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete da Costa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyra dioica is a commercial seaweed consumed all over the world, mostly in the shape of nori sheets used for “sushi” preparation. It is a well-known part of the Asian diet with health benefits, which have been associated, among others, to the high levels of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in this red alga. However, other highly valued lipids of Porphyra are polar lipids that remain largely undescribed and can have both nutritional value and bioactivity, thus could contribute to the valorization of this seaweed. In this context, the present work aims to identify the lipidome of two life cycle stages of the Atlantic species Porphyra dioica: the early life stage conchocelis produced in an indoor-nursery, and young blades produced outdoors using an integrated multitrophic aquaculture (IMTA framework. Both the blades (gametophyte and conchocelis (sporophyte are commercialized in the food and cosmetics sectors. Liquid chromatography coupled to Q–Exactive high resolution-mass spectrometry (MS platform was used to gain insight into the lipidome of these species. Our results allowed the identification of 110 and 100 lipid molecular species in the lipidome of the blade and conchocelis, respectively. These lipid molecular species were distributed as follows (blade/conchocelis: 14/15 glycolipids (GLs, 93/79 phospholipids (PLs, and 3/6 betaine lipids. Both life stages displayed a similar profile of GLs and comprised 20:4(n-6 and 20:5(n-3 fatty acids that contribute to n-3 and n-6 fatty acid pool recorded and rank among the molecular species with higher potential bioactivity. PLs’ profile was different between the two life stages surveyed, mainly due to the number and relative abundance of molecular species. This finding suggests that differences between both life stages were more likely related with shifts in the lipids of extraplastidial membranes rather than in plastidial membranes. PLs contained n-6 and n-3 precursors and in both life stages of

  18. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A.; Critchley, Alan T.; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 109 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days’ post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days’ post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days’ post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10-1). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there

  19. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhe; Xu, Yaoyang; Chen, Hongbo; Sun, Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material) on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM) with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW) distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP), Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP), and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP) were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW) of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  20. Seasonal variation in nutritional composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty-an edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, K; Ganesan, K; Subba Rao, P V

    2015-05-01

    Seasonal variation in the proximate and mineral composition of Kappaphycus alvarezii were investigated in the present study, moreover, the relationship between the nutritive components of this seaweed and the environment were also established. Carbohydrates represented the major portion of the algae (i.e. average total carbohydrate content was 23.01 ± 1.64 g/100 g DW), while the lipid content was the lowest among the constituents investigated (0.39 ± 0.04 to 0.91 ± 0.51 g/100 g DW). The protein content of K. alvarezii varied from 12.69 ± 0.6 to 23.61 ± 0.02 g/100 g DW, and the fiber content varied between 9.68 ± 0.08 to 18.57 ± 0.15 g/100 g DW. Highest total mineral content (29939.61 ± 9340.38 mg/100 g DW) was observed in April 2005, while least values were recorded in January 2006 i.e. (10997.62 ± 1120.26 mg/100 g DW). The Na/K ratio during the study ranged from 0.34 to 0.87. All the samples showed remarkable semi-refined carrageenan (SRC) yield ranging from 42.70 ± 1.07 to 63.73 ± 1.73 % (average 53.90 ± 1.37 %), and, the samples collected during December 2004 and January 2006 demonstrated maximum gel strengths i.e. 743 ± 15.28 and 783.33 ± 15.28 g·cm(-2) respectively. Various environmental parameters influenced the chemical composition of K. alvarezii, and these parameters demonstrated seasonal fluctuations. Moreover, based on the nutritional composition obtained, it could be stated that this seaweed has great scope to be incorporated into several food products as an excellent nutritional supplement, or as a value additive in animal or pet food.

  1. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhe He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC. IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP, Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP, and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP, all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate (ABTS, hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  2. Feed Supplementation with Red Seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, Reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; MacIsaac, Janice; Boulianne, Martine; Brigitte, Lehoux; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan T; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is vertically transmitted to eggs from laying hens through infected ovaries and oviducts. S. Enteritidis can also penetrate the eggshell from contaminated feces. Reducing S. Enteritidis in laying hens is vital to provide safer eggs and minimize the spread of salmonellosis to humans. Antibiotics have been widely used to control bacterial diseases in broilers and laying hens. However, there is a major concern that the use of antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistance and adverse effects on microbiota of the treated birds. Thus, there is an interest in developing alternatives to antibiotics, such as dietary prebiotics. In the present study, feed supplemented with the red seaweeds: Chondrus crispus (CC) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG), was offered to laying hens late in production to control S. Enteritidis. Diets contained one of the following; 2% or 4% Chondrus crispus (CC2, and CC4, respectively) or Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG2 and SG4, respectively). Chlortetracycline was used in the positive control diet. During week-4, 48 birds were orally challenged with 2 × 10 9 CFU/mL of S. Enteritidis. Eggs and fecal samples were collected 1, 3, 5, and 7 days' post inoculation. Birds were euthanized and organs (ceca, ovary, liver, and spleen) were sampled and analyzed for the presence of S. Enteritidis, 7 days' post inoculation. Results showed that seaweed reduced the negative effect on body weight and egg production in S. Enteritidis-challenged laying hens. Analysis of fecal samples showed that the antibiotic (CTC) reduced S. Enteritidis in the intestinal tract and fecal samples, 3 days' post inoculation. Fecal samples from Chlortetracycline and CC4 supplemented birds tested negative for S. Enteritidis on days 5 and 7 post inoculation (lowest detection limit = 10 -1 ). S. Enteritidis colonization in the ceca was also significantly reduced in birds fed CC (4%) and Chlortetracycline. Blood serum profiles revealed that there were

  3. Spectroscopic studies of molecular iodine emitted into the gas phase by seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ball

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Time profiles of molecular iodine emissions from seven species of seaweed have been measured at high time resolution (7.5 s by direct spectroscopic quantification of the gas phase I2 using broadband cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy. Substantial differences were found between species, both in the amounts of I2 emitted when the plants were exposed to air and in the shapes of their emission time profiles. Two species of kelp, Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea, were found to be the most potent emitters, producing an intense burst of I2 when first exposed to air. I2 was also observed from Saccharina latissima and Ascophyllum nodosum but in lower amounts and with broader time profiles. I2 mixing ratios from two Fucus species and Dictyopteris membranacea were at or below the detection limit of the present instrument (25 pptv. A further set of experiments investigated the time dependence of I2 emissions and aerosol particle formation when fragments of L. digitata were exposed to desiccation in air, to ozone and to oligoguluronate stress factors. Particle formation occurred in all L. digitata stress experiments where ozone and light were present, subject to the I2 mixing ratios being above certain threshold amounts. Moreover, the particle number concentrations closely tracked variations in the I2 mixing ratios, confirming the results of previous studies that the condensable particle-forming gases derive from the photochemical oxidation of the plant's I2 emissions. This work also supports the theory that particle nucleation in the coastal atmosphere occurs in "hot-spot" regions of locally elevated concentrations of condensable gases: the greatest atmospheric concentrations of I2 and hence of condensable iodine oxides are likely to be above plants of the most efficiently

  4. Investigation of Bioethanol Productivity from Sargassum sp. (Brown Seaweed) by Pressure Cooker and Steam Cooker Pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu Wah; Kyaw Nyein Aye; Tint Tint Kyaw; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2011-12-01

    Production of biothanol from Sargassum sp. (Brown seaweed) is more suitable than using any other raw materials because it can easily collect on Chaung Tha Beach in Myanmar without any environmental damages. In this regard an attempt for bioethanol production from sargassum sp. by separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with saccharomyces cerevisiae was made. Sargassum sp. was pretreated with steam cooker at 120 C and 1 bar for 30 min and pressure cooker at 65 C for 2 hour. The pretreated sargassum sp. was liquefied with the crude enzyme from Trichoderma sp. at the temperature of 50 C and pH of 4 for the first liquefaction step and 95 C, pH of 5 and enzyme of SPEZYME FERD were employed for the second liquefaction step. OPTIDEX L-400 was used as saccharified enzyme with the temperature of 65 C and pH of 4.5 at saccharification step. The process of fermentation was followed by distillation at 78 C for alcohol extraction. Concentrations of crude ethanol were about 1.8% by using steam cooker and 2% for pressure cooker treatment with enzyme mediated saccharification followed by yeast fermentation. Yields of bioethanol were 23% for pressure cooker treatment and 21% for steam cooker treatment at SHF process.

  5. Anticoagulant, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities of Heterofucans from the Seaweed Dictyopteris delicatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Alexandre Oliveira Rocha

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, six families of sulfated polysaccharides were obtained from seaweed Dictyopteris delicatula by proteolytic digestion, followed by acetone fractionation and molecular sieving on Sephadex G-100. Chemical analyses demonstrated that all polysaccharides contain heterofucans composed mainly of fucose, xylose, glucose, galactose, uronic acid, and sulfate. The fucans F0.5v and F0.7v at 1.0 mg/mL showed high ferric chelating activity (~45%, whereas fucans F1.3v (0.5 mg/mL showed considerable reducing power, about 53.2% of the activity of vitamin C. The fucan F1.5v presented the most prominent anticoagulant activity. The best antiproliferative activity was found with fucans F1.3v and F0.7v. However, F1.3v activity was much higher than F0.7v inhibiting almost 100% of HeLa cell proliferation. These fucans have been selected for further studies on structural characterization as well as in vivo experiments, which are already in progress.

  6. Acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production using Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Nahid; Najafpour, Ghasem; Younesi, Habibollah

    2017-08-01

    The brown seaweed Sargassum sp. was used as a feedstock to produce polyhydroxybutyarte (PHB) using Cupriavidus necator PTCC 1615. In order to release monomeric sugars, dilute acid hydrolysis of Sargassum sp. biomass was followed by enzymatic saccharification. In addition, the effect of different nitrogen sources was evaluated for PHB production. The fermentation of hydrolysate with the ammonium sulfate as selected nitrogen source resulted PHB yield of 0.54±0.01g/g reducing sugar. Then, NaCl was used as external stress factor which was added to the media. Addition of 8g/L NaCl had a positive impact on high PHB yield of 0.74±0.01g/g reducing sugar. Increasing trend of NaCl concentration to 16g/L was found to inhibit the production of PHB. Based on obtained results using 20g/L of reducing sugar, at desired condition the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations were 5.36±0.22 and 3.93±0.24g/L, respectively. The findings of this study reveal that Sargassum sp. is a promising feedstock for biopolymer production. The characteristics of produced PHB were analyzed by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry and 1 H NMR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and characterization of soluble sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Glucaric cornea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, Marcia R.S.; Freitas, Ana L.P.; Feitosa, Judith P.A.; Paula, Regina C.M. de

    2001-01-01

    The composition, structure and rheological properties of soluble sulphated polysaccharide Glucaric cornea from Brazilian red seaweeds were investigated. The main components of polysaccharide were 3,6-anhydrogalactose (24.7%) and galactose (64.6%). In addition, minor components as 6-O-methyl-galactose (8.5%), glucose (1.5%), xylose (0.7%) and sulfated groups (4.8%) were detected. Comparison between sulphates content determined by Ft-IR spectroscopy and micro elemental analysis was made. Data from 13 C NMR and FT-IR provided evidence of sulphation in C-4 and C-6 of galactose. No gelation with 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 % (w/v) aqueous solution was observed, even cooled up to 4 deg C. GPC indicated two majors polysaccharide fractions of M pk 7.4 x 10 4 and 1.8 x 10 4 g/mol and a minor fraction of M pk 2.1 x 10 6 g/mol. (author)

  8. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  10. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  11. Sex-biased phoretic mite load on two seaweed flies: Coelopa frigida and Coelopa pilipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilburn, Andre S; Stewart, Katie M; Edward, Dominic A

    2009-12-01

    Two hypotheses explain male-biased parasitism. Physiological costs of male sexually selected characteristics can reduce immunocompetence. Alternatively, ecological differences could generate male-biased parasitism. One method of comparing the importance of the two theories is to investigate patterns of phoresy, which are only likely to be generated by ecological rather than immunological differences between the sexes. Here we studied the pattern of phoresy of the mite, Thinoseius fucicola, on two species of seaweed fly hosts, Coelopa frigida and Coelopa pilipes. We found a highly male-biased pattern of phoresy of T. fucicola on both species. These are the first reported instances of sex-biased phoresy in a solely phoretic parasite. We also show the first two cases of size-biased phoresy. We suggest that ecological factors, particularly, male mate searching, generated male biased patterns of phoresy. We highlight the potential importance of studies of phoresy in determining the relative roles of the immunocompetence and ecological theories in generating male-biased parasitism. We suggest that more studies of patterns of phoresy are carried out to allow detailed comparisons with patterns of parasitism.

  12. Antioxidant activity and possible bioactive components in hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions from the seaweed Halimeda incrassata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal Novoa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, obtained from the marine algae Halimeda incrassata (J.Ellis J.V.Lamouroux, Halimedaceae, were studied by using the ²-carotene-linoleate assay system. In case of hydrophilic fractions, the total phenolic compounds were quantified and two of their components were identified as salicylic and ferulic acids. From the lipophilic fraction, fatty acid composition was studied. The highest antioxidant activities values were found on the polar fractions containing phenolic acids. The total phenolics content on the hydrophilic fractions was 255 μg of gallic acid equivalents/g of fresh seaweed. To further characterize H. incrassata chemical composition, the total lipid content was quantified (7.4 mg per gram of dried algae as well as the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (1:1.46. In summary, this paper adds more convincing evidences in support of the antioxidant abilities of the lyophilized aqueous extract of Halimeda incrassata and it also relates this bioactivity, for the first time, with particular phenolic components of the extract. Altogether, these results represent another step towards the use of this natural product as drug candidates.

  13. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Hao, Chen; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial populations, Hunter's color values (L*, a*, b*) and the sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, in order to use it as space food. Microorganisms were not detected in non-irradiated freeze-dried miyeokguk within the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/g. However, the microbial population in rehydrated miyeokguk was 7.01 log CFU/g after incubation at 35 °C for 48 h, indicating that freeze-dried miyeokguk was not sterilized by heat treatment during the preparation process. Bacteria in the freeze-dried miyeokguk were tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Ancinetobacter genomosp. using the 16S rDNA sequencing. In samples that were gamma-irradiated above 10 kGy, it was confirmed that all microorganisms were inactivated. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated at doses less than 10 kGy were not significantly altered from their baseline appearance (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that preference scores in all sensory properties decreased when freeze-dried miyeokguk was irradiated at doses greater than 10 kGy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy is sufficient to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without significant deterioration in the sensory quality, and thus, the freeze-dried and irradiated miyeokguk at 10 kGy fulfills the microbiological requirements as space food.

  14. Ethanol production from the seaweed Gelidium amansii, using specific sugar acclimated yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeyoung; Ra, Chae-Hun; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2014-02-28

    For the production of ethanol from seaweed as the source material, thermal acid hydrolysis and enzymatic saccharification were carried out for monosugars production of 25.5 g/l galactose and 7.6 g/l glucose using Gelidium amansii. The fermentation was performed with Pichia stipitis KCTC 7228 or Saccharomyces cerevisiae KCCM 1129. When wild P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae were used, the ethanol productions of 11.2 g/l and 6.9 g/l were produced, respectively. The ethanol productions of 16.6 g/l and 14.6 g/l were produced using P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae acclimated to high concentration of galactose, respectively. The yields of ethanol fermentation increased to 0.5 and 0.44 from 0.34 and 0.21 using acclimated P. stipitis and S. cerevisiae, respectively. Therefore, acclimation of yeasts to a specific sugar such as galactose reduced the glucose-induced repression on the transport of galactose.

  15. Elemental distribution in seaweed, Gelidium abbottiorum along the KwaZulu-Natal Coastline, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misheer, Natasha; Kindness, Andrew; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2006-01-01

    The total concentrations of 7 selected metals, namely manganese, iron, zinc, titanium, boron, arsenic and mercury, were monitored for one annual cycle covering four seasons in the seaweed, Gelidium abbottiorum, at four sampling sites at Zinkwasi, Ballito, Treasure beach and Park Rynie along the South-East coastline of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to assess the current status of the marine environment. Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrophotometry, Mercury Cold Vapour AAS, and Hydride Generation AAS were used for the determination of metal concentrations. Mn concentrations were particularly high in the G. abbottiorum species, followed by Fe, As and B concentrations which were in the 3-8 ppm range. Ti and Zn were in the 100-400 ppb range, while Hg was low and below 100 ppb. A typical sample of G. abbottiorum at Treasure beach, a site close to Durban metropolis in winter had Mn (8.6 ppm), Fe (4.6 ppm), As (5.6 ppm), B (3.0 ppm), Ti (420 ppb), Zn (167 ppb) and Hg (7.5 ppb). All metals recorded a decrease in concentrations from winter to spring with the exception of Hg. The Hg levels increased considerably from winter to spring.

  16. Popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii prevents against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Seo-Young; Lima, Inês S; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young-Bum; Jeung, Hee-Do; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii is broadly used as food worldwide. To determine whether G. amansii extract (GAE) has protective effects on obesity, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) treated with GAE (1 and 3 %) were studied. After 12 weeks of GAE treatment, body weight was greatly decreased in mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect could be due to decreased adipogenesis, as evidenced by the fact that GAE suppressed adipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. In addition, blood glucose and serum insulin levels were reduced by GAE treatment in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting improvement in glucose metabolism. GAE supplementation also led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data are further confirmed by H&E staining. Our findings indicate that Gelidium amansii prevents against the development of diet-induced obesity, and further implicate that GAE supplementation could be the therapeutical option for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. AGAR FROM MALAYSIAN RED SEAWEED AS POTENTIAL MATERIAL FOR SYNTHESIS OF BIOPLASTIC FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIEW-LING HII

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to identify the potential use of agar extracted from red seaweed, Gracilaria salicornia, collected from the coastal area of Malaysia as the raw material for synthesis of bioplastic film. Agar was extracted via two extraction methods: (1 alkali extraction method and (2 photo bleaching extraction method. The yields of agar by both of the methods were 9 to 11 %. The alkali extracted agar (AEA and photo bleached agar (PBA were incorporated as the raw materials for the formation of bioplastic films while sago starch and glycerol were added to increase workability. Physicochemical properties of the two bioplastic films were characterised. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of agar in both plastic films with the presence of 3,6- anhydrogalactose residues and further indicated that the interactions of agar and sago starch were strong in both PBA and AEA films. The results showed that tensile strength and percent elongation of PBA film (3.067 MPa, 3.270 % was higher than AEA film (2.431 MPa, 2.476 %. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA; % residual weight revealed that AEA film has higher thermal stability (14.80 % than PBA film (10.27 % while rheological results proved that both films exhibited non-Newtonian behaviors. The AEA film was completely decomposed after 30 days in the soil burial test. Results of current study show a wide range of future possibilities and commercial applications of AEA and PBA bioplastic films.

  18. The effects of salinity and temperature shock on Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed spores release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwinda, F. K.; Satyantini, W. H.; Masithah, E. W.

    2018-04-01

    One of the reproductive aspects of development step that is considered as the solution of this issue is seaweed sporulation technique through which is induced through salinity and temperature shock. This study aims to determine the effect of combination and interaction of salinity and temperature shock on the release of K. alvarezii spores in order to produce superior seeds. This research was conducted using Complete Randomized Design Factorial which consists of nine combinations of treatments and three replications. The used treatment in this study is the combination of different environmental factors such as salinity shock and temperature shock. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that salinity (31 ppt, 33 ppt, and 35 ppt) and temperature (30°C, 32°C, and 34°C). shock affected the osmoregulation system and the release of K. alvarezii spores. The salinity shock and temperature shock had interaction with K. alvarezii spore release on the sixth and seventh day with the best treatment at 32°C temperature and 31 ppt salinity and released 5413 cells/ml spores on the seventh day.

  19. Green Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed ( Kappaphycus alvarezii) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Yen Pin; Shameli, Kamyar; Miyake, Mikio; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Bt Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah; Bt Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Lee, Kar Xin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) successfully. Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii ( K. alvarezii) was employed as a green reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The X-ray diffraction planes at (220), (311), (400), (422), (511), (440), and (533) were corresponding to the standard Fe3O4 patterns, which showed the high purity and crystallinity of Fe3O4-NPs had been synthesized. Based on FT-IR analysis, two characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 556 and 423 cm-1, which proved the existence of Fe3O4 in the prepared nanoparticles. TEM image displayed the synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were mostly in spherical shape with an average size of 14.7 nm.

  20. Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii, seaweed waste biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K O; Ramli, Nazaruddin; Said, Mamot; Ahmad, Musa [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Suhaimi Mohd [School of Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Sabah (Malaysia); Arbakariya Ariff, E-mail: naza@ukm.my [Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular science, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass were investigated. Metal sorption capacities were 0.82 mg Cr (III)/ g, 0.73 mg Ni (II)/ g, 0.67 mg Cd (II)/ g, 0.65 mg Cu( II)/ g and 0.64 mg Zn (II)/ g in multi metal system. Whereas, desorption efficiencies were 66.08 %, 71.50 % and 80.44 % using 0.1 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, respectively. The metal sorption sequence were Cr(III) > Ni(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II), while metal desorption sequence were Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Cr(III). Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to characterize the seaweed waste biomass. FTIR analysis shown that carbonyl (-C-O) and nitrile (-C{identical_to}N) groups interact with the metal ions. The experiments result revealed that Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass represent an attractive candidate to remove multi metal ions. (author)

  1. Bioaccessibility of metals in fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed harvested in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Brian D; Chan, Hing Man

    2013-08-01

    Fish, shellfish, wild game, and seaweed are important traditional foods that are essential to the physical and cultural well-being of Indigenous peoples in Canada. The goal of this study was to measure the concentration and bioaccessibility of As, Cd, Hg, Se, Cu and Mn in 45 commonly consumed traditional foods collected by harvested by the First Nations Food, Nutrition, and Environment Study (FNFNES) from 21 First Nations communities in British Columbia, Canada, in 2008-2009. A significant and negative correlation was observed between Hg concentration and Hg bioaccessibility. Metal bioaccessibility tended to be high; median values ranging between 52% (Mn) and 83% (Cu). The notable exceptions were observed for As in wild game organs (7-19%) and rabbit meat (4%) as well as Hg in salmon eggs (10%). Results of Principal Components Analysis confirmed the unique pattern of bioaccessibility of As and Hg in traditional foods, suggesting that, unlike other metals, As and Hg bioaccessibility are not simply controlled by food digestibility under the operating conditions of the in vitro model. These data provide useful information for dietary contaminant risk assessment and intake assessments of essential trace elements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed-fish waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera-Vives, Marta; López-Fabal, Adolfo; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Ribeiro, Henrique M

    2015-12-01

    Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first-order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N were mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant available) with the higher rate. C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by the effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii, seaweed waste biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.O.; Nazaruddin Ramli; Mamot Said; Musa Ahmad; Suhaimi Mohd Yasir; Arbakariya Ariff

    2011-01-01

    Competitive metal sorption and desorption onto Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass were investigated. Metal sorption capacities were 0.82 mg Cr (III)/ g, 0.73 mg Ni (II)/ g, 0.67 mg Cd (II)/ g, 0.65 mg Cu( II)/ g and 0.64 mg Zn (II)/ g in multi metal system. Whereas, desorption efficiencies were 66.08 %, 71.50 % and 80.44 % using 0.1 M HNO 3 , 0.1 M HCl and 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 , respectively. The metal sorption sequence were Cr(III) > Ni(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II), while metal desorption sequence were Cd(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II) > Ni(II) > Cr(III). Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique was used to characterize the seaweed waste biomass. FTIR analysis shown that carbonyl (-C-O) and nitrile (-C≡N) groups interact with the metal ions. The experiments result revealed that Kappaphycus alvarezii waste biomass represent an attractive candidate to remove multi metal ions. (author)

  4. Structural, physicochemical and antioxidant properties of sodium alginate isolated from a Tunisian brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Younes, Islem; Ayed, Hanen Ben; Maalej, Hana; Montero, Veronique; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Dahia, Mostefa; Mechichi, Tahar; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2015-01-01

    An original sodium alginate from Tunisian seaweed (Cystoseira barbata) was purified and characterized by circular dichroism (CD) and ATR-FTIR spectroscopies. ATR-FTIR spectrum of C. barbata sodium alginate (CBSA) showed the characteristic bands of mannuronic (M) and guluronic acids (G). The M/G ratio was estimated by CD (M/G = 0.59) indicating that CBSA was composed of 37% mannuronic acid and 63% guluronic acid. The analysis of viscosity of CBSA showed evidence of pseudoplastic fluid behaviour. The emulsifying capacity of CBSA was evaluated at different concentrations (0.25-3%), temperatures (25-100 °C) and pH (3.0-11.0). Compared to most commercial emulsifiers, the emulsion formulated by CBSA was found to be less sensitive to temperature changes and more stable at acidic pH. CBSA was examined for antioxidant properties using various antioxidant assays. CBSA exhibited important DPPH radical-scavenging activity (74% inhibition at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml) and considerable ferric reducing potential. Effective hydroxyl-radical scavenging activity (82% at a concentration of 5 mg/ml) and potent protection activity against DNA breakage were also recorded for CBSA. However, in the linoleate-β-carotene system, CBSA exerted moderate antioxidant activity (60% at a concentration of 1.5 mg/ml). Therefore, CBSA can be used as a natural ingredient in food industry or in the pharmaceutical field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Ascophyllum nodosum Extract Biostimulants: Same Seaweed but Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Oscar; Fort, Antoine; Quille, Patrick; McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles; O'Connell, Shane

    2016-04-13

    Biostimulants for crop management are gaining increased attention with continued demand for increased crop yields. Seaweed extracts represent one category of biostimulant, with Ascophyllum nodosum extracts (ANE) widely used for yield and quality enhancement. This study investigated how the composition of two ANE biostimulants (ANE A and ANE B) affects plant mRNA transcriptomes, using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Affymetrix Ath1 microarrays, significant heterogeneity was detected between the ANE biostimulants in terms of their impacts on the mRNA transcriptome of A. thaliana plants, which accumulated significantly more biomass than untreated controls. Genes dysregulated by the ANE biostimulants are associated with a wide array of predicted biological processes, molecular functions, and subcellular distributions. ANE A dysregulated 4.47% of the transcriptome, whereas ANE B dysregulated 0.87%. The compositions of both ANEs were significantly different, with a 4-fold difference in polyphenol levels, the largest observed. The standardization of the composition of ANE biostimulants represents a challenge for providing consistent effects on plant gene expression and biostimulation.

  6. The Edible Brown Seaweed Ecklonia cava Reduces Hypersensitivity in Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain Models in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Goo Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate whether edible brown seaweed Ecklonia cava extracts exhibits analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and thermal hypersensitivity tests measured by von Frey filaments and a hot/cold plate analgesia meter. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with E. cava extracts by 300 mg/kg significantly increased; on the contrary, number of ultrasonic distress vocalization of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation (62.8%, p < 0.05. Moreover, E. cava 300 mg/kg treated group increased the paw withdrawal latency in hot-and cold-plate tests in the plantar incision rats. After 15 days of continuous treatment with E. cava extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity response by MWT compared with the control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that E. cava extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of postoperative pain and neuropathic pain in rats.

  7. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of PCBs in seaweed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of 12 polychlorinated biphenyls from algae samples is compared to Soxhlet extraction. Analytical detection limits for the individual congeners ranged from 0.62 microgl(-1) to 19 microgl(-1). Recovery was tested for both methods using standard addition procedure. At maximum spike level of concentration, the mean recoveries were not significantly different (P>0.05) of all PCBs studied, with the exception of PCBs 28, 52, 77 and 169. Method precision for Soxhlet extraction (yield comparable results, SFE offers the advantage of detecting all PCBs studied at lower concentrations, reducing extraction time, and reducing the amount of solvents needed. The optimized methods were applied to the analysis of three real seaweed samples, except for PCB101 the concentrations of all PCBs were low or below the detection limits. The levels of PCB101 found in sample 1 were 6.6+/-0.54 ng g(-1) d.w., in sample 2 the levels were 8.2+/-0.86 ng g(-1) d.w. and in sample 3 they were 7.7+/-0.08 ng g(-1) d.w.

  8. Host specificity and coevolution of Flavobacteriaceae endosymbionts within the siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollants, Joke; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; De Clerck, Olivier; Willems, Anne

    2013-06-01

    The siphonous green seaweed Bryopsis harbors complex intracellular bacterial communities. Previous studies demonstrated that certain species form close, obligate associations with Flavobacteriaceae. A predominant imprint of host evolutionary history on the presence of these bacteria suggests a highly specialized association. In this study we elaborate on previous results by expanding the taxon sampling and testing for host-symbiont coevolution Therefore, we optimized a PCR protocol to directly and specifically amplify Flavobacteriaceae endosymbiont 16S rRNA gene sequences, which allowed us to screen a large number of algal samples without the need for cultivation or surface sterilization. We analyzed 146 Bryopsis samples, and 92 additional samples belonging to the Bryopsidales and other orders within the class Ulvophyceae. Results indicate that the Flavobacteriaceae endosymbionts are restricted to Bryopsis, and only occur within specific, warm-temperate and tropical clades of the genus. Statistical analyses (AMOVA) demonstrate a significant non-random host-symbiont association. Comparison of bacterial 16S rRNA and Bryopsis rbcL phylogenies, however, reveal complex host-symbiont evolutionary associations, whereby closely related hosts predominantly harbor genetically similar endosymbionts. Bacterial genotypes are rarely confined to a single Bryopsis species and most Bryopsis species harbored several Flavobacteriaceae, obscuring a clear pattern of coevolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Highly sulphated galactan from Halymenia durvillei (Halymeniales, Rhodophyta), a red seaweed of Madagascar marine coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenoradosoa, T A; Delattre, C; Laroche, C; Wadouachi, A; Dulong, V; Picton, L; Andriamadio, P; Michaud, P

    2009-08-01

    Halymenia durvillei is a red seaweed with a great potential as sulphated galactan producer collected in the coastal waters of small island of Madagascar (Nosy-be in Indian Ocean). To elucidate the structure of its polysaccharide, NMR (1H and 13C), FTIR, HPAEC and different colorimetric methods were carried out. It has been shown that this polysaccharide, consisted mainly of galactose, was branched by xylose and galactose in minor amounts. Arabinose and fucose were also detected. This galactan was found highly sulphated (42%, w/w) and pyruvylated (1.8%, w/w). Analysis of glycosidic linkages by CPG-MS and 13C NMR indicated that the polysaccharide has the defining linear backbone of alternating 3-beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues. 3,6-Anhydrogalactose units have been also detected in minor quantity. This lambda-carrageenan like polysaccharide has shown original sulphatation patterns with 2-O (26%) or 2/6-O (58%) sulphated 3-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units and 6-O (19%) or 2/6-O (47%) 4-linked alpha-L/D-galactopyranosyl residues.

  10. Novel sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica: Chemical structure and action on the fibrin network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Raffo, María Paula; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-12-10

    The water-soluble sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica are constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2. Besides, partial glycosylation mostly on C2 with single stubs of β-d-xylopyranose, or single stubs of β-d-galactofuranose or short chains comprising (1→5)- and/or (1→6)-linkages, was also found. These compounds showed anticoagulant activity, although much lower than that of heparin. The effect of a purified fraction (F1) on the fibrin network was studied in detail. It modifies the kinetics of fibrin formation, suggesting an impaired polymerization process. Scanning electron microscopy showed a laxer conformation, with larger interstitial pores than the control. Accordingly, this network was lysed more easily. These fibrin properties would reduce the time of permanence of the clot in the blood vessel, inducing a lesser thrombogenic state. One of the possible mechanisms of its anticoagulant effect is direct thrombin inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Application of Homogenate and Filtrate from Baltic Seaweeds in Seedling Growth Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal filtrate and homogenate, obtained from Baltic seaweeds, were applied in seedling growth tests. Radish seeds were used in order to assess algal products phytotoxicity and their biostimulant effect on growth and nutrient uptake. Algal filtrate, at concentrations ranging from 5.0% to 100% was used for seed soaking and as a liquid biostimulant (soil and foliar application. Algal homogenate was developed for seed coating. Algal filtrate and homogenate were also enriched with Zn(II ions in order to examine the influence on metal ion complexation. The optimal doses of algal filtrate and homogenate, as well as soaking time were established. Multi-elemental analyses of the raw biomass, filtrate, homogenate, and radish were also performed using ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma—Optical Emission Spectrometry. The best results in terms of seedlings’ length and weight were obtained using clear filtrate at a concentration of 50% applied to the soil and for homogenate applied at a dose of 50 mg/g of seeds. Clear filtrate at a concentration of 50% used for seed soaking for one hour showed the best results. The applied algal products increased the content of elements in seedlings. Among the tested products, a concentration of 50% algal filtrate is recommended for future pot and field experiments.

  12. Addition of seaweed and bentonite accelerates the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-11-01

    Green waste (GW) is an important recyclable resource, and composting is an effective technology for the recycling of organic solid waste, including GW. This study investigated the changes in physical and chemical characteristics during the two-stage composting of GW with or without addition of seaweed (SW, Ulva ohnoi) (at 0, 35, and 55%) and bentonite (BT) (at 0.0, 2.5%, and 4.5%). During the bio-oxidative phase, the combined addition of SW and BT improved the physicochemical conditions, increased the respiration rate and enzyme activities, and decreased ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions. The combination of SW and BT also enhanced the quality of the final compost in terms of water-holding capacity, porosity, particle-size distribution, water soluble organic carbon/organic nitrogen ratio, humification, nutrient content, and phytotoxicity. The best quality compost, which matured in only 21days, was obtained with 35% SW and 4.5% BT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-kingdom signalling: exploitation of bacterial quorum sensing molecules by the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint, Ian; Tait, Karen; Wheeler, Glen

    2007-07-29

    The green seaweed Ulva has been shown to detect signal molecules produced by bacteria. Biofilms that release N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) attract zoospores--the motile reproductive stages of Ulva. The evidence for AHL involvement is based on several independent lines of evidence, including the observation that zoospores are attracted to wild-type bacteria that produce AHLs but are not attracted to mutants that do not produce signal molecules. Synthetic AHL also attracts zoospores and the attraction is lost in the presence of autoinducer inactivation (AiiA) protein. The mechanism of attraction is not chemotactic but involves chemokinesis. When zoospores detect AHLs, the swimming rate is reduced and this results in accumulation of cells at the source of the AHL. It has been demonstrated that the detection of AHLs results in calcium influx into the zoospore. This is the first example of a calcium signalling event in a eukaryote in response to bacterial quorum sensing molecules. The role of AHLs in the ecology of Ulva is discussed. It is probable that AHLs act as cues for the settlement of zoospores, rather than being directly involved as a signalling mechanism.

  14. Genomic structure and evolution of the mating type locus in the green seaweed Ulva partita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Tomokazu; Ichihara, Kensuke; Suzuki, Ryogo; Oshima, Kenshiro; Miyamura, Shinichi; Kuwano, Kazuyoshi; Toyoda, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Hattori, Masahira; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2017-09-15

    The evolution of sex chromosomes and mating loci in organisms with UV systems of sex/mating type determination in haploid phases via genes on UV chromosomes is not well understood. We report the structure of the mating type (MT) locus and its evolutionary history in the green seaweed Ulva partita, which is a multicellular organism with an isomorphic haploid-diploid life cycle and mating type determination in the haploid phase. Comprehensive comparison of a total of 12.0 and 16.6 Gb of genomic next-generation sequencing data for mt - and mt + strains identified highly rearranged MT loci of 1.0 and 1.5 Mb in size and containing 46 and 67 genes, respectively, including 23 gametologs. Molecular evolutionary analyses suggested that the MT loci diverged over a prolonged period in the individual mating types after their establishment in an ancestor. A gene encoding an RWP-RK domain-containing protein was found in the mt - MT locus but was not an ortholog of the chlorophycean mating type determination gene MID. Taken together, our results suggest that the genomic structure and its evolutionary history in the U. partita MT locus are similar to those on other UV chromosomes and that the MT locus genes are quite different from those of Chlorophyceae.

  15. Structure and cytotoxic activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Vu Luong, Dang; Bui, Minh Ly; Tran, Thi Thanh Van

    2016-12-01

    The structure of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was elucidated by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALL and ESIMS methods. The ulvan was also evaluated for its cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that the ulvan was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose, glucose (with a mole ratio of Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu equal to 1: 0.03: 0.07: 0.01: 0.06), uronic acid (21.5%) and sulfate content (18.9%) with a molecular weight of 347000. This ulvan mainly consists of disaccharide [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→4)-α-l-Rha3S-(1→] and other minor disaccharide β-GlcA-(1→2)-α-Xyl and β-GlcA-(→2)-α-Rha. The ulvan showed a significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (IC 50 29.67±2.87μg/ml), human breast cancer (IC 50 25.09±1.36μg/ml), and cervical cancer (IC 50 36.33±3.84μg/ml). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of HDPE filled with seaweed residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catano, L.; Albano, C.; Karam, A.; Dominguez, N.; Sanchez, Y.; Gonzalez, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present work shows the results obtained during the investigation of the influence of gamma irradiation on mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) filled with seaweed residues (SR). The SR used was located on Venezuelan coastlines and they are composed mainly by CaCO 3 in aragonite phase. The HDPE was extruded along with the filler at different compositions (20, 30 and 40 wt.%). The composites were exposed to a 60 Co source irradiated at 25 and 100 kGy. From the obtained results, it was noticed that Young modulus remained constant with filler content. Moreover, the influence of filler content was found to be more prominent on properties like tensile stress and elongation at break. On the other hand, thermal analysis showed that filler content had no significant influence on thermal stability. Still, it is necessary to point out that low radiation doses improved thermal stability of the composites. From rheological studies it was observed a decreasing of melt flow index (MFI) by increasing the SR amount and radiation. Therefore, was determinate that high filler content composites are the best choice to be considered for biomedical and industrial applications

  17. Use of geographic information systems (GIS to identify adequate sites for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae in Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavo E. S. de Sousa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to select potential areas for cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria birdiae Plastino & E.C. Oliveira (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. The Geographic Information System (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE were used to identify the most suitable areas. The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP was applied to establish MCE weights, thereby generating viable areas for species cultivation. From a total of 3316.82 ha, around 53.67% (1780.06 ha were indicated as highly suitable areas, 40.93% (1357.58 ha as moderately suitable and 5.40% (179.18 ha as scarcely suitable for seaweed cultivation. Seven areas (1084.62 ha are located on the northern coast and 20 (2232.20 ha on the eastern coast. The results show that GIS can be used as an effective instrument for selecting seaweed cultivation areas.

  18. Speciation of the bio-available iodine and bromine forms in edible seaweed by high performance liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bioavailable iodine and bromine speciation in edible seaweed were developed. ► In vitro dialyzability was used to assess the bioavailable fractions. ► AEC hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used. ► Iodide, MIT, DIT, bromide and bromate were found in dialyzates from edible seaweed. ► Positive correlation between bioavailability and protein contents was found. - Abstract: A bioavailability study based on an in vitro dialyzability approach has been applied to assess the bio-available fractions of iodine and bromine species from edible seaweed. Iodide, iodate, 3-iodo-tyrosine (MIT), 3,5-diiodo-tyrosine (DIT), bromide and bromate were separated by anion exchange chromatography under a gradient elution mode (175 mM ammonium nitrate plus 15% (v/v) methanol, pH 3.8, as a mobile phase, and flow rates within the 0.5–1.5 mL min −1 range). Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used as a selective detector for iodine ( 127 I) and bromine ( 79 Br). Low dialyzability ratios (within the 2.0–18% range) were found for iodine species; whereas, moderate dialyzability percentages (from 9.0 to 40%) were obtained for bromine species. Iodide and bromide were the major species found in the dialyzates from seaweed, although MIT and bromate were also found in the dialyzates from most of the seaweed samples analysed. However, DIT was only found in dialyzates from Wakame, Kombu, and NIES 09 (Sargasso) certified reference material; whereas, iodate was not found in any dialyzate. Iodine dialyzability was found to be dependent on the protein content (negative correlation), and on the carbohydrate and dietary fibre levels (positive correlation). However, bromine dialyzability was only dependent on the protein amount in seaweed (negative correlation).

  19. Effect of graded levels of dietary seaweed (Ulva sp.) on growth, hematological and serum biochemical parameters in dusky kob, Argyrosomus japonicus, sciaenidae

    OpenAIRE

    Molatelo Junior Madibana; Victor Mlambo; Brett Lewis; Chris Fouché

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of incorporating graded levels of green macroalgae seaweed (Ulva sp.) into diets of juvenile dusky kob (Argyrosomus japonicus) on growth performance, hematology and serum biochemistry. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain 0 (Ulva0), 50 (Ulva50), 100 (Ulva100), 150 (Ulva150) and 200 (Ulva200) g seaweed meal/kg commercial kob feed on a dry matter basis. Seventy-seven dusky kob fingerlings (mean body mass 9.14â¯Â±â¯0.30â¯g) were distribu...

  20. Responses of cerebral GABA-containing CBM neuron to taste stimulation with seaweed extracts in Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusuye, Kenji; Kinugawa, Aiko; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2005-11-01

    Aplysia kurodai distributed along Japan feeds well on Ulva pertusa but rejects Gelidium amansii with distinctive patterned movements of the jaws and radula. On the ventral side of the cerebral M cluster, four cell bodies of higher order neurons that send axons to the buccal ganglia are distributed (CBM neurons). We have previously shown that the dopaminergic CBM1 modulates basic feeding circuits in the buccal ganglia for rejection by firing at higher frequency after application of the aversive taste of seaweed such as Gelidium amansii. In the present experiments immunohistochemical techniques showed that the CBM3 exhibited gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity. The CBM3 may be equivalent to the CBI-3 involved in changing the motor programs from rejection to ingestion in Aplysia californica. The responses of the CBM3 to taste stimulation of the lips with seaweed extracts were investigated by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically introduced into a cell body of the CBM3 using a microelectrode. Application of Ulva pertusa or Gelidium amansii extract induced different changes in fluorescence in the CBM3 cell body, indicating that taste of Ulva pertusa initially induced longer-lasting continuous spike responses at slightly higher frequency compared with that of Gelidium amansii. Considering a role of the CBM3 in the pattern selection, these results suggest that elongation of the initial firing response may be a major factor for the CBM3 to switch the buccal motor programs from rejection to ingestion after application of different tastes of seaweeds in Aplysia kurodai. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Cultivation of seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis enhanced biodiversity in a eukaryotic plankton community as revealed via metagenomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Zhao Yang; He, Zhi Li; Deng, Yun Yan; Yang, Yu Feng; Tang, Ying Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Plankton diversity reflects the quality and health of waters and should be monitored as a critical feature of marine ecosystems. This study applied a pair of 28S rRNA gene-specific primers and pyrosequencing to assess the effects of large-scale cultivation of the seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis on the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton community in the coastal water of Guangdong, China. With 1 million sequences (2,221 operational taxonomic units [OTUs]) obtained from 51 samples, we found that the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton community was significantly higher in the seaweed cultivation area than that in the nearby control area as reflected in OTU richness, evenness (Shannon-Wiener index) and dominance (Simpson index) for total plankton community and its four subcategories when Gracilaria biomass reached the maximum, while no such a significant difference was observed before seaweed inoculation. Our laboratory experiment using an artificial phytoplankton community of nine species observed the same effects of Gracilaria exposure. Principal component analysis and principal coordinates analysis showed the plankton community structure in cultivation area markedly differed from the control area when Gracilaria biomass reached its maximum. Redundancy analysis showed that G. lemaneiformis was the critical factor in controlling the dynamics of eukaryotic plankton communities in the studied coastal ecosystem. Our results explicitly demonstrated G. lemaneiformis cultivation could enhance biodiversity of plankton community via allelopathy, which prevents one or several plankton species from blooming and consequently maintains a relatively higher biodiversity. Our study provided further support for using large-scale G. lemaneiformis cultivation as an effective approach for improving costal ecosystem health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs.

  3. Biofabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of seaweed Enteromorpha compressa and its biomedical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Sri Ramkumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of nanoparticles using seaweeds are fascinating high research attention nowadays and also gaining center of attention in biomedical applications. In this work, we have synthesized biocompatible and functionalized silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of seaweed Enteromorpha compressa as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent and their efficient antimicrobial and anticancer activity are reported here. The UV–vis spectra of AgNPs showed the characteristics SPR absorption band at 421 nm. The chemical interaction and crystalline nature of the AgNPs were evaluated by FT-IR and XRD studies. The XRD result of AgNPs shows typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2°, 64.4° and 77.1° corresponding to (111, (200, (220 and (311 Bragg’s planes. The surface morphology and composition of the samples were observed by HRTEM, EDS and SAED pattern analyses. Spherical shaped Ag nano structures were observed in the size ranges between 4 and 24 nm with clear lattice fringes in the HRTEM image. This report reveals that seaweed mediated synthesis of AgNPs and sustained delivery of Ag ions to the bacterial and fungal surface have been reducing their growth rate which was evaluated by well diffusion assay. The synthesized AgNPs showed favorable cytotoxicity against Ehlrich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC cells with IC50 value was recorded at 95.35 μg mL−1. This study showed cost effective silver nanoparticles synthesis with excellent biocompatibility and thus could potentially be utilized in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  4. Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsen, L.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Fontoura, L.; Kautsky, N.; Gullström, M.; Berkström, C.

    2017-09-01

    Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

  5. Fucus and Ascophyllum seaweeds are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    OpenAIRE

    H. Berresheim; C. D. O'Dowd; F. C. Küpper; P. P. A. Smyth; J. Chen; A. L. Vogel; D. Ceburnis; D. S. Venables; M. Kundel; U. R. Thorenz; R.-J. Huang; T. Hoffmann

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2) above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed) beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland), we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. I2 mixing ratios from 104 to 393 ppt were found above the macroalgae beds, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are suffic...

  6. Identification of the products of the cleavage of the galactans of red seaweeds in the form of pyridylamino derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usov, A.I.; Dobkina, I.M.

    1986-01-01

    It has been shown that pyridylamino derivatives are convenient for the identification of various products of the galactans of red algae. Reductive amination with 2-aminopyridine and sodium thiohydroborate has been investigated for the case of several monosaccharides that are common components of the polysaccharide fractions of red seaweeds and also for carrabiose, agarobiose, and oligosaccharides of the neoagarobiose series. Various forms of chromatography and high-voltage paper electrophoresis were used to separate the pyridylamino derivatives, and NMR spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy of the full acetates for structural characterization

  7. Trace elemental analysis of leaching solutions of hijiki seaweeds by a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Imashuku, Susumu; Kawai, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (TXRF) was used to analyze leaching solutions of hijiki seaweeds. S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, As and Br were detected in the solutions. Arsenic quantification results were compared to those from ICP-AES. The TXRF quantification results of arsenic were not significantly different from those of ICP-AES, as two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was applied to the significance test. This kind of small and high sensitive TXRF spectrometer can be used in food quality and environmental pollution investigation. (author)

  8. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz., DPPH, ABTS, HO radical scavenging activities, H2O2 scavenging ability, Fe(2+) ion chelating ability and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts/fractions, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of the seaweed extracts/fractions. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts/fractions to inhibit lipid oxidation. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of H. musciformis exhibited significantly higher total phenolic content (205.5 mg GAE/g), DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 0.6 mg/mL), ABTS(.+) scavenging activity (IC50 0.51 μg/mL), Fe(2+) chelating ability (IC50 0.70 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), reducing ability (Abs700 nm 1.46) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability (2.71 MDAEC/kg) (P < 0.05) compared to its n-hexane, DCM fractions, crude MeOH extract and MeOH extracts/fractions of H. valentiae and J. rubens. DCM fraction of J. rubens showed significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.55 mg/mL) compared with H. musciformis and H. valentiae (P < 0.05). This study indicated the potential use of red seaweeds, in particular, H. musciformis as candidate species to be used as food supplement for increasing the shelf-life of food industry, and candidates in combating carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases.

  9. Characterization of Gluten-free Bread Prepared From Maize, Rice and Tapioca Flours using the Hydrocolloid Seaweed Agar-Agar

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarenga, Nuno Bartolomeu; Cebola Lidon, Fernando; Belga, Elisa; Motrena, Patrícia; Guerreiro, Suse; Carvalho, Maria João; Canada, João

    2011-01-01

    Disponível em livre acesso no sítio do DOAJ em http://recent-science.com/index This work aims to check the rheological, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free bread produced with corn, rice and tapioca flours, using the hydrocolloid seaweed agar-agar. Relatively to wheat bread, it was found that the pH was slightly lower in gluten-free bread. In the crust only the brightness remained significantly different between both bread types, but in the kernel, the parameters a*,...

  10. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should

  11. Acidification increases abundances of Vibrionales and Planctomycetia associated to a seaweed-grazer system: potential consequences for disease and prey digestion efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Aires

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification significantly affects marine organisms in several ways, with complex interactions. Seaweeds might benefit from rising CO2 through increased photosynthesis and carbon acquisition, with subsequent higher growth rates. However, changes in seaweed chemistry due to increased CO2 may change the nutritional quality of tissue for grazers. In addition, organisms live in close association with a diverse microbiota, which can also be influenced by environmental changes, with feedback effects. As gut microbiomes are often linked to diet, changes in seaweed characteristics and associated microbiome can affect the gut microbiome of the grazer, with possible fitness consequences. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of acidification on the microbiome of the invasive brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and a native isopod consumer Synisoma nadejda. Both were exposed to ambient CO2 conditions (380 ppm, pH 8.16 and an acidification treatment (1,000 ppm, pH 7.86 for three weeks. Microbiome diversity and composition were determined using high-throughput sequencing of the variable regions V5-7 of 16S rRNA. We anticipated that as a result of acidification, the seaweed-associated bacterial community would change, leading to further changes in the gut microbiome of grazers. However, no significant effects of elevated CO2 on the overall bacterial community structure and composition were revealed in the seaweed. In contrast, significant changes were observed in the bacterial community of the grazer gut. Although the bacterial community of S. muticum as whole did not change, Oceanospirillales and Vibrionales (mainly Pseudoalteromonas significantly increased their abundance in acidified conditions. The former, which uses organic matter compounds as its main source, may have opportunistically taken advantage of the possible increase of the C/N ratio in the seaweed under acidified conditions. Pseudoalteromonas, commonly associated to

  12. Development of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, as space food sterilized by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Park, Jin-Gyu; Kim, Jae-Hun; Choi, Jong-Il; Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Hao, Chen; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate microbial populations, Hunter's color values (L ⁎ , a ⁎ , b ⁎ ) and the sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk, Korean seaweed soup, in order to use it as space food. Microorganisms were not detected in non-irradiated freeze-dried miyeokguk within the detection limit of 1.00 log CFU/g. However, the microbial population in rehydrated miyeokguk was 7.01 log CFU/g after incubation at 35 °C for 48 h, indicating that freeze-dried miyeokguk was not sterilized by heat treatment during the preparation process. Bacteria in the freeze-dried miyeokguk were tentatively identified as Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Enterobacter hormaechei, and Ancinetobacter genomosp. using the 16S rDNA sequencing. In samples that were gamma-irradiated above 10 kGy, it was confirmed that all microorganisms were inactivated. Hunter's color values of the samples irradiated at doses less than 10 kGy were not significantly altered from their baseline appearance (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation showed that preference scores in all sensory properties decreased when freeze-dried miyeokguk was irradiated at doses greater than 10 kGy. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy is sufficient to sterilize freeze-dried miyeokguk without significant deterioration in the sensory quality, and thus, the freeze-dried and irradiated miyeokguk at 10 kGy fulfills the microbiological requirements as space food. - Highlights: ► 10 kGy gamma-irradiation is sufficient for sterilization of freeze-dried miyeokguk. ► Sensory quality of freeze-dried miyeokguk decreased after >10 kGy gamma irradiation. ► 10 kGy gamma-irradiation sterilizes freeze-dried miyeokguk and makes it optimal for use as space food.

  13. Seaweed richness and herbivory increase rate of community recovery from disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Kristin M; Stachowicz, John J

    2012-04-01

    The importance of herbivores and of plant diversity for community succession and recovery from disturbance is well documented. However, few studies have assessed the relative magnitude of, or potential interactions between, these factors. To determine the combined effect of herbivory and surrounding algal species richness on the recovery of a rocky intertidal community, we conducted a 27-month field experiment assessing algal recruitment and succession in cleared patches that mimic naturally forming gaps in the ambient community. We crossed two herbivore treatments, ambient and reduced abundance, with monocultures and polycultures of the four most common algal species in a mid-high rocky intertidal zone of northern California. We found that both the presence of herbivores and high surrounding algal richness increased recovery rates, and the effect of algal richness was twice the magnitude of that of herbivores. The increased recovery rate of patches containing herbivores was due to the consumption of fast-growing, early colonist species that preempt space from perennial, late-successional species. Mechanisms linking algal richness and recovery are more numerous. In polycultures, herbivore abundance and species composition is altered, desiccation rates are lower, and propagule recruitment, survival, and growth are higher compared to monocultures, all of which could contribute the observed effect of surrounding species richness. Herbivory and species richness should jointly accelerate recovery wherever palatable species inhibit late-successional, herbivore-resistant species and recruitment and survival of new colonists is promoted by local species richness. These appear to be common features of rocky-shore seaweed, and perhaps other, communities.

  14. Fortification of seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii) flour on nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Muhamad; Yahya; Raditya Hardany Nugraha, Galih; Dwi Utari, Dyah

    2017-10-01

    Pasta is a nutritious and energy product which produced from the dough of wheat flour and water. It contains less of iodine and high of glycemic index. Euchema cottonii belongs of red seaweed is food substance that contains much of iodine and dietary fiber. The objective of this study was to know the fortification effect of E. cottonii flour on the nutrition, iodine, and glycemic index of pasta. E. cottonii was collected from the culture farm of E. cottonii on the Wongsorejo beach, District of Banyuwangi, East Java on April-June 2015. Wheat flour and pasta ingredients were obtained locally at shops of Pasar Besar, Malang. Pasta was produced by weighing of components, mixing, dough, milling, steaming and drying. E. cottonii flour was added on mixing process at 0; 7; 14 and 21 % of ingredients. The parameter of this study was the level of water, lipid, protein, ash, and carbohydrate (by difference), iodine, crude fiber, the total of dietary fiber, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, and glycemic index, respectively. Data were analyzed by variance and the least square difference used to determine the difference between treatments. The highest concentration group showed more nutritious than other treatments. The characters of its product were water 6.70%, lipid 2.26%, protein 23.09%, ash 14.11%, carbohydrate 53.84%, iodine 3.71 ppm, crude fiber 8.02%, the total of dietary fiber 20.88%, soluble fiber 11.69%, insoluble fiber 9.19%, and glycemic index 44.45, respectively. In conclusion, the fortification of E. cottonii flour enhances the nutrition value, iodine content, and glycemic index of pasta.

  15. The seaweeds Fucus vesiculosus and Ascophyllum nodosum are significant contributors to coastal iodine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.-J. Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a pilot study in 2007, which found high mixing ratios of molecular iodine (I2 above the intertidal macroalgae (seaweed beds at Mweenish Bay (Ireland, we extended the study to nine different locations in the vicinity of Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland during a field campaign in 2009. The mean values of chem{I_2} mixing ratio found above the macroalgae beds at nine different locations ranged from 104 to 393 ppt, implying a high source strength of I2. Such mixing ratios are sufficient to result in photochemically driven coastal new-particle formation events. Mixing ratios above the Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus beds increased with exposure time: after 6 h exposure to ambient air the mixing ratios were one order of magnitude higher than those initially present. This contrasts with the emission characteristics of Laminaria digitata, where most I2 was emitted within the first half hour of exposure. Discrete in situ measurements (offline of I2 emission from ambient air-exposed chamber experiments of L. digitata, A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus substantially supported the field observations. Further online and time-resolved measurements of the I2 emission from O3-exposed macroalgal experiments in a chamber confirmed the distinct I2 emission characteristics of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus compared to those of L. digitata. The emission rates of A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus were comparable to or even higher than L. digitata after the initial exposure period of ~20–30 min. We suggest that A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus may provide an important source of photolabile iodine in the coastal boundary layer and that their impact on photochemistry and coastal new-particle formation should be reevaluated in light of their longer exposure at low tide and their widespread distribution.

  16. Seaweed Fucoxanthin Supplementation Improves Obesity Parameters in Mild Obese Japanese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoketsu Hitoe

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fucoxanthin is a seaweed xanthophyll that has demonstrated an anti-obesity effect in rodents. However,clinical investigations of its influence on mildly obese subjects has not been performed. We conducted a clinical trial of fucoxanthin supplementation in Japanese obese subjects.Methods: We examined the effect of fucoxanthin (1 or 3 mg daily in a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Capsules containing fucoxanthin or placebo capsules were administered for 4 weeks to male and female Japanese adults with a body mass index (BMI of more than 25 kg/m2. Before and after treatment, the body weight, body composition, abdominal fat area, and the circumferences of the neck, arm,and thigh were evaluated.Results: There was significant reduction of the relative (ratio versus before treatment body weight,BMI, and visceral fat area in the 3 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. Relative values of total fat mass, subcutaneous fat area, waist circumference, and right thigh circumference were also significantly lower in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group than the placebo group. A significant decrease of the absoluteright thigh circumference was noted in the 1 mg/day fucoxanthin group compared to the placebo group. In the subjects ingesting fucoxanthin, there were no abnormalities of the blood pressure, pulse rate, blood parameters, and urinalysis parameters, which thereby suggests adverse effects.Conclusions: Fucoxanthin reduced body weight, BMI, and abdominal fat by acting on both visceraland subcutaneous fat. Consequently, Fucoxanthin may be able to improve a moderate overweight state in both men and women.

  17. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  18. 24(S)-Saringosterol from edible marine seaweed Sargassum fusiforme is a novel selective LXRβ agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Liu, Jiao; Fu, Zhifei; Ye, Cheng; Zhang, Renshuai; Song, Yiyun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Haihua; Ying, Hao; Liu, Hongbing

    2014-07-02

    Dietary phytosterols have been successfully used for lowering cholesterol levels, which correlates with the fact that some phytosterols are able to act as liver X receptor (LXR) agonists. Sargassum fusiforme is an edible marine seaweed well-known for its antiatherosclerotic function in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, seven phytosterols including fucosterol (1), saringosterol (2), 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (3), 29-hydroperoxy-stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3β-ol (4), 24-methylene-cholesterol (5), 24-keto-cholesterol (6), and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol (7) were purified and evaluated for their actions on LXR-mediated transcription using a reporter assay. Among these phytosterols, 2 was the most potent compound in stimulating the transcriptional activities of LXRα by (3.81±0.15)-fold and LXRβ by (14.40±1.10)-fold, respectively. Two epimers of 2, 24(S)-saringosterol (2a) and 24(R)-saringosterol (2b), were subsequently separated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography. Interestingly, 2a was more potent than 2b in LXRβ-mediated transactivation ((3.50±0.17)-fold vs (1.63±0.12)-fold) compared with control. Consistently, 2a induced higher expression levels of LXR target genes including key players in reverse cholesterol transport in six cell lines. These data along with molecular modeling suggested that 2a acts as a selective LXRβ agonist and is a potent natural cholesterol-lowering agent. This study also demonstrated that phytosterols in S. fusiforme contributed to the well-known antiatherosclerotic function.

  19. Study on saccharification techniques of seaweed wastes for the transformation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Leilei; Wang, Peng; Mou, Haijin [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266003 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Floating residue (FR), a surplus by-product from the alginate extraction process, contains large amount of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of FR utilization as a resource of renewable energy was investigated in this paper. The production of yeast-fermentable sugars (glucose) from FR was studied by dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and further enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was conducted by using sulfuric acid at concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%(w/v) for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 h respectively at 121 C. The system of enzymatic hydrolysis consisted of cellulase and cellobiase. Results showed that FR might be a perfect bioenergy resource, containing high content of cellulose (30.0 {+-} 0.07%) and little hemicellulose (2.2 {+-} 0.86%). The acid pretreatment improved the hydrolysis efficiency of cellulase and cellobiase by increasing the reaction surface area of FR and enhanced the final yield of glucose for fermentation. The maximum yield of glucose reached 277.5 mg/g FR under the optimal condition of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (0.1% w/v, 121 C, 1.0 h) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (50 C, pH 4.8, 48 h). After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 30 C for 36 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the concentrated hydrolysates reached 41.2%, which corresponds to 80.8% of the theoretical yield. It indicates that cellulose in seaweed processing wastes including FR is easily hydrolyzed to produce glucose in comparison with that in terrestrial plants. FR shows excellent prospects as a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. (author)

  20. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).