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Sample records for seaweed extract nutrient

  1. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  2. A combined phase I and II open label study on the effects of a seaweed extract nutrient complex on osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Myers

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stephen P Myers1,2, Joan O’Connor1,2, J Helen Fitton3, Lyndon Brooks4, Margaret Rolfe4, Paul Connellan5, Hans Wohlmuth2,5,6, Phil A Cheras1,2, Carol Morris51NatMed-Research, 2Centre for Health and Wellbeing, 4Graduate Research College, 5Centre for Phytochemistry and Pharmacology, 6Medicinal Plant Herbarium, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia; 3Marinova Pty Ltd, Hobart, Tasmania, AustraliaBackground: Isolated fucoidans from brown marine algae have been shown to have a range of anti-inflammatory effects.Purpose: This present study tested a Maritech® extract formulation, containing a blend of extracts from three different species of brown algae, plus nutrients in an open label combined phase I and II pilot scale study to determine both acute safety and efficacy in osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients and methods: Participants (n = 12, five females [mean age, 62 ± 11.06 years] and seven males [mean age, 57.14 ± 9.20 years] with a confirmed diagnosis of osteoarthritis of the knee were randomized to either 100 mg (n = 5 or 1000 mg (n = 7 of a Maritech® extract formulation per day. The formulation contained Maritech® seaweed extract containing Fucus vesiculosis (85% w/w, Macrocystis pyrifera (10% w/w and Laminaria japonica (5% w/w plus vitamin B6, zinc and manganese. Primary outcome was the average comprehensive arthritis test (COAT score which is comprised of four sub-scales: pain, stiffness, difficulty with physical activity and overall symptom severity measured weekly. Safety measures included full blood count, serum lipids, liver function tests, urea, creatinine and electrolytes determined at baseline and week 12. All adverse events were recorded.Results: Eleven participants completed 12 weeks and one completed 10 weeks of the study. Using a multilevel linear model, the average COAT score was reduced by 18% for the 100 mg treatment and 52% for the 1000 mg dose at the end of the study. There was a clear dose response effect

  3. Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed: Extraction technolgy and bioactivity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor

    will generate new valuable products that may help lessen coastal pollution by seaweeds and create new seaweed-based resources. Thus, utilization of these natural resources is of great importance. The objectives of this PhD study were to develop a technology to extract bioactive compounds from nuisance brown...... seaweeds, and investigate their bioactivity. To this effect, designed optimized extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) and/or crude fucoidan from brown seaweed were performed, and the bioactivity of the isolated FCSPs was investigated. Moreover, to assess the potential of seaweed...... to assimilate nitrogen-based nutrients, a technology for accurate monitoring of differential seaweed growth responses to nutrient assimilation was also developed. Fucoidan is a term used to describe a class of sulfated polysaccharides extracted from brown seaweed, which contains substantial amounts of fucose...

  4. The potential health benefits of seaweed and seaweed extract

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Edible seaweeds have historically been consumed by coastal populations across the globe. Today, seaweed is still part of the habitual diet in many Asian countries. Seaweed consumption also appears to be growing in popularity in Western cultures, due both to the influx of Asian cuisine as well as notional health benefits associated with consumption. Isolates of seaweeds (particularly viscous polysaccharides) are used in an increasing number of food applications in order to improve product acce...

  5. IN VITRO GROWTH RATE OF Kappaphycus alvarezii MICROPROPAGULE AND EMBRYO BY ENRICHMENT MEDIUM WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT

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    Emma Suryati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of micropropagule and embryo of seaweed depend on nutrient and fertilizer used. Seaweed has been reported contain hormone regulators such as auxine, cytokinine, gibbereline, and various minerals applied in stimulating the growth ocra plant and wheat culture. The objectives of this study were to determine the potential of Kappaphycus alvarezii extract and its optimal concentration in accelerating of Kappaphycus alvarezii micropropagule and embryo growth. Micropropagule and embryo produced through callus induction were planted into PES 1/20 liquid medium supplemented with seaweed extract at the concentrations of 0 (control, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μL in 10 mL of medium. The results showed that medium enrichment with 50 μL of seaweed extract had the highest survival rate and growth of thallus. In addition, this concentration was also resulted in a good performance of K. alvarezii thallus with the lighter color. The advantage of this study for seaweed cultivation in Indonesia, among others, seaweed can be used as fertilizer, especially in the maintenance of seaweed seed, so that cultivation can be better develop.

  6. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi; Agusti, Susana; Lin, Fang; Li, Ke; Pan, Yaoru; Yu, Yan; Zheng, Yuhan; Wu, Jiaping; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3's of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  7. Nutrient removal from Chinese coastal waters by large-scale seaweed aquaculture

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi

    2017-04-21

    China is facing intense coastal eutrophication. Large-scale seaweed aquaculture in China is popular, now accounting for over 2/3\\'s of global production. Here, we estimate the nutrient removal capability of large-scale Chinese seaweed farms to determine its significance in mitigating eutrophication. We combined estimates of yield and nutrient concentration of Chinese seaweed aquaculture to quantify that one hectare of seaweed aquaculture removes the equivalent nutrient inputs entering 17.8 ha for nitrogen and 126.7 ha for phosphorus of Chinese coastal waters, respectively. Chinese seaweed aquaculture annually removes approximately 75,000 t nitrogen and 9,500 t phosphorus. Whereas removal of the total N inputs to Chinese coastal waters requires a seaweed farming area 17 times larger than the extant area, one and a half times more of the seaweed area would be able to remove close to 100% of the P inputs. With the current growth rate of seaweed aquaculture, we project this industry will remove 100% of the current phosphorus inputs to Chinese coastal waters by 2026. Hence, seaweed aquaculture already plays a hitherto unrealized role in mitigating coastal eutrophication, a role that may be greatly expanded with future growth of seaweed aquaculture.

  8. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

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    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  9. Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods

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    Susana M. Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits.

  10. Seaweeds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    in the synchronous spawning, is a critical factor in the life history of marine organisms. ..... port to balance cargo load. Invasive ... Negative effects of seaweeds include ma- ... India INSPIRE faculty award for funding this work, including research ...

  11. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

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    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  12. A review of extractions of seaweed hydrocolloids: Properties and applications

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    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The term hydrocolloid generally refers to substances that form gels or provide viscous dispersion in the presence of water. Alginate, agar, and carrageenan are three commercially valuable hydrocolloids derived from certain brown and red seaweed and each has their distinct physicochemical properties (i.e. functional and bioactive. Various applications of these seaweed hydrocolloids as thickeners, stabilizers, coagulants and salves (in the wound and burn dressings and materials to produce bio-medical impressions in the food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries are highlighted in this review. Although the existing industrial methods of extraction for these seaweed hydrocolloids are well-established, still growing demand has exposed certain limitations of those methods, notably efficiency and product consistency. In order to achieve targeted hydrocolloids for specific purposes and functionalities, some novel and green extraction methods have also been proposed and discussed. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE, enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized solvent extractions (PSE, reactive extrusion and photobleaching process are selectively presented as highly promising candidates that can avoid the use of chemicals and provide novel means of access to seaweed hydrocolloids with both economic and environmental benefits. However, this review does not provide the ‘best’ method or procedure as many are still under development. Hence, the review gives ‘food for thought’as to new processes which might be adopted industrially and concluded that further research is required in order to contribute additional new knowledge and refinement to this field of study.

  13. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark — An instrument for circular nutrient management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seghetta, Michele; Tørring, Ditte; Bruhn, Annette; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km"2 in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km"2. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq. and 16.58 kg PO_4"3"− eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and > 100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and > 100% of the target). - Highlights: • Offshore seaweed production for nutrient

  14. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark — An instrument for circular nutrient management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seghetta, Michele [Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Tørring, Ditte [Orbicon A/S, Jens Juuls Vej 16, 8260 Viby (Denmark); Bruhn, Annette [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Vejlsøvej 25, 8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Thomsen, Marianne, E-mail: mth@envs.au.dk [Research Group on EcoIndustrial System Analysis, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from fertilized agriculture to the aquatic environment. We also differentiated between nitrogen- and phosphorus-limited marine water to improve the traditional freshwater impact category, making this indicator suitable for decision support in relation to coastal water management schemes. Offshore cultivation of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km{sup 2} in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km{sup 2}. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq. and 16.58 kg PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} eq. per Mg (dry weight) of seaweed, quantified by the ReCiPe and CML impact assessment methods, respectively. Seaweed cultivation, harvest and reuse of excess nutrients from the aquatic environment is a promising approach for sustainable resource cycling in a future regenerative economy that exploits manmade emissions as a resource for closed loop biobased production while significantly reducing eutrophication levels in 3 out of 7 Danish river basin districts. We obtained at least 10% bioextraction of phosphorus manmade emissions (10%, 89% and > 100%) and contributed significantly to local nitrogen reduction goals according to the Water Framework Directive (23%, 78% and > 100% of the target). - Highlights: • Offshore seaweed production

  15. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN THE GERMINATION, GROWTH AND CHLOROPHYLLASE ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO L. USING SEAWEED EXTRACT OF ULVA RETICULATA FORSSKAL.

    OpenAIRE

    Ganapathy Selvam G.; Balamurugan M.; Thinakaran T.; Sivakumar K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of seaweed extract prepared from Ulva reticulata on seed germination, seedling growth and chlorophyllase activity of Vigna mungo L. was studied. 100% germination was recorded in the seeds treated with lower concentration of seaweed extract. The V. mungo seeds soaked with lower concentrations of the seaweed extracts showed higher rates of germination, while the higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited the germination.

  16. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M.; Barba, Francisco J.; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A.; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability. PMID:27879659

  17. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesha M. Poojary

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield, selectivity (purity, high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  18. Innovative Alternative Technologies to Extract Carotenoids from Microalgae and Seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojary, Mahesha M; Barba, Francisco J; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Donsì, Francesco; Pataro, Gianpiero; Dias, Daniel A; Juliano, Pablo

    2016-11-22

    Marine microalgae and seaweeds (microalgae) represent a sustainable source of various bioactive natural carotenoids, including β-carotene, lutein, astaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin and fucoxanthin. Recently, the large-scale production of carotenoids from algal sources has gained significant interest with respect to commercial and industrial applications for health, nutrition, and cosmetic applications. Although conventional processing technologies, based on solvent extraction, offer a simple approach to isolating carotenoids, they suffer several, inherent limitations, including low efficiency (extraction yield), selectivity (purity), high solvent consumption, and long treatment times, which have led to advancements in the search for innovative extraction technologies. This comprehensive review summarizes the recent trends in the extraction of carotenoids from microalgae and seaweeds through the assistance of different innovative techniques, such as pulsed electric fields, liquid pressurization, supercritical fluids, subcritical fluids, microwaves, ultrasounds, and high-pressure homogenization. In particular, the review critically analyzes technologies, characteristics, advantages, and shortcomings of the different innovative processes, highlighting the differences in terms of yield, selectivity, and economic and environmental sustainability.

  19. Bioextraction potential of seaweed in Denmark – an instrument for circular nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Tørring, Ditte; Bruhn, Annette

    2016-01-01

    of Saccharina latissima with an average productivity of 150 Mg/km2 in Danish waters in 2014 was applied to a cultivation scenario of 208 km2. The bioresource scenario performs better than conventional biowaste management systems, delivering a net reduction in aquatic eutrophication levels of 32.29 kg N eq......The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of seaweed for circular nutrient management to reduce eutrophication levels in the aquatic environment. We performed a comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of two reference waste management systems treating seaweed as biowaste, i.e. landfill...... disposal and combustion, and an alternative scenario using the seaweed Saccharina latissima as a resource for biobased fertilizer production. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods were improved by using a cradle-to-cradle approach, quantifying fate factors for nitrogen and phosphorus loss from...

  20. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

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    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  1. Acute Post-Prandial Cognitive Effects of Brown Seaweed Extract in Humans

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    Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (Polyphenols and, specifically, phlorotannins present in brown seaweeds have previously been shown to inhibit α-amylase and α-glucosidase, key enzymes involved in the breakdown and intestinal absorption of carbohydrates. Related to this are observations of modulation of post-prandial glycemic response in mice and increased insulin sensitivity in humans when supplemented with seaweed extract. However, no studies to date have explored the effect of seaweed extract on cognition. The current randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups study examined the impact of a brown seaweed extract on cognitive function post-prandially in 60 healthy adults (N = 30 per group. Computerized measures of episodic memory, attention and subjective state were completed at baseline and 5 times at 40 min intervals over a 3 h period following lunch, with either seaweed or placebo consumed 30 min prior to lunch. Analysis was conducted with linear mixed models controlling for baseline. Seaweed led to significant improvements to accuracy on digit vigilance (p = 0.035 and choice reaction time (p = 0.043 tasks. These findings provide the first evidence for modulation of cognition with seaweed extract. In order to explore the mechanism underlying these effects, future research should examine effects on cognition in parallel with blood glucose and insulin responses.

  2. Antifungal activity of aqueous and methanolic extracts of some seaweeds against common soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.A.; Abid, M.; Hussain, F.

    2017-01-01

    Total 32 species of different seaweeds belonging to Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta were collected from the coast of Karachi, Pakistan to investigate their antifungal activity. Most of the seaweeds inhibited growth of Fusarium oxypsorum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani. The highest antifungal activities were observed in Sargasssum tenerrimum in both aqueous and methanolic extracts as compared to other seaweeds. (author)

  3. Extraction and detection of arsenicals in seaweed via accelerated solvent extraction with ion chromatographic separation and ICP-MS detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, P.A.; Shoemaker, J.A.; Wei Xinyi; Brockhoff-Schwegel, C.A.; Creed, J.T. [Microbiological and Chemical Exposure Assessment Research Div., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2001-01-01

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. The effect of the experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time, and solvent composition) on the extraction efficiencies of arsenicals from seaweed was investigated. The extraction efficiencies for ribbon kelp (approximately 72.6%) using the ASE were fairly independent (< 7%) of pressure, static time and particle size after 3 ASE extraction cycles. The optimum extraction conditions for the ribbon kelp were obtained by using a 3 mL ASE cell, 30/70 (w/w) MeOH/H{sub 2}O, 500 psi (1 psi = 7 KPa), ambient temperature, 1 min heat step, 1 min static step, 90% vol. flush, and a 120 s purge. Using these conditions, two other seaweed products produced extraction efficiencies of 25.6% and 50.5%. The inorganic species present in the extract represented 62.5% and 27.8% of the extracted arsenic. The speciation results indicated that both seaweed products contained 4 different arsenosugars, DMA (dimethylarsinic acid), and As(V). One seaweed product also contained As(III). Both of these seaweed products contained an arsenosugar whose molecular weight was determined to be 408 and its structure was tentatively identified using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS/MS). (orig.)

  4. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects of Irish seaweed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordan, Sinéad; Smyth, Thomas J; Soler-Vila, Anna; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul

    2013-12-01

    To date, numerous studies have reported on the antidiabetic properties of various plant extracts through inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. The objective of this research was to evaluate extracts of seaweeds for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory effects. Cold water and ethanol extracts of 15 seaweeds were initially screened and from this, five brown seaweed species were chosen. The cold water and ethanol extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum had the strongest α-amylase inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 53.6 and 44.7 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, the extracts of Fucus vesiculosus Linnaeus were found to be potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.32 and 0.49 μg/ml. The observed effects were associated with the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the extracts, and the concentrations used were below cytotoxic levels. Overall, our findings suggest that brown seaweed extracts may limit the release of simple sugars from the gut and thereby alleviate postprandial hyperglycaemia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. EXTRACTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF ARSENOSUGARS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SEAWEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenosugars, mostly in the form of dimethylarsinylribosides, are widely found in marine plants. Since the first arsneosugar was identified in 1982, fifteen arsenosugars have been isolated and identified as algal constituents. Seaweed has been a popular dietary food in Asian Pac...

  6. Antioxidant effect of seaweed extracts in food emulsion systems enriched with fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. In this presentation we will discuss results from our ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains...... such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different extracts of F. Vesiculosus in a range of different food models...

  7. The circular economy of seaweed as nutrient management instrument for biobased production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Bruhn, Annette

    portfolio (processing and cascade utilization) are needed for a seaweed biorefinery industry to become economically viable. The break-even point for the MAB3 EP biorefinery system is obtained by an increase in the seaweed productivity of a factor 2 to 4. Development of seaweed cultivation technology......A comparative analysis of the environmental and economic performance of seaweed production and biorefinery systems were modelled within the project MAB3 (www.mab3.dk). A framework for integrated sustainability modelling of the circular economy of offshore seaweed production and biorefinery systems...

  8. Mosquito larvicidal activity of seaweeds extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Yacoob Syed Ali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the larvicidal activity of the seaweed extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus Methods: Seaweed extracts of Ulva lactuca, Caulerpa racemosa (C. racemosa, Sargassum microystum, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, Gracilaria corticata, Turbinaria decurrens, Turbinaria conoides and Caulerpa toxifolia were dissolved in DMSO to prepare a graded series of concentration. The test for the larvicidal effect of seaweeds against mosquitos larvae was conducted in accordance with the WHO standard method. Batches of 25 early 4th instar larvae of three mosquitoes were transferred to 250 mL enamel bowl containing 199 mL of distilled water and 1 mL of plant extracts (10-100 µg. Each experiment was conducted with triplicate with concurrent a control group. Results: Among the seaweeds extract, C. racemosa showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi with equivalent LC 50 value (0.055 6依0.010 3 µg/mL, (0.067 5依0.136 0 µg/mL and (0.066 1 依0.007 6 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The present study concluded that, the mosquito larvicidal property of C. racemosa might be the prospective alternative source to control the mosquitoes.

  9. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07)

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu; Priyadharshini Pandiyan; Deivasigamani Balaraman; Ilamathi Jayaraman; Kumaran Subaramaniyan; Edward Gnana Jothi George

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days) and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass ...

  10. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana Periaswamy Sivagnanam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v. The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone–methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  11. Biological Properties of Fucoxanthin in Oil Recovered from Two Brown Seaweeds Using Supercritical CO2 Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnanam, Saravana Periaswamy; Yin, Shipeng; Choi, Jae Hyung; Park, Yong Beom; Woo, Hee Chul; Chun, Byung Soo

    2015-05-29

    The bioactive materials in brown seaweeds hold great interest for developing new drugs and healthy foods. The oil content in brown seaweeds (Saccharina japonica and Sargassum horneri) was extracted by using environmentally friendly supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with ethanol as a co-solvent in a semi-batch flow extraction process and compared the results with a conventional extraction process using hexane, ethanol, and acetone mixed with methanol (1:1, v/v). The SC-CO2 method was used at a temperature of 45 °C and pressure of 250 bar. The flow rate of CO2 (27 g/min) was constant for the entire extraction period of 2 h. The obtained oil from the brown seaweeds was analyzed to determine their valuable compounds such as fatty acids, phenolic compounds, fucoxanthin and biological properties including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antihypertension effects. The amounts of fucoxanthin extracted from the SC-CO2 oils of S. japonica and S. horneri were 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.07 mg/g, respectively. High antihypertensive activity was detected when using mixed acetone and methanol, whereas the phenolic content and antioxidant property were higher in the oil extracted by SC-CO2. The acetone-methanol mix extracts exhibited better antimicrobial activities than those obtained by other means. Thus, the SC-CO2 extraction process appears to be a good method for obtaining valuable compounds from both brown seaweeds, and showed stronger biological activity than that obtained by the conventional extraction process.

  12. Chemical analysis and toxicity of seaweed extracts with inhibitory activity against tropical fruit anthracnose fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Levi Pompermayer; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Jamal, Claudia Masrouah; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Centeno, Danilo da Cruz; Colepicolo Neto, Pio; de Carvalho, Luciana Retz; Yokoya, Nair S

    2014-07-01

    Banana and papaya are among the most important crops in the tropics, with a value amounting to millions of dollars per year. However, these fruits suffer significant losses due to anthracnose, a fungal disease. It is well known that certain seaweed extracts possess antifungal activity, but no published data appear to exist on the practical application of this property. In the present study, five organic Brazilian seaweed extracts were screened for their activity against banana and papaya anthracnose fungi. Furthermore, cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of the extracts were evaluated by the brine shrimp lethality assay and the Allium cepa root-tip mutagenicity test respectively, while their major components were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Strong fungus-inhibitory effects of Ochtodes secundiramea and Laurencia dendroidea extracts were observed on both papaya (100 and 98% respectively) and banana (89 and 78% respectively). This impressive activity could be associated with halogenated terpenes, the major components of both extracts. Only Hypnea musciformis extract showed cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. The results of this study suggest the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antifungal agents with low toxicity to control anthracnose in papaya and banana during storage. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of PCBs in seaweed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of 12 polychlorinated biphenyls from algae samples is compared to Soxhlet extraction. Analytical detection limits for the individual congeners ranged from 0.62 microgl(-1) to 19 microgl(-1). Recovery was tested for both methods using standard addition procedure. At maximum spike level of concentration, the mean recoveries were not significantly different (P>0.05) of all PCBs studied, with the exception of PCBs 28, 52, 77 and 169. Method precision for Soxhlet extraction (yield comparable results, SFE offers the advantage of detecting all PCBs studied at lower concentrations, reducing extraction time, and reducing the amount of solvents needed. The optimized methods were applied to the analysis of three real seaweed samples, except for PCB101 the concentrations of all PCBs were low or below the detection limits. The levels of PCB101 found in sample 1 were 6.6+/-0.54 ng g(-1) d.w., in sample 2 the levels were 8.2+/-0.86 ng g(-1) d.w. and in sample 3 they were 7.7+/-0.08 ng g(-1) d.w.

  14. Antioxidant Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Vitro and in Food Emulsion Systems Enriched With Fish Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ditte Baun; Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Natural antioxidants derived from marine algae have a high content of bioactive components with potential for improving oxidative stability of lipids in food systems. Bioactive components like polyphenols have been identified in marine algae. In this presentation we will discuss results from our...... ongoing work on the brown algae Fucus vesiculosus. This seaweed contains a wide range of polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity. Thus, in vitro antioxidant properties of F. vesiculosus extracts have been found to be related to the total polyphenolic content. It has been suggested that the primary...... antioxidant activity comes from secondary metabolites such as phlorotannins, a dominant polyphenolic compound. However, studies on the effectiveness of seaweed extracts in food model systems are sparse, therefore there is a need to look further into this area. Results obtained in our lab with different...

  15. Seaweed hydrocolloid production: an update on enzyme assisted extraction and modification technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S

    2015-05-27

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids.

  16. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Rhein-Knudsen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market value just above US$ 1.1 billion. The techno-functional properties of the seaweed polysaccharides depend strictly on their unique structural make-up, notably degree and position of sulfation and presence of anhydro-bridges. Classical extraction techniques include hot alkali treatments, but recent research has shown promising results with enzymes. Current methods mainly involve use of commercially available enzyme mixtures developed for terrestrial plant material processing. Application of seaweed polysaccharide targeted enzymes allows for selective extraction at mild conditions as well as tailor-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids.

  17. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liland, Nina S; Biancarosa, Irene; Araujo, Pedro; Biemans, Daan; Bruckner, Christian G; Waagbø, Rune; Torstensen, Bente E; Lock, Erik-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  18. Modulation of nutrient composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae by feeding seaweed-enriched media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Liland

    Full Text Available Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens larvae are a promising source of protein and lipid for animal feeds. The nutritional composition of the BSF larvae depend partly on the composition of the feeding medium. The BSF lipid profile in part mimics the feeding media lipid profile, and micronutrients, like minerals and vitamins, can readily accumulate in black soldier fly larvae. However, investigative studies on bioconversion and accumulation of nutrients from media to black soldier fly larvae are scarce. Here we show that inclusion of the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum in the substrate for black soldier fly larvae can introduce valuable nutrients, commonly associated with the marine environment, into the larvae. The omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, iodine and vitamin E concentrations increased in the larvae when more seaweed was included in the diet. When the feeding media consisted of more than 50% seaweed, the larvae experienced poorer growth, lower nutrient retention and lower lipid levels, compared to a pure plant based feeding medium. Our results confirm the plasticity of the nutritional make-up of black soldier fly larvae, allowing it to accumulate both lipid- and water-soluble compounds. A broader understanding of the effect of the composition of the feeding media on the larvae composition can help to tailor black soldier fly larvae into a nutrient profile more suited for specific feed or food purposes.

  19. AquaMUNE, a brown seaweed extract, improves metabolism, immune response, energy and chelates heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has shown interest in the curative powers of ocean plants, many of which appear to possess powerful anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antifungal, anticancer, and immuno-suppressive properties. AQUAMune, a brown seaweed extract developed by Aqua-10 Laboratories, has gained marketing rights for use as a nutritional supplement. Research shows that it acts as a receptor blocker for many pathogens, including Salmonella, and is effective against Haemophilus pneumonia. AQUAMune is also reported to inhibit outbreaks of genital herpes. Other marine plants are also showing positive curative powers. Evidence reveals that a red marine algae from the Philippines has selective antitumor properties; and that carageenans, a family of sulfated polysaccharides, appear to have anti-viral capabilities. Seaweeds act as natural chelators of heavy metals that improve metabolism in cells, increase ATP production, body temperature, energy levels, and immune function.

  20. Antifouling potential of seaweed, sponge and cashew nut oil extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... nut oil extracts against biofilm bacteria and green mussel Perna ... prevent photo and thermal degradation during the transport to the laboratory. ... 40°C. The resultant extractives were collected in air-tight plastic vials and ...

  1. Acceleration of Extractability from Seaweed, Kombu, by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yoshie, Y.; Shirai, T.; Hirano, T.

    1993-01-01

    The stock of brown alga, kombu, is used for Japanese dishes. Makombu Laminaria japonica cut into 1×1cm squares was irradiated at dose levels of 1, 10, and 100kGy under moisture contents of 10 or 40%, and then boiled up to 30min. Nitrogen, glutamic acid, and sugars in the kombu extracts were determined. When kombu was irradiated with a dose of 10 and 100kGy at 10% moisture, the amounts of extractive nitrogen boiled for 2 and 5min were about 1.4 times as many as those of non-irradiated control. Glutamic acid, one of the main constituents of delicious taste in kombu, was also highly extracted during 2 and 5min boiling in comparison with that of non-irradiated kombu. However, there were no significant differences in the amounts of either extractive nitrogen or glutamic acid after 30min boiling in any of samples. Sugars which deteriorated the quality of the kombu stock due to viscosity were dissolved in high amounts at a dose level of 100kGy. The amount of solubilized sugars from irradiated samples of 40% moisture was higher than that of 10% moisture, but no significant change was observed in other extracted substances during heating. From these results, the irradiation dose level of 10kGy was appropriate to obtain good kombu stock as a result of increased extractability

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  3. Mineral components and anti-oxidant activities of tropical seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshi, Suzuki; Yumiko, Yoshie-Stark; Joko, Santoso

    2005-07-01

    Seaweeds are known to hold substances of high nutritional value; they are the richest resources of minerals important to the biochemical reactions in the human body. Seaweeds also hold non-nutrient compounds like dietary fiber and polyphenols. However, there is not enough information on the mineral compounds of tropical seaweeds. Also we are interested in the antioxidant activities of seaweeds, especially those in the tropical area. In this study, Indonesian green, brown and red algae were used as experimental materials with their mineral components analyzed by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The catechins and flavonoids of these seaweeds were extracted with methanol and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); the antioxidant activities of these seaweeds were evaluated in a fish oil emulsion system. The mineral components of tropical seaweeds are dominated by calcium, potassium and sodium, as well as small amounts of copper, iron and zinc. A green alga usually contains epigallocatechin, gallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and catechin. However, catechin and its isomers are not found in some green and red algae. In the presence of a ferrous ion catalyst, all the methanol extracts from the seaweeds show significantly lower peroxide values of the emulsion than the control, and that of a green alga shows the strongest antioxidant activity. The highest chelation on ferrous ions is also found in the extract of this alga, which is significantly different from the other methanol extracts in both 3 and 24 h incubations.

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Seaweed Extracts: In Vitro Assays, Evaluation in 5 % Fish Oil-in-Water Emulsions and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin Habebullah, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In this study the antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds, namely Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides, were evaluated both in in vitro assays and in 5 % fish oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions. The 50 % ethanolic extracts of P. fucoides...

  5. Seaweed Hydrocolloid Production: An Update on Enzyme Assisted Extraction and Modification Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    Agar, alginate, and carrageenans are high-value seaweed hydrocolloids, which are used as gelation and thickening agents in different food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. The annual global production of these hydrocolloids has recently reached 100,000 tons with a gross market......-made modifications of the hydrocolloids to obtain specific functionalities. This review provides an update of the detailed structural features of κ-, ι-, λ-carrageenans, agars, and alginate, and a thorough discussion of enzyme assisted extraction and processing techniques for these hydrocolloids....

  6. Enhancements of non-specific immune response in Mugil cephlus by seaweed extract against Vibrio alginolyticus (BRTR07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To focus on the growth rate and feed utilization of fish by using trash fish feeds supplement with marine seaweeds. Methods: Selected seaweed was extracted using hot-water and its extract was mixed with trash fish feed at different concentrations (0.5%, 1% and 2% for 1-30 days and the nonspecific immune response in fish was studied and challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1 × 106 CFU/fish. The hot-water extract of seaweeds was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The average body weight (5.320 ± 0.018, percent weight gain (227.66 ± 0.28, specific growth rate (2.080 ± 0.015, hepatosomatic index (1.197 ± 0.00 and viscerosomatic index (4.421 ± 0.150 were significantly increased in the fish feed with seaweed containing 5% of Sargassum wightii (S. wightii when compared with other seaweeds and control diet. Hotwater extract of S. wightii (1% was significantly enhanced the immune response in fish when compared with other diets (0.5% and 2%. S. wightii showed good immunostimulation properties. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry result showed that the hot-water extract of S. wightii seaweed contained fatty acids. Conclusions: Trash fish feed will reduce the production cost and also provide evidence that aqueous leaf extract of S. wightii (1% was added to a formulated fish diet which could activate the non-specific immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Mugil cephalus.

  7. Bioremediation efficiency in the removal of dissolved inorganic nutrients by the red seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis, cultivated in the open sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peimin; Xu, Shannan; Zhang, Hanye; Wen, Shanshan; Dai, Yongjing; Lin, Senjie; Yarish, Charles

    2008-02-01

    The bioremediation capability and efficiency of large-scale Porphyra cultivation in the removal of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus from open sea area were studied. The study took place in 2002-2004, in a 300 ha nori farm along the Lusi coast, Qidong County, Jiangsu Province, China, where the valuable rhodophyte seaweed Porphyra yezoensis has been extensively cultivated. Nutrient concentrations were significantly reduced by the seaweed cultivation. During the non-cultivation period of P. yezoensis, the concentrations of NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P were 43-61, 1-3, 33-44 and 1-3 micromol L(-1), respectively. Within the Porphyra cultivation area, the average nutrient concentrations during the Porphyra cultivation season were 20.5, 1.1, 27.9 and 0.96 micromol L(-1) for NH4-N, NO2-N, NO3-N and PO4-P, respectively, significantly lower than in the non-cultivation season (p0.05). The highest tissue nitrogen content, 7.65% in dry wt, was found in December and the lowest value, 4.85%, in dry wt, in April. The annual biomass production of P. yezoensis was about 800 kg dry wt ha(-1) at the Lusi Coast in 2003-2004. An average of 14708.5 kg of tissue nitrogen and 2373.5 kg of tissue phosphorus in P. yezoensis biomass were harvested annually from 300 ha of cultivation from Lusi coastal water. These results indicated that Porphyra efficiently removed excess nutrient from nearshore eutrophic coastal areas. Therefore, large-scale cultivation of P. yezoensis could alleviate eutrophication in coastal waters economically.

  8. Inhibitory effects of seaweed extracts on the growth of the vaginal bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yu-Mi; Choi, Jae-Suk; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2014-05-01

    Of 44 species of seaweed screened for potential anti-Gardnerella vaginalis activity, 27 (61.4%) showed antimicrobial activity by the agar disk-diffusion method. Among them, the strongest activities against the pathogen were exhibited by Chlorophyta, with Ulva pertusa producing an 11.3-mm zone of inhibition at 5 mg disk⁻¹. The MIC values of U. pertusa extracts against both G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 and KCTC 5097, the main cause of vaginosis, were 312 μg ml⁻¹, while the MIC values against both Candida albicans KCTC 7270 and KCTC 7965, the main cause of candidiasis, were 2.5 mg ml⁻¹. Against Lactobacillus gasseri KCTC 3173 and Lactobacillus jensenii KCTC 5194, members of the normal vaginal microflora, no inhibitory effect was seen even at 10 mg ml⁻¹. To identify the primary active compounds, a U. pertusa powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against G. vaginalis KCTC 5096 were determined to be nitrogenous compounds (156 μg ml⁻¹ of the MIC value). According to these results, it was suggested that extracts of the seaweed U. pertusa are valuable for the development of natural therapeutic agents for treating women with bacterial vaginosis.

  9. Antioxidative Effect of Seaweed Extracts in Chilled Storage of Minced Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus): Effect on Lipid and Protein Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhani, Aria; Farvin, K. H Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant activity of absolute ethanol, 50 % ethanol and water extracts of two species of seaweeds namely, Fucus serratus and Polysiphonia fucoides were evaluated for their ability to retard lipid and protein oxidation in minced mackerel. Mackerel mince added with 0.5 g/kg of ext...

  10. SEAWEED EXTRACTS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR THE ATTENUATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN OBESITY-RELATED PATHOLOGIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Kim, Kui-Jin; You, SangGuan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that seaweed extracts are a significant source of bioactive compounds comparable to the dietary phytochemicals such as onion and tea extracts. The exploration of natural antioxidants that attenuate oxidative damage is important for developing strategies to treat obesity-related pathologies. The objective of this study was to screen the effects of seaweed extracts of 49 species on adipocyte differentiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate their total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Our results show that high total phenol contents were observed in the extracts of Ecklonia cava (see Table 1 for taxonomic authors) (681.1 ± 16.0 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g -1 ), Dictyopteris undulata (641.3 ± 70.7 μg GAE · g -1 ), and Laurencia intermedia (560.9 ± 48.1 μg GAE · g -1 ). In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activities were markedly higher in Sargassum macrocarpum (60.2%), Polysiphonia morrowii (55.0%), and Ishige okamurae (52.9%) than those of other seaweed extracts (P Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, and Grateloupia lanceolata significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the production of ROS was positively correlated with lipid accumulation (R 2  = 0.8149). According to these preliminary results, some of the seaweed extracts can inhibit ROS generation, which may protect against oxidative stress that is linked to obesity. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism between the verified seaweeds and ROS, and the resulting effects on obesity. [Table: see text]. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  11. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  12. Antiviral activity of extracts from Brazilian seaweeds against herpes simplex virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Ribeiro Soares

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Organic extracts of 36 species of marine algae (sixteen species of Rhodophyta, eight species of Ochrophyta and twelve species of Chlorophyta from seven locations on the Brazilian coast were evaluated for their anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 activity resistant to Acyclovir (ACV. Activity tests in crude extracts, followed by the identification of the major compounds present, were performed for all species. The chemical profiles of all crude extracts were obtained by ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The percentage of extracts with antiviral activity was higher for HSV-1 (86.1% than for HSV-2 (55.5%. The green algae Ulva fasciata and Codium decorticatum both showed the highest activity (99.9% against HSV-1, with triacylglycerols and fatty acids as the major components. The red alga Laurencia dendroidea showed good activity against HSV-1 (97.5% and the halogenated sesquiterpenes obtusol and (--elatol were identified as the major components in the extract. Against HSV-2, the green alga Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta and Stypopodium zonale (Ochrophyta were the most active (96.0 and 95.8%. Atomaric acid, a meroditerpene, was identified as the major secondary metabolite in the S. zonale extract. These results reinforce the role of seaweeds as important sources of compounds with the potential to enter into the pipeline for development of new drugs against herpes simplex.

  13. Structure, conformation in aqueous solution and antimicrobial activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Thanh Van; Truong, Hai Bang; Tran, Nguyen Ha Vy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Bui, Minh Ly; Yuguchi, Yoshiaki; Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this study is to elucidate the structure and investigate the antimicrobial activity of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva reticulata collected at Nha Trang sea of Vietnam by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALLS and SAXS methods. The ulvan is composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose and glucose (mole ratio Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu = 1:0.12:0.1:0.06:0.03), uronic acid (22.5%) and sulphate groups (17.6%). Chemically structural determination showed that the ulvan mainly composed of disaccharide [→4)β-D-GlcA(1→4)α-L-Rha3S-(1→]. The results from SAXS indicated that ulvan under study has a rod-like bulky chain conformation. Ulvan from U. reticulata showed high antimicrobial activity, with inhibition zone diameter of 20 mm against Enterobacter cloace and 18 mm against Escherichia coli.

  14. Safer and healthier reduced nitrites turkey meat sausages using lyophilized Cystoseira barbata seaweed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellimi, Sabrine; Benslima, Abdelkarim; Ksouda, Ghada; Montero, Veronique Barragan; Hajji, Mohamed; Nasri, Moncef

    2017-10-21

    Background Nitrite salts are still common additives in the meat industry. The present study provides a first approach on the employment of the lyophilized aqueous extract (WE) of the Tunisian seaweed Cystoseira barbata for the quality enhancement of turkey meat sausage. Methods WE was supplemented as a natural antioxidant agent to investigate its effectiveness in delaying lipid oxidation turkey meat sausages containing reduced amounts of sodium nitrites. Results On storage day 5, all concentrations of WE (0.01-0.4 %) reduced the meat lipid oxidation by approximately 36 %, as compared to the negative control containing only 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites as antioxidant. It was noted that within 15 days of refrigerated storage, a meat system containing 80 mg/kg of meat of sodium nitrites and 0.02 % and 0.04 % of WE had similar Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) levels (19±1.32 and 17±1.12 µmol/kg of meat, respectively), which were comparable to the positive control containing sodium nitrites (150 mg/kg of meat) and 0.045 % vitamin C (18.46±1.27 µmol/kg of meat). In-depth, the metabolomic profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and liquid chromatography-quadripole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) analyses of the Tunisian seaweed C. barbata solvent extracts showed that the main active compounds were phenolic compounds, fatty acids and sterols. Conclusions Overall, the cold medium containing C. barbata lyophilized aqueous extrac, with strong antioxidant activity and antihypertensive properties, may open the way to the development of a natural quality enhancement strategy for new functional and ever healthier reduced nitrites meat sausages based on algae.

  15. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhe; Xu, Yaoyang; Chen, Hongbo; Sun, Peilong

    2016-01-01

    Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material) on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM) with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW) distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC), and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP), Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP), and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP) were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP), all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW) of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate) (ABTS), hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  16. Extraction, Structural Characterization, and Potential Antioxidant Activity of the Polysaccharides from Four Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhe He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Four seaweed polysaccharides were extracted from Sarcodia ceylonensis, Ulva lactuca L., Gracilaria lemaneiformis, and Durvillaea antarctica, respectively, by microwave-assisted extraction. The effect of three significant variables (extraction time, extraction temperature, and the ratio of water to raw material on the process for extracting polysaccharides was investigated, along with the optimization of the extraction using the response surface method (RSM with a Box–Behnken design. The polysaccharide structure, monosaccharide composition, degree of sulfation, and molecular weight (MW distribution were analyzed by infrared (IR spectrometry, gas chromatography (GC, and high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC. IR spectrometry showed that Sarcodia ceylonensis polysaccharide (SCP, Ulva lactuca L. polysaccharide (ULLP, and Durvillaea antarctica polysaccharide (DAP were all sulfated polysaccharides and, except Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide (GLP, all belong to β-pyranosidic polysaccharides. The average molecular weight (MW of SCP, ULLP, GLP, and DAP was 466, 404, 591, and 482 kDa, respectively. The quantitative and comparative results with external standards indicated that the main monosaccharide in SCP and ULLP was mannose; and GLP and DAP were mainly composed of galactose and glucose, respectively. Then the in vitro antioxidant activity of all of the polysaccharides was evaluated using different assays—2,2–azino –bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulfonate (ABTS, hydroxyl radical, nitrite scavenging capacity, and reducing power—and the relationship between their antioxidant activity and chemical characteristics were also examined. ULLP presented the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity; ULLP, SCP and DAP also showed a strong effect on the ABTS radical scavenging activity. SCP and ULLP exhibited excellent hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, about 83.33% ± 2.31% and 80.07% ± 2.17%, respectively, at 4 mg/mL. The

  17. Effect of Aqueous Extract of the Seaweed Gracilaria domingensis on the Physicochemical, Microbiological, and Textural Features of Fermented Milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Estevam, Adriana Carneiro; Alonso Buriti, Flávia Carolina; de Oliveira, Tiago Almeida; Pereira, Elainy Virginia Dos Santos; Florentino, Eliane Rolim; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-04-01

    The effects of the Gracilaria domingensis seaweed aqueous extract in comparison with gelatin on the physicochemical, microbial, and textural characteristics of fermented milks processed with the mixed culture SAB 440 A, composed of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis, were investigated. The addition of G. domingensis aqueous extract did not affect pH, titratable acidity, and microbial viability of fermented milks when compared with the control (with no texture modifier) and the products with added gelatin. Fermented milk with added the seaweed aqueous extract showed firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and viscosity index at least 10% higher than those observed for the control product (P texture comparable to that observed for products containing only gelatin. At 5 h of fermentation, firmness and consistency increased significantly (P texture modifier in fermented milks and related dairy products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Effect of crude seaweed extracts on seed germination, seedling growth and some metabolic processes of Vicia faba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Sheekh, M M; el-Saied A el-D

    2000-01-01

    Crude extracts from three green seaweeds (Cladophora dalmatica, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva lactuca) and the three red algae (Corallina mediterranea, Jania rubens, Pterocladia pinnate) were prepared. Their effects on germination, growth of seedlings, chlorophyll content and other metabolic activities of Vicia faba were investigated. The crude extract of C. dalmatica showed maximal activity, and it increased seed germination, length of main root and shoot systems and the number of lateral roots. All the crude extracts of seaweed increased protein content in both root and shoot systems, total soluble sugars and chlorophyll content in leaves. The cytokinin content of the green algae was higher than that in red algae. Growth of seedlings of V. faba was stimulated but to different degrees.

  19. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  20. Comparison of extraction and transesterification methods on the determination of the fatty acid contents of three Brazilian seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline P. Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are photosynthetic organisms important to their ecosystem and constitute a source of compounds with several different applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and biotechnology industries, such as triacylglycerols, which can be converted to fatty acid methyl esters that make up biodiesel, an alternative source of fuel applied in economic important areas. This study evaluates the fatty acid profiles and concentrations of three Brazilian seaweed species, Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen J.V. Lamouroux (Rhodophya, Sargassum cymosum C. Agardh (Heterokontophyta, and Ulva lactuca L. (Chlorophyta, comparing three extraction methods (Bligh & Dyer - B&D; AOAC Official Methods - AOM; and extraction with methanol and ultrasound - EMU and two transesterification methods (7% BF3 in methanol - BF3; and 5% HCl in methanol - HCl. The fatty acid contents of the three species of seaweeds were significantly different when extracted and transesterified by the different methods. Moreover, the best method for one species was not the same for the other species. The best extraction and transesterification methods for H. musciformis, S. cymosum and U. lactuca were, respectively, AOM-HCl, B&D-BF3 and B&D-BF3/B&D-HCl. These results point to a matrix effect and the method used for the analysis of the fatty acid content of different organisms should be selected carefully.

  1. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Methods: The fractions were collected during the extraction of saponins and the saponins were chemically investigated for the saponification and iodine value. The antioxidant activities were estimated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, UV-vis ferrous tartrate and KMnO4 titration methods against four standards. The antimicrobial activities were estimated against four pathogenic organisms. Bioactive fractions except saponins, were further investigated through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Statistical correlations were done to identify the correlation pattern between the activity and constituents. Results: The seaweed extracts exhibited appreciable biochemical activities. In general, the Chlorophyta had rich resource of saponins. C. antennina showed high content of saponins. Antioxidant activities were seen to be high when the saponins and fatty acid fractions were screened. C. antennina, Enteromorpha prolifera, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera exhibited commendable antioxidant activities. Antibacterial activity was exhibited the highest in the extracts of Ulva fasciata. Selective antimicrobial inhibition was observed throughout. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer investigation showed appreciable contents of ω-3, ω-5, ω-6, ω-7, ω-8, ω-9 and rare ω-11 fatty acids along with other saturated fatty acids. Conclusions: The correlation studies underlined the relation between the biochemical compositions and activities. These seaweeds

  2. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Two Ascophyllum nodosum Extract Biostimulants: Same Seaweed but Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, Oscar; Fort, Antoine; Quille, Patrick; McKeown, Peter C; Spillane, Charles; O'Connell, Shane

    2016-04-13

    Biostimulants for crop management are gaining increased attention with continued demand for increased crop yields. Seaweed extracts represent one category of biostimulant, with Ascophyllum nodosum extracts (ANE) widely used for yield and quality enhancement. This study investigated how the composition of two ANE biostimulants (ANE A and ANE B) affects plant mRNA transcriptomes, using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Using Affymetrix Ath1 microarrays, significant heterogeneity was detected between the ANE biostimulants in terms of their impacts on the mRNA transcriptome of A. thaliana plants, which accumulated significantly more biomass than untreated controls. Genes dysregulated by the ANE biostimulants are associated with a wide array of predicted biological processes, molecular functions, and subcellular distributions. ANE A dysregulated 4.47% of the transcriptome, whereas ANE B dysregulated 0.87%. The compositions of both ANEs were significantly different, with a 4-fold difference in polyphenol levels, the largest observed. The standardization of the composition of ANE biostimulants represents a challenge for providing consistent effects on plant gene expression and biostimulation.

  3. Structure and cytotoxic activity of ulvan extracted from green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Thi Thu Thuy; Quach, Thi Minh Thu; Nguyen, Thi Nu; Vu Luong, Dang; Bui, Minh Ly; Tran, Thi Thanh Van

    2016-12-01

    The structure of an ulvan obtained by water extraction from green seaweed Ulva lactuca was elucidated by using IR, NMR, SEC-MALL and ESIMS methods. The ulvan was also evaluated for its cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cell lines. The results showed that the ulvan was composed of rhamnose, galactose, xylose, manose, glucose (with a mole ratio of Rha: Gal: Xyl: Man: Glu equal to 1: 0.03: 0.07: 0.01: 0.06), uronic acid (21.5%) and sulfate content (18.9%) with a molecular weight of 347000. This ulvan mainly consists of disaccharide [→4)-β-d-GlcA-(1→4)-α-l-Rha3S-(1→] and other minor disaccharide β-GlcA-(1→2)-α-Xyl and β-GlcA-(→2)-α-Rha. The ulvan showed a significant cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (IC 50 29.67±2.87μg/ml), human breast cancer (IC 50 25.09±1.36μg/ml), and cervical cancer (IC 50 36.33±3.84μg/ml). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

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    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  5. Biotechnological potential of the seaweed Cladophora rupestris (Chlorophyta, Cladophorales) lipidic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L; Acquaviva, M I; Biandolino, F; Cavallo, R A; De Pascali, S A; Fanizzi, F P; Narracci, M; Cecere, E; Petrocelli, A

    2014-09-25

    Recently, with the advent of modern technologies, various marine organisms including algae are being studied as sources of natural substances effective on classical microorganisms and able to also combat the new trend of acquired resistance in microbes. In the present study the antimicrobial activity of the lipidic extract of the green seaweed Cladophora rupestris collected in a Mediterranean area, in two sampling periods (January and April), was assayed. The chemical characterization of the lipidic fractions was performed by gas-chromatography and multinuclear and multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. In the lipidic extract of C. rupestris collected in January an antibacterial activity against Enterococcus sp., Streptococcus agalactiae and Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was recorded; by contrast, bacterial inhibition was measured on several Vibrio species only in April. The fatty acid profile of C. rupestris lipidic extract, analyzed by gas chromatography, resulted mainly composed of palmitic, myristic, oleic, α linolenic, palmitoleic and linoleic acids. Moreover, since α-linolenic acid was the predominant ω3 fatty acid in April, we suggest its involvement in the antibacterial activity observed in this month, taking also into account that pure α-linolenic acid resulted effective towards some vibrios strains. C. rupestris fatty acid profile revealed also an interesting composition in polyunsaturated fatty acids in both the considered periods with the ω6/ω3 ratio lower than 1, leading to conclude that this macroalga may be employed as a natural source of ω3. Finally, the (1)H NMR spectrum in CDCl3 of algal lipid fractions showed the characteristic signals of saturated (SAFAs) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) as well as other metabolites and a marked difference in free fatty acids (FFAs) content for the two examined algal lipid fractions. It is noteworthy that C. rupestris lipidic extracts show, by NMR spectroscopy, the signal pattern of polyhydroxybutyrate, a natural

  6. Methanolic Extracts from Brown Seaweeds Dictyota cilliolata and Dictyota menstrualis Induce Apoptosis in Human Cervical Adenocarcinoma HeLa Cells

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    Dayanne Lopes Gomes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the uterine cervix is the second most common female tumor worldwide, surpassed only by breast cancer. Natural products from seaweeds evidencing apoptotic activity have attracted a great deal of attention as new leads for alternative and complementary preventive or therapeutic anticancer agents. Here, methanol extracts from 13 species of tropical seaweeds (Rhodophytas, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta collected from the Northeast of Brazil were assessed as apoptosis-inducing agents on human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa. All extracts showed different levels of cytotoxicity against HeLa cells; the most potent were obtained from the brown alga Dictyota cilliolata (MEDC and Dictyota menstrualis (MEDM. In addition, MEDC and MEDM also inhibits SiHa (cervix carcinoma cell proliferation. Studies with these two extracts using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that HeLa cells exposed to MEDM and MEDC exhibit morphological and biochemical changes that characterize apoptosis as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, phosphatidylserine externalization, and sub-G1 cell cycle phase accumulation, also MEDC induces cell cycle arrest in cell cycle phase S. Moreover, the activation of caspases 3 and 9 by these extracts suggests a mitochondria-dependent apoptosis route. However, other routes cannot be ruled out. Together, these results point out the methanol extracts of the brown algae D. mentrualis and D. cilliolata as potential sources of molecules with antitumor activity.

  7. Development of an eco-protocol for seaweed chlorophylls extraction and possible applications in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armeli Minicante, S; Ambrosi, E; Back, M; Barichello, J; Cattaruzza, E; Gonella, F; Scantamburlo, E; Trave, E

    2016-01-01

    Seaweeds are a reserve of natural dyes (chlorophylls a , b and c ), characterized by low cost and easy supply, without potential environmental load in terms of land subtraction, and also complying with the requirements of an efficient waste management policy. In particular, the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida is a species largely present in the Venice Lagoon area, and for it a removal strategy is actually mandatory. In this paper, we set-up an eco-protocol for the best extraction and preparation procedures of the pigment, with the aim of finding an easy and affordable method for chlorophyll c extraction, exploring at the same time the possibility of using these algae within local sustainable management integrated strategies, among which the possible use of chlorophylls as a dye source in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is investigated. Experimental results suggest that the developed protocols are useful to optimize the chlorophyll c extraction, as shown by optical absorption spectroscopy measurements. The DSSCs built with the chlorophyll extracted by the proposed eco-protocol exhibit solar energy conversion efficiencies are similar to those obtained following extraction protocols with larger environmental impacts. (paper)

  8. Fucoidans from brown seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    -proliferative effects on cancer cells. Recent work has revealed distinct structural features of fucoidans obtained from different brown seaweed sources. Fucoidans are classically obtained from brown seaweeds by multi-step, hot acid extraction, but the structural and compositional traits, and possibly the bioactivity......Fucoidan or fucoidans cover a family of sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides, built of a backbone of L-fucose units, and characteristically found in brown seaweeds. Fucoidans have potential therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant activities, as well as anti...

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of methanolic extract from red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

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    Neivys García Delgado

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanolic extract from D. obtusata using classic models in mice (croton oil-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing and a phospholipase A2 activity test. Qualitative analysis of the chemical composition of seaweed was also determined by extraction with solvents of increasing polarity and precipitation and color tests. Results of qualitative chemical study showed the presence of lactonic and phenolic compounds, reduced carbohydrates, other sugars, flavonoids, fatty compounds, triterpenes and steroids. The extract inhibited mouse ear edema in a dose-dependent manner with an efficacy higher than 90% and a mean effective dose of 4.87µg/ear, while intraperitoneal administration presented a moderate activity. The extract did not inhibit phospholipase A2 activity. In the writhing test, the intraperitoneal administration of the extract showed a strong antinociceptive activity (80.2%, while the oral route showed a lower efficacy. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of methanol extract of D. obtusata in experimental models, suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of peripheral painful and/or inflammatory pathologies.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar os efeitos antiinflamatórios e antinociceptivos de um extrato metanólico de D. obtusata, utilizando modelos clássicos em ratos (teste do edema de orelha induzido por óleo de cróton e teste de contorções induzidas por ácido acético e um teste de atividade de fosfolipase A2. A análise qualitativa da composição química das algas foi também determinada através de extração com solventes de polaridade crescente e testes de precipitação e cor. Os resultados do estudo de química qualitativa mostraram a presença de compostos lactônicos e fenólicos, hidratos de carbono reduzidos e outros a

  10. Studies on in-vitro antioxidant activity of marine edible seaweeds from the east coastal region of Peninsular Malaysia using different extraction methods

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    Tam Siow Foon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant activity of two edible marine seaweeds Eucheuma cottonii and Padina sp.. Methods: The two extraction methods such as conventional and soxhlet extraction were used to isolate the secondary metabolites using methanol as a solvent medium. Total phenolic content of crude seaweeds extract were analysed by standard FC method. The different antioxidant assays DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching assays confirmed the antioxidant activities. Results: DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays showed the positive correlation with expressed higher total phenolic content in the seaweeds extract. Also β-carotene bleaching assay lower activity compare with BHT as reference control. Additionally IR spectra showed the phenolic related functional groups are present in the solvent extract. The phenolic related compounds are mainly responsible for higher rate of antioxidant activity. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts of Padina sp. showed better radical scavenging and higher phenolic contents than the Eucheuma cottonii. And also the soxhlet extraction showed higher yield and better radical scavenging activity compared to conventional method. Moreover the studies confirmed both seaweeds are an effective candidate for the control the free radical scavenging activity.

  11. Responses of cerebral GABA-containing CBM neuron to taste stimulation with seaweed extracts in Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusuye, Kenji; Kinugawa, Aiko; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2005-11-01

    Aplysia kurodai distributed along Japan feeds well on Ulva pertusa but rejects Gelidium amansii with distinctive patterned movements of the jaws and radula. On the ventral side of the cerebral M cluster, four cell bodies of higher order neurons that send axons to the buccal ganglia are distributed (CBM neurons). We have previously shown that the dopaminergic CBM1 modulates basic feeding circuits in the buccal ganglia for rejection by firing at higher frequency after application of the aversive taste of seaweed such as Gelidium amansii. In the present experiments immunohistochemical techniques showed that the CBM3 exhibited gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-like immunoreactivity. The CBM3 may be equivalent to the CBI-3 involved in changing the motor programs from rejection to ingestion in Aplysia californica. The responses of the CBM3 to taste stimulation of the lips with seaweed extracts were investigated by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically introduced into a cell body of the CBM3 using a microelectrode. Application of Ulva pertusa or Gelidium amansii extract induced different changes in fluorescence in the CBM3 cell body, indicating that taste of Ulva pertusa initially induced longer-lasting continuous spike responses at slightly higher frequency compared with that of Gelidium amansii. Considering a role of the CBM3 in the pattern selection, these results suggest that elongation of the initial firing response may be a major factor for the CBM3 to switch the buccal motor programs from rejection to ingestion after application of different tastes of seaweeds in Aplysia kurodai. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fabrication of Natural Sensitizer Extracted from Mixture of Purple Cabbage, Roselle, Wormwood and Seaweed with High Conversion Efficiency for DSSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho; Lai, Xuan-Rong

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to deal with the influence of different solvent in extraction of natural sensitizer and different thickness of photoelectrode thin film on the photoelectric conversion efficiency and the electron transport properties for the prepared dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The natural dyes of anthocyanin and chlorophyll dyes are extracted from mixture of purple cabbage and roselle and mixture of wormwood and seaweed, respectively. The experimental results show the cocktail dye extracted with ethanol and rotating speed of spin coating at 1000 rpm can achieve the greatest photoelectric conversion efficiency up to 1.85%. Electrochemical impedance result shows that the effective diffusion coefficient for the prepared DSSC with the thickness of photoelectrode thin film at 21 microm are 5.23 x 10(-4) cm2/s.

  13. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  14. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum ? brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma ? red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as ...

  15. Biofabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of seaweed Enteromorpha compressa and its biomedical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayan Sri Ramkumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of nanoparticles using seaweeds are fascinating high research attention nowadays and also gaining center of attention in biomedical applications. In this work, we have synthesized biocompatible and functionalized silver nanoparticles using an aqueous extract of seaweed Enteromorpha compressa as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent and their efficient antimicrobial and anticancer activity are reported here. The UV–vis spectra of AgNPs showed the characteristics SPR absorption band at 421 nm. The chemical interaction and crystalline nature of the AgNPs were evaluated by FT-IR and XRD studies. The XRD result of AgNPs shows typical Ag reflection peaks at 38.1°, 44.2°, 64.4° and 77.1° corresponding to (111, (200, (220 and (311 Bragg’s planes. The surface morphology and composition of the samples were observed by HRTEM, EDS and SAED pattern analyses. Spherical shaped Ag nano structures were observed in the size ranges between 4 and 24 nm with clear lattice fringes in the HRTEM image. This report reveals that seaweed mediated synthesis of AgNPs and sustained delivery of Ag ions to the bacterial and fungal surface have been reducing their growth rate which was evaluated by well diffusion assay. The synthesized AgNPs showed favorable cytotoxicity against Ehlrich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC cells with IC50 value was recorded at 95.35 μg mL−1. This study showed cost effective silver nanoparticles synthesis with excellent biocompatibility and thus could potentially be utilized in biomedical and pharmaceutical applications.

  16. Evaluation of food grade solvents for lipid extraction and impact of storage temperature on fatty acid composition of edible seaweeds Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) and Palmaria palmata (Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Matthias; Guihéneuf, Freddy; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the impact of different food- and non-food grade extraction solvents on yield and fatty acid composition of the lipid extracts of two seaweed species (Palmaria palmata and Laminaria digitata). The application of chloroform/methanol and three different food grade solvents (ethanol, hexane, ethanol/hexane) revealed significant differences in both, extraction yield and fatty acid composition. The extraction efficiency, in terms of yields of total fatty acids (TFA), was in the order: chloroform/methanol>ethanol>hexane>ethanol/hexane for both species. Highest levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were achieved by the extraction with ethanol. Additionally the effect of storage temperature on the stability of PUFA in ground and freeze-dried seaweed biomass was investigated. Seaweed samples were stored for a total duration of 22months at three different temperatures (-20°C, 4°C and 20°C). Levels of TFA and PUFA were only stable after storage at -20°C for the two seaweed species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave assisted extraction of iodine and bromine from edible seaweed for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2009-08-15

    The feasibility of microwave energy to assist the solubilisation of edible seaweed samples by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) has been investigated to extract iodine and bromine. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has been used as a multi-element detector. Variables affecting the microwave assisted extraction/solubilisation (temperature, TMAH volume, ramp time and hold time) were firstly screened by applying a fractional factorial design (2(5-1)+2), resolution V and 2 centre points. When extracting both halogens, results showed statistical significance (confidence interval of 95%) for TMAH volume and temperature, and also for the two order interaction between both variables. Therefore, these two variables were finally optimized by a 2(2)+star orthogonal central composite design with 5 centre points and 2 replicates, and optimum values of 200 degrees C and 10 mL for temperature and TMAH volume, respectively, were found. The extraction time (ramp and hold times) was found statistically non-significant, and values of 10 and 5 min were chosen for the ramp time and the hold time, respectively. This means a fast microwave heating cycle. Repeatability of the over-all procedure has been found to be 6% for both elements, while iodine and bromine concentrations of 24.6 and 19.9 ng g(-1), respectively, were established for the limit of detection. Accuracy of the method was assessed by analyzing the NIES-09 (Sargasso, Sargassum fulvellum) certified reference material (CRM) and the iodine and bromine concentrations found have been in good agreement with the indicative values for this CRM. Finally, the method was applied to several edible dried and canned seaweed samples.

  18. Bioactive extracts of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea and Osmundaria obtusiloba (Floridophyceae: Rhodophyta) with antioxidant and bacterial agglutination potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Daniel Barroso; de Carvalho, Fátima Cristiane Teles; Rebouças, Rosa Helena; Dos Santos, Daniel Rodrigues; Dos Santos Pires-Cavalcante, Kelma Maria; de Lima, Rebeca Larangeira; Baracho, Bárbara Mendes; Bezerra, Rayssa Mendes; Viana, Francisco Arnaldo; Dos Fernandes Vieira, Regine Helena Silva; Sampaio, Alexandre Holanda; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Saker-Sampaio, Silvana

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the antioxidant, antibacterial and bacterial cell agglutination activities of the hexane (Hex) and 70% ethanol (70% EtOH) extracts of two species of red seaweeds Pterocladiella capillacea (P. capillacea) and Osmundaria obtusiloba. In vitro antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay, ferrous ion chelating assay, β-carotene bleaching assay and total phenolic content quantification. Antimicrobial activity was tested using the method of disc diffusion on Mueller-Hinton medium. The ability of algal extracts to agglutinate bacterial cells was also tested. The 70% EtOH extract of the two algae showed the highest values of total phenolic content compared to the Hex extract. The results of DPPH for both extracts (Hex, 70% EtOH) of Osmundaria obtusiloba (43.46% and 99.47%) were higher than those of P. capillacea (33.04% and 40.81%) at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. As for the ferrous ion chelating, there was an opposite behavior, extracts of P. capillacea had a higher activity. The extracts showed a low ferric-reducing antioxidant power, with optical density ranging from 0.054 to 0.180. Antioxidant activities of all extracts evaluated for β-carotene bleaching were above 40%. There was no antibacterial activity against bacterial strains tested. However, the extracts of both species were able to agglutinate bacterial Gram positive cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative cells of Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella and Vibrio harveyi. This is the first report of the interaction between these algal extracts, rich in natural compounds with antioxidant potential, and Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cells. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Potential of liquid extracts of Sargassum wightii on growth, biochemical and yield parameters of cluster bean plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vijayanand

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The presence of micro and macro nutrients, vitamins, growth hormones and other constituents in the seaweed extract might be very much useful to the crops but their level should be appropriate to enhance growth and productivity. It may be concluded that liquid seaweed extracts could serve as cost effective eco-friendly product for sustainable agriculture.

  20. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Das, Gitishree; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-07-02

    Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO) was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%), hexadecanoic acid (16.57%), (9Z,12Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%), and (9Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%). Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone) and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone), but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity (80.45%), superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%), and ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  1. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of an Essential Oil Extracted from an Edible Seaweed, Laminaria japonica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laminaria japonica L. is among the most commonly consumed seaweeds in northeast Asia. In the present study, L. japonica essential oil (LJEO was extracted by microwave-hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy. LJEO contained 21 volatile compounds, comprising 99.76% of the total volume of the essential oil, primarily tetradeconoic acid (51.75%, hexadecanoic acid (16.57%, (9Z,12Z-9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (12.09%, and (9Z-hexadec-9-enoic acid (9.25%. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential against three foodborne pathogens, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43890, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 49444, revealed that LJEO at a concentration of 25 mg/paper disc exerted high antibacterial activity against S. aureus (11.5 ± 0.58 mm inhibition zone and B. cereus (10.5 ± 0.57 mm inhibition zone, but no inhibition of E. coli O157:H7. LJEO also displayed DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity (80.45%, superoxide anion scavenging activity (54.03%, and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid radical and hydroxyl radical scavenging at 500 µg/mL. Finally, LJEO showed high inhibition of lipid peroxidation with strong reducing power. In conclusion, LJEO from edible seaweed is an inexpensive but favorable resource with strong antibacterial capacity as well as free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity; therefore, it has the potential for use in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Extracts from the edible seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, inhibit lipase activity in vitro: contributions of phenolic and polysaccharide components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ceri; Stewart, Derek; Allwood, J William; McDougall, Gordon J

    2018-01-24

    A polyphenol-rich extract (PRE) from the edible seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in an oil-based turbidimetric assay with an IC 50 of 200 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) perassay) [∼230 μg DW] whereas the known inhibitor, Orlistat, gave an IC 50 at 0.4 μg per assay. A phlorotannin-enriched fraction (TRF) purified from the PRE was more potent with an IC 50 = 60 μg GAE per assay (∼65 μg DW). When the assay was started by the addition of lipase, both Orlistat and TRF were much less effective which suggests that pre-incubation of enzyme and inhibitor improved inhibition. Based on phenol content, water extracts from Ascophyllum were more potent lipase inhibitors than PRE (IC 50 ∼ 150 μg GAE per assay). However, this was equivalent to ∼580 μg DW and these extracts contained polysaccharides (e.g. alginate content = 110 μg mL -1 ) which may also contribute to inhibition. Indeed, a polysaccharide-enriched fraction obtained by ethanol precipitation gave an IC 50 of 1000 μg DW which was equivalent to 130 μg GAE and 420 μg alginate per assay. Therefore a >3 fold increase in alginate content did not markedly improve inhibition. Re-precipitation increased alginate content and reduced polyphenol content but lipase inhibition was markedly reduced (i.e. IC 50 at ∼1100 μg DW per assay, 700 μg alginate and 25 μg GAE). Purifying the polysaccharide fraction by ion exchange removed all phenolics but the IC 50 increased to >2500 μg DW, equivalent to >1970 μg alginate per assay. In conclusion, polysaccharides and phlorotannins may inhibit lipase in an additive fashion, with phlorotannins apparently more effective in vitro. However, interactions between these components may be important when food products containing this edible seaweed are consumed.

  3. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  4. Green Synthesis of Magnetite (Fe3O4) Nanoparticles Using Seaweed ( Kappaphycus alvarezii) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Yen Pin; Shameli, Kamyar; Miyake, Mikio; Kuwano, Noriyuki; Bt Ahmad Khairudin, Nurul Bahiyah; Bt Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Lee, Kar Xin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly green method was introduced to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4-NPs) successfully. Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii ( K. alvarezii) was employed as a green reducing and stabilizing agents. The synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The X-ray diffraction planes at (220), (311), (400), (422), (511), (440), and (533) were corresponding to the standard Fe3O4 patterns, which showed the high purity and crystallinity of Fe3O4-NPs had been synthesized. Based on FT-IR analysis, two characteristic absorption peaks were observed at 556 and 423 cm-1, which proved the existence of Fe3O4 in the prepared nanoparticles. TEM image displayed the synthesized Fe3O4-NPs were mostly in spherical shape with an average size of 14.7 nm.

  5. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties on Lepidium sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E) through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H 2 O, EpH7·H 2 O, and EpH10·H 2 O) and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H 2 O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3). The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10%) was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum . No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight). The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%), EpH7 (2.5%), and EpH7 (10%). The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H 2 O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  6. The Influence of pH of Extracting Water on the Composition of Seaweed Extracts and Their Beneficial Properties on Lepidium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Godlewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Baltic seaweeds were used to obtain aqueous extracts (E through changing initial pH of deionised water added to algal biomass (EpH3·H2O, EpH7·H2O, and EpH10·H2O and through changing pH of the mixture of algae and deionised water (EpH3, EpH7, and EpH10. Algal extracts were characterized in terms of the concentration of polyphenols and micro- and macroelements. The highest concentration of polyphenols was determined in extract EpH3 and the lowest in extract EpH10·H2O. It was found that the obtained extracts had similar concentrations of elements (except EpH3. The phytotoxicity of algal extracts (0.5, 2.5, and 10% was examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum. No phytotoxic effects were observed. It was found that they had beneficial effects on the cultivated plants (length and weight. The best biostimulant effect was observed in the groups treated with EpH3 (2.5%, EpH7 (2.5%, and EpH7 (10%. The dry weight of plants was similar in all the groups. Algal extract also improved the multielemental composition of plant. The greatest concentration of total chlorophyll in plants was obtained by using extract EpH10·H2O, 0.5%. These results proved that algal extracts have high potential to be applied in cultivation of plants.

  7. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2011-01-01

    Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) that have a backbone built of (1→3)-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1→3)- and (1→4)-linked α...... for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density), distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP...... on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups....

  8. Evaluation of Seaweed Extracts From Laminaria and Ascophyllum nodosum spp. as Biostimulants in Zea mays L. Using a Combination of Chemical, Biochemical and Morphological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ertani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed extracts can be employed as biostimulants during crop cultivation owing to their positive effects on plant performance. Therefore, in this study one extract from Laminaria (A and five extracts from Ascophyllum nodosum (B–F were assayed on maize (Zea mays L. plants supplied for 2 days with 0.5 mL L−1 of single products to evaluate their capacity to stimulate root growth and morphology, nutrition, and sugars accumulation. Firstly, extracts were chemically characterized via Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies, and their content in carbon, nitrogen, phenolic acids and hormones (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA, and Isopentenyladenosine, IPA was quantified. The auxin like- and gibberellic acid -like activities of all extracts were also determined. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra provided complementary information depicting distinct spectral pattern for each extract. Bands assigned to alginic and uronic acids were dominant in FT-IR spectra, while those corresponding to polyaromatic rings were evident in FT-Raman spectra. In general, extracts stimulated root growth, nutrition, esterase activity, and sugar content. However, they showed high variation in chemical features, which may explain their different capacity in triggering physiological responses in maize. Among A. nodosum extracts for instance, E was the most efficient in promoting root morphology traits, likely because of its elevate content in IAA (32.43 nM, while F extract was the highest in phenol content (1,933 mg L−1 and the most successful in improving plant nutrition. On the other hand, C extract was very effective in stimulating root elongation, but did not influence plant nutrition. B and D extracts induced similar positive effects on plants, although they greatly varied in chemical composition. Laminaria extract (A differed from A. nodosum extracts, because of its low content in total phenols and the presence of both IAA- and GA-like activity. We conclude

  9. Ascophyllum nodosum Seaweed Extract Alleviates Drought Stress in Arabidopsis by Affecting Photosynthetic Performance and Related Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Santaniello

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought represents one of the most relevant abiotic stress affecting growth and yield of crop plants. In order to improve the agricultural productivity within the limited water and land resources, it is mandatory to increase crop yields in presence of unfavorable environmental stresses. The use of biostimulants, often containing seaweed extracts, represents one of the options for farmers willing to alleviate abiotic stress consequences on crops. In this work, we investigated the responses of Arabidopsis plants treated with an extract from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum (ANE, under drought stress conditions, demonstrating that ANE positively influences Arabidopsis survival. Pre-treatment with ANE induced a partial stomatal closure, associated with changes in the expression levels of genes involved in ABA-responsive and antioxidant system pathways. The pre-activation of these pathways results in a stronger ability of ANE-treated plants to maintain a better photosynthetic performance compared to untreated plants throughout the dehydration period, combined with a higher capacity to dissipate the excess of energy as heat in the reaction centers of photosystem II. Our results suggest that drought stressed plants treated with ANE are able to maintain a strong stomatal control and relatively higher values of both water use efficiency (WUE and mesophyll conductance during the last phase of dehydration. Simultaneously, the activation of a pre-induced antioxidant defense system, in combination with a more efficient energy dissipation mechanism, prevents irreversible damages to the photosynthetic apparatus. In conclusion, pre-treatment with ANE is effective to acclimate plants to the incoming stress, promoting an increased WUE and dehydration tolerance.

  10. Bioactivity of marine organisms: Part 7- Effect of seaweed extract on central nervous system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Jain, S.; Goel, A.K.; Srimal, R.C.

    Alcohol extracts of marine algae (Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae) was screened for their effect on central nervous system. Of 69 species investigated 8 appeared biologically active, 6 being CNS stimulant, sites and dates of collection...

  11. Seaweed Bioactivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti

    . In conclusion, two brown seaweeds, Laminaria digitata and Undaria pinnatifida, inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities due to their content of several bioactive components with a potential use for future functional foods. Their effects on the postprandial insulin response and the in vitro findings...

  12. Safety of Malaysian marine endophytic fungal extract S2 from a brown seaweed Turbinaria conoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Alwani Ariffin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the in vivo acute toxicity and antioxidant activity of the marine endophytic fungus extract S2 isolated from Turbinaria conoides. Methods: Two doses (100 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the S2 extract were administered to rats orally for acute toxicity and antioxidant test. The body weight, relative weight of six organs, haematological, biochemical and antioxidant properties were investigated on Day 14. Results: A single oral dose treatment did not cause any mortality or observable adverse effects in rats. No significant variations in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated groups were observed. Heamatological analysis and clinical blood chemistry also did not reveal any toxic effects of the extract. The total white blood cell count and haemoglobin levels were increased. The levels of total serum cholesterol in males treated with 100 and 400 mg/kg were significantly (P<0.05 decreased (1.28 and 1.34 mmol/L respectively compared to control (1.55 mmol/L rats. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. This study showed strong evidence of the non-toxic effects of S2 extract. Furthermore the extract exhibited significant (P<0.05 antioxidant activity through increased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes in serum, liver and kidney. Conclusions: The research findings from the present study showed the potential of marine natural products particularly in Malaysia as a source of bioactive compounds. Marine endophytic fungi as a potential source of anticancer drugs with great potential as they are potent yet safe, thus deserving further extensive investigation.

  13. Macroalgae-Derived Biofuel: A Review of Methods of Energy Extraction from Seaweed Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Milledge

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of algal biomass as a source of liquid and gaseous biofuels is a highly topical theme, but as yet there is no successful economically viable commercial system producing biofuel. However, the majority of the research has focused on producing fuels from microalgae rather than from macroalgae. This article briefly reviews the methods by which useful energy may be extracted from macroalgae biomass including: direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, trans-esterification to biodiesel, hydrothermal liquefaction, fermentation to bioethanol, fermentation to biobutanol and anaerobic digestion, and explores technical and engineering difficulties that remain to be resolved.

  14. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  15. Screening for antifungal activities of extracts of the brazilian seaweed genus Laurencia (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of pathogens to commonly used antibiotics has enhanced morbidity and mortality and has triggered the search for new drugs. Several species of the red alga genus Laurencia are very interesting candidates as potential sources of natural products with pharmaceutical activity because they are known to produce a wide range of chemically interesting halogenated secondary metabolites. This is an initial report of the antifungal activities of the secondary metabolites of five species of Laurencia, collected in the state of Espírito Santo, against three strains of pathogenic fungi: Candida albicans (CA, Candida parapsilosis (CP, and Cryptococcus neoformans (CN. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC of the algal extracts were determined by serial dilution method in RPMI 1640 Medium in 96-well plates according to the NCCLS and microbial growth was determined by absorbance at 492nm. A result showing maintenance or reduction of the inoculum was defined as fungistatic, while fungicidal action was no observed growth in the 10 µL fungistatic samples subcultured in Sabouraud Agar. Our results indicate that apolar extracts of Laurencia species possess antifungal properties and encourage continued research to find new drugs for therapy of infectious diseases in these algae.

  16. Effects of irradiation and heating on extraction of carbohydrates from brown seaweed, gagome Kjellmaniella crassifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.; Yoshie, Y.; Shirai, T.; Hirano, T.

    1993-01-01

    Changes in dissolved carbohydrates from Gagome Kjemaniella crassifolia by gamma-irradiation and boiling were investigated. When pulverized Gagome was irradiated in the dry state, solubilized carbohydrate levels did not change at dose levels up to 50 kGy; however, the molecular weights of main components in the soluble matter decreased. The amount of dissolved carbohydrates increased with dosage increments of gamma rays when irradiated in water, and their molecular weights decreased markedly. When Gagome was irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy in the dry state, and then boiled in water, the amounts of carbohydrates dissolved were markedly high at 80 degree C during 10-h boiling in comparison with those of the non-irradiated control. On the other hand, at 100 degree C no difference was observed after 4-h boiling. There was no significant difference in the quantity of dissolved carbohydrates or their molecular weights between irradiated and non-irradiated samples heated at 120 degree C for up to 12 h. From these results dietary fibers in Gagome were found to be extracted and degradated by irradiation

  17. Important Determinants for Fucoidan Bioactivity: A Critical Review of Structure-Function Relations and Extraction Methods for Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne S. Meyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds—or marine macroalgae—notably brown seaweeds in the class Phaeophyceae, contain fucoidan. Fucoidan designates a group of certain fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs that have a backbone built of (1→3-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl or of alternating (1→3- and (1→4-linked α-l-fucopyranosyl residues, but also include sulfated galactofucans with backbones built of (1→6-β-d-galacto- and/or (1→2-β-d-mannopyranosyl units with fucose or fuco-oligosaccharide branching, and/or glucuronic acid, xylose or glucose substitutions. These FCSPs offer several potentially beneficial bioactive functions for humans. The bioactive properties may vary depending on the source of seaweed, the compositional and structural traits, the content (charge density, distribution, and bonding of the sulfate substitutions, and the purity of the FCSP product. The preservation of the structural integrity of the FCSP molecules essentially depends on the extraction methodology which has a crucial, but partly overlooked, significance for obtaining the relevant structural features required for specific biological activities and for elucidating structure-function relations. The aim of this review is to provide information on the most recent developments in the chemistry of fucoidan/FCSPs emphasizing the significance of different extraction techniques for the structural composition and biological activity with particular focus on sulfate groups.

  18. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL – a water soluble concentrate was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality. Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Ecklonia maxima, Kelpak SL, Nutrients, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Yield

  20. Layer-by-Layer films based on biopolymers extracted from red seaweeds and polyaniline for applications in electrochemical sensors of chromium VI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton de; Corrêa dos Santos, Marianne; Araujo Dionísio, Natália de; Quelemes, Patrick V.; Souza Almeida Leite, José Roberto de [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Eaton, Peter [UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Alves da Silva, Durcilene [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Eiras, Carla, E-mail: eiras@cnpq.br [Núcleo de Pesquisa em Biodiversidade e Biotecnologia, BIOTEC, CMRV, UFPI, Parnaíba, PI 64202-020 (Brazil); Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Materiais Avançados, LIMAV, CCN, UFPI, Teresina, PI 64049-550 (Brazil)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LbL films based on PANI and polysaccharides of seaweeds were produced and applied sensors of Cr (VI). - Abstract: This paper proposes a new application for natural polysaccharides (agar and carrageenan), both extracted from the cell wall of red seaweeds. Thin films were prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly technique onto ITO (tin-doped indium oxide), where the polysaccharides of interest were deposited in layers alternating with polyaniline (PANI). The films developed were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed the presence of agar as well as carrageenan, which improves the electrochemical stability of the conducting polymer in an acid medium. The interactions at the molecular level between PANI and the biopolymers affected the most appropriate sequence of deposition as employed in the process of material immobilization and also influenced the resulting morphology. Among the films studied, the most promising system as regards electrochemical measurements was the ITO/agar/PANI system, which was subsequently employed in the electrochemical detection of chromium (VI)

  1. Layer-by-Layer films based on biopolymers extracted from red seaweeds and polyaniline for applications in electrochemical sensors of chromium VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Farias, Emanuel Airton de; Corrêa dos Santos, Marianne; Araujo Dionísio, Natália de; Quelemes, Patrick V.; Souza Almeida Leite, José Roberto de; Eaton, Peter; Alves da Silva, Durcilene; Eiras, Carla

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • LbL films based on PANI and polysaccharides of seaweeds were produced and applied sensors of Cr (VI). - Abstract: This paper proposes a new application for natural polysaccharides (agar and carrageenan), both extracted from the cell wall of red seaweeds. Thin films were prepared by the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly technique onto ITO (tin-doped indium oxide), where the polysaccharides of interest were deposited in layers alternating with polyaniline (PANI). The films developed were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results showed the presence of agar as well as carrageenan, which improves the electrochemical stability of the conducting polymer in an acid medium. The interactions at the molecular level between PANI and the biopolymers affected the most appropriate sequence of deposition as employed in the process of material immobilization and also influenced the resulting morphology. Among the films studied, the most promising system as regards electrochemical measurements was the ITO/agar/PANI system, which was subsequently employed in the electrochemical detection of chromium (VI)

  2. Addition of seaweed (Laminaria digitata) extracts containing laminarin and fucoidan to porcine diets: influence on the quality and shelf-life of fresh pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, N C; O'Grady, M N; O'Doherty, J V; Kerry, J P

    2012-12-01

    A seaweed extract containing laminarin (L) and fucoidan (F) (L/F) was manufactured from brown seaweed (Laminaria digitata) in spray-dried (L/F-SD) and wet (L/F-WS) forms. The effect of supplementation of pig diets with L/F-SD and L/F-WS (L, 500 mg/kg feed; F, 420 mg/kg feed) for 21 days pre-slaughter, on quality indices of fresh M. longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks was examined. Susceptibility of porcine liver, heart, kidney and lung tissue homogenates to iron-induced (1mM FeSO₄) lipid oxidation was also investigated. Dietary supplementation with L/F did not increase plasma total antioxidant status (TAS). In LD steaks stored in modified atmosphere packs (80% O₂:20% CO₂) (MAP) for up to 15 days at 4 °C, muscle pH, surface colour (CIE 'L*' lightness, 'a*' redness and 'b*' yellowness values) and microbiology (psychrotrophic and mesophilic counts, log CFU/g pork) were unaffected by dietary L/F. In general, levels of lipid oxidation (TBARS, mg MDA (malondialdehyde)/kg pork) followed the order: C>LF-SD>L/F-WS. A statistically significant reduction in lipid oxidation (Pfoods via the animal's diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The deep processing of seaweed industrial waste--Influence of several fermentation on seaweed waste of feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shipeng; Zhang, Shuping

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on several factors on the effects of fermented seaweed feed, and obtains the optimal fermentation process through the analysis of nutrients. Through the experiment we can get, Seaweed waste fermented the best feed when adding 1% of microbial agents and 0.5% of corn powder, fermenting for 15 days.

  4. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum – brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma – red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity. PMID:25856799

  5. Biochar from commercially cultivated seaweed for soil amelioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Dworjanyn, Symon A.; Bird, Michael I.; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-01

    Seaweed cultivation is a high growth industry that is primarily targeted at human food and hydrocolloid markets. However, seaweed biomass also offers a feedstock for the production of nutrient-rich biochar for soil amelioration. We provide the first data of biochar yield and characteristics from intensively cultivated seaweeds (Saccharina, Undaria and Sargassum - brown seaweeds, and Gracilaria, Kappaphycus and Eucheuma - red seaweeds). While there is some variability in biochar properties as a function of the origin of seaweed, there are several defining and consistent characteristics of seaweed biochar, in particular a relatively low C content and surface area but high yield, essential trace elements (N, P and K) and exchangeable cations (particularly K). The pH of seaweed biochar ranges from neutral (7) to alkaline (11), allowing for broad-spectrum applications in diverse soil types. We find that seaweed biochar is a unique material for soil amelioration that is consistently different to biochar derived from ligno-cellulosic feedstock. Blending of seaweed and ligno-cellulosic biochar could provide a soil ameliorant that combines a high fixed C content with a mineral-rich substrate to enhance crop productivity.

  6. Evaluation of antifungal activity of seaweed extracts Avaliação de atividade antifúngica de extratos de macroalgas marinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Fernandes Peres

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are subject to numerous biological interactions and sometimes to extreme abiotic conditions, so they have developed among other defense mechanisms, the ability to produce biologically active substances. Thus, these organisms produce mainly terpenes and phenols. Among others, the antifungal activity, due to its importance in human and animal health and the production of agricultural products, has been the subject of several studies. In the present work, this activity was investigated in ten seaweeds extracts, by direct bioautography assays, compared to Colletotrichum lagenarium and disk diffusion assay, compared to Aspergillus flavus. The organisms studied were: Stypopodium zonale, Laurencia dendroidea, Ascophyllum nodosum, Sargassum muticum, Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus spiralis, Sargassum filipendula, Sargassum stenophyllum, Laminaria hyperborea and Gracilaria edulis. S. zonale, L. dendroidea, P. canaliculata, S. muticum, A. nodosum and F. spiralis extracts significantly inhibited the C. lagenarium growth, but not inhibited significantly the A. flavus growth. The presence of terpenes in all of these extracts was confirmed by thin layer chromatography whereas the presence of phenolic compounds was confirmed only in extracts of P. canaliculata, A. nodosum and S. muticum. In chemical study by column chromatography, followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis, the terpenes neophytadiene, cartilagineol, obtusol elatol; and the ester ethyl hexadecanoate were identified in the L. dendroidea extract. This is the first report on the activity of seaweed extracts against C. lagenarium, a fungus bearing agricultural importance.As macroalgas marinhas, por estarem sujeitas a numerosas interações biológicas e, por vezes, a condições abióticas extremas, desenvolveram, entre outros mecanismos de defesa, a capacidade de produzir substâncias biologicamente ativas. Assim, esses organismos produzem, principalmente, terpenos e fen

  7. Facile green synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using Ulva lactuca seaweed extract and evaluation of their photocatalytic, antibiofilm and insecticidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwarya, Ramachandran; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Kalyani, Subramanian; Banumathi, Balan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Al-Anbr, Mohammed N; Khaled, Jamal M; Benelli, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The bioactivity of semiconductor nanocomplexes has been poorly studied in the field of pesticide science. In this research, the synthesis of zinc nanoparticles was accomplished through new effortless green chemistry process, using the Ulva lactuca seaweed extract as a reducing and capping agent. The production of U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO nanoparticles (Ul-ZnO Nps) was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The U. lactuca-fabricated ZnO NPs were tested for their photodegradative action against organic dyes, as well as for antibiofilm and larvicidal activities. The UV visible absorbance spectrum of Ul-ZnO NPs exhibited the absorbance band at 325nm and TEM highlighted average crystallite sizes of nanoparticles of 10-50nm. Methylene blue (MB) dye was efficiently corrupted under sunlight in presence of Ul-ZnO NPs. Excellent bactericidal activity was shown by the Ul-ZnO Nps on Gram positive (Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coliand Proteus vulgaris) bacteria. High antibiofilm potential was noted under both dark and sunlight conditions. The impact of a single treatment with Ul-ZnO NPs on biofilm architecture was also analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Moreover, Ul-ZnO NPs led to 100% mortality of Aedes aegypti fourth instar larvae at the concentration of 50μg/ml within 24h. The effects of ZnO nanoparticle-based treatment on mosquito larval morphology and histology were monitored. Overall, based on our results, we believe that the synthesis of multifunctional Ul-ZnO Nps using widely available seaweed products can be promoted as a potential eco-friendly option to chemical methods currently used for nanosynthesis of antimicrobials and insecticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of Dual Life Stage Antiplasmodial Activity of British Seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Tasdemir

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial plants have proven to be a prolific producer of clinically effective antimalarial drugs, but the antimalarial potential of seaweeds has been little explored. The main aim of this study was to assess the in vitro chemotherapeutical and prophylactic potential of the extracts of twenty-three seaweeds collected from the south coast of England against blood stage (BS and liver stage (LS Plasmodium parasites. The majority (14 of the extracts were active against BS of P. falciparum, with brown seaweeds Cystoseira tamariscifolia, C. baccata and the green seaweed Ulva lactuca being the most active (IC50s around 3 μg/mL. The extracts generally had high selectivity indices (>10. Eight seaweed extracts inhibited the growth of LS parasites of P. berghei without any obvious effect on the viability of the human hepatoma (Huh7 cells, and the highest potential was exerted by U. lactuca and red seaweeds Ceramium virgatum and Halopitys incurvus (IC50 values 14.9 to 28.8 μg/mL. The LS-active extracts inhibited one or more key enzymes of the malarial type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II pathway, a drug target specific for LS. Except for the red seaweed Halopitys incurvus, all LS-active extracts showed dual activity versus both malarial intracellular stage parasites. This is the first report of LS antiplasmodial activity and dual stage inhibitory potential of seaweeds.

  9. Evaluation of the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of a hydrophilic extract from the green seaweed Ulva sp. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violle, Nicolas; Rozan, Pascale; Demais, Hervé; Nyvall Collen, Pi; Bisson, Jean-François

    2018-05-01

    The green seaweed Ulva sp. contains a large amount of ulvans, a family of sulphated polysaccharides. The present study was designed to investigate in rats the antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects of a hydrophilic extract of Ulva sp. (MSP) containing about 45% of ulvans. After a 14-day administration of MSP at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg/day, 48 and 60 male adult Wistar rats were respectively tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swimming test (FST). In the FST, MSP effects were compared to the reference antidepressant drug imipramine (IMI) (10 mg/kg/day). Acute and sub-chronic toxicities of the extract were also assessed in male and female rats following OECD guidelines. MSP treatment did not modify anxiety-related behaviour in the EPM. In contrast, MSP induced a dose-dependent reduction of immobility behaviour in the FST. At the highest tested dose of 40 mg/kg, MSP displayed a significant antidepressant-like effect similar to IMI. MSP did not modify the exploratory behaviour of rats in the open field test and did not produce any toxic effect. MSP may potentially represent a good adjunct or alternative to existing antidepressant therapeutics. Further studies are necessary to confirm the mechanism of action of MSP and its modulation of brain functioning.

  10. The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... The antibacterial activity of extracts from 26 marine Rhodophyceae (8 Ceramiales, 7 Gelidiales, 9 ... seaweed extracts as a source of antibacterial compounds. ... Macroalgae are a rich source of natural bioactive products.

  11. Automated chromatographic system with polarimetric detection laser applied in the control of fermentation processes and seaweed extracts characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajer, V.; Naranjo, S.; Mora, W.; Patinno, R.; Coba, E.; Michelena, G.

    2012-01-01

    There are presented applications and innovations of chromatographic and polarimetric systems in which develop methodologies for measuring the input molasses and the resulting product of a fermentation process of alcohol from a rich honey and evaluation of the fermentation process honey servery in obtaining a drink native to the Yucatan region. Composition was assessed optically active substances in seaweed, of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The findings provide measurements alternative raw materials and products of the sugar industry, beekeeping and pharmaceutical liquid chromatography with automated polarimetric detection reduces measurement times up to 15 min, making it comparable to the times of high chromatography resolution, significantly reducing operating costs. By chromatography system with polarimetric detection (SCDP) is new columns have included standard size designed by the authors, which allow process samples with volumes up to 1 ml and reduce measurement time to 15 min, decreasing to 5 times the volume sample and halving the time of measurement. Was evaluated determining the concentration of substances using the peaks of the chromatograms obtained for the different columns and calculate the uncertainty of measurements. The results relating to the improvement of a data acquisition program (ADQUIPOL v.2.0) and new programs for the preparation of chromatograms (CROMAPOL CROMAPOL V.1.0 and V.1.2) provide important benefits, which allow a considerable saving of time the processing of the results and can be applied in other chromatography systems with the appropriate adjustments. (Author)

  12. Inducible defenses against herbivory and fouling in seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Renato Crespo; Costa, Erica da Silva; Sudatti, Daniela Bueno; da Gama, Bernardo Antonio Perez

    2017-04-01

    Secondary metabolites play an important ecological role as a defense mechanism in seaweeds. Chemical defenses are well known to change in response to herbivory, but other driving factors, either biotic or abiotic, are often neglected. Epibiosis may not only reduce seaweed fitness, but also increase attractiveness to consumers, and thus defense production should also be triggered by epibionts. In this study, three Southwestern Atlantic seaweeds, Gracilaria cearensis, Pterocladiella capillacea (Rhodophyceae) and Codium decorticatum (Chlorophyceae) were investigated in laboratory bioassays designed to test whether the action of herbivory or simulated epibiosis influences chemical defenses. Crossed induction experiments were also performed in order to assess whether herbivore induction influences antifouling chemical defense, as well as whether epibiont induction would affect defense against herbivores. The effect of laboratory conditions on seaweeds in the absence of field stimuli was also investigated by comparing consumption of artificial food with extracts from acclimatized and non-acclimatized seaweeds (i.e., natural defense levels). Only the green seaweed C. decorticatum exhibited inducible antifouling defenses triggered by simulated epibiosis, but not by herbivores. In the other seaweeds there was no induction either by herbivory or simulated epibiosis. Acclimatization did not affect C. decorticatum defenses. However, non-acclimatized G. cearensis artificial foods were preferred over acclimatized ones, while extracts from acclimatized P. capillacea increased herbivore consumption, highlighting the need to acclimatize seaweeds before the main induction experiments. This is the first report of inducible defenses due to simulated fouling in seaweeds.

  13. Effect of tuna skin gelatin-based coating enriched with seaweed extracts on the quality of tuna fillets during storage at 4 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Vala

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, consumers demand high quality food products with an extended shelf-life without chemical additives. Edible coatings (EC containing natural compounds are a promising preservation technology for raw seafood without compromising fresh-like appeal and nutritional content.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Thunnus obesus skin gelatin-based EC containing Codium spp. or Fucus vesiculosus extracts on raw tuna preservation. Three gelatin-based EC (gelatin (5 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Codium spp. (1 % + glycerol (25 %; gelatin (5 % + Fucus vesiculosus (1 % + glycerol (25 % were applied directly on the surface of tuna fillets. Functional properties of gelatin and gelatin-based EC containing seaweed extracts were also studied. The gelatin was extracted by an acid-swelling process in the presence/absence of pepsin, followed by subsequent heating/refrigeration, after a pre-treatment with NaOH. The type of acid, temperature and concentration of NaOH greatly influence the process yield. The higher extraction yield was achieved using acetic acid in the presence of pepsin by subsequent refrigeration, especially when skins were previously treated with NaOH (0.2 M. Tuna quality was assessed over 12 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C in terms of chemical and microbial indices. Results showed that tuna skin gelatin-based EC avoids tuna deterioration. Microbial growth, assessed by total viable counts, and total volatile basic nitrogen were maintained below the maximum limits recommended, contrarily to the control. Additionally, the use of EC increased the stability of red colour during storage. 

  14. Novel antimicrobial activity of a dichloromethane extract obtained from red seaweed Ceramium rubrum (Hudson (Rhodophyta: Florideophyceae against Yersinia ruckeri and Saprolegnia parasitica, agents that cause diseases in salmonids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurima Cortés

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: These results may constitute a basis for promising future applied research that could investigate the use of C. rubrum seaweed as a source of antimicrobial compounds against fish pathogens.

  15. Depressive effects on the central nervous system and underlying mechanism of the enzymatic extract and its phlorotannin-rich fraction from Ecklonia cava edible brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Suengmok; Han, Daeseok; Kim, Seon-Bong; Yoon, Minseok; Yang, Hyejin; Jin, Young-Ho; Jo, Jinho; Yong, Hyeim; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Jeon, You-Jin; Shimizu, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    Marine plants have been reported to possess various pharmacological properties; however, there have been few reports on their neuropharmacological effects. Terrestrial plants have depressive effects on the central nervous system (CNS) because of their polyphenols which make them effective as anticonvulsants and sleep inducers. We investigated in this study the depressive effects of the polyphenol-rich brown seaweed, Ecklonia cava (EC), on CNS. An EC enzymatic extract (ECEE) showed significant anticonvulsive (>500 mg/kg) and sleep-inducing (>500 mg/kg) effects on the respective mice seizure induced by picrotoxin and on the mice sleep induced by pentobarbital. The phlorotannin-rich fraction (PTRF) from ECEE significantly potentiated the pentobarbital-induced sleep at >50 mg/kg. PTRF had binding activity to the gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine (BZD) receptors. The sleep-inducing effects of diazepam (DZP, a well-known GABA(A)-BZD agonist), ECEE, and PTRF were completely blocked by flumazenil, a well-known antagonist of GABA(A)-BZD receptors. These results imply that ECEE produced depressive effects on CNS by positive allosteric modulation of its phlorotannins on GABA(A)-BZD receptors like DZP. Our study proposes EC as a candidate for the effective treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and insomnia.

  16. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A; Pérez, Carlos L; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1-500 µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25-50 µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  17. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract’s antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1–500 µg/mL and benzo[a]pyrene (BP, the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25–50 µg/mL inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  18. Development of a seaweed species-selection index for successful culture in a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Hee; Hwang, Jae Ran; Chung, Ik Kyo; Park, Sang Rul

    2013-03-01

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) has been proposed as a concept that combines the cultivation of fed aquaculture species ( e.g., finfish/shrimp) with extractive aquaculture species ( e.g., shellfish/seaweed). In seaweed-based integrated aquaculture, seaweeds have the capacity to reduce the environmental impact of nitrogen-rich effluents on coastal ecosystems. Thus, selection of optimal species for such aquaculture is of great importance. The present study aimed to develop a seaweed species-selection index for selecting suitable species in seaweed-based integrated aquaculture system. The index was synthesized using available literature-based information, reference data, and physiological seaweed experiments to identify and prioritize the desired species. Undaria pinnatifida, Porphyra yezoensis and Ulva compressa scored the highest according to a seaweed-based integrated aquaculture suitability index (SASI). Seaweed species with the highest scores were adjudged to fit the integrated aquaculture systems. Despite the application of this model limited by local aquaculture environment, it is considered to be a useful tool for selecting seaweed species in IMTA.

  19. Extracts of Porphyra tenera (Nori Seaweed) Activate the Immune Response in Mouse RAW264.7 Macrophages via NF-κB Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Hye; Kang, Hee-Bum; Park, Seung-Ho; Jeong, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jeongjin; You, Yanghee; Lee, Yoo-Hyun; Lee, Jeongmin; Kim, Eungpil; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jun, Woojin

    2017-12-01

    Porphyra tenera, also known as nori, is a red algal species of seaweed. It is cultivated in Asia for culinary purposes. We report that P. tenera extract (PTE) enhances the immune response in mouse macrophages. We found that P. tenera extract regulates the NF-κB IκB kinase (IKK) signaling pathway, and we assessed the expression and translocation of p65, a subunit of NF-κB, in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells after treatment with PTE. We also investigated the effects of 10% ethanol PTE (PTE10) in RAW264.7 cells. The production of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was induced by PTE treatment of the macrophages, and PTE also enhanced p-IκB and p-AKT. PTE10 showed no cytotoxicity at 10-20 μg/mL in RAW264.7 cells. PTE10, in fact, increased cell viability at 24 h, stimulated macrophage cells, and induced the phosphorylation of Akt. Akt stimulates IKK activity through the phosphorylation of IKKα and enhances immune activity through the activation of NF-κB. In this study, NF-κB activation was induced by increasing p-NF-κB and p-IKK. A subunit of NF-κB, p65, was located in the nucleus and increased the expression of various cytokines. PTE thus enhanced the immune response through IκB-α immunostimulation signaling in RAW264.7 cells. PTE10 has potential therefore for development of future treatments requiring immune system stimulation.

  20. Functional hydrocolloids from seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    The global production of seaweeds continues to grow for production of food hydrocolloids, i.e. carbohydrate polymers that form viscous suspensions and gels in water. Because of their unique gelling properties seaweed hydrocolloids are used in various food and pharmaceutical applications. Asian...

  1. Effect of dietary seaweed extracts and fish oil supplementation in sows on performance, intestinal microflora, intestinal morphology, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-02-01

    A 2x2 factorial experiment (ten sows per treatment) was conducted to investigate the effect of maternal dietary supplementation with a seaweed extract (SWE; 0 v. 10·0 g/d) and fish oil (FO; 0 v. 100 g/d) inclusion from day 109 of gestation until weaning (day 26) on pig performance post-weaning (PW) and intestinal morphology, selected microflora and immune status of pigs 9 d PW. The SWE contained laminarin (10 %), fucoidan (8 %) and ash (82 %) and the FO contained 40 % EPA and 25 % DHA. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P=0·063) between days 0 and 21 PW and pigs weaned from FO-supplemented sows had higher daily gain (P<0·05) and gain to feed ratio (P<0·01) between days 7 and 14 PW. There was an interaction between maternal SWE and FO supplementation on caecal Escherichia coli numbers (P<0·05) and the villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum (P<0·01) and jejunum (P<0·05) in pigs 9 d PW. Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had lower caecal E. coli and a higher villous height to crypt depth ratio in the ileum and jejunum compared with non-SWE-supplemented sows (P<0·05). There was no effect of SWE on E. coli numbers and villous height to crypt depth ratio with FO inclusion. Maternal FO supplementation induced an increase in colonic mRNA abundance of IL-1α and IL-6 (P<0·05), while SWE supplementation induced an increase in ileal TNF-α (P<0·01) and colonic TFF3 mRNA expression (P<0·05). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE and FO supplementation to the maternal diet influenced the gastrointestinal environment and performance of the weaned pig.

  2. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocira, Anna; Świeca, Michał; Kocira, Sławomir; Złotek, Urszula; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL - a water soluble concentrate) was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska) was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality.

  3. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, A F U; Portela, M C C; Sousa, M B; Martins, F S; Rocha, F C; Farias, D F; Feitosa, J P A

    2009-08-01

    This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF). Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis) and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal) and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract), intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract) and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract). The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC) down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g) than that fed on cellulose diet (7 g) (p seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  4. Organic Based Glutinous Corn (Zea maize Supplemented With Seaweeds Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayrome S. Butay

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was therefore design to generate scientific information that are vital for organic farming advocates as it uses natural organic farm inputs in the production of corn. It was conducted because of the insurmountable rising cost of inorganic fertilizers perspective the farmers have to look for alternative measures to sustain the profitability of their farming business by evaluating the efficacy of seaweeds emulsion (Carrageenan as nutrient supplement to organic fertilizer on glutinous corn production, a study was conducted at the Cagayan State University – Lal-lo, Cagayan from July 17 to September 25, 2016with the following treatments: T1- Control, T2 – 3 tons Organic Fertilizer, T3 - 1.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T4 - 3 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 , T5 - 4.5 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 and T6 - 6 liters Seaweeds Emulsion ha-1 arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The treatments have no significant effect on plant height. Application of seaweed emulsion affected the grain development as manifested by longer and heavier corn ear. Higher rates (3-6 li ha-1 proved to more efficient as indicated by the bigger ear, highest yield and ROI of 909.62 percent. The study revealed that 3 tons Organic Fertilizer with liters of seaweed emulsion improved glutinous corn production. Further study is recommended to validate the result and come up with a more reliable conclusion.

  5. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  6. Dietary seaweed and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Brownlee, Iain; Fairclough, Andrew; Hall, Anna; Paxman, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed as an ingredient is growing in popularity largely due to its perceived health-giving properties supported by findings from epidemiological studies.\\ud Increased seaweed consumption has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases however there is a paucity of evidence for health benefits derived from robust randomised controlled trials (RCT). Emerging data from short-term RCT\\ud involving seaweed isolates are promising. Further investigation of seaweed as a wholefood ingredient is ...

  7. Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Peace Nwanneka; Abel, Happiness Chiamaka

    2018-05-01

    Nutrient, phytochemical, and antinutrient composition of Citrus maxima fruit juice and peel extract were determined. The fruit was procured from a garden in Trans-Ekulu, Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria. Mature undamaged Citrus maxima fruits were thoroughly washed with distilled water to remove contamination, dirt, and air-dried. The peel was separated from the pulp. The pulp (100 g) was blended and filtered through a muslin cloth to obtain a clear juice. The peel (50 g) was macerated with 200 ml of ethanol for 20 min. The peel extract was filtered through filter paper. The supernatant was concentrated by rotary evaporation. The peel extract was weighed and stored in a plastic container until needed. Proximate, mineral, vitamins, antinutrient, and phytochemical composition of the juice and peel extract were determined using standard procedures. Citrus maxima peel extract contains significantly ( p  maxima juice. Alkaloid, phenolics, and flavonoids were also significantly ( p   Na > Ph > Fe > Mg > K in the juice and Ca > Ph > Na > Fe > K > Mg in the peel extract. Vitamin C content of the juice and peel extract were 26.36 mg/100 g and 19.34 mg/100 g, respectively. Citrus maxima peel is highly nutritive and rich in phytochemicals, further research is recommended to investigate its therapeutic effect.

  8. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba du Toit

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g, particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg. Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  9. Cultivar and Harvest Month Influence the Nutrient Content of Opuntia spp. Cactus Pear Cladode Mucilage Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Alba; de Wit, Maryna; Hugo, Arno

    2018-04-16

    Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10.2 kJ/g) were low. The mineral content was high (ash 17.7/100 g), particularly calcium (3.0 g/100 g) and phosphorous (109.5 mg/kg). Low insoluble acid-detergent fibre (1.4 g/kg) and neutral-detergent fibre (2.1 g/kg) values indicated that mucilage was mostly soluble fibre. Calcium oxalate crystals were not detected in dried mucilage. Opuntia robusta powders had higher protein, extractable fat and potassium content, while Opuntia ficus-indica mucilage powders had higher polyunsaturated (Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid) fat content. O. robusta Robusta mucilage, harvested after the fruit harvest (February) had the lowest energy content and the highest mineral and protein content. Mucilage powders were highly soluble, low-kilojoule and mineral-rich. This is a functional ingredient that is produced from an easily cultivated crop, as cactus pears grow in areas with poor soil, extremely high daytime temperatures and limited water supplies.

  10. Roots bridge water to nutrients: a study of utilizing hydraulic redistribution through root systems to extract nutrients in the dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The rhizosphere is the region of soil that surrounds by individual plant roots. While its small volume and narrow region compared to bulk soil, the rhizosphere regulates numerous processes that determine physical structure, nutrient distribution, and biodiversity of soils. One of the most important and distinct functions of the rhizosphere is the capacity of roots to bridge and redistribute soil water from wet soil layers to drier layers. This process was identified and defined as hydraulic lift or hydraulic redistribution, a passive process driven by gradients in water potentials and it has attracted much research attention due to its important role in global water circulation and agriculture security. However, while previous studies mostly focused on the hydrological or physiological impacts of hydraulic redistribution, limited research has been conducted to elucidate its role in nutrient cycling and uptake. In this study, we aim to test the possibility of utilizing hydraulic redistribution to facilitate the nutrient movement and uptake from resource segregated zone. Our overarching hypothesis is that plants can extract nutrients from the drier but nutrient-rich regions by supplying sufficient amounts of water from the wet but nutrient-deficient regions. To test our hypothesis, we designed split-root systems of tomatoes with unequal supply of water and nutrients in different root compartments. More specifically, we transplanted tomato seedlings into sand or soil mediums, and grew them under conditions with alternate 12-h lightness and darkness. We continuously monitored the temperature, water and nutrient content of soils in these separated compartments. The above and below ground biomass were also quantified to evaluate the impacts on the plant growth. The results were compared to a control with evenly supply of water and nutrients to assess the plant growth, nutrient leaching and uptake without hydraulic redistribution.

  11. Revisiting History: Encountering Iodine Then and Now--A General Chemistry Laboratory to Observe Iodine from Seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M. Farooq

    2009-01-01

    The history of the discovery of iodine is retold using brown-colored seaweed found commonly along the ocean shore. The seaweed is ashed at a low temperature and the iodides are extracted into boiling water. The iodides are oxidized in acidic medium. Solvent extraction of iodine by oxidation of iodides as well as simple aqueous extraction of iodide…

  12. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutiya, Priyank L; Mahajan, Mayur S; Abdul Rasheed, M; Pandey, Manoj; Zaheer Hasan, S; Misra, Nirendra

    2018-06-01

    Seaweed cellulose was isolated from green seaweed Ulva fasciata using a common bleaching agent. Sheet containing porous mesh was prepared from the extracted seaweed crystalline cellulose along with zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod clusters grown over the sheet by single step hydrothermal method. Seaweed cellulose and zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited seaweed cellulose sheet was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TGA, and SEM-EDX. Morphology showed that the diameter of zinc oxide nanorods were around 70nm. Zinc oxide nanorod clusters deposited on seaweed cellulose sheet gave remarkable antibacterial activity towards gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus ceresus, Streptococcus thermophilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginous) microbes. Such deposited sheet has potential applications in pharmaceutical, biomedical, food packaging, water treatment and biotechnological industries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Extraction/export of nutrients in Opuntia ficus-indica under different spacings and chemical fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A. da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This work aimed to evaluate extraction/ export of nutrients and dry matter production in the 'Gigante' cactus pear, grown in different spacings and fertilizations 620 days after planting. Twelve combination of treatments were used consisting of: three spacings - 1.00 x 0.50; 2.00 x 0.25; and 3.00 x 1.00 x 0.25 m, and four fertilizations - 000-000-000; 000-150-000; 200-150-000; and 200-150-100, kg ha-1, of N, P2O5 and K2O, in a 3 x 4 factorial scheme in a randomized block design, with three replicates. Extraction/export of N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, B, Fe, Mn, Zn, Na and Cu were determined and the means were 304.35; 18.81; 421.04; 62.35; 464.63; 215.77; 0.39; 0.81; 23.74; 1.11; 0.62 and 0.08 kg ha-1, besides the mean dry matter production of 17.11 Mg ha-1. There were significant interactions for extraction/export of Mg and dry matter production. The fertilizations used were insufficient to meet the demand of N, K, Ca, Mg, S and micronutrients. Fertilization increased the extraction of nutrients, particularly N, P and S at the spacing of 1.00 x 0.50 m, and increased dry matter production. The decreasing order of extraction/export was Ca, K, N, Mg, S and P for macronutrients and Mn, Zn, Fe, Na, B and Cu for micronutrients.

  14. Metals in edible seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, C; Napoleone, G; Luis-González, G; Gutiérrez, A J; González-Weller, D; Hardisson, A; Revert, C

    2017-04-01

    The concentration levels of 20 metals were analyzed by ICP-OES in edible seaweed (Chondrus, Eisenia, Gelidium, Himanthalia, Laminaria, Palmaria, Porphyra, Undaria), from two origins (Asia vs EU) according to their cultivation practices (conventional vs organic). Red seaweed showed higher concentrations of trace and toxic elements. Porphyra may be used as a potential bioindicator for metals. Significant differences were found between the Asian vs European mean contents. The mean Cd level from the conventional cultivation (0.28 mg/kg) was two points higher than the organic cultivation (0.13 mg/kg). A daily consumption of seaweed (4 g/day) contributes to the dietary intake of metals, mainly Mg and Cr. The average intakes of Al, Cd and Pb were 0.064, 0.001 and 0.0003 mg/day, respectively. Based on obtained results, this study suggests that exposure to the toxic metals analyzed (Al, Cd and Pb) through seaweed consumption does not raise serious health concerns, but other toxic metals should be monitored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Evaluation of in vitro antibacterial property of seaweeds of southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... high antibacterial activity than other members of the algae tested in the present ... study confirmed the potential use of seaweed extracts as a source of antibacterial compounds. ... marine algae belonging to families such as Chlorphyceae .... seasons, method, organic solvents used for extraction of bioactive ...

  16. Anticancer Effects of Different Seaweeds on Human Colon and Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Moussavou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents.

  17. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Seaweeds have potentials as alternative feed for ruminants, but there is a limited knowledge on their nutritive value. Seven seaweed species collected along the coast above the Arctic circle of Norway, both in spring and autumn, were assessed for nutrients and total polyphenols (TEP) content, gas...... production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  18. Physiological and physico-chemical characterization of dietary fibre from the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFU. Carvalho

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile as an alternative source of dietary fibre (DF. Total DF content was determined, some of its physico-chemical properties described and the physiological effects of U. fasciata meal on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet were investigated. U. fasciata may be considered a potential alternative source of DF with a total content of about 400 g.kg-1 (dry basis and interesting physico-chemical properties: water retention capacity of 8.74 g/water.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 0.90 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, lipid adsorption capacity of 4.52 g/oil.g-1 dry sample (seaweed meal and 5.70 (seaweed carbohydrate extract, intrinsic viscosity of 2.4 dl.g-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract and cation exchange capacity of 3.51 Eq.kg-1 (seaweed carbohydrate extract. The diet containing seaweed meal was able to keep rats' total cholesterol (TC down without causing any undesirable increase in LDL-C fraction. No evidence of toxic and/or antinutritional components in the seaweed meal was detected. Rats showed a fecal volume much greater (13 g than that fed on cellulose diet ( 7 g (p < 0.05. These properties confer on the seaweed the potential to be used in food technology for the acquisition of low-calorie food and might be important in body weight control, reduction of blood TC and LDL-C as well as in prevention of gastrointestinal diseases.

  19. Seaweeds for umami flavour in the New Nordic Cuisine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouritsen Ole G

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Use of the term 'umami' for the fifth basic taste and for describing the sensation of deliciousness is finding its way into Western cuisine. The unique molecular mechanism behind umami sensation is now partly understood as an allosteric action of glutamate and certain 5'-ribonucleotides on the umami receptors. Chefs have started using this understanding to create dishes with delicious taste by adding old and new ingredients that enhance umami. In this paper, we take as our starting point the traditional Japanese soup broth dashi as the 'mother' of umami and demonstrate how dashi can be prepared from local, Nordic seaweeds, in particular the large brown seaweed sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima and the red seaweed dulse (Palmaria palmata, possibly combined with bacon, chicken meat or dried mushrooms to provide synergy in the umami taste. Optimal conditions are determined for dashi extraction from these seaweeds, and the corresponding glutamate, aspartate and alaninate contents are determined quantitatively and compared with Japanese dashi extracted from the brown seaweed konbu (Saccharina japonica. Dulse and dashi from dulse are proposed as promising novel ingredients in the New Nordic Cuisine to infuse a range of different dishes with umami taste, such as ice cream, fresh cheese and bread.

  20. Atividade antioxidante in vitro de extratos de algumas algas verdes (Chlorophyta do litoral catarinense (Brasil Antioxidant in vitro activity of extracts of some green seaweed (Chlorophyta from southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa dos Santos Raymundo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito antioxidante de quatro espécies de algas marinhas do filo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata e Chaetomorpha anteninna foi avaliado através da inibição da peroxidação do ácido linoléico em emulsão. Os extratos etéreos e metanólicos, na concentração de 0,01%, foram obtidos por extração seqüencial das biomassas secas. As espécies mais efetivas sobre a peroxidação lipídica foram Enteromorpha intestinalis e Chaetomorpha anteninna, com porcentagens de inibição acima de 70%. A habilidade dos extratos metanólicos para seqüestrar o peróxido de hidrogênio foi avaliada, obtendo-se valores médios para porcentagens de captura entre 1,26% e 20,01%. Além disto, quantificaram-se os teores de clorofila a, carotenóides totais e compostos fenólicos totais nas biomassas algais. Os resultados indicam que as algas verdes estudadas são uma fonte promissora de compostos biologicamente ativos com propriedades antioxidantes.The antioxidant activity of four species of green seaweeds of the phylo Chlorophyta (Codium decorticatum, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha anteninna collected at the seacoast of the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, was evaluated by means of the inhibition of peroxidation of linoleic acid converted into emulsion. Both ethereal and methanolic extracts were obtained from dried biomasses by sequential extraction procedures in concentrations of 0.01%. The most efficient species towards lipid peroxidation were E. intestinalis and C. anteninna with inhibition yields above 70% .The capacity of methanolic extracts to quench hydrogen peroxide was also estimated. Mean values varied from 1.26 to 20.01%. Chlorophylls a, total carotenoids and phenolic compounds were also quantified in the biomasses. Results indicated that studied green seaweeds are a very promising source of biologically active compounds with antioxidant properties.

  1. Anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides fractions from an aqueous extract obtained from the red seaweed Halymenia floresia (Clemente C. Agardh - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i4.9143

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Heparin (HEP is known due to their side effects and the red seaweed Halymenia floresia (Hf sulfated polysaccharides (SP are heparinoids. In this study we purified the Hf-SP obtained from an aqueous extract and evaluated their anticoagulant activities. Hf-SP1 (25°C, Hf-SP2 (80°C and Hf-SP3 (80°C were sequentially isolated. Hf-SP3 had the highest sulfate content (37.45%. Hf-SP3 was fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column using a NaCl gradient. Fractions were lyophilized and submitted to 0.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. The anticoagulant activity was evaluated by the activated partial thromboplastin time using rabbits plasma and expressed in international units per mg of SP using standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The chromatographic procedure separated into four different SP fractions (F I, F II, F III and F IV eluted at concentrations of 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 M of NaCl, respectively, reveling among them different marked on charge density, when compared by electrophoresis. F III had the highest anticoagulant activity (10.72 IU mg-1, suggesting that the sulfate is important in this process. In conclusion, our results suggest that sequential extractions of Hf-SP are an important biotechnological tool for identification of novel anticoagulants and studies of structural characterization are already in progress.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of selected seaweeds from Okha coast, Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaiah Nirmal Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal with the assessment of the chemical composition of carbohydrate, protein, phenol, flavanoid, chlorophyll, and carotenoid and antifungal activity of various marine seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat during September, 2013. Methods: Biochemical compounds of selected seaweeds were quantified and antifungal activity of these species belonging to red, green, and brown seaweeds was explored and the seaweeds were extracted in acetone, ethanol and chloroform. Results: The carbohydrate content was highest in Cystoseira indica Mairh, protein was highest in Gracilaria corticata J. Agardh and phenol content was highest in Padina boergesenii; flavanoid content was found greater in Cystoseira indica, chlorophyll content was found greater in Monostroma latissimum Wittrock and carotenoid content was more in Dictyopteris acrostichoides Bornet. The highest inhibiting effect was noted for Sargassum tenerrimum J. Agardh and Turbinaria ornata J. Agardh belonging to brown algae, against Aspergillus niger and Penicillium janthinellum in chloroform extracts and ethanolic extracts, which caused opportunistic infection of HIV-infected person, lung disease, aspergillosis, and otomycosis (fungal ear infections. Conclusions: The study reveals that the seaweeds contain high amount of biochemical constituents. Besides, the crude extracts of the seaweeds showed promising activity against the tested fungal pathogens. Therefore, seaweeds collected from Okha coast, Gujarat region are biochemical compounds with potential capacity which make them useful for screening natural products for pharmaceutical industry.

  3. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Influence of seaweed extract as an organic fertilizer on the growth and yield of Arachis hypogea L. and their elemental composition using SEM–Energy Dispersive Spectroscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ganapathy Selvam

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: It is suggested that there are considerable gains to be made in increasing yield and stabilizing the yield in environments characterized by terminal requirement for organic and by shortening crop duration nutrient management appear promising.

  5. [The use of seaweeds in rehabilitative medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G N

    2010-01-01

    This literature review supplemented by the results of original investigations presents data on seaweed composition and possibility of inclusion of seaweeds as foodstuffs and/or additives in the combined treatment of various diseases and clinical conditions, such as vitamin deficiency, insufficiency of microelements, etc. The use of seaweeds for external therapy in the form of algal applications, seaweed baths and coatings, etc. is considered. The most rational methods for using different species of seaweeds in rehabilitative medicine are discussed.

  6. Nutrient recycling of lipid-extracted waste in the production of an oleaginous thraustochytrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Joshua; Brooks, Marianne S; Armenta, Roberto E

    2016-05-01

    Improving the economics of microalgae production for the recovery of microbial oil requires a comprehensive exploration of the measures needed to improve productivity as well as to reduce the overall processing costs. One avenue for cost reduction involves recycling the effluent waste water remaining after lipid extraction. This study investigates the feasibility of recycling those wastes for growing thraustochytrid biomass, a heterotrophic microalgae, where wastes were generated from the enzymatic extraction of the lipids from the cell biomass. It was demonstrated that secondary cultures of the tested thraustochytrid grown in the recycled wastes performed favorably in terms of cell and oil production (20.48 g cells L(-1) and 40.9 % (w/w) lipid) compared to the control (13.63 g cells L(-1) and 56.8 % (w/w) lipid). Further, the significant uptake of solubilized cell material (in the form of amino acids) demonstrated that the recycled waste has the potential for offsetting the need for fresh medium components. These results indicate that the implementation of a nutrient recycling strategy for industrial microalgae production could be possible, with significant added benefits such as conserving water resources, improving production efficiency, and decreasing material inputs.

  7. Seaweed and Biomass production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiradze, K. T.

    2016-02-01

    The Black Sea has a sensitive ecosystem, vulnerable to the potential impacts by climate, water quality, pollution and etc. Successfully restoring and sustaining healthy Black Sea aqua cultural farming will require concreted action by private sector, civil society, farmer organizations and other stakeholders. But to achieve agri-environmental goals at scale, well-organized policy goals, framework and strategy for Sea Agriculture Green energy, Algae Biomass, Sapropel Production, aquacultures farming are essential for Georgian Farmers. But we must recognizes the most sustainable and at least risky farming systems will be those that build in aqua cultural, environmental, and social management practices resilient to climate ch ange and other risks and shocks evident in Georgia and whole in a Black Sea Basin Countries. Black Sea has more than 600 kinds of seaweeds; these species contain biologically active substances also present in fish - vitamins and omega fatty acids. The task is to specify how Black Sea seaweeds can be used in preparing nutrition additives, medicines and cosmetic products. As elsewhere around the world, governments, civil society, and the private sector in Georgia should work together to develop and implement `Blue Economy' and Green Growth strategies to generate equitable, sustainable economic development through strengthening Sea Agriculture. We are very interested to develop Black Sea seaweed plantation ad farming for multiply purposes fo r livestock as food additives, for human as great natural source of iodine as much iodine are released by seaweeds into the atmosphere to facilitate the development of better models or aerosol formation and atmospheric chemistry. It is well known, that earth's oceans are thought to have absorbed about one quarter of the CO2 humans pumped into the atmosphere over the past 20 years. The flip side of this process is that, as they absorb co2, oceans also become more acidic with dramatic consequences for sea life

  8. Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

  9. The antibacterial potential of the seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-20

    Sep 20, 2010 ... Several macroalgae produce bioactive metabolites in response to ecological ... in particular marine bacteria by effective antifouling mechanisms (Hellio et ... The ability of seaweeds to produce secondary meta- bolites of ..... Inhibition of the development of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) by extracts of ...

  10. Sourcing and bioprocessing of brown seaweed for maximizing glucose release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk Martin

    maximum levels of glucose. The first requirement was to develop a robust methodology, including acid hydrolysis and analytical composition analysis, to quantitatively estimate the carbohydrate composition of the brown seaweeds. The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds...... with lower enzyme loading. Simple application of only the cellulase preparation enabled the release of only half of the present glucose after 8 h. Analysis after the enzymatic treatment indicated a potential extraction of proteins from the solid residue and the sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan solubilized...

  11. Nutrient extraction and exportation by common bean cultivars under different fertilization levels: I - macronutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Peres Soratto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of cultivars with a higher yield potential and the adoption of new technology have achieved high grain yields in common bean, which probably changed the demand for nutrients in this crop. However, there is almost no information about the periods of the cycle in which nutrients are most demanded at which quantities by the main cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macronutrient extraction and exportation by the common bean cultivars Pérola and IAC Alvorada, under different levels of NPK fertilization, on a dystroferric Red Nitosol, in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block (split plot design with four replications. The plots consisted of six treatments based on a 2 x 3 factorial model, represented by two cultivars and three NPK levels (PD0 - 'Pérola' without fertilization, PD1 - 'Pérola' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, PD2 - 'Pérola' with 100 % of recommended fertilization, AD0 - 'IAC Alvorada' without fertilization, AD1 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 50 % of recommended fertilization, and AD2 - 'IAC Alvorada' with 100 % of recommended fertilization and subplots sampled seven times during the cycle. At higher levels of NPK fertilization, the grain yield and macronutrient extraction and exportation of both cultivars were higher, but without statistical differences. Macronutrient absorption was higher in the treatments with 100 % of recommended NPK fertilization (average amounts per hectare: 140 kg N, 16.5 kg P, 120 kg K, 69 kg Ca, 17.9 kg Mg, and 16.3 kg S. Regardless of the treatment, the demand for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg was highest from 45 to 55 days after emergence (DAE, i.e., in the R7 stage (pod formation, while the highest S absorption rates were concentrated between 55 and 65 DAE. More than 70 % of P, between 58 and 69 % of N, 40 and 52 % of S, 40 and 48 % of K, and 35 and 45 % of Mg absorbed during the cycle was exported with grains, whereas less than 15

  12. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward D. Kerr

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  13. Bioactivity and phytochemical constituents of marine red seaweeds (Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soad M. Mohy El-Din

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential renewable resources in the marine environment. The antibacterial activity of Jania rubens, Corallina mediterranea and Pterocladia capillacea were analyzed against human pathogenic bacteria. The present study was performed to investigate the phytochemical constituents of seaweeds, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and phlobatannins. In this study, we estimated phenols, flavonoids, tannins, pigments and mineral contents and determined the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected seaweeds. Phytochemicals were extracted from the three seaweeds using various solvents, such as methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform. Among the various extracts, the methanolic extract was found to have the highest reducing power and total antioxidant capacity. We evaluated the seaweeds against Vibrio fluvialis, and Pterocladia capillacea was the most effective at controlling its growth. The highest zone of inhibition was recorded in the methanol extract. The chemical constituents of the seaweeds were characterized by GC–MS, which showed that they contain organic compounds, such as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid.

  14. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2–ARE pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J.; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    with 1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. PMID:23291594

  15. Seaweed extracts and unsaturated fatty acid constituents from the green alga Ulva lactuca as activators of the cytoprotective Nrf2-ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Paul, Valerie J; Luesch, Hendrik

    2013-04-01

    1, which showed ARE-activating effects similar to those observed in vitro. This could be owing to this fraction's ability to stabilize Nrf2 through inhibition of Keap1-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and the subsequent accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. The induction of many ARE-driven antioxidant genes in vivo and most prominently in the heart agreed with the commonly recognized cardioprotective properties of MUFAs. A significant increase in Nqo1 transcript levels was also found in other mouse tissues such as the brain, lung, and stomach. Collectively, this study provides new insight into why consumption of dietary seaweed may have health benefits, and the identified compounds add to the list of chemopreventive dietary unsaturated fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of seaweed ( Sargassum sp.) extract: A study on inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patra, J.K.; Rath, S.K.; Jena, K.B.; Rathod, V.K.; Thatoi, H.

    In the present study, the free radical scavenging potentials (DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical), inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and glutathione-S-transferase and antimicrobial properties of Sargassum sp. extract were investigated. The tested...

  17. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  18. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy. Keywords: Dietary fiber, jelly drink, protein, seaweed, Spirulina platensis

  19. Biochemical evaluation of antioxidant activity and polysaccharides fractions in seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study ethanol and water extracts of 15 seaweeds, Dictyota dichotoma var. velutricata, Dictyota indica, Iyengaria stellata, Padina pavonia, Sargassum swartzii, Sargassum variegatum, Stoechospermum marginatum, Stokeyia indica, Jolyna laminarioides, Caulerpa taxifolia, Halimeda tuna, Ulva fasciata, Ulva lactuca, Solieria robusta, and Melanothamnus afaqhusainii, were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by ABTS or 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, superoxide and total antioxidant capacity (TAC assays.  The activity was concentration dependent and the variation in antioxidant potential was also observed by different assays in both extracts.  Ethanol extract of D. dichotoma var. velutricata, D. indica and S. marginatum demonstrated highest activity by TAC assay.  The antioxidant potential in organic solvent fractions of seaweeds namely P. pavonia, S. swartzii, S. marginatum and M. afaqhusainii was also determined and chloroform fraction of all the four seaweeds showed highest activity by superoxide assay.  Antioxidant activity of extracted fractions of polysaccharides from S. indica, C. taxifolia and D. dichotoma var. velutricata was also evaluated by superoxide method.  Polysaccharide fractions of S. indica obtained from HCl (at 700C and room temperature and water extract demonstrated highest activity respectively.  All the polysaccharide fractions of C. taxifolia showed excellent activity except CaClF70°C. Polysaccharide fractions of D. dichotoma var. velutricata also exhibited very good activity.

  20. Extract from Edible Red Seaweed (Gelidium amansii) Inhibits Lipid Accumulation and ROS Production during Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Min-Jung; Lee, Ok-Hwan; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2012-06-01

    Gelidium (G.) amansii is a red alga widely distributed in the shallow waters around East Asian countries. We investigated the effect of G. amansii on lipid accumulation and ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production in 3T3-L1 cells. G. amansii extracts dose-dependently inhibited lipid formation and ROS generation in cultured cells. Our results showed that anti-adipogenic effect of G. amansii was due to the reduction in mRNA expressions of PPARγ peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and aP2 (adipocyte protein 2). G. amansii extracts significantly decreased mRNA levels of a ROS-generator, NOX4 (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen oxidase 4), and increased the protein levels of antioxidant enzymes including SOD1/2 (superoxide dis-mutases), Gpx (glutathione peroxidase), and GR (glutathione reductase), which can lead to the reduction of ROS in the cell. In addition, the G. amansii extract enhanced mRNA levels of adiponectin, one of the adipokines secreted from adipocytes, and GLUT4, glucose uptake protein. Taken together, our study shows that G. amansii extract inhibited lipid accumulation and ROS production by controlling adipogenic signals and ROS regulating genes.

  1. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingridy Simone Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage.

  2. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  3. Influence of seaweed liquid fertilizer of ulva lactuca on the seed germination, growth, productivity of Abelmoschus esculentus (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaisarla Divya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is an attempt to study the influence of seaweed liquid fertiliger (SLF extracted from the marine green algae ulva lactuca on the growth parameters of Abelmoschus esculentus (l medikus. The seeds were soaked in different concentrations of SLF viz., 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20% and control for 6h. The foliar spry was applied twice at four concentrations of seaweed extract. The maximum growth was recorded at 5% concentration viz., seed germination, shoot length, root length, no. of flowers, no. of fruits, fresh weight and dry weight when compare to control and remaining concentrations of seaweed extract. The seaweed extract are found effective in increasing the growth parameters.

  4. Magnitude, spatial scale and optimization of ecosystem services from a nutrient extraction mussel farm in the eutrophic Skive Fjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Cranford, P. J.; Maar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Suspended mussel aquaculture has been proposed as a possible mechanism by which to remove excess nutrients from eutrophic marine areas. In this study, seasonal mussel growth and water clarification (through seston and phytoplankton depletion) were studied at a commercial-scale nutrient extractive...... mussel farm in a highly eu - trophic Danish fjord. Spatial variations in mussel biomass were examined throughout the year and no significant differences were detected within the farm. Food depletion by mussels was examined at spatial scales ranging from individuals to the entire farm and surrounding area....... Phytoplankton depletion on the scale of individual mussel loops, determined using the siphon mimic approach, indicated between 27 and 44% depletion of chlorophyll a (chl a). Farm-scale depletion was detected and visualized based on intensive 3D spatial surveys of the distribution of chl a and total suspended...

  5. Seagrass Biomass and Productivity in Seaweed and Non-Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seagrass beds are often subjected to stress resulting from natural and human activities. In this study, the shoot density, biomass and growth characteristics of Thalassia hemprichii and Enhalus acoroides were measured to assess the impact of seaweed farming activities on seagrass meadows at Marumbi, Chwaka Bay and ...

  6. The ability of in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of a cod protein hydrolysate and brown seaweed extract to prevent oxidation in marine food model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, Rósa; Geirsdóttir, Margrét; Hamaguchi, Patricia Y; Jamnik, Polona; Kristinsson, Hordur G; Undeland, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    The ability of different in vitro antioxidant assays to predict the efficiency of cod protein hydrolysate (CPH) and Fucus vesiculosus ethyl acetate extract (EA) towards lipid oxidation in haemoglobin-fortified washed cod mince and iron-containing cod liver oil emulsion was evaluated. The progression of oxidation was followed by sensory analysis, lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in both systems, as well as loss of redness and protein carbonyls in the cod system. The in vitro tests revealed high reducing capacity, high DPPH radical scavenging properties and a high oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) value of the EA which also inhibited lipid and protein oxidation in the cod model system. The CPH had a high metal chelating capacity and was efficient against oxidation in the cod liver oil emulsion. The results indicate that the F. vesiculosus extract has a potential as an excellent natural antioxidant against lipid oxidation in fish muscle foods while protein hydrolysates are more promising for fish oil emulsions. The usefulness of in vitro assays to predict the antioxidative properties of new natural ingredients in foods thus depends on the knowledge about the food systems, particularly the main pro-oxidants present. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Bactericidal application and cytotoxic activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles with an extract of the red seaweed Pterocladiella capillacea on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kassas, Hala Yassin; Attia, Azza Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Nano-biotechnology is recognized as offering revolutionary changes in various fields of medicine. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized with an aqueous extract of Pterocladiella (Pterocladia) capillacea, used as a reducing and stabilizing agent, and characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis (EDX). The biosynthesized AgNPs were tested for cytotoxic activity in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic and antimycotic solution and 2 mM glutamine. Bacterial susceptibility to AgNPs was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis [Gram+ve] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [Gram-ve]. The agar well diffusion technique was adopted to evaluate the bactericidal activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs using Ampicillin and Gentamicin as gram+ve and gram-ve antibacterial standard drugs, respectively. The biosynthesized AgNPs were 11.4±3.52 nm in diameter. FT-IR analysis showed that carbonyl groups from the amino acid residues and proteins could assist in formation and stabilization of AgNPs. The AgNPs showed potent cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line at higher concentrations. The results also showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs inhibited the entire panel of tested bacteria with a marked specificity towards Bacillus subtillus. Cytotoxic activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs may be due to the presence of alkaloids present in the algal extract. Our AgNPs appear more bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria (B. subtillus).

  8. Influence of Extractive Solvents on Lipid and Fatty Acids Content of Edible Freshwater Algal and Seaweed Products, the Green Microalga Chlorella kessleri and the Cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Vavra Ambrozova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Total lipid contents of green (Chlorella pyrenoidosa, C, red (Porphyra tenera, N; Palmaria palmata, D, and brown (Laminaria japonica, K; Eisenia bicyclis, A; Undaria pinnatifida, W, WI; Hizikia fusiformis, H commercial edible algal and cyanobacterial (Spirulina platensis, S products, and autotrophically cultivated samples of the green microalga Chlorella kessleri (CK and the cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis (SP were determined using a solvent mixture of methanol/chloroform/water (1:2:1, v/v/v, solvent I and n-hexane (solvent II. Total lipid contents ranged from 0.64% (II to 18.02% (I by dry weight and the highest total lipid content was observed in the autotrophically cultivated cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Solvent mixture I was found to be more effective than solvent II. Fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography of their methyl esters (% of total FAMEs. Generally, the predominant fatty acids (all results for extractions with solvent mixture I were saturated palmitic acid (C16:0; 24.64%–65.49%, monounsaturated oleic acid (C18:1(n-9; 2.79%–26.45%, polyunsaturated linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6; 0.71%–36.38%, α-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-3; 0.00%–21.29%, γ-linolenic acid (C18:3(n-6; 1.94%–17.36%, and arachidonic acid (C20:4(n-6; 0.00%–15.37%. The highest content of ω-3 fatty acids (21.29% was determined in Chlorella pyrenoidosa using solvent I, while conversely, the highest content of ω-6 fatty acids (41.42% was observed in Chlorella kessleri using the same solvent.

  9. Evaluation of a Biostimulant (Pepton Based in Enzymatic Hydrolyzed Animal Protein in Comparison to Seaweed Extracts on Root Development, Vegetative Growth, Flowering, and Yield of Gold Cherry Tomatoes Grown under Low Stress Ambient Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Polo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of different application rates of an enzyme hydrolyzed animal protein biostimulant (Pepton compared to a standard application rate of a biostimulant derived from seaweed extract (Acadian on plant growth parameters and yield of gold cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.. Biostimulant treatments were applied starting at 15 days after transplant and every 2 weeks thereafter for a total of 5 applications. One treatment group received no biostimulant (Control. Three treatment groups (Pepton-2, Pepton-3, Pepton-4 received Pepton at different application rates equivalent to 2, 3, or 4 kg/ha applied by foliar (first 2 applications and by irrigation (last 3 applications. Another treatment group (Acadian received Acadian at 1.5 L/ha by irrigation for all five applications. All groups received the regular fertilizer application for this crop at transplantation, flowering, and fruiting periods. There were four plots per treatment group. Each plot had a surface area of 21 m2 that consisted of two rows that were 7 m long and 1.5 m wide. Plant height, stem diameter, distance from head to bouquet flowering, fruit set distance between the entire cluster and cluster flowering fruit set, leaf length, and number of leaves per plant was recorded for 20 plants (5 plants per plot at 56 and 61 days after the first application. Root length and diameter of cherry tomatoes were determined at harvest from 20 randomly selected plants. Harvesting yield per plot was registered and production per hectare was calculated. Both biostimulants improved (P < 0.05 all vegetative parameters compared with the control group. There was a positive linear (P < 0.001 effect of Pepton application rate for all parameters. The calculated yield was 7.8 and 1 Ton/ha greater that represent 27 and 2.9% higher production for Pepton applied at 4 kg/ha compared to the control and to Acadian, respectively. In conclusion, Pepton was

  10. SEABIOPLAS project Seaweed co-products as micro-additives in fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Dias Peixoto

    2014-05-01

    The role of the CIIMAR team in the project is to study the use of seaweeds and their extracts in fish nutrition. Several variables, such as zootecnical parameters, metabolic and digestive enzymes, as well as stress and immune response parameters will be used as indicators of growth performance, fish health and welfare conditions. To do so, several feeding trials will be carried out under controlled rearing conditions, where biotic and abiotic factors will be used as stressors to determine the protective effects of seaweed supplementation in fish diets. Juvenile European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax, will be used as the fish model, in a fast growing stage (IBW: 15-50 g. Each dietary treatment (control diet vs. experimental diets will be fed in triplicate groups for approximately 90 days, twice a day to apparent satiety. Fish will be individually marked with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag prior to the beginning of the trials for monitoring individual fish performance. During the trials, samplings will be carried out at different times for determination the effects of treatment duration on the results. Growth performance will be determined by means of growth rate (% body weight/day; feed conversion ratio (FCR; voluntary fed intake (VFI, % body weight/day; protein efficiency ratio (PER; nutrient retention efficiency (%. To evaluate fish health and welfare condition, several stress biomarkers will be determine, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lipid peroxidation (LP, oxidized protein (POx; Acetylcholinesterase (AChE, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. In addition, gross morphometric indices: such as the condition factor (K and hepato-somatic index (HSI will be calculated as auxiliary indicators of health status and liver condition of fish. For immune parameters, plasma for humoral analyses parameters will be used (peroxidase, lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity and superoxide anion production.

  11. An altered Pseudomonas diversity is recovered from soil by using nutrient-poor Pseudomonas-selective soil extract media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagot, N.; Nybroe, O.; Nielsen, P.

    2001-01-01

    We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed to be Pseu......We designed five Pseudomonas-selective soil extract NAA media containing the selective properties of trimethoprim and sodium lauroyl sarcosine and 0 to 100% of the amount of Casamino Acids used in the classical Pseudomonas-selective Gould's S1 medium. All of the isolates were confirmed....... Several of these analyses showed that the amount of Casamino Acids significantly influenced the diversity of the recovered Pseudomonas isolates. Furthermore, the data suggested that specific Pseudomonas subpopulations were represented on the nutrient-poor media. The NAA 1:100 medium, containing ca. 15 mg...... of organic carbon per liter, consistently gave significantly higher Pseudomonas CFU counts than Gould's S1 when tested on four Danish soils. NAA 1:100 may, therefore, be a better medium than Gould's S1 for enumeration and isolation of Pseudomonas from the low-nutrient soil environment....

  12. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  13. Effect of the Presence of Seagrass and Nutrients on Growth Rates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean J. Mar. Sci. Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 129-135, 2011 .... seaweeds at low tide, allowing 2-3 h for the seaweeds to take up the nutrients. Fertilised .... Kappaphycus alvarezii in tidal pools with and without seagrass; c) unfertilised Eucheuma denticulatum and d) Kappaphycus alvarezii in tidal pools with and ...

  14. Nutrient Discharge from aquaculture operations in function of system design and production enviorment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2013-01-01

    In aquaculture, nutrient loading is defined as the difference between nutrients supplied with fertilizers and feed and nutrients harvested in the form of finfish, crustaceans, molluscs and seaweeds. On average, the production of finfish and crustaceans results in a net nutrient loading, while for

  15. Utilization of cast seaweed and waste from pectin production for anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, A M; Christensen, T B; Kjær, T

    2011-01-01

    and cast seaweed (winter sample): 118 ml CH4 g VS-1. The predicted annual biogas production of the plant was 5.4 million m3 CH4. An environmental assessment concluded that a biogas plant using the aforementioned organic materials will reduce greenhouse gas emissions between 25,000 tons CO2 year-1 and 40......,000 tons CO2 year-1 depending on the type of energy utilization. Reduction of nutrients in the coastal zone by removal of seaweed was found to be of high value.......The paper describes a preliminary study on the environmental consequences of realizing a biogas plant using locally available biomass fractions in Solrød, Denmark. The biomass, which will be used at the plant, will consist of: cast seaweed (app. 20,000 tons year-1), waste from pectin production...

  16. Carrageenan: a natural seaweed polysaccharide and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Vipul D; Maheriya, Pankaj M; Jani, Girish K; Solanki, Himanshu K

    2014-05-25

    Polysaccharides have been gaining interesting and valuable applications in the food and pharmaceutical fields. As they are derived from the natural source, they are easily available, non-toxic, cheap, biodegradable and biocompatible. Carrageenan is one among them, which fulfills the criteria of polysaccharide; it is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan is derived from the Chondrus crispus species of seaweed (Rhodophyceace) known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss, and Carraigin. A demand based on its application has been widely increasing in food and pharmaceutical sectors. Carrageenan has gained wide applications in experimental medicine, pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetics, and food industries. Through keen references of the reported literature on carrageenan, in this review, we have described about carrageenan, its properties, extraction and refining, and its food and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of pectin extracted from citrus pulp on digesta characteristics and nutrient digestibility in broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Karla Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of continuous ingestion of pectin on intestinal viscosity, intestinal transit time, excreta moisture content, nutrient digestibility and energy metabolism of broilers at starter and growth phases. We used 240 one-day-old Cobb male broiler chicks, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of four concentrations of pectin (0, 10, 30 and 50 g kg-1 with six replicates of 10 birds each. The ingestion of pectin supplied in the feed by broilers at the starter phase increased intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduced excreta moisture, improved the use of apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy, coefficient of apparent metabolizability, coefficient of nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizability, apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein and organic matter; worsened calcium utilization and coefficients of apparent digestibility of dry matter; and did not influence the coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude fat, ash and phosphorus. Pectin ingestion during the growth phase increased intestinal viscosity and apparent digestibility coefficients of ash and organic matter, but decreased the dry matter, crude fat, crude protein and calcium. Intestinal transit time, energy metabolism and apparent digestibility coefficient of crude protein showed quadratic behavior according to pectin levels in the feed. Therefore, pectin ingestion by broilers at the starter phase increases intestinal viscosity and intestinal transit time, reduces excreta moisture and improves energy utilization, whereas at the growth phase nutrient digestibility is decreased.

  18. Inhibitory effects of edible seaweeds, polyphenolics and alginates on the activities of porcine pancreatic α-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaharudin, Nazikussabah Binti; Asunción Salmeán, Armando; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2018-01-01

    Edible seaweeds are valuable because of their organoleptic properties and complex polysaccharide content. A study was conducted to investigate the potential of dried edible seaweed extracts, its potential phenolic compounds and alginates for α-amylase inhibitory effects. The kinetics of inhibition......,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid was found to be a potent inhibitor of α-amylase with an IC50 value of 0.046 ± 0.004 mg/ml. Alginates found in brown seaweeds appeared to be potent inhibitors of α-amylase activity with an IC50 of (0.075 ± 0.010–0.103 ± 0.017) mg/ml, also a mixed-type inhibition. Overall, the findings provide...... information that crude extracts of brown edible seaweeds, phenolic compounds and alginates are potent α-amylase inhibitors, thereby potentially retarding glucose liberation from starches and alleviation of postprandial hyperglycaemia....

  19. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ15N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two coastal sites (COU, GM) in the Bay of Seine affected by summer seaweed beachings. • The same temporal dynamics of the algal δ 15 N at the two sites. • N and P concentrations in seawater of the two sites dominated by riverine sources. • A coupling between seaweed beachings and N sources of intertidal macroalgae. - Abstract: A fine-scale survey of δ 15 N, δ 13 C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM ∗ , COU ∗ ). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ 15 N signatures and N contents at GM ∗ and COU ∗ . Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ 15 N at GM ∗ were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae

  20. Phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of selected species of seaweeds from Danish coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farvin, Sabeena; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Water and ethanolic extracts of 16 species of seaweeds collected along the Danish coasts were screened for antioxidant activities using four in vitro antioxidant assays (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating and liposome model system......). Furthermore their effectiveness in retarding lipid peroxidation in fish oil was evaluated by an accelerated stability test. Significant differences were observed in total and individual phenolic content and the antioxidant activities of seaweed species evaluated. Ethanol was more efficient for polyphenol...... extraction than water. Polysiphonia fucoides and all the Fucus species tested showed highest radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of oxidation in liposome model system and in fish oil and were high in phenolic content. These seaweeds could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants...

  1. Commercial Seaweed Farming in Zanzibar Coastal Villages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing the competitive potential of Zanzibar seaweed farming for the ... business model and level of value addition initiatives on seaweed farming. It applied both descriptive statistics and regression analysis in order to achieve results. ... This is contributed by various constraints such as small farm size, lack of ...

  2. Seaweed: Promising plant of the millennium

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweeds, one of the important marine living resources could be termed as the futuristically promising plants. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine in the orient as well as in the west, since ancient times. Although, seaweeds...

  3. Effect of yeast culture and Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract on ruminal characteristics and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedmeier, R D; Arambel, M J; Walters, J L

    1987-10-01

    Four nonpregnant and nonlactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal fistulas were assigned to each of four diets in a 4 X 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were 1) basal diet containing 50% concentrate; 2) basal diet plus 90 g/d yeast culture; 3) basal diet plus 2.63 g/d Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract; 4) basal diet plus 90 g/d of A. oryzae fermentation extract and yeast culture. Cows were fed diets at a rate of 86 g DM/kg BW.75 for 14 d adaptation followed by an 8-d collection period. Digestibility of dry matter was increased by A. oryzae and A. oryzae and yeast culture combination treatments. Digestibility of CP was increased regardless of fungal culture addition. Hemicellulose digestibility, percent ruminal cellulolytic organisms, and acetate to propionate ratio were increased by the addition of fungal supplements.

  4. Nutritional value of green seaweed (Ulva lactuca for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaeldein M. Abudabos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current work aimed to assess the potential of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca as an alternative ingredient in broiler chicken diets. The effect of substituting 1.0 or 3.0% of corn with U. lactuca on performance, carcass characteristics, serum constituents and nutrients retention of broilers from 12 to 33 d of age was evaluated. Three treatments were distributed in a RCBD design: T1 = control diet (0% U. lactuca; T2 = 1.0 % U. lactuca; T3 = 3.0 % U. lactuca. Cumulative feed intake (FI, body weight gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio (FCR and nutrients retention from 12 to 33 d of age were not affected by treatment (P>0.05. Birds which had received T3 had a higher dressing percentage and breast muscle yield compared to those which had received T1 or T2. Serum total lipid, cholesterol and uric acid concentrations were significantly lower in birds which had received T2 and T3 (P<0.05. Serum enzymes and electrolytes were not influenced by any dietary treatment except for alanine transaminase (ALT which was significantly lower for the treated groups. Based on presented evidences, it is recommended to substitute 3.0% of corn with green seaweed (U. lactuca.

  5. Formulation of Red Seaweed and Spirulina platensis Based Jelly Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wini Trilaksani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, jelly drinks in the market contain synthetic sweeteners, coloring and flavoring agents, as well as low in nutrients content, therefore it needs to be developed in order to obtain more healthy product by adding seaweed and Spirulina. The aims of this research were to determine the best formula of jelly drinks with seaweed (Eucheuma cottonii and Spirulina platensis and to compare the characteristics (nutrients and antioxidant activity of jelly drinks made from culture-based Spirulina and from commercial Spirulina. Jelly drinks made from commercial Spirulina (0.2%; 0.4%; and 0.6% had protein content 1.218-2.750% (db and the IC50 value was 3363.5-6070 ppm. Bayes test showed that jelly drink with commercial Spirulina 0.4% was the selected product and was used as the reference formula on this research. Types of Spirulina (commercial and culture gave no significant effect (p>0.05 to the hedonic test results and antioxidant activity however affected significantly on protein content (p<0.05. Jelly drink supplemented with 0.4% of culture-based Spirulina produced 92 kcal of energy; meanwhile the jelly drink with 0.4% of commercial Spirulina produced 79 kcal of energy.

  6. Nutritional status and effect of seaweed chocolate on anemic adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thahira Banu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the nutritional status, develop a product incorporating seaweed and assess its impact on anemic adolescent girls. Five hundred adolescent girls in the age group of 15–18 years were selected from a women's college at Kilakarai, Tamil Nadu, India as the target group to find the prevalence of anemia. Among the 500 subjects 100 with a hemoglobin level of 7–9 g/dL (moderate anemia were selected by purposive sampling technique for supplementation. Seaweed incorporated chocolate was formulated, standardized, tested for consumer acceptability and in vitro iron bioavailability and supplemented to the selected subjects. The result of the study indicates that seaweed chocolate developed obtained the highest score for overall acceptability, 56 mg of iron/100 g and 11.80 mg of bioavailable iron. The results were found to be promising as there was a significant increase in hemoglobin, TIBC, MCH, MCV, serum iron and serum ferritin levels in the selected subjects. Seaweeds are a less consumed natural resource but abundantly available in the coastal areas of India as they are rich source of nutrients and can be used as an effective therapeutic and nutrient adjunct.

  7. Prospects for methane production and nutrient recycling from lipid extracted residues and whole Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Chow, Steven; Ketter, Ben; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Bouwer, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Semi-continuous AD of untreated and enzymatically pretreated lipid extracted algae. • Coupled biodiesel and methane process yields 40% more energy than biodiesel alone. • Thermal pretreatment (150–170 °C) of whole algae was more effective than enzymatic. • Addition of 5% of AD effluent was optimal to support high growth of Nannochloropsis. • AD effluent can partly replace chemical fertilizer for algal growth. - Abstract: Sustainable mass production of algal biofuels requires a reduction in nutrient demand and efficient conversion into fuels of all biomass including lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA). This study evaluated methane production, nutrient recovery and recycling from untreated and enzymatically pretreated Nannochloropsis LEA using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD). Additionally, this process was compared to methane generation from whole Nannochloropsis alga (WA) and thermally pretreated WA. The methane production from untreated LEA and WA reached up to 0.22 L and 0.24 L per gram of biomass volatile solids (VS), respectively, corresponding to only 36–38% of the theoretical potential. Additionally, observed VS reduction was only 40–50% confirming biomass recalcitrance to biodegradation. While enzymatic treatment hydrolyzed up to 65% of the LEA polysaccharides, the methane production increased by only 15%. Alternatively, WA thermal pretreatment at 150–170 °C enhanced methane production up to 40%. Overall, an integrated process of lipid conversion into biodiesel coupled with LEA conversion into methane generates nearly 40% more energy compared to methane production from WA, and about 100% more energy than from biodiesel alone. Additionally, the AD effluent contained up to 60–70% of the LEA phosphorus content, 30–50% of the nitrogen, sulfur, calcium and boron, 20% of the iron and cobalt, and 10% of manganese, zinc and copper, which can partially replace chemical fertilizers during algal cultivation. Consequently

  8. The seaweed holobiont: understanding seaweed-bacteria interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Suhelen; Harder, Tilmann; Burke, Catherine; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Thomas, Torsten

    2013-05-01

    Seaweeds (macroalgae) form a diverse and ubiquitous group of photosynthetic organisms that play an essential role in aquatic ecosystems. These ecosystem engineers contribute significantly to global primary production and are the major habitat formers on rocky shores in temperate waters, providing food and shelter for aquatic life. Like other eukaryotic organisms, macroalgae harbor a rich diversity of associated microorganisms with functions related to host health and defense. In particular, epiphytic bacterial communities have been reported as essential for normal morphological development of the algal host, and bacteria with antifouling properties are thought to protect chemically undefended macroalgae from detrimental, secondary colonization by other microscopic and macroscopic epibiota. This tight relationship suggests that macroalgae and epiphytic bacteria interact as a unified functional entity or holobiont, analogous to the previously suggested relationship in corals. Moreover, given that the impact of diseases in marine ecosystems is apparently increasing, understanding the role of bacteria as saprophytes and pathogens in seaweed communities may have important implications for marine management strategies. This review reports on the recent advances in the understanding of macroalgal-bacterial interactions with reference to the diversity and functional role of epiphytic bacteria in maintaining algal health, highlighting the holobiont concept. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Life cycle assessment of seaweed biomethane, generated from seaweed sourced from integrated multi-trophic aquaculture in temperate oceanic climates

    OpenAIRE

    CZYRNEK-DELETRE MAGDALENA; ROCCA STEFANIA; AGOSTINI ALESSANDRO; GIUNTOLI JACOPO; MURPHY JERRY

    2017-01-01

    Biomethane produced from seaweed is a third generation renewable gaseous fuel. The advantage of seaweed for biofuel is that it does not compete directly or indirectly for land with food, feed or fibre production. Furthermore, the integration of seaweed and salmon farming can increase the yield of seaweed per hectare, while reducing the eutrophication from fish farming. So far, full comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of seaweed biofuel are scarce in the literature; current studi...

  10. Properties of polysaccharides in several seaweeds from Atlantic Canada and their potential anti-influenza viral activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Guangling; Yu, Guangli; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, Stephen H.

    2012-06-01

    To explore the polysaccharides from selected seaweeds of Atlantic Canada and to evaluate their potential anti-influenza virus activities, polysaccharides were isolated from several Atlantic Canadian seaweeds, including three red algae ( Polysiphonia lanosa, Furcellaria lumbricalis, and Palmaria palmata), two brown algae ( Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus vesiculosus), and one green alga ( Ulva lactuca) by sequential extraction with cold water, hot water, and alkali solutions. These polysaccharides were analyzed for monosaccharide composition and other general chemical properties, and they were evaluated for anti-influenza virus activities. Total sugar contents in these polysaccharides ranged from 15.4% (in U. lactuca) to 91.4% (in F. lumbricalis); sulfation level was as high as 17.6% in a polysaccharide from U. lactuca, whereas it could not be detected in an alikali-extract from P. palmaria. For polysaccharides from red seaweeds, the main sugar units were sulfated galactans (agar or carrageenan) for P. lanosa, F. lumbricalis, and xylans for P. palmata. In brown seaweeds, the polysaccharides largely contained sulfated fucans, whereas the polysaccharides in green seaweed were mainly composed of heteroglycuronans. Screening for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus revealed that brown algal polysaccharides were particularly effective. Seaweeds from Atlantic Canada are a good source of marine polysaccharides with potential antiviral properties.

  11. Potential seaweed-based food ingredients to inhibit lipid oxidation in fish-oil-enriched mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honold, Philipp; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Jónsdóttir, Rósa

    2016-01-01

    Brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus has a high potential as a source of natural antioxidants due to a high diversity of bioactive compounds in its composition. In this study, four extracts were characterized with respect to composition of bioactive compounds, in vitro antioxidant properties and their...

  12. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  13. Seasonal variations of antioxidants in the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Safafar, Hamed; Pedersen, Anja

    Mainly the brown seaweeds are known for their high antioxidative capacity within the specific compounds such as phlorotannins, polyphenols, flavonoids, pigments, and these natural antioxidants are of high industrial interest. Previous studies have shown large seasonal variations in biomass...... composition. The aim of this study was to see if there was a seasonal variation in the antioxidant content of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima), compare two cultivation sites, REF and IMTA, and test different solvents applied for extractions, methanol or ethyl acetate. Rope cultivated sugar kelp were sampled...

  14. Antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities in selected seaweed species from Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Ruiz, Idalia; López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Burgos-Hernández, Armando; Velázquez, Carlos; Nieves-Soto, Mario; Hurtado-Oliva, Miguel A

    2016-10-01

    Context Seaweeds from the Mexican Pacific Ocean have not been evaluated as a source of chemoprotectants. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate chemopreventive activities of the seaweeds Phaephyceae - Padina durvillaei (Dictyotaceae) - Rodhophyceae - Spyridia filamentosa (Spyridiaceae), Gracilaria vermiculophylla (Gracilariaceae) - and Chlorophyceae - Ulva expansa (Ulvaceae), Codium isabelae (Codiaceae), Rhizoclonium riparium (Cladophoraceae) and Caulerpa sertularioides (Caulerpaceae). Materials and methods Methanol, acetone and hexane seaweed extracts were assessed at 30 and 3 mg/mL on antioxidant capacity (DPPH and ABTS assays), 0.003-3.0 mg/plate on antimutagenic activity against AFB1 using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 tester strains in Ames test, and 12.5 to 100 μg/mL on antiproliferative activity on Murine B-cell lymphoma. Phenols, flavonoids and pigments content were also assessed as antioxidant compounds. Results Extraction yield was higher in methanol than in acetone and hexane extracts (6.4, 2.7 and 1.4% dw). Antioxidant capacity was higher in brown and green than in red seaweed species, particularly in P. durvillaei extracted in acetone (EC50  value= 16.9 and 1.56 mg/mL for DPPH and ABTS). Flavonoids and chlorophylls were identified as mainly antioxidant components; particularly in hexane extracts, which were correlated with the antioxidant capacity. Highest mutagenesis inhibition (> 40%) occurred in R. riparium at the lowest concentration assayed (0.003 mg/plate), while highest antiproliferative inhibition (37 and 72% for 12.5 and 25 μg/mL) occurred in C. sertularioides. Discussion and conclusion Flavonoids and chlorophylls explained the chemopreventive activities assessed in S. filamentosa, R. riparium and C. sertularioides. These seaweeds have a high potential as a source of novel chemoprotectants.

  15. Screening of marine seaweeds for bioactive compound against fish pathogenic bacteria and active fraction analysed by gas chromatography– mass spectrometry

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    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate bioactive molecules from marine seaweeds and check the antimicrobial activity against the fish pathogenic bacteria. Methods: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii were collected. Each seaweed was extracted with different solvents. In the study, test pathogens were collected from microbial type culture collection. Antibacterial activity was carried out by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC was calculated. Best seaweed was analysed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The cured extract was separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC. Fraction was collected from TLC to check the antimicrobial activity. Best fraction was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GCMS. Results: Based on the disc diffusion method, S. wightii showed a better antimicrobial activity than other seaweed extracts. Based on the MIC, methanol extract of S. wightii showed lower MIC than other solvents. S. wightii were separated by TLC. In this TLC, plate showed a two fraction. These two fractions were separated in preparative TLC and checked for their antimicrobial activity. Fraction 2 showed best MIC value against the tested pathogen. Fraction 2 was analysed by GCMS. Based on the GCMS, fraction 2 contains n-hexadecanoic acid (59.44%. Conclusions: From this present study, it can be concluded that S. wightii was potential sources of bioactive compounds.

  16. Seaweed: A valuable marine plant source

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Pereira, N.

    Seaweed, one of the components of seashore, is the most unique and important marine living resource. Its multi-ranged applications are of economic as well as ecological importance. These plants have been a source of food, feed and medicine...

  17. In vitro prebiotic effects of seaweed polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolin; Sun, Yuhao; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Yu, Huahua; Xing, Rong'e.; Li, Rongfeng; Wang, Xueqin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-09-01

    Although prebiotic activities of alginate and agar oligosaccharides isolated from seaweeds have been reported, it remains unknown whether seaweed polysaccharides have prebiotic activity. In this study, we isolated polysaccharides from four species of seaweeds, such as Grateloupia filicina (GFP), Eucheuma spinosum (ESP), Ulva pertusa (UPP), and Ascophyllum nodosum (ANP), and characterized their structures and prebiotic effects in vitro. The results showed that these polysaccharides were different in total sugar and sulfate contents as well as monosaccharide composition. GFP and ESP significantly promoted bifidobacterium proliferation and 0.1% ESP and 0.4% GFP resulted in the highest proliferation rates of beneficial bacteria, whereas UPP and ANP inhibited the growth of beneficial bacteria at all tested concentrations (0.1%-0.5%). The different behaviors of the four seaweed-originated polysaccharides might be reflected by differences in monosaccharide composition and structure. Therefore, polysaccharides isolated from GFP and ESP could be utilized as prebiotics. However, more studies must be carried out in vivo.

  18. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa

    2016-01-28

    In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS) or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.

  19. Emergent Sources of Prebiotics: Seaweeds and Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena de Jesus Raposo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, scientists have become aware that human microbiota, in general, and gut microbiota, in particular, play a major role in human health and diseases, such as obesity and diabetes, among others. A large number of evidence has come to light regarding the beneficial effects, either for the host or the gut microbiota, of some foods and food ingredients or biochemical compounds. Among these, the most promising seem to be polysaccharides (PS or their derivatives, and they include the dietary fibers. Some of these PS can be found in seaweeds and microalgae, some being soluble fibers, such as alginates, fucoidans, carrageenans and exopolysaccharides, that are not fermented, at least not completely, by colonic microbiota. This review gives an overview of the importance of the dietary fibers, as well as the benefits of prebiotics, to human health. The potential of the PS from marine macro- and microalgae to act as prebiotics is discussed, and the different techniques to obtain oligosaccharides from PS are presented. The mechanisms of the benefits of fiber, in general, and the types and benefits of algal fibers in human health are highlighted. The findings of some recent studies that present the potential effects of prebiotics on animal models of algal biomass and their extracts, as well as oligo- and polysaccharides, are presented. In the future, the possibility of using prebiotics to modulate the microbiome, and, consequently, prevent certain human diseases is foreseen.

  20. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  1. The Footprint of Continental-Scale Ocean Currents on the Biogeography of Seaweeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernberg, Thomas; Thomsen, Mads S.; Connell, Sean D.; Russell, Bayden D.; Waters, Jonathan M.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Kraft, Gerald T.; Sanderson, Craig; West, John A.; Gurgel, Carlos F. D.

    2013-01-01

    Explaining spatial patterns of biological organisation remains a central challenge for biogeographic studies. In marine systems, large-scale ocean currents can modify broad-scale biological patterns by simultaneously connecting environmental (e.g. temperature, salinity and nutrients) and biological (e.g. amounts and types of dispersed propagules) properties of adjacent and distant regions. For example, steep environmental gradients and highly variable, disrupted flow should lead to heterogeneity in regional communities and high species turnover. In this study, we investigated the possible imprint of the Leeuwin (LC) and East Australia (EAC) Currents on seaweed communities across ~7,000 km of coastline in temperate Australia. These currents flow poleward along the west and east coasts of Australia, respectively, but have markedly different characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that, regional seaweed communities show serial change in the direction of current flow and that, because the LC is characterised by a weaker temperature gradient and more un-interrupted along-shore flow compared to the EAC, then coasts influenced by the LC have less variable seaweed communities and lower species turnover across regions than the EAC. This hypothesis was supported. We suggest that this pattern is likely caused by a combination of seaweed temperature tolerances and current-driven dispersal. In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the characteristics of continental-scale currents can influence regional community organisation, and that the coupling of ocean currents and marine biological structure is a general feature that transcends taxa and spatial scales. PMID:24260352

  2. Nutritional and digestive health benefits of seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Niranjan; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is a famous delicacy in some parts of the Asia and also a well-known source of important food hydrocolloids, such as agar, alginates, and carrageenan. In addition to the food value of seaweed, several health benefits have also been reported to be present in this valuable food source. It is presumed that the unique features of the marine environment, where the seaweeds are grown, are mainly responsible for most of its properties. Among the functional effects of the seaweed, nutritional and health-related benefits have been widely studied. Compared to the terrestrial plants and animal-based foods, seaweed is rich in some health-promoting molecules and materials such as, dietary fiber, ω-3 fatty acids, essential amino acids, and vitamins A, B, C, and E. In this chapter, the nutritive value of seaweed and the functional effects of its soluble fiber are discussed with a special reference to the digestive health promotion of human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extração de nutrientes pela parte aérea de carqueja sob a influência de fontes e doses de nitrogênio Nutrient extraction for shoots of carqueja under fonts and levels of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Palacio Cortés

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a influência das fontes e doses de nitrogênio no teor e na extração de nutrientes na parte aérea de carqueja seis meses após o plantio, assim como sua relação com o rendimento de matéria seca e óleo essencial. O experimento foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Canguiri (UFPR, com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com sete tratamentos e quatro repetições em parcelas de 2m². Os tratamentos foram 4, 8 e 16g de nitrogênio (N por planta, na forma de uréia; as mesmas quantidades de N na forma de esterco ovino; e o controle, sem aplicação de N. As adubações realizaram-se em duas aplicações com intervalo de dois meses. Não foram verificadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre tratamentos para o teor e a extração de nutrientes nestas condições de fertilidade do solo, o que também foi observado para a produção de matéria seca e o teor de óleo essencial. A quantidade de nutrientes extraídos pela parte aérea apresenta a seqüência decrescente K > N > Ca > S > Mg > P para os macronutrientes e de Mn >Fe > B > Zn > Cu para os micronutrientes.This research was aimed at determining the influence of nitrogen sources and levels on the amount and concentration of nutrients extracted from the shoots of carqueja six months after planted. The amount and concentration were correlated to the essential oil and dry matter production. The experiment was conducted at Experimental Station of Canguiri (UFPR, with experimental design in random blocks with seven treatments and four repetitions. The treatments consisted of 4, 8 and 16 grams of nitrogen (N per plant of urea and manure sources, and a control without N application. The fertilization was done two times with an interval of two months. There was no statistical difference between content and extraction of nutrients for treatments for these soil fertility conditions. Similar results were observed for dry matter and essential

  4. Seaweed technology for India for the twentyfirst century

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Reddy, C.R.K.

    , underwater diving, tissue culture, genetic engineering, molecular biology, improvisation in cultivation and processing of seaweeds, popularization and utilization of seaweeds for food, feed, fertilizers, drugs and other economically important products...

  5. Seaweed utilization and its present status in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Dhargalkar, V.K.

    various applied aspects like evaluation of seaweed resources, utilization, management, harvesting techniques and conservation in India. there seems to be a vast potential of using seaweeds for food, feed, fertilization and medicine in the 21st century...

  6. Toxic effects of coastal and marine plant extracts on mosquito larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Solimabi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Petroleum-ether and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic extracts of mangrove/plants (Derris heterophylla, Salvadora persica, Sonneratia caseolaris, Clerodendron inerme), seaweeds (Acanthophora muscoides, Microdictyon pseudohapteron), seagrass...

  7. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Red Seaweed Gelidiella acerosa of Chabahar Coastal Waters, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostaffa Ghaffari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and protect the body against oxidative damages. Today, seaweeds have attracted attention in researches on natural antioxidants. In the present study, antioxidant properties of red algae Gelidiella acerosa, were investigated. Methods: Antioxidant properties of seaweed extract were investigated by three methods of DPPH free radical scavenging, reduction power, and metal chelating activity using methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-hexane solvents. Data analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA. Results: The highest percentage of DPPH radical scavenging was for 1 mg/ml concentration of n-hexane extract with 71.7±6.1% and IC50 value (1.7mg/ml. In reduction power assay, the concentration of 1mg/ml of ethyl acetate extract (0.6±0.0 was higher than other extracts. Metal chelating activity of methanol had the highest percentage in all concentrations, and in all three method, there was a direct relationship between extract concentration, radical inhibition power, and radical absorption. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, the antioxidant properties of seaweed was efficient and can be the basis for further studies to find new pharmaceutical compounds for the treatment of many diseases, such as cancer. Also, after preclinical and clinical studies, the extract can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  8. Seaweeds in closed systems; Zeewieren in gesloten systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, P. ' t [Koers en Vaart, Barendrecht (Netherlands); Schipper, J. [Hortimare, Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Seaweed is a potential source of green raw materials. They are used for human consumption, contain specific thickening agents such as alginates and carrageenans, and can be applied as growth-promoting fertilizers, in animal feed and for the cultivation of shellfish (abalones). In addition, extracts from seaweed are used in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products and seaweeds also constitute a possible source of biofuels. Seaweed can possibly also serve as a protein platform for catering to the steadily growing demand for fish protein and soy protein. Though the Netherlands has a good reputation in offshore and hydraulic engineering as well as in seed cultivation and improvement, the knowledge of cultivating and harvesting seaweed is very limited. With the advent of wind farms in the North Sea and the commercial exploitation of the continental shelf, the opportunities for cultivating seaweed are now also being explored. Both extensive and intensive cultivation systems as used in agriculture and horticulture are being considered. Certain applications of seaweed require more controlled cultivation conditions. This is the case with specific plant substances, nutritional factors and with the propagation of seaweed for large-scale cultivation. Wherever the value of the cultivated seaweed increases, and hence the need for harvest security and risk control, closed systems are probably the best approach. As the cultivation conditions can be more easily controlled in closed systems, the yields are expected to be bigger, the quantities of plant substances more consistent and the overall quality better. In addition, pests are easier to control or prevent. In contrast with land-based seaweed cultivation, closed systems benefit from the abundant availability of clean and relatively low-mineral seawater. This makes it possible to control the temperature with the aid of seawater. The concept of seaweed in closed systems is in some ways comparable to greenhouse horticulture. Given

  9. The properties of red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and its effect on mammary carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Vi-Sion; Okechukwu, Patrick N; Teo, Swee-Sen

    2017-03-01

    The edible red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) is one of the algae species which was found to be rich in nutrients and nutraceutical. Hence, K. alvarezii may have the ability to suppress cancer through its antiproliferative properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential compounds of K. alvarezii, cytotoxicity properties of K. alvarezii extract on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), investigated toxicity effect of high dosage K. alvarezii extract in rats and determined the effect of K. alvarezii on 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The method of LCMS/MS and MTT assay were used. For animal study, sub-chronic toxicity method was used, the rats were supplemented with 2000mg/kg body weight daily of K. alvarezii crude extracts by oral gavage. For the anticancer effect of K. alvarezii crude extracts, this study consisted of three groups of the experimental, untreated and normal group of rats. The experimental and untreated groups of rats were induced with mammary tumour with DMBA. The experimental group of rats was given with K. alvarezii crude extracts orally. The results were being used to compare with the untreated group of rats and normal group of rats. All the rats were fed with standard diet and water ad libitum. Mortality, behavior changes and tumour sizes were observed specifically. The differences between the three groups of rats were evaluated by using the ANOVA test. By using LCMS/MS method, six unknown compounds were analysed. K. alvarezii crude extract reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 from 84.91% to 0.81% and the IC 50 value is 4.1±0.69mg/mL. For sub-chronic and heavy metal toxicity studies, no significant difference was found in haematological and biochemical values of the control group and experimental group. The growth rate of tumours in the untreated group of rats was found significantly higher than the experimental group of rats. Besides that, the white blood cells level in untreated group was

  10. Evaluation of World View-2 Satellite Data for Mapping Seaweed Beds Along Karachi Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish Siddiqui, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    INTRODUCTION One of the important components for the coastal system are seaweeds. Seaweed provides numerous ecosystem facilities such as; habitats, fishing nursery grounds, feed production for aquatic biota, and ability to absorb nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus and carbon fixation for seawater purification. It's an important coastal resource that has great economic potential due to its utilization in food, cosmetics and industrial products. It also plays an important role in aquaculture and fish breeding. The habitats of many sea species rely on seaweeds for their shelter and food requirements. Seaweed resources are present along Pakistan coastal areas mainly around Karachi shoreline and there exists a potential market for seaweed in the country that is yet untapped. Not only this but the seaweed resources in Pakistan are still unexplored and unmapped. The need to preserve and map seaweed sites along Karachi coast is, cannot be overlooked due to the economic potential of seaweed. To protect marine biodiversity, regular monitoring and mapping of seaweeds are important in order to regulate their growth and their dependent species to maintain their biological associations. The main purpose of this study is to map naturally existing seaweed resources along the Karachi coast and identify the environmental parameters which impact seaweed growth in coastal waters of Karachi using geospatial techniques. To estimate marine resources such as seaweed over a certain area using traditional methods require an extensive amount of labor, cost and time. Remote sensing techniques, on the other hand, offer a good alternative to performing studies on a larger scale using minimum resources as compared to the conventional methods. DATA AND DATA SOURCES WorldView-2 images of 2 meter multispectral and 0.5 meter panchromatic and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) daily composite of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) product of 250 meter resolutions are used in this

  11. Production of mono sugar from acid hydrolysis of seaweed | Jang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the process conditions for the saccharification of macroalgae (seaweed) into mono sugar using the following parameters such as: Amount of biomass, catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time. The major component of Ulva pertusa (green seaweed), Laminaria japonica (brown seaweed) and Gelidium amansii ...

  12. Antibacterial activity of four Gracilaria species of red seaweeds collected from Mandapam Coast, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, India

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    Sethu Rameshkumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial activities of diethyl ether, toluene, ethanol and methanol extracts of red seaweeds such as Gracilaria crassa (G. crassa, Gracilaria folifera (G. folifera, Gracilaria debilis (G. debilis and Gracilaria corticata. Methods: The crude extracts were tested against different types of Gram-positive and -negative bacterial strains and all the seaweed extracts were tested a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Antibacterial activity was made using paper disc diffusion method. Four organic solvents (diethyl ether, toluene, methanol and ethanol were used separately in a Soxhlet apparatus for seven bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of the known antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin and ampicillin was determined by testing them against different test organisms. Results: The high antibacterial activity was noted in the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis. However, G. crassa and G. debilis have good antibacterial activity. Pathogens like Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were less susceptible to the methanol and diethyl ether extracts of G. folifera. The comparative study on the antibacterial activity was also made by using 200 μg concentration of solvent extracts (diethyl ether, ethanol, toluene and methanoland different five antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, amoxicillin and ampicillin. The bacterial strains tested were more sensitive to chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, and ampicillin when compared to algal extracts. Conclusions: The present study proved that the extracts of G. crassa, G. folifera and G. debilis have high antibacterial activity. Although G. crassa and G. debilis showed good antibacterial activity, many known antibiotics are active against a few organisms individually. Hence, the extracts of seaweeds were active against all test organisms used and the activities were comparable to that of antibiotics and the

  13. Nutritional Value of Seaweed to Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Applegate

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available We compared the nutritional quality (apparent digestible dry matter (ADDM, crude protein, total phenolics, gross energy, of 3 seaweed species (Alaria esculenta, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosis to that of 3 woody browse species{Acer rubrum, Thuja occidentalis, Abies balsamea, lichen (Usnea spp., and winter rye (Secale cereals for ruminants. The ADDM's of the 3 seaweeds (63-80% DM were 11-167% DM higher and crude protein contents (12.1-14.6% DM were 68-186% DM higher than the 3 browse species. Seaweeds had lower total phenolics (5.5-10.3% DM and gross energy (12-15 KJ/g DM, and moderate digestible energy (DE contents (9-10 KJ/g DM compared to the browse species. The 3 browse species had ADDM's of 30-57% DM, crude protein contents of 5.1-7.2% DM, total phenolic concentrations of 11.6-16.4% DM, and DE contents of 6-12 KJ/g DM. Winter rye and lichen had the lowest total phenolic concentrations (1.3 and 1.9% DM of forages examined, and had lower ADDM's (35 and 40% DM, DE contents (6-7 KJ/g DM, and crude protein (7.8 and 5.7% DM than seaweeds. The relatively high DE and protein contents of seaweed may explain high deer densities of Maine coastal islands where browse availability and use appears to be low.

  14. Biomass production and nutrients extraction by the elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum schum.) cv Guacu; Producao de biomassa e extracao de nutrientes pelo capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum schum.) cv. Guacu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Joao Batista de; Ferrari Junior, Evaldo; Werner, Joaquim Carlos; Beisman, Darcy Antonio [Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    It was developed at Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP, an experiment to evaluate the biomass production, for energy ends of (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), cv Guacu, under 5 rates of nitrogen and potash fertilization. It was used a randomized block design, with 4 replications. The rates of nutrients were: 0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg of N and K{sub 2} O/ha/year. Thr grass was harvested twice in every agricultural year (August and January). It was used a 20-00-20 commercial fertilizer and the application was splitted after the two annual cuts. The biomass production, as a function of the nutrients rates was described by the equation y = 31.45 + 0.13 x - 0.0004 x{sup 2} and the maximum production happened at the 162.5 kg de N e K2 O/ha/year. The production of the firs agricultural year was superior to the production of the second agricultural year. N and K were the most extracted nutrients of the soil. The concentration of energy of the grass was 4,228.35 kcal/kg and the production of energy per ha/year was 111.975 Gcal. (author)

  15. Nutrients, Antioxidant Capacity and Safety of Hot Water Extract from Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum M.) and Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Sagar; Ratti, Cristina; Poubelle, Patrice E; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2018-03-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum M.) and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) barks were treated with hot water to extract nutrients in order to explore, for the first time, its potential as safe dietary antioxidants. The organic and inorganic nutrients of these extracts, as well as their safety on human PLB-985 cells differentiated into neutrophils-like cells, were determined. Proximate analysis showed that both bark extracts were low in moisture and fat. Sugar maple bark extract (SM-BX) showed crude protein and ash content higher than those found in red maple bark extract (RM-BX). In addition, SM-BX had total sugars higher than those evaluated in RM-BX, while complex sugars (oligo- and/or poly-saccharides) were similarly abundant in both bark extracts. Furthermore, SM-BX demonstrated a wide array of vital minerals (K, Ca, Mg, P, Na, Fe and Cu) in quantity larger than that evaluated in RM-BX, whereas RM-BX have Zn and Mn levels higher than those found in SM-BX. Phytochemical analyses showed that RM-BX exhibited total phenolic and flavonoid contents higher than those measured in SM-BX. Consequently, RM-BX presented an antioxidant activity higher than that of SM-BX: 2.85-fold ABTS radical cation scavenging capacity and 1.9-fold oxygen radical absorbance capacity. Finally, RM-BX and SM-BX were greatly safe since, at concentration up to 100 μg/ml, they did not modify the viability of neutrophils as determined by flow-cytometry assay using Annexin V-FITC/Propidum Iodide as markers. In conclusion, our in vitro studies indicate that both red and sugar maple bark extracts have a real potential as food additives.

  16. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  17. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  18. Feeding preferences of the endemic gastropod Astraea latispina in relation to chemical defenses of Brazilian tropical seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. PEREIRA

    Full Text Available Seaweed preference by the Brazilian endemic gastropod Astraea latispina was examined in the laboratory to evaluate the role of secondary metabolites in determining food choice. Of three species of seaweeds examined, Plocamium brasiliense was highly preferred; less so were Sargassum furcatum and Dictyota cervicornis were preferred less. Extracts and/or pure major metabolites of the two potentially chemically-defended seaweeds (P. brasiliense and D. cervicornis were tested as feeding deterrents against A. latispina. Algal extract assays demonstrated that three concentrations of crude organic extract of the red alga P. brasiliense (50%, 100%: natural concentration, and 200% of dry weight: dw did not affect feeding of this gastropod. In contrast, the three concentrations of crude organic extract of the brown alga D. cervicornis (50%, 100% and 200% dw inhibited feeding by A. latispina. The chemical deterrent property of D. cervicornis extract against the gastropod A. latispina occurred due to a mixture of the secodolastane diterpenes isolinearol/linearol (4:1 -- 0.08% dry weight. This is the first report showing that Dictyota cervicornis produces a chemical defense against herbivores using secodolastane diterpenoid. In addition, these results widen the action spectrum of secondary metabolites found in seaweed belonging to this brown algal genus.

  19. Seaweeds as source of the essential elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, C.R.; Maihara, V.A.; Alves, C.B.L.; Silva, P.S.C.

    2017-01-01

    Overtime seaweeds have been used as a food mainly due to their high nutritional value. This type of food is considered as functional food and contributes to the nutritional human requirements, being beneficial to human health. In this study 13 edible seaweed samples acquired in the marked of São Paulo city were analyzed and the concentrations of elements Cl. K. Mg. Mn and Na were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The following edible seaweeds were analyzed: Nori (Porphyra umbilicates); Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme); Kombu (Laminaria sp.) and Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) species from China, USA, Japan and South Korea. The Undaria pinnatifida species presented the highest Na concentration and the lowest K level. The highest variation was obtained for Mn in the Porphyra umbilicates species. (author)

  20. Seaweeds as source of the essential elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, C.R.; Maihara, V.A.; Alves, C.B.L.; Silva, P.S.C., E-mail: calbuuquerque@gmail.com, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br, E-mail: cassiomen@hotmail.com, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Overtime seaweeds have been used as a food mainly due to their high nutritional value. This type of food is considered as functional food and contributes to the nutritional human requirements, being beneficial to human health. In this study 13 edible seaweed samples acquired in the marked of São Paulo city were analyzed and the concentrations of elements Cl. K. Mg. Mn and Na were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The following edible seaweeds were analyzed: Nori (Porphyra umbilicates); Hijiki (Hijikia fusiforme); Kombu (Laminaria sp.) and Wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) species from China, USA, Japan and South Korea. The Undaria pinnatifida species presented the highest Na concentration and the lowest K level. The highest variation was obtained for Mn in the Porphyra umbilicates species. (author)

  1. [The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Valdez, M; Hernández-Contreras, H; Marín-Alvarez, A; Aguila-Ramírez, R N; Hernández-Guerrero, C J; Sánchez-Rodríguez, I; Carrillo-Domínguez, S

    2006-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum (Sargassaceae) as tropical alternative for goats' feeding. The nutritive value of seaweed (Sargassum spp.) was studied in Baja California Sur, Mexico. Twenty female Nubian goats (43-weeks old) were randomly distributed into two groups of 10 goats each and were housed in individual pens. One group was fed with a control diet and the other with a diet supplemented with 25% of Sargassum spp. Feed and water intake were recorded daily and individually for 60 days. The weight of each goat was recorded every 15 days. The nutritional content of Sargassum spp. was 89% dry mater, 8% crude protein, 31% ash, 2% ether extract, and 39% carbohydrates. Fiber fractions, minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and antinutritional factors were also determined. There were no significant differences in body weight (8.6 kg control and 9 kg experimental), feed intake (1.3 kg control and 1.6 kg experimental), and feed conversion rate (11.1 control and 12.6 experimental). Water consumption was greater in the goats that ate the Sargassum diet (5.3 1). From these results, Sargassum spp. can be considered as an alternative feedstuff for goats.

  2. Seaweed composition from Bintulu coast of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Mohd Hafizbillah; Idris, Mohd Hanafi; Kamal, Abu Hena Mustafa; King, Wong Sing

    2014-08-01

    Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families: Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.

  3. Feeding trials of green seaweed Ulva fasciata

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, J.M.; Qasim, R.

    1993-01-01

    For the nutritional evaluation of green seaweed Ulva fasciata, a feeding trial was performed in albino rats. The results indicated that the 20% replacement of seaweed U. fasciata instead of carrot or lettuce in rad diet causes no harmful effects, as evident by a non-significant change in blood constituents and serum enzyme levels. The weight gain observed in rats with U. fasciata diet was same as that of control diet. The true digestibility ratio of U. fasciata was 80.20% with carrot and 83.4...

  4. Effect of the Presence of Seagrass and Nutrients on Growth Rates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—The effects of seagrass cover and nutrients on seaweed cultivation were examined in tidal pools in Tanzania. ... of water at low tide ideal for the addition of the nutrients. ... In the “without seagrass” treatment, the seagrasses in the ...

  5. Antibacterial and anticancer activity of seaweeds and bacteria associated with their surface

    OpenAIRE

    Villarreal-Gómez, Luis J; Soria-Mercado, Irma E; Guerra-Rivas, Graciela; Ayala-Sánchez, Nahara E

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae and bacteria are an inexhaustible source of chemical compounds that produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Marine bacteria have become an important target for the biotechnology industry because of the large number of bioactive compounds recently discovered from them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and anticancer activities of extracts from the seaweeds Egregia menziesii, Codium fragile, Sargassum muticum, Endarachne binghamia...

  6. Activation analysis of some seaweeds of Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myint, U; Myint, Aye Myint [Yangon Univ. (Myanmar). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-11-01

    Activation analysis of some seaweed samples occurring off the coastline areas of Myanmar is described. Na, K and I were determined using Am(Be) radionuclide neutron source and low level [beta]-counting. (author) 3 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs.

  7. Seaweed tablet: a natural source of iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briones, Annabelle V.; Ambal, Wilhelmina O.; Monroyo, Evangelina C.; Bonifacio, Teresita S.; Sison, Fe M.

    1997-01-01

    Species of seaweeds namely: Halymenia durvillaei, Laurencia flexilis and Sargassum gigantifolium were processed into dried form and formulated as tablet. Prior to tablet formulation, the seaweeds were assayed for iodine and trace elements. The seaweeds that exhibited significance values of iodine and trace elements were further analyzed for the presence of heavy metals followed by acute oral toxicity test (LD 50 ). Among the seaweeds evaluated, H. durvilaei was found to contain high level of iodine (0.255% w/w) and magnesium (1.65% w/w) with sufficient amount of zinc (25.69 ppm) and phosporous (11.68 ppm). Analysis of heavy metals showed minute amount of mercury (0.0055 ppm), cadmium (0.67 ppm) and lead (1.80 ppm). The median lethal dose (LD 50 ) of H. durvillaei administered orally in Swiss male mice is 119.1489 ± 4.9873 g/kg. Tablet formulation was based on the U.S. recommended daily allowance of 0.15 mg. of iodine per adult and children. The final product was comparable to imported Kelp pills (available in the local market) in terms of physical properties and iodine content. (Author)

  8. Nutrição mineral e extração de nutrientes de planta de milho irrigada com água salina Mineral nutrition and extraction of nutrients by corn plant irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geocleber G. de Sousa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de água salina na agricultura irrigada pode causar desequilíbrio nutricional e inibição competitiva na absorção de nutrientes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da salinidade da água de irrigação sobre o acúmulo, os totais extraídos e a distribuição de nutrientes em plantas de milho. O estudo foi conduzido em condições de campo em um Argissolo Vermelho Amarelo na estação seca, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, de setembro a dezembro de 2007, em Fortaleza, CE. As plantas de milho foram coletadas aos 90 dias após a semeadura e realizadas as seguintes avaliações: teores, extração e distribuição de elementos minerais nas diferentes partes da planta (folha, colmo, grão e sabugo. O aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação aos 90 dias após a semeadura, inibiu o acúmulo de potássio nas folhas e de magnésio e fósforo nos grãos. A extração dos nutrientes e sódio pelas plantas irrigadas com água de salinidade variando de 0,8 a 3,6 dS m-1 obedeceu à seguinte ordem decrescente: K > Mg > Ca > P > Na; no tratamento de maior salinidade (5,0 dS m-1 a sequência de extração foi: K > Ca > Na > P > Mg.The use of saline water in irrigated agriculture can cause nutritional imbalance and competitive inhibition in the absorption of nutrients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of salinity of irrigation water on the accumulation, the total absorption, and the distribution of mineral elements in maize plants. The study was conducted under field conditions in an Yellow Red Argisol in the dry season, in the randomized blocks design with five replicates during September to December 2007 in Fortaleza - CE. The maize plants were collected at 90 days after sowing, and the following assessments were made: content, extraction and distribution of mineral elements in the plant parts (leaf, stem, grain and elderberry. The increase of salinity of irrigation water

  9. Rheological properties of agar and carrageenan from Ghanaian red seaweeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis on the hydrocolloids extracted from H. musciformis (and K. alvarezii) indicated κ-carrageenan, C. crenulata hydrocolloids were mainly ι-carrageenan, and the H. dentata hydrocolloids were agar. Gelling temperatures ranged from 32 to 36 °C for the κ-carrageenan hydrocolloid samples...... comparable with κ-carrageenan from K. alvarezii, whereas the H. dentata agar properties were different from those of a commercial agar sample. This work shows that certain red seaweed species in Ghana contain hydrocolloids with desirable properties for high value applications....... and Cryptonemia crenulata, expected to hold carrageenan, contained 21–26% by weight of galactose. A commercial Kappaphycus alvarezii carrageenan sample had 30% galactose residues by weight. Hydropuntia dentata, expected to contain agar, contained 15% by weight of galactose-monomers. Fourier transform infrared...

  10. Pharmacognostical study and phytochemical evaluation of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyaraman Amutha Iswarya Devi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: The qualitative microscopy, phytochemical screening, physicochemical evaluation and fluorescence analysis of the plant were carried out according to the standard procedure recommended in the WHO guidelines. Results: Macroscopic study showed that plants were dark brown, 20-30 cm in height, leaves were 5-8 cm length, shape: linear to ovate, apex: midrib in conspicuous and having the entire, serrate margin. Microscopic evaluation of the transverse section of the leaf, stem, air bladder, receptacles showed the presence of epidermis layer followed by thick cuticle, conducting strand, mesophyll and possessed antheridia or oogonia at the swollen terminal portions. The different extracts of Sargassum wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostical parameters evaluated in this study help in the identification and standardization of the of the seaweed Sargassum wightii

  11. Report on bioventing of petroleum contaminated soils at 108-3C: Active extraction and passive injection (barometric pumping) of a gaseous nutrient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, J.R.; Lombard, K.; Radway, J.

    1997-01-01

    A bioventing system was constructed with horizontal extraction wells and vertical injection wells in an area which had previously been excavated and then backfilled. Initial in-situ respiration rates (air addition only) suggest that hydrocarbon degradation may be nutrient limited. The rate of TPH degradation was maximum (0.8-1.2 mg/kg/day) between 10-15 ft (bgs), but dropped to essentially zero 30 ft (bgs) within the contaminated zone (even though previous analysis at this depth indicated a TPH concentration of 3800 ppm). Analysis of the soil at 17 ft showed that NO 3 and PO 4 were below detection limits (0.5 ppm), indicating that nutrient limitation may be occurring. Nitrate levels were highest at 10 ft (bgs), correlating with the highest respiration rates. However, phosphate levels were at/or below detection levels throughout tile site (indicating possible PO 4 limitation). Viable cells increased from 3 x 10 6 cfu/g at 3 ft (bgs) to 1 x 10 7 cfu/g at 10 ft (bgs) and remained relatively constant down to 17 ft. Cell numbers in the control area were significantly lower than in the contaminated zone (4.5 x 10 3 ). Gas phase nutrients (triethlyphosphate and nitrous oxide) will be injected to see if the hydrocarbon degradation rate can be increased

  12. Impact of seaweed beachings on dynamics of δ(15)N isotopic signatures in marine macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesle, Stéphanie; Mussio, Isabelle; Rusig, Anne-Marie; Menet-Nédélec, Florence; Claquin, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    A fine-scale survey of δ(15)N, δ(13)C, tissue-N in seaweeds was conducted using samples from 17 sampling points at two sites (Grandcamp-Maisy (GM), Courseulles/Mer (COU)) along the French coast of the English Channel in 2012 and 2013. Partial triadic analysis was performed on the parameter data sets and revealed the functioning of three areas: one estuary (EstA) and two rocky areas (GM(∗), COU(∗)). In contrast to oceanic and anthropogenic reference points similar temporal dynamics characterized δ(15)N signatures and N contents at GM(∗) and COU(∗). Nutrient dynamics were similar: the N-concentrations in seawater originated from the River Seine and local coastal rivers while P-concentrations mainly from these local rivers. δ(15)N at GM(∗) were linked to turbidity suggesting inputs of autochthonous organic matter from large-scale summer seaweed beachings made up of a mixture of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta and Chlorophyta species. This study highlights the coupling between seaweed beachings and nitrogen sources of intertidal macroalgae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxic effect of metal cation binary mixtures to the seaweed Gracilaria domingensis (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luiz Fernando; Stevani, Cassius Vinicius; Zambotti-Villela, Leonardo; Yokoya, Nair Sumie; Colepicolo, Pio

    2014-01-01

    The macroalga Gracilaria domingensis is an important resource for the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and biotechnology industries. G. domingensis is at a part of the food web foundation, providing nutrients and microelements to upper levels. As seaweed storage metals in the vacuoles, they are considered the main vectors to magnify these toxic elements. This work describes the evaluation of the toxicity of binary mixtures of available metal cations based on the growth rates of G. domingensis over a 48-h exposure. The interactive effects of each binary mixture were determined using a toxic unit (TU) concept that was the sum of the relative contribution of each toxicant and calculated using the ratio between the toxicant concentration and its endpoint. Mixtures of Cd(II)/Cu(II) and Zn(II)/Ca(II) demonstrated to be additive; Cu(II)/Zn(II), Cu(II)/Mg(II), Cu(II)/Ca(II), Zn(II)/Mg(II), and Ca(II)/Mg(II) mixtures were synergistic, and all interactions studied with Cd(II) were antagonistic. Hypotheses that explain the toxicity of binary mixtures at the molecular level are also suggested. These results represent the first effort to characterize the combined effect of available metal cations, based on the TU concept on seaweed in a total controlled medium. The results presented here are invaluable to the understanding of seaweed metal cation toxicity in the marine environment, the mechanism of toxicity action and how the tolerance of the organism.

  14. Bioactive compounds in seaweed; functional food applications and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Kraan, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Seaweed is more than the wrap that keeps rice together in sushi. Seaweed biomass is already used for a wide range of other products in food, including stabilising agents. Biorefineries with seaweed as feedstock are attracting worldwide interest and include low-volume, high value-added products...... and vice versa. Scientific research on bioactive compounds in seaweed usually takes place on just a few species and compounds. This paper reviews worldwide research on bioactive compounds, mainly of nine genera or species of seaweed, which are also available in European temperate Atlantic waters, i...... described in this review. This applies either to the choice of high value-added bioactive products to be exploited in an available species or to the choice of seaweed species when a bioactive compound is desired. Data are presented in tables with species, effect and test organism (if present) with examples...

  15. ABSORÇÃO E EXTRAÇÃO DE ALGUNS NUTRIENTES PELA CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA' DE PIMENTA-DO-REINO NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND EXTRACTION BY BLACK PEPPER CULTIVAR 'GUAJARINA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Costa Veloso

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O potencial econômico da cultura da pimenta do reino e a necessidade real de pesquisas que sustentem a sua exploração levaram a elaboração deste trabalho que teve por objetivo determinar a concentração e a distribuição dos nutrientes N, P, K, Ca e Mg, nas diversas partes da planta. O experimento foi conduzido em Belém, PA, em solo classificado como Latossolo Amarelo, textura média, com as seguintes características químicas: pH em H2O = 4,5; M.O = 17,5 g kg-1; P= 2,0 mg dm-3 e os cátions trocáveis, em mmolc.dm-3, K = 0,48; Ca2+= 4,0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13,0. As amostras foram constituídas de um grupo de seis plantas da cultivar Guajarina, coletadas aos 28 meses de idade, na época da produção. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que os nutrientes extraídos pela pimenta-do-reino obedecem à seguinte ordem: N > Ca > K > Mg > P. As quantidades de macronutrientes exportadas pelos frutos, na colheita em kg.ha-1 foram: N=11,22; K=6,15; Ca=3,84; Mg=1,18 e P=1,07.The economic importance of black pepper and the need for information of production sustainability justified this work, to determine the concentration and the distribution of nutrients N, P, K, Ca and Mg, in several parts of the plant. The experiment was carried out in Belém, Pará, in a soil classified as Yellow Latosol (Alic Haplustox, medium texture, with the following chemical characteristics: pH in H2O = 4.5; OM = 17.5 g kg-1; P = 2.0 mg .dm-3 and the exchangeable cations, in mmolc.dm-3, K = 0.48; Ca2+ = 4.0; Mg2+ =2,0; Al3+ = 13.0. The samples were composed of six plants of the cultivar 'Guajarina', collected at 28 months after planting, at the production period. The nutrients were extracted in the decreasing order: N> Ca> K> Mg> P. The amounts of macronutrients exported by the fruits, in kg.ha-1, are: N=11.22; K=6.15; Ca=3.84; Mg=1.18 and P=1.07.

  16. Effects of Seaweed Substitution on Breadmaking. : (IV) Ulva pertusa

    OpenAIRE

    筒井, 知己; 金井, 節子; 牛腸, ヒロミ; 小見山, 二郎; ツツイ, トモミ; カナイ, セツコ; ゴチョウ, ヒロミ; コミヤマ, ジロウ; TOMOMI, TSUTSUI; SETSUKO, KANAI; HIROMI, GOCHO; JIRO, KOMIYAMA

    2003-01-01

    Physical properties of wheat flour replaced with 0.5 to 1.5 % of seaweed Ulva pertusa (WFRS) and baking properties of them were estimated. Water absorption capacity of WFRS increased gradually as seaweed level increased. Among the bread made from WFRS, the bread made from wheat flour replaced with 0.5% of seaweed showed better loaf volume and also showed better sensory evaluation score. Electronic nose analysis concurred with sensory descriptor ratings.

  17. Variation in biochemical constituents and master elements in common seaweeds from Alexandria Coast, Egypt, with special reference to their antioxidant activity and potential food uses: prospective equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mona M; El Zokm, Gehan M; El-Sayed, Abeer A M

    2017-11-25

    Biochemical constituents and master elements (Pb, Cr, Cd, Fe, Cu, Zn, Hg, B, Al, SO 4 2- , Na, K, Li, Ca, Mg, and F) were investigated in six different seaweed species from Abu Qir Bay in the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea coast. The moisture level ranged from 30.26% in Corallina mediterranea to 77.57% in Padina boryana. On dry weight basis, the ash contents varied from 25.53% in Jania rubens to 88.84% in Sargassum wightii. The protein contents fluctuated from 8.26% in S. wightii to 28.01% in J. rubens. Enteromorpha linza showed the highest lipids (4.66%) and carbohydrate contents (78.95%), whereas C. mediterranea had the lowest lipid (0.5%), and carbohydrate contents (38.12%). Chlorophylls and carotenoid contents varied among the species. Total antioxidant capacity of the tested green seaweeds had the highest activities followed by brown and red seaweeds which had a similar trend of phenol and tannins contents. High reducing power was observed in all tested seaweeds extract except Ulva lactuca. Brown species had the highest amount of elements followed by red and green seaweeds. Notably, SO 4 2- recorded the highest level in the tested green species (108.05 mg/g dry weight (DW)). The Ca/Mg and K/Na ratios reflected highly significant difference between seaweed species. This study keeps an eye on 29 parameters and by applying stepwise multiple regression analysis, prospective equations have been set to describe the interactions between these parameters inside seaweeds. Accordingly, the tested seaweeds can be recommended as a source of healthy food with suitable ion quotient and estimated daily intake values.

  18. Elimination of seaweed odour and its effect on antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyimu, Xiren Guli; Abdullah, Aminah

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the most effective method to remove odour from Sargassum muticum seaweeds and studied their antioxidant properties. Ten grams of wet seaweeds (10 grams dried seaweeds soaked in 100 ml water for 2 hours) were soaked in 100 mL of 1%, 3% and 5% of gum Arabic, rice flour, lemon juice, respectively, and 1% of vinegar. There effect of each treatment on antioxidant level were determined by using the total phenolic content (TPC), free radical scavenging ability expressed as a DPPH value, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and compared to control seaweeds sample (soaked in water only). For sensory attribute, seven trained panellists were asked to evaluate the fishy odour of 11 treated seaweed samples. The fishy odour characteristics and antioxidant activity of treated seaweeds were compared against the control sample (soaked seaweeds), and subjected to statistical analysis. Results showed that 3% and 5% lemon juice and 5% rice flour were able to eliminate the fishy odour of seaweed. However, the antioxidant activity was significantly higher (Plemon juice compared to other treatments. Therefore, 5% of lemon juice-treated seaweeds contained the least fishy odour and retained the highest antioxidant activity.

  19. Spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Du Hai; Sim, Jillian Ooi Lean; Fauzi, Rosmadi; Moi, Phang Siew

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this article is to represent spatial patterns of seaweed distribution in Malaysia. Seaweeds have been collected since 1984 along coastlines of 4675 km of peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. However, there is no seaweed database and they cannot be displayed in a geographic view. Therefore, a database with 805 georeferenced observations was setup and GIS is used to analyze seaweed diversity based on this database. The highest number of observations is 94 which occur along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. The highest number of species richness is 82 which are also along east coastline of peninsular Malaysia. Rhodophyta has the highest species richness while Chlorophyta has the least species richness.

  20. Seaweed Investment as Application in Development of Minapolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Consequences of regional autonomy is not easy, this is because a required area should look for alternative sources of financing regional. One of the sources of financing in the Brebes district is the development of seaweed cultivation to be exported to other countries. The calculations show that the investment in seaweed farming is feasible to be developed because of the many advantages gained than seaweed farming. The first advantage of the presence of a source of income for local communities and Brebes district, opening job opportunities broadly, to develop products made from seaweed such as cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, herbs, jelly, and so forth.

  1. Environmental Chemistry and Chemical Ecology of "Green Tide" Seaweed Blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Timothy A; Ridgway, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Green tides are large growths or accumulations of green seaweeds that have been increasing in magnitude and frequency around the world. Because green tides consist of vast biomasses of algae in a limited area and are often seasonal or episodic, they go through periods of rapid growth in which they take up large amounts of nutrients and dissolved gases and generate bioactive natural products that may be stored in the plants, released into the environment, or broken down during decomposition. As a result of the use and production of inorganic and organic compounds, the algae in these blooms can have detrimental impacts on other organisms. Here, we review some of the effects that green tides have on the chemistry of seawater and the effects of the natural products that they produce. As blooms are developing and expanding, algae in green tides take up inorganic nutrients, such as nitrate and ortho-phosphate, which can limit their availability to other photosynthetic organisms. Their uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon for use in photosynthesis can cause localized spikes in the pH of seawater during the day with concomitant drops in the pH at night when the algae are respiring. Many of the algae that form green-tide blooms produce allelopathic compounds, which are metabolites that affect other species. The best documented allelopathic compounds include dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), dopamine, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their breakdown products. DMSP and dopamine are involved in defenses against herbivores. Dopamine and ROS are released into seawater where they can be allelopathic or toxic to other organisms. Thus, these macroalgal blooms can have harmful effects on nearby organisms by altering concentrations of nutrients and dissolved gas in seawater and by producing and releasing allelopathic or toxic compounds. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved

  2. Brown seaweed pigment as a dye source for photoelectrochemical solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogero, Giuseppe; Citro, Ilaria; Di Marco, Gaetano; Armeli Minicante, Simona; Morabito, Marina; Genovese, Giuseppa

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophylls based-dyes obtained from seaweeds represent attractive alternatives to the expensive and polluting pyridil based Ru complexes because of their abundance in nature. Another important characteristic is that the algae do not subtract either cropland or agricultural water, therefore do not conflict with agro-food sector. This pigment shows a typical intense absorption in the UV/blue (Soret band) and a less intense band in the red/near IR (Q band) spectral regions and for these reasons appear very promising as sensitizer dyes for DSSC. In the present study, we utilized chlorophylls from samples of the brown alga Undaria pinnatifida as sensitizer in DSSCs. The dye, extracted by frozen seaweeds and used without any chemical purification, showed a very good fill factor (0.69). Even the photelectrochemical parameters if compared with the existent literature are very interesting.

  3. Neurotoxins in the polar fraction of the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Rozas

    Full Text Available Neurotoxic activity of polar substances extracted from the red seaweed Galaxaura marginata was investigated in pharmacological assays, using seaweed collected at São Sebastião channel (45º25' W; 26º49' S in the northern coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. High concentration of the polar fraction (PF and PF filtered through a membrane (1000 Da intraperitoneally (IP injected in mice were lethal, inducing ataxia, disorientation, and severe muscle atonia prior to death. The same symptoms preceding death were described in mice and rat tested with neuroexcitatory amino acids (NEA, suggesting that some PF components cross the blood-brain barrier, the same as NEA. However, the HPLC and mass spectrometric analysis did not show the presence of the known neuroexcitatory amino acids, kainic acid, domoic acid and NMDA. We conclude that G. marginata possess substances with neurotoxic and lethal activities.

  4. Hiding and feeding in floating seaweed: Floating seaweed clumps as possible refuges or feeding grounds for fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriessche, Sofie; Messiaen, Marlies; O'Flynn, Sarah; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven

    2007-02-01

    Floating seaweed is considered to be an important habitat for juvenile fishes due to the provision of food, shelter, a visual orientation point and passive transport. The importance of the presence of the highly dynamical seaweed clumps from the North Sea to juvenile neustonic fishes was investigated by analysing both neuston samples (without seaweed) and seaweed samples concerning fish community structure, and length-frequency distributions and feeding habits of five associated fish species. While the neustonic fish community was mainly seasonally structured, the seaweed-associated fish community was more complex: the response of the associated fish species to environmental variables was species specific and probably influenced by species interactions, resulting in a large multivariate distance between the samples dominated by Chelon labrosus and the samples dominated by Cyclopterus lumpus, Trachurus trachurus and Ciliata mustela. The results of the stomach analysis confirmed that C. lumpus is a weedpatch specialist that has a close spatial affinity with the seaweed and feeds intensively on the seaweed-associated invertebrate fauna. Similarly, C. mustela juveniles also fed on the seaweed fauna, but in a more opportunistic way. The shape of the size-frequency distribution suggested enhanced growth when associated with floating seaweed. Chelon labrosus and T. trachurus juveniles were generally large in seaweed samples, but large individuals were also encountered in the neuston. The proportion of associated invertebrate fauna in their diet was of minor importance, compared to the proportions in C. lumpus. Individuals of Syngnathus rostellatus mainly fed on planktonic invertebrates but had a discontinuous size-frequency distribution, suggesting that some of the syngnathids were carried with the seaweed upon detachment and stayed associated. Floating seaweeds can therefore be regarded as ephemeral habitats shared between several fish species (mainly juveniles) that use

  5. Extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticle using seaweeds of gulf of Mannar, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles by marine resources is thought to be clean, nontoxic, and environmentally acceptable “green procedures”. Marine ecosystems are very important for the overall health of both marine and terrestrial environments. The use of natural sources like Marine biological resources essential for nanotechnology. Seaweeds constitute one of the commercially important marine living renewable resources. Seaweeds such as green Caulerpa peltata, red Hypnea Valencia and brown Sargassum myriocystum were used for synthesis of Zinc oxide nanoparticles. Result The preliminary screening of physico-chemical parameters such as concentration of metals, concentration of seaweed extract, temperature, pH and reaction time revealed that one seaweed S. myriocystum were able to synthesize zinc oxide nanoparticles. It was confirmed through the, initial colour change of the reaction mixture and UV visible spectrophotometer. The extracellular biosynthesized clear zinc oxide nanoparticles size 36 nm through characterization technique such as DLS, AFM, SEM –EDX, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The biosynthesized ZnO nanoparticles are effective antibacterial agents against Gram-positive than the Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion Based on the FTIR results, fucoidan water soluble pigments present in S. myriocystum leaf extract is responsible for reduction and stabilization of zinc oxide nanoparticles. by this approach are quite stable and no visible changes were observed even after 6 months. These soluble elements could have acted as both reduction and stabilizing agents preventing the aggregation of nanoparticles in solution, extracellular biological synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles of size 36 nm. PMID:24298944

  6. Seaweeds in Two Oceans: Beta-Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Albertus J. Smit; Albertus J. Smit; John J. Bolton; Robert J. Anderson; Robert J. Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Several species assembly mechanisms have been proposed to structure ecological communities. We assess the biogeography of seaweeds along 2,900 km of South Africa's coastline in relation to a thermal gradient produced by the Agulhas Current, and contrast this with the environmental structure created by the Benguela Current. We subdivided the coastline into “bioregions” to examine the regional patterning. To investigate the assembly mechanisms, we decomposed Sørensen's β-diversity into “turnove...

  7. Antiangiogenic, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Cladosporium cladosporioides (Endophytic Fungus isolated from seaweed (Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath M. Hulikere

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi from marine seaweeds are the less studied group of organisms with vast medical applications. The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antiangiogenic as well as wound healing potential of the endophytic fungus isolated from the seaweed Sargassum wightii. The morphological characters and the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis (BLAST search in Gen Bank database was used for the identification of endophytic fungus. The antioxidant potential of the ethyl acetate extract of endophytic fungus was assessed by, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical scavenging method. The fungal extract was also analysed for reducing power, total phenolic and flavonoid content. Antiangiogenic activity of the fungal extract was studied in vitro by inhibition of wound healing scratch assay and in vivo by Chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. The endophytic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Gen Bank ID – KT384175. The ethyl acetate extract of C. cladosporioides showed a significant antioxidant and angiosuppressive activity. The ESI-LC-MS analysis of the extract revealed the presence of wide range of secondary metabolites. Results suggest that C. cladosporioides extract could be exploited as a potential source for angiogenic modulators.

  8. The economic feasibility of seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den Sander W.K.; Duijn, van Arie Pieter; Bartelings, Heleen; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Poelman, Marnix

    2016-01-01

    Seaweeds are increasingly seen as an alternative to land-grown products in food and feed applications. Interest in production of seaweeds in temperate waters is rising, in particular in combination with offshore wind energy generation. This article reports an investigation of the economic

  9. The seaweeds of Angola: the transition between tropical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed flora of Angola is relatively poorly known. Most of the 124 records listed for the country come from a 1974 British Natural History Museum expedition to the central and southern parts of that country. Previous biogeographic studies treated the Angolan seaweed flora as a whole and grouped it with those of ...

  10. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)

  11. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, M.; Koyanagi, T.; Saiki, M.

    1975-01-01

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link in the food chain. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer experiments. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60 Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26% through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (author)

  12. Large-sized seaweed monitoring based on MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Ying; Lan, Guo-xin; Li, Chuan-long

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, large-sized seaweed, such as ulva lactuca, blooms frequently in coastal water in China, which threatens marine eco-environment. In order to take effective measures, it is important to make operational surveillance. A case of large-sized seaweed blooming (i.e. enteromorpha), occurred in June, 2008, in the sea near Qingdao city, is studied. Seaweed blooming is dynamically monitored using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After analyzing imaging spectral characteristics of enteromorpha, MODIS band 1 and 2 are used to create a band ratio algorithm for detecting and mapping large-sized seaweed blooming. In addition, chlorophyll-α concentration is inversed based on an empirical model developed using MODIS. Chlorophyll-α concentration maps are derived using multitemporal MODIS data, and chlorophyll-α concentration change is analyzed. Results show that the presented methods are useful to get the dynamic distribution and the growth of large-sized seaweed, and can support contingency planning.

  13. Antibacterial polyketides from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens associated with edible red seaweed Laurenciae papillosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna; Joy, Minju

    2017-03-01

    Heterotrophic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens associated with edible red seaweed, Laurenciae papillosa was used to isolate antibacterial polyketide compounds. Antibacterial activity studies integrated with the outcome obtained by polyketide synthetase (pks) coding genes established that seaweed-affiliated bacterial flora had a wide-ranging antibacterial activities and potential natural product diversity, which proved that the bacterium is valuable reservoir of novel bioactive metabolites. Bioactivity-guided isolation of 3-(octahydro-9-isopropyl-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-yl)-2-methylpropyl benzoate and methyl 8-(2-(benzoyloxy)-ethyl)-hexahydro-4-((E)-pent-2-enyl)-2H-chromene-6-carboxylate of polyketide origin, with activity against human opportunistic food pathogenic microbes, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of B. amyloliquefaciens. Structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that hydrophobic descriptor of the polyketide compounds significantly contribute towards its antibacterial activity. Seaweed-associated microorganisms were shown to represent a potential source of antimicrobial compounds for food and health benefits. The antibacterial polyketide compounds described in the present study may find potential applications in the food industry to reduce food-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Arsenic Species in Edible Seaweeds Using In Vitro Biomimetic Digestion Determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenite [As (III], arsenate [As (V], methylarsonate (MMA, and dimethylarsinate (DMA in five edible seaweeds (the brown algae Laminaria japonica, red algae Porphyra yezoensis, brown algae Undaria pinnatifida, brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, and green algae Enteromorpha prolifera were analyzed using in vitro digestion method determined by high-performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that DMA was found in the water extracts of all samples; As (III were detected in L. japonica and U. pinnatifida and about 23.0 and 0.15 mg/kg of As (V were found in H. fusiformis and E. prolifera respectively. However, after the gastrointestinal digestion, As (V was not detected in any of the five seaweeds. About 0.19 and 1.47 mg/kg of As (III was detected in the gastric extracts of L. japonica and H. fusiformis, respectively, and about 0.31 and 0.10 mg/kg of As (III were extracted from the intestinal extracts of Porphyra yezoensis and U. pinnatifida, respectively. The present results successfully reveal the differences of As species and levels in the water and biomimetic extracts of five edible seaweeds. The risk assessment of the inorganic arsenic in the five edible seaweeds based on present data showed almost no hazards to human health.

  15. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, Paul; van Krimpen, Marinus M; van Wikselaar, Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; van Hal, Jaap W; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Cone, John W; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefinery approach is presented for the green seaweed Ulva lactuca containing 225 g protein ( N  × 4.6) kg -1 dry matter (DM). The sugars in the biomass were solubilised by hot water treatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and centrifugation resulting in a sugar-rich hydrolysate (38.8 g L -1 sugars) containing glucose, rhamnose and xylose, and a protein-enriched (343 g kg -1 in DM) extracted fraction. This extracted fraction was characterised for use in animal feed, as compared to U. lactuca biomass. Based on the content of essential amino acids and the in vitro N (85 %) and organic matter (90 %) digestibility, the extracted fraction seems a promising protein source in diets for monogastric animals with improved characteristics as compared to the intact U. lactuca . The gas production test indicated a moderate rumen fermentation of U. lactuca and the extracted fraction, about similar to that of alfalfa. Reduction of the high content of minerals and trace elements may be required to allow a high inclusion level of U. lactuca products in animal diets. The hydrolysate was used successfully for the production of acetone, butanol, ethanol and 1,2-propanediol by clostridial fermentation, and the rhamnose fermentation pattern was studied.

  16. In vitro bioactive analysis and antioxidant activity of two species of seaweeds from the Gulf of Mannar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2017-09-25

    Evaluation of in vitro standard antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS + ) radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibitory (or thiobarbituric acid formation inhibitory activity) and ferrous ion (Fe +2 ) chelating activities of different solvent extracts of seaweeds, Jania rubens and Kappaphycus alvarezii collected from the Gulf of Mannar of the Peninsular India, were carried out. The methodology utilised bioactivity-guided extraction of seaweed with effective solvent comprised classical chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. The ethyl acetate extraction of seaweeds displayed significantly greater antioxidant activity than dichloromethane and n-hexane extraction. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the ethyl acetate extract of seaweeds with potentially greater antioxidant activities, yielded 6α-methoxy-4bβ-methyl-7β-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,8a,9-dodecahydro-2β-phenanthrenol (1) from J. rubens, whereas K. alvarezii yielded 2β-ethyl-9-oxo-5α-vinyl-1,2,5,5a,6,7,8,9-octahydroheptalene-10,1-carbolactone (2) and methyl-2-ethyl-9-oxo-5α-vinyl-1,2,5,5a,6,7,10,10a-octahydroheptalene-1α-carboxylate (3). Compound 1 displayed significantly greater DPPH scavenging activities (IC 50 0.22 mg/mL) than α-tocopherol (IC 50 0.63 mg/mL). The order of DPPH radical-scavenging activities were compounds 1 > 2 > 3.

  17. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  18. Nutritional profile of edible red marine seaweeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Guedes Costa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity represents an exceptional source of natural resources. Their use in a sustainable way may ensure alternative food sources for human consumption, which scarcity is anticipated. Macroalgae, also known as seaweed, are an outstanding example of this biodiversity and are considered an excellent source of a wide number of chemical compounds with beneficial health effects [1]. According to their pigmentation, they can be distinguished in green (Chlorophytaea, brown (Phaeophytaea and red (Rhodophytaea, showing differences in nutritional and chemical compositions [1]. Some macroalgae are widely used as food ingredients in oriental countries as a good source of fiber and protein. Alternatively, they are also considered a source of nutraceuticals, providing health benefits such as anti-inflamatory, anti-allergic, antimutagenic, antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antihyperthensive and neuroprotective properties [2]. Indeed, macroalgae are a very attractive material for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. According to some studies red seaweeds seem to be the most suitable source of proteins for human nutrition [3]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of the most consumed species of red seaweed that are commercially available in the market. Red species as Palmaria palmata (Dulse, Porphyra tenera (Nori and Eisenia bicyclis (Arame, were analyzed. Moisture determination was performed using a Scaltec SMO01 moisture analyzer. The ashes were obtained by incineration at 500ºC. The protein content was determined using the Kjeldahl procedure and total fat was measured through Soxhlet method. The carbohydrates were calculated indirectly by difference. In addition, chlorides were volumetrically determined and vitamin E profile was analysed by HPLC/DAD/FLD. The algae samples are commercialized dry, so the moisture content was very low, around 10%. The ash content was around 10-17%. Protein levels ranged from

  19. Carrageenan Extracted from Eucheuma cottonii Through Variant of Drying Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralisa Putri Novy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan is a derivative product of seaweed that used in various fields such as pharmacy, food and cosmetics. One of the most widely used carrageenan from seaweed was Eucheuma cottonii sp. The research was conduct to determine the effect of post-harvest seaweed pre-treatment on yields of Carrageenan. The first pre-treatment done by using the fresh seaweed that has been washed clean then directly dried. The second pre-treatment, washed seaweed soaked with clean water for seven days and then dried with a dryer. Drying time for the first and second pre-treatments is varied, then dried seaweed extracted with water to produce carrageenan. The analyses performed were moisture content of seaweed and yields of Carrageenan. The results of the research found that the initial moisture content of seaweed on the second pre-treatment was greater than the first pre-treatment. The variation of drying time on the first pre-treatment did not affect significantly on the yields, but in the second pre-treatment, yield of carageenan increased with accumulation drying time.

  20. A Study on Brown Seaweed Therapy ( Sargassum sp. toward MDA Levels and Histological Improvement on Rat Foot Suffering Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (AR, an autoimun disease, is characterized by the inflammation in the joint area caused an excessive of free radicals. An excessive of free radicals in the body cause oxidative stress, that increasing levels of malondialdehyde (MDA as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and the decreasing levels of anti-oxidants. The treated with extract of brown seaweed (Sargassum sp. intended to find out the MDA levels in serum and the histological of the foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats. Malondialdehyde levels are determined through a TBA test (Thio Barbituric acid, meanwhile the histological of the rat foot joints was determined by Hematoxylen-Eosin staining (HE. The results showed the brown seaweed extract therapy (Sargassum sp. was significantly (p <0.01 reduce levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the serum of 21,24% and improving histological foot joints rheumatoid arthritis rats.

  1. Preparation of Agar-Agar from the Red Seaweed Pterocladia capillacea off the Coast of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A V; Bekheet, I A

    1976-10-01

    The effect of different treatments on the quality of agar produced from Pterocladia has been studied, and the conditions for the production of material of good quality have been standardized. In the modified process, sun-bleached seaweed was washed well in water, soaked for 24 h, and then ground to a pulp and rinsed again in water. The pulp was then extracted with water (weed-to-water ratio, 1:30) under pressure for 2 h after adjusting the pH to 6 by the addition of acetic acid. The agar gel, after freeze thawing, was bleached with NaClO before drying in a current of hot air. Pretreatment of the seaweed with alkali at 80 degrees C for 2 h prior to extraction was found to improve the quality of agar to a very great extent.

  2. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05. In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05. However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05. Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05. In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01. IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group (p<0.05 and in

  3. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthy, N; Karutha Pandian, S; Pandima Devi, K

    2010-01-14

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which is one of the four leading causes of death in developed nations. Until date the only symptomatic treatment for this disease is based on the "cholinergic hypothesis" where the drugs enhance acetylcholine levels in the brain by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In the course for screening cholinesterase inhibitors about eight seaweeds, with wide pharmaceutical applications, were collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar, Marine Biosphere Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India. Inhibitory effect of methanol extract of the seaweeds was studied in vitro by incubating various concentration of the extract with AChE or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) and assessing their activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. Kinetic parameters like IC(50), K(i) and V(max) were also analyzed. The results showed that of the eight seaweeds screened Hypnea valentiae, Padina gymnospora, Ulva reticulata and Gracilaria edulis exhibited inhibitory activity to AChE with IC(50) value of 2.6, 3.5, 10 and 3mg/ml respectively, while H. valentiae, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Dictyota dichotoma and U. reticulata showed 50% inhibition to BuChE at concentration 3.9, 7, 6.5 and 10mg/ml respectively. The inhibitory activities of the seaweed extracts were comparable to the standard drug donepezil. Enzyme kinetic analysis showed that algal extracts exhibited mixed type inhibition (partial noncompetitive inhibition). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Green and golden seaweed tides on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetacek, Victor; Zingone, Adriana

    2013-12-05

    Sudden beaching of huge seaweed masses smother the coastline and form rotting piles on the shore. The number of reports of these events in previously unaffected areas has increased worldwide in recent years. These 'seaweed tides' can harm tourism-based economies, smother aquaculture operations or disrupt traditional artisanal fisheries. Coastal eutrophication is the obvious, ultimate explanation for the increase in seaweed biomass, but the proximate processes that are responsible for individual beaching events are complex and require dedicated study to develop effective mitigation strategies. Harvesting the macroalgae, a valuable raw material, before they beach could well be developed into an effective solution.

  5. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  6. Total and inorganic arsenic in fish, seafood and seaweeds--exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, Monika; Rebeniak, Małgorzata; Szynal, Tomasz; Wojciechowska-Mazurek, Maria; Starska, Krystyna; Ledzion, Ewa; Postupolski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), fish, seafood and seaweeds are foodstuffs that significantly contribute to dietary arsenic intake. With the exception of some algal species, the dominant compounds of arsenic in such food products are the less toxic organic forms. Both the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and EFSA recommend that speciation studies be performed to determine the different chemical forms in which arsenic is present in food due to the differences in their toxicity. Knowing such compositions can thus enable a complete exposure assessment to be made. Determination of total and inorganic arsenic contents in fish, their products, seafood and seaweeds present on the Polish market. This was then followed by an exposure assessment of consumers to inorganic arsenic in these foodstuffs. Total and inorganic arsenic was determined in 55 samples of fish, their products, seafood as well as seaweeds available on the market. The analytical method was hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS), after dry ashing of samples and reduction of arsenic to arsenic hydride using sodium borohydride. In order to isolate only the inorganic forms of arsenic prior to mineralisation, samples were subjected to concentrated HCl hydrolysis, followed by reduction with hydrobromic acid and hydrazine sulphate after which triple chloroform extractions and triple 1M HCl re-extractions were performed. Exposure of adults was estimated in relation to the Benchmark Dose Lower Confidence Limit (BMDL0.5) as set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) that resulted in a 0.5% increase in lung cancer (3.0 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day). Mean total arsenic content from all investigated fish samples was 0.46 mg/kg (90th percentile 0.94 mg/kg), whilst the inorganic arsenic content never exceeded the detection limit of the analytical method used (0.025 mg/kg). In fish products, mean total arsenic concentration was

  7. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in the edible seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanfang; Wu, Jifa; Shang, Derong; Ning, Jinsong; Zhai, Yuxiu; Sheng, Xiaofeng; Ding, Haiyan

    2015-02-01

    The subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd were investigated in the edible seaweed, Porphyra yezoensis. The seaweed was exposed to different Cd concentrations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0mgl(-1)) for up to 96h. In both the controls (no Cd added) and treatment groups, 41.2-79.2% of Cd was localised in the cell wall, and the proportion of Cd in the cell wall increased with increasing concentrations of Cd and exposure time. In the control groups, 74.8% of Cd was extracted by 1M NaCl, followed by 2% acetic acid, HAC (18.9%). In the treatment groups, most Cd was extracted by 2% HAC. The proportion of Cd extracted by 2% HAC increased with exposure to increasing concentrations of Cd and over time. Cell wall deposition and forming of precipitates with phosphate may be a key strategy to reduce Cd toxicity in P. yezoensis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Monitoring of uranium isotopes in seaweeds and seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, Balram; Mehendarge, S.T.; Baburajan, A.; Rao, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the concentration of uranium in seawater and different types of seaweed found along the coast line of Tarapur marine environment. The seaweeds are the trend indicators of heavy metals and radionuclides present in the aquatic environment. Seaweeds also serve as a food to the marine organisms and thus can enter the human being through food chain. The higher concentration of uranium in seafood may have radiological impact on human health. The Tarapur Atomic Power Station is adjoined to the sea and has a rocky surface area, which act as a good dwelling for the growth and survival of marine biota. In present study, separation and measurements were made to determine the uranium concentration in seaweed seawater at Tarapur coastal environment

  9. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  10. Seaweed survival after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tâmega, F. T. S.; Figueiredo, M. A. O.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Bonaldo, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the survival of seaweed (macroalgae and cyanobacteria) after consumption by the greenbeak parrotfish, Scarus trispinosus, in northeastern Brazil. Samples of S. trispinosus feces were collected, inoculated on filter paper, and kept in the laboratory and field for 60 and 30 d, respectively. Comparisons of samples inoculated with feces to those without (controls) revealed a marked increase in the abundance and diversity of seaweed in samples inoculated with feces in both laboratory and field experiments. These results were consistent between summer and winter, although the seaweed species differed. A total of one cyanobacterium and 16 macroalgal taxa (nine rhodophytes, five heterokontophytes, and two chlorophytes) were recorded in the inoculated samples. Rhodophyta also presented the highest abundance across treatments, possibly because of their higher resistance to parrotfish digestion, greater ingestion, or both. The survival of cyanobacteria and macroalgae after consumption by S. trispinosus suggests that parrotfishes may contribute to seaweed dispersion on tropical reefs.

  11. Prophylactic antioxidants and phenolics of seagrass and seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    KEY WORDS: Antioxidant; Total Phenols; Total Flavonoids; FRAP; TEAC; Seagrass;. Seaweed; Seasonal ... ozone (O3) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) are not free radicals but can ... oxygen during respiration and from the synthesis of complex ...

  12. Isolation of bioactive compound from marine seaweeds against fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio alginolyticus (VA09 and characterisation by FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekar Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fresh marine seaweeds Gracilaria edulis, Gracillaria verrcosa, Acanthospora spicifera, Ulva facita, Ulva lacta (U. lacta, Kappaphycus spicifera, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sargassum wightii (S. wightii, Padina tetramatica and Padina gymonospora were collected from Mandapam (Rameshwaram, Tamil Nadu of South East coast of India and were screened for antibacterial activity. Methods: All the collected seaweeds were extracted by using five different solvent (methanol, isopropanol, acetone, chloroform, diethyl ether to study their extracts against fish pathogenic bacteria V. alginolyticus (VA09 purchased from MTCC. And minimum inhibition carried out by using Resazurin micro-titre assay. Crude extract of S. wightii analysied by FTIR. Results: The methanolic extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone of inhibition (1.95±0.11 cm, isopropanol extract maximum inhibition was produced by S. wightii (1.93±0.78 cm, Acetone extract of Gracilaria verrcosa showed maximum zone of inhibition (1.36±0.05 cm, chloroform extract of S. wightii produced a maximum zone (1.56±0.25 cm and diethyl ether extract of S. wightii produced maximum zone of inhibition(1.86±0.11 cm. Based on the antibacterial activity S. wightii, U. lacta and Padina tetramatica showed best antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. In this three seaweeds were taken for MIC study. The S. wightii methanolic extract, U. lacta diethyl ether extract and Padina tetramatica methanolic extract showed a higher MIC values, and despectively were 25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. FTIR result showed that mostly phenolic compounds were present in the S. wightii. Conclusions: Based on the FTIR result S. wightii have high amount of phenolic compound. Phenolic compound have the good antimicrobial activity. The results clearly show that seaweed S. wightii is an interesting source for biologically active compounds that may be applied for prophylaxis and therapy of bacterial fish diseases and it should

  13. Bioactive compounds in industrial red seaweed used in carrageenan production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naseri, Alireza; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    The main seaweed species used in industrial scale for carrageenan production are Kappaphycus alvarezii, Eucheuma denticulatum, Chondrus crispus, Gigartina sp. and also Furcellaria lumbricalis as a source of furcellaran (Danish Agar) is also classified together with carrageenan. The chemical...... compositions of these five industrial red seaweeds were evaluated. Protein, lipid and total phenolic content, total amino acid and composition, fatty acid profile, tocopherol content and pigment composition were analyzed. The results demonstrate that there is potential possibility to develop a method...

  14. Application of natural seaweed modified mortar for sustainable concrete production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, M. N. I.; Zularisam, A. W.

    2018-04-01

    The effect of seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii (gel) and Gracilaria Sp. modified mortar on the properties of sustainable concrete was investigated. Pre-experiment and main-experiment was conducted to carry out this study. Pre-experiment was conducted to study the compressive strength of the sustainable concrete. The main-experiment studied the compressive and splitting strength. Results showed that seaweed modified mortar yielded satisfactory compressive and splitting strength of 30 MPa and 5 MPa at 28 days.

  15. A compiled checklist of seaweeds of Sudanese Red Sea coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Abdel Rahim Osman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present an updated and compiled checklist of Sudanese seaweeds as an example for the region for conservational as well as developmental purposes. Methods: The checklist was developed based on both field investigations using line transect method at 4 sites along the Red Sea coast of Sudan and review of available studies done on Sudanese seaweeds. Results: In total 114 macroalgal names were recorded and were found to be distributed in 16 orders, 34 families, and 62 genera. The Rhodophyceae macroalgae contained 8 orders, 17 families, 32 genera and 47 species. The Phaeophyceae macroalgae composed of 4 orders, 5 families, 17 genera, and 28 species. The 39 species of the Chlorophyceae macroalgae belong to 2 classes, 4 orders, 12 families, and 14 genera. The present paper proposed the addition of 11 macroalgal taxa to be included in Sudan seaweeds species list. These include 3 red seaweed species, 1 brown seaweed species and 7 green seaweed species. Conclusions: This list is not yet inclusive and it only represents the macroalgal species common to the intertidal areas of Sudan Red Sea coast. Further investigation may reveal the presence of more species. While significant levels of diversity and endemism were revealed for other groups of organisms in the Red Sea region, similar work still has to be performed for seaweeds. Considering the impact of climate change on communities’ structure and composition and the growing risk of maritime transportation through the Red Sea particularly that may originate from oil tankers as well as that may emanate from oil exploration, baseline data on seaweeds are highly required for management purposes.

  16. Biosorption of lanthanides using three kinds of seaweed biomasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Nobuo; Wang, Yudan; Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of seaweed biomass as sorbent for rare earth elements (REEs), sorption experiment from aqueous solutions containing known amount of lanthanide (La, Eu or Yb) using three kinds of Ca-loaded dried seaweeds (brown algae: Sargassum hemiphyllum, green algae: Ulva pertusa and red algae: Schizymenia dubyi) in single component system was explored. Furthermore, the sorption mechanism of these elements was investigated by applying Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations to the data obtained. In addition, to confirm the characteristics of the seaweed biomasses, the surface morphology of the biomass before and after metal adsorption was determined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Consequently, the following matters have been mainly clarified. (1) The morphology of Sargassum hemiphyllum and Ulva pertusa surface has hardly changed even after exposing to metals. On the other hand, the change of the surface condition on Schizymenia dubyi after adsorption was observed. (2) Adsorption isotherms using the seaweed biomass can be described by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms satisfactorily for lanthanide. These adsorption may have occurred mainly by monolayer reaction because of better-fitting for Langmuir model. (3) The seaweed biomasses could be an efficient sorbent for REEs. Particularly, Ulva pertusa is found to be a promising biosorbent for removing La. (4) Ion-exchange process is considered to be the main mechanism responsible for the sorption of lanthanide ion onto the seaweed biomass. (author)

  17. A comprehensive approach to formulation of seaweed-enriched meat products: From technological development to assessment of healthy properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofrades, S; Benedí, J; Garcimartin, A; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Jimenez-Colmenero, F

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is influenced by various kinds of factors, among them health implications. Different strategies can be effective in developing meat-based functional foods. These basically entail reducing the presence of compounds with negative health implications and enhancing the presence of beneficial compounds. This article reviews a comprehensive model for the development of meat-based functional foods based on a presentation of the research achieved in terms of the design and development of qualitatively and quantitatively modified meat products (frankfurters, patties and restructured steaks). These were reformulated to incorporate nutrients associated with three different seaweeds (wakame-Undaria pinnatifida; nori-Porphyra umbilicalis; and sea spaghetti-Himanthalia elongata) as sources of bioactive substances, while simultaneously reducing sodium and fat and improving fatty acid profiles. Those seaweeds were chosen, because in terms of composition and health implications, abundance on Spanish coasts, relatively widespread consumption, and suitability in terms of flavour and colour they are better suited than others for use as ingredients in new products. It also discusses the consequences of the use of this type of meat-based functional foods (combination of pork meat and 5% of each seaweed with or without hypercholesterolaemic agent included in the diets) on growing animals (Wistar male rats), and their effects on different aspects of lipoprotein metabolism, oxidative stress and liver structure. This article, then, reports a comprehensive approach to the production of seaweed-enriched meat products, considering aspects of technological development aimed at achieving the functional effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral CBM1 neuron contributes to synaptic modulation appearing during rejection of seaweed in Aplysia kurodai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narusuye, Kenji; Nagahama, Tatsumi

    2002-11-01

    The Japanese species Aplysia kurodai feeds well on Ulva but rejects Gelidium with distinctive rhythmic patterned movements of the jaws and radula. We have previously shown that the patterned jaw movements during the rejection of Gelidium might be caused by long-lasting suppression of the monosynaptic transmission from the multiaction MA neurons to the jaw-closing (JC) motor neurons in the buccal ganglia and that the modulation might be directly produced by some cerebral neurons. In the present paper, we have identified a pair of catecholaminergic neurons (CBM1) in bilateral cerebral M clusters. The CBM1, probably equivalent to CBI-1 in A. californica, simultaneously produced monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the MA and JC neurons. Firing of the CBM1 reduced the size of the inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the JC neuron, evoked by the MA spikes, for >100 s. Moreover, the application of dopamine mimicked the CBM1 modulatory effects and pretreatment with a D1 antagonist, SCH23390, blocked the modulatory effects induced by dopamine. It could also largely block the modulatory effects induced by the CBM1 firing. These results suggest that the CBM1 may directly modulate the synaptic transmission by releasing dopamine. Moreover, we explored the CBM1 spike activity induced by taste stimulation of the animal lips with seaweed extracts by the use of calcium imaging. The calcium-sensitive dye, Calcium Green-1, was iontophoretically loaded into a cell body of the CBM1 using a microelectrode. Application of either Ulva or Gelidium extract to the lips increased the fluorescence intensity, but the Gelidium extract always induced a larger change in fluorescence compared with the Ulva extract, although the solution used induced the maximum spike responses of the CBM1 for each of the seaweed extracts. When the firing frequency of the CBM1 activity after taste stimulation was estimated, the Gelidium extract induced a spike activity of ~30 spikes

  19. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bouga

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed (edible algae is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224 were identified. Only 22 products (10% stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18% provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503 and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520. While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content.

  20. Emergence of Seaweed and Seaweed-Containing Foods in the UK: Focus on Labeling, Iodine Content, Toxicity and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouga, Maria; Combet, Emilie

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed (edible algae) is not a staple food in the Western diet, despite occasional use as a traditional ingredient in coastal areas. High nutritional value, combined with the expansion of the health-food industry, has led to a resurgence of seaweed in the British diet. While seaweed could be useful in tackling dietary iodine insufficiency, consumption of some species and sources of seaweed has also been associated with risks, such as toxicity from high iodine levels, or accumulation of arsenic, heavy metals and contaminants. The current retail level of seaweed and edible algae in the UK market, either as whole foods or ingredients, was evaluated with particular focus on labelling and iodine content. Seaweed-containing products (n = 224) were identified. Only 22 products (10%) stated information regarding iodine content and another 40 (18%) provided information sufficient to estimate the iodine content. For these products, the median iodine content was 110 μg/g (IQR 21–503) and 585 μg per estimated serving (IQR 105–2520). While calculations for iodine exposure per serving relied on assumptions, 26 products could potentially lead to an iodine intake above the (European) tolerable adult upper level of 600 μg/day. In the context of the data presented, there is scope to improve product labelling (species, source, processing, content). PMID:28231201

  1. Two-dimensional HPLC coupled to ICP-MS and electrospray ionisation (ESI)-MS/MS for investigating the bioavailability in vitro of arsenic species from edible seaweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, Maria del Carmen; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar [University of Santiago de Compostela, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Bromatology, Faculty of Chemistry, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Taebunpakul, Sutthinun [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, South Kensington, Department of Materials, London (United Kingdom); National Institute of Metrology (Thailand), Pathumthani (Thailand); Stokes, Emma; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi [LGC Limited, Teddington, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    Edible seaweed consumption is a route of exposure to arsenic. However, little attention has been paid to estimate the bioaccessibility and/or bioavailability of arsenosugars in edible seaweed and their possible degradation products during gastrointestinal digestion. This work presents first use of combined inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) with two-dimensional HPLC (size exclusion followed by anion exchange) to compare the qualitative and quantitative arsenosugars speciation of different edible seaweed with that of their bioavailable fraction as obtained using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion procedure. Optimal extraction conditions for As species from four seaweed namely kombu, wakame, nori and sea lettuce were selected as a compromise between As extraction efficiency and preservation of compound identity. For most investigated samples, the use of ammonium acetate buffer as extractant and 1 h sonication in a water bath followed by HPLC-ICP-MS resulted in 40-61% of the total As to be found in the buffered aqueous extract, of which 86-110% was present as arsenosugars (glycerol sugar, phosphate sugar and sulfonate sugar for wakame and kombu and glycerol sugar and phosphate sugar for nori). The exception was sea lettuce, for which the arsenosugar fraction (glycerol sugar, phosphate sugar) only comprised 44% of the total extracted As. Interestingly, the ratio of arsenobetaine and dimethylarsinic acid to arsenosugars in sea lettuce extracts seemed higher than that for the rest of investigated samples. After in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, approximately 11-16% of the total As in the solid sample was found in the dialyzates with arsenosugars comprising 93-120% and 41% of the dialyzable As fraction for kombu, wakame, nori and sea lettuce, respectively. Moreover, the relative As species distribution in seaweed-buffered extracts and dialyzates was found to be very similar

  2. Seaweed as source of energy. I: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.S.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-01-01

    Biogas was produced from seaweed by making use of alginate-digesting marine bacteria that were isolated from decomposing seaweed and can digest seaweed carbohydrates (agar and alginic acid). Laboratory digesters containing 100 g seaweed were inoculated with 50 mL broth cultures of different seaweed-derived bacterial strains, and the maximum amount of degradation obtained was 28% (compared with 13% for a bacteria-free digestion). Cow dung was added as a source of methanogenic bacteria, and the amount of biogas produced was more than double the amount obtained when seaweed and cow dung were digested in the absence of the seaweed-derived bacteria. Adding a small amount of Ulva to the seaweed digester increased the production of biogas.

  3. In vitro investigating of anticancer activity of focuxanthin from marine brown seaweed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karkhane Yousefi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women all over the world. Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer medicines for treating cancer but it has many side effects and cells may become resistant to these chemical medicines. Therefore, finding new compounds of natural origin could be a promising solution to this problem. The aim of the current study was to evaluate anticancer activity of fucoxanthin which is the most important carotenoid found in the marine brown seaweeds and diatoms. fucoxanthin has many properties (antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antiobesity, anti-inflammatory and etc. due to its unique structure. Samples with different concentrations (10, 25 and 50 µg/ml and at various incubation times were collected (6, 24 and 48 hours from four different species (Padina tenuis, Colpomenia sinuosa, Iyengaria stellate and Dictyota indica of brown seaweeds from Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Moreover, the anticancer activity of fucoxanthin-containing extracts on breast cancer cells line and normal human skin fibroblast cells line was assessed by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] assay to specify the cytotoxic effects. The results showed that fucoxanthin extract from Dictyota. indica at 24-hour treatment and 50 µg/ml concentration has the most effective anticancer activity on the breast cancer cells line, without toxic effects to the normal cells. According to the obtained results, it seems that Dictyota. Indica is a good candidate for further analysis and can be introduced to the food and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  5. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, Hetty; Sperber, Bram L H M; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Bakker, Robert R C; Brandenburg, Willem; López-Contreras, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A hydrolysate was used for the production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Hydrolysate-based media were fermentable without nutrient supplementation. C. beijerinckii utilized all sugars in the hydrolysate and produced ABE at high yields (0.35 g ABE/g sugar consumed), while C. acetobutylicum produced mostly organic acids (acetic and butyric acids). These results demonstrate the great potential of U. lactuca as feedstock for fermentation. Interestingly, in control cultures of C. beijerinckii on rhamnose and glucose, 1,2 propanediol was the main fermentation product (9.7 g/L). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrients' removal from aquaculture wastewater using the macroalgae Gracilaria birdiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho-Soriano, E.; Nunes, S.O.; Carneiro, M.A.A.; Pereira, D.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Depto. de Oceanografia e Limnologia, Via Costeira, Praia de Mae Luiza, s/n, Natal, RN 59014-100 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Intensive aquaculture releases large amount of nutrients into aquatic ecosystems and can lead to eutrophication of coastal waters. Studies conducted in aquaculture systems have demonstrated that the seaweeds are efficient in reducing nutrients and at the same time provides extra income, when species of economic importance are used. This study was conducted to evaluate whether Gracilaria birdiae could be cultivated efficiently for the production of useful algal biomass and removal of nutrients from shrimp pond effluents. The results obtained showed a gradual increase in biomass and relative growth rate (RGR) over the experimental period. Mean RGR between the weeks varied significantly (p < 0.01), reaching a maximum of 3.6 {+-} 0.35% d{sup -1} and a minimum of 1.6 {+-} 0.52% d{sup -1}. The mean for the whole period was 2.6% d{sup -1}. The biofiltration capacity of G. birdiae was confirmed by the significantly reduced concentration of the three nutrients analyzed (PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -}) over the study period. The concentration of PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} decreased by 93.5%, NH{sub 4}{sup +} by 34% and NO{sub 3}{sup -} by 100% after the 4-week experimental period. The results obtained in this study indicated that G. birdiae can be used in aquaculture systems as a biofilter. In addition, the macroalgae biomass produced offers alternative source of raw material for the extraction of the phycocolloid agar, human food and animal feed. (author)

  7. The Roles of Seaweed on Climate Change, Food Security and Natural Product

    OpenAIRE

    A. Niarthiningsih; Wahyudin, Elly

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the potential role of seaweed in reducing global warming and climate change, contributing to food security and producing natural products. The role of seaweed on controlling climate change is through reducing carbon dioxide and converting seaweed into the bio fuel. The use of bio-fuel could reduce the traditional hydrocarbon as energy that produces carbon emission. Fresh and processed seaweed are commonly used as a food. This may contribute significantly to ...

  8. The Effect of Stocking Density on the Performance of the Seaweed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The seaweed biofilter Ulva reticulata was grown at two stocking densities (1 and 3 kg m-2) in a low cost integrated system in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The seaweed was stocked in 2 m2 cages made of 1 inch netting material placed at the outflow of fish ponds. Control seaweed was grown at the fish pond inflow channel.

  9. Bioactivity of marine organisms. 6. Antiviral evaluation of marine algal extracts from the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Naik, C.G.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.

    Ethanolic extracts of Indian marine algae belonging to the Rhodophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Chlorophyceae were tested for anti-semiliki Forest (SFV), Ranikhet Disease (RDV) and Vaccinia (VV) viruses. In the primary screening of 31 seaweeds, 17...

  10. Seaweed beds support more juvenile reef fish than seagrass beds in a south-western Atlantic tropical seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggertsen, L.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Fontoura, L.; Kautsky, N.; Gullström, M.; Berkström, C.

    2017-09-01

    Seascape connectivity is regarded essential for healthy reef fish communities in tropical shallow systems. A number of reef fish species use separate adult and nursery habitats, and hence contribute to nutrient and energy transfer between habitats. Seagrass beds and mangroves often constitute important nursery habitats, with high structural complexity and protection from predation. Here, we investigated if reef fish assemblages in the tropical south-western Atlantic demonstrate ontogenetic habitat connectivity and identify possible nurseries on three reef systems along the eastern Brazilian coast. Fish were surveyed in fore reef, back reef, Halodule wrightii seagrass beds and seaweed beds. Seagrass beds contained lower abundances and species richness of fish than expected, while Sargassum-dominated seaweed beds contained significantly more juveniles than all other habitats (average juvenile fish densities: 32.6 per 40 m2 in Sargassum beds, 11.2 per 40 m2 in back reef, 10.1 per 40 m2 in fore reef, and 5.04 per 40 m2 in seagrass beds), including several species that are found in the reef habitats as adults. Species that in other regions worldwide (e.g. the Caribbean) utilise seagrass beds as nursery habitats were here instead observed in Sargassum beds or back reef habitats. Coral cover was not correlated to adult fish distribution patterns; instead, type of turf was an important variable. Connectivity, and thus pathways of nutrient transfer, seems to function differently in east Brazil compared to many tropical regions. Sargassum-dominated beds might be more important as nurseries for a larger number of fish species than seagrass beds. Due to the low abundance of structurally complex seagrass beds we suggest that seaweed beds might influence adult reef fish abundances, being essential for several keystone species of reef fish in the tropical south-western Atlantic.

  11. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (pMonosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Seaweed community response to a massive CO2 input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangil, Carlos; Clemente, Sabrina; Brito, Alberto; Rodríguez, Adriana; Balsalobre, Marc; Mendoza, José Carlos; Martínez, David; Hernández, José Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the structure of seaweed communities were examined following a massive CO2 input caused by a submarine eruption near the coast of El Hierro island (Canary Islands, Spain). The event lasted almost five months (October 2011-March 2012) and created a significant pH gradient. Specifically, we compared three different zones: highly affected with extreme low pH (6.7-7.3), affected with low pH (7.6-7.8), and unaffected ambient pH zone (∼8.1) according to the pH gradient generated by the predominate currents and waves in the south of the island. Studies were carried out before, during and after the CO2 input event in each zone. We found community-wide effects on seaweed communities during the eruption; these included changes in species abundance and changes in the diversity. However, changes in all these community traits were only evident in the highly affected zone, where there were major shifts in the seaweed community, with a replacement of Lobophora variegata by ephemeral seaweeds. Lobophora variegata dropped in cover from 87-94 to 27% while ephemeral seaweeds increased 6-10 to 29%. When the impact ended Lobophora variegata began to recover reaching a cover higher than 60%. In the moderate affected area the Lobophora variegata canopies maintained their integrity avoiding phase shifts to turfs. Here the only significant changes were the reduction of the cover of the crustose and geniculate coralline algae.

  13. O-heterocyclic derivatives with antibacterial properties from marine bacterium Bacillus subtilis associated with seaweed, Sargassum myriocystum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Chakraborty, Rekha Devi; Raola, Vamshi Krishna; Joy, Minju

    2017-01-01

    The brown seaweed, Sargassum myriocystum associated with heterotrophic bacterium, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10407 (JF834075) exhibited broad-spectra of potent antibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. B. subtilis MTCC 10407 was found to be positive for polyketide synthetase (pks) gene, and therefore, was considered to characterize secondary metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, two new antibacterial O-heterocyclic compounds belonging to pyranyl benzoate analogs of polyketide origin, with activity against pathogenic bacteria, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of B. subtilis MTCC 10407. In the present study, the secondary metabolites of B. subtilis MTCC 10407 with potent antibacterial action against bacterial pathogens was recognized to represent the platform of pks-1 gene-encoded products. Two homologous compounds 3 (3-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-(5-(2-ethylbutyl)-5,6-dihydro-3-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl)-butyl benzoate) and 4 [2-(8-butyl-3-ethyl-3,4,4a,5,6,8a-hexahydro-2H-chromen-6-yl)-ethyl benzoate] also have been isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of host seaweed S. myriocystum. The two compounds isolated from ethyl acetate extract of S. myriocystum with lesser antibacterial properties shared similar structures with the compounds purified from B. subtilis that suggested the ecological and metabolic relationship between these compounds in seaweed-bacterial relationship. Tetrahydropyran-2-one moiety of the tetrahydropyrano-[3,2b]-pyran-2(3H)-one system of 1 might be cleaved by the metabolic pool of seaweeds to afford methyl 3-(dihydro-3-methyl-2H-pyranyl)-propanoate moiety of 3, which was found to have no significant antibacterial activity. It is therefore imperative that the presence of dihydro-methyl-2H-pyran-2-yl propanoate system is essentially required to impart the greater activity. The direct involvement of polarisability (Pl) with

  14. Fermentation of seaweed flour with various fermenters to improve the quality of fish feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT  The purpose of this study was to evaluate various types of fermentor for dry matter digestibility (DMD, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and the chemical composition of fermented seaweed. Five types of seaweed were used as substrates included green strain of Kappaphycus alvarezii, brown strain of K. alvarezii, Gracilaria gigas, Sargassum sp., and Caulerpa sp. The treatments were four fermentors, namely Bacillus sp. 2 mL/100 g of seaweed flour; 1.5% of tape yeast as a source of Rhizopus sp.; 1.5% of baker’s yeast as a source of Saccharomyces sp.; a mix of Bacillus sp., tape yeast of Rhizopus sp. and baker’s yeast of Saccharomyces sp. with compositions of 1 mL+1 g+1 g/100 g of seaweed flour; and control treatment. The results showed an increase in the percentage of DMD (21.94–27.76% and OMD (8.35–11.66% of all seaweed fermented using fermentor compared to control (DMD of 17.65–20.36% and OMD of 4.36–5.98%. Moreover, the highest result was obtained by the fermentor mix (DMD of 24.86–27.76% and OMD of 10.02–11.66%. Similar result was also found in the chemical composition of fermented seaweed, there was increase in protein content of 9.23–15.93% and nitrogen free extract (NFE of 56.05–70.26% in each seaweed treated with fermentation using fermentors, compared to controls (protein of 8.82–11.54% and NFE of 52.26–65.72%. Furthermore, the highest value was shown by seaweed fermented with mixed fermentors (protein of 9.92–15.93% and NFE of 58.47–70.26%. Yet, the opposite result was present in the ash, crude fiber, and fat content of seaweed fermented using fermentors of which the lowest value was found in treatment of mixed fermentor. Keywords: fermentation, fermentor, seaweed, quality, feed ingredients  ABSTRAK  Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi berbagai jenis fermentor terhadap kecernaan bahan kering (KBK, kecernaan bahan organik (KBO, dan komposisi kimia rumput laut terfermentasi. Lima jenis rumput

  15. Enzymatic saccharification of brown seaweed for production of fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sandeep; Horn, Svein Jarle

    2016-08-01

    This study shows that high drying temperatures negatively affect the enzymatic saccharification yield of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima. The optimal drying temperature of the seaweed in terms of enzymatic sugar release was found to be 30°C. The enzymatic saccharification process was optimized by investigating factors such as kinetics of sugar release, enzyme dose, solid loading and different blend ratios of cellulases and an alginate lyase. It was found that the seaweed biomass could be efficiently hydrolysed to fermentable sugars using a commercial cellulase cocktail. The inclusion of a mono-component alginate lyase was shown to improve the performance of the enzyme blend, in particular at high solid loadings. At 25% dry matter loading a combined glucose and mannitol concentration of 74g/L was achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrothermal Carbonization of Seaweed For Advanced Biochar Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoso Tirto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed such as Eucheuma Cottonii is a potential source of biomaterialIts high moisture content makes it suitable for hydrothermal conversion process since it doesn’t need to utilize dry feedstock. The aim of this study is to convert the biomass of red seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii into alternative fuels and high value biomaterials using hydrothermal process. The hydrothermal process seaweed Eucheuma Cottonii produce two types of products, liquid product and char (solid. This research focus on the char product. The char from hydrothermal process was then activated using the tubular furnace. The yield for activated char is 7.5 % and results of SEM analysis of activated char showed the formation of allotropes carbon include carbon micro spheres, carbon micro fibres and graphene. These structures have encountered application in a wide range of technological fields, such as adsorption, catalysis, hydrogen storage or electronics.

  17. Comprehensive chlorophyll composition in the main edible seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kewei; Ríos, José Julián; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Roca, María

    2017-08-01

    Natural chlorophylls present in seaweeds have been studied regarding their biological activities and health benefit effects. However, detailed studies regarding characterization of the complete chlorophyll profile either qualitatively and quantitatively are scarce. This work deals with the comprehensive spectrometric study of the chlorophyll derivatives present in the five main coloured edible seaweeds. The novel complete MS 2 characterization of five chlorophyll derivatives: chlorophyll c 2 , chlorophyll c 1 , purpurin-18 a, pheophytin d and phytyl-purpurin-18 a has allowed to obtain fragmentation patterns associated with their different structural features. New chlorophyll derivatives have been identified and quantified by first time in red, green and brown seaweeds, including some oxidative structures. Quantitative data of the chlorophyll content comes to achieve significant information for food composition databases in bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seaweed utilization for integrated bioenergy and fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele

    2016-01-01

    and processing of seaweed compared to other energies and protein production technologies. Optimization of cultivation design could reduce externalities generated by the materials use. Optimization of storage methods, e.g. drying, is necessary to reduce the total energy consumption. Improvement......Linear production systems are not environmentally sustainable since they produce waste at a higher rate than nature is able to absorb. Creation of closed-loop production processes aiming at generating zero-waste is the foundation for a circular economy. Offshore seaweed cultivation can play a key...... role to transform linear production systems into biobased circular flows. Seaweed can absorb manmade emissions to water, while producing valuable compounds that can re-enter the economic system. In the thesis, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyze the environmental performance...

  19. Antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of three red seaweeds (Division: Rhodophyta) harvested from the Gulf of Mannar of Peninsular India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu; Praveen, Nammunayathuputhenkotta Krishnankartha

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant activities of methanol extract and its solvent fractions (n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) of three red seaweeds (Hypnea musciformis, H. valentiae, and Jania rubens) collected from the Gulf of Mannar of South eastern coast of India were evaluated, using different in vitro systems, viz., DPPH, ABTS, HO radical scavenging activities, H2O2 scavenging ability, Fe(2+) ion chelating ability and reducing potential. Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to determine the total phenolic content of the extracts/fractions, and the results were expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of the seaweed extracts/fractions. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) inhibition assay was employed to assess the ability of the seaweed extracts/fractions to inhibit lipid oxidation. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions of H. musciformis exhibited significantly higher total phenolic content (205.5 mg GAE/g), DPPH· scavenging activity (IC50 0.6 mg/mL), ABTS(.+) scavenging activity (IC50 0.51 μg/mL), Fe(2+) chelating ability (IC50 0.70 mg/mL), H2O2 scavenging activity (IC50 0.39 mg/mL), reducing ability (Abs700 nm 1.46) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory ability (2.71 MDAEC/kg) (P < 0.05) compared to its n-hexane, DCM fractions, crude MeOH extract and MeOH extracts/fractions of H. valentiae and J. rubens. DCM fraction of J. rubens showed significantly higher hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (IC50 0.55 mg/mL) compared with H. musciformis and H. valentiae (P < 0.05). This study indicated the potential use of red seaweeds, in particular, H. musciformis as candidate species to be used as food supplement for increasing the shelf-life of food industry, and candidates in combating carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases.

  20. Synergistic Effects of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Mexican Seaweeds against Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Morán-Santibañez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs extracted from five seaweed samples collected or cultivated in Mexico (Macrocystis pyrifera, Eisenia arborea, Pelvetia compressa, Ulva intestinalis, and Solieria filiformis were tested in this study in order to evaluate their effect on measles virus in vitro. All polysaccharides showed antiviral activity (as measured by the reduction of syncytia formation and low cytotoxicity (MTT assay at inhibitory concentrations. SPs from Eisenia arborea and Solieria filiformis showed the highest antiviral activities (confirmed by qPCR and were selected to determine their combined effect. Their synergistic effect was observed at low concentrations (0.0274 μg/mL and 0.011 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis SPs, resp., which exhibited by far a higher inhibitory effect (96% syncytia reduction in comparison to the individual SP effects (50% inhibition with 0.275 μg/mL and 0.985 μg/mL of E. arborea and S. filiformis, resp.. Time of addition experiments and viral penetration assays suggest that best activities of these SPs occur at different stages of infection. The synergistic effect would allow reducing the treatment dose and toxicity and minimizing or delaying the induction of antiviral resistance; sulfated polysaccharides of the tested seaweed species thus appear as promising candidates for the development of natural antiviral agents.

  1. Antimicrobial polyketide furanoterpenoids from seaweed-associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2017-10-01

    Brown seaweed Anthophycus longifolius (Turner) Kützing (family Sargassaceae) associated heterotrophic bacterium Bacillus subtilis MTCC 10403 was found to be a potent isolate with broad range of antibacterial activity against important perceptive food pathogens Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and Aeromonas hydrophila. This bacterium was positive for polyketide synthetase gene (KC589397), and therefore, was selected to bioprospect specialized metabolites bearing polyketide backbone. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of the seaweed-associated bacterium segregated four homologous polyketide furanoterpenoids with potential antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay showed that the referral antibiotics tetracycline and ampicillin were active at 25 μg/mL against the test pathogens, whereas the previously undescribed (4E)-methyl 13-((16-(furan-2-yl) ethyl)-octahydro-7-hydroxy-4-((E)-23-methylbut-21-enyl)-2H-chromen-6-yl)-4-methylpent-4-enoate (compound 1) and methyl 3-(hexahydro-9-((E)-3-methylpent-1-enyl)-4H-furo[3,2-g]isochromen-6-yl) propanoate (compound 3) displayed antibacterial activities against the test pathogens at a lesser concentration (MIC subtilis MTCC 10403 demonstrated to represent a potential source of antimicrobial polyketides for pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization study on the hydrogen peroxide pretreatment and production of bioethanol from seaweed Ulva prolifera biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinping; Cui, Jiefen; Zhang, Gaoli; Liu, Zhengkun; Guan, Huashi; Hwang, Hueymin; Aker, Winfred G; Wang, Peng

    2016-08-01

    The seaweed Ulva prolifera, distributed in inter-tidal zones worldwide, contains a large percentage of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of using U. prolifera residue (UPR) obtained after extraction of polysaccharides as a renewable energy resource was investigated. An environment-friendly and economical pretreatment process was conducted using hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide pretreatment improved the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. The resulting yield of reducing sugar reached a maximum of 0.42g/g UPR under the optimal pretreatment condition (hydrogen peroxide 0.2%, 50°C, pH 4.0, 12h). The rate of conversion of reducing sugar in the concentrated hydrolysates to bioethanol reached 31.4% by Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation, which corresponds to 61.7% of the theoretical maximum yield. Compared with other reported traditional processes on Ulva biomass, the reducing sugar and bioethanol yield are substantially higher. Thus, hydrogen peroxide pretreatment is an effective enhancement of the process of bioethanol production from the seaweed U. prolifera. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biosystem of seaweed beds coexisting with power plants; Denryoku hatsudensho to kyoseisuru moba no seitaikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M. [Kochi Univ., Kochi (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    Recently, seaweed beds on the coasts of Japan are decreasing rapidly, and it has been demanded that they should be restored. As one of the restoring methods, plans are investigated to utilize coast structures near power plants and wave absorbing dykes, which are artificial seaweed beds with dense seaweed forests and offer favorable areas for living creatures, for the purpose of building new seaweed beds and marine pastures. For seaweed bed building projects, it is necessary to show the economical effect of seaweed beds. Recently, absorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and phosphoric acid dissolved in the sea has been attracting attention as a role of seaweed beds. Creation of Zostera beds is a difficult enterprise. The mound creation of the seaweed bed at Ikata, Aichi Prefecture, Japan is successful because there is a good seaweed bed in the periphery which can supply sufficient seeds (spores) to the bed. With the development of the seaweed bed, a concrete block rocky beach reef was developed which is provided with a function of dwelling places for shells and lobsters. The Fishery Ministry is promoting a large scale ocean pasture plan on the coast of Japan with the target period of the 21st century, and extension of seaweed bed areas is considered to be the major project. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Factors that influence the increase of Eucheuma cottonii Seaweed farmers’ income in Bantaeng, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusni Fitri Y. Rusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is one of the marine production that authentically potential to be increased its production in quantity and quality. In economic side, it is not only for country’s foreign exchange earnings but also for a source of income to the seaweed farmers. The aims of research were to elaborate the influencing use of seed, number of labor, and farming experience on seaweed production in Bantaeng Regency and to analyze the influencing production to the farmers’ income. The research was conducted in Bantaeng Regency and the data were obtained through observation and structured interview. The samples were selected purposively consisting of 94 seaweed farmers using cobb-douglas and simple linear regression analysis. The results of the research indicated that; (a regression coefficient variable in use of seed had influence to the increased of seaweed production but regression coefficient variable number of labor didn’t have to influence to increased seaweed production. For regression coefficient variable of farming experience also had influence to the increased seaweed production.Cobb-Douglas analysis indicated that production function in factors use of seed, number of labor and farming experience had  significantly affected to the seaweed production. In simple linear regression analysis, regression coefficient of seaweed production variable explained if seaweed production increases, farmers’ income would be increase too.  Keywords : Seaweed, Cobb-Douglas, Production, Farmers’ Income.

  5. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Barot

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for identification of bioactive compounds present in crude extract. Results: The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis of all the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, fatty acids and esters compounds. Among the three species, the maximum crude extract yield (53.46% and the largest inhibition zone (36 mm were recorded in methanol extract of Ulva lactuca, whereas the minimum crude extract yield and inhibition zone were recorded in chloroform extract of the same species as 0.5% and 10 mm, respectively. Methanol and ethyl acetate extract showed the maximum antifungal activity and the major important compounds like steroids, fatty acids and esters were detected with higher amount in all the extracts. Conclusions: The present study revealed that the different seaweed extracts showed moderate to significant antifungal activity against the strains tested as compared with the standard fungicides, and polar solvents methanol and ethyl acetate were comparatively efficient for extraction of different metabolites that are responsible for antifungal activity.

  6. Environmental perspectives on using cast seaweed for biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredenslund, Anders Michael; Møller, Henrik Bjarne; Christensen, Thomas Budde

    Solrød Municipality, Denmark is working towards building a biogas plant utilizing locally available organic wastes including cast seaweed, which is collected each year, since the local inhabitants see this material as a nuisance. A preliminary study suggested favorable conditions for contstructing...... a mixed substrate biogas plant. Continuously fed reactor experiments showed that the intended mix of substrate including cast seaweed could be used as raw material for a biogas plant in thermophilic operation. The environmental analysis suggests existence of several positive benefits of utilizing cast...

  7. Seaweeds from the Portuguese coast: A potential food resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, C.; Machado, S.; Vieira, E. F.; Morais, S.; Teles, M. T.; Correia, M.; Carvalho, A.; Domingues, V. F.; Ramalhosa, M. J.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Antunes, F.

    2017-09-01

    The Portuguese coast presents a large amount of potentially edible seaweeds that are underexploited. The identification of different macroalgae species and their availability in the northern and central coast of the continental territory was assessed. The nutritional value of seaweeds is discussed based on a literature review (when available) focused on data for species collected in Portugal with the aim to define the most important nutritional parameters that should be characterized in the samples. Possible health concerns related with the presence of contaminants are also considered.

  8. Salinity critical threshold values for photosynthesis of two cosmopolitan seaweed species: providing baselines for potential shifts on seaweed assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Ventura, Robson; Barufi, José Bonomi; Horta, Paulo Antunes

    2013-10-01

    Climate change has increased precipitation in several South American regions leading to higher freshwater inputs into marine systems with potential to cause salinity declines along the coast. The current salinity profile on the southern coast of Brazil was surveyed during four years providing a baseline of the current salinity pattern in the region. Additionally, the effects of salinity decreases on the photosynthesis of the seaweeds Ulva lactuca and Sargassum stenophyllum were investigated in laboratory. Seaweeds were cultured at salinities 5, 15 and 34 and at the mean winter and summer temperatures. Photosynthetic performance was measured following 24 and 96 h from the beginning of experiment. U. lactuca remained practically unaltered by low salinities while S. stenophyllum presented declines of important photosynthetic parameters. This is due to the different regulation abilities of energy distribution at the PSII of the two species. These differences have potential to lead to seaweed community shifts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Studies of seaweeds as indicators of toxic element pollution in Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-I (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, [PAN/TAN] of 1x10 - 4M, [PONPE-20] of 0.1% (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN 0 3, and a temperature of 41 0 C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(III) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare, the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(III) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results

  10. Speciation of iodine-containing proteins in Nori seaweed by gel electrophoresis laser ablation ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, V; Bianga, J; Moreda-Piñeiro, A; Bermejo-Barrera, P; Szpunar, J

    2014-09-01

    An analytical approach providing an insight into speciation of iodine in water insoluble fraction of edible seaweed (Nori) was developed. The seaweed, harvested in the Galician coast (Northwestern Spain), contained 67.7±1.3 μg g(-1) iodine of which 25% was water soluble and could be identifies as iodide. Extraction conditions of water insoluble residue using urea, NaOH, SDS and Triton X-100 were investigated. The protein pellets obtained in optimized conditions (after precipitation of urea extracts with acetone), were digested with trypsin and protease XIV. Size exclusion chromatography-ICP-MS of both enzymatic digests demonstrated the occurrence of iodoaminoacids putatively present in proteins. Intact proteins could be separated by gel electrophoresis after an additional extraction of the protein extract with phenol. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) with laser ablation ICP-MS detection of (127)I indicated the presence of iodine in protein bands corresponding to molecular masses of 110 kDa, 40 kDa, 27 kDa, 20 kDa and 10 kDa. 2D IEF-SDS PAGE with laser ablation ICP-MS (127)I imaging allowed the detection of 5 iodine containing protein spots in the alkaline pI range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Brown seaweed Padina gymnospora is a prominent natural wound-care product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alegna P. Baliano

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seaweeds are related to anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-noceptive effects. This work aimed to verify the potential of seaweed Padina gymnospora (Kützing Sonder 1871 to improve wound healing in vitro. P. gymnospora was collected at a bethonic area in Espirito Santo. Methanolic extract of P. gymnospora was obtained by percolation. To determine cytotoxicity, colorimetric MTT tests were performed against normal fibroblasts (L929, macrophages (RAW 264.7 and human ovarian carcinoma (OVCAR-3 cell lines using concentration range of 12–110 µg ml-1. To evaluate in vitro wound healing, monolayer of fibroblasts L929 was seeded and artificial wounded. Cell proliferation was blocked by 5 µg ml-1 Mytomycin C. Nitric oxide inhibition was quantified with Raw 264.7 by Griess reaction. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Eletrospray ionization with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR MS was applied to detail composition of P. gymnospora methanolic extract. No cytotoxic effect in all cell lines was detected until the maximum concentration of 110 µg ml-1. P. gymnospora promoted significantly migration at the concentration of 25 µg ml-1 (p < 0.05. A prominent inhibition of nitric oxide formation was achieved in a concentration of 20 µg ml-1 of methanolic extract of P. gymnospora (62.06 ± 1.20%. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus could be demonstrated with MIC of 500 µg ml-1. ESI-FT-ICR MS analysis indicated eleven molecules between then, linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid. P. gymnospora favored wound repair in vitro what could be related to its fatty acid composition. In addition, its antimicrobial effect, and NO inhibition activity contribute for a new approach of P. gymnospora as a promise natural product for treatment of cutaneous wound.

  12. Seaweeds in Two Oceans: Beta-Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albertus J. Smit

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several species assembly mechanisms have been proposed to structure ecological communities. We assess the biogeography of seaweeds along 2,900 km of South Africa's coastline in relation to a thermal gradient produced by the Agulhas Current, and contrast this with the environmental structure created by the Benguela Current. We subdivided the coastline into “bioregions” to examine the regional patterning. To investigate the assembly mechanisms, we decomposed Sørensen's β-diversity into “turnover” (βsim and “nestedness-resultant” (βsne dissimilarities, and used distance-based redundancy analysis (db-RDA to relate them to the Euclidean thermal difference, dE, and geographical distance. Moran's eigenvector maps (MEM were used as an additional set of spatial constraints. Variation partitioning was then used to find the relative strengths of thermal and spatially-structured thermal drivers. Spatial and environmental predictors explained 97.9% of the total variation in βsim and the thermal gradient accounted for 84.2% of this combined pool. βsim was the major component of overall β-diversity in the Agulhas Current region, suggesting niche influences (environmental sorting as dominant assembly process there. The much weaker thermal gradient in the Benguela Current-influenced region resulted in a high amount of βsne that could indicate neutral assembly processes. The intensification of upwelling during the mid-Pliocene 4.6–3.2 Ma (i.e., historical factors were likely responsible for setting up the strong disjunction between the species-poor west coast and species-rich south and east coast floras, and this separation continues to maintain two systems of community structuring mechanisms in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean influenced sides of South Africa.

  13. Seaweeds and the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stekoll, M.S.; Deysher, L.; Dean, T.A.

    1993-01-01

    A three-year study, initiated in 1989, has evaluated the response of subtidal and intertidal seaweed communities to the Exxon Valdez oil spill and subsequent cleanup activities. The project was part of the coastal habitat injury assessment research sanctioned under the natural resource damage assessment program. A stratified random design was used to select oiled sites for the study. Paired control (unoiled) sites were then matched to the oiled sites. The most consistent effect found in subtidal populations in Prince William Sound was the higher relative abundance of small-size classes of kelps at the oiled sites, indicating the prior disappearance of larger plants. This disappearance was possibly caused by activities associated with the cleanup operations. Intertidal populations of algae were affected by the spill and cleanup in all three major areas studied: Prince William Sound, Cook Inlet-Kenai, and Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula. The most obvious effect was a significant removal of the dominant intertidal plant Fucus gardneri from the mid and upper intertidal zones. The limited dispersal of this plant combined with the relatively harsh conditions of the upper intertidal will cause a slow recovery of the upper intertidal zone in the affected areas. Effects of the spill extended to other algal species. Species such as Cladophora, Myelophycus, Odonthalia, Palmaria, and Polysiphonia showed decreases in their percent cover at oiled sites. Only Gloiopeltis populations appeared to increase in percent cover in oiled areas. In both the Cook Inlet-Kenai and the Kodiak-Alaskan Peninsula areas Fucus populations appeared to be enhanced in the lower intertidal zone - between 2 and 3 meters below the high-tide mark - in 1991

  14. AGAR FROM MALAYSIAN RED SEAWEED AS POTENTIAL MATERIAL FOR SYNTHESIS OF BIOPLASTIC FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIEW-LING HII

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to identify the potential use of agar extracted from red seaweed, Gracilaria salicornia, collected from the coastal area of Malaysia as the raw material for synthesis of bioplastic film. Agar was extracted via two extraction methods: (1 alkali extraction method and (2 photo bleaching extraction method. The yields of agar by both of the methods were 9 to 11 %. The alkali extracted agar (AEA and photo bleached agar (PBA were incorporated as the raw materials for the formation of bioplastic films while sago starch and glycerol were added to increase workability. Physicochemical properties of the two bioplastic films were characterised. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of agar in both plastic films with the presence of 3,6- anhydrogalactose residues and further indicated that the interactions of agar and sago starch were strong in both PBA and AEA films. The results showed that tensile strength and percent elongation of PBA film (3.067 MPa, 3.270 % was higher than AEA film (2.431 MPa, 2.476 %. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA; % residual weight revealed that AEA film has higher thermal stability (14.80 % than PBA film (10.27 % while rheological results proved that both films exhibited non-Newtonian behaviors. The AEA film was completely decomposed after 30 days in the soil burial test. Results of current study show a wide range of future possibilities and commercial applications of AEA and PBA bioplastic films.

  15. Antioxidant activity and mineral composition of three Mediterranean common seaweeds from Abu-Qir Bay, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Hanan M.; El-Sheikh, Mohamed A.

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and mineral composition were evaluated seasonally from spring to autumn 2010 in the three common seaweeds Ulva lactuca Linnaeus (Chlorophyta), Jania rubens (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux and Pterocladia capillacea (S.G. Gmelin) Bornet (Rhodophyta). The antioxidant activity was measured with β-carotene, total phenol content and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Seaweeds were collected from the rocky site near Boughaz El-Maadya Abu-Qir Bay of Alexandria, Egypt. The results showed maximum increase of β-carotene in P. capillacea during summer. A significant increase in total phenolic content at P ⩽ 0.05 was found in the red alga (J. rubens) during summer. Also, U. lactuca showed the maximum antioxidant scavenging activity especially during summer. Minerals in all investigated samples were higher than those in conventional edible vegetables. Na/K ratio ranged between 0.78 and 2.4 mg/100 g, which is a favorable value. All trace metals exceeded the recommended doses by Reference Nutrient Intake (RNI). During summer season, it was found that Cu = 2.02 ± 0.13 and Cr = 0.46 ± 0.14 mg/100 g in U. lactuca and Fe had a suitable concentration (18.37 ± 0.5 mg/100 g) in P. capillacea. The studied species were rich in carotenoids, phenolic compounds, DPPH free radicals and minerals, therefore, they can be used as potential source of health food in human diets and may be of use to food industry. PMID:26288568

  16. Evaluation of Iodine Bioavailability in Seaweed Using in Vitro Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-González, M Raquel; Chiocchetti, Gabriela M; Herbello-Hermelo, Paloma; Vélez, Dinoraz; Devesa, Vicenta; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2017-09-27

    Due to the high levels of iodine present in seaweed, the ingestion of a large amount of this type of food can produce excessive intake of iodine. However, the food after ingestion undergoes different chemistry and physical processes that can modify the amount of iodine that reaches the systemic circulation (bioavailability). Studies on the bioavailability of iodine from food are scarce and indicate that the bioavailable amount is generally lower than ingested. Iodine in vitro bioavailability estimation from different commercialized seaweed has been studied using different in vitro approaches (solubility, dialyzability, and transport and uptake by intestinal cells). Results indicate that iodine is available after gastrointestinal digestion for absorption (bioaccessibility: 49-82%), kombu being the seaweed with the highest bioaccessibility. The incorporation of dialysis cell cultures to elucidate bioavailability modifies the estimation of the amount of iodine that may reach the systemic circulation (dialysis, 5-28%; cell culture, ≤3%). The paper discusses advantages and drawbacks of these methodologies for iodine bioavailability in seaweed.

  17. Consequences and Challenges of Tourism and Seaweed Farming ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hard work for limited returns, seaweed has become highly significant in boosting women's empowerment ... serve as the major determinants of life and .... resources in flexible ways to curtail risks and .... and real benefits to the people living in .... lose their jobs if and when occasional visitors .... An owner has to try to balance.

  18. Kainic acid in the seaweed Palmaria palmata (Dulse)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Olesen, Pelle Thonning

    2018-01-01

    Twenty samples of the seaweed Palmaria palmata (dulse) purchased mainly from commercial internet shops on the European market were analysed by a liquid chromatograph coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method for the content of kainic acid, a naturally occurring neurotoxic compound...

  19. Seasonal variation in the biochemical composition of red seaweed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The biochemical composition of red seaweeds,Catenella repens was investigated in this present study along with subsequent analysis of relevant physico-chemical variables.In this study, the relationship between the nutritive components of this species and the ambient environmental parameters was established.

  20. A conceptual mitigation model for asymmetric information of supply chain in seaweed cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Betaubun, Kamilius D.; Marimin; Djatna, Taufik

    2017-10-01

    Seaweed cultivation has a better advantage over other fisheries activity in terms of easiness on conducting the production and multiplier effect on coastal community welfare. The effect of seaweed farming on the prosperity of coastal community in Southeast Maluku started to take place in 2008, although in 2012 either number of production and workforce is declining rapidly. By solving this problem, this article also provided with identifying and analyzing the supply chain of seaweed cultivation in Southeast Maluku. Based on this analysis we have found that one of the main reasons of declining seaweed production and the number seaweed farmers was asymmetric information that occurred on seaweed supply chain in Southeast Maluku. The component of asymmetric risk was the quality of the seeds, price, information and technology and the knowledge of actual market of seaweed, especially by seaweed farmers. Therefore, it is essential to make a conceptual model on mitigation of asymmetric information on the supply chain of seaweed production. We proposed a conceptual model based on four perspectives, first was goal, criteria and sub-criteria, actor and the solution to mitigate asymmetric information supply chain on seaweed cultivation.

  1. Seaweed Fortification on Crispy Enbal as Local Food of Kei Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasabessy, Ismael; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    One of health problems phenomenon in Indonesian and the world is increasing the degenerative disease because human’s bad habits of eating that having less fiber. Source of fiber which is relatively abundant in eastern Indonesia is seaweed that is very precise to fortified on local food that aims to be more nutritious and economically valuable. The purpose of this study is to got appropriate seaweed fortification technique to produce Seaweed Crispy Enbal (SCE) as typical food from Kei islands that rich in fiber and preferred by consumers. The research was done in two stages. The first stage is to analyze quality of fiber and HCN content of seaweed and enbal flour as SCE raw material, and the two-stage is fortified fiber to enbal lempeng using two types of raw materials, namely pulp seaweed and flour seaweed. The results showed that the fiber content of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii and flour enbal respectively 7.01% and 4%, while HCN content less than 3 mg/kg. Fortification techniques using pulp seaweed better than others. It is because pulp seaweed produces seaweed crispy enbal with high value of sensory (really like) with having fiber content is 7.48%.

  2. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar, or the Western Pacific (Fiji. In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  3. A Global Analysis of the Relationship between Farmed Seaweed Production and Herbivorous Fish Catch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2016-01-01

    Globally, farmed seaweed production is expanding rapidly in shallow marine habitats. While seaweed farming provides vital income to millions of artisanal farmers, it can negatively impact shallow coral reef and seagrass habitats. However, seaweed farming may also potentially provide food subsidies for herbivorous reef fish such as the Siganidae, a valuable target family, resulting in increased catch. Comparisons of reef fish landings across the central Philippines revealed that the catch of siganids was positively correlated to farmed seaweed production whilst negatively correlated to total reef fish catch over the same period of time. We tested the generality of this pattern by analysing seaweed production, siganid catch, and reef fish catch for six major seaweed-producing countries in the tropics. We hypothesized that increased seaweed production would correspond with increased catch of siganids but not other reef fish species. Analysis of the global data showed a positive correlation between farmed seaweeds and siganids in Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines) but not Africa (Tanzania and Zanzibar), or the Western Pacific (Fiji). In Southeast Asia, siganid catch increased disproportionately faster with seaweed production than did reef fish catch. Low continuity, sporadic production and smaller volumes of seaweed farming may explain the differences.

  4. Mineralization dynamics in soil fertilized with seaweed-fish waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera-Vives, Marta; López-Fabal, Adolfo; López-Mosquera, M Elvira; Ribeiro, Henrique M

    2015-12-01

    Seaweed and fish waste can be composted together to obtain fertilizer with high organic matter and nutrient contents. The nutrients, however, are mostly in organic form and must be mineralized to make them available to plants. The objective of this work was to establish a usage guideline for the compost by studying its mineralization dynamics. Also, the release of inorganic N and C from soil fertilized with the compost was monitored and modelled. C and N were released throughout the assay, to an extent significantly dependent on fertilizer rate. Mineralization of both elements fitted a first-order exponential model, and each fertilizer rate required using a specific fitting model. An increased rate favoured mineralization (especially of carbon). After 90 days, 2.3% of C and 7.7% of N were mineralized (and 23.3% of total nitrogen made plant available) with the higher rate. C mineralization was slow because organic matter in the compost was very stable. On the other hand, the relatively high initial content in mineral N of the compost increased gradually by the effect of mineralization. The amount of N available would suffice to meet the requirements of moderately demanding crops at the lower fertilizer rate, and even those of more demanding crops at the higher rate. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The effect of antiviral activity of a green seaweed from the Persian Gulf, Caulerpa sertularioides on Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zandi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: By considering the daily increase in drug resistance of various viruses, novel antiviral compounds extracted from natural resources – due to their fewer side effects, had always been important to researchers. In the present study, we investigated antiviral activity of the hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides, collected from coastal water of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf, against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1. Methods: The hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides was sterilized by autoclave and filtration methods. After determining its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 value, the effect of the extract on the inhibition of HSV-1 replication was examined in Vero cell culture. Results: The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-1 in both attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells and also on post attachment stages of virus replication. Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values of the autoclaved extract were 81µg/ml and 126 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. IC50 values of the filtered extract were 73 µg/ml and 104 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. CC50 values for autoclaved and filtered extracts were 3140 µg/ml and 3095 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The hot water extract of Caulerpa sertularioides of the Persian Gulf had antiviral effect against HSV-1.

  6. Pond culture of seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghe; Hu, Chaoqun; Sun, Hongyan; Li, Haipeng; Peng, Pengfei

    2013-03-01

    The seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum is widely distributed throughout the coastal waters of Asia and has high commercial value. In recent years, its natural biomass has declined due to over-exploitation and environmental pollution. To seek for a feasible way to culture this seaweed efficiently, we designed a simple long-line system in a shrimp pond for the culture during winter, and the growth and nutritional composition of the seaweed were examined. Results show that the culture system was durable and flexible allowing S. hemiphyllum to grow vertically off the muddy bottom of the pond. Although the length of pondcultured S. hemiphyllum was inhibited by water depth, the weight-specific growth rate ((1.65±0.17)%/d) was nearly three times higher than that of wild plants ((0.62±0.19)%/d). The crude protein (6.92%±0.88%) and ash content (21.52%±0.07%) of the pond-cultured seaweed were significantly lower than those of the wild plants (9.38%±0.43% and 26.93%±0.07%, respectively); however, crude fat (1.01%±0.04%) was significantly higher than that of the wild plants (0.87%±0.02%). In addition, the nutritional composition of both pond-cultured and wild S. hemiphyllum was comparable to or even higher than those of other common seaweeds being used as food and/or aquaculture fodder. Future studies shall be focused on the impact of environmental parameters on its growth and nutritional composition.

  7. Accumulation and effects of metal mixtures in two seaweed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Tayler A; Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K

    2015-05-01

    Metal pollution, due to various anthropogenic sources, may pose a threat to marine ecosystems. Metals can be introduced into food chains via bioaccumulation in primary producers, and may potentially lead to toxic effects. Macroalgae are used as food by a wide variety of organisms, and are therefore extremely important in aquatic systems. This study investigated the accumulation and effects of metals in two macroalgae species. The green seaweed, Ulva lactuca and the red seaweed, Agardhiella subulata were each concurrently exposed to five metals (Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Zn) and U. lactuca was also exposed to each metal individually for 48 h. Metal accumulation in the seaweed was measured, and various photosynthetic parameters were assessed, using imaging pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. Increased metal accumulation occurred in both seaweed species after 48 h exposure to metal mixtures and each metal individually. The distribution of metals in both seaweed species changed with increasing metal exposure concentrations, resulting in higher proportions of Cu and Zn in the metal-exposed groups, as compared to respective controls. Further, U. lactuca accumulated higher concentrations of metals when exposed to each metal individually rather than in metal mixtures, suggesting interactions among metals for uptake and/or bioaccumulation. Significant impairment of photosynthetic parameters in U. lactuca was observed after exposure to 100 and 1000 μg/L metal mixtures, as well as 100 μg/L of either Cd or Cu. These results demonstrate metal bioaccumulation and toxic effects in important primary producers, and may have implications for higher trophic levels. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Influence of 5% KOH Immersion for Seaweed as Raw Materials for Air Freshener Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riardi Pratista Dewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of submersion KOH 5% for seaweed as raw materials products air freshener gel has been studied. Seaweed in Indonesia has a big potentially and it is commonly used in food products, beverages, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. This research aims to use seaweed as a feedstock gel air freshener. Soaking seaweed with KOH was conducted to determine the nature of the water content and gel strength of the gel air freshener products generated given the scent of oranges and cloves. KOH concentration used was 5%. The results showed the water content of seaweed with KOH soaked lower than without KOH, whereas the gel strength with marinated seaweed KOH higher than without KOH. The results of organoleptic test, in this case the sense of smell, the air freshener gel product indicates that the product that uses citrus scent perfuming/lemon, panelists preferred more than the product is scented gel air freshener clove oil.

  9. Screening of seaweeds in the East China Sea as potential bio-monitors of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yaoru; Wernberg, Thomas; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Holmer, Marianne; Li, Ke; Wu, Jiaping; Lin, Fang; Yu, Yan; Xu, Jiang; Zhou, Chaosheng; Huang, Zhixing; Xiao, Xi

    2018-03-30

    Seaweeds are good bio-monitors of heavy metal pollution and have been included in European coastal monitoring programs. However, data for seaweed species in China are scarce or missing. In this study, we explored the potential of seaweeds as bio-monitor by screening the natural occurring seaweeds in the "Kingdom of seaweed and shellfish" at Dongtou Islands, the East China Sea. Totally, 12 seaweed species were collected from six sites, with richness following the sequence of Rhodophyta > Phaeophyta > Chlorophyta. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, As) in the seaweeds was determined, and the bioaccumulation coefficient was calculated. A combination of four seaweeds, Pachydictyon coriaceum, Gelidium divaricatum, Sargassum thunbergii, and Pterocladiella capillacea, were proposed as bio-monitors due to their high bioaccumulation capabilities of specific heavy metals in the East China Sea and hence hinted the importance of using seaweed community for monitoring of pollution rather than single species. Our results provide first-hand data for the selection of bio-monitor species for heavy metals in the East China Sea and contribute to selection of cosmopolitan bio-monitor communities over geographical large area, which will benefit the establishment of monitoring programs for coastal heavy metal contamination.

  10. Taxonomy of economic seaweeds : with reference to some Pacific and Caribbean species

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Isabella A; Norris, James N

    1985-01-01

    The value of any seaweed crop is enhanced by the name under which the seaweed is sold, for the kind and quality of the seaweed product is announced with its name. Thus, though chemists may say that the agar from Gelidium species is the same as that from Gracilaria species, industry will pay more for Gelidium than for Gracilaria. (It might be so because the agarose fraction is higher in Gelidium, and agarose commands a higher price on its own.) In the case of the seaweeds that produce the coll...

  11. Distribution of metals and metalloids in dried seaweeds and health risk to population in southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Pan, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Bai-Fen; Han, Jian-Long

    2018-02-23

    Concern about metals and metalloids, especially heavy metals in seaweeds has risen due to potential health risk. This study investigated the distribution of 10 metals and metalloids in 295 dried seaweeds (brown and red) and estimated the possible health risk via hazard index (HI). Elements in seaweeds can be sequenced in descending order by mean values: Al > Mn > As > Cu > Cr > Ni > Cd > Se > Pb > Hg. The levels of Cd, Cu, Mn and Ni in red seaweeds were significantly higher than those in brown seaweeds (P < 0.01). Correlation analysis showed contents of Ni-Cr (r = 0.59, P < 0.01) in seaweeds had moderate positive correlations. Seaweeds from different geographical origins had diverse element distribution. Risk assessment showed that HI at mean level was less than the threshold of 1. It indicates that for the general people there is low health risk to these elements by the intake of seaweeds. Furthermore, in terms of the confirmative toxicity of some metals, such as Cd, Pb and Hg, surveillance of metals in seaweeds should be performed continuously.

  12. The Edible Brown Seaweed Ecklonia cava Reduces Hypersensitivity in Postoperative and Neuropathic Pain Models in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Goo Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study was designed to investigate whether edible brown seaweed Ecklonia cava extracts exhibits analgesic effects in plantar incision and spared nerve injury (SNI rats. To evaluate pain-related behavior, we performed the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT and thermal hypersensitivity tests measured by von Frey filaments and a hot/cold plate analgesia meter. Pain-related behavior was also determined through analysis of ultrasonic vocalization. The results of experiments showed MWT values of the group that was treated with E. cava extracts by 300 mg/kg significantly increased; on the contrary, number of ultrasonic distress vocalization of the treated group was reduced at 6 h and 24 h after plantar incision operation (62.8%, p < 0.05. Moreover, E. cava 300 mg/kg treated group increased the paw withdrawal latency in hot-and cold-plate tests in the plantar incision rats. After 15 days of continuous treatment with E. cava extracts at 300 mg/kg, the treated group showed significantly alleviated SNI-induced hypersensitivity response by MWT compared with the control group. In conclusion, these results suggest that E. cava extracts have potential analgesic effects in the case of postoperative pain and neuropathic pain in rats.

  13. Comparative study on the peroxidase activity from the floats of Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds), roots of Tamarindus indica (tamarind), Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berosil, Maan Dyann N.; Magtibay, Cherrie Joy C.

    2005-02-01

    Peroxidase activities from four different varieties of plant roots were investigated through the use of UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Hydrogen peroxide was used as the substrate and phosphate buffer at a pH that have been determined to be the optimal pH for peroxidase activity for the specific sample type. The four plant root extracts showed an assay pH optimum of 7.5 for the Tamarindus indica (tamarind) and Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), pH 5.5 for Dracaena surculosa (spotted dracaena) and pH 7.0 for Caulerpa lentillifera (grapes seaweeds) using Maehly and Chance method. Determination of peroxidase at 510 nm of the four extracts indicated that, spotted dracaena gave the highest peroxidase activity with 361.07 U ml -1 , followed by tamarind with 57.11 U ml -1 , then water hyacinth with 29.39 U m -1 and lastly, grapes seaweeds with 7.55 U ml -1 . The specific peroxidase activities of the spotted dracaena, water hyacinth, tamarind and grapes seaweeds are 0.3224, 0.2048, 0.0721 and 0.0341 U mg -1 respectively. The peroxidase of the four plant tissues that were kept at ultra low personal freezer for almost a week was degraded. (Authors)

  14. Suppression of [sup 125]I-uptake in mouse thyroid by seaweed feeding; Possible preventative effect of dietary seaweed on internal radiation injury of the thyroid by radioactive iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Hiroko; Yamamoto, Ichiro (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Hygienic Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    We conducted an animal experiment to determine how dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and dietary fibers suppress radioactive iodine uptake by the thyroid, using mice and four kinds of experimental diets, three with 1% or 2% powdered fronds of the kelp Laminaria religiosa and 2% powdered laver Porphyra yezoensis, and one with cellulose. Iodine content of a hot-water extract of the kelp was 0.530[+-]0.001%, and its dietary fiber (DF) values were 52.8[+-]1.2%. Iodine in an extract of the laver was 0.008[+-]0.001%, and its DF values were 41.4%[+-]0.7%. A statistically significant reduction of [sup 125]I uptake by the thyroid, 3 hours after intragastric administration of the radionuclide at a dosage of 18.5 kBq or 185 kBq in 0.3 ml aqueous solution per mouse, was observed in mice previously fed the experimental diets containing 1% and 2% kelp during periods varying from 24 hours to 7 days. The degree of the suppression was observed to depend on the amount of iodine in the diet or in the injected sample, no matter whether organic or inorganic, judging from the results of an additional experiment. Thus, we conclude that previously fed iodine-rich material, especially dietary seaweeds rich in iodine and other minerals, vitamins, and [beta]-carotene, such as kelps or laver supplemented with inorganic iodine, may be effective in prevention of internal radiation injury of the thyroid. (author).

  15. Phytochemical characterization of brown seaweed Sargassum wightii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Marimuthu Antonisamy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the phytochemical properties of Sargassum wightii. Methods: Phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods. To identify the functional constituents present in the crude extracts, the spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis were performed. Results: The different extracts of S. wightii showed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, saponins and flavonoids with varied degree. TLC profile of S. wightii demonstrated three distinct phenolic spots in the methanolic extract of S. wightii with different Rf values 0.172, 0.534 and 0.810. Steroids profile displayed only one distinct spot with the Rf value 0.068. HPLC fingerprint profile of chloroform extracts of S. wightii displayed one prominent peak at a retention time of 3.060 min out of nine compounds separated. Benzene extract of S. wightii displayed one prominent peak at a retention time of 2.637 min. The crude powder of S. wigthii was passed into the FTIR and it confirmed the presence of functional groups such as amides, phosphorus compound, alcohols, phenols and halogen compounds. Conclusions: The results of the present study confirmed that Sargassum wightii may be rich sources of phytoconstituents which can be isolated and further screened for various biological activities.

  16. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Bioactive Fucoxanthin from Himanthalia elongata Brown Seaweed: A TLC-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Rajauria

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are important sources of carotenoids, and numerous studies have shown the beneficial effects of these pigments on human health. In the present study, Himanthalia elongata brown seaweed was extracted with a mixture of low polarity solvents, and the crude extract was separated using analytical thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The separated compounds were tested for their potential antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes bacteria using TLC bioautography approach. For bio-autography, the coloured band on TLC chromatogram was visualized after spraying with DPPH and triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride reagents which screen antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds, respectively, and only one active compound was screened on the TLC plate. Preliminary identification of this active compound was done by comparing its colour and Rf (retention factor value with the authentic fucoxanthin standard. Further, the active compound was purified using preparative TLC. This purified compound showed a strong antioxidant (EC50: 14.8±1.27 µg/mL and antimicrobial (inhibition zone: 10.27 mm, 25 µg compound/disc activities, which were examined by DPPH scavenging and agar disc-diffusion bioassay, respectively. The bioactivity shown by the purified compound was almost similar to the fucoxanthin standard. The characteristic UV-visible and FT-IR spectra of the purified active compound completely matched with the standard. Hence, the main active compound in H. elongata was identified as fucoxanthin.

  17. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kellogg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively. The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia.

  18. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuel Production from Macroalgae (Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Soleymani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD. By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production level of dry seaweed to meet 0.93 ($/L for ethanol fuel and 0.07 $/kW-h for electricity was found to be 0.68 and 3.7 million tonnes (dry basis, respectively. At the moment, biofuel production from seaweed has been determined not to be economically feasible, but achieving economic production may be possible by lowering production costs and increasing the area under cultivation.

  19. Bioprospecting for bioactives from seaweeds: potential, obstacles and alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential sources of high biotechnological interest due to production of a great diversity of compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activities. On the other hand, there is an urgent need for management options for a sustainable approach to the use of marine organisms as a source of bioactive compounds. This review discusses the bioprospection for bioactive seaweed compounds as pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents, encompassing their potential and possible obstacles and alternatives. In spite of their potential, research on pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents from seaweeds includes mainly the search for molecules that exhibit these biological activities, but lacks of consideration of fundamental and limiting aspects such as the development of alternatives to sustainable supply. However, for the complete development of pharmaceuticals and antifouling compounds in Brazil, marine bioprospection should be more comprehensive, associating the search for molecules with an analysis of their supply. In this way, it is possible to promote sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity, as well as to assert the economic development of Brazil.

  20. Bioprospecting for bioactives from seaweeds: potential, obstacles and alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato C. Pereira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are potential sources of high biotechnological interest due to production of a great diversity of compounds exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological activities. On the other hand, there is an urgent need for management options for a sustainable approach to the use of marine organisms as a source of bioactive compounds. This review discusses the bioprospection for bioactive seaweed compounds as pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents, encompassing their potential and possible obstacles and alternatives. In spite of their potential, research on pharmaceuticals and antifouling agents from seaweeds includes mainly the search for molecules that exhibit these biological activities, but lacks of consideration of fundamental and limiting aspects such as the development of alternatives to sustainable supply. However, for the complete development of pharmaceuticals and antifouling compounds in Brazil, marine bioprospection should be more comprehensive, associating the search for molecules with an analysis of their supply. In this way, it is possible to promote sustainable development and conservation of biodiversity, as well as to assert the economic development of Brazil.

  1. Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Netten, C.; Hoption Cann, S.A.; Van Netten, J.P.; Morley, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Edible seaweed products have been used in many countries, specifically Japan, as a food item. Recently these products have become popular in the food industry because of a number of interesting medicinal properties that have been associated with certain edible marine algae. Very little control exists over the composition of these products, which could be contaminated with a number of agents including heavy metals and certain radioactive isotopes. Fifteen seaweed samples (six local samples from the coast of British Columbia, seven from Japan, one from Norway and one undisclosed) were obtained. All samples were analyzed for multiple elements, using ICP mass spectrometry and for radioactive constituents. It was found that six of eight imported seaweed products had concentrations of mercury orders of magnitude higher than the local products. Lead was found at somewhat higher concentrations in only one local product. Laminaria japonica had the highest level of iodine content followed by Laminaria setchellii from local sources. Only traces of cesium-137 were found in a product from Norway and radium-226 was found in a product from Japan. Arsenic levels were found to be elevated. In order to estimate the effect of these levels on health, one needs to address the bioavailability and the speciation of arsenic in these samples

  2. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25341030

  3. Elemental and radioactive analysis of commercially available seaweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Netten, C. [Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, James Mather Building, University of British Columbia, 5804 Fairview Avenue, V6T 1Z3 Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hoption Cann, S.A.; Van Netten, J.P. [Special Development Laboratory, Royal Jubilee Hospital, V8X 1P2 Victoria, BC (Canada); Morley, D.R. [Radiation Protection Branch, Ministry of Health, 4940 Canada Way, V5G 4K6 Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2000-06-08

    Edible seaweed products have been used in many countries, specifically Japan, as a food item. Recently these products have become popular in the food industry because of a number of interesting medicinal properties that have been associated with certain edible marine algae. Very little control exists over the composition of these products, which could be contaminated with a number of agents including heavy metals and certain radioactive isotopes. Fifteen seaweed samples (six local samples from the coast of British Columbia, seven from Japan, one from Norway and one undisclosed) were obtained. All samples were analyzed for multiple elements, using ICP mass spectrometry and for radioactive constituents. It was found that six of eight imported seaweed products had concentrations of mercury orders of magnitude higher than the local products. Lead was found at somewhat higher concentrations in only one local product. Laminaria japonica had the highest level of iodine content followed by Laminaria setchellii from local sources. Only traces of cesium-137 were found in a product from Norway and radium-226 was found in a product from Japan. Arsenic levels were found to be elevated. In order to estimate the effect of these levels on health, one needs to address the bioavailability and the speciation of arsenic in these samples.

  4. Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuel Production from Macroalgae (Seaweed).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohsen; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2017-11-26

    A techno-economic evaluation of bioenergy production from macroalgae was carried out in this study. Six different scenarios were examined for the production of different energy products and by-products. Seaweed was produced either via the longline method or the grid method. Final products of these scenarios were either ethanol from fermentation, or electricity from anaerobic digestion (AD). By-products were digestate for AD, and animal feed, or electricity and digestate, for the fermentation pathway. Bioenergy breakeven selling prices were investigated according to the cost components and the feedstock supply chain, while suggestions for potential optimization of costs were provided. The lowest production level of dry seaweed to meet 0.93 ($/L) for ethanol fuel and 0.07 $/kW-h for electricity was found to be 0.68 and 3.7 million tonnes (dry basis), respectively. At the moment, biofuel production from seaweed has been determined not to be economically feasible, but achieving economic production may be possible by lowering production costs and increasing the area under cultivation.

  5. Texture and quality properties of Chinese fresh egg noodles formulated with green seaweed (Monostroma nitidum) powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, H C; Wu, L-C

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare fresh Chinese noodles made with different levels of green seaweed. Green seaweed powder was incorporated in proportions of 4%, 6%, and 8% in noodles, which were made with or without additional eggs. Proximate compositions, cooking properties, textural intensities, and sensory qualities of noodles were assessed. The addition of seaweed powder increased the crude fiber contents of raw fresh noodles; the fiber contents were 0.100%+/- 0.015 to 0.449%+/- 0.013 for noodles made with eggs from 0% to 8% additional seaweed and 0.247%+/- 0.018 to 0.344%+/- 0.021 for those without eggs. Higher cooking yields were found in the noodles, due to water absorption during cooking by the fibers and polysaccharides in the seaweed. Significantly higher cooking yields (P seaweed powder; water uptake readings measured 2.39 +/- 0.38 and 2.43 +/- 0.25 g H(2)O/g noodle for samples made without and with eggs, respectively. Higher water absorption by the seaweed led to softer and spongier textural intensities in the noodles. Breaking energy of cooked fresh egg noodles were 28.94 +/- 3.42 to 6.43 +/- 1.01 N x mm for 8% to 0% additional seaweed, and the intensities decreased as the amount of seaweed increased; the same pattern was observed in noodles without eggs, where readings were 8.66 +/- 1.02 to 3.49 +/- 0.25 N x mm. Capacities of extensibility measured 61.81 +/- 2.04 to 30.74 +/- 0.90 mm for fresh egg noodles with additional seaweed powder from 0% to 8%, and 47.46 +/- 2.41 to 28.36 +/- 2.25 mm for cooked fresh noodles without eggs. The results from Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that textural parameters were influenced not only by additional eggs and seaweed powder, but also by cooking properties.

  6. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Weidner

    Full Text Available Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita flowers extract (CFE for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  7. Characterization of alginates from Ghanaian brown seaweeds: Sargassum spp. and Padina spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhein-Knudsen, Nanna; Ale, Marcel Tutor; Ajalloueian, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Alginates of four locally harvested Ghanaian brown seaweeds from the Sargassum and Padina genus were assessed for their rheological and chemical characteristics. The seaweeds contained 16–30% by weight of alginate assessed as the sum of d-mannuronic acid (M) and l-guluronic acid (G). In compariso...

  8. Biorefinery of the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima for fuels and chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Blaauw, R.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Wal, van der H.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Hal, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Seaweeds (also called macroalgae) are considered a potential biomass feedstock for biorefineries for production of energy and chemicals. In this study, a biorefinery strategy for the brown seaweed Saccharina latissima is described. Fresh S. latissima harvested at the Irish coast contained glucose

  9. Enzymatic saccharification of seaweeds into fermentable sugars by xylanase from marine Bacillus sp. strain BT21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parab, Pankaj; Khandeparker, Rakhee; Amberkar, Ujwala; Khodse, Vishwas

    2017-10-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of seaweed biomass was studied using xylanase produced from marine bacteria Bacillus sp. strain BT21 through solid-state fermentation of wheat bran. Three types of seaweeds, Ahnfeltia plicata , Padina tetrastromatica and Ulva lactuca , were selected as representatives of red, brown, and green seaweeds, respectively. Seaweed biomass was pretreated with hot water. The efficiency of pretreated biomass to release reducing sugar by the action of xylanase as well as the type of monosaccharide released during enzyme saccharification of seaweed biomass was studied. It was seen that pretreated biomass of seaweed A. plicata, U. lactuca , and P. tetrastroma , at 121 °C for 45 min, followed by incubation with 50 IU xylanase released reducing sugars of 233 ± 5.3, 100 ± 6.1 and 73.3 ± 4.1 µg/mg of seaweed biomass, respectively. Gas chromatography analysis illustrated the release of xylose, glucose, and mannose during the treatment process. Hot water pre-treatment process enhanced enzymatic conversion of biomass into sugars. This study revealed the important role of xylanase in saccharification of seaweed, a promising feedstock for third-generation bioethanol production.

  10. Infection Vibrio sp. Bacteria on Kappaphycus Seaweed Varieties Brown and Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmawati, Yuni; Sudirjo, Fien

    2017-10-01

    Disease in seaweed or ice-ice, until today is still a major problem in the cultivation of seaweed. Changes in extreme environmental conditions is a trigger factor of ice-ice, which can result in seaweed susceptible to infection with pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria Vibrio sp. This research aims to determine the bacteria Vibrio sp. infection in seaweed Kappaphycus varieties of brown and green. Vibrio sp. bacteria isolated in the infected seaweed thallus ice-ice, grown on TCBS media, purification, gram staining and biochemical tests. Vibrio sp. infected to seaweed Kappaphycus brown and green varieties in containers controlled by different density, 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml. Observations were made to change clinical effect in thallus seaweed for 14 days of observation. The results obtained show that the levels of infection bacteria Vibrio sp. higher in seaweed Kappaphycus green varieties both in density 105 CFU/ml, 106 CFU/ml and 107CFU/ml, when compared with varieties brown.

  11. Development of seaweed soup as a space food using radition technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Cho, Won Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    This study was conducted to develop Korean seaweed soup as a space food and to evaluate the hygienic safety and storage stability of the irradiated dried seaweed soup. The values of pH and acidity of the gamma-irradiated seaweed soup less than 10 kGy were not changed. However, the redness (a value) and the yellowness (b value) of the freeze-dried seaweed soup increased as irradiation dose increased, while the Hunter's color of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The hardness of seaweed irradiated over 10 kGy decreased as irradiation dose increased. The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried seaweed soup without deterioration of sensory quality. Mutagenicity of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 30 kGy, which is triple times of the optimum sterilization dose, was not observed. And, quality characteristics of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 10 kGy were not significantly changed during the storage at various temperatures for 90 days (p>0.05)

  12. Development of seaweed soup as a space food using radition technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Beom Seok; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Yoon, Yo Han; Choi, Jong Il; Cho, Won Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop Korean seaweed soup as a space food and to evaluate the hygienic safety and storage stability of the irradiated dried seaweed soup. The values of pH and acidity of the gamma-irradiated seaweed soup less than 10 kGy were not changed. However, the redness (a value) and the yellowness (b value) of the freeze-dried seaweed soup increased as irradiation dose increased, while the Hunter's color of the samples irradiated less than 10 kGy was not significantly different (p>0.05). The hardness of seaweed irradiated over 10 kGy decreased as irradiation dose increased. The sensory evaluation result showed that the preference scores in all the sensory properties decreased when it was irradiated over 10 kGy, but sensory score of less than 10 kGy samples was similar in all terms. Therefore, it was considered that gamma irradiation at 10 kGy was enough to sterilize the freeze-dried seaweed soup without deterioration of sensory quality. Mutagenicity of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 30 kGy, which is triple times of the optimum sterilization dose, was not observed. And, quality characteristics of the freeze-dried seaweed soup irradiated at 10 kGy were not significantly changed during the storage at various temperatures for 90 days (p>0.05)

  13. Observation of Wild Seaweed Species in Labuhanbua Waters, Indonesia: a preliminary assessment for aquaculture development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania .

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed industry has been growing up and is supplied by either wild or cultivated seaweed crops. This study was aimed to present relevant information regarding ecological availability of wild seaweed in Labuhanbua coastal waters, Sumbawa Regency, West Nusa Tenggara and potential use of important species as candidate species for aquaculture. 46 sampling stations were determined along line transects perpendicular to coastal line; and seaweeds sampling were conducted during low tide by using 1 x 1 m2 quadrat transect. Field data consist of in-situ parameter including number of seaweed species and coverage area of each species; and ex-situ parameters consist of carbohydrate, protein, total C, total N, and total P content of seaweeds. The results showed that 33 species were found and three species has the most widely distribu tion, i.e. Padina sp., Dictyota dichotoma, and Gracilaria salicornia. Turbinaria, Dictyota, Padina, Stoechospermum, Hydroclathrus, Halimeda, and Chaetomorpha might be some important species that could be develop as aquaculture species candidates among other uncultivated species that were found along this study location. They have potencies as human food, livestock feed, neutraceuicals, cosmetics, pulp, textile, biofuel and any other industries; but conversely, they were found in lower density at Labuhanbua coastal waters. These species should be develop through aquaculture technology, involve genetic improvement and possibly genetic engineering. Commercial scale cultivation of those important seaweed species will contribute to industrial needs and prevent decreasing of wild seaweed availability in natural ecosystem.

  14. Differential response of fish assemblages to coral reef-based seaweed farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E James Hehre

    Full Text Available As the global demand for seaweed-derived products drives the expansion of seaweed farming onto shallow coral ecosystems, the effects of farms on fish assemblages remain largely unexplored. Shallow coral reefs provide food and shelter for highly diverse fish assemblages but are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities. We hypothesized that the introduction of seaweed farms into degraded shallow coral reefs had potential to generate ecological benefits for fish by adding structural complexity and a possible food source. We conducted 210 transects at 14 locations, with sampling stratified across seaweed farms and sites adjacent to and distant from farms. At a seascape scale, locations were classified by their level of exposure to human disturbance. We compared sites where (1 marine protected areas (MPAs were established, (2 neither MPAs nor blast fishing was present (hence "unprotected", and (3 blast fishing occurred. We observed 80,186 fish representing 148 species from 38 families. The negative effects of seaweed farms on fish assemblages appeared stronger in the absence of blast fishing and were strongest when MPAs were present, likely reflecting the positive influence of the MPAs on fish within them. Species differentiating fish assemblages with respect to seaweed farming and disturbance were typically small but also included two key target species. The propensity for seaweed farms to increase fish diversity, abundance, and biomass is limited and may reduce MPA benefits. We suggest that careful consideration be given to the placement of seaweed farms relative to MPAs.

  15. Differential response of fish assemblages to coral reef-based seaweed farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehre, E James; Meeuwig, J J

    2015-01-01

    As the global demand for seaweed-derived products drives the expansion of seaweed farming onto shallow coral ecosystems, the effects of farms on fish assemblages remain largely unexplored. Shallow coral reefs provide food and shelter for highly diverse fish assemblages but are increasingly modified by anthropogenic activities. We hypothesized that the introduction of seaweed farms into degraded shallow coral reefs had potential to generate ecological benefits for fish by adding structural complexity and a possible food source. We conducted 210 transects at 14 locations, with sampling stratified across seaweed farms and sites adjacent to and distant from farms. At a seascape scale, locations were classified by their level of exposure to human disturbance. We compared sites where (1) marine protected areas (MPAs) were established, (2) neither MPAs nor blast fishing was present (hence "unprotected"), and (3) blast fishing occurred. We observed 80,186 fish representing 148 species from 38 families. The negative effects of seaweed farms on fish assemblages appeared stronger in the absence of blast fishing and were strongest when MPAs were present, likely reflecting the positive influence of the MPAs on fish within them. Species differentiating fish assemblages with respect to seaweed farming and disturbance were typically small but also included two key target species. The propensity for seaweed farms to increase fish diversity, abundance, and biomass is limited and may reduce MPA benefits. We suggest that careful consideration be given to the placement of seaweed farms relative to MPAs.

  16. A Triple P review of the feasibility of sustainable offshore seaweed production in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burg, van den S.W.K.; Stuiver, M.; Veenstra, F.A.; Bikker, P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Palstra, A.P.; Broeze, J.; Jansen, H.M.; Jak, R.G.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Harmsen, P.F.H.; Kals, J.; Blanco Garcia, A.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Duijn, van A.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the potential of seaweed, cultivated in the North Sea, as a sustainable and profitable resource for feed and non-food applications. Seawood production can take place as part of multi-use platforms at sea (MUPS). A review of the state-of-the-art in seaweed production and its

  17. Biorefinery of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca to produce animal feed, chemicals and biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, Paul; Krimpen, van Marinus M.; Wikselaar, van Piet; Houweling-Tan, Bwee; Scaccia, Nazareno; Hal, van Jaap W.; Huijgen, Wouter J.J.; Cone, John W.; López-Contreras, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically

  18. Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-04-12

    Seaweed aquaculture, the fastest-growing component of global food production, offers a slate of opportunities to mitigate, and adapt to climate change. Seaweed farms release carbon that maybe buried in sediments or exported to the deep sea, therefore acting as a CO2 sink. The crop can also be used, in total or in part, for biofuel production, with a potential CO2 mitigation capacity, in terms of avoided emissions from fossil fuels, of about 1,500 tons CO2 km−2 year−1. Seaweed aquaculture can also help reduce the emissions from agriculture, by improving soil quality substituting synthetic fertilizer and when included in cattle fed, lowering methane emissions from cattle. Seaweed aquaculture contributes to climate change adaptation by damping wave energy and protecting shorelines, and by elevating pH and supplying oxygen to the waters, thereby locally reducing the effects of ocean acidification and de-oxygenation. The scope to expand seaweed aquaculture is, however, limited by the availability of suitable areas and competition for suitable areas with other uses, engineering systems capable of coping with rough conditions offshore, and increasing market demand for seaweed products, among other factors. Despite these limitations, seaweed farming practices can be optimized to maximize climate benefits, which may, if economically compensated, improve the income of seaweed farmers.

  19. Copper Contamination Impairs Herbivore Initiation of Seaweed Inducible Defenses and Decreases Their Effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria M Warneke

    Full Text Available Seaweed-herbivore interactions are often mediated by environmental conditions, yet the roles of emerging anthropogenic stressors on these interactions are poorly understood. For example, chemical contaminants have unknown consequences on seaweed inducible resistance and herbivore response to these defenses despite known deleterious effects of contaminants on animal inducible defenses. Here, we investigated the effect of copper contamination on the interactions between a snail herbivore and a brown seaweed that displays inducible resistance to grazing. We examined seaweed inducible resistance and its effectiveness for organisms exposed to copper at two time points, either during induction or after herbivores had already induced seaweed defenses. Under ambient conditions, non-grazed tissues were more palatable than grazed tissues. However, copper additions negated the preference for non-grazed tissues regardless of the timing of copper exposure, suggesting that copper decreased both how herbivores initiated these inducible defenses and their subsequent effectiveness. Copper decreased stimulation of defenses, at least in part, by suppressing snail grazing pressure-the cue that turns inducible defenses on. Copper decreased effectiveness of defenses by preventing snails from preferentially consuming non-grazed seaweed. Thus, contaminants can potentially stress communities by changing seaweed-herbivore interactions mediated via inducible defenses. Given the ubiquity of seaweed inducible resistance and their potential influence on herbivores, we hypothesize that copper contamination may change the impact of these resistant traits on herbivores.

  20. Seaweed-coral interactions: variance in seaweed allelopathy, coral susceptibility, and potential effects on coral resilience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta M Bonaldo

    Full Text Available Tropical reefs are in global decline with seaweeds commonly replacing corals. Negative associations between macroalgae and corals are well documented, but the mechanisms involved, the dynamics of the interactions, and variance in effects of different macroalgal-coral pairings are poorly investigated. We assessed the frequency, magnitude, and dynamics of macroalgal-coral competition involving allelopathic and non-allelopathic macroalgae on three, spatially grouped pairs of no-take Marine Protected Areas (MPAs and non-MPAs in Fiji. In non-MPAs, biomass of herbivorous fishes was 70-80% lower, macroalgal cover 4-9 fold higher, macroalgal-coral contacts 5-15 fold more frequent and 23-67 fold more extensive (measured as % of colony margin contacted by macroalgae, and coral cover 51-68% lower than in MPAs. Coral contacts with allelopathic macroalgae occurred less frequently than expected by chance across all sites, while contact with non-allelopathic macroalgae tended to occur more frequently than expected. Transplants of allelopathic macroalgae (Chlorodesmis fastigiata and Galaxaura filamentosa against coral edges inflicted damage to Acropora aspera and Pocillopora damicornis more rapidly and extensively than to Porites cylindrica and Porites lobata, which appeared more resistant to these macroalgae. Montipora digitata experienced intermediate damage. Extent of damage from macroalgal contact was independent of coral colony size for each of the 10 macroalgal-coral pairings we established. When natural contacts with Galaxaura filamentosa were removed in the field, recovery was rapid for Porites lobata, but Pocillopora damicornis did not recover and damage continued to expand. As macroalgae increase on overfished tropical reefs, allelopathy could produce feedbacks that suppress coral resilience, prevent coral recovery, and promote the stability of algal beds in habitats previously available to corals.

  1. The Application of Homogenate and Filtrate from Baltic Seaweeds in Seedling Growth Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Michalak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Algal filtrate and homogenate, obtained from Baltic seaweeds, were applied in seedling growth tests. Radish seeds were used in order to assess algal products phytotoxicity and their biostimulant effect on growth and nutrient uptake. Algal filtrate, at concentrations ranging from 5.0% to 100% was used for seed soaking and as a liquid biostimulant (soil and foliar application. Algal homogenate was developed for seed coating. Algal filtrate and homogenate were also enriched with Zn(II ions in order to examine the influence on metal ion complexation. The optimal doses of algal filtrate and homogenate, as well as soaking time were established. Multi-elemental analyses of the raw biomass, filtrate, homogenate, and radish were also performed using ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma—Optical Emission Spectrometry. The best results in terms of seedlings’ length and weight were obtained using clear filtrate at a concentration of 50% applied to the soil and for homogenate applied at a dose of 50 mg/g of seeds. Clear filtrate at a concentration of 50% used for seed soaking for one hour showed the best results. The applied algal products increased the content of elements in seedlings. Among the tested products, a concentration of 50% algal filtrate is recommended for future pot and field experiments.

  2. Addition of seaweed and bentonite accelerates the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2017-11-01

    Green waste (GW) is an important recyclable resource, and composting is an effective technology for the recycling of organic solid waste, including GW. This study investigated the changes in physical and chemical characteristics during the two-stage composting of GW with or without addition of seaweed (SW, Ulva ohnoi) (at 0, 35, and 55%) and bentonite (BT) (at 0.0, 2.5%, and 4.5%). During the bio-oxidative phase, the combined addition of SW and BT improved the physicochemical conditions, increased the respiration rate and enzyme activities, and decreased ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions. The combination of SW and BT also enhanced the quality of the final compost in terms of water-holding capacity, porosity, particle-size distribution, water soluble organic carbon/organic nitrogen ratio, humification, nutrient content, and phytotoxicity. The best quality compost, which matured in only 21days, was obtained with 35% SW and 4.5% BT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogas production from wheat straw in batch and UASB reactors: the roles of pretreatment and seaweed hydrolysate as a co-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemka, Valentine Nkongndem; Murto, Marika

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated biogas production in batch and UASB reactors from pilot-scale acid catalysed steam pretreated and enzymatic hydrolysed wheat straw. The results showed that the pretreatment was efficient and, a sugar yield of 95% was obtained. The pretreatment improved the methane yield (0.28 m(3)/kg VS(added)) by 57% compared to untreated straw. Treatment of the straw hydrolysate with nutrient supplementation in a UASB reactor resulted in a high methane production rate, 2.70 m(3)/m(3).d at a sustainable OLR of 10.4 kg COD/m(3).d and with a COD reduction of 94%. Alternatively, co-digestion of the straw and seaweed hydrolysates in a UASB reactor also maintained a stable anaerobic process and can thus reduce the cost of nutrients addition. We have shown that biogas production from wheat straw can be competitive by pretreatment, high methane production rate in UASB reactors and also by co-digestion with seaweed hydrolysate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coastal urbanization leads to remarkable seaweed species loss and community shifts along the SW Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, Fernando; Horta, Paulo Antunes; de Oliveira, Eurico Cabral; Simonassi, José Carlos; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Chow, Fungyi; Nunes, José Marcos C; Pereira, Sonia Maria Barreto

    2013-11-15

    Coastal urbanization is rapidly expanding worldwide while its impacts on seaweed communities remain poorly understood. We assessed the impact of urbanization along an extensive latitudinal gradient encompassing three phycogeographical regions in the SW Atlantic. Human population density, number of dwellings, and terrestrial vegetation cover were determined for each survey area and correlated with diversity indices calculated from seaweed percent cover data. Urban areas had significantly lower calcareous algal cover (-38%), and there was significantly less carbonate in the sediment off urban areas than off reference areas. Seaweed richness averaged 26% less in urban areas than in areas with higher vegetation cover. We observed a remarkable decline in Phaeophyceae and a substantial increase of Chlorophyta in urban areas across a wide latitudinal gradient. Our data show that coastal urbanization is causing substantial loss of seaweed biodiversity in the SW Atlantic, and is considerably changing seaweed assemblages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential of Homestay Tourism Based on Seaweed Cultivation from the Views of Seaweed Cultivators in District of Semporna Sabah, East Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin Rosazman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community participation in tourism development especially among fisherman and farmers has begun to given serious attention by the government whereby the communities are given opportunities to engage in tourism development programmes in order to enhance their quality of life. In order to encourage local community participation in tourism development in rural areas, participants’ perceptions regarding tourism activities are important aspect to be sought. Good or bad perceptions from the community towards tourism development are important because it can determine the success of the programme. Firstly, this paper aims to explore the views or perceptions of seaweed cultivators towards homestay tourism which is based on seaweed cultivation in the District of Semporna, Sabah. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches have been applied in this study, such as the usage of the face to face interviews survey using survey questionnaires and field observation as primary methods. The findings show that the majority of the respondents have a positive perception of homestay tourism based on seaweed cultivation, such as the acceptance of visits by the tourists to their working place. Seaweed cultivators agreed that this tourism activity bring additional income to them. Activities that can become tourist attractions include tying seaweed seeds on a casino table. Moreover, the tourists have an opportunity to take a boat to see the seaweed farm, and take pictures of seaweed activities and so on. These findings also revealed that the majority of the respondents assumed that the visits of the tourists would motivate them to carry out the activity with more enthusiasm. This shows that seaweed cultivation could become a new tourism product which has great potential to develop in the district of Semporna, Sabah.

  6. Estado nutricional de diferentes cultivares de pereira nas condições edafoclimáticas de Guarapuava-PR Leaf content and nutrient extraction by fruit harvest of pear trees cultivars grafted on quince 'CP'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Vasconcelos Botelho

    2010-09-01

    of 2.500 plants ha-1. Samples of leaves and fruits were collected in 2006 and 2007 for chemical analysis of nutrient contents. Complete and normal leaves were sampled in the end of January, token from the middle part of one-year shoots. The fruits were collected when the total soluble solids content reached 10º Brix. The pear cultivars showed differences in relation to nutrient content in leaves and fruits, indicating distinct nutritional requirements. The cv. Cascatense presented the highest N and P contents in fruits at least in one of the years, and the cv Hosui the highest K content. The nutrient extraction by fruits ranged from 0.366 to 0.825 kg N; 0.097 to 0.205 kg P, 0.996 to 1.302 kg K, 0.049 to 0.085 kg Ca and 0.041 to 0.095 kg Mg per fruit ton.

  7. Seafood-like flavour obtained from the enzymatic hydrolysis of the protein by-products of seaweed (Gracilaria sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohakunjit, Natta; Selamassakul, Orrapun; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin

    2014-09-01

    An enzymatic bromelain seaweed protein hydrolysate (eb-SWPH) was characterised as the precursor for thermally processed seafood flavour. Seaweed (Gracilaria fisheri) protein after agar extraction was hydrolysed using bromelain (enzyme activity=119,325 U/g) at 0-20% (w/w) for 0.5-24 h. Optimal hydrolysis conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The proposed model took into account the interaction effect of the enzyme concentration and hydrolysis time on the physicochemical properties and volatile components of eb-SWPH. The optimal hydrolysis conditions for the production of eb-SWPH were 10% bromelain for 3h, which resulted in a 38.15% yield and a 62.91% degree of hydrolysis value. Three free amino acids, arginine, lysine, and leucine, were abundant in the best hydrolysate. Ten volatile flavours of the best eb-SWPH were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The predominant odourants were hexanal, hexanoic acid, nonanoic acid, and dihydroactinidiolide. The thermally processed seafood flavour produced from eb-SWPH exhibited a roasted seafood-like flavouring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antioxidant activity and possible bioactive components in hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions from the seaweed Halimeda incrassata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Vidal Novoa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, obtained from the marine algae Halimeda incrassata (J.Ellis J.V.Lamouroux, Halimedaceae, were studied by using the ²-carotene-linoleate assay system. In case of hydrophilic fractions, the total phenolic compounds were quantified and two of their components were identified as salicylic and ferulic acids. From the lipophilic fraction, fatty acid composition was studied. The highest antioxidant activities values were found on the polar fractions containing phenolic acids. The total phenolics content on the hydrophilic fractions was 255 μg of gallic acid equivalents/g of fresh seaweed. To further characterize H. incrassata chemical composition, the total lipid content was quantified (7.4 mg per gram of dried algae as well as the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio (1:1.46. In summary, this paper adds more convincing evidences in support of the antioxidant abilities of the lyophilized aqueous extract of Halimeda incrassata and it also relates this bioactivity, for the first time, with particular phenolic components of the extract. Altogether, these results represent another step towards the use of this natural product as drug candidates.

  9. Studies of seaweeds as an indicators of toxic element pollution in Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ- ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, (PAN/TAN) of 1 x l0 -4 M. (PONPE-20) of 0.1 % (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN0 3 , and a temperature of 41°C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(lIl) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(lII) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results

  10. Arsenic metabolites in humans after ingestion of wakame seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hata A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed contains large amounts of various arsenic compounds such as arsenosugars (AsSugs, but their relative toxicities have not yet been fully evaluated. A risk evaluation of dietary arsenic would be necessary. After developing an arsenic speciation analysis of wakame seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida, we conducted a wakame ingestion experiment using volunteers. Five volunteers ingested 300 g of commercial wakame after refraining from seafood for 5 days. Arsenic metabolites in the urine were monitored over a 5-day period after ingestion. Total arsenic concentration of the wakame seaweed was 34.3 ± 2.1 mg arsenic/kg (dry weight, n = 3. Two AsSugs, 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β-ribofuranosyloxy]-propylene glycol (AsSug328 and 3-[5′-deoxy-5′-(dimethyl-arsinoyl-β- ribofuranosyl-oxy]-2-hydroxypropyl-2,3-dihydroxy-propyl phosphate (AsSug482 were detected, but arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA, monomethylarsonic acid, and inorganic arsenics (iAs were not detected. The major peak was AsSug328, which comprised 89% of the total arsenic. Approximately 30% of the total arsenic ingested was excreted in the urine during the 5-day observation. Five arsenic compounds were detected in the urine after ingestion, the major one being DMA, which comprised 58.1 ± 5.0% of the total urinary arsenic excreted over the 5 days. DMA was believed to be metabolized not from iAs but from AsSugs, and its biological half-time was approximately 13 h.

  11. Effects of dietary onion ( extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Aditya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa extract (OE supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR, blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively. On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04 than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01 and ether extract (p = 0.04 linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p = 0.03 with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p<0.01 with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01 redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality.

  12. Family vs Village-Based: Intangible View on the Sustainable of Seaweed Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniwut, Wellem A.; Teniwut, Yuliana K.; Teniwut, Roberto M. K.; Hasyim, Cawalinya L.

    2017-10-01

    Compare to other fishery activities for instance fish mariculture and catching fisheries, seaweed farming is considered easier. Also, the market for seaweed is wider and will keep growing. Thus, makes seaweed farming as one of the fastest commodity to improve the welfare of a coastal community. There are technical and non-technical factors in seaweed farming management, for non-technical on this intangible factors vary between family-based and village-based management, therefore aimed of this study was to simulate farmers decision to choose between family-based and village-based on seaweed managing system trigger by intangible factors. We conducted our study in Southeast Maluku, data collecting conducted from October to December 2016 by depth interview and questionnaires on seaweed farmers. We used logistic regression to compare each intangible factors on family and village-based seaweed farming management. The result showed that for family-based management farmers were willing to transfer their knowledge among each member in the household. For village-based revealed that farmers with higher education background tend to work on village-based, also, the result also stated that in village-based management member were those who have better capability and skill, at the same time village-based management had a small probability for conflict to occur compared to family-based.

  13. Porosity structure of green polybag of medium density fiberboard from seaweed waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, M. A.; Subekti, S.; Lamid, M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.; Kurnia, H.; Rifadi, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    The last decade shown that the needs Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) rapidly growing in Asia Pacific and Europe up to more 15 % per year. MDF made up of fibers lignoselulosa which combined with synthetic resin or tied other suitable but high temperatures and pressure. Technology engineering for green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste of Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria verrucosa is an alternative effort for ecosystem stability and technological innovations that is environmentally friendly. Structure porosity from the shape of green polybag shows that performance seaweed waste of K. alvarezii is better than seaweed waste of G. verrucosa. The circulation of water happened more optimal in green polybag formed from MDF of seaweed waste of K. alvarezii with size porosity 3.976 µm, while size porosity of seaweed waste of G. verrucosa measurable 4.794 µm. Structure of green polybag of MDF from seaweed waste showed that C components greater 50 % to K. alvarezii while C components less than 50 % to G. verrucosa. This resulted in the ties to structure of MDF stronger found in green polybag derived from seaweed waste of K. alvarezii than G. verrucosa.

  14. Effect of post-ethanol extraction sorghum silage as a forage source in growing and finishing diets on steer performance, carcass characteristics, and nutrient digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C P; Loy, D D; Hansen, S L

    2017-07-01

    Two experiments evaluated the use of post-ethanol extraction sorghum silage as an alternative forage source in feedlot diets. Seventy-two crossbred steers (397 kg [SD 23]) were used to evaluate growth and carcass characteristics. Steers were blocked by BW into pens of 6 steers and randomly assigned to growing diets containing 40% (DM basis) sorghum silage (SS; 57.6% NDF) or grass hay (CON; 63.3% NDF) for 56 d ( = 6 pens per treatment). Within each treatment, steers transitioned to dry-rolled corn-based finishing diets (fed for 56 d) containing 6% effective NDF contributed by the forage source, resulting in forage inclusions of 16% for SS and 13.1% for CON, where forage replaced corn. A subsample of steers ( = 12 per treatment) housed in pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks were used for determination of growing phase diet total tract digestibility. From d 28 to 42, steers received titanium dioxide at approximately 10 g∙steer∙d, and fecal samples were collected on d 41 and 42. Fecal and total mixed ration samples were dried and ground for analysis of DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, ether extract (EE), and starch. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS, with fixed effects of treatment and block for performance and carcass data or treatment for digestibility data; significance was determined at ≤ 0.05 and tendencies at ≤ 0.10. Growing phase DMI and ADG did not differ due to treatment ( ≥ 0.19); however, SS-fed steers had improved G:F compared with CON-fed steers ( = 0.04). Finishing period ADG and G:F did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between treatments, despite SS-fed steers having lesser ( = 0.008) DMI than CON-fed steers. No differences in DMI, ADG, or G:F over the whole trial were noted between treatments ( ≥ 0.12) nor were any carcass traits affected ( ≥ 0.23). During the digestibility assessment period, DMI was less ( = 0.003) in SS-fed steers. Growing phase total tract apparent digestibility of DM and starch did not differ ( ≥ 0.19) due to treatment

  15. Seaweeds: an opportunity for wealth and sustainable livelihood for coastal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebours, Céline; Marinho-Soriano, Eliane; Zertuche-González, José A; Hayashi, Leila; Vásquez, Julio A; Kradolfer, Paul; Soriano, Gonzalo; Ugarte, Raul; Abreu, Maria Helena; Bay-Larsen, Ingrid; Hovelsrud, Grete; Rødven, Rolf; Robledo, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The European, Canadian, and Latin American seaweed industries rely on the sustainable harvesting of natural resources. As several countries wish to increase their activity, the harvest should be managed according to integrated and participatory governance regimes to ensure production within a long-term perspective. Development of regulations and directives enabling the sustainable exploitation of natural resources must therefore be brought to the national and international political agenda in order to ensure environmental, social, and economic values in the coastal areas around the world. In Europe, Portugal requires an appraisal of seaweed management plans while Norway and Canada have developed and implemented coastal management plans including well-established and sustainable exploitation of their natural seaweed resources. Whereas, in Latin America, different scenarios of seaweed exploitation can be observed; each country is however in need of long-term and ecosystem-based management plans to ensure that exploitation is sustainable. These plans are required particularly in Peru and Brazil, while Chile has succeeded in establishing a sustainable seaweed-harvesting plan for most of the economically important seaweeds. Furthermore, in both Europe and Latin America, seaweed aquaculture is at its infancy and development will have to overcome numerous challenges at different levels (i.e., technology, biology, policy). Thus, there is a need for regulations and establishment of "best practices" for seaweed harvesting, management, and cultivation. Trained human resources will also be required to provide information and education to the communities involved, to enable seaweed utilization to become a profitable business and provide better income opportunities to coastal communities.

  16. Extraction of alginate from Sargassum muticum: process optimization and study of its functional activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazumder, Anupriya; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, alginate extraction from the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum was studied using single factor analysis. Response Surface Methodology-Central Composite Rotatary design (RSM-CCRD) was performed to reduce and optimize extraction temperature, alkali concentration, and consumption...

  17. Influence of Codium tomentosum Extract in the Properties of Alginate and Chitosan Edible Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing search for natural alternatives to synthetic food packaging materials and additives has increased, and seaweed extracts’ bioactivity has made them suitable candidates for incorporation in novel edible films. This study aims to investigate the effect of Codium tomentosum seaweed extract (SE incorporation in alginate and chitosan edible films. Alginate- and chitosan-based films with and without the incorporation of 0.5% SE were characterized according to their physical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Seaweed extract incorporation in chitosan films resulted in an increase of film solubility (50%, elasticity (18%, and decrease of puncture strength (27% and energy at break (39%. In alginate films, the extract incorporation significantly decreased film solubility (6%, water vapour permeability (46%, and elasticity (24%, and had no effect on thermal properties. Depending on the type of application, the addition of SE in edible films can bring advantages for food conservation.

  18. Seaweed as bio indicators for monitoring toxic element pollutants in the marine ecosystem. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Osae, E.K.; Carboo, D.; Seku, F.

    1997-01-01

    Twelve seaweed species were sampled from June 1996 to August 1997 along the coast of Southern Ghana which is being washed by the Gulf of Guinea (part of Atlantic ocean). Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to measure the concentration of twenty six chemical elements, with the aim of selecting suitable seaweeds for bio-monitoring. Al, As, Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V were found in most of the seaweed species. The high values of the metal concentrations in the macro algae suggest that these marine organisms can be used as biological indicators for studying coastal pollution. (author)

  19. Ethnobotany Study of Seaweed Diversity and Its Utilization in Warambadi, Panguhalodo Areas of East Sumba District

    OpenAIRE

    Anggadiredja, Jana Tjahjana

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the ethnobotany study of seaweed diversity in Warambadi –Panguhalodo areas of East Sumba District, the island of Sumba. The study recorded19 genera of 54 species of seaweed, which were utilized as food or edible seaweed.The group consisted of 17 species of green algae, 17 species of red algae, and 20species of brown algae. The study also reported that 18 genera of 38 species weretraditionally utilized for medicinal purposes as herbal medicine. The herbal speciesconsisted of...

  20. Seaweed as source of energy. 1: effect of a specific bacterial strain on biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasa R.P.; Tarwade, S.J.; Sarma, K.S.R.

    1980-09-01

    Only certain marine bacteria capable of digesting the special type of polysaccharide - agar and alginic acid can bring about the biodegradation of these substances and utilise them as carbon source to produce the organics which will be utilised by the methane bacteria to produce methane. When bacterial strain was used in conjunction with cowdung as a source of methane bacteria in seaweed digester, production of biogas from seaweed was accelerated. Adding of small amount of Ulva to seaweed digester increased the output of gas. (Refs. 4).

  1. Conceptual design of pilot scale solar dryer for seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" >Roche-Delgado, Liset; Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" >Hernández-Touset, Juan Pedro; Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" data-affiliation=" (Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Facultad de Química y Farmacia, Universidad Central Marta Abreu de Las Villas (Cuba))" >García-Rodríguez, Agustín

    2017-01-01

    Drying algal biomass with the use of solar radiation is an economical and environmentally compatible option. The aim of this work was to design an indirect solar dryer with natural air circulation for seaweeds drying. The equipment supports discrete quantities of wet biomass and is protected from environmental situations that may damage the product; it does not need electricity to operate and the construction and operating costs are low. This comprises a collector made of copper plates for air circulation, heated by solar radiation, a glass cover and drying trays with a wooden structure. The dryer was designed to obtain 0, 3 kg / day of dry biomass. The methodology allows construction and operation of a flexible solar dryer in different operating conditions for research on seaweeds. Correspondingly with environmental and operating conditions the design included estimation of drying time, the determination of drying area, number of trays, air flow from the collector to the trays, collector sizing; heat transfer area, temperature reached by air and collector efficiency. (author)

  2. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  3. Determination of the functional properties of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjamsiah; Nazaruddin Ramli; Rusli Daik; Mohd Ambar Yarmo

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii powder prepared by spray drying (SD), freeze drying (FD) and sun drying(SND) were determined their functional properties such as swelling capacity (SWC), water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), viscosity and gel strength. The study showed that the Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder obtained by FD and SND have the ability to swell to 25 mL/ g and 50 mL/ g respectively, while the SD powder formed a homogeneous solution and it exhibited highly viscous solution (SWC 100 mL/ g). The WHC of SND powder (30.67 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (21.33 g/ g) and SD (4.67 g/ g) powders. The OHC of FD powder (19.81 g/ g) was higher (p<0.05) than the SD (5.11 g/ g) and SND (4.67 g/ g) powders. While the viscosity of the FD, SND and SD powders were 0.22, 0.17 and 0.06 Pa.s respectively. Meanwhile, the gel strength of the SD powder (82.77 gf) was higher (p<0.05) than the FD (57.1 gf) and SND (35.01 gf) powders. These results on determination of functional properties shows that the SD powder had the most potential to be applied as a viscosity modifier in the manufacturing of beverages.(author)

  4. Fucose-Containing Sulfated Polysaccharides from Brown Seaweeds Inhibit Proliferation of Melanoma Cells and Induce Apoptosis by Activation of Caspase-3 in Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tamauchi, Hidekazu

    2011-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) extracted from seaweeds, especially brown macro-algae, are known to possess essential bioactive properties, notably growth inhibitory effects on tumor cells. In this work, we conducted a series of in vitro studies to examine the influence of FCSPs...... of the FCSPs, particularly the presence of sulfated galactofucans (notably in S. henslowianum) and sulfated fucans (notably in F. vesiculosus). This study thus indicates that unfractionated FCSPs may exert bioactive effects on skin cancer cells via induction of apoptosis through cascades of reactions...

  5. Red Seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down Regulate Virulence Factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and Induce Immune Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Borza, Tudor; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn S; Thomas, Nikhil A; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars toward multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis and two, Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG) and Chondrus crispus (CC), were found to exhibit such properties. Spread plate assay revealed that SG and CC (1%, w/v) significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE) of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively). However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG) significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG) suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1) associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high

  6. Red seaweeds Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii and Chondrus crispus down regulate virulence factors of Salmonella Enteritidis and induce immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima eKulshreshtha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Red seaweeds are a rich source of unique bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites that are known to improve human and animal health. S. Enteritidis is a broad range host pathogen, which contaminates chicken and poultry products that end into the human food chain. Worldwide, Salmonella outbreaks have become an important economic and public health concern. Moreover, the development of resistance in Salmonella serovars towards multiple drugs highlights the need for alternative control strategies. This study evaluated the antimicrobial property of red seaweeds extracts against Salmonella Enteritidis using the Caenorhabditis elegans infection model. Six red seaweed species were tested for their antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis. Spread plate assay revealed that Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG and Chondrus crispus (CC (1%, w/v significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis. Seaweed water extracts (SWE of SG and CC, at concentrations from 0.4 mg/ml to 2 mg/ml, significantly reduced the growth of S. Enteritidis (log CFU 4.5-5.3 and log 5.7-6.0, respectively. However, methanolic extracts of CC and SG did not affect the growth of S. Enteritidis. Addition of SWE (0.2 mg/ml, CC and SG significantly decreased biofilm formation and reduced the motility of S. Enteritidis. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses showed that SWE (CC and SG suppressed the expression of quorum sensing gene sdiA and of Salmonella Pathogenesis Island-1 (SPI-1 associated genes sipA and invF, indicating that SWE might reduce the invasion of S. Enteritidis in the host by attenuating virulence factors. Furthermore, CC and SG water extracts significantly improved the survival of infected C. elegans by impairing the ability of S. Enteritidis to colonize the digestive tract of the nematode and by enhancing the expression of C. elegans immune responsive genes. As the innate immune response pathways of C. elegans and mammals show a high degree of conservation, these results

  7. Designed optimization of a single-step extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from Sargassum sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ale, Marcel Tutor; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides can be extracted from the brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. It has been reported that fucose-rich sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweeds exert different beneficial biological activities including anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and anti-viral effects....... Classical extraction of fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides from brown seaweed species typically involves extended, multiple-step, hot acid, or CaCl2 treatments, each step lasting several hours. In this work, we systematically examined the influence of acid concentration (HCl), time, and temperature...... on the yield of fucosecontaining sulfated polysaccharides (FCSPs) in statistically designed two-step and single-step multifactorial extraction experiments. All extraction factors had significant effects on the fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides yield, with the temperature and time exerting positive...

  8. Seaweed Polysaccharides (Laminarin and Fucoidan as Functional Ingredients in Pork Meat: An Evaluation of Anti-Oxidative Potential, Thermal Stability and Bioaccessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha C. Moroney

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L, fucoidan (F and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL homogenates (TBARS (3 and 6 mg/mL and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb (0.1 and 1 mg/mL. The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100, F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300, was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork.

  9. Seaweed Polysaccharides (Laminarin and Fucoidan) as Functional Ingredients in Pork Meat: An Evaluation of Anti-Oxidative Potential, Thermal Stability and Bioaccessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroney, Natasha C.; O’Grady, Michael N.; Lordan, Sinéad; Stanton, Catherine; Kerry, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    The anti-oxidative potential of laminarin (L), fucoidan (F) and an L/F seaweed extract was measured using the DPPH free radical scavenging assay, in 25% pork (longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL)) homogenates (TBARS) (3 and 6 mg/mL) and in horse heart oxymyoglobin (OxyMb) (0.1 and 1 mg/mL). The DPPH activity of fresh and cooked minced LTL containing L (100 mg/g; L100), F100 and L/F100,300, and bioaccessibility post in vitro digestion (L/F300), was assessed. Theoretical cellular uptake of antioxidant compounds was measured in a transwell Caco-2 cell model. Laminarin displayed no activity and fucoidan reduced lipid oxidation but catalysed OxyMb oxidation. Fucoidan activity was lowered by cooking while the L/F extract displayed moderate thermal stability. A decrease in DPPH antioxidant activity of 44.15% and 36.63%, after 4 and 20 h respectively, indicated theoretical uptake of L/F antioxidant compounds. Results highlight the potential use of seaweed extracts as functional ingredients in pork. PMID:25903283

  10. Nutrient cycling strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1995-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews pathways by which plants can influence the nutrient cycle, and thereby the nutrient supply of themselves and of their competitors. Higher or lower internal nutrient use efficiency positively feeds back into the nutrient cycle, and helps to increase or decrease soil

  11. Absorption and nutrient concentration in apple (Pyrus mains L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Trani, P.E.; Haag, H.P.; Sarruge, J.R.; Dechen, A.R.; Catani, CB

    1981-01-01

    In order to obtain the following informations: a) dry matter production and extraction of nutrients by the fruits at different ages; b) dry matter production and extraction of nutrient by the leaves and "trunk + branches" collected at the flowering stage; c) dry matter production and export of nutrients by pruning (leaves and branches) at the begining dormant stage; A trial was conducted on Latossolo Vermelho Escuro Orto group (Orthox) at Buri, São Paulo State, Brazil. The material was collec...

  12. Biogas from algae, seaweed and seagrass?; Biogas aus Algen, Tang und Seegras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Holger [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Algae, seaweed and sea grass are discussed again and again as alternative sources for raw materials for agricultural biogas plants. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the identification and optimization of the biogas potential of microalgae, macroalgae and flotsam (mixture of seaweed, seaweed, and so on). Algae, seaweed and sea grass can be fermented into biogas by means of an anaerobic process. The specific yield of biogas is small. The processing of these substrates requires a technical adjustment of the biogas plants. Thus, the effective use of these substrates will continue to fall. The achievable benefit highly depends on the location of the facilities and on the available substrates with the corresponding specific gas yields. The economic efficiency of these substrates in agricultural systems must be examined in each case.

  13. Anti-influenza activity in the Indian seaweeds - A preliminary investigation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chatterji, A.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Sreekumar, P.K.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Rodrigues, R.; Kotnala, S.

    Antiviral activity in four commercially important seaweeds namely; Spatoglossum asperum J. Ag., Padina tetrastromatica Hauck, Sargassum tenerrimum J. Ag. and Stoechospermum marginatum (Ag.) Kuetz was studied on fragments of chorion...

  14. Exploiting biological activities of brown seaweed Ecklonia cava for potential industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesinghe, W A J P; Jeon, You-Jin

    2012-03-01

    Seaweeds are rich in vitamins, minerals, dietary fibres, proteins, polysaccharides and various functional polyphenols. Many researchers have focused on brown algae as a potential source of bioactive materials in the past few decades. Ecklonia cava is a brown seaweed that is abundant in the subtidal regions of Jeju Island in the Republic of Korea. This seaweed attracted extensive interest due to its multiple biological activities. E. cava has been identified as a potential producer of wide spectrum of natural substances such as carotenoids, fucoidans and phlorotannins showing different biological activities in vital industrial applications including pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, cosmeceutical and functional food. This review focuses on biological activities of the brown seaweed E. cava based on latest research results, including antioxidant, anticoagulative, antimicrobial, antihuman immunodeficiency virus, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antimutagenic, antitumour and anticancer effects. The facts summarized here may provide novel insights into the functions of E. cava and its derivatives and potentially enable their use as functional ingredients in potential industrial applications.

  15. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, Maeve D.

    2014-01-01

    seaweed with regard to the amount of nitrogen assimilated. Furthermore, in optimized systems, areal requirement for mussels is similar to the cultivation of the same tonnage (1,000 t) of seaweed (approximately 8 ha). The cost-effectiveness of a mussel biofilter is €11–30 kg−1 nitrogen (N) removed based...... on various examples compared to production costs of €209–672 removed and €1,013 kg−1 N removed, respectively, for Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producers claim that production costs are less than €10......–38 kg−1 N removed. These up-scaled and commercial figures make the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and biofouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall...

  16. Can Seaweed Farming Play a Role in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation?

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Wu, Jiaping; Xiao, Xi; Bruhn, Annette; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    also help reduce the emissions from agriculture, by improving soil quality substituting synthetic fertilizer and when included in cattle fed, lowering methane emissions from cattle. Seaweed aquaculture contributes to climate change adaptation by damping

  17. Drying Kinetics Analysis of Seaweed Gracilaria changii using Solar Drying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Ahmad Fudholi; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Muhammad Yahya

    2012-01-01

    A solar drying system suitable for agricultural and marine products have been designed, constructed and evaluated under Malaysia climatic conditions. The solar drying system has been constructed and evaluated for the drying of seaweed Gracilaria changii. The initial and final moisture content of seaweed are 95 % (wet basis) and 10 % (product basis), respectively. The drying time was about 7 hours at average solar radiation of 593 W/ m 2 and air flow rate of 0.0613 kg/ s. Three different thin-layer drying models were compared with experimental data, during the drying of seaweed using the solar drying system at average temperature and humidity of about 50 degree Celsius and 20 %, respectively. The one with highest R2 and lowest MBE and RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. The study showed that the Page model was better fit to drying seaweed compared to the other models (Newton model, and Henderson and Pabis model). (author)

  18. Methodology for quantitative determination of the carbohydrate composition of brown seaweeds (Laminariaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manns, Dirk; Deutschle, A. L.; Saake, B.

    2014-01-01

    The monosaccharide composition of four different samples of brown seaweeds Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima were compared by different high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) methods after different acid hydrolysis treatments or a cellulase treatment. A two-step treatment...

  19. In vitro ruminal fermentation and methane production of different seaweed species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Alcaide, E.; Carro, M.D.; Roleda, M. Y.

    2017-01-01

    production kinetics and in vitro rumen fermentation in batch cultures of ruminal microorganisms. The seaweeds were three red species (Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata and Porphyra sp.), three brown species (Alaria esculenta, Laminaria digitata and Pelvetia canaliculata) and one green species...

  20. Investigation of Bioethanol Productivity from Sargassum sp. (Brown Seaweed) by Pressure Cooker and Steam Cooker Pretreatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu Wah; Kyaw Nyein Aye; Tint Tint Kyaw; Moe Moe Kyaw

    2011-12-01

    Production of biothanol from Sargassum sp. (Brown seaweed) is more suitable than using any other raw materials because it can easily collect on Chaung Tha Beach in Myanmar without any environmental damages. In this regard an attempt for bioethanol production from sargassum sp. by separation hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) with saccharomyces cerevisiae was made. Sargassum sp. was pretreated with steam cooker at 120 C and 1 bar for 30 min and pressure cooker at 65 C for 2 hour. The pretreated sargassum sp. was liquefied with the crude enzyme from Trichoderma sp. at the temperature of 50 C and pH of 4 for the first liquefaction step and 95 C, pH of 5 and enzyme of SPEZYME FERD were employed for the second liquefaction step. OPTIDEX L-400 was used as saccharified enzyme with the temperature of 65 C and pH of 4.5 at saccharification step. The process of fermentation was followed by distillation at 78 C for alcohol extraction. Concentrations of crude ethanol were about 1.8% by using steam cooker and 2% for pressure cooker treatment with enzyme mediated saccharification followed by yeast fermentation. Yields of bioethanol were 23% for pressure cooker treatment and 21% for steam cooker treatment at SHF process.

  1. Popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii prevents against diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Seo-Young; Lima, Inês S; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young-Bum; Jeung, Hee-Do; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-04-01

    The popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii is broadly used as food worldwide. To determine whether G. amansii extract (GAE) has protective effects on obesity, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) treated with GAE (1 and 3 %) were studied. After 12 weeks of GAE treatment, body weight was greatly decreased in mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect could be due to decreased adipogenesis, as evidenced by the fact that GAE suppressed adipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. In addition, blood glucose and serum insulin levels were reduced by GAE treatment in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting improvement in glucose metabolism. GAE supplementation also led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data are further confirmed by H&E staining. Our findings indicate that Gelidium amansii prevents against the development of diet-induced obesity, and further implicate that GAE supplementation could be the therapeutical option for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectral Quantitation Of Hydroponic Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Kahle, Scott J.; Wilson, Monica A.; Boehlen, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    Instrument continuously monitors hydroponic solution by use of absorption and emission spectrometry to determine concentrations of principal nutrients, including nitrate, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, and others. Does not depend on extraction and processing of samples, use of such surrograte parameters as pH or electrical conductivity for control, or addition of analytical reagents to solution. Solution not chemically altered by analysis and can be returned to hydroponic process stream after analysis.

  3. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Salim, N; Santoso, M; Damayanti, S; Kartawinata, T.G

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was use...

  4. Analysis of iodine content in seaweed by GC-ECD and estimation of iodine intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai Sheng Yeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Edible seaweed products have been consumed in many Asian countries. Edible seaweeds accumulate iodine from seawater, and are therefore a good dietary source of iodine. An adequate consumption of seaweed can eliminate iodine deficiency disorders, but excessive iodine intake is not good for health. The recommended dietary reference intake of 0.15 mg/d and 0.14 mg/d for iodine has been established in the United States and Taiwan, respectively. In this study, 30 samples of seaweed were surveyed for iodine content. The samples included 10 nori (Porphyra, 10 wakame (Undaria, and 10 kombu (Laminaria products. The iodine in seaweed was derivatized with 3-pentanone and detected by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. The method detection limit was 0.5 mg/kg. The iodine content surveyed for nori was 29.3–45.8 mg/kg, for wakame 93.9–185.1 mg/kg, and for kombu 241–4921 mg/kg. Kombu has the highest average iodine content 2523.5 mg/kg, followed by wakame (139.7 mg/kg and nori (36.9 mg/kg. The GC-ECD method developed in this study is a low-cost alternative to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy for iodine detection in seaweeds. The iodine intake from seaweed in the current survey was calculated and compared with the iodine dietary reference intake of Taiwan. The risk and benefit of seaweed consumption is also discussed.

  5. MANAGEMENT OF SUSTAINABLE SEAWEED (Kappaphycus alvarezii AQUACULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlania Erlania

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed is an important aquaculture commodity that could contribute on climate change mitigation, related to its ability on absorbing CO2, as one of the green house gases, through photosynthesis. This study aimed to analyze seaweed potencies on carbon sequestration in the context of climate change mitigation while still resulting optimum production as primary purpose and to analyze the carrying capacity of Gerupuk Bay in order to manage sustainability of seaweed aquaculture. Seaweed, (Kappaphycus alvarezii was cultivated with long-line system in Gerupuk Bay, West Nusa Tenggara, during five months for three cultivation cycles. Samplings were conducted at days-15, 30, and 45 with CO2 absorption rates as main parameters. Water carrying capacity was calculated to determine the ability of Gerupuk Bay waters for supporting development of sustainable seaweed aquaculture. The results showed that absorption rates of CO2 by seaweed (K. alvarezii were different at each sampling days of cultivation periods; the highest value was at 10-20 days of cultivation. CO2 absorption analysis resulted based on sampling days of cultivation period could be appl ied to formulate the strategies for management of sustainable seaweed aquaculture, with optimal production and positively contributed to the environment. However, waters carrying capacity should also be considered as major aspect in the application of seaweed cultivation management, thus it can run continuously without causing conflicts with other interests.

  6. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of Gracilaria extraction fractions on growth performance, fillet quality, oxidative stress and immune responses in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peixoto, Maria-João; Magnoni, Leonardo; Goncalves, J.; Twijnstra, Robert Hendrik; Kijoa, A.; Pereira, R.; Palstra, A.P.; Ozorio, R.O.A.

    2017-01-01

    By-products generated from the seaweed (SW) industry´s extraction processes have potential applications as feed supplements for aquafeeds. SW extracts contain natural pigments and compounds with antioxidant and immune-stimulant properties [1, 2]. In spite of their beneficial effects, SW extracts may

  8. Nutrient compensation as management tool– Sugar kelp production in sustainable aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmedes, Peter Søndergaard; Boderskov, Teis; Silva Marinho, Goncalo

    Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is theoretically a sustainable production form, which minimizes waste products from e.g. fish farms, by the co-production of bivalves or/and seaweed. For the Danish fish farmers the extractive organisms could be the solution for increasing fish production...... and robust mitigation tool for nitrogen removal and hopefully allow for future expansion of sustainable marine fish production in Denmark....

  9. Seaweed temporal distribution in southeast coast of Peninsular Malaysia and isolation of endophytic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainee, Nur Farah Ain; Ismail, Ahmad; Ibrahim, Nazlina; Ismail, Asmida

    2018-04-01

    Temporal study of seaweeds was carried out between on February 2015 and November 2015 at Kampung Jawa Darat and Kampung Sungai Buntu at Pengerang, Johor, Malaysia. The research objectives were to study the diversity of seaweed and to determine the presence of fungal endophyte in the seaweed. The diversity of seaweed in the sampling site was calculated by using quadrat with 25 meter line transect by 3 replication for each site. The specimen were identified and processed in laboratory and kept for reference in the Algae Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The specimen for fungal endophyte isolation was collected randomly by choosing the complete thallus, transferred into sterile zip-lock plastic bag and kept in freezer until used. From this study, a total of 29 species have been successfully identified including 12 species of Chlorophyta, 2 species of Phaeophyta and 14 species of Rhodophyta. From February to November 2015, the number of species highly varied and a significant change in community structure was noted. Kampung Sungai Buntu shows the highest diversity throughout the study compared to Kampung Jawa Darat. Eighteen seaweed species were screened for the presence of fungal endophyte, Sargassum polycystum shows the highest number of fungal endophyte. This study documented the seaweed diversity in two sites at Pengerang, Johor that accommodates fungal endophytes.

  10. The Effect of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Liver of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIK WRESDIYATI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD was reported decreased in the liver and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study was conducted to observe the effect of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii powder on the profile of blood cholesterol and the level of SOD in liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats by using immunohistochemical technique. Twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into four groups; (i negative control group (A, (ii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 5% seaweed powder (B, (iii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 10% seaweed powder (C, and (iv Positive control group or hypercholesterolemia group (D. The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Hypercholesterolemia condition (> 130 mg/dl, except group A, was achieved by feeding the rats with commercial diet containing 1% cholesterol. Drinking water was given ad libitum for 40 days. The results showed that seaweed powder decreased the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride, and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL and SOD status in the liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats. The treatment of 10% seaweed powder gave better results than that of 5%. These results suggested that dietary fiber such in the seaweed powder has antioxidant activity.

  11. Low-level seaweed supplementation improves iodine status in iodine-insufficient women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combet, Emilie; Ma, Zheng Feei; Cousins, Frances; Thompson, Brett; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-09-14

    Iodine insufficiency is now a prominent issue in the UK and other European countries due to low intakes of dairy products and seafood (especially where iodine fortification is not in place). In the present study, we tested a commercially available encapsulated edible seaweed (Napiers Hebridean Seagreens® Ascophyllum nodosum species) for its acceptability to consumers and iodine bioavailability and investigated the impact of a 2-week daily seaweed supplementation on iodine concentrations and thyroid function. Healthy non-pregnant women of childbearing age, self-reporting low dairy product and seafood consumption, with no history of thyroid or gastrointestinal disease were recruited. Seaweed iodine (712 μg, in 1 g seaweed) was modestly bioavailable at 33 (interquartile range (IQR) 28-46) % of the ingested iodine dose compared with 59 (IQR 46-74) % of iodine from the KI supplement (n 22). After supplement ingestion (2 weeks, 0·5 g seaweed daily, n 42), urinary iodine excretion increased from 78 (IQR 39-114) to 140 (IQR 103-195) μg/l (Pseaweed was palatable and acceptable to consumers as a whole food or as a food ingredient and effective as a source of iodine in an iodine-insufficient population. In conclusion, seaweed inclusion in staple foods would serve as an alternative to fortification of salt or other foods with KI.

  12. The Effects of Using Seaweed (E. Cottonii on Physical Quality and Organoleptic of Chicken Nuggets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was experimental method with Completely Random Design.  Seaweed used to chicken nuggets in the vary concentration, namely: 0% (F0, 10% (F1, 20% (F2, 30% (F3, 40% (F4. The observed variables were texture, water holding capacity (WHC, pH, and organoleptic quality of chicken nuggets. Collected data were analyzed using analisys variation method and followed by Duncan analysis if the result on the previous analysis showed significant difference. The  result  showed  that  chicken  nuggets  using  seaweed  gave highly significant effect  (P<0.01 on  texture, WHC, pH, and   organoleptic quality. The best result was chicken nuggets made with used of seaweed  10%;  7.97 N of texture; 4.50% of WHC; 6.16 of pH; 6.98 of texture organoleptic score; and 6.26 of taste organoleptic score. The conclusion of this research was the using of seaweed to chicken nuggets gave a significant effect on  texture, WHC, pH, and organoleptic quality. Based on the result, it suggested that using 10% of seaweed to make chicken nugeets.   Keyword : water holding capacity, chicken nuggets, seaweed

  13. Biogas production generated through continuous digestion of natural and cultivated seaweeds with dairy slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Muhammad Rizwan; Wall, David M; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-11-01

    The technical feasibility of long term anaerobic mono-digestion of two brown seaweeds, and co-digestion of both seaweeds with dairy slurry was investigated whilst increasing the organic loading rate (OLR). One seaweed was natural (L. digitata); the second seaweed (S. Latissima) was cultivated. Higher proportions of L. digitata in co-digestion (66.6%) allowed the digester to operate more efficiently (OLR of 5kgVSm(-3)d(-1) achieving a specific methane yield (SMY) of 232LCH4kg(-1)VS) as compared to lower proportions (33.3%). Co-digestion of 66.6% cultivated S. latissima, with dairy slurry allowed a higher SMY of 252LCH4kg(-1)VS but at a lower OLR of 4kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Optimum conditions for mono-digestion of both seaweeds were effected at 4kgVSm(-3)d(-1). Chloride concentrations increased to high levels in the digestion of both seaweeds but were not detrimental to operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Potential Role of Seaweeds in the Natural Manipulation of Rumen Fermentation and Methane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.; Mendonça, Carla; Cabrita, Ana R. J.

    2016-08-01

    This study is the first to evaluate the effects of five seaweeds (Ulva sp., Laminaria ochroleuca, Saccharina latissima, Gigartina sp., and Gracilaria vermiculophylla) on gas and methane production and ruminal fermentation parameters when incubated in vitro with two substrates (meadow hay and corn silage) for 24 h. Seaweeds led to lower gas production, with Gigartina sp. presenting the lowest value. When incubated with meadow hay, Ulva sp., Gigartina sp. and G. vermiculophylla decreased methane production, but with corn silage, methane production was only decreased by G. vermiculophylla. With meadow hay, L. ochroleuca and S. latissima promoted similar methane production as the control, but with corn silage, L. ochroleuca increased it. With the exception of S. latissima, all seaweeds promoted similar levels of total volatile fatty acid production. The highest proportion of acetic acid was produced with Ulva sp., G. vermiculophylla, and S. latissima; the highest proportion of butyric acid with the control and L. ochroleuca; and the highest proportion of iso-valeric acid with Gigartina sp. These results reveal the potential of seaweeds to mitigate ruminal methane production and the importance of the basal diet. To efficiently use seaweeds as feed ingredients with nutritional and environmental benefits, more research is required to determine the mechanisms underlying seaweed and substrate interactions.

  15. The seaweed fly (Coelopidae) can facilitate environmental survival and transmission of E. coli O157 at sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinscoe, Isobel; Oliver, David M; Gilburn, Andre S; Quilliam, Richard S

    2018-06-19

    The sustainable management of recreational beaches is essential for minimising risk of human exposure to microbial pathogens whilst simultaneously maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Decaying seaweed on public beaches is gaining recognition as a substrate for microbial contamination, and is a potentially significant reservoir for human pathogens in close proximity to beach users. Closely associated with beds of decaying seaweed are dense populations of the seaweed fly (Coelopidae), which could influence the spatio-temporal fate of seaweed-associated human pathogens within beach environments. Replicated mesocosms containing seaweed inoculated with a bioluminescent strain of the zoonotic pathogen E. coli O157:H7, were used to determine the effects of two seaweed flies, Coelopa frigida and C. pilipes, on E. coli O157:H7 survival dynamics. Multiple generations of seaweed flies and their larvae significantly enhanced persistence of E. coli O157:H7 in simulated wrack habitats, demonstrating that both female and male C. frigida flies are capable of transferring E. coli O157:H7 between individual wrack beds and into the sand. Adult fly faeces can contain significant concentrations of E. coli O157:H7, which suggests they are capable of acting as biological vectors and bridge hosts between wrack habitats and other seaweed fly populations, and facilitate the persistence and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 in sandy beach environments. This study provides the first evidence that seaweed fly populations inhabiting natural wrack beds contaminated with the human pathogen E. coli O157:H7 have the capacity to amplify the hazard source, and therefore potential transmission risk, to beach users exposed to seaweed and sand in the intertidal zone. The risk to public health from seaweed flies and decaying wrack beds is usually limited by human avoidance behaviour; however, seaweed fly migration and nuisance inland plagues in urban areas could increase human exposure routes beyond the

  16. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates from red seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Noseda, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) produce, as their principal photosynthetic metabolites, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and polyols. The former are heterosides consisting of galactose and glycerol and are produced by all the orders of Phodophyta except the ceramiales. They are named: floridoside [α-D-galactopyranosyl (1->2)-glycerol], isofloridoside D-form [α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->)D-glycerol] and L-form [α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->1)-L-glycerol] (Meng et al., 1987, Karsten et al., 1993). The Ceramiales synthesize the chemically related digeneaside [α-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-L-glycerate] (Kirst, 1980). Some of the red seaweeds also produce polyols such as dulcitol and D-sorbitol (Karsten et al., 1992). (author)

  17. Low-molecular-weight carbohydrates from red seaweeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, M.E.R.; Tischer, C.A.; Gorin, P.A.J.; Noseda, M.D. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica

    1997-12-31

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) produce, as their principal photosynthetic metabolites, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and polyols. The former are heterosides consisting of galactose and glycerol and are produced by all the orders of Phodophyta except the ceramiales. They are named: floridoside [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl (1->2)-glycerol], isofloridoside D-form [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->)D-glycerol] and L-form [{alpha}-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->1)-L-glycerol] (Meng et al., 1987, Karsten et al., 1993). The Ceramiales synthesize the chemically related digeneaside [{alpha}-D-mannopyranosyl-(1->2)-L-glycerate] (Kirst, 1980). Some of the red seaweeds also produce polyols such as dulcitol and D-sorbitol (Karsten et al., 1992). (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tabs.

  18. Iodine-129 in human thyroids and seaweed in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Dahlgaard, H.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of I-129 and the ratios of I-129/I-127 in normal human thyroids collected in Tianjin, China, and some seaweed samples from the Chinese coast were determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean I-129/I-127 ratio in these thyroids was found to be 1.13 x 10(-9), which is two...... orders of magnitude higher than the level of the pre-nuclear era, but one order of magnitude lower than the level in Europe in the post-nuclear era. There is no significant difference between the ratio of I-129/I-127 in the thyroids for the post-nuclear era from China and other areas, which...

  19. Essential and toxic elements in seaweeds for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, D; Cantaluppi, C; Ceccotto, F; Meli, M A; Roselli, C; Feduzi, L

    2016-01-01

    Essential elements (K, Ca, P, S, Cl, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Br, and I) and nonessential or toxic elements (Al, Ti, Si, Rb, Sr, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were determined by energy-dispersive polarized x-ray fluorescence spectrometry in 14 seaweeds purchased in local specialty stores in Italy and consumed by humans. The differences in elements between the algae species reached up to 2-4 orders of magnitude. Lithothamnium calcareum showed the highest levels of Ca, Al, Si, Fe, and Ti. Palmaria palmata showed the highest concentrations of K, Rb, and Cl. The highest content of S was in Chondrus crispus. Laminaria digitata contained the highest concentrations of total As, Cd, Sn, Br, and I. The highest concentration of Zn was in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Ulva lactuca displayed the highest levels of Cu, Ni, Mn, and Pb. Iodine levels ranged from 3.4 in Chlorella pyrenoidosa to 7316 mg/kg(dry) in Laminaria digitata. The nutrimental importance of essential elements was assessed using nutritional requirements. The results showed that the consumption of algae might serve as an important source of the essential elements. Health risk due to the toxic elements present in seaweed was estimated using risk estimators. Total As, Cd, and Pb concentrations ranged from <1 to 67.6, to 7.2 and to 6.7 mg/kg(dry) respectively; therefore, their contribution to total elemental intake does not appear to pose any threat to the consumers, but the concentrations of these elements should be controlled to protect the consumer against potential adverse health risks.

  20. Analysis of Technetium Species and Fractions in Natural Seaweed Using Biochemical Separation and ICP-MS Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Keliang; Hou, Xiaolin; Qiao, Jixin

    2016-01-01

    An extremely high accumulation and retention of technetium in marine plants, especially brown seaweed, makes it a unique bioindicator of technetium. In the present work, a novel approach was developed for the speciation analysis of technetium in seaweed, wherein a series of biochemical separations....... Besides the inorganic species of TcO4-, most of technetium (>75%) combined with organic components of seaweed such as algin, cellulose, and pigment. This investigation could provide important fundamental knowledge for studying the processes and mechanisms of 99Tc accumulation in the natural seaweed....

  1. Inhibitory effect of marine green algal extracts on germination of Lactuca sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Choi, In Soon

    2016-03-01

    The allelopathic potential of nine green seaweed species was examined based on germination and seedling growth of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Out of nine methanol extracts, Capsosiphon fulvescens and Monostroma nitidum extracts completely inhibited germination of L. sativa at 4 mg/filter paper after 24 hr of treatment. Water extracts of these seaweeds generally showed low anti-germination activities than methanol extracts. Of the nine water extracts, Enteromorpha linza extract completely inhibited L. sativa germination at 16 mg/filter paper after 24 hrs. To identify the primary active compounds, C. fulvescens. powder was successively fractionated according to polarity, and the main active agents against L. sativa were determined to be lipids (0.0% germination at 0.5 mg of lipids/paper disc). According to these results, extracts of C. fulvescens can be used to develop natural herbicidal agents and manage terrestrial weeds.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Seaweed (Ulva lactuca to alleviate the Impact of Heat Stress in Growing Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kkalid A. Abdoun, Aly B. Okab, Ahmed M. El-Waziry, Emad M. Samara and Ahmed A. Al-Haidary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several environmental and nutritional management approaches have been used to mitigate heat stress and improve performance of farm animals in semi-arid and arid regions. The present study was designed with the intention to alleviate the negative effects of heat stress and to promote the performance of growing lambs reared under hot environmental conditions. The study was conducted on 18 male Naimey lambs with average body weight of 22.78±0.49 kg, and 4-5 months old. The animals were randomly divided into 3 equal groups (A, B and C, and fed diets containing different concentrations of seaweed (Ulva lactuca for 90 days. Group A served as control and was offered diet containing 0.0% seaweed. Groups B and C served as treated groups and were offered diets containing 3.0 and 5.0% seaweed, respectively. Dietary inclusion of seaweed to the diet of growing lambs exposed to heat stress (max Ta 43.9oC, max RH 81.1%, max THI 84.6 neither influenced (P>0.05 the thermo-physiological parameters (rectal and skin temperatures, nor affected (P>0.05 the performance parameters (feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion efficiency. Furthermore, dietary seaweed supplementation did not alter (P>0.05 blood constituents or blood antioxidant capacity. However, dietary seaweed supplementation significantly (P<0.05 reduced respiratory rate, and increased serum potassium concentration. Based on the data of the present study, seaweed (Ulva lactuca supplementation to the diets of growing lambs reared under heat stress conditions did not show any indication of promoting their production performance or heat tolerance.

  3. Dietary seaweed modifies estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Hurley, Thomas G; Hebert, James R; Franke, Adrian A; Sepkovic, Daniel W; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2009-05-01

    Seaweed and soy foods are consumed daily in Japan, where breast cancer rates for postmenopausal women are significantly lower than in the West. Likely mechanisms include differences in diet, especially soy consumption, and estrogen metabolism. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women participated in this double-blind trial of seaweed supplementation with soy challenge. Participants were randomized to 7 wk of either 5 g/d seaweed (Alaria) or placebo (maltodextrin). During wk 7, participants also consumed a daily soy protein isolate (2 mg isoflavones/kg body weight). After a 3-wk washout period, participants were crossed over to the alternate supplement schedule. There was an inverse correlation between seaweed dose (mg/kg body weight) and serum estradiol (E2) (seaweed-placebo = y = -2.29 x dose + 172.3; r = -0.70; P = 0.003), [corrected] which was linear across the range of weights. Soy supplementation increased urinary daidzein, glycitein, genistein, and O-desmethylangolensin (P = 0.0001) and decreased matairesinol and enterolactone (P seaweed plus soy (SeaSoy) increased urinary excretion of 2-hydroxyestrogen (2-OHE) (P = 0.0001) and the ratio of 2-OHE:16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alphaOHE(1)) (P = 0.01). For the 5 equol excretors, soy increased urinary equol excretion (P = 0.0001); the combination of SeaSoy further increased equol excretion by 58% (P = 0.0001). Equol producers also had a 315% increase in 2:16 ratio (P = 0.001) with SeaSoy. Seaweed favorably alters estrogen and phytoestrogen metabolism and these changes likely include modulation of colonic bacteria.

  4. Soluble organic nutrient fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...

  5. A Cultivated Form of a Red Seaweed (Chondrus crispus, Suppresses β-Amyloid-Induced Paralysis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatinder Singh Sangha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We report here the protective effects of a methanol extract from a cultivated strain of the red seaweed, Chondrus crispus, against β-amyloid-induced toxicity, in a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, expressing human Aβ1-42 gene. The methanol extract of C. crispus (CCE, delayed β-amyloid-induced paralysis, whereas the water extract (CCW was not effective. The CCE treatment did not affect the transcript abundance of amy1; however, Western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease of Aβ species, as compared to untreated worms. The transcript abundance of stress response genes; sod3, hsp16.2 and skn1 increased in CCE-treated worms. Bioassay guided fractionation of the CCE yielded a fraction enriched in monogalactosyl diacylglycerols (MGDG that significantly delayed the onset of β-amyloid-induced paralysis. Taken together, these results suggested that the cultivated strain of C. crispus, whilst providing dietary nutritional value, may also have significant protective effects against β-amyloid-induced toxicity in C. elegans, partly through reduced β-amyloid species, up-regulation of stress induced genes and reduced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS.

  6. Impact of organic fertilizer, humic acid and sea weed extract on wheat production in pothowar region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Anjum, A.S.; Kasana, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crop production was evaluated under organic conditions during the year 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research council (PARC) Islamabad. The study includes four treatments with four replications. The treatments includes; (1) Organic fertilizer 625 Kg ha/sup -1/, (2) Organic fertilizer 625 and Humic Acid 10 Kg ha/sup -1/ (3) Humic Acid and Sea weed extract 625 ml ha/sup -1/ and (4) Control. Organic amendments were incorporated during land preparation and seaweed extract as foliar spray. The basal dose of organic fertilizer and humic acid (granule) were added at the time of sowing of wheat during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.Humic acid solution 1% and sea weed extract were applied as foliar spray at 6 inches of wheat crop. The second foliar spray was done at tillering while third and forth sprays at heading and milking stage respectively. The crop conditions, color, shoot length and spike and yield parameters were recorded at different stages of the organic fertilizer application. The soils and crops managed organically are sustainable. Similarly, biological and chemical properties of soil also improved significantly. The compost enriched with different organic waste increased all physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil as well as yield of the crop. The wheat crop morphological and agronomical parameters also increase significantly. Moreover, nutrients supply and other soil properties like pH, CEC, ECe and plant nutrients including microbial community structure influence positively. (author)

  7. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iris Frías Vázquez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of red seaweed Dichotomaria obtusata, using classic tests in mice (ear edema induced by TPA and writhing induced by acetic acid. The qualitative chemical composition of the aqueous extract (lactones, phenols, triterpenes, steroids and reduced carbohydrates obtained from this alga was also determined. The results showed that Dichotomaria obtusata (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, ip inhibited mouse ear edema in a dose-dependent manner. In the writhing test, aqueous extract (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip and 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg, po significantly reduced abdominal writhes. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of aqueous extract of D. Obtusata in experimental models. These results suggest that D. obtusata aqueous extract possesses therapeutic potential in the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory conditions.O objetivo do presente trabalho é centrado nos efeitos antiinflamatórios e analgésicos da alga vermelha Dichotomaria obtusata por meio de clássicos testes em camundongos (edema de orelha induzido por TPA e contorção induzida por ácido acético. Também foi determinada a composição química qualitativa do extrato (lactonas, fenóis, triterpenos, esteróides e carboidratos reduzidos. Os resultados mostraram que de Dichotomaria obtusata (12,5, 25 e 50 mg/kg, ip inibiu o edema de orelha do camundongo de forma dose-dependente. No teste de contorção, extrato aquoso (12,5, 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, ip e 100, 200, 400, 800 mg/kg, po reduziu o contorções abdominais de forma significativa. Em conclusão, o estudo demonstrou a atividades antiinflamatória e antinociceptiva do extrato aquoso em modelos experimentais. Estes resultados sugerem que o extrato aquoso D.obtusata possuem potencial terapêutico no tratamento de dor periférica e/ou de doenças inflamatórias.

  8. A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEAWEED AGRO INDUSTRY IN THE SOUTHEAST MALUKU DISTRICT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Picaulima

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we aimed to create a model of seaweed agro-industry development in the Southeast Maluku district of Indonesia. Data collected from respondents (n = 250 included information related to agro-seaweed, seaweed farming, and seaweed product marketing. Data collection included primary and secondary data sources, while the methods of analysis used structure model equations. We tested eight factors that influence the development of agro-seaweed industries in the southeast Maluku regency, namely, raw materials, human resources, technology, markets, infrastructure, policy, institutional, and capital, and concluded that all proposed hypotheses are proved correct because the value critical ratio ≥ 1.96, only the facilities and infrastructure factors were identified as significantly affecting the development of an agro-seaweed facility in southeast Maluku. We also found that optimal development of an agro-business in southeast Maluku will depend on relevant local government support and require cooperation between the internal local government, academia, the private sector, and the public. Development of human resources through formal and informal education programs directed at local business and focused on seaweed-based products will help to build business continuity by avoiding collusion and nepotism. Increased cooperation will also be required between government, employers, and the fishery community to monitor the sustainability and environmental impacts of the seaweed agro-industry in this region.

  9. Preparation of substituting seaweed field mounds accompanying site preparation for No.3 plant in Ikata Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Hisashi; Oshima, Teruhiko; Fujisaki, Yuichi; Saeki, Taketoshi

    1987-01-01

    Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. is constructing No.3 plant adjacently to No.1 and No.2 plants in operation in Ikata Nuclear Power Station. In the coastal area of Iyo-nada, many seaweed fields are distributed, which are important biologically and for fishery. In the works of site preparation for No.3 plant, a part of the site is created by reclamation of sea area, therefore the natural seaweed fields in the area disappear. From the viewpoint of various circumstances and environment preservation, it was decided to create about 60,000 m 2 of seaweed field mounds on the seabed around the site as the substitute for disappearing natural seaweed fields. The Seaweed Field Study Group composed of the men of learning and experience was organized to obtain the guidance on the possibility of creating artificial seaweed fields, the techniques for creation and the effect on environment accompanying the creation of mounds. The creation works were started in October, 1985, and are in progress smoothly utilizing effectively the stones and rocks cut in the site preparation works. The topographic and geological features, sea conditions, the present state of seaweed fields, the experiment on creating artificial seaweed fields, the design and construction of mounds and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  10. Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents in edible dried seaweed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y O; Park, S G; Park, G Y; Choi, S M; Kim, M Y

    2010-01-01

    Total arsenic, mercury, lead, and cadmium contents were determined in 426 samples of seaweed sold in Korea in 2007-08. The average concentrations, expressed in mg kg(-1), dry weight, were: total arsenic 17.4 (less than the limit of detection [LOD] to 88.8), Hg 0.01 (from 0.001 to 0.050), lead 0.7 (less than the LOD to 2.7), and cadmium 0.50 (less than the LOD to 2.9). There were differences in mercury, cadmium, and arsenic content in seaweed between different kinds of products and between coastal areas. The intakes of total mercury, lead, and cadmium for Korean people from seaweed were estimated to be 0.11, 0.65, and 0.45 µg kg(-1) body weight week(-1), respectively. With respect to food safety, consumption of 8.5 g day(-1) of the samples analysed could represent up to 0.2-6.7% of the respective provisional tolerable weekly intakes established by the World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, even if Korean people have a high consumption of seaweed, this study confirms the low probability of health risks from these metals via seaweed consumption.

  11. Seaweed Polysaccharide-Based Nanoparticles: Preparation and Applications for Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Venkatesan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been major advances and increasing amounts of research on the utilization of natural polymeric materials as drug delivery vehicles due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Seaweed polysaccharides are abundant resources and have been extensively studied for several biological, biomedical, and functional food applications. The exploration of seaweed polysaccharides for drug delivery applications is still in its infancy. Alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, ulvan, and laminarin are polysaccharides commonly isolated from seaweed. These natural polymers can be converted into nanoparticles (NPs by different types of methods, such as ionic gelation, emulsion, and polyelectrolyte complexing. Ionic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexing are commonly employed by adding cationic molecules to these anionic polymers to produce NPs of a desired shape, size, and charge. In the present review, we have discussed the preparation of seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs using different types of methods as well as their usage as carriers for the delivery of various therapeutic molecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, anti-cancer drugs, and antibiotics. Seaweed polysaccharide-based NPs exhibit suitable particle size, high drug encapsulation, and sustained drug release with high biocompatibility, thereby demonstrating their high potential for safe and efficient drug delivery.

  12. The Effect of Seaweed Glue in the Separation of Copper–Molybdenum Sulphide Ore by Flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flotation separation of chalcopyrite from molybdenite was studied using seaweed glue (SEG as a depressant. Flotation process and mechanism were examined by response surface methodology, flotation tests, adsorption tests, zeta potential measurements and fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectra. Response surface methodology with a Box–Behnken design suggested the optimal reagent schedule: pH 4, depressant seaweed glue 197 mg/L, collector amyl xanthate 16 mg/L and frother (methyl isobutyl carbinol 20 mg/L, and selective separation of chalcopyrite and molybdenite was achieved by flotation. Comparison of SEG and traditional depressants indicated that the SEG could achieve a similar separation efficiency, and exhibited the advantages of environmental compatibility and economic adaptability. Co-adsorption of seaweed glue and amyl xanthate occurred on the surface of molybdenite, and is explained to happen through distinct mechanisms due to the heterogeneous nature of the surface. It is likely that seaweed glue depresses molybdenite by covering the dixanthogen resulting from adsorption of xanthate ions. It is shown that seaweed glue is as effective a depressant of Cu/Mo separation as cyanide.

  13. Implications of drying temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Majid Khan Majahar; Fudholi, Ahmad; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, Jumat; Yasir, Suhaimi Md

    2017-11-01

    A Low Temperature and Humidity Chamber Test tested in the Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Experiments are attempted to study the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed Kappaphycus species Striatum besides to develop a model to estimate the drying curves. Simple method using a excel software is used in the analysis of raw data obtained from the drying experiment. The values of the parameters a, n and the constant k for the models are determined using a plot of curve drying models. Three different drying models are compared with experiment data seaweed drying at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C and relative humidity 20, 30 and 40% for seaweed. The higher drying temperatures and low relative humidity effects the moisture content that will be rapidly reduced. The most suitable model is selected to best describe the drying behavior of seaweed. The values of the coefficient of determination (R2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are used to determine the goodness or the quality of the fit. The Page model is showed a better fit to drying seaweed. The results from this study crucial for solar dryer development on pilot scale in Malaysia.

  14. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Kametani, Takuji; Maruyama, Toshiroh

    2005-05-01

    The growth of dense green seaweed mats of Ulva spp. is an increasing problem in estuaries and coasts worldwide. The enormous amount of Ulva biomass thus becomes a troublesome waste disposal problem. On the other hand, it has been revealed that nonliving seaweed biomass, particularly brown seaweeds, has a high capacity for assimilating heavy metals. In this study, the possibility of using Ulva seaweed biomass as a biosorbent for the removal of heavy metals was examined. After processing, the biomass material was very easy to separate from the aqueous solution using a mesh. The sorption capacity of Cd on Ulva biomass increased upon pretreatment with alkali solution. The outstanding function of the biosorbent was demonstrated at around pH 8. On the basis of the Langmuir isotherms of Cd, Zn and Cu using the alkali-pretreated biomass, the parameters q(m) and b were determined to be within the narrow range of 60-90 mg/g and 0.03-0.04 L/mg, respectively, for each metal. Given the q(m) and b values, Ulva seaweed is a good biosorbent material for removing heavy metals. In an experiment using artificial wastewater containing Cd, Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni, it was possible to remove each metal simultaneously using Ulva biomass. Adsorption by Ulva biomass is effective for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

  15. Norgal: Extraction and de novo assembly of mitochondrial DNA from whole-genome sequencing data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Nakeeb, Kosai Ali Ahmed; Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    and performing a de novo assembly on a subset of reads that contains these k-mers. The method was applied to WGS data from a panda, brown algae seaweed, butterfly and filamentous fungus. We were able to extract full circular mitochondrial genomes and obtained sequence identities to the reference sequences...

  16. Photosynthetic response of two seaweed species along an urban pollution gradient: evidence of selection of pollution-tolerant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherner, F; Bonomi Barufi, J; Horta, P A

    2012-11-01

    Urbanization leads to the expansion of ephemeral seaweed species and the decline of important perennial, canopy-forming seaweed species. Understanding the mechanisms that lead to these changes is a current challenge. In the present study, laboratory assays and field transplantations were performed with two seaweed species: the perennial, canopy-forming seaweed Sargassum stenophyllum and the ephemeral seaweed Ulva lactuca. Photosynthetic efficiency was assessed using modulated chlorophyll fluorometry. Brief exposure to urban waters does not appear to be a major stressor to the photosynthetic efficiency of either species. However, after 26 days of transplantation in urban waters, S. stenophyllum declined, whereas U. lactuca had enhanced photosynthetic efficiency. This difference reflects their divergent abilities to regulate the energy distribution at the PSII and shows that urban stressors alter these mechanisms. Our results provide evidence of the physiological causes for the decline of Sargassum species and the expansion of Ulva species in impacted urban areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornshøj, Bettina Høj; Kobbelgaard, Sara; Blakemore, William R; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Bixler, Harris J; Klinger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg(-1). Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg(-1) have been found using the generally accepted AOAC and Hach tests. These findings are, per proposed reaction pathways, likely due to the formation of formaldehyde when sulphated galactose, the backbone of carrageenan, is hydrolysed with the strong acid used in these conventional tests. In order to minimise the risk of false-positives, which may lead to regulatory non-compliance, a new high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed. Initially, carrageenan or PES is extracted with 2-propanol and subsequently reacted with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to form the chromophore formaldehyde-DNPH, which is finally quantified by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet light detection at 355 nm. This method has been found to have a limit of detection of 0.05 mg kg(-1) and a limit of quantification of 0.2 mg kg(-1). Recoveries from samples spiked with known quantities of formaldehyde were 95-107%. Using this more specific technique, 20 samples of carrageenan and PES were tested for formaldehyde. Only one sample had a detectable content of formaldehyde (0.40 mg kg(-1)), thus demonstrating that the formaldehyde content of commercial carrageenan and PES products are well below the European Commission maximum limit of 5 mg kg(-1).

  18. Study on saccharification techniques of seaweed wastes for the transformation of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Leilei; Wang, Peng; Mou, Haijin [College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, 5 Yushan Road, Qingdao, Shandong 266003 (China)

    2011-01-15

    Floating residue (FR), a surplus by-product from the alginate extraction process, contains large amount of cellulosic materials. The technical feasibility of FR utilization as a resource of renewable energy was investigated in this paper. The production of yeast-fermentable sugars (glucose) from FR was studied by dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and further enzymatic hydrolysis. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment was conducted by using sulfuric acid at concentration of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0%(w/v) for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 h respectively at 121 C. The system of enzymatic hydrolysis consisted of cellulase and cellobiase. Results showed that FR might be a perfect bioenergy resource, containing high content of cellulose (30.0 {+-} 0.07%) and little hemicellulose (2.2 {+-} 0.86%). The acid pretreatment improved the hydrolysis efficiency of cellulase and cellobiase by increasing the reaction surface area of FR and enhanced the final yield of glucose for fermentation. The maximum yield of glucose reached 277.5 mg/g FR under the optimal condition of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment (0.1% w/v, 121 C, 1.0 h) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis (50 C, pH 4.8, 48 h). After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 30 C for 36 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the concentrated hydrolysates reached 41.2%, which corresponds to 80.8% of the theoretical yield. It indicates that cellulose in seaweed processing wastes including FR is easily hydrolyzed to produce glucose in comparison with that in terrestrial plants. FR shows excellent prospects as a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. (author)

  19. Efficient approach for bioethanol production from red seaweed Gelidium amansii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ho Myeong; Wi, Seung Gon; Jung, Sera; Song, Younho; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Gelidium amansii (GA), a red seaweed species, is a popular source of food and chemicals due to its high galactose and glucose content. In this study, we investigated the potential of bioethanol production from autoclave-treated GA (ATGA). The proposed method involved autoclaving GA for 60min for hydrolysis to glucose. Separate hydrolysis and fermentation processing (SHF) achieved a maximum ethanol concentration of 3.33mg/mL, with a conversion yield of 74.7% after 6h (2% substrate loading, w/v). In contrast, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) produced an ethanol concentration of 3.78mg/mL, with an ethanol conversion yield of 84.9% after 12h. We also recorded an ethanol concentration of 25.7mg/mL from SSF processing of 15% (w/v) dry matter from ATGA after 24h. These results indicate that autoclaving can improve the glucose and ethanol conversion yield of GA, and that SSF is superior to SHF for ethanol production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enzymatic desulfation of the red seaweeds agar by Marinomonas arylsulfatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueyan; Duan, Delin; Fu, Xiaoting

    2016-12-01

    Agar and sulfated galactans were isolated from the red seaweeds Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis and Gelidium amansii. A previously purified arylsulfatase from Marinomonas sp. FW-1 was used to remove sulfate groups in agar and sulfated galactans. After enzymatic desulfation, the sulfate content decreased to about 0.16% and gel strength increased about two folds. Moreover, there was no difference between the DNA electrophoresis spectrum on the gel of the arylsulfatase-treated agar and that of the commercial agarose. In order to reveal the desulfation ratio and site, chemical and structural identification of sulfated galactan were carried out. G. amansii sulfated galactan with 7.4% sulfated content was composed of galactose and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose. Meanwhile, G. lemaneiformis sulfated galactan with 8.5% sulfated content was composed of galactose, 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose, 2-O-methyl-3,6-anhydro-l-galactose and xylose. Data from 13 C NMR, FT-IR, GC-MS provided evidence of sulfate groups at C-4 and C-6 of d-galactose and C-6 of l-galactose both in GRAP and GEAP. Data from GC-MS revealed that desulfation was carried out by the arylsulfatase at the sulfate bonds at C-4 and C-6 of d-galactose and C-6 of l-galactose, with a desulfation ratio of 83.4% and 86.0% against GEAP and GRAP, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of fermented seaweed sauce prepared from nori (Pyropia yezoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Motoharu; Kurushima, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kenji; Murata, Yuko; Touhata, Ken; Ishida, Noriko; Niwa, Kentaro; Araki, Toshiyoshi

    2017-03-01

    High-salt content seaweed sauces were prepared for the first time using nori (Pyropia yezoensis) by fermentation and characterized. Components and taste of the two nori sauces (NSs) prepared separately were compared with those of soy and fish sauces. The NSs were rich in total nitrogen compounds (1.5 g N/100 ml on average) and potassium (880 mg/100 g), and had a unique free amino acid composition (e.g., taurine 617 mg/100 g), explaining their unique taste as evaluated by a taste sensing system. As for their food function, inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was observed. As for their food safety, arsenic was detected at a 0.8 mg/100 g level in total, but inorganic arsenic was not detected (<0.05 mg/100 g) and not regarded as a problem. Allergy-causing substances contained in wheat, soy beans, and crustaceans were not detected (<0.1 mg/100 g) with NSs. These results suggest that the nori sauce has a high potential as a novel nutritional source for humans. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and certification of Sargasso seaweed reference material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Kensaku

    1988-01-01

    Sargasso seaweed reference material was prepared from Sargassum felvellum obtained from an unpolluted area in Japan. The sargasso samples were washed, freeze-dried, pulverized, sieved to pass a 80-mesh screen and finally homogenized. Collaborative studies on the elemental analysis of the sargasso reference material were performed using various analytical techniques. Certified values are provided for Ag, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Rb, Sr, V and Zn, based on results of determinations by at least three independent analytical techniques. Reference values are reported for Al, Br, Cl, Cr, Cs, Hg, I, P, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti and U. The sargasso certified reference material contains high levels of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, I, Br, As and U, while the concentration of trace elements may be considered to be at the lower end of the range of reported values for marine brown algae. The sargasso sample will be of practical use in marine and environmental sciences as a certified reference material having an elemental composition close to background levels.

  3. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salim, N.; Santoso, M.; Yanuar, A.; Damayanti; Kartawinata, T.G.

    2013-01-01

    Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) which is still far below the maximum tolerable level. (author)

  4. Seaweed Bioactive Compounds against Pathogens and Microalgae: Potential Uses on Pharmacology and Harmful Algae Bloom Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrifi, Soukaina El Amrani; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oudra, Brahim; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2018-02-09

    Cyanobacteria are found globally due to their adaptation to various environments. The occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms is not a new phenomenon. The bloom-forming and toxin-producing species have been a persistent nuisance all over the world over the last decades. Evidence suggests that this trend might be attributed to a complex interplay of direct and indirect anthropogenic influences. To control cyanobacterial blooms, various strategies, including physical, chemical, and biological methods have been proposed. Nevertheless, the use of those strategies is usually not effective. The isolation of natural compounds from many aquatic and terrestrial plants and seaweeds has become an alternative approach for controlling harmful algae in aquatic systems. Seaweeds have received attention from scientists because of their bioactive compounds with antibacterial, antifungal, anti-microalgae, and antioxidant properties. The undesirable effects of cyanobacteria proliferations and potential control methods are here reviewed, focusing on the use of potent bioactive compounds, isolated from seaweeds, against microalgae and cyanobacteria growth.

  5. Determination of Total Arsenic in Seaweed Products by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweed products are widely consumed as food nowadays. Seaweeds are known to contain arsenic due to their capability to accumulate arsenic from the environment. Arsenic is a known toxic element which naturally occurs in the environment. Ingestion of high levels of arsenic will cause several adverse health effects. Arsenic in food occurs at trace concentrations which require sensitive and selective analysis methods to perform elemental analysis on. Validated neutron activation analysis was used to determine the arsenic contents in seaweed products namely catoni from domestic product and nori from foreign products. The total arsenic concentration in the samples analyzed ranges from 0.79 mg/kg to 30.14 mg/kg with mean concentration 14.39 mg/kg. The estimated exposure to arsenic contributed by the analyzed products is from 0.07% up to 8.54% of the established provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI which is still far below the maximum tolerable level

  6. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria...... digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility...... of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development...

  7. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (combined production of fish, mussels and seaweed)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Silva Marinho, Goncalo; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    The Danish marine aquaculture has, despite the huge potential, only been slowly increasing the last 25 years because of the imposed limits to the nitrogen (N) released to the environment. Mussels, seaweed and other organisms have been successfully tested as biofilters in integrated multi-trophic ......The Danish marine aquaculture has, despite the huge potential, only been slowly increasing the last 25 years because of the imposed limits to the nitrogen (N) released to the environment. Mussels, seaweed and other organisms have been successfully tested as biofilters in integrated multi......, mineral and vitamin content and profiles were monitored to evaluate the nutritional value and harvest time of the seaweed biomass. Sugarkelp showed to be efficient for bioremediation of nitrogen, with environmental and potentially economic benefits (e.g. waste water management and for production...

  8. Effects of experimental seaweed deposition on lizard and ant predation in an island food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Schoener, Thomas W

    2011-01-28

    The effect of environmental change on ecosystems is mediated by species interactions. Environmental change may remove or add species and shift life-history events, altering which species interact at a given time. However, environmental change may also reconfigure multispecies interactions when both species composition and phenology remain intact. In a Caribbean island system, a major manifestation of environmental change is seaweed deposition, which has been linked to eutrophication, overfishing, and hurricanes. Here, we show in a whole-island field experiment that without seaweed two predators--lizards and ants--had a substantially greater-than-additive effect on herbivory. When seaweed was added to mimic deposition by hurricanes, no interactive predator effect occurred. Thus environmental change can substantially restructure food-web interactions, complicating efforts to predict anthropogenic changes in ecosystem processes.

  9. Development, characterization and potential applications of edible film from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moey, Siah Watt; Abdullah, Aminah; Ahmad, Ishak

    2014-09-01

    A new patent pending process is proposed in this study to produce edible film directly from seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). Seaweed together with other ingredients had been used to produce the film through casting technique. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on the edible film to examine the thickness, colour, transparency, solubility, tensile strength, elongation at break, water permeability rate, oxygen permeability rate and surface morphology. The produced film was transparent, stretchable, sealable and have basic properties for applications in food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, toiletries and also agricultural industries. Edible film was successfully developed directly from dry seaweed instead of using alginate and carrageenan. The edible film processing method developed in this research was easier and cheaper compared with the method by using alginate and carrageenan.

  10. Whole-body retention of 60Co incorporated into a seaweed in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Jiro; Nishimura, Yoshikazu; Ichikawa, Ryushi

    1979-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare whole-body retention in the rat of radiocobalt incorporated into a marine green alga with that of 60 Co in inorganic form. Ulva pertusa was incubated in aerated seawater containing 60 Co under fluorescent lamp for 7 days. The radioactive seaweed was homogenated and was given to rats via a stomach tube. The control group of rats was given 60 CoCl 2 with homogenate of non-radioactive seaweed. Whole-body retention of the radionuclide was determined by in vivo counting of the living animal. The result revealed that rats absorbed and retained much more 60 Co incorporated into the seaweed than 60 CoCl 2 . This fact should be taken into account in the estimation of internal dose due to radiocobalt released into marine environment. (author)

  11. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    , Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content......The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria....../kg CP). Digestible rumen escape protein (DEP) varied significantly between species (P Laminaria, Mastocarpus and Palmaria can supply...

  12. Ruminal and intestinal protein degradability of various seaweed species measured in situ in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayyab, Usama; Novoa-Garrido, Margarita; Roleda, Michael Y.

    2016-01-01

    The use of seaweeds in animal diets is not new. However, little is known about the feed value of seaweed, both in terms of chemical composition and protein digestibility, and regarding variation between species and season. In this study, eight seaweed species of the genus Acrosiphonia, Alaria......, Laminaria, Mastocarpus, Palmaria, Pelvetia, Porphyra, and Ulva were sampled in spring (March) and autumn (October and November) 2014 at the coast of Bodø in Northern Norway, and were analysed for chemical composition, in situ rumen degradability and total tract crude protein (CP) digestibility. Ash content...... for Pelvetia (90 g/kg DM). Spring samples were higher in CP than autumn samples. The effective degradability estimated at 5% rumen passage rate (ED5) of CP varied between species (P Ulva (240 g...

  13. Recovery of agricultural nutrients from biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Daniel E; Yang, Yu; McNamara, Patrick J; Mayer, Brooke K

    2016-09-01

    This review lays the foundation for why nutrient recovery must be a key consideration in design and operation of biorefineries and comprehensively reviews technologies that can be used to recover an array of nitrogen, phosphorus, and/or potassium-rich products of relevance to agricultural applications. Recovery of these products using combinations of physical, chemical, and biological operations will promote sustainability at biorefineries by converting low-value biomass (particularly waste material) into a portfolio of higher-value products. These products can include a natural partnering of traditional biorefinery outputs such as biofuels and chemicals together with nutrient-rich fertilizers. Nutrient recovery not only adds an additional marketable biorefinery product, but also avoids the negative consequences of eutrophication, and helps to close anthropogenic nutrient cycles, thereby providing an alternative to current unsustainable approaches to fertilizer production, which are energy-intensive and reliant on nonrenewable natural resource extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulphated Polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus Seaweeds both Inhibit Viral Attachment/Entry and Cell-Cell Fusion, in NDV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Aguilar-Briseño

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulphated polysaccharides (SP extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata, and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus, against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage.

  15. Sulphated polysaccharides from Ulva clathrata and Cladosiphon okamuranus seaweeds both inhibit viral attachment/entry and cell-cell fusion, in NDV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Briseño, José Alberto; Cruz-Suarez, Lucia Elizabeth; Sassi, Jean-François; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina; Trejo-Avila, Laura María

    2015-01-26

    Sulphated polysaccharides (SP) extracted from seaweeds have antiviral properties and are much less cytotoxic than conventional drugs, but little is known about their mode of action. Combination antiviral chemotherapy may offer advantages over single agent therapy, increasing efficiency, potency and delaying the emergence of resistant virus. The paramyxoviridae family includes pathogens causing morbidity and mortality worldwide in humans and animals, such as the Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in poultry. This study aims at determining the antiviral activity and mechanism of action in vitro of an ulvan (SP from the green seaweed Ulva clathrata), and of its mixture with a fucoidan (SP from Cladosiphon okamuranus), against La Sota NDV strain. The ulvan antiviral activity was tested using syncytia formation, exhibiting an IC50 of 0.1 μg/mL; ulvan had a better anti cell-cell spread effect than that previously shown for fucoidan, and inhibited cell-cell fusion via a direct effect on the F0 protein, but did not show any virucidal effect. The mixture of ulvan and fucoidan showed a greater anti-spread effect than SPs alone, but ulvan antagonizes the effect of fucoidan on the viral attachment/entry. Both SPs may be promising antivirals against paramyxovirus infection but their mixture has no clear synergistic advantage.

  16. The effects of feedstock pre-treatment and pyrolysis temperature on the production of biochar from the green seaweed Ulva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; de Nys, Rocky

    2016-03-15

    Green seaweeds from the genus Ulva are a promising feedstock for the production of biochar for carbon (C) sequestration and soil amelioration. Ulva can be cultivated in waste water from land-based aquaculture and Ulva blooms ("green tides") strand millions of tons of biomass on coastal areas of Europe and China each year. The conversion of Ulva into biochar could recycle C and nutrients from eutrophic water into agricultural production. We produce biochar from Ulva ohnoi, cultivated in waste water from an aquaculture facility, and characterize its suitability for C sequestration and soil amelioration through bio-chemical analyses and plant growth experiments. Two biomass pre-treatments (fresh water rinsing to reduce salt, and pelletisation to increase density) were crossed with four pyrolysis temperatures (300-750 °C). Biomass rinsing decreased the ash and increased the C content of the resulting biochar. However, biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass had a higher proportion of fixed C and a higher yield. C sequestration decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperatures due to the combination of lower yield and lower total C content of biochar produced at high temperatures. Biochar produced from un-rinsed biomass at 300 °C had the greatest gravimetric C sequestration (110-120 g stable C kg(-1) seaweed). Biochar produced from un-pelletised Ulva enhanced plant growth three-fold in low fertility soils when the temperature of pyrolysis was less than 450 °C. The reduced effectiveness of the high-temperature biochars (>450 °C) was due to a lower N and higher salt content. Soil ameliorated with biochar produced from pelletised biomass had suppressed plant germination and growth. The most effective biochar for C sequestration and soil amelioration was produced from un-rinsed and un-pelletised Ulva at 300 °C. The green tide that occurs annually along the Shandong coastline in China generates sufficient biomass (200,000 tons dry weight) to ameliorate 12,500

  17. Sensitivity and Acclimation of Three Canopy-Forming Seaweeds to UVB Radiation and Warming

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi; de Bettignies, Thibaut; Olsen, Ylva S.; Agusti, Susana; Duarte, Carlos M.; Wernberg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Canopy-forming seaweeds, as primary producers and foundation species, provide key ecological services. Their responses to multiple stressors associated with climate change could therefore have important knock-on effects on the functioning of coastal ecosystems. We examined interactive effects of UVB radiation and warming on juveniles of three habitat-forming subtidal seaweeds from Western Australia–Ecklonia radiata, Scytothalia dorycarpa and Sargassum sp. Fronds were incubated for 14 days at 16–30°C with or without UVB radiation and growth, health status, photosynthetic performance, and light absorbance measured. Furthermore, we used empirical models from the metabolic theory of ecology to evaluate the sensitivity of these important seaweeds to ocean warming. Results indicated that responses to UVB and warming were species specific, with Sargassum showing highest tolerance to a broad range of temperatures. Scytothalia was most sensitive to elevated temperature based on the reduced maximum quantum yields of PSII; however, Ecklonia was most sensitive, according to the comparison of activation energy calculated from Arrhenius’ model. UVB radiation caused reduction in the growth, physiological responses and thallus health in all three species. Our findings indicate that Scytothalia was capable of acclimating in response to UVB and increasing its light absorption efficiency in the UV bands, probably by up-regulating synthesis of photoprotective compounds. The other two species did not acclimate over the two weeks of exposure to UVB. Overall, UVB and warming would severely inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of these canopy-forming seaweeds and decrease their coverage. Differences in the sensitivity and acclimation of major seaweed species to temperature and UVB may alter the balance between species in future seaweed communities under climate change.

  18. Transcriptomic analysis of the red seaweed Laurencia dendroidea (Florideophyceae, Rhodophyta and its microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Louisi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seaweeds of the Laurencia genus have a broad geographic distribution and are largely recognized as important sources of secondary metabolites, mainly halogenated compounds exhibiting diverse potential pharmacological activities and relevant ecological role as anti-epibiosis. Host-microbe interaction is a driving force for co-evolution in the marine environment, but molecular studies of seaweed-associated microbial communities are still rare. Despite the large amount of research describing the chemical compositions of Laurencia species, the genetic knowledge regarding this genus is currently restricted to taxonomic markers and general genome features. In this work we analyze the transcriptomic profile of L. dendroidea J. Agardh, unveil the genes involved on the biosynthesis of terpenoid compounds in this seaweed and explore the interactions between this host and its associated microbiome. Results A total of 6 transcriptomes were obtained from specimens of L. dendroidea sampled in three different coastal locations of the Rio de Janeiro state. Functional annotations revealed predominantly basic cellular metabolic pathways. Bacteria was the dominant active group in the microbiome of L. dendroidea, standing out nitrogen fixing Cyanobacteria and aerobic heterotrophic Proteobacteria. The analysis of the relative contribution of each domain highlighted bacterial features related to glycolysis, lipid and polysaccharide breakdown, and also recognition of seaweed surface and establishment of biofilm. Eukaryotic transcripts, on the other hand, were associated with photosynthesis, synthesis of carbohydrate reserves, and defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of terpenoids through the mevalonate-independent pathway. Conclusions This work describes the first transcriptomic profile of the red seaweed L. dendroidea, increasing the knowledge about ESTs from the Florideophyceae algal class. Our data suggest an important role for L

  19. Sensitivity and Acclimation of Three Canopy-Forming Seaweeds to UVB Radiation and Warming

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Xi

    2015-12-02

    Canopy-forming seaweeds, as primary producers and foundation species, provide key ecological services. Their responses to multiple stressors associated with climate change could therefore have important knock-on effects on the functioning of coastal ecosystems. We examined interactive effects of UVB radiation and warming on juveniles of three habitat-forming subtidal seaweeds from Western Australia–Ecklonia radiata, Scytothalia dorycarpa and Sargassum sp. Fronds were incubated for 14 days at 16–30°C with or without UVB radiation and growth, health status, photosynthetic performance, and light absorbance measured. Furthermore, we used empirical models from the metabolic theory of ecology to evaluate the sensitivity of these important seaweeds to ocean warming. Results indicated that responses to UVB and warming were species specific, with Sargassum showing highest tolerance to a broad range of temperatures. Scytothalia was most sensitive to elevated temperature based on the reduced maximum quantum yields of PSII; however, Ecklonia was most sensitive, according to the comparison of activation energy calculated from Arrhenius’ model. UVB radiation caused reduction in the growth, physiological responses and thallus health in all three species. Our findings indicate that Scytothalia was capable of acclimating in response to UVB and increasing its light absorption efficiency in the UV bands, probably by up-regulating synthesis of photoprotective compounds. The other two species did not acclimate over the two weeks of exposure to UVB. Overall, UVB and warming would severely inhibit the growth and photosynthesis of these canopy-forming seaweeds and decrease their coverage. Differences in the sensitivity and acclimation of major seaweed species to temperature and UVB may alter the balance between species in future seaweed communities under climate change.

  20. A comprehensive study of metal distribution in three main classes of seaweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Siobhan; McLoughlin, Peter; O'Donovan, Orla

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides one of the most comprehensive studies of metal distributions in three main macroalgae species. In this novel study, levels of total, intracellular and surface bound Pb, Zn, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Ni associated with Polysiphonia lanosa (L) Tandy, Ascophyllum nodosum (L) Le Jolis, Fucus vesiculosus (L) and Ulva sp. were determined. Additionally, water and sediment metal levels were analysed to gain an insight into the relative uptake efficiencies of different macroalgal species. Samples were collected from a clean site in Fethard-on-Sea, Wexford, Ireland (52°11′53.68′N, 6°49′34.64′W), in May 2008. Results demonstrated that total, intracellular and surface bound metal levels varied according to metal and seaweed species, with the highest proportion of metals found to be intracellular. Inhibition of Mn uptake by Zn was indicated for P. lanosa. Furthermore, P. lanosa had enhanced bioaccumulation ability, with the highest Concentration Factor reported of any seaweed to date. - Highlights: ► Three main classes of seaweed were collected from the South-East coast of Ireland. ► Metal levels (total, intracellular and surface-bound) in four seaweed species were determined. ► Metal levels of seawater and sediment samples collected from the same location were quantified. ► The Concentration Factors for P. lanosa, A. nodosum, F. vesiculosus and Ulva sp., were calculated. ► Interspecies variations in seaweed metal concentrations were demonstrated. - This study, reports the most comprehensive uptake efficiencies and distributions of metals in four main seaweed sps., with P. lanosa demonstrating excellent bioaccumulation ability.

  1. A study on lead-210 distribution in seaweeds of the Krusadai island, Gulf of Mannaar, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somasundaram, S.S.N.; Shahul, P.; Ravikumar, S.; Masilamani, V.

    1998-01-01

    Presented here is the natural radioactivity distribution of a beta emitting radionuclide, 210 Pb in water, sediment and some economically important seaweeds collected from Krusadai island in the south east coast of India. It is observed that the dissolved 210 Pb concentration in sea water was found to be 4.20 mBq -1 and the activity in sediment was found to be 27.60 Bq kg -1 . The 210 Pb was observed to be non-uniformly distributed among the seaweeds which maintain the following descending order: Ulva reticulata (4.40 Bq kg -1 )>Hypnea valentiae (2.75 Bq kg -1 )> Gracilaria edulis (2.38 Bq kg -1 )>Sargasum wightii (1.86 Bq kg -1 )> Sargassum ilicifolium (1.82 Bq kg -1 )> Cystophyllum murictum (1.53 Bq kg -1 )> Turbinaria conoides (1.48 Bq kg -1 )>Gelidiella acerosa (1.45 Bq kg -1 ). The general range of concentration factors for the algae varies between 10 2 and 10 3 . This study also measured the 210 Po/ 210 Pb activity ratios in water, sediment and seaweeds of Krusadai island. The results demonstrate that while dissolved 210 Pb ratios in sea water are less than unity (0.66), there is a gradual enhancement of these ratios in island sediment (1.31) and seaweeds (4.00 - 16.27). Significantly high ratios were recorded in some seaweed species like Cystophyllum murictum and Sargassum wightii with a typical range observed from 16.27 to 11.88. The significance of 210 Pb in the seaweeds is discussed. (author)

  2. Screening for the presence of antimicrobial activity in few Indian seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Garg, Aakriti; Chatterji, A.

    ). Chemical variation in the tropical seaweed Stypopodium zonale (Dictyotaceae). Phytochem., 24, 1279-1283. Jimenez-Escrig, Antonio and Goni, Isabel Cambrodón.(1999). A., Evaluación nutricional y efectos fisiológicos de macroalgas marinas comestibles.... Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición, 49: 114–120 Goñi. Mabeau, S. and Fleurence J. (1993). Seaweed in food products: biochemical and nutritional aspects. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 4, 103–107. Olesen, P.E., Maretaki A. and Almodovar L...

  3. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M.K.; Benmansour, M.; Carvalho, F.P.

    2014-01-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The 40K, 137Cs, 234U and 239þ240Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values...... for 12 other radionuclides (90Sr, 99Tc, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 228Th, 230Th, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 239Pu and 240Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation...

  4. Cost-effective IMTA: a comparison of the production efficiencies of mussels and seaweed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt, Susan Løvstad; Edwards, M. D.

    results compared to production cost of €209-672 kg-1 N removed and €1,013 kg-1 N removed for respectively Laminaria digitata and Alaria esculenta from extrapolated laboratory and field trials. However, a commercial seaweed (Saccharina latissima) producer claims that production costs are less than €10 kg-1...... N removed. This up-scaled and commercial figure makes the seaweed cost competitive to mussels for removal of nitrogen. Disadvantages such as predators (e.g. eider ducks) and bio-fouling should also be taken into account before choice of biofilter is made. These drawbacks can reduce overall biofilter...

  5. Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Ayyappan, Suganya; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1.4 billion people in 73 countries worldwide are threatened by lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection that leads to a disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Filariasis is vectored by mosquitoes, with special reference to the genus Culex. The main control tool against mosquito larvae is represented by treatments with organophosphates and insect growth regulators, with negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective larvicidals against mosquito vectors. In this research, we attempted a reply to the following question: do green-synthesized nanoparticles affect predation rates of copepods against mosquito larvae? We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the frond extract of Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The toxicity of the seaweed extract and silver nanoparticles was assessed against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Then, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus against larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus in a nanoparticle-contaminated water environment. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the LC₅₀ values of the C. scalpelliformis extract against C. quinquefasciatus were 31.38 ppm (I), 46.49 ppm (II), 75.79 ppm (III), 102.26 ppm (IV), and 138.89 ppm (pupa), while LC₅₀ of silver nanoparticles were 3.08 ppm, (I), 3.49 ppm (II), 4.64 ppm (III), 5.86 ppm (IV), and 7.33 ppm (pupa). The predatory efficiency of the copepod M. longisetus in the control treatment was 78 and 59% against I and II instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. In a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, predation efficiency was 84 and 63%, respectively. Predation was higher against first instar larvae over other instars

  6. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng Bai

    Full Text Available Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  7. Comparative study on the in vitro effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and seaweed alginates on human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shaofeng; Chen, Huahai; Zhu, Liying; Liu, Wei; Yu, Hongwei D; Wang, Xin; Yin, Yeshi

    2017-01-01

    Alginates pertain to organic polysaccharides that have been extensively used in food- and medicine-related industries. The present study obtained alginates from an alginate overproducing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 mutant by screening transposon mutagenesis libraries. The interaction between bacterial and seaweed alginates and gut microbiota were further studied by using an in vitro batch fermentation system. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated that both bacterial and seaweed alginates can be completely degraded by fecal bacteria isolated from study volunteers, indicating that a minor structural difference between bacterial and seaweed alginates (O-acetylation and lack of G-G blocks) didn't affect the digestion of alginates by human microbiota. Although, the digestion of bacterial and seaweed alginates was attributed to different Bacteroides xylanisolvens strains, they harbored similar alginate lyase genes. Genus Bacteroides with alginate-degrading capability were enriched in growth medium containing bacterial or seaweed alginates after in vitro fermentation. Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in both bacterial and seaweed alginates was also comparable, but was significantly higher than the same medium using starch. In summary, the present study has isolated an alginate-overproducing P. aeruginosa mutant strain. Both seaweed and bacterial alginates were degraded by human gut microbiota, and their regulatory function on gut microbiota was similar.

  8. Effect of seaweed on mechanical, thermal, and biodegradation properties of thermoplastic sugar palm starch/agar composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumaidin, Ridhwan; Sapuan, Salit M; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ishak, Mohamad R; Sahari, Japar

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the characteristics of thermoplastic sugar palm starch/agar (TPSA) blend containing Eucheuma cottonii seaweed waste as biofiller. The composites were prepared by melt-mixing and hot pressing at 140°C for 10min. The TPSA/seaweed composites were characterized for their mechanical, thermal and biodegradation properties. Incorporation of seaweed from 0 to 40wt.% has significantly improved the tensile, flexural, and impact properties of the TPSA/seaweed composites. Scanning electron micrograph of the tensile fracture showed homogeneous surface with formation of cleavage plane. It is also evident from TGA results that thermal stability of the composites were enhanced with addition of seaweed. After soil burial for 2 and 4 weeks, the biodegradation of the composites was enhanced with addition of seaweed. Overall, the incorporation of seaweed into TPSA enhances the properties of TPSA for short-life product application such as tray, plate, etc. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Arsenic removal from water using iron-coated seaweeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Bárbara R C; Pintor, Ariana M A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S; Santos, Sílvia C R

    2017-05-01

    Arsenic is a semi-metal element that can enter in water bodies and drinking water supplies from natural deposits and from mining, industrial and agricultural practices. The aim of the present work was to propose an alternative process for removing As from water, based on adsorption on a brown seaweed (Sargassum muticum), after a simple and inexpensive treatment: coating with iron-oxy (hydroxides). Adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were studied and modeled in terms of As oxidation state (III and V), pH and initial adsorbate concentration. Maximum adsorption capacities of 4.2 mg/g and 7.3 mg/g were obtained at pH 7 and 20 °C for arsenite and arsenate, respectively. When arsenite was used as adsorbate, experimental evidences pointed to the occurrence of redox reactions involving As(III) oxidation to As(V) and Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II), with As(V) uptake by the adsorbent. The proposed adsorption mechanism was then based on the assumption that arsenate was the adsorbed arsenic species. The most relevant drawback found in the present work was the considerable leaching of iron to the solution. Arsenite removal from a mining-influenced water by adsorption plus precipitation was studied and compared to a traditional process of coagulation/flocculation. Both kinds of treatment provided practically 100% of arsenite removal from the contaminated water, leading at best in 12.9 μg/L As after the adsorption and precipitation assays and 14.2 μg/L after the coagulation/flocculation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Global Database of Litterfall Mass and Litter Pool Carbon and Nutrients

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Measurement data of aboveground litterfall and littermass and litter carbon, nitrogen, and nutrient concentrations were extracted from 685 original literature...

  11. The effect of chronic seaweed subsidies on herbivory: plant-mediated fertilization pathway overshadows lizard-mediated predator pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovia-Scott, Jonah; Spiller, David A; Takimoto, Gaku; Yang, Louie H; Wright, Amber N; Schoener, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Flows of energy and materials link ecosystems worldwide and have important consequences for the structure of ecological communities. While these resource subsidies typically enter recipient food webs through multiple channels, most previous studies focussed on a single pathway of resource input. We used path analysis to evaluate multiple pathways connecting chronic marine resource inputs (in the form of seaweed deposits) and herbivory in a shoreline terrestrial ecosystem. We found statistical support for a fertilization effect (seaweed increased foliar nitrogen content, leading to greater herbivory) and a lizard numerical response effect (seaweed increased lizard densities, leading to reduced herbivory), but not for a lizard diet-shift effect (seaweed increased the proportion of marine-derived prey in lizard diets, but lizard diet was not strongly associated with herbivory). Greater seaweed abundance was associated with greater herbivory, and the fertilization effect was larger than the combined lizard effects. Thus, the bottom-up, plant-mediated effect of fertilization on herbivory overshadowed the top-down effects of lizard predators. These results, from unmanipulated shoreline plots with persistent differences in chronic seaweed deposition, differ from those of a previous experimental study of the short-term effects of a pulse of seaweed deposition: while the increase in herbivory in response to chronic seaweed deposition was due to the fertilization effect, the short-term increase in herbivory in response to a pulse of seaweed deposition was due to the lizard diet-shift effect. This contrast highlights the importance of the temporal pattern of resource inputs in determining the mechanism of community response to resource subsidies.

  12. Role of dietary seaweed supplementation on growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Peixoto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to appraise growth performance, digestive capacity and immune and stress responsiveness in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax when fed diets supplemented with seaweeds. A control diet (without supplementation was tested against 6 practical diets supplemented either with Gracilaria spp., Ulva spp., or Fucus spp., at 2.5 or 7.5% levels, plus an additional diet with a blend of the three seaweeds, each supplemented at 2.5% (Mix. Seabass juveniles (24.0 ± 6.3 g were fed the experimental diets for 84 days. Dietary seaweed supplementation had no effect on growth rate (DGI: 1.0–1.1, voluntary feed intake (11.3–12.6 g kg −1 ABW−1 day−1, feed conversion ratio (FCR: 1.2–1.4 and protein efficiency ratio (PER: 1.5–1.8. Lipase activity was significantly higher in fish fed Mix diet when compared to control (P < 0.05. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx was significantly affected by seaweeds presence regardless its level of supplementation (P < 0.05. The innate immune system was significantly altered by dietary seaweed supplementation (P < 0.05. Fish fed the 7.5% seaweed supplemented diets had a significant decrease in the ACH50 level, when compared to fish fed 2.5% seaweed supplemented diets (P < 0.05. Moreover, a combined effect of seaweed and supplementation level significantly affected lysozyme (LYS activity (P < 0.05. Fish fed diet with Ulva at 2.5% had an increase in LYS when compared to fish fed control and Ulva at 7.5% diets. Overall, our results indicate that the use of dietary seaweed supplementation improves immune and antioxidant responses in European seabass without compromising growth performance.

  13. A new HPLC method for the detection of iodine applied to natural samples of edible seaweeds and commercial seaweed food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschke, Udo; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2015-04-01

    Rich in micronutrients and considered to contain high iodine levels, seaweeds have multiple applications as food/supplements and nutraceuticals with potential health implications. Here, we describe the development and validation of a new analytical method to quantify iodine as iodide (I(-)) using an isocratic HPLC system with UV detection; algal iodine was converted to I(-) via dry alkaline incineration. The method was successfully applied to 19 macroalgal species from three taxonomic groups and five commercially available seaweed food products. Fesh kelps contained highest levels, reaching >1.0% per dry weight (DW), but concentrations differed amongst thallus parts. In addition to kelps, other brown (Fucales: ∼ 0.05% DW) and some red species (∼ 0.05% DW) can also serve as a rich source of iodine; lowest iodine concentrations were detected in green macroalgae (∼ 0.005% DW), implying that quantities recommended for seaweed consumption may require species-specific re-evaluation to reach adequate daily intake levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep and on in vitro gas production kinetics

    OpenAIRE

    EL-WAZIRY, Ahmed; AL-HAIDARY, Ahmed; OKAB, Aly; SAMARA, Emad; ABDOUN, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of dietary seaweed (Ulva lactuca) supplementation on growth performance of sheep, in vitro gas production, estimated energy, and microbial protein synthesis. A total of 18 Naimey male sheep with average live weight of 22.78 ± 0.24 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups. Sheep in group 1 were fed a diet containing commercial feed without seaweed as a control diet, sheep in group 2 were fed the control diet with 3% seaweed, and sheep in group 3...

  15. A Meta-Analysis of Seaweed Impacts on Seagrasses: Generalities and Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. S.; Wernberg, T.; Engelen, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    review of available published manipulative experiments (all conducted at the patch-scale), to test which attributes of seaweeds and seagrasses (e.g., their abundances, sizes, morphology, taxonomy, attachment type, or origin) influence impacts. Weighted and unweighted meta-analyses (Hedges d metric) of 59...

  16. Butanol fermentation of the brown seaweed Laminaria digitata by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoru; From, Nikolaj; Angelidaki, Irini; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Bjerre, Anne-Belinda

    2017-08-01

    Seaweed represents an abundant, renewable, and fast-growing biomass resource for 3rd generation biofuel production. This study reports an efficient butanol fermentation process carried out by Clostridium beijerinckii DSM-6422 using enzymatic hydrolysate of the sugar-rich brown seaweed Laminaria digitata harvested from the coast of the Danish North Sea as substrate. The highest butanol yield (0.42g/g-consumed-substrates) compared to literature was achieved, with a significantly higher butanol:acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) molar ratio (0.85) than typical (0.6). This demonstrates the possibility of using the seaweed L. digitata as a potential biomass for butanol production. For the first time, consumption of alginate components was observed by C. beijerinckii DSM-6422. The efficient utilization of sugars and lactic acid further highlighted the potential of using this strain for future development of large-scale cost-effective butanol production based on (ensiled) seaweed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Abreu, Maria Helena; Araujo, Rita; Bruhn, Annette; Coates, Juliet C; De Clerck, Olivier; Katsaros, Christos; Robaina, Rafael R; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles - from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms - using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. SPARK-UP; Seaweed Production And Refining of Kelp, Ulva and Palmaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wald, J.; Visser, de W.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Werf, van der A.K.; Deelman, Berth-Jan; Helmendach-Nieuwenhuize, Carola

    2016-01-01

    In het SPARK-UP project, waarin de partners Arkema, PRI-WUR en North Seaweed samenwerkten aan de ontwikkeling van toepassing van zeewier in de biobased economy, is de afgelopen jaren veel werk verzet. In een bassin op het terrein van Arkema, heeft PRI een teeltsysteem opgezet en in gebruik genomen,

  19. Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moenne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA, jasmonic acid (JA and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i Pathogenesis-Related (PR proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and lipoxygenase (LOX which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants.

  20. Optimization on Pretreatment Conditions of Seaweed Liquid Waste for Bio ethanol Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Zatul-Iffah Zakaria; Dachyar Arbain; Mohd Noor Ahmad; Mohd Irfan Hatim Mohamed Dzahir

    2015-01-01

    Seaweed liquid waste (SLW) from a non-conventional seaweed (Gracilaria sp.) drying process where the seaweed is ruptured and filter-squeezed has been investigated. The liquid contains proteins and minerals which potentially pollute the environment if it is not been properly treated. For that reason, this paper deals with study on the feasibility of SLW utilization as a feedstock for bio ethanol production. The fermentation of bio ethanol production was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which ethanol produced was measured by gas chromatography. In order to increase its fermentable sugar content, the SLW was treated with dilute acid. Center composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) had been used to optimize the sugar content by varying the parameters involved in the dilute acid pretreatment conditions. These are sulphuric acid concentration (M), temperature (degree Celsius) and seaweed waste concentration (g/ ml). It was obtained that the R 2 value reached 0.97 indicating that the model is acceptable. The three parameters showed p-value less than 0.05 suggesting their significance interactions. The optimization resulted 25 times improvement of reducing sugar concentration. The reducing sugar resulting from the optimized pretreatment was later used as fermentation medium to produce ethanol up to 123.197 mg/ l. (author)

  1. Development and phytochemical content analysis of bun incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii seaweed powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasue, Anita; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Consumer awareness of the importance of functional foods has greatly grown in the past years. Functional foods with elevated levels of antioxidants are of high demand because of its associated health benefits. As bread is a common component in our daily diet, it may be convenient food to deliver antioxidants at a high concentration. The main approach of this study is to incorporate Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed powder (SWP) and white flour in the bun formulation in order to develop seaweed bun with higher level of phytochemicals. The fresh Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweeds were washed, soaked in distilled water overnight, dried in a cabinet dryer at 40°C for 24 hours and ground into fine powder using universal miller. There were five different percentages of SWP incorporated into bun that were formulation A - control (0% SWP), B (3% SWP), C (6% SWP), D (9% SWP) and E (12% SWP). All the samples were undergone texture, total phenolic content and DPPH analysis. Seaweed concentration had most significant effect on phytochemical constituents of the bun with TPC (35.07 GAE, mg/100g) and DPPH activity (49.02%) maximized when 12% SWP was incorporated into the flour (P<0.05). The incorporation of the SWP also gives significant effects towards the texture of the bun where the bun becomes harder and denser as compared to the control.

  2. Effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on the immune performance of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Masafumi; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Okamura, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Eisaku; Tamura, Katsuo; Shimizu, Yuuko; Suda, Yoshihito; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2011-04-01

    In pig production, dietary additive antibiotics are usually used for growth stimulation and disease prevention, although there is public concern about the increased incidence of resistant antibiotics and food safety. It is possible that such antibiotics might be replaced by naturally derived products such as seaweed and licorice. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dietary addition of seaweed and licorice on enhancing the immune function in swine. The animals of each group (eight animals per group) were sensitized at day 42 and 49, and the immunoglobulin production and the expression of cytokines were detected by the ELISA and real-time PCR. As the results, saliva IgA production of the seaweed-treated group increased around five times compared to that of control (day 56). Delayed hypersensitivity reaction and IgG production of the seaweed-treated group increased around 1.8-2.0 times. In addition, enhanced saliva IgA production was detected at day 50 (around two times) and day 51 (around five times) by the licorice treatment, and lower expression level of tumor necrosis factor-α messenger RNA at day 51 (around 1/25) was observed in the licorice treatment. We conclude that the replacement of antibiotics by naturally derived dietary additives might be feasible for immune system enhancement. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. The role of seaweed bioactives in the control of digestion: implications for obesity treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Peter I; Wilcox, Matthew D; Houghton, David; Pearson, Jeffrey P

    2015-11-01

    Seaweeds are an underutilised nutritional resource that could not only compliment the current western diet but potentially bring additional health benefits over and above their nutritional value. There are four groups of seaweed algae; green algae (Chlorophyceae), red algae (Rhodophycae), blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) and brown algae (Phaeophyceae). Seaweeds are rich in bioactive components including polysaccharides and polyphenols. Polysaccharides content, such as fucoidan, laminarin, as well as alginate is generally high in brown seaweeds which are also a source of polyphenols such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, phlorotannin, stilbenes and lignans. These components have been shown to reduce the activity of digestive enzymes, modulating enzymes such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, pepsin and lipase. This review discusses the effect of several of these components on the digestive processes within the gastrointestinal tract; focusing on the effect of alginate on pancreatic lipase activity and its potential health benefits. Concluding that there is evidence to suggest alginate has the potential to be used as an obesity treatment, however, further in vivo research is required and an effective delivery method for alginate must be designed.

  4. Development of Seaweed-based Biopolymers for Edible Films and Lectins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praseptiangga, D.

    2017-04-01

    Marine macroalgae (seaweeds) as one of important groups of biopolymers play an important role in human life. Biopolymers have been studied regarding their film-forming properties to produce edible films intended as food packaging and active ingredient carriers. Edible film, a thin layer or which is an integral part of food and can be eaten together with, have been used to avoid food quality deterioration due to physico-chemical changes, texture changes, or chemical reactions. Film-forming materials can be utilized individually or as mixed composite blends. Proteins and polysaccharides used for their mechanical and structural properties, and hydrophobic substances (lipids, essential oils, and emulsifiers) to provide good moisture barrier properties. In addition, bioactive substances from marine natural products, including seaweeds, have been explored for being used in the fields of medicine, food science, pharmaceutical science, biochemistry, and glycobiology. Among them, lectins or carbohydrate-binding proteins from seaweeds have recently been remarked. Lectins (hemagglutinins) are widely distributed in nature and also good candidates in such prospecting of seaweeds. They are useful as convenient tools to discriminate differences in carbohydrate structures and reveal various biological activities through binding and interacting to carbohydrates, suggesting that they are promising candidates for medicinal and clinical application.

  5. Improvement in the bioenergetics system of plants under metal stress environment via seaweeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmat, R.; Askari, S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Hg and its remediation through seaweeds on seedlings were escorted in a greenhouse experiment in a randomized block design. The effects of Hg were monitored in relation with bioenergetics system of Trigonella foenumgraecum plant at test site scale. Plants that were exposed to Hg, showed affect in diverse ways, including affinity to suffer in morphological as well as on sugar metabolism. The stress imposed by Hg exposure also extends to chloroplast pigments that lead to the distorted photosynthetic apparatus. The outcomes of reduced contents of photosynthetic machinery related with reduced contents of glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugars and carbohydrate contents of plants. These contents plays vital rule for providing bioenergy to the plant growth regulation. It was suggested that Hg is lethal for plant bioenergetics system due to which plants fail to survive under stress. The lethal effects of Hg were tried to remediate through green seaweeds (Codium iyengrii). It was observed that seaweeds successfully controlled the mobility of Hg metal and improves the plant growth regulatory system at lower applied dose only. While at higher dose of Hg, seaweeds were also effective but to a certain limits. It was established that continuous addition of Hg in soil and aquatic resources execute to the plant productivity. It is demand of time to develop alternative eco-friendly remediation technologies for controlling, cleaning Hg-polluted zones. (author)

  6. Production of acetone, butanol, and ethanol from biomass of the green seaweed Ulva lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der H.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Brandenburg, W.A.; Lopez Contreras, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Green seaweed Ulva lactuca harvested from the North Sea near Zeeland (The Netherlands) was characterized as feedstock for acetone, ethanol and ethanol fermentation. Solubilization of over 90% of sugars was achieved by hot-water treatment followed by hydrolysis using commercial cellulases. A

  7. Digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo bagaço de cana-de-açúcar obtido pelo método de extração por difusão ou por moagem convencional Digestibility of nutrients and ruminal characteristics in beef cattle fed rations containing sugarcane bagasse obtained by diffusion or conventional milling extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Márcio Arakaki Rabelo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da utilização do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar in natura (BIN, obtido pelo método de extração do açúcar por difusão (BINdif ou moagem convencional (BINmoa como fonte de fibra íntegra, associado ao bagaço tratado sob pressão e vapor (BTPV sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte. Quatro machos da raça Nelore, não-castrados, com fístulas ruminais e peso vivo médio inicial de 380 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental quadrado latino 4 × 4. Os tratamentos foram compostos das combinações dos bagaços: 5% BINmoa + 45% BTPV; 5% BINdif + 45% BTPV; 10% BINdif + 40% BTPV; 15% BINdif + 35% BTPV. A utilização do BIN obtido por difusão, mesmo no nível mais elevado, não teve efeito sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes (MS, MO, PB, FDN, FDA e EE da dieta. Entretanto, o fornecimento do bagaço obtido por difusão provocou redução nos consumos de MS, MO, PB e FDN em relação ao bagaço obtido por moagem. A produção total de ácidos graxos voláteis no rúmen, a porcentagem molar dos ácidos acético, propiônico e butírico, a relação acético/propiônico, o pH ruminal e a concentração ruminal de nirogênio amoniacal não diferiram entre os bagaços fornecidos. A utilização do bagaço obtido pelo processo de difusão ou de moagem convencional como fonte de fibra íntegra associado ao bagaço tratado sob pressão e vapor não prejudicou a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais de bovinos de corte alimentados com rações contendo 50% de concentrado.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding sugarcane bagasse, obtained by extraction of sugar using diffusion (BINdif or conventional milling (BINmoa method, as a fiber source associated with bagasse treated under pressure and steam (BTPV on nutrient digestibility and ruminal characteristics in beef cattle. Four Nellore young bulls (380 kg

  8. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now performing uranium testing. We surveyed the distribution of background environmental radiation and radioactive materials around the plant before its full operation and studied causes of their fluctuation. The 99 Tc concentrations of edible seaweed (Konbu) collected in the northern part of Japan are reported here. Since the plant will release small amounts of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater near the plant might possibly increase in the future. Seaweeds are important food items in Japan, and concentrate some radionuclides in seawater. Therefore, the 99 Tc concentrations in edible seaweeds before the full plant's operation are important to investigate the effect of the plant on the local environmental radioactivity. However, there are few reports of concentrations in edible seaweeds in the world, including those of Japan. Because concentrations of this nuclide in a general environmental sample are extremely low, it is difficult to determine them using conventional radioanalytical techniques. In this study, Tc in a sample was simply and rapidly separated from matrix elements by a solid phase chromatographic resin and an anion exchange resin, successively. The nuclide was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Radioactivity of 137 Cs in the sample was also measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. In 2004, fishing industry cooperative associations of Aomori, Iwate and Hokkaido provided 15 edible seaweed (Konbu) samples, 11 Laminaria japonica and one each of L. ochotensis, L. angustata L. diabolica and L. longissima. Concentrations of 99 Tc in L. japonica ranged from 3.9 to 74 mBq kg -1 -dry, and mean value was 31 mBq kg -1 -dry. Concentrations in other edible seaweeds in Hokkaido were 3.4 - 6.2 mBq kg -1 -dry, except for L. longissima, which was lower than the detection limit (2.4 mBq kg -1 -dry

  9. Characterization of edible seaweed harvested on the Galician coast (northwestern Spain) using pattern recognition techniques and major and trace element data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romarís-Hortas, Vanessa; García-Sartal, Cristina; Barciela-Alonso, María Carmen; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2010-02-10

    Major and trace elements in North Atlantic seaweed originating from Galicia (northwestern Spain) were determined by using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) (Ba, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Sr, and Zn), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) (Br and I) and hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) (As). Pattern recognition techniques were then used to classify the edible seaweed according to their type (red, brown, and green seaweed) and also their variety (Wakame, Fucus, Sea Spaghetti, Kombu, Dulse, Nori, and Sea Lettuce). Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used as exploratory techniques, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) were used as classification procedures. In total, t12 elements were determined in a range of 35 edible seaweed samples (20 brown seaweed, 10 red seaweed, 4 green seaweed, and 1 canned seaweed). Natural groupings of the samples (brown, red, and green types) were observed using PCA and CA (squared Euclidean distance between objects and Ward method as clustering procedure). The application of LDA gave correct assignation percentages of 100% for brown, red, and green types at a significance level of 5%. However, a satisfactory classification (recognition and prediction) using SIMCA was obtained only for red seaweed (100% of cases correctly classified), whereas percentages of 89 and 80% were obtained for brown seaweed for recognition (training set) and prediction (testing set), respectively.

  10. Serum IGF-1 concentrations change with soy and seaweed supplements in healthy postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R; Savarese, Todd M; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seaweed also is consumed regularly in Asian countries where breast cancer risk is low. We investigated the possibility that seaweed could modify soy-associated increases in IGF-1 in American women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal women (mean age 58 yr) participated in this 14-wk double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial. Participants consumed 5 g/day placebo or seaweed (Alaria esculenta) in capsules for 7 wk. During the 7th wk, a high-soy protein isolate powder was added (2 mg/kg body weight aglycone equivalent isoflavones). Overnight fasting blood samples were collected after each intervention period. Soy significantly increased serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to the placebo (21.2 nmol/L for soy vs. 16.9 nmol/L for placebo; P = 0.0001). The combination of seaweed and soy significantly reduced this increase by about 40% (21.2 nmol/L for soy alone vs. 19.4 nmol/L; P = 0.01). Concurrent seaweed and soy consumption may be important in modifying the effect of soy on IGF-1 serum concentrations.

  11. Evaluation of Supercritical Extracts of Algae as Biostimulants of Plant Growth in Field Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Dmytryk, Agnieszka; Wilk, Rados?aw; Gramza, Mateusz; R?j, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the field trials was to determine the influence of supercritical algal extracts on the growth and development of winter wheat (variety Akteur). As a raw material for the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the biomass of microalga Spirulina plantensis, brown seaweed – Ascophyllum nodosum and Baltic green macroalgae was used. Forthial and Asahi SL constituted the reference products. It was found that the tested biostimulants did not influence statistically significantly the plant...

  12. β-D-(1→4), β-D-(1→3) 'mixed linkage' xylans from red seaweeds of the order Nemaliales and Palmariales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Adriano G; Noseda, Miguel D; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Yokoya, Nair; Matulewicz, Maria C; Cerezo, Alberto S

    2011-06-01

    Xylans from five seaweeds belonging to the order Nemaliales (Galaxaura marginata, Galaxaura obtusata, Tricleocarpacylindrica, Tricleocarpa fragilis, and Scinaia halliae) and one of the order Palmariales (Palmaria palmata) collected on the Brazilian coasts were extracted with hot water and purified from acid xylomannans and/or xylogalactans through Cetavlon precipitation of the acid polysaccharides. The β-D-(1→4), β-D-(1→3) 'mixed linkage' structures were determined using methylation analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The presence of large sequences of β-(1→4)-linked units suggests transient aggregates of ribbon- or helical-ordered structures that would explain the low optical rotations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Abscisic acid, gibberellins and brassinosteroids in Kelpak (R), a commercial seaweed extract made from Ecklonia maxima

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stirk, W. A.; Tarkowská, Danuše; Turečková, Veronika; Strnad, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2014), s. 561-567 ISSN 0921-8971 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LK21306; GA ČR GA206/09/1284; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abscisic acid * Agricultural biostimulant * Brassinosteroids Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.559, year: 2014

  14. Nutrient regulation in a predator, the wolf spider Pardosa prativaga

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Mayntz, David; Toft, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient balancing is well known in herbivores and omnivores, but has only recently been demonstrated in predators. To test how a predator might regulate nutrients when the prey varies in nutrient composition, we restricted juvenile Pardosa prativaga wolf spiders to diets of one of six fruit fly......, Drosophila melanogaster, prey types varying in lipid:protein composition during their second instar. We collected all fly remnants to estimate food and nutrient intake over each meal. The spiders adjusted their capture rate and nutrient extraction in response to prey mass and nutrient composition...... irrespective of energy intake. Intake was initially regulated to a constant lipid plus protein mass, but later spiders fed on prey with high proportions of protein increased consumption relative to spiders fed on other prey types. This pattern indicates that the spiders were prepared to overconsume vast...

  15. Sea-to-land transfer of technetium-99 through the use of contaminated seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Shona; Salt, Carol A.; Howard, Brenda J.

    2003-01-01

    The use of seaweed as an agricultural soil conditioner gives rise to a potential pathway for the transfer of Technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from marine to terrestrial ecosystems and thence to man. However, to date there is little information on the extent of the release of 99 Tc from seaweed into soil and the mechanisms involved. This pot experiment has shown that 99 Tc is released fairly rapidly from Fucus vesiculosus into a sandy coastal soil. Despite low temperature conditions, 60% of the 99 Tc added with the seaweed had accumulated in the soil 15 weeks after addition. Concurrent CO 2 monitoring (used as a measure of microbial decomposition or catabolism) suggested that the initial 99 Tc release (up to 40% in the first 8 weeks) was due to leaching from the seaweed and that microbial decomposition was responsible for the release of the remaining 99 Tc in the latter phase (12-15 weeks)

  16. Selection of sustainable seaweed and grouper aquaculture development strategy: a case of Pulau Panjang, Serang Regency Banten Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarwo, P. A.; Fitriyanny, W. P.; Heriati, A.; Hakim, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Due to their high-income contribution, seaweed and grouper aquacultures are important activities in Pulau Panjang community. Determining alternative strategies in developing sustainable aquaculture for seaweed and grouper and their priority factors from theses aquaculture activities are done using TOPSIS and AHP analysis. It was found that the development strategy that must be taken is the option to maintain aquaculture activities, while, environment factor is the highest priority to maintain seaweed and grouper aquaculture in Pulau Panjang. Then three priorities are obtained from environment factor. The first is to maintain the water quality by the growth requirements of seaweed and grouper by encouraging the formation of “Environmental Community Awareness” that involved the active participation of the community to maintain quality and carrying capacity of the environment. Second is to use of natural or artificial coastal protectors (soft structure). The third priority strategy is integration and real implementation of heavy metal pollution control between government, industry sector and society.

  17. Seaweed as innovative feedstock for energy and feed – Evaluating the impacts through a Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Romeo, Daina; D'Este, Martina

    2017-01-01

    a comparative Life Cycle Assessment of five scenarios identifying the critical features affecting resource efficiency and environmental performance of the systems with the aim of providing decision support for the design of future industrial scale production processes. The results show that all scenarios......Offshore cultivation of seaweed provides an innovative feedstock for biobased products supporting blue growth in northern Europe. This paper analyzes two alternative exploitation pathways: energy and protein production. The first pathway is based on anaerobic digestion of seaweed which is converted...... into biogas, for production of electricity and heat, and digestate, used as fertilizer; the second pathway uses seaweed hydrolysate as a substrate for cultivation of heterotrophic microalgae. As a result the seaweed sugars are consumed while new proteins are produced enhancing the total output. We performed...

  18. Development and Validation of Quantitative (1)H NMR Spectroscopy for the Determination of Total Phytosterols in the Marine Seaweed Sargassum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Li; Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Pei-Yu; Liu, Hong-Bing

    2016-08-10

    Knowledge of phytosterol (PS) contents in marine algae is currently lacking compared to those in terrestrial plants. The present studies developed a quantitative (1)H NMR method for the determination of the total PSs in Sargassum. The characteristic proton signal H-3α in PSs was used for quantification, and 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-nitrobenzene was used as an internal standard. Seaweed samples could be recorded directly after total lipid extraction and saponification. The results showed that the PS contents in Sargassum fusiforme (788.89-2878.67 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those in Sargassum pallidum (585.33-1596.00 mg/kg). The variable contents in both species suggested that fixed raw materials are very important for future research and development. Orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis was carried out in the spectral region of δ 3.00-6.50 in the (1)H NMR spectrum. S. fusiforme and S. pallidum could be separated well, and the key sterol marker was fucosterol.

  19. Iodine 129 measurements by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. Results in seaweeds (Fucus serratus et laminaria digitata)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maro, D.; Hebert, D.; Gandon, R.; Solier, L.

    1999-01-01

    A iodine selective radiochemistry method was developed to measure 129 I(period 1,57 x 10 10 7 years) by gamma spectrometry in biological samples. This method avoids using neutron activation analysis or accelerator mass spectrometry. The method is based on iodine extraction from samples in order to obtain an aqueous matrix with no attenuation agent except 127 I(stable isotope). The parallel determination of 127 I allows to correct 129 I measurements for self attenuation and also monitor seasonal changes in iodine metabolism in biological species. Measurements were performed in two seaweed species (Fucus serratus and Laminaria digitata) samples in the area of La Hague reprocessing plant discharge between January and February 1997). Samples from stations close to the point of release (Goury and Herquemoulin), showed 129 I activities around 60 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and around 300 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 300 km away from the realize point, 129 I activities were 10 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and 171 Bq kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. 127 I concentrations were between 547 and 1,232 mg kg -1 dry weight in Fucus serratus and between 6,624 and 14,296 mg kg -1 dry weight in Laminaria digitata. (authors)

  20. Characterization of protein, lipid and mineral contents in common Norwegian seaweeds and evaluation of their potential as food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehre, Hanne K; Malde, Marian K; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Elvevoll, Edel O

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine protein and amino acid composition, lipid and fatty acid composition, along with a range of essential minerals in common Norwegian seaweed species representing the red (Palmaria palmata and Vertebrata lanosa), green (Cladophora rupestris, Enteromorpha intestin