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Sample records for seasonal pattern assessment

  1. The seasonality of bipolar affective disorder: comparison with a primary care sample using the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shand, Allen J; Scott, Neil W; Anderson, Seonaid M; Eagles, John M

    2011-07-01

    In contrast with recurrent unipolar depression, relatively little is known about the seasonality of depressive episodes in bipolar affective disorder (BAD). We compared responses on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) between a cohort of 183 patients with BAD and a large sample of patients in primary care (N=4746). Comparisons were adjusted for age and gender. 27% of the BAD patients fulfilled SPAQ criteria for Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD. This gave an adjusted odds ratio of 3.73 (95% confidence intervals 2.64 to 5.27) in comparison with the rate among the primary care samples. Global seasonality scores were significantly higher among BAD patients (adjusted mean difference 1.73, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.49, pseasonal symptom recurrence in BAD may be important with regard to management and relapse prevention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Test-retest reliability of the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire in Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehner, Ryan M; Vaswani, Dipika; Raheja, Uttam K; Sleemi, Aamar; Yousufi, Hassaan; Mohyuddin, Hira; Postolache, Nadine; Nijjar, Gagan Virk; Postolache, Teodor T

    2013-02-01

    Research on test-retest reliability of the Season Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) is sparse, and to date, has not been done with subgroups such as the Old Order Amish. We examined the test-retest reliability of the SPAQ in a sample of Old Order Amish. A total of 68 Old Order Amish participants completed the SPAQ twice, with 4 months between administrations. Quantitative data analyses were carried out to determine respective strengths of test-restest reliability for two variables [i.e., Global Seasonality Score (GSS), and Problem Rating Score (PRS)]. Results revealed the test-retest reliability of the SPAQ in this population to be strong within the respective variables (GSS, α= 0.87; and PRS, α= 0.79) using Cronbach's alpha.

  3. Assessing seasonality in clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, Ton J.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal patterns are assumed in many fields of medicine. However, biological processes are full of variations and the possibility of chance findings can often not be ruled out. Using simulated data we assess whether auto correlation is helpful to minimize chance findings and test to support the

  4. Seasonal patterns of deaths in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S; Weng, S

    1998-10-01

    Deaths exhibit a seasonal pattern in most parts of the world. Analyses of deaths for the years 1972-1974 from the vital registration system of Matlab, Bangladesh, published in this journal 17 years ago, showed sinusoidal seasonal patterns. As death rates have declined in other nations, the seasonal pattern is attenuated. Death rates have declined substantially in Bangladesh in the past two decades. Thus, the present study examines monthly counts of deaths from Matlab data for a period 15 years later and tests the hypothesis of a decrease or shift in seasonality over time. Trigonometric regression models were fit to monthly data by age and cause of death from the Matlab vital registration system for the years 1982-1990. A total of 20,328 death records were available for analyses. In the recent period significant sinusoidal seasonal patterns are found in all but one of the age and cause of death groups. Total deaths peak in the winter as do neonatal deaths but post-neonatal and child deaths are maximum in April and July respectively. Among cause groups, injury deaths (mostly attributed to drowning) show the greatest seasonal swing. The time of peak has only shifted for one age group--neonates--since the 1972-1974 period. The magnitude of the seasonal swing has declined significantly only for the neonatal age group and injury cause of death group. Marked seasonal patterns of deaths persist in the Matlab area of Bangladesh even as the level of mortality has declined.

  5. Recognizing changing seasonal patterns using neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); G. Draisma (Gerrit)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we propose a graphical method based on an artificial neural network model to investigate how and when seasonal patterns in macroeconomic time series change over time. Neural networks are useful since the hidden layer units may become activated only in certain seasons or

  6. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF SEASONALITY PATTERNS IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Petrevska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes an attempt empirically to investigate the presence of seasonality patterns in tourism. For that purpose, the case of Macedonia is elaborated by introducing data referring tourist arrivals for the period 1992- 2012. The analysis is based upon employment of the Gini coefficient, as one of the most commonly applied indicators for measuring and expressing inequalities caused by temporary disorders. The computed data reject the research hypothesis and highlights new facts regarding seasonality in tourism demand in Macedonia. Namely, the outcomes point to conclusion of absence of seasonality i.e. tourism flow concentration is not significant to tourism development. Hence, this study underlines that the up-to-date modest tourism results must not be addressed to seasonality as strong and limiting factor for tourism development in Macedonia, since there is no such.

  7. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri Assays in the Assessment of Seasonal and Spatial Patterns in Toxicity of Contaminated River Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarque, Sergio; Masner, Petr; Klánová, Jana; Prokeš, Roman; Bláha, Ludek

    2016-01-01

    Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic). Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity). Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC) was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  8. Bioluminescent Vibrio fischeri assays in the assessment of seasonal and spatial patterns in toxicity of contaminated river sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jarque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria-based assays, notably Vibrio fischeri luminescence assays, are often used as environmental monitoring tool for toxicity in sediments that may serve as both sinks and secondary source of contamination in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we used 30-s kinetic bioassays based on V. fischeri to evaluate the toxicity associated to sediments from five localities with different contamination inputs (Morava River and its tributary Drevnice River in the south-eastern part of the Czech Republic. Toxicity assessed as half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 over the course of a year-long sampling was compared in bottom sediments and freshly trapped particulate material. Standard approach based on testing of aqueous elutriates was compared with toxicity of whole sediments (contact suspension toxicity. Bottom sediments showed lower toxicity compared to freshly trapped suspended materials in all cases. On the other hand, standardized elutriates induced generally weaker effects than suspended sediments likely due to losses during the extraction process. Toxicity generally increased during winter reaching maximum peaks in early spring months in all five sites. Total organic carbon (TOC was found to be highly correlated with toxic effects. Toxicity from sites with direct industrial and agricultural water inputs also correlated with concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Single time point sampling followed by the extraction and testing of elutriates, do not truly reflect the spatial and temporal variability in natural sediments and may lead to underestimation of ecotoxic risks.

  9. Seasonal Prediction of Taiwan's Streamflow Using Teleconnection Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Jeng; Lee, Tsung-Yu

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal streamflow as an integrated response to complex hydro-climatic processes can be subject to activity of prevailing weather systems potentially modulated by large-scale climate oscillations (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). To develop a seamless seasonal forecasting system in Taiwan, this study assesses how significant Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow in different seasons correlate with selected teleconnection patterns. Long-term precipitation and streamflow data in three major precipitation seasons, namely the spring rains (February to April), Mei-Yu (May and June), and typhoon (July to September) seasons, are derived at 28 upstream and 13 downstream catchments in Taiwan. The three seasons depict a complete wet period of Taiwan as well as many regions bearing similar climatic conditions in East Asia. Lagged correlation analysis is then performed to investigate how the precipitation and streamflow data correlate with predominant teleconnection indices at varied lead times. Teleconnection indices are selected only if they show certain linkage with weather systems and activity in the three seasons based on previous literature. For instance, the ENSO and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, proven to influence East Asian climate across seasons and summer typhoon activity, respectively, are included in the list of climate indices for correlation analysis. Significant correlations found between Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow and teleconnection indices are further examined by a climate regime shift (CRS) test to identify any abrupt changes in the correlations. The understanding of existing CRS is useful for informing the forecasting system of the changes in the predictor-predictand relationship. To evaluate prediction skill in the three seasons and skill differences between precipitation and streamflow, hindcasting experiments of precipitation and streamflow are conducted using stepwise linear regression models. Discussion and suggestions for coping

  10. Factors influencing the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.

  11. Seasonality patterns of mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Falguni; Postolache, Nadine; Mohyuddin, Hira; Vaswani, Dipika; Balis, Theodora; Raheja, Uttam K; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-12-01

    Although humans have become partially isolated from physical seasonal environmental changes through artificial lighting and temperature control, seasonal changes in mood and behavior have been described across hemispheres, continents, ethnicities and occupations. The Old Order Amish are more exposed than the general population to environmental seasonal changes both occupationally as well as through their limited use of electric light in the winter and air conditioning in the summer; yet, their seasonal changes in mood and behavior have not been previously studied. The aim of this study was to analyze seasonal patterns in mood and behavior in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, who returned completed Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaires (SPAQ). Monthly seasonal patterns were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVAs, followed by a post hoc t-test if significant. The χ2 was used for presence or absence of seasonal patterns for each item. More than 75% of the participants reported at least one seasonal change. More than 75 % endorsed seasonality in "feeling best" but only <25% did so for "feeling worst". Mood-wise, the best month was May, and the worst months were January and February. There were significant seasonal patterns for all mood and behavior items reported by the majority of participants. The results were consistent with an overall winter pattern of seasonality previously consistently reported in predominantly Caucasian populations.

  12. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Sherri

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as "winter blues." Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  13. Retrospective assessment of seasonal allergic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J

    2003-01-01

    The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled...

  14. Seasonal variation in plants consumption pattern by foraging Olive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Parkia biglobosa, Piliostigma thonningii, Pterocarpus erinaceus , Prosopis africana, Ficus sycomorus, Xamenia americana, Annona senegalensis and Vitex doniana) were consumed during the dry season with 315 feeding events. The feeding pattern shows that plants with higher nutritional quality were often consumed.

  15. The potential of high-frequency profiling to assess vertical and seasonal patterns of phytoplankton dynamics in lakes: An extension of the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentrup, Jennifer A.; Williamson, Craig E.; Colom-Montero, William; Eckert, Werner; de Eyto, Elvira; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Huot, Yannick; Isles, Peter D. F.; Knoll, Lesley B.; Leach, Taylor H.; McBride, Christopher G.; Pierson, Don; Pomati, Francesco; Read, Jordan S.; Rose, Kevin C.; Samal, Nihar R.; Staehr, Peter A.; Winslow, Luke A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of high-frequency sensors on profiling buoys to investigate physical, chemical, and biological processes in lakes is increasing rapidly. Profiling buoys with automated winches and sensors that collect high-frequency chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) profiles in 11 lakes in the Global Lake Ecological Observatory Network (GLEON) allowed the study of the vertical and temporal distribution of ChlF, including the formation of subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SSCM). The effectiveness of 3 methods for sampling phytoplankton distributions in lakes, including (1) manual profiles, (2) single-depth buoys, and (3) profiling buoys were assessed. High-frequency ChlF surface data and profiles were compared to predictions from the Plankton Ecology Group (PEG) model. The depth-integrated ChlF dynamics measured by the profiling buoy data revealed a greater complexity that neither conventional sampling nor the generalized PEG model captured. Conventional sampling techniques would have missed SSCM in 7 of 11 study lakes. Although surface-only ChlF data underestimated average water column ChlF, at times by nearly 2-fold in 4 of the lakes, overall there was a remarkable similarity between surface and mean water column data. Contrary to the PEG model’s proposed negligible role for physical control of phytoplankton during the growing season, thermal structure and light availability were closely associated with ChlF seasonal depth distribution. Thus, an extension of the PEG model is proposed, with a new conceptual framework that explicitly includes physical metrics to better predict SSCM formation in lakes and highlight when profiling buoys are especially informative.

  16. SRKW seasonal occurence - Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct Population...

  17. Contrasting patterns of litterfall seasonality and seasonal changes in litter decomposability in a tropical rainforest region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, S. A.; Valdez-Ramirez, V.; Congdon, R. A.; Williams, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The seasonality of litter inputs in forests has important implications for understanding ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. We quantified the drivers of seasonality in litterfall and leaf decomposability using plots throughout the Australian wet tropical region. Litter fell mostly in the summer (wet, warm) months in the region, but other peaks occurred throughout the year. Litterfall seasonality was modelled well with the level of deciduousness of the site (plots with more deciduous species had lower seasonality than evergreen plots), temperature (higher seasonality in the uplands), disturbance (lower seasonality with more early secondary species) and soil fertility (higher seasonality with higher N : P/P limitation) (SL total litterfall model 1 = deciduousness + soil N : P + early secondary sp.: r2 = 0.63, n = 30; model 2 = temperature + early secondary sp. + soil N : P: r2 = 0.54, n = 30; SL leaf = temperature + early secondary sp. + rainfall seasonality: r2 = 0.39, n = 30). Leaf litter decomposability was lower in the dry season than in the wet season, driven by higher phenolic concentrations in the dry, with the difference exacerbated particularly by lower dry season moisture. Our results are contrary to the global trend for tropical rainforests; in that seasonality of litterfall input was generally higher in wetter, cooler, evergreen forests, compared to generally drier, warmer, semi-deciduous sites that had more uniform monthly inputs. We consider this due to more diverse litter shedding patterns in semi-deciduous and raingreen rainforest sites, and an important consideration for ecosystem modellers. Seasonal changes in litter quality are likely to have impacts on decomposition and biogeochemical cycles in these forests due to the litter that falls in the dry season being more recalcitrant to decay.

  18. Seasonal patterns of acute and recurrent idiopathic pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yoav; Bishara, Jihad; Eisen, Alon; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Kornowski, Ran; Mager, Aviv

    2017-09-15

    Idiopathic pericarditis is presumed to result from viral infection. The incidence rates of some viral infections have typical seasonal patterns. The data in the literature on a possible seasonal pattern of acute pericarditis are very limited. The mechanism and possible seasonality of recurrent episodes are not well established . The incidence of acute idiopathic pericarditis has a seasonal pattern. The computerized database of a tertiary, university-affiliated hospital was searched for all patients admitted with a first episode of acute idiopathic pericarditis between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2015. Patients for whom a nonviral etiology for the pericarditis was identified were excluded. The final cohort included 175 patients (75% male) ages 19 to 86 years (median = 50.0 ± 18.2 years). The incidence of the disease was twice as high during the colder half of the year (October-March) than the warmer half, peaking in the first quarter (January-March, P = 0.001). This first-quarter peak was observed in each of the 6 years examined. Comparison of the patients who acquired pericarditis during peak and nonpeak quarters yielded no differences in baseline characteristics, peak body temperature, white blood cell count, C-reactive protein level, or frequency of myocardial involvement or liver enzyme elevation. No seasonal pattern was identified for recurrent episodes of pericarditis (n = 57). Acute idiopathic pericarditis appears to have a seasonal pattern with a distinct late winter peak. No seasonal pattern was identified for recurrent episodes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Seasonal Affective Disorder: An Overview of Assessment and Treatment Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal affective disorder or SAD is a recurrent major depressive disorder with a seasonal pattern usually beginning in fall and continuing into winter months. A subsyndromal type of SAD, or S-SAD, is commonly known as “winter blues.” Less often, SAD causes depression in the spring or early summer. Symptoms center on sad mood and low energy. Those most at risk are female, are younger, live far from the equator, and have family histories of depression, bipolar disorder, or SAD. Screening instruments include the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ. Typical treatment includes antidepressant medications, light therapy, Vitamin D, and counselling. This paper provides an overview of SAD.

  20. Seasonal hydrologic buffer on continents: Patterns, drivers and ecological benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppel, Sylvain; Fan, Ying; Jobbágy, Esteban G.

    2017-04-01

    Continental precipitation returns to the atmosphere and the ocean with a delay that is critical in regulating seasonal water supply to ecosystems and societies. We quantify the magnitude and spatial patterns of this seasonal hydrologic buffer, its climatic and terrain drivers, and its apparent benefits to ecosystems using observed precipitation, climate reanalysis evaporation, GRACE seasonal water storage change, and MODIS vegetation index for a 1°× 1° global grid. We found that (1) seasonal hydrologic buffering is widespread and averages 241 mm.yr-1 on land (a quarter of continental precipitation); it supports evaporation 3-to-9 months of the year over all regions except the per-humid tropics and energy limited high latitudes, (2) the seasonal climatic water imbalance, with surplus in some months and deficit in others, drives hydrologic buffering in lower latitudes, while it is controlled by snow/ice storage in high latitudes, (3) the main terrain effect at our scale of analysis is grid-to-grid water transfer via large rivers providing lateral subsidy to lowland basins, and (4) buffering is manifested in global patterns of plant water use, as shown by high evaporation levels in water deficit conditions, particularly under tropical monsoonal climate. Our results highlight the paramount role of seasonal land water storage and redistribution in supporting ecosystem productivity, and provide a reference to understanding likely impacts of global change on the water cycle and ecosystem dynamics in the future.

  1. Seasonal changes in the learning and activity patterns of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashoua, V E

    1973-08-10

    Goldfish exhibit cyclic changes with an annual rhythm in their learning and activity patterns. Maximum learning ability and active behavior occurred during the months of January, February, and March. Poor learning was obtained in the summer months, after the onset of the spawning season. The results indicate that the annual periodic changes of the hormonal levels which govern spawning may also influence learning and activity patterns.

  2. Exploratory wavelet analysis of dengue seasonal patterns in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Niño, Julián Alfredo; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Luz Mery; Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Palacio-Mejía, Lina Sofía; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés

    2015-12-04

    Dengue has a seasonal behavior associated with climatic changes, vector cycles, circulating serotypes, and population dynamics. The wavelet analysis makes it possible to separate a very long time series into calendar time and periods. This is the first time this technique is used in an exploratory manner to model the behavior of dengue in Colombia.  To explore the annual seasonal dengue patterns in Colombia and in its five most endemic municipalities for the period 2007 to 2012, and for roughly annual cycles between 1978 and 2013 at the national level.  We made an exploratory wavelet analysis using data from all incident cases of dengue per epidemiological week for the period 2007 to 2012, and per year for 1978 to 2013. We used a first-order autoregressive model as the null hypothesis.  The effect of the 2010 epidemic was evident in both the national time series and the series for the five municipalities. Differences in interannual seasonal patterns were observed among municipalities. In addition, we identified roughly annual cycles of 2 to 5 years since 2004 at a national level.  Wavelet analysis is useful to study a long time series containing changing seasonal patterns, as is the case of dengue in Colombia, and to identify differences among regions. These patterns need to be explored at smaller aggregate levels, and their relationships with different predictive variables need to be investigated.

  3. Bipolar disorder with seasonal pattern: clinical characteristics and gender influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Bellivier, Frank; Scott, Jan; Boudebesse, Carole; Lajnef, Mohamed; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Etain, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology with heterogeneous clinical presentations. Around 25% of BD patients may present with a depressive seasonal pattern (SP). However, there is limited scientific data on the prevalence of SP, its clinical manifestations and any gender influence. Four hundred and fifty-two BD I and II cases (62% female), recruited from three French university-affiliated psychiatric departments, were assessed for SP. Clinical, treatments and socio-demographic variables were obtained from structured interviews. One hundred and two (23%) cases met DSM-IV criteria for SP, with similar frequency according to gender. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between SP and BD II (OR=1.99, p=0.01), lifetime history of rapid cycling (OR=2.05, p=0.02), eating disorders (OR=2.94, p=0.003) and total number of depressive episodes (OR=1.13, p=0.002). 71% of cases were correctly classified by this analysis. However, when stratifying the analyses by gender, SP was associated with BD II subtype (OR=2.89, p=0.017) and total number of depressive episodes (OR=1.21, p=0.0018) in males but with rapid cycling (OR=3.02, p=0.0027) and eating disorders (OR=2.60, p=0.016) in females. This is the first study to identify different associations between SP and clinical characteristics of BD according to gender. We suggest that SP represents a potentially important specifier of BD. Our findings indicate that seasonality may reflect increased severity or complexity of disorder. PMID:23931033

  4. Bipolar disorder with seasonal pattern: clinical characteristics and gender influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Bellivier, Frank; Scott, Jan; Boudebesse, Carole; Lajnef, Mohamed; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Etain, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology with heterogeneous clinical presentations. Around 25% of BD patients may present with a depressive seasonal pattern (SP). However, there are limited scientific data on the prevalence of SP, its clinical manifestations, and any gender influence. Four hundred and fifty-two BD I and II cases (62% female), recruited from three French university-affiliated psychiatric departments, were assessed for SP. Clinical, treatment, and sociodemographic variables were obtained from structured interviews. One hundred and two (23%) cases met DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) criteria for SP, with similar frequency according to gender. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between SP and BD II (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, p = 0.01), lifetime history of rapid cycling (OR = 2.05, p = 0.02), eating disorders (OR = 2.94, p = 0.003), and total number of depressive episodes (OR = 1.13, p = 0.002). Seventy-one percent of cases were correctly classified by this analysis. However, when stratifying the analyses by gender, SP was associated with BD II subtype (OR = 2.89, p = 0.017) and total number of depressive episodes (OR = 1.21, p = 0.0018) in males but with rapid cycling (OR = 3.02, p = 0.0027) and eating disorders (OR = 2.60, p = 0.016) in females. This is the first study to identify different associations between SP and clinical characteristics of BD according to gender. The authors suggest that SP represents a potentially important specifier of BD. These findings indicate that seasonality may reflect increased severity or complexity of disorder.

  5. Seasonal pattern of the acute mortality effects of air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; Lin, Hung-Mo; Stewart, Walter F; Kong, Linli; Xu, Fen; Zhou, Denjin; Zhu, Zhicao; Liang, Shengwen; Chen, Weiqing; Shah, Nirav; Stetter, Christy; He, Qingci

    2010-04-01

    Evidence of seasonal variation of acute mortality effects of air pollution is inconsistent. The seasonal patterns of associations between daily mortality and daily mean concentrations of particulate matter 10 microm or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were examined using 4 yr of data (2001-2004) in Wuhan, China. Four distinct seasons occur in Wuhan, where approximately 4.5 million residents live in the city core area of 201 km2. Air pollution levels are higher and pollution ranges are wider in Wuhan than in most cities. Quasi-likelihood estimation within the context of the generalized additive models (natural spline [NS] models in R) was used to model the natural logarithm of the expected daily death counts as a function of the predictor variables. The estimates of the interaction between seasons and pollution were obtained from the main effects and pollutant season interaction models. It was found that the interactions between three pollutants and cause-specific mortality were statistically significant (P PM10 daily concentration at lag 0-1 days was associated with an increase in all-natural mortality of 0.69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44-0.94%) for winter, 0.34% (95% CI: 0.00-0.69%) for spring, 0.45% (95% CI: -0.13 to 1.04%) for summer, and -0.21% (95% CI: -0.54 to 0.12%) for fall. The results show a clear seasonal pattern of acute mortality effects of ambient air pollution and the strongest effects occurred during winter in the study city.

  6. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  7. Large-scale patterns of fruiting seasonality across the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Irene; Peres, Carlos A.; Morellato, L. Patrícia C.

    2014-05-01

    Organisms have different phases during their life cycles and their timing of occurrence is affected by a combination of both abiotic and biotic factors. In the case of plants, the timing of fruiting is very sensitive to environmental factors and subjected to a variable degree of seasonality (i.e. intra-annual changes), but we still lack of a clearer understanding of the triggers of their phenology over large geographic scales. This is particularly true for the tropics, where the high diversity of species magnifies the spectrum of phenological patterns. It has been pointed out that fruit production in the tropics is predominantly aseasonal, favoring that frugivore animals get resources all over the year. We present here the results of an extensive review of fruiting phenology all over the Neotropics based upon more than 200 datasets collected in different vegetation types, combining both published and unpublished data. Contrary to the hypothesis that fruiting in the tropics is commonly aseasonal, our results showed a marked seasonality for the majority of vegetation types, although there was a high degree of variability in fruiting patterns. Ongoing research is elucidating the latitudinal correlation of fruiting seasonality with climatic variables such as rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration, irradiance or daylength. The detection of the periods of fruits scarcity and abundance has a capital importance for the conservation of frugivore animals. A better understanding of the correlates between fruiting seasonality and climate helps in the forecasting of species' phenological responses to ongoing climate change

  8. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  9. Seasonal patterns in human A (H5N1 virus infection: analysis of global cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya B Mathur

    Full Text Available Human cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI A (H5N1 have high mortality. Despite abundant data on seasonal patterns in influenza epidemics, it is unknown whether similar patterns exist for human HPAI H5N1 cases worldwide. Such knowledge could help decrease avian-to-human transmission through increased prevention and control activities during peak periods.We performed a systematic search of published human HPAI H5N1 cases to date, collecting month, year, country, season, hemisphere, and climate data. We used negative binomial regression to predict changes in case incidence as a function of season. To investigate hemisphere as a potential moderator, we used AIC and the likelihood-ratio test to compare the season-only model to nested models including a main effect or interaction with hemisphere. Finally, we visually assessed replication of seasonal patterns across climate groups based on the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.We identified 617 human cases (611 with complete seasonal data occurring in 15 countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. Case occurrence was much higher in winter (n = 285, p = 0.03 than summer (n = 64, and the winter peak occurred across diverse climate groups. There was no significant interaction between hemisphere and season.Across diverse climates, HPAI H5N1 virus infection in humans increases significantly in winter. This is consistent with increased poultry outbreaks and HPAI H5N1 virus transmission during cold and dry conditions. Prioritizing prevention and control activities among poultry and focusing public health messaging to reduce poultry exposures during winter months may help to reduce zoonotic transmission of HPAI H5N1 virus in resource-limited settings.

  10. Seasonal movement, residency, and migratory patterns of Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Brittany B.; Haig, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-seasonal studies of avian movement establish links between geographically distinct wintering, breeding, and migratory stopover locations, or assess site fidelity and movement between distinct phases of the annual cycle. Far fewer studies have investigated individual movement patterns within and among seasons over an annual cycle. Within western Oregon's Willamette Valley throughout 2007, we quantified intra- and interseasonal movement patterns, fidelity (regional and local), and migratory patterns of 37 radiomarked Wilson's Snipe (Gallinago delicata) to elucidate residency in a region of breeding- and wintering-range overlap. Telemetry revealed complex regional population structure, including winter residents (74%), winter transients (14%), summer residents (9%), and one year-round resident breeder (3%). Results indicated a lack of connectivity between winter and summer capture populations, some evidence of partial migration, and between-season fidelity to the region (winter-resident return; subsequent fall). Across seasons, the extent of movements and use of multiple wetland sites suggested that Wilson's Snipe were capable of exploratory movements but more regularly perceived local and fine-scale segments of the landscape as connected. Movements differed significantly by season and residency; individuals exhibited contracted movements during late winter and more expansive movements during precipitation-limited periods (late spring, summer, fall). Mean home-range size was 3.5 ± 0.93 km2 (100% minimum convex polygon [MCP]) and 1.6 ± 0.42 km2 (95% fixed kernel) and did not vary by sex; however, home range varied markedly by season (range of 100% MCPs: 1.04–7.56 km2). The results highlight the need to consider seasonal and interspecific differences in shorebird life histories and space-use requirements when developing regional wetland conservation plans.

  11. Seasonal spectral response patterns of winter wheat canopy for crop performance monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancheva, Rumiana; Georgiev, Georgi

    2013-10-01

    Agricultural monitoring is an important and continuously spreading activity in remote sensing and applied Earth observations. It supplies valuable information on crop condition and growth processes. Much research has been carried out on vegetation phenology issues. In agriculture, the timing of seasonal cycles of crop activity is important for species classification and evaluation of crop development, growing conditions and potential yield. The correct interpretation of remotely sensed data, however, and the increasing demand for data reliability require ground-truth knowledge of the seasonal spectral behaviuor of different species and their relation to crop vigour. For this reason, we performed groundbased study of the seasonal response of winter wheat reflectance patterns to crop growth patterns. The goal was to quantify crop seasonality by establishing empirical relationships between plant biophysical and spectral properties in main ontogenetic periods. Phenology and agr-specific relationships allow to assess crop condition during different portions of the growth cycle and thus effectively track plant development and make yield predictions. The applicability of different vegetation indices for monitoring crop seasonal dynamics, health condition, and yield potential was examined.

  12. Seasonal pattern to multiple sclerosis in newborns in Bashkortostan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magzhanov R.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research objective is to investigate the seasonal pattern to multiple sclerosis (MS in newborns in the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB depending on months of year in comparison with the RB population. Materials. Months of the birth of 1224 patients with MS republican have been analyzed in the center of the Republic of Bashkortostan (Ufa. The data of patients were compared to the data of birth rate in the RB within a year. Results. The majority of patients was born in May (12%, and the minimal amount of patients was determined in November (5.6% and December (4.4% that authentically differs from the rate of birth in various months of the year in the RB (p<0.05. Conclusion. Data provided by foreign researchers concerning influence of such environmental factor as insolation on pre-natal development were confirmed in the work.

  13. Modeling seasonal detection patterns for burrowing owl surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quresh S. Latif; Kathleen D. Fleming; Cameron Barrows; John T. Rotenberry

    2012-01-01

    To guide monitoring of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Coachella Valley, California, USA, we analyzed survey-method-specific seasonal variation in detectability. Point-based call-broadcast surveys yielded high early season detectability that then declined through time, whereas detectability on driving surveys increased through the season. Point surveys...

  14. Seasonal and diel patterns in cetacean use and foraging at a potential marine renewable energy site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuuttila, Hanna K; Bertelli, Chiara M; Mendzil, Anouska; Dearle, Nessa

    2017-11-03

    Marine renewable energy (MRE) developments often coincide with sites frequented by small cetaceans. To understand habitat use and assess potential impact from development, echolocation clicks were recorded with acoustic click loggers (C-PODs) in Swansea Bay, Wales (UK). General Additive Models (GAMs) were applied to assess the effects of covariates including month, hour, tidal range and temperature. Analysis of inter-click intervals allowed the identification of potential foraging events as well as patterns of presence and absence. Data revealed year-round presence of porpoise, with distinct seasonal and diel patterns. Occasional acoustic encounters of dolphins were also recorded. This study provides further evidence of the need for assessing temporal trends in cetacean presence and habitat use in areas considered for development. These findings could assist MRE companies to monitor and mitigate against disturbance from construction, operation and decommissioning activities by avoiding times when porpoise presence and foraging activity is highest in the area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Seasonal and distributional patterns of seabirds along the Aleutian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M.; Hunt, G.L.; Piatt, John F.; Byrd, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is of global importance to seabirds during the northern summer, but little is known about seabird use of these waters during winter. We compare summer and winter abundances of seabirds around 3 islands: Buldir in the western, Kasatochi in the central, and Aiktak in the eastern Aleutians. The density of combined seabird biomass in nearshore marine waters was higher in summer than in winter at Buldir and Kasatochi, but was higher in winter at Aiktak, despite the departure of abundant migratory species. Comparing foraging guilds, we found that only piscivores increased at the western and central sites in winter, whereas at the eastern site several planktivorous species increased as well. The only planktivore remaining in winter at the central and western sites in densities comparable to summer densities was whiskered auklet Aethia pygmaea. Crested auklet Aethia cristatella and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia showed the greatest proportional winter increase at the eastern site. The seasonal patterns of the seabird communities suggest a winter breakdown of the copepod-based food web in the central and western parts of the archipelago, and a system that remains rich in euphausiids in the eastern Aleutians. We suggest that in winter crested auklets take the trophic role that short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris occupy during summer. We hypothesize that advection of euphausiids in the Aleutian North Slope Current is important for supporting the high biomass of planktivores that occupy the Unimak Pass region on a year-round basis. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  16. Seasonal homes and natural resources: patterns of use and impact in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Stynes; JiaJia Zheng; Susan I. Stewart

    1997-01-01

    Describes patterns of seasonal home ownerships and use in northern lower Michigan, including recreational use of nearby public and private lands and potential use of the seasonal home as a retirement home. Estimates economic impacts associated with seasonal home related spending in the 33 counties of northern lower Michigan.

  17. Mourning dove nesting: seasonal patterns and effects of September hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul H.; Dolton, David D.; Field, Rebecca; Coon, Richard A.; Percival, H. Franklin; Hayne, Don W.; Soileau, Lawrence D.; George, Ronnie R.; Dunks, James H.; Bunnell, S. Dwight

    1987-01-01

    A nationwide State-Federal cooperative study was initiated in 1978 to examine effects of September hunting on nesting mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). This study was designed to (1) determine the proportion of the annual total of dove nesting activity and production that occurs in September and October, and (2) determine if survival rates of mourning dove eggs and nestlings are lower in zones where early September dove hunting is permitted than in zones where it is prohibited. During 1979 and 1980, 6,950 active nests were monitored to obtain data on nesting patterns. Nest initiation was estimated using two measurements, backdating from hatch dates and counting numbers of nests found for the first time. The nationwide percentage of the annual total of nests that were initiated in September and October was 1.0% based on backdating from hatch dates and 2.7% based on nests found for the first time. Nesting activity was measured by numbers of eggs and nestlings present in weekly counts. Nationally, 4.5% of the annual nesting activity occurred in September and October. The activity of 80% of the observed nests was within the period of 22 April to 4 September. The measure of production used in this study was numbers of young fledged. Nationally, 10.3% of all observed fledging occurred in September and October. Because a decline in nests found in the latter half of the nesting season preceded the 1 September start of hunting, we concluded that the reduction in nesting activity at the end of the season is a natural phenomenon and is not caused by hunting disturbance. In a separate part of this study, we estimated survival rates in adjacent hunted and nonhunted zones from data on 668 nests. The estimated daily survival rates for individual eggs and nestlings were 95.8% in the nonhunted and 95.0% in the hunted zones; the corresponding fledging rates were 33 and 26%, respectively. The fledging rates are lower because they are the daily survival rates operating over a 26-day

  18. Impacts of Seasonal Patterns of Climate on Recurrent Fluctuations in Tourism Demand: Evidence from Aruba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderstaat, J.R.; Oderber, M.; Croes, R.; Nijkamp, P.; Martens, P.

    2014-01-01

    This study estimates the effect of seasonal patterns of pull and push climate elements (rainfall, temperature, wind, and cloud coverage) on recurrent fluctuations in tourism demand from the United States (USA) and Venezuela to Aruba. The seasonal patterns were first isolated from the series using

  19. Debris flows in the eastern Italian Alps: seasonality and atmospheric circulation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Nikolopoulos; M. Borga; Marra, F.; Crema, S.; Marchi, L.

    2015-01-01

    The work examines the seasonality and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns associated with debris-flow occurrence in the Trentino–Alto Adige region (eastern Italian Alps). Analysis is based on classification algorithms applied to a uniquely dense archive of debris flows and hourly rain gauge precipitation series covering the period 2000–2009. Results highlight the seasonal and synoptic forcing patterns linked to debris flows in the study area. Summer and fall season ...

  20. Canary tomato export prices: comparison and relationships between daily seasonal patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Martin-Rodriguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Statistical procedures are proposed to describe, compare and forecast the behaviour of seasonal variations in two daily price series of Canary tomato exported to German and British markets, respectively, over the last decade. These seasonal patterns are pseudo-periodic as the length of the seasonal period changes frequently in dependence of market conditions. Seasonal effect at a day in the harvesting period is defined as a spline function of the proportion of the length of such a period elapsed up to such a day. Then, seasonal patterns for the two series are compared in terms of the area between the corresponding spline functions. The ability of these models to capture the dynamic process of change in the seasonal pattern is useful to forecasting purpose. Furthermore, an analytical tool is also proposed to obtain forecasts of the seasonal pattern in one of these two series from the forecasts of the seasonal pattern in the other one. These procedures are useful for farmers in developing strategies related to the seasonal distribution of tomato production exported to each market.

  1. Investigating the patterns and determinants of seasonal variation in vitamin D status in Australian adults: the Seasonal D Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura King

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D status generally varies seasonally with changing solar UVB radiation, time in the sun, amount of skin exposed, and, possibly, diet. The Seasonal D Study was designed to quantify the amplitude and phase of seasonal variation in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25OHD and identify the determinants of the amplitude and phase and those of inter-individual variability in seasonal pattern. Methods The Seasonal D Study collected data 2-monthly for 12 months, including demographics, personal sun exposure using a diary and polysulphone dosimeters over 7 days, and blood for serum 25(OHD concentration. The study recruited 333 adults aged 18–79 years living in Canberra (35°S, n = 168 and Brisbane (27°South, n = 165, Australia. Discussion We report the study design and cohort description for the Seasonal D Study. The study has collected a wealth of data to examine inter- and intra-individual seasonal variation in vitamin D status and serum 25(OHD levels in Australian adults.

  2. Acute rhinosinusitis during Hajj season 2014: Prevalence of bacterial infection and patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marglani, Osama A; Alherabi, Ameen Z; Herzallah, Islam R; Saati, Faisal A; Tantawy, Enas A; Alandejani, Talal A; Faidah, Hani S; Bawazeer, Naif A; Marghalani, Abdullah A; Madani, Tariq A

    The presence of large number of pilgrims during Hajj in Makkah region increases the risk of respiratory diseases. In this study, we aimed to assess the bacteriology of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) during Hajj season and to demonstrate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns that should guide the clinicians towards more appropriate antibiotic use. Patients with ARS presenting during Hajj season of 2014 were prospectively enrolled. According to EPOS2012 criteria. Sampling of sinus secretions was performed from the middle meatus adjacent to the maxillary sinus ostium via endoscopic guidance. Over all, the study has covered all ENT, emergency and outpatient departments in Hajj. Two hundred and twenty six patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. Pathogenic bacteria were identified in 93 (41.2%) patients. Of the 93 patients with bacterial ARS, Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 46 (49.5%) patients, out of which 13 (28.3%) were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).The second most common group of bacterial isolates was Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli, and various Klebsiella species. Antibiotic sensitivity showed that methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was also sensitive to cephalosporins, quinolones and clindamycin, while exhibiting relatively less sensitivity rates to amoxicillin-clavulinic acid and macrolides. Our study demonstrates the importance of assessing the bacteriology of ARS to help implement guidelines for proper treatment and prevention protocols during Hajj season. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Seasonal patterns of carbon allocation to respiratory pools in 60-yr-old deciduous (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen (Picea abies) trees assessed via whole-tree stable carbon isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuptz, Daniel; Fleischmann, Frank; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E E

    2011-07-01

    • The CO(2) efflux of adult trees is supplied by recent photosynthates and carbon (C) stores. The extent to which these C pools contribute to growth and maintenance respiration (R(G) and R(M), respectively) remains obscure. • Recent photosynthates of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) and spruce (Picea abies) trees were labeled by exposing whole-tree canopies to (13) C-depleted CO(2). Label was applied three times during the year (in spring, early summer and late summer) and changes in the stable C isotope composition (δ(13) C) of trunk and coarse-root CO(2) efflux were quantified. • Seasonal patterns in C translocation rate (CTR) and fractional contribution of label to CO(2) efflux (F(Label-Max)) were found. CTR was fastest during early summer. In beech, F(Label-Max) was lowest in spring and peaked in trunks during late summer (0.6 ± 0.1, mean ± SE), whereas no trend was observed in coarse roots. No seasonal dynamics in F(Label-Max) were found in spruce. • During spring, the R(G) of beech trunks was largely supplied by C stores. Recent photosynthates supplied growth in early summer and refilled C stores in late summer. In spruce, CO(2) efflux was constantly supplied by a mixture of stored (c. 75%) and recent (c. 25%) C. The hypothesis that R(G) is exclusively supplied by recent photosynthates was rejected for both species. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Seasonal patterns of oral antihistamine and intranasal corticosteroid purchases from Australian community pharmacies: a retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, A Simon; Price, David B; Smith, Pete K; Harvey, Richard; Kritikos, Vicky; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia Z; Christian, Louise; Skinner, Derek A; Carter, Victoria; Durieux, Alice MS

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To explore patterns in the purchase of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) oral antihistamines (OAHs) and intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) by patients, from pharmacies in different geographical regions of Australia. Patients and methods Retrospective observational study using a database containing anonymous pharmacy transaction data from 20.0% of the pharmacies in Australia that link doctor prescriptions and OTC information. Pharmacy purchases of at least one prescription or OTC rhinitis treatment during 2013 and 2014 were assessed. Results In total, 4,247,193 prescription and OTC rhinitis treatments were purchased from 909 pharmacies over 12 months. Of treatments purchased, 75.9% were OAHs and 16.6% were INCSs. OTC purchases of both treatments exceeded purchases through prescription. OTC OAHs purchasing patterns were seasonal and almost identical in the Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, Western Australia, South Australia, and New South Wales, and similar seasonal patterns for OTC INCSs were noted in most regions except for South Australia and Tasmania. Prescription purchasing patterns of both OAHs and INCSs remained unchanged throughout the year in most regions. Conclusion This large-scale retrospective observational study identified seasonal purchasing patterns of OTC and prescription OAHs and INCSs in a real-world setting. It highlighted that seasonality only affects OTC purchasing patterns of OAHs and INCSs across Australia and that practitioner prescribing remains unchanged, suggesting that it is only for persistent disease. PMID:28919832

  5. Reasons for Seasons Assessment Outcomes For Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, R. M.; Pyke, C.; Lynch, S.; Ochsendorf, R.

    2003-12-01

    National systemic reform initiatives point to the need for a more focused science curriculum and better curriculum materials for teachers to use (aligned with science standards, instructional methods, and assessment/accountability measures). Assessment developers face the difficult task of identifying and revealing what students actually know that is relevant to curricular goals. The SCALE-uP Project at the George Washington University has attempted to create such assessments using an adapted rigorous set of criteria based on an assessment item analysis procedure developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science Project 2061. The procedure evaluates an assessment task's potential to reveal whether students have attained "a well-defined component of knowledge or acquired a particular skill" (Stern and Ahlgren, 2002). To determine students' scientific understanding of what causes the Earth's seasons, the SCALE-uP Project focuses on a single Benchmark from Benchmarks for Science Literacy (AAAS, 1993) that include both empirical observations and theoretical statements related to the target concept (Earth's seasons). In the conceptual model guiding our assessment development, we believe the target concept, articulated through the Benchmark (4B,6-8, #4), represents a single coherent knowledge structure and mental model stored in memory that students can recall or access when needed to explain relevant phenomena or solve tasks. Therefore, students that possess the concept of the Earth's seasons would be expected to respond to phenomena related to seasons with consistent and coherent responses to probes and representations related to the Benchmark idea. The instrument development procedure compares assessment outcomes (cognitive model/framework) of about 30 general 7th grade students with little previous classroom exposure to learning about the seasons, to high achieving 8th graders who have studied the seasons, and to introductory astronomy college

  6. Global circulation patterns of seasonal influenza viruses vary with antigenic drift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Bedford (Trevor); S. Riley (Steven); I.G. Barr (Ian); S. Broor (Shobha); M. Chadha (Mandeep); N.J. Cox (Nancy); R.S. Daniels (Rodney S.); C.P. Gunasekaran (C. Palani); A.C. Hurt (Aeron); A. Kelso; A. Klimov (Alexander); N.S. Lewis (Nicola); X. Li (Xiyan); J. McCauley (John William); T. Odagiri (Takato); V. Potdar (Varsha); A. Rambaut (Andrew); Y. Shu (Yuelong); E. Skepner (Eugene); D.J. Smith (Derek James); M.A. Suchard (Marc); M. Tashiro (Masato); D. Wang (Dayan); X. Xu (Xiyan); P. Lemey (Philippe); C.A. Russell (Colin)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding the spatiotemporal patterns of emergence and circulation of new human seasonal influenza virus variants is a key scientific and public health challenge. The global circulation patterns of influenza A/H3N2 viruses are well characterized, but the patterns of A/H1N1 and B

  7. Joint pattern of seasonal hydrological droughts and floods ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In our study, the sudden alternation of droughts and flood events (ADFEs) between adjacent seasons is studied using the multivariate L-moments theory and the bivariate copula functions in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China with monthly streamflow data at 32 hydrological stations from 1956 to 2012. The dry and wet ...

  8. Joint pattern of seasonal hydrological droughts and floods ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ShaoFei Wu

    2017-06-07

    Jun 7, 2017 ... adjacent seasons is studied using the multivariate L-moments theory and the bivariate copula functions in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China with monthly streamflow data at 32 hydrological stations from 1956 to 2012. The dry and wet conditions are characterized by the standardized streamflow index.

  9. Spatial and seasonal patterns of European short-snouted seahorse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melenara Bay (mean sighting rate = 0.44 individuals VFC–1; SD 0.72) offered protected environments where seahorse distribution varied with substratum type, irrespective of season. Strong hydrodynamic forces in winter affected abundance and size at exposed locations in Sardina del Norte Bay (mean sighting rate = 0.21 ...

  10. Seasonal Variation of Water Quality and Phytoplankton Response Patterns in Daya Bay, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Ying Zhang; Fu-Lin Sun; Yu-Tu Wang; Jun-De Dong; Cui-Ci Sun; You-Shao Wang; Mei-Lin Wu

    2011-01-01

    Data collected from 12 stations in Daya Bay in different seasons in 2002 revealed the relation between water quality and phytoplankton response patterns. The results showed that Daya Bay could be divided into wet and dry seasons by multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients were important components during the wet season (summer and autumn). The salinity and dissolved oxygen were the main environmental factors in the...

  11. Flea species infesting dogs in Spain: updated spatial and seasonal distribution patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, R; Montoya, A; Checa, R; Martín, O; Marino, V; Miró, G

    2017-03-01

    This entomological survey examines the spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of flea species infesting dogs in Spain. Bioclimatic zones covering broad climate and vegetation ranges were surveyed according to size. In a cross-sectional spatial survey carried out from late May 2013 to mid-July 2015, 1084 dogs from 42 different locations were examined. A total of 3032 fleas were collected and identified as belonging to the following species: Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (81.7%, 2476 fleas); Ctenocephalides canis (11.4%, 347 fleas); Pulex irritans (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (6.9%, 208 fleas), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) (0.03%, one flea). Variables observed to have effects on flea abundance were animal weight, sex, length of hair and habitat. In the seasonal survey conducted from June 2014 to June 2015, 1014 fleas were collected from 239 dogs at 30 veterinary practices across Spain. Peaks in C. felis abundance were observed in early summer and late autumn, whereas high numbers of P. irritans and C. canis were recorded in autumn. Numbers of fleas detected in winter were low overall. Based on these findings, the present study updates the spatial and seasonal distributions of flea species in Spain and assesses the impacts of host and habitat variables on flea infestation. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  12. Seasonal Patterns of Gastrointestinal Illness and Streamflow along the Ohio River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Naumova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Waterborne gastrointestinal (GI illnesses demonstrate seasonal increases associated with water quality and meteorological characteristics. However, few studies have been conducted on the association of hydrological parameters, such as streamflow, and seasonality of GI illnesses. Streamflow is correlated with biological contamination and can be used as proxy for drinking water contamination. We compare seasonal patterns of GI illnesses in the elderly (65 years and older along the Ohio River for a 14-year period (1991–2004 to seasonal patterns of streamflow. Focusing on six counties in close proximity to the river, we compiled weekly time series of hospitalizations for GI illnesses and streamflow data. Seasonal patterns were explored using Poisson annual harmonic regression with and without adjustment for streamflow. GI illnesses demonstrated significant seasonal patterns with peak timing preceding peak timing of streamflow for all six counties. Seasonal patterns of illness remain consistent after adjusting for streamflow. This study found that the time of peak GI illness precedes the peak of streamflow, suggesting either an indirect relationship or a more direct path whereby pathogens enter water supplies prior to the peak in streamflow. Such findings call for interdisciplinary research to better understand associations among streamflow, pathogen loading, and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses.

  13. Seasonal patterns of gastrointestinal illness and streamflow along the Ohio River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagai, Jyotsna S; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Kirshen, Paul K; Webb, Patrick; Naumova, Elena N

    2012-05-01

    Waterborne gastrointestinal (GI) illnesses demonstrate seasonal increases associated with water quality and meteorological characteristics. However, few studies have been conducted on the association of hydrological parameters, such as streamflow, and seasonality of GI illnesses. Streamflow is correlated with biological contamination and can be used as proxy for drinking water contamination. We compare seasonal patterns of GI illnesses in the elderly (65 years and older) along the Ohio River for a 14-year period (1991-2004) to seasonal patterns of streamflow. Focusing on six counties in close proximity to the river, we compiled weekly time series of hospitalizations for GI illnesses and streamflow data. Seasonal patterns were explored using Poisson annual harmonic regression with and without adjustment for streamflow. GI illnesses demonstrated significant seasonal patterns with peak timing preceding peak timing of streamflow for all six counties. Seasonal patterns of illness remain consistent after adjusting for streamflow. This study found that the time of peak GI illness precedes the peak of streamflow, suggesting either an indirect relationship or a more direct path whereby pathogens enter water supplies prior to the peak in streamflow. Such findings call for interdisciplinary research to better understand associations among streamflow, pathogen loading, and rates of gastrointestinal illnesses.

  14. Identification of a seasonal pattern to brain metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellakis M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Minas Sakellakis,1 Angelos Koutras,1 Maria Pittaka,2 Dimitrios Kardamakis,2 Melpomeni Kalofonou,1 Haralabos P Kalofonos,1 Despina Spyropoulou2 1Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Patras Medical School, Rion, Patras, GreeceWe have previously tested our hypothesis that there is a seasonality in the incidence of carcinomatous meningitis.1 Although further validation is needed in a larger cohort, we found that leptomeningeal metastasis occurred more often during warm months of the year which, in the case of Greece, is the period generally marked with the larger daytime length.1 Carcinomatous meningitis is closely related to brain metastasis, and a logical question is whether warm season is marked by a greater propensity also for brain metastasis.2 

  15. Seasonal patterns of the insect community structure in urban rain pools of temperate Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, M Soledad; Collantes, Marta B; Bachmann, Axel O

    2009-01-01

    Temporary aquatic environments are widespread in the world, and although there are considerable regional differences in their type and method of formation they have many physical, chemical and biological properties in common. With the aim to increase knowledge of urban temporary pool fauna, the objectives of this work were to assess the seasonal patterns of species composition, richness, and diversity of the aquatic insect community inhabiting rain pools in urban temperate Argentina, and to identify the environmental variables associated to these patterns. Four temporary pools of an urban green space in Buenos Aires City were studied throughout a 1-year period. Eleven flood cycles with very varied hydroperiods and dry periods, mainly associated with rainfall, were identified. Insect species richness in these temporary urban pools, 86 taxa were documented, was found to be within the range reported for wild temporary water bodies of other regions of the world. The present results provide evidence for the existence of a clear link between habitat and community variability. Hydroperiod and seasonality were the main environmental factors involved in structuring the insect communities of the studied water bodies. Urban pools in green spaces have the potential to act to its dwellers like corridors through the urban matrix. Taking into account these characteristics and their accessibility, urban temporary pools can be considered as promising habitats for the study of ecological processes involving the insect community.

  16. Seasonal Patterns of the Insect Community Structure in Urban Rain Pools of Temperate Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanarrosa, M. Soledad; Collantes, Marta B.; Bachmann, Axel O.

    2009-01-01

    Temporary aquatic environments are widespread in the world, and although there are considerable regional differences in their type and method of formation they have many physical, chemical and biological properties in common. With the aim to increase knowledge of urban temporary pool fauna, the objectives of this work were to assess the seasonal patterns of species composition, richness, and diversity of the aquatic insect community inhabiting rain pools in urban temperate Argentina, and to identify the environmental variables associated to these patterns. Four temporary pools of an urban green space in Buenos Aires City were studied throughout a 1-year period. Eleven flood cycles with very varied hydroperiods and dry periods, mainly associated with rainfall, were identified. Insect species richness in these temporary urban pools, 86 taxa were documented, was found to be within the range reported for wild temporary water bodies of other regions of the world. The present results provide evidence for the existence of a clear link between habitat and community variability. Hydroperiod and seasonality were the main environmental factors involved in structuring the insect communities of the studied water bodies. Urban pools in green spaces have the potential to act to its dwellers like corridors through the urban matrix. Taking into account these characteristics and their accessibility, urban temporary pools can be considered as promising habitats for the study of ecological processes involving the insect community. PMID:19611261

  17. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi-prey system of Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Matthew C; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Stahler, Daniel R; Peterson, Rolf O

    2012-05-01

    1. For large predators living in seasonal environments, patterns of predation are likely to vary among seasons because of related changes in prey vulnerability. Variation in prey vulnerability underlies the influence of predators on prey populations and the response of predators to seasonal variation in rates of biomass acquisition. Despite its importance, seasonal variation in predation is poorly understood. 2. We assessed seasonal variation in prey composition and kill rate for wolves Canis lupus living on the Northern Range (NR) of Yellowstone National Park. Our assessment was based on data collected over 14 winters (1995-2009) and five spring-summers between 2004 and 2009. 3. The species composition of wolf-killed prey and the age and sex composition of wolf-killed elk Cervus elaphus (the primary prey for NR wolves) varied among seasons. 4. One's understanding of predation depends critically on the metric used to quantify kill rate. For example, kill rate was greatest in summer when quantified as the number of ungulates acquired per wolf per day, and least during summer when kill rate was quantified as the biomass acquired per wolf per day. This finding contradicts previous research that suggests that rates of biomass acquisition for large terrestrial carnivores tend not to vary among seasons. 5. Kill rates were not well correlated among seasons. For example, knowing that early-winter kill rate is higher than average (compared with other early winters) provides little basis for anticipating whether kill rates a few months later during late winter will be higher or lower than average (compared with other late winters). This observation indicates how observing, for example, higher-than-average kill rates throughout any particular season is an unreliable basis for inferring that the year-round average kill rate would be higher than average. 6. Our work shows how a large carnivore living in a seasonal environment displays marked seasonal variation in

  18. Trends in persistent seasonal-scale atmospheric circulation patterns responsible for precipitation and temperature extremes in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, D. L.; Horton, D. E.; Singh, D.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Long-lived anomalous atmospheric circulation patterns are often associated with surface weather extremes. This is particularly true from a hydroclimatic perspective in regions that have well-defined "wet seasons," where atmospheric anomalies that persist on a seasonal scale can lead to drought or (conversely) increase the risk of flood. Recent evidence suggests that both natural variability and global warming may be responsible for spatially and temporally heterogeneous changes in Northern Hemisphere atmospheric conditions over the past several decades. In this investigation, we assess observed trends in cool-season (Oct-May) circulation patterns over the northeastern Pacific Ocean which have historically been associated with precipitation and temperature extremes in California. We find that the occurrence of certain extreme seasonal-scale atmospheric configurations has changed substantially over the 1948-2015 period, and also that there has been a trend towards amplification of the cool-season mean state in this region. Notably, patterns similar to the persistent anticyclone associated with the extremely warm and dry conditions experienced during the ongoing 2012-2015 California drought occur more frequently in the second half of the observed record. This finding highlights the importance of examining changes in extreme and/or persistent atmospheric circulation configurations, which may exhibit different responses to natural and anthropogenic forcings than the mean state.

  19. Seasonal patterns in Arctic planktonic metabolism (Fram Strait - Svalbard region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquer-Sunyer, R.; Duarte, C. M.; Holding, J.; Regaudie-de-Gioux, A.; García-Corral, L. S.; Reigstad, M.; Wassmann, P.

    2012-06-01

    The metabolism of the Arctic Ocean is marked by extreme pronounced seasonality and spatial heterogeneity associated with light conditions, ice cover, water masses and nutrient availability. Here we report the marine planktonic metabolic rates (Net Community Production, Gross Primary Production and Community Respiration) along three different seasons of the year for a total of eight cruises along the western sector of the European Arctic (Fram Strait - Svalbard region) in the Arctic Ocean margin: one at the end of 2006 (fall/winter), two in 2007 (early spring and summer), two in 2008 (early spring and summer), one in 2009 (late spring-early summer) and one in 2010 (spring). The results show that metabolisms of the western sector of the European Arctic varies throughout the year, depending mostly on the stage of bloom, which is mainly determined by availability of light and nutrients. Here we report metabolic rates for the different periods, including the spring bloom, summer and the dark period, increasing considerably the empirical basis on metabolic rates in the Artic Ocean, and especially in the European Arctic corridor. We also report a rough annual metabolic balance for this area of the Arctic Ocean, resulting in a Net Community Production of 108 g C m-2 yr-1.

  20. Acoustically measured seasonal patterns of Zooplankton in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, R. E.; McGehee, D. E.; Greenlaw, C. F.; Holliday, D. V.

    Zooplankton biovolumes and sizes were determined from high-frequency acoustical measurements taken from an undulating SeaSoar vehicle on three cruises in the northern Arabian Sea. Cruises in 1994 and 1995 encompassed the periods of the winter Northeast Monsoon (November 28-December 17, 1994), the summer Southwest Monsoon (June 21 to July 13, 1995), and the Fall Intermonsoon (September 18 to October 11, 1995). Data are discussed from three sampling grids and their interconnecting transects in offshore waters. Zooplankton biovolumes varied seasonally, with lowest biovolumes during the summer Southwest Monsoon, intermediate during the Fall Intermonsoon and highest during the winter Northeast Monsoon. Biovolumes were highest near the surface and decreased with increasing depth. The smallest size-class (0.05-0.16 mm equivalent spherical radius) dominated the biovolume throughout most of the water column. Larger size-classes sometimes dominated the near-surface layers. Mesoscale variability was consistently observed in all areas on all cruises.

  1. Analyzing seasonal patterns of wildfire exposure factors in Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Salis; Alan A. Ager; Fermin J. Alcasena; Bachisio Arca; Mark A. Finney; Grazia Pellizzaro; Donatella Spano

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we applied landscape scale wildfire simulation modeling to explore the spatiotemporal patterns of wildfire likelihood and intensity in the island of Sardinia (Italy). We also performed wildfire exposure analysis for selected highly valued resources on the island to identify areas characterized by high risk. We observed substantial variation in burn...

  2. Seasonal patterns of horse fly richness and abundance in the Pampa biome of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira; Krolow, Tiago Kütter

    2015-12-01

    Fluctuations in seasonal patterns of horse fly populations were examined in rainforests of tropical South America, where the climate is seasonal. These patterns were evaluated with robust analytical models rather than identifying the main factors that influenced the fluctuations. We examined the seasonality of populations of horse flies in fields and lowland areas of the Pampa biome of southern Brazil with generalized linear models. We also investigated the diversity of these flies and the sampling effort of Malaise traps in this biome over two years. All of the 29 species had clear seasonality with regard to occurrence and abundance, but only seven species were identified as being influenced by temperature and humidity. The sampling was sufficient and the estimated diversity was 10% more than observed. Seasonal trends were synchronized across species and the populations were most abundant between September and March and nearly zero in other months. While previous studies demonstrated that seasonal patterns in population fluctuations are correlated with climatic conditions in horse fly assemblages in South America rainforests, we show a clear effect of each factor on richness and abundance and the seasonality in the prevalence of horse fly assemblages in localities of the Pampa biome. © 2015 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  3. Seasonal patterns of body temperature and microhabitat selection in a lacertid lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Zaida; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    2016-11-01

    In temperate areas, seasonal changes entail a source of environmental variation potentially important for organisms. Temperate ectotherms may be adapted to the seasonal fluctuations in environmental traits. For lizards, behavioural adaptations regarding microhabitat selection could arise to improve thermoregulation during the different seasons. However, little is still known about which traits influence microhabitat selection of lizards and their adaptation to seasonality. Here we used Podarcis guadarramae to study the role of potential intrinsic (body size, sex, age) and environmental traits (air and substrate temperatures, wind speed, and sunlight) in the seasonal changes of body temperatures and microhabitat selection of lizards. We measured body temperatures of lizards in the same habitat during the four seasons and compared the climatic variables of the microhabitats selected by lizards with the mean climatic conditions available in their habitat. Body temperatures were similar for adult males, adult females, and juveniles within each season, being significantly higher in summer than in the other seasons, and in spring than in winter. The same pattern was found regarding substrate and air temperatures of the selected microhabitats. Wind speed and air temperature did not affect body temperatures, while body length was marginally significant and substrate temperatures and season did affect the body temperatures of lizards. Our results during the whole year support the idea that the seasonality could be the most important factor affecting body temperatures of these temperate species. Regarding microhabitat selection, environmental constraints, as environmental temperatures and wind speed, affected the seasonal changes on behavioural thermoregulation of lizards. This effect was similar between sexes and age classes, and was independent of body size. In addition, importance of sunlight exposure of the selected microhabitats (full sun, filtered sun, or shade) also

  4. Seasonal patterns in δ(2) H values of multiple tissues from Andean birds provide insights into elevational migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Mariana; Newsome, Seth D; Blake, John G

    2016-12-01

    Elevational migration is a widespread phenomenon in tropical avifauna but it is difficult to identify using traditional approaches. Hydrogen isotope (δ(2) H) values of precipitation decrease with elevation so δ(2) H analysis of multiple bird tissues with different isotopic incorporation rates may be a reliable method for characterizing seasonal elevational migration. Here we compare δ(2) H values in metabolically inert (feathers and claws) and metabolically active (whole blood) tissues to examine whether an upslope migration occurs prior to the breeding season in the Yungas Manakin (Chiroxiphia boliviana). We compare results from C. boliviana with data from a known elevational migrant, the Streak-necked Flycatcher (Mionectes striaticollis). Opposite to our expectations, tissue δ(2) H values increased over time, largely reflecting seasonal patterns in precipitation δ(2) H rather than elevational effects; linear mixed-effects models with strongest support included ordinal date, tissue type, and elevation. This seasonal increase in precipitation δ(2) H is a general phenomenon in both tropical and temperate mountain ranges. We use these data to propose a hypothetical framework that predicts different patterns in tissue δ(2) H values collected in different seasons from residents and elevational migrants. This framework can serve as a reference for future studies that assess elevational migration in birds and other animals. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  5. Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly different vertical patterns were identified: two corresponding to late autumn, which were common for all the main larval groups and other two in summer, one corresponding to larvae of coastal benthic and the second to pelagic species larvae.

  6. How bootstrap can help in forecasting time series with more than one seasonal pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Clara; Neves, M. Manuela

    2012-09-01

    The search for the future is an appealing challenge in time series analysis. The diversity of forecasting methodologies is inevitable and is still in expansion. Exponential smoothing methods are the launch platform for modelling and forecasting in time series analysis. Recently this methodology has been combined with bootstrapping revealing a good performance. The algorithm (Boot. EXPOS) using exponential smoothing and bootstrap methodologies, has showed promising results for forecasting time series with one seasonal pattern. In case of more than one seasonal pattern, the double seasonal Holt-Winters methods and the exponential smoothing methods were developed. A new challenge was now to combine these seasonal methods with bootstrap and carry over a similar resampling scheme used in Boot. EXPOS procedure. The performance of such partnership will be illustrated for some well-know data sets existing in software.

  7. Seasonality of cholera from 1974 to 2005: a review of global patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Emch, Michael; Feldacker, Caryl; Islam, M Sirajul; Ali, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The seasonality of cholera is described in various study areas throughout the world. However, no study examines how temporal cycles of the disease vary around the world or reviews its hypothesized causes. This paper reviews the literature on the seasonality of cholera and describes its temporal cycles by compiling and analyzing 32 years of global cholera data. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on regional patterns and environmental and climatic drivers ...

  8. Seasonal patterns of mixed species groups in large East African mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Kiffner

    Full Text Available Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups.

  9. Seasonal Patterns of Mixed Species Groups in Large East African Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Kioko, John; Leweri, Cecilia; Krause, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mammal species groups are common in East African savannah ecosystems. Yet, it is largely unknown if co-occurrences of large mammals result from random processes or social preferences and if interspecific associations are consistent across ecosystems and seasons. Because species may exchange important information and services, understanding patterns and drivers of heterospecific interactions is crucial for advancing animal and community ecology. We recorded 5403 single and multi-species clusters in the Serengeti-Ngorongoro and Tarangire-Manyara ecosystems during dry and wet seasons and used social network analyses to detect patterns of species associations. We found statistically significant associations between multiple species and association patterns differed spatially and seasonally. Consistently, wildebeest and zebras preferred being associated with other species, whereas carnivores, African elephants, Maasai giraffes and Kirk's dik-diks avoided being in mixed groups. During the dry season, we found that the betweenness (a measure of importance in the flow of information or disease) of species did not differ from a random expectation based on species abundance. In contrast, in the wet season, we found that these patterns were not simply explained by variations in abundances, suggesting that heterospecific associations were actively formed. These seasonal differences in observed patterns suggest that interspecific associations may be driven by resource overlap when resources are limited and by resource partitioning or anti-predator advantages when resources are abundant. We discuss potential mechanisms that could drive seasonal variation in the cost-benefit tradeoffs that underpin the formation of mixed-species groups. PMID:25470495

  10. Twitter Influenza Surveillance: Quantifying Seasonal Misdiagnosis Patterns and their Impact on Surveillance Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Influenza (flu) surveillance using Twitter data can potentially save lives and increase efficiency by providing governments and healthcare organizations with greater situational awareness. However, research is needed to determine the impact of Twitter users' misdiagnoses on surveillance estimates. This study establishes the importance of Twitter users' misdiagnoses by showing that Twitter flu surveillance in the United States failed during the 2011-2012 flu season, estimates the extent of misdiagnoses, and tests several methods for reducing the adverse effects of misdiagnoses. Metrics representing flu prevalence, seasonal misdiagnosis patterns, diagnosis uncertainty, flu symptoms, and noise were produced using Twitter data in conjunction with OpenSextant for geo-inferencing, and a maximum entropy classifier for identifying tweets related to illness. These metrics were tested for correlations with World Health Organization (WHO) positive specimen counts of flu from 2011 to 2014. Twitter flu surveillance erroneously indicated a typical flu season during 2011-2012, even though the flu season peaked three months late, and erroneously indicated plateaus of flu tweets before the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 flu seasons. Enhancements based on estimates of misdiagnoses removed the erroneous plateaus and increased the Pearson correlation coefficients by .04 and .23, but failed to correct the 2011-2012 flu season estimate. A rough estimate indicates that approximately 40% of flu tweets reflected misdiagnoses. Further research into factors affecting Twitter users' misdiagnoses, in conjunction with data from additional atypical flu seasons, is needed to enable Twitter flu surveillance systems to produce reliable estimates during atypical flu seasons.

  11. Arctic sea ice loss - two distinct spatial and seasonal patterns related to the ocean state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Ingrid; Eldevik, Tor; Smedsrud, Lars H.; Stroeve, Julienne

    2017-04-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased dramatically in recent decades. Typically focus has been on September when decreasing trends are largest and sea ice extent is at the minimum. However, decreasing sea ice trends are now significant for all months. By examining satellite observations of sea ice concentration since 1979 and an observational-based reconstruction of sea ice extent since 1850, we assess ongoing and past change in regional sea ice variability throughout the year. We find two distinct spatial and seasonal patterns of Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability throughout the observational record: summer variability and change inside the Arctic Ocean, and winter variability and change in the seas further south. In regions with largest summer variability, the recent ice loss is typically larger in spring than fall. The enhanced ice retreat in spring appears accelerated by the ice albedo feedback, while rapid fall freeze-up may be due to the strong salinity stratification. The winter variability in the seas further south, being less stratified and more affected by convection, have larger trends in fall than spring, indicating delayed and reduced ice formation in fall. These two patterns of Northern Hemisphere sea ice variability thus appear largely affected by the ocean state.

  12. SEASONAL DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY PATTERNS: THE RELEVANCE OF THE PA CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Silva

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this pilot study was to characterize seasonal variation in the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior of Portuguese school youth, and understand the influence of activity choices and settings. The participants in this study were 24 students, aged 10-13 years. Accelerometers measured daily PA over 7 consecutive days, in different seasons May - June and January - February. In summer, boys accumulated more minutes in MVPA (928 minutes/week than girls (793 minutes/week. In winter the pattern was reversed with girls accumulating more activity than boys (736 minutes/week vs. 598 minutes/week. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant effects for season (F = 5.98, p = 0.023 and in- school vs. out-of-school (F = 6.53, p = 0.018. Youth were more active in the summer and activity levels were higher after school than in school. Summer season provided relevant contexts for youth physical activity accumulation. Winter season may have been a significant barrier to boy's preferred PA context. Differences in choices of outdoor or indoor PA, after school, explained the gender differences in seasonal activity patterns

  13. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  14. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRO M. TOZETTI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  15. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, LG; Strijkstra, AM; Hut, RA; Hoffmann, IE; Millesi, E

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state.

  16. Seasonal patterns of hospital treatment for inflammatory bowel disease in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, M; Triossi, O; Leo, P; Magni, G; Giglio, L A; Mosca, P G; Bertelè, A M; Pompeo, F; Pietrini, L; Muratori, R; Marone, G P; Belfiori, V; Sciampa, G; Tanzilli, A; Azzola, E; Ferraris, L; Grasso, T; Caruso, S; Bonecco, S; Casanova, B; Brambilla, G; Frulloni, L; D'Offizi, V

    2006-01-01

    It is still debated whether clinical flare-ups of chronic inflammatory bowel disease follow a seasonal pattern, and the various reports are based on general practitioners' records or hospital discharge charts. There are, however, no specific figures for treatment in hospital gastroenterology units, which serve as a reference point for these disorders. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether there is a seasonal pattern in admissions for inflammatory intestinal disease in Italy, differing from what is generally known about gastrointestinal pathologies, since there are no nation-wide figures on the subject. The RING (Ricerca Informatizzata in Gastroenterologia) project is an observational study collecting hospital discharge forms from 22 centers in Italy. From winter 2000 to autumn 2003, the 22 gastroenterology units participating in the RING project discharged 32,357 patients following ordinary hospital admissions. Of these, 2,856 (8.8%) had a main diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease: 1,541 Crohn's disease, and 1,315 ulcerative colitis. No seasonal patterns were detected for either category, or when the analysis was done by age, sex and site of disease. The most serious flare-ups of inflammatory bowel disease, i.e. those requiring routine hospital treatment, do not appear to follow any seasonal pattern, regardless of the site of the disease or the patient's age or sex. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Seasonality in consumption: An economic analysis of the alimentary patterns in Greece (1957-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.; Pendaraki, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore financial expenditure of households in post-war Greece (1957-2005) in our endeavour to describe annual seasonality patterns of food consumption. Agricultural/industrial, animal/plant-based, in-house/away-from-home alimentation features are examined in an effort to

  18. Seasonal and species-specific patterns in abundance of freshwater mussel glochidia in stream drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob J. Culp; Wendell R. Haag; D. Albrey Arrington; Thomas B. Kennedy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. We examined seasonal patterns of abundance of mussel larvae (glochidia) in stream drift in a diverse, large-stream mussel assemblage in the Sipsey River, Alabama, across 1 y. We used recently developed techniques for glochidial identification combined with information about mussel fecundity and benthic assemblages to evaluate how well observed glochidial...

  19. Spatial and seasonal distribution patterns of the ragged-tooth shark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catches from competitive shore-anglers, inshore boatbased anglers and sightings by spearfishers and divers were used to infer the spatial and seasonal movement patterns of young-of-the-year (2.4m TL) ragged-tooth sharks Carcharias taurus along ...

  20. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-`a-vis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    in various sectors including water and agriculture. In the present work, long rainfall data series (1901–. 2006) of districts of Maharashtra in monthly and seasonal scales are constructed and then mean rainfall and coefficient of variability are analyzed to get the spatial pattern and variability. Significant long term changes in ...

  1. Seasonal patterns of dengue fever and associated climate factors in 4 provinces in Vietnam from 1994 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hu Suk; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Nam, Vu Sinh; Lee, Mihye; Won, Sungho; Duc, Phuc Pham; Grace, Delia

    2017-03-20

    In Vietnam, dengue fever (DF) is still a leading cause of hospitalization. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the seasonality and association with climate factors (temperature and precipitation) on the incidences of DF in four provinces where the highest incidence rates were observed from 1994 to 2013 in Vietnam. Incidence rates (per 100,000) were calculated on a monthly basis from during the study period. The seasonal-decomposition procedure based on loess (STL) was used in order to assess the trend and seasonality of DF. In addition, a seasonal cycle subseries (SCS) plot and univariate negative binomial regression (NBR) model were used to evaluate the monthly variability with statistical analysis. Lastly, a generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to assess the relationship between monthly incidence rates and weather factors (temperature and precipitation). We found that increased incidence rates were observed in the second half of each year (from May through December) which is the rainy season in each province. In Hanoi, the final model showed that 1 °C rise of temperature corresponded to an increase of 13% in the monthly incidence rate of DF. In Khanh Hoa, the final model displayed that 1 °C increase in temperature corresponded to an increase of 17% while 100 mm increase in precipitation corresponded to an increase of 11% of DF incidence rate. For Ho Chi Minh City, none of variables were significant in the model. In An Giang, the final model showed that 100 mm increase of precipitation in the preceding and same months corresponded to an increase of 30% and 22% of DF incidence rate. Our findings provide insight into understanding the seasonal pattern and associated climate risk factors.

  2. Child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong: incidence rate and seasonal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Patrick; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Chan, Ko Ling; Yip, Paul Siu-Fai; Lau, Joseph Tak-Fai; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Chow, Chun-Bong; Jiang, Fan

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the incidence and seasonal patterns of child maltreatment hospitalisations in Hong Kong. A retrospective study of subjects aged under 19 years with a primary diagnosis of child maltreatment admitted to hospitals in Hong Kong from 2001 to 2010. Data were retrieved from the centralised database of all 42 public hospitals in the Hospital Authority. Child maltreatment incidence rate. A consistent seasonal pattern was found for non-sexual maltreatment in children aged 6-18 years (p<0.001). Hospitalisations peaked in May and October but dipped in August and January. No significant seasonal patterns were found for sexual maltreatment or among children under 6 years. The seasonal pattern of child maltreatment coincided with the two school examination periods. The annual child maltreatment hospitalisation rate in Hong Kong in 2010 was 73.4 per 100 000 children under 19 years, more than double that in 2001. A peculiar seasonal pattern and an alarming increasing trend in child maltreatment hospitalisation were observed in Hong Kong, which we speculated to be related to school examination stress and increasing socioeconomic disparity. Our findings highlighted differences in the trends of child maltreatment between Hong Kong and the West. Professionals and policymakers should be made aware of these trends and develop effective strategies to tackle child maltreatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Complex seasonal patterns of primary producers at the land-sea interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of plant biomass and photosynthesis are key features of the Earth system because they drive variability of atmospheric CO 2, water and nutrient cycling, and food supply to consumers. There is no inventory of phytoplankton seasonal cycles in nearshore coastal ecosystems where forcings from ocean, land and atmosphere intersect. We compiled time series of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) from 114 estuaries, lagoons, inland seas, bays and shallow coastal waters around the world, and searched for seasonal patterns as common timing and amplitude of monthly variability. The data revealed a broad continuum of seasonal patterns, with large variability across and within ecosystems. This contrasts with annual cycles of terrestrial and oceanic primary producers for which seasonal fluctuations are recurrent and synchronous over large geographic regions. This finding bears on two fundamental ecological questions: (1) how do estuarine and coastal consumers adapt to an irregular and unpredictable food supply, and (2) how can we extract signals of climate change from phytoplankton observations in coastal ecosystems where local-scale processes can mask responses to changing climate? ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  4. Host reproductive phenology drives seasonal patterns of host use in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan D Burkett-Cadena

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1 the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2 the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in host use by mosquitoes are driven by temporal patterns of host reproduction. We investigated the relationship between seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes and host reproductive phenology by examining a seven-year dataset of blood meal identifications from a site in Tuskegee National Forest, Alabama USA and data on reproduction from the most commonly utilized endothermic (white-tailed deer, great blue heron, yellow-crowned night heron and ectothermic (frogs hosts. Our analysis revealed that feeding on each host peaked during periods of reproductive activity. Specifically, mosquitoes utilized herons in the spring and early summer, during periods of peak nest occupancy, whereas deer were fed upon most during the late summer and fall, the period corresponding to the peak in births for deer. For frogs, however, feeding on early- and late-season breeders paralleled peaks in male vocalization. We demonstrate for the first time that seasonal patterns of host use by mosquitoes track the reproductive phenology of the hosts. Peaks in relative mosquito feeding on each host during reproductive phases are likely the result of increased tolerance and decreased vigilance to attacking mosquitoes by nestlings and brooding adults (avian hosts, quiescent young (avian and mammalian hosts, and mate-seeking males (frogs.

  5. Seasonal Variation of Water Quality and Phytoplankton Response Patterns in Daya Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Zhang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from 12 stations in Daya Bay in different seasons in 2002 revealed the relation between water quality and phytoplankton response patterns. The results showed that Daya Bay could be divided into wet and dry seasons by multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients were important components during the wet season (summer and autumn. The salinity and dissolved oxygen were the main environmental factors in the dry season (winter and spring. According to non-metric multidimensional scaling, there was a shift from the large diatoms in the dry season to the smaller line-chain taxa in the wet season with the condition of a high dissolved inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen to phosphorous concentration ratio. Nutrient changes can thus alter the phytoplankton community composition and biomass, especially near the aquaculture farm areas. There was no evidence of an effect of thermal water from the nearby nuclear power plants on the observed changes in phytoplankton community and biomass in 2002.

  6. Seasonal variation of water quality and phytoplankton response patterns in Daya Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cui-Ci; Wang, You-Shao; Wu, Mei-Lin; Dong, Jun-De; Wang, Yu-Tu; Sun, Fu-Lin; Zhang, Yan-Ying

    2011-07-01

    Data collected from 12 stations in Daya Bay in different seasons in 2002 revealed the relation between water quality and phytoplankton response patterns. The results showed that Daya Bay could be divided into wet and dry seasons by multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis indicated that temperature, chlorophyll a and nutrients were important components during the wet season (summer and autumn). The salinity and dissolved oxygen were the main environmental factors in the dry season (winter and spring). According to non-metric multidimensional scaling, there was a shift from the large diatoms in the dry season to the smaller line-chain taxa in the wet season with the condition of a high dissolved inorganic nitrogen and nitrogen to phosphorous concentration ratio. Nutrient changes can thus alter the phytoplankton community composition and biomass, especially near the aquaculture farm areas. There was no evidence of an effect of thermal water from the nearby nuclear power plants on the observed changes in phytoplankton community and biomass in 2002.

  7. Insect succession and decomposition patterns on shaded and sunlit carrion in Saskatchewan in three different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharanowski, Barbara J; Walker, Ernest G; Anderson, Gail S

    2008-08-06

    A study was conducted on decomposition and insect succession in the Prairie Ecozone of Saskatchewan in the year 2000. Eighteen domestic pig carcasses (42-79 kg) were employed as human models for applications to future homicide investigations in this region. Two major variables were considered including the effect of season and habitat (sun versus shade). Research was conducted over 25 weeks, spanning three seasons: spring, summer and fall. Ambient temperature, internal carcass temperature, faunistic succession over time, and the rate of decay were all compared for each experimental variable. Results indicated that habitat was only a factor in the decompositional rate of carrion in the spring season. The ambient temperature was the chief factor determining the seasonal variations in decay rate. Maximum internal carcass temperatures always coincided with the presence of 3rd instar larvae. Patterns of insect succession occurred in a predictable sequence that varied across different habitats and seasons and was unique compared to previously published studies. Carcasses placed in spring and fall attracted a more diverse assemblage of insects than summer-placed carrion. Sun-exposed carrion also had greater variation in fauna than shaded carrion in spring and fall. Members of Silphidae were the first coleopteran colonizers in all habitats and seasons. This paper also marks the first record for Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) in Saskatchewan.

  8. Differential imprints of different ENSO flavors in global patterns of seasonal precipitation extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Siegmund, Jonatan F.; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-04-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) with its positive (El Nino) and negative (La Nina) phases is known to trigger climatic responses in various parts of the Earth, an effect commonly attributed to teleconnectivity. A series of studies has demonstrated that El Nino periods exhibits a relatively broad variety of spatial patterns, which can be classified into two main flavors termed East Pacific (EP, canonical) and Central Pacific (CP, Modoki) El Nino, and that both subtypes can trigger distinct climatic responses like droughts vs. precipitation increases at the regional level. More recently, a similar discrimination of La Nina periods into two different flavors has been reported, and it is reasonable to assume that these different expressions are equally accompanied by differential responses of regional climate variability in particularly affected regions. In this work, we study in great detail the imprints of both types of El Nino and La Nina periods in extremal seasonal precipitation sums during fall (SON), winter (DJF) and spring (MAM) around the peak time of the corresponding ENSO phase. For this purpose, we employ a recently developed objective classification of El Nino and La Nina periods into their two respective flavors based on global teleconnectivity patterns in daily surface air temperature anomalies as captured by the associated climate network representations (Wiedermann et al., 2016). In order to study the statistical relevance of the timing of different El Nino and La Nina types on that of seasonal precipitation extremes around the globe (according to the GPCC data set as a reference), we utilize event coincidence analysis (Donges et al., 2016), a new powerful yet conceptually simple and intuitive statistical tool that allows quantifying the degree of simultaneity of distinct events in pairs of time series. Our results provide a comprehensive overview on ENSO related imprints in regional seasonal precipitation extremes. We demonstrate that key

  9. Animal perception of seasonal thresholds: changes in elephant movement in relation to rainfall patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The identification of temporal thresholds or shifts in animal movement informs ecologists of changes in an animal's behaviour, which contributes to an understanding of species' responses in different environments. In African savannas, rainfall, temperature and primary productivity influence the movements of large herbivores and drive changes at different scales. Here, we developed a novel approach to define seasonal shifts in movement behaviour by examining the movements of a highly mobile herbivore (elephant; Loxodonta africana, in relation to local and regional rainfall patterns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used speed to determine movement changes of between 8 and 14 GPS-collared elephant cows, grouped into five spatial clusters, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. To detect broad-scale patterns of movement, we ran a three-year daily time-series model for each individual (2007-2009. Piecewise regression models provided the best fit for elephant movement, which exhibited a segmented, waveform pattern over time. Major breakpoints in speed occurred at the end of the dry and wet seasons of each year. During the dry season, female elephant are constrained by limited forage and thus the distances they cover are shorter and less variable. Despite the inter-annual variability of rainfall, speed breakpoints were strongly correlated with both local and regional rainfall breakpoints across all three years. Thus, at a multi-year scale, rainfall patterns significantly affect the movements of elephant. The variability of both speed and rainfall breakpoints across different years highlights the need for an objective definition of seasonal boundaries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By using objective criteria to determine behavioural shifts, we identified a biologically meaningful indicator of major changes in animal behaviour in different years. We recommend the use of such criteria, from an animal's perspective, for delineating seasons or

  10. Seasonality of cholera from 1974 to 2005: a review of global patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldacker Caryl

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality of cholera is described in various study areas throughout the world. However, no study examines how temporal cycles of the disease vary around the world or reviews its hypothesized causes. This paper reviews the literature on the seasonality of cholera and describes its temporal cycles by compiling and analyzing 32 years of global cholera data. This paper also provides a detailed literature review on regional patterns and environmental and climatic drivers of cholera patterns. Data, Methods, and Results Cholera data are compiled from 1974 to 2005 from the World Health Organization Weekly Epidemiological Reports, a database that includes all reported cholera cases in 140 countries. The data are analyzed to measure whether season, latitude, and their interaction are significantly associated with the country-level number of outbreaks in each of the 12 preceding months using separate negative binomial regression models for northern, southern, and combined hemispheres. Likelihood ratios tests are used to determine the model of best fit. The results suggest that cholera outbreaks demonstrate seasonal patterns in higher absolute latitudes, but closer to the equator, cholera outbreaks do not follow a clear seasonal pattern. Conclusion The findings suggest that environmental and climatic factors partially control the temporal variability of cholera. These results also indirectly contribute to the growing debate about the effects of climate change and global warming. As climate change threatens to increase global temperature, resulting rises in sea levels and temperatures may influence the temporal fluctuations of cholera, potentially increasing the frequency and duration of cholera outbreaks.

  11. Assessing impact of climate change on season length in Karnataka ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...

  12. Seasonal patterns of predation for gray wolves in the multi‐prey system of Yellowstone National Park

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Metz, Matthew C; Smith, Douglas W; Vucetich, John A; Stahler, Daniel R; Peterson, Rolf O

    2012-01-01

    .... Despite its importance, seasonal variation in predation is poorly understood. 2.  We assessed seasonal variation in prey composition and kill rate for wolves Canis lupus living on the Northern Range (NR...

  13. Multinational patterns of seasonal asymmetry in human movement influence infectious disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Amy; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J; Lourenço, Christopher; Viboud, Cecile; Charu, Vivek; Eagle, Nathan; Engø-Monsen, Kenth; Qureshi, Taimur; Buckee, Caroline O; Metcalf, C J E

    2017-12-12

    Seasonal variation in human mobility is globally ubiquitous and affects the spatial spread of infectious diseases, but the ability to measure seasonality in human movement has been limited by data availability. Here, we use mobile phone data to quantify seasonal travel and directional asymmetries in Kenya, Namibia, and Pakistan, across a spectrum from rural nomadic populations to highly urbanized communities. We then model how the geographic spread of several acute pathogens with varying life histories could depend on country-wide connectivity fluctuations through the year. In all three countries, major national holidays are associated with shifts in the scope of travel. Within this broader pattern, the relative importance of particular routes also fluctuates over the course of the year, with increased travel from rural to urban communities after national holidays, for example. These changes in travel impact how fast communities are likely to be reached by an introduced pathogen.

  14. Seasonal patterns in the orientation system of the migratory ant Pachycondyla marginata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Avalos, Daniel; Esquivel, Darci M.; Wajnberg, Eliane; Lins de Barros, Henrique G.; Oliveira, Paulo S.; Leal, Inara

    2001-08-01

    Route directions of migrations by the neotropical termite-hunting ant Pachycondyla marginata at a forest reserve in Southeast Brazil were analysed by circular statistic. Colony movement patterns were compared between the rainy/hot and dry/cold seasons. Migrations during the dry/cold season are significantly oriented 13° with the magnetic North-South axis, while rainy/hot migrations do not exhibit a preferred direction. This result is discussed considering the hypothesis that P. marginata ants may use the geomagnetic field as an orientation cue for migrations in the dry/cold season. The presence of magnetic iron oxides in the head and abdomen of P. marginata is consistent with this suggestion.

  15. Brooding in a temperate zone land snail: seasonal and regional patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulikowska-Drozd, A.; Maltz, T.K.; Kappes, H.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to assess if the reproductive strategy of a brooding land snail shifts along a climatic gradient. We focused on the following traits: timing and length of the reproductive season, brood size, ontogenetic dynamics of embryos, and reproductive mode (viviparity versus

  16. Distribution, abundance, and seasonal patterns of stored product beetles in a commercial food storage facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-year monitoring study was performed using pitfall traps baited with pheromone lures and food oil to assess seasonal prevalence of stored product beetles inside a large community food storage warehouse located in the Midwestern US. The four primary species captured were Tribolium castaneum (H...

  17. Assessment of the Growing Season over the Unimodal Rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most part of Tanzania experiences unimodal rainfall. The characteristics of rainfall such as its onset and cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season length of growing season end of season and its geographical variation both ...

  18. Identifying seasonal patterns of phosphorus storm dynamics with dynamic time warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Tavenard, Romain; Fovet, Ophélie; Gilliet, Nicolas; Grimaldi, Catherine; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorus (P) transfer during storm events represents a significant part of annual P loads in streams and contributes to eutrophication in downstream water bodies. To improve understanding of P storm dynamics, automated or semiautomated methods are needed to extract meaningful information from ever-growing water quality measurement data sets. In this paper, seasonal patterns of P storm dynamics are identified in two contrasting watersheds (arable and grassland) through Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) combined with k-means clustering. DTW was used to align discharge time series of different lengths and with differences in phase, which allowed robust application of a k-means clustering algorithm on rescaled P time series. In the arable watershed, the main storm pattern identified from autumn to winter displayed distinct export dynamics for particulate and dissolved P, which suggests independent transport mechanisms for both P forms. Conversely, the main storm pattern identified in spring displayed synchronized export of particulate and dissolved P. In the grassland watershed, the occurrence of synchronized export of dissolved and particulate P forms was not related to the season, but rather to the amplitude of storm events. Differences between the seasonal distributions of the patterns identified for the two watersheds were interpreted in terms of P sources and transport pathways. The DTW-based clustering algorithm used in this study proved useful for identifying common patterns in water quality time series and for isolating unusual events. It will open new possibilities for interpreting the high-frequency and multiparameter water quality time series that are currently acquired worldwide.

  19. Seasonal temperature variations influence tapetum mitosis patterns associated with reproductive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavania, Umesh C; Basu, Surochita; Kushwaha, Jyotsana Singh; Lavania, Seshu

    2014-09-01

    Environmental stress in plants impacts many biological processes, including male gametogenesis, and affects several cytological mechanisms that are strongly interrelated. To understand the likely impact of rising temperature on reproductive fitness in the climate change regime, a study of tapetal mitosis and its accompanying meiosis over seasons was made to elucidate the influence of temperature change on the cytological events occurring during microsporogenesis. For this we used two species of an environmentally sensitive plant system, i.e., genus Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae), namely Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle var. confertiflorus (Steud.) Bor (2n = 20) and Cymbopogon jwaruncusha (Jones) Schult. (2n = 20). Both species flower profusely during extreme summer (48 °C) and mild winter (15 °C) but support low and high seed fertility, respectively, in the two seasons. We have shown that tapetal mitotic patterns over seasons entail differential behavior for tapetal mitosis. During the process of tapetum development there are episodes of endomitosis that form either (i) an endopolyploid genomically imbalanced uninucleate and multinucleate tapetum, and (or) (ii) an acytokinetic multinucleate genomically balanced tapetum, with the progression of meiosis in the accompanying sporogenous tissue. The relative frequency of occurrence of the two types of tapetum mitosis patterns is significantly different in the two seasons, and it is found to be correlated with the temperature conditions. Whereas, the former (genomically imbalanced tapetum) are prevalent during the hot summer, the latter (genomically balanced tapetum) are frequent under optimal conditions. Such a differential behaviour in tapetal mitosis vis-à-vis temperature change is also correspondingly accompanied by substantial disturbances or regularity in meiotic anaphase disjunction. Both species show similar patterns. The study underpins that tapetal mitotic behaviour per se could be a reasonable indicator to

  20. Patterns and seasonality of malaria transmission in the forest-savannah transitional zones of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mike

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the local pattern of malaria transmission and the effect of season on transmission is essential for the planning and evaluation of malaria interventions. Therefore, entomological surveys were carried out in the forest-savannah transitional belt of Ghana (Kintampo from November 2003 to November 2005 in preparation for drug and vaccine trials. Results A total of 23,406 mosquitoes were caught from 919 traps over the two-year period (November 2003 to November 2005: 54.3% were Culicines, 36.2% Anopheles funestus, and 9.4% Anopheles gambiae. Infection rates with Plasmodium falciparum were 4.7% and 1.5% for Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, respectively. Entomological inoculation rates (EIRs were 269 infective bites per person per year in the first year (November 2003-October 2004 and 231 the following year (November 2004-November 2005. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR analysis detected only Anopheles gambiae s.s. Nineteen mosquitoes were tested by PCR in the wet season; 16 were S-molecular form, 2 M-molecular form and 1 hybrid (S/M. In the dry season, sixteen mosquitoes were tested; 11 S-molecular form, 2 M-molecular form and 3 S/M hybrids. The frequency of knock down resistance (kdr genotypes F(R was 0.60. Conclusion The dynamics and seasonal abundance of malaria vectors in the Kintampo area was influenced by micro-ecology, rainfall and temperature patterns. Transmission patterns did not differ significantly between the two years (2004 and 2005 and both Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus were identified as effective vectors. EIR estimates in 2004/2005 were between 231 and 269 infective bites per person per year. The information provided by the study will help in planning intensified malaria control activities as well as evaluating the impact of malaria interventions in the middle belt of Ghana.

  1. A hindcast archive to assess forecast uncertainty of seasonal forecasts for the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijssen, B.

    2006-12-01

    More than half of the electricity in the northwestern United States is generated by hydropower facilities in the Columbia River Basin. Consequently, seasonal hydrologic forecasts of naturalized streamflow are of interest to system operators, energy traders and financial institutions. Much of the seasonal streamflow predictability is derived from the importance of snow melt in the Columbia River Basin. Further predictability is derived from the ENSO-state (El Niño Southern Oscillation), which affects precipitation patterns in the basin. Typically, the Pacific Northwest experiences a greater likelihood of reduced precipitation during El Niño episodes, and a greater likelihood of increased precipitation during La Niña episodes. For the 2006 water year, we created long-range operational hydrologic forecasts for selected locations in the basin using a macroscale hydrologic model and an ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) methodology. Although our ESP approach provided a measure of the range of expected streamflow conditions, it did not account for the uncertainty in forecast initial conditions, parameter uncertainty or model uncertainty. To assess the total uncertainty associated with our hydrologic forecasts, we have created a hindcast database for the period 1950-2005, which includes 12-month forecasts made on the start of each month during the period November May. This hindcast archive enables us to assess the total uncertainty associated with our seasonal forecasts. We will present forecast verification results for selected locations in the Columbia River Basin as a function of lead time and ENSO condition.

  2. Cluster Analysis of the Wind Events and Seasonal Wind Circulation Patterns in the Mexico City Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Carreón-Sierra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The residents of Mexico City face serious problems of air pollution. Identifying the most representative scenarios for the transport and dispersion of air pollutants requires the knowledge of the main wind circulation patterns. In this paper, a simple method to recognize and characterize the wind circulation patterns in a given region is proposed and applied to the Mexico City winds (2001–2006. This method uses a lattice wind approach to model the local wind events at the meso-β scale, and hierarchical cluster analysis to recognize their agglomerations in their phase space. Data of the meteorological network of Mexico City was used as input for the lattice wind model. The Ward’s clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance was applied to organize the model wind events in seasonal clusters for each year of the period. Comparison of the hourly population trends of these clusters permitted the recognition and detailed description of seven circulation patterns. These patterns resemble the qualitative descriptions of the Mexico City wind circulation modes reported by other authors. Our method, however, permitted also their quantitative characterization in terms of the wind attributes of velocity, divergence and vorticity, and an estimation of their seasonal and annual occurrence probabilities, which never before were quantified.

  3. Seasonal Patterns in Microbial Community Composition in Denitrifying Bioreactors Treating Subsurface Agricultural Drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Matthew D; Andrus, J Malia; Bartolerio, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Luis F; Zhang, Yuanhui; Zilles, Julie L; Kent, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Denitrifying bioreactors, consisting of water flow control structures and a woodchip-filled trench, are a promising approach for removing nitrate from agricultural subsurface or tile drainage systems. To better understand the seasonal dynamics and the ecological drivers of the microbial communities responsible for denitrification in these bioreactors, we employed microbial community "fingerprinting" techniques in a time-series examination of three denitrifying bioreactors over 2 years, looking at bacteria, fungi, and the denitrifier functional group responsible for the final step of complete denitrification. Our analysis revealed that microbial community composition responds to depth and seasonal variation in moisture content and inundation of the bioreactor media, as well as temperature. Using a geostatistical analysis approach, we observed recurring temporal patterns in bacterial and denitrifying bacterial community composition in these bioreactors, consistent with annual cycling. The fungal communities were more stable, having longer temporal autocorrelations, and did not show significant annual cycling. These results suggest a recurring seasonal cycle in the denitrifying bioreactor microbial community, likely due to seasonal variation in moisture content.

  4. Diel and seasonal movement pattern of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus inside a marine reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Barbara; Pastor, Jérémy; Saragoni, Gilles; Dalias, Nicolas; Payrot, Jérôme; Lenfant, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Temporal movement patterns and spawning behaviour of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using depth and temperature sensors combined to acoustic telemetry. Results showed that these fish are year-round resident, remaining inside the fully protected area of the marine reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls (65 ha) and display a diurnal activity pattern. Records from depth sensors revealed that groupers range inside small, distinct, and individual territories. Individual variations in habitat depth are only visible on a seasonal scale, i.e., between the spawning season and the rest of the year. In fact, during summer months when the seawater temperature exceeded 20 °C, tagged groupers made vertical spawning migrations of 4-8 m in amplitude. These vertical migrations are characteristic of the reproductive behaviour of dusky groupers, during which they release their gametes. The results are notable for the implementation of management rules in marine protected areas, such as reduced navigation speed, boating or attendance during spawning season. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hybrid model for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and salendar variation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono; Rahayu, S. P.; Prastyo, D. D.; Wijayanti, D. G. P.; Juliyanto

    2017-09-01

    Most of the monthly time series data in economics and business in Indonesia and other Moslem countries not only contain trend and seasonal, but also affected by two types of calendar variation effects, i.e. the effect of the number of working days or trading and holiday effects. The purpose of this research is to develop a hybrid model or a combination of several forecasting models to predict time series that contain trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. This hybrid model is a combination of classical models (namely time series regression and ARIMA model) and/or modern methods (artificial intelligence method, i.e. Artificial Neural Networks). A simulation study was used to show that the proposed procedure for building the hybrid model could work well for forecasting time series with trend, seasonal and calendar variation patterns. Furthermore, the proposed hybrid model is applied for forecasting real data, i.e. monthly data about inflow and outflow of currency at Bank Indonesia. The results show that the hybrid model tend to provide more accurate forecasts than individual forecasting models. Moreover, this result is also in line with the third results of the M3 competition, i.e. the hybrid model on average provides a more accurate forecast than the individual model.

  6. Landscape pattern metrics and regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, R. V.; Riitters, K.H.; Wickham, J.D.; Jones, K.B.

    1999-01-01

    The combination of remote imagery data, geographic information systems software, and landscape ecology theory provides a unique basis for monitoring and assessing large-scale ecological systems. The unique feature of the work has been the need to develop and interpret quantitative measures of spatial pattern-the landscape indices. This article reviews what is known about the statistical properties of these pattern metrics and suggests some additional metrics based on island biogeography, percolation theory, hierarchy theory, and economic geography. Assessment applications of this approach have required interpreting the pattern metrics in terms of specific environmental endpoints, such as wildlife and water quality, and research into how to represent synergystic effects of many overlapping sources of stress.

  7. MEDICAL STUDENTS’ FEEDBACK ABOUT FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navajothi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pharmacology is the toughest subject in the II MBBS syllabus. Students have to memorise a lot about the drugs’ name and classification. We are conducting internal assessment exams after completion of each system. Number of failures will be more than 60% in the internal assessments conducted during first six months of II MBBS course. AIM To assess the formative assessment pattern followed in our institution with the students’ feedback and modify the pattern according to the students’ feedback. SETTINGS & DESIGN Prospective Observational Study conducted at Department of Pharmacology, Government Sivagangai Medical College, Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS Questionnaire was prepared and distributed to the 300 students of Government Sivagangai Medical College and feedback was collected. Data collected was analysed in Microsoft Excel 2007 version. RESULTS Received feedback from 274 students. Most (80% of the students wanted to attend the tests in all systems. Monthly assessment test was preferred by 47% of the students. Students who preferred to finish tests before holidays was 57%. Most (56% of the students preferred tests for 1 hour. Multiple choice question (MCQ type was preferred by 43%, which is not a routine question pattern. Only 7% preferred viva. Recall type of questions was preferred by 41% of the students. CONCLUSION In our institution, internal assessment is conducted as per the students’ mind setup. As the feedback has been the generally followed one, we will add MCQs in the forthcoming tests. Application type questions will be asked for more marks than Recall type of questions.

  8. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  9. Evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of avian influenza virus subtypes in blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Poulson, Rebecca L; González-Reiche, Ana S; Wilcox, Benjamin R; Walther, Patrick; Link, Paul; Carter, Deborah L; Newsome, George M; Müller, Maria L; Berghaus, Roy D; Perez, Daniel R; Hall, Jeffrey S; Stallknecht, David E

    2014-10-01

    Seasonal dynamics of influenza A viruses (IAVs) are driven by host density and population immunity. Through an analysis of subtypic data for IAVs isolated from Blue-winged Teal (Anas discors), we present evidence for seasonal patterns in the relative abundance of viral subtypes in spring and summer/autumn.

  10. Seasonal patterns of reflectance indices, carotenoid pigments and photosynthesis of evergreen chaparral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylinski, C; Gamon, J; Oechel, W

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the ability of the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) to track seasonal variations in carotenoid pigments and photosynthetic activity of mature evergreen chaparral shrubs. Our results confirm that PRI scales with photosystem two (PSII) photochemical efficiency across species and seasons, as demonstrated by PRI's strong correlation with de-epoxidized (photoprotective) xanthophyll cycle pigment levels (normalized to chlorophyll) and with the chlorophyll fluorescence index, ΔF/Fm'. PRI and carotenoid pigment levels (de-epoxidized xanthophyll cycle pigments normalized to chlorophyll or total carotenoid pigments normalized to chlorophyll) were correlated with seasonal fluctuations in midday net CO2 uptake of top-canopy leaves. By contrast, chlorophyll levels (as measured by the Chlorophyll Index) were not as strongly linked to photosynthetic activity, particularly when all species were considered together. Likewise, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, an index of canopy greenness) did not correlate with net CO2 uptake. Canopy NDVI also did not correlate with canopy PRI, demonstrating that these indices were largely independent over the temporal and spatial scales of this study. Together, these patterns provide evidence for coordinated regulation of carotenoid pigments, PSII electron transport, and carboxylation across seasons and indicate that physiological adjustments are more important than structural ones in modifying CO2-fixation capacity during periods of photosynthetic down-regulation for these evergreen species. The strong correlation between PRI of whole canopies and PRI of top-canopy leaves suggests that the canopy can be treated as a "big leaf" in terms of this reflectance index and that PRI can be used in "scalable" models. This along with the links between carotenoid pigments, PSII photochemical efficiency and carboxylation across species and seasons supports the use of optical assays of pigment levels and PSII activity

  11. Seasonal patterns of SST diurnal variation over the Tropical Warm Pool region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Beggs, Helen; Wang, Xiao Hua; Kiss, Andrew E.; Griffin, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Five year (2010-2014) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sea surface temperature (SST) data produced by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology have been validated against drifting buoy data and then used to study the seasonal patterns of the SST diurnal variation (DV) events over the Tropical Warm Pool region (TWP, 25°S-15°N, 90°E-170°E). The in situ validation results illustrate the overall good quality of the AVHRR SST data set, although an average 0.19 K underestimation of the daytime measurements has been observed. The nighttime observations are in good agreement with in situ buoys with an average bias of 0.03 and a 0.30 K standard deviation of the biases. This SST data set is then used to characterize the SST DV seasonal patterns, together with wind speeds, daily maximum solar shortwave insolation (SSImax), and latent heat flux (LHF). A double-peak seasonal pattern of SST DV is observed over the study region: the strongest DVs are found in March and October and the weakest in June. Sensitivity tests of DV to wind, SSImax, and LHF are conducted. The results indicate (1) different morning and early afternoon winds (7 A.M. to 2 P.M. local time, LT) affect DV by as much as 0.73 K when the half-daily (defined as 2 A.M. to 2 P.M. LT in this study) average winds are fixed between 2 and 3 m s-1; (2) SSImax levels regulate DV less significantly (<0.68 K) under fixed winds; and (3) LHF effects on DV are relatively weak (<0.35 K).

  12. Assessment of the Growing Season Regime Region of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season; length of ... Key words: Agrometeorology, dry spells: growing season, Tanzania, unimodal rainfall. Introduction ..... most statistical' text books and in Okoola and. Salano (2002). Positive ...

  13. The Dependency between the Arabian Peninsula Wet Events and Sea Level Pressure Patterns during Spring Season

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.

    2014-05-01

    This work investigates the relationships between regional extreme wet events in the Arabian Peninsula during the spring season (MAM) and sea level pressure (SLP) patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, S-mode principal components were computed from the de-seasonalized daily SLP for spring months between 1960 and 2013. The analysis covered a window for the region (15-70°E and 2.5-50°N). This window coupled different oceanic-land influences (e.g. the Indian, Mediterranean and the Sahara configurations) that may impart an effect on rainfall variations in the study domain. A set of eight significant circulation spatial patterns were retained, which explained 84.8% of the total explained variance. The derived patterns explained a wide variety of flows over the peninsula, with a clear distinction between zonal and meridional advections. The extreme wet events (R95 and R99) were defined from a relatively dense network of 209 observatories covering the peninsula, using the 95th and 99th percentile of rainfall distribution respectively. The links between the dominant SLP patterns and significant wet events were established and the physical interpretations of these associations were examined. The results, as revealed by the location and intensity of high pressure centers, highlight the strength of eastern and southeastern advections corresponding to these extreme events. Other patterns have a local character, suggesting an orographic origin of some wet events in the region. The relationships described in this research can advance the understanding of the large-scale processes that contribute to the wet weather events in the Arabian Peninsula. These findings can therefore contribute to better management of water resources and agricultural practices in the region.

  14. Seasonal and Diel Vocalization Patterns of Antarctic Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia in the Southern Indian Ocean: A Multi-Year and Multi-Site Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle C Leroy

    Full Text Available Passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to provide insights on the ecology of large whales. This approach allows for long-term and species-specific monitoring over large areas. In this study, we examined six years (2010 to 2015 of continuous acoustic recordings at up to seven different locations in the Central and Southern Indian Basin to assess the peak periods of presence, seasonality and migration movements of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia. An automated method is used to detect the Antarctic blue whale stereotyped call, known as Z-call. Detection results are analyzed in terms of distribution, seasonal presence and diel pattern of emission at each site. Z-calls are detected year-round at each site, except for one located in the equatorial Indian Ocean, and display highly seasonal distribution. This seasonality is stable across years for every site, but varies between sites. Z-calls are mainly detected during autumn and spring at the subantarctic locations, suggesting that these sites are on the Antarctic blue whale migration routes, and mostly during winter at the subtropical sites. In addition to these seasonal trends, there is a significant diel pattern in Z-call emission, with more Z-calls in daytime than in nighttime. This diel pattern may be related to the blue whale feeding ecology.

  15. Seasonal and Diel Vocalization Patterns of Antarctic Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) in the Southern Indian Ocean: A Multi-Year and Multi-Site Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Emmanuelle C; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an efficient way to provide insights on the ecology of large whales. This approach allows for long-term and species-specific monitoring over large areas. In this study, we examined six years (2010 to 2015) of continuous acoustic recordings at up to seven different locations in the Central and Southern Indian Basin to assess the peak periods of presence, seasonality and migration movements of Antarctic blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia). An automated method is used to detect the Antarctic blue whale stereotyped call, known as Z-call. Detection results are analyzed in terms of distribution, seasonal presence and diel pattern of emission at each site. Z-calls are detected year-round at each site, except for one located in the equatorial Indian Ocean, and display highly seasonal distribution. This seasonality is stable across years for every site, but varies between sites. Z-calls are mainly detected during autumn and spring at the subantarctic locations, suggesting that these sites are on the Antarctic blue whale migration routes, and mostly during winter at the subtropical sites. In addition to these seasonal trends, there is a significant diel pattern in Z-call emission, with more Z-calls in daytime than in nighttime. This diel pattern may be related to the blue whale feeding ecology.

  16. Mathematical Models for Camouflage Pattern Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Element Command-Americas From: Jaime Ortega, Center for Mathematical Modeling, University of Chile Universidad de Chile Centro de Modelamiento ...Centro de Modelamiento Matemático Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas Final Report: Camouage Assessment January 2013 Abstract The main...more details, we refers to the following sections of the report. The two- dimensional case... Index for the evaluation of the camouage patterns

  17. Soil Moisture and Turgidity of Selected Robusta Coffee Clones on Alluvial Plain with Seasonal Rainfall Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the seasonal variations of hydrological condition and turgidity of selected Robusta coffee clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. The aim was to evaluate the effect of hydrological variation on the coffee plants and the degree of soil moisture effect on plant performance. Experimental site overlays on alluvial plain, + 45 m a.s.l., 8o 15’ South with D rainfall type. Observation was conducted by survey method at the experimental plots of organic fertilizer and nitogen treatments on selected Robusta coffee clones derived from rooted cuttings, i.e. BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Observation was only conducted at the experimental blocks of organic matter trials of 20 l/tree/year at nitrogen (Urea application of locally recommanded rate during the subsequent years of 1999 to 2001. Parameters observed included plant turgidity and soil moisture content of three different depths, i.e. 0—20, 20—40 and 40—60 cm and the weather. Observation was carried out in five replicates designed as blocks of barn manure treatment and N-fertilizer of recommended rate as basal fertilizer. The results showed that meteorological condition and soil moisture of experimental site through the years have seasonal patterns following the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Compared to other meteorological characteristics, relative humidity dominantly determined evaporation and plant turgidity. Plant turgi-dity was not only determined by soil moisture condition, but also atmospheric demand. When relative humidity (RH was relatively high, plant turgidity was relatively stable although soil moisture of surface layers was very low, and the reversal when soil moisture content was high plant turgidity was controlled by atmospheric demand (relative humidity. With a 3—4 dry month period, relative turgidity of the coffee plants was relatively stable above 82%, except when soil

  18. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  19. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  20. Phytoplankton blooms in estuarine and coastal waters: Seasonal patterns and key species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Jacob; Klais, Riina; Cloern, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are dynamic phenomena of great importance to the functioning of estuarine and coastal ecosystems. We analysed a unique (large) collection of phytoplankton monitoring data covering 86 coastal sites distributed over eight regions in North America and Europe, with the aim of investigating common patterns in the seasonal timing and species composition of the blooms. The spring bloom was the most common seasonal pattern across all regions, typically occurring early (February–March) at lower latitudes and later (April–May) at higher latitudes. Bloom frequency, defined as the probability of unusually high biomass, ranged from 5 to 35% between sites and followed no consistent patterns across gradients of latitude, temperature, salinity, water depth, stratification, tidal amplitude or nutrient concentrations. Blooms were mostly dominated by a single species, typically diatoms (58% of the blooms) and dinoflagellates (19%). Diatom-dominated spring blooms were a common feature in most systems, although dinoflagellate spring blooms were also observed in the Baltic Sea. Blooms dominated by chlorophytes and cyanobacteria were only common in low salinity waters and occurred mostly at higher temperatures. Key bloom species across the eight regions included the diatoms Cerataulina pelagica and Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and dinoflagellates Heterocapsa triquetra and Prorocentrum cordatum. Other frequent bloom-forming taxa were diatom genera Chaetoceros, Coscinodiscus, Skeletonema, and Thalassiosira. Our meta-analysis shows that these 86 estuarine-coastal sites function as diatom-producing systems, the timing of that production varies widely, and that bloom frequency is not associated with environmental factors measured in monitoring programs. We end with a perspective on the limitations of conclusions derived from meta-analyses of phytoplankton time series, and the grand challenges remaining to understand the wide range of bloom patterns and

  1. Molecular seasonality of Giardia lamblia in a cohort of Egyptian children: a circannual pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mousa A M; El-Akkad, Dina M H; Rizk, Enas M A; El-Askary, Hala M; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2016-11-01

    Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is the most worldwide prevailing intestinal parasite, notorious for its broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. The potentially lethal nature of giardiasis makes it essential that the seasonality, the groups at risk, and other potential risk factors are identified. The present molecular epidemiological study was designed to determine the genetic diversity of G. lamblia infection, taking into account seasonal peaks, age distribution, and associated symptoms in a cohort of Egyptian diarrheic patients. Stool samples were collected from 1187 diarrheic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, of all age groups over a 12-month period. The patients were examined microscopically for fecal G. lamblia cysts, and/or trophozoites, and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays targeting beta giardin gene. PCR-positive samples were characterized molecularly by nPCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Giardia assemblages. The findings revealed circannual prevalence of Giardia, with a seasonal pattern peaking in mid-summer and late winter, with the summer peak preceded by a peak in temperature. Infection was prevailing in 224 (18.9 %) cases, mainly assemblage B (81.2 %) followed by assemblage A (18.8 %). There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Giardia and flatulence, persistent diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, while gender and intermittent diarrhea showed no association. The pre-school age group was the most vulnerable. This is the first study of molecular characterization of Giardia to determine its circannual prevalence in Egypt, a finding which carries promising potential for the diagnosis, treatment, and elimination of the disease.

  2. Cold and alone? Roost choice and season affect torpor patterns in lesser short-tailed bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czenze, Zenon J; Brigham, R Mark; Hickey, Anthony J R; Parsons, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal changes in weather and food availability differentially impact energy budgets of small mammals such as bats. While most thermal physiological research has focused on species that experience extreme seasonal temperature variations, knowledge is lacking from less variable temperate to subtropical climates. We quantified ambient temperature (T a ) and skin temperature (T sk ) responses by individuals from a population of New Zealand lesser short-tailed bats (Mystacina tuberculata) during summer and winter using temperature telemetry. During summer, communal roosts were more thermally stable than T a . During winter, solitary roosts were warmer than T a indicating significant thermal buffering. Communal roost trees were used on 83 % of observation days during summer, and individuals occupying them rarely entered torpor. Solitary roosts were occupied on 93 % of observation days during winter, and 100 % of individuals occupying them used torpor. During summer and winter, bats employed torpor on 11 and 95 % of observation days, respectively. Maximum torpor bout duration was 120.8 h and winter torpor bout duration correlated negatively with mean T a . Torpor bout duration did not differ between sexes, although female minimum T sk was significantly lower than males. The summer Heterothermy Index varied, and was also significantly affected by T a . Mean arousal time was correlated with sunset time and arousals occurred most frequently on significantly warmer evenings, which are likely associated with an increased probability of foraging success. We provide the first evidence that torpor is used flexibly throughout the year by M. tuberculata, demonstrating that roost choice and season impact torpor patterns. Our results add to the growing knowledge that even small changes in seasonal climate can have large effects on the energy balance of small mammals.

  3. Regulation of the seasonal population patterns of Helicoverpa armigera moths by Bt cotton planting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Lin; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Transgenic cotton expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac toxin has been commercially cultivated in China since 1997, and by 2000 Bt cotton had almost completely replaced non-transgenic cotton cultivars. To evaluate the impact of Bt cotton planting on the seasonal population patterns of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, the dynamics of H. armigera moths were monitored with light traps from four locations (Xiajin, Linqing and Dingtao of Shandong Province; Guantao of Hebei Province) in high Bt density region and five locations (Anci and Xinji of Hebei Province; Dancheng and Fengqiu of Henan Province; Gaomi of Shandong Province) in low Bt density region from 1996 to 2008. A negative correlation was found between moth densities of H. armigera and the planting years of Bt cotton in both high and low Bt density areas. These data indicate that the moth population density of H. armigera was reduced with the introduction of Bt cotton in northern China. Three generations of moths occurred between early June and late September in the cotton regions. Interestingly, second-generation moths decreased and seemed to vanish in recent years in high Bt density region, but this tendency was not found in low Bt density region. The data suggest that the planting of Bt cotton in high Bt density region was effective in controlling the population density of second-generation moths. Furthermore, the seasonal change of moth patterns associated with Bt cotton planting may regulate the regional occurrence and population development of this migratory insect.

  4. Accounting for seasonal isotopic patterns of forest canopy intercepted precipitation in streamflow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Michael P.; Lücke, Andreas; Vereecken, Harry; Bogena, Heye R.

    2017-12-01

    Forest canopy interception alters the isotopic tracer signal of precipitation leading to significant isotopic differences between open precipitation (δOP) and throughfall (δTF). This has important consequences for the tracer-based modeling of streamwater transit times. Some studies have suggested using a simple static correction to δOP by uniformly increasing it because δTF is rarely available for hydrological modeling. Here, we used data from a 38.5 ha spruce forested headwater catchment where three years of δOP and δTF were available to develop a data driven method that accounts for canopy effects on δOP. Changes in isotopic composition, defined as the difference δTF-δOP, varied seasonally with higher values during winter and lower values during summer. We used this pattern to derive a corrected δOP time series and analyzed the impact of using (1) δOP, (2) reference throughfall data (δTFref) and (3) the corrected δOP time series (δOPSine) in estimating the fraction of young water (Fyw), i.e., the percentage of streamflow younger than two to three months. We found that Fyw derived from δOPSine came closer to δTFref in comparison to δOP. Thus, a seasonally-varying correction for δOP can be successfully used to infer δTF where it is not available and is superior to the method of using a fixed correction factor. Seasonal isotopic enrichment patterns should be accounted for when estimating Fyw and more generally in catchment hydrology studies using other tracer methods to reduce uncertainty.

  5. Nearly a decade-long repeatable seasonal diversity patterns of bacterioplankton communities in the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Qingyun [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Stegen, James C. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yu, Yuhe [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Deng, Ye [CAS Key Laboratory of Environmental Biotechnology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing China; Li, Xinghao [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Wu, Shu [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Dai, Lili [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Zhang, Xiang [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Li, Jinjin [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Wang, Chun [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Ni, Jiajia [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Li, Xuemei [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Hu, Hongjuan [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Xiao, Fanshu [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Feng, Weisong [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan China; Ning, Daliang [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; He, Zhili [Environmental Microbiome Research Center and the School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou China; Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Van Nostrand, Joy D. [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Wu, Liyou [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; Zhou, Jizhong [Department of Microbiology and Plant Biology, Institute for Environmental Genomics, University of Oklahoma, Norman OK USA; State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing China; Earth Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA USA

    2017-05-21

    Uncovering which environmental factors have the greatest influence on community diversity patterns and how ecological processes govern community turnover are key questions related to understanding community assembly mechanisms. Although we have good understanding of plant and animal community assembly, the mechanisms regulating diversity patterns of aquatic bacterial communities in lake ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we present nearly a decade-long time-series study of bacterioplankton communities from the eutrophic Lake Donghu (Wuhan, China) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We found strong repeatable seasonal patterns for the overall community, common (detected in more than 50% samples) and dominant bacterial taxa (relative abundance > 1%). Moreover, community composition tracked the seasonal temperature gradient, indicating that temperature is an important environmental factor controlling observed diversity patterns. Total phosphorus also contributed significantly to the seasonal shifts in bacterioplankton composition. However, any spatial pattern across the main lake areas was overwhelmed by temporal variability in this eutrophic lake system. Phylogenetic analysis further indicated that 75%-82% of community turnover was governed by homogeneous selection, suggesting that the bacterioplankton communities are mainly controlled by niche-based processes. However, dominant niches available within seasons might be occupied by similar combinations of bacterial taxa with modest dispersal rates throughout this lake system. This study gives us important insights into community assembly and seasonal turnover of lake bacterioplankton, it may be also useful to predict temporal patterns of other planktonic communities.

  6. Diel flight behaviour and dispersal patterns of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera species with special emphasis on the importance of seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabai, Zoltán; Kálmán, Zoltán; Szivák, Ildikó; Boda, Pál

    2012-09-01

    Dispersal flight is the most important and almost the only way for primary aquatic insects to find new water habitats. During a 30-week-long project, we monitored the flight dispersal behaviour of aquatic beetles and bugs with using highly and horizontally polarizing agricultural black plastic sheets laid onto the ground. Based on the flight data of more than 45,000 individuals and 92 species, we explored and described eight different diel flight activity patterns. We found that seven of eight dispersal patterns are consistent with the previous knowledge, while three conspicuous mass dispersal periods can be identified as in the mid morning and/or around noon and/or at nightfall. As an exception, we found a `daytime' pattern occurred exclusively in spring, in which mass dispersal can be seen from mid morning to late afternoon. In contrast to previous studies, we emphasize here that the seasonality has to be considered in evaluation of the diurnal flight activity. According to the seasons, a `three code sign' was proposed to indicate the diel dispersal flight behaviour of a species for a year. Most of the species utilize different diel activity patterns in different seasons. In spring, the daytime pattern was the preferred type, but in summer and autumn, the evening types were the most popular patterns. We stated that the seasonal change of air temperature has a crucial role in that a pattern could be manifested in a given season or not and brings a need to change the diel dispersal pattern among seasons.

  7. Isolating weather effects from seasonal activity patterns of a temperate North American Colubrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Andrew D; Thompson, Frank R; Faaborg, John

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the effects of climate change on threatened ecosystems and species will require an understanding of how weather influences processes that drive population dynamics. We have evaluated weather effects on activity patterns of western ratsnakes, a widespread predator of birds and small mammals in eastern North America. From 2010-2013 we radio-tracked 53 ratsnakes in the fragmented region of central Missouri. We relocated each snake 4× per week and used movement frequency as an index of activity. We used generalized linear mixed models within an information-theoretic approach to evaluate temporal and weather variables as potential predictors of snake activity. While snakes were generally sedentary, activity showed a linear response to relative humidity and a quadratic response to air temperature, peaking near 30 °C. Seasonal activity patterns differed between sexes and among years, but snakes were generally least active in mid-summer, regardless of weather. Our findings provide strong evidence that air temperature and relative humidity differentially affect activity patterns of an important predator and are the mechanism explaining increased nest predation rates with warmer temperatures.

  8. Assessing fire risk in Portugal during the summer fire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacamara, C. C.; Pereira, M. G.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    Since 1998, Instituto de Meteorologia, the Portuguese Weather Service has relied on the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) System (van Wagner, 1987) to produce daily forecasts of fire risk. The FWI System consists of six components that account for the effects of fuel moisture and wind on fire behavior. The first three components, i.e. the Fine Fuel Moisture Code (FFMC), the Duff Moisture Code (DMC) and the Drought Code (DC) respectively rate the average moisture content of surface litter, decomposing litter, and organic (humus) layers of the soil. Wind effects are then added to FFMC leading to the Initial Spread Index (ISI) that rates fire spread. The remaining two fuel moisture codes (DMC and DC) are in turn combined to produce the Buildup Index (BUI) that is a rating of the total amount of fuel available for combustion. BUI is finally combined with ISI to produce the Fire Weather Index (FWI) that represents the rate of fire intensity. Classes of fire danger and levels of preparedness are commonly defined on an empirical way for a given region by calibrating the FWI System against wildfire activity as defined by the recorded number of events and by the observed burned area over a given period of time (Bovio and Camia, 1998). It is also a well established fact that distributions of burned areas are heavily skewed to the right and tend to follow distributions of the exponential-type (Cumming, 2001). Based on the described context, a new procedure is presented for calibrating the FWI System during the summer fire season in Portugal. Two datasets were used covering a 28-year period (1980-2007); i) the official Portuguese wildfire database which contains detailed information on fire events occurred in the 18 districts of Continental Portugal and ii) daily values of the six components of the FWI System as derived from reanalyses (Uppala et al., 2005) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Calibration of the FWI System is then performed in two

  9. Annual economic impacts of seasonal influenza on US counties: Spatial heterogeneity and patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Economic impacts of seasonal influenza vary across US counties, but little estimation has been conducted at the county level. This research computed annual economic costs of seasonal influenza for 3143 US counties based on Census 2010, identified inherent spatial patterns, and investigated cost-benefits of vaccination strategies. The computing model modified existing methods for national level estimation, and further emphasized spatial variations between counties, in terms of population size, age structure, influenza activity, and income level. Upon such a model, four vaccination strategies that prioritize different types of counties were simulated and their net returns were examined. The results indicate that the annual economic costs of influenza varied from $13.9 thousand to $957.5 million across US counties, with a median of $2.47 million. Prioritizing vaccines to counties with high influenza attack rates produces the lowest influenza cases and highest net returns. This research fills the current knowledge gap by downscaling the estimation to a county level, and adds spatial variability into studies of influenza economics and interventions. Compared to the national estimates, the presented statistics and maps will offer detailed guidance for local health agencies to fight against influenza.

  10. Seasonal and biogeographical patterns of gastrointestinal parasites in large carnivores: wolves in a coastal archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Heather M; Darimont, Chris T; Hill, Janet E; Paquet, Paul C; Thompson, R C Andrew; Wagner, Brent; Smits, Judit E G

    2012-05-01

    Parasites are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population and ecosystem health. We provide the first report of gastrointestinal parasites in gray wolves from the central and north coasts of British Columbia, Canada. Across 60 000 km(2), wolf feces were collected from 34 packs in 2005-2008. At a smaller spatial scale (3300 km(2)), 8 packs were sampled in spring and autumn. Parasite eggs, larvae, and cysts were identified using standard flotation techniques and morphology. A subset of samples was analysed by PCR and sequencing to identify tapeworm eggs (n=9) and Giardia cysts (n=14). We detected ≥14 parasite taxa in 1558 fecal samples. Sarcocystis sporocysts occurred most frequently in feces (43·7%), followed by taeniid eggs (23·9%), Diphyllobothrium eggs (9·1%), Giardia cysts (6·8%), Toxocara canis eggs (2·1%), and Cryptosporidium oocysts (1·7%). Other parasites occurred in ≤1% of feces. Genetic analyses revealed Echinococcus canadensis strains G8 and G10, Taenia ovis krabbei, Diphyllobothrium nehonkaiense, and Giardia duodenalis assemblages A and B. Parasite prevalence differed between seasons and island/mainland sites. Patterns in parasite prevalence reflect seasonal and spatial resource use by wolves and wolf-salmon associations. These data provide a unique, extensive and solid baseline for monitoring parasite community structure in relation to environmental change.

  11. An integrated, indicator framework for assessing large-scale variations and change in seasonal timing and phenology (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    As part of an effort to develop an Indicator System for the National Climate Assessment (NCA), the Seasonality and Phenology Indicators Technical Team (SPITT) proposed an integrated, continental-scale framework for understanding and tracking seasonal timing in physical and biological systems. The framework shares several metrics with the EPA's National Climate Change Indicators. The SPITT framework includes a comprehensive suite of national indicators to track conditions, anticipate vulnerabilities, and facilitate intervention or adaptation to the extent possible. Observed, modeled, and forecasted seasonal timing metrics can inform a wide spectrum of decisions on federal, state, and private lands in the U.S., and will be pivotal for international efforts to mitigation and adaptation. Humans use calendars both to understand the natural world and to plan their lives. Although the seasons are familiar concepts, we lack a comprehensive understanding of how variability arises in the timing of seasonal transitions in the atmosphere, and how variability and change translate and propagate through hydrological, ecological and human systems. For example, the contributions of greenhouse warming and natural variability to secular trends in seasonal timing are difficult to disentangle, including earlier spring transitions from winter (strong westerlies) to summer (weak easterlies) patterns of atmospheric circulation; shifts in annual phasing of daily temperature means and extremes; advanced timing of snow and ice melt and soil thaw at higher latitudes and elevations; and earlier start and longer duration of the growing and fire seasons. The SPITT framework aims to relate spatiotemporal variability in surface climate to (1) large-scale modes of natural climate variability and greenhouse gas-driven climatic change, and (2) spatiotemporal variability in hydrological, ecological and human responses and impacts. The hierarchical framework relies on ground and satellite observations

  12. Seasonal Patterns of Dry Deposition at a High-Elevation Site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldani, Kaley M.; Mladenov, Natalie; Williams, Mark W.; Campbell, Cari M.; Lipson, David A.

    2017-10-01

    In the Colorado Rocky Mountains, high-elevation barren soils are deficient in carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) and enriched in nitrogen (N). The seasonal variability of dry deposition and its contributions to alpine elemental budgets is critical to understanding how dry deposition influences biogeochemical cycling in high-elevation environments. In this 2 year study, we evaluated dry and wet deposition inputs to the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (NWT LTER) site in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The total organic C flux in wet + dry (including soluble and particulate C) deposition was >30 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and represents a substantial input for this C-limited environment. Our side-by-side comparison of dry deposition collectors with and without marble insert indicated that the insert improved retention of dry deposition by 28%. Annual average dry deposition fluxes of water-soluble organic carbon (4.25 kg C ha-1 yr-1) and other water-soluble constituents, including ammonium (0.16 kg NH4+ha-1 yr-1), nitrate (1.99 kg NO3- ha-1 yr-1), phosphate (0.08 kg PO43- ha-1 yr-1), and sulfate (1.20 kg SO42- ha-1 yr-1), were comparable to those in wet deposition, with highest values measured in the summer. Backward trajectory analyses implicate air masses passing through the arid west and Four Corners, USA, as dominant source areas for dry deposition, especially in spring months. Synchronous temporal patterns of deposition observed at the NWT LTER site and a distant Rocky Mountain National Park Clean Air Status and Trends Network site indicate that seasonal dry deposition patterns are regional phenomena with important implications for the larger Rocky Mountain region.

  13. Genetic association study of circadian genes with seasonal pattern in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Lajnef, Mohamed; Bellivier, Frank; Jamain, Stéphane; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Chantal; Leboyer, Marion; Etain, Bruno

    2015-05-19

    About one fourth of patients with bipolar disorders (BD) have depressive episodes with a seasonal pattern (SP) coupled to a more severe disease. However, the underlying genetic influence on a SP in BD remains to be identified. We studied 269 BD Caucasian patients, with and without SP, recruited from university-affiliated psychiatric departments in France and performed a genetic single-marker analysis followed by a gene-based analysis on 349 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 21 circadian genes and 3 melatonin pathway genes. A SP in BD was nominally associated with 14 SNPs identified in 6 circadian genes: NPAS2, CRY2, ARNTL, ARNTL2, RORA and RORB. After correcting for multiple testing, using a false discovery rate approach, the associations remained significant for 5 SNPs in NPAS2 (chromosome 2:100793045-100989719): rs6738097 (pc = 0.006), rs12622050 (pc = 0.006), rs2305159 (pc = 0.01), rs1542179 (pc = 0.01), and rs1562313 (pc = 0.02). The gene-based analysis of the 349 SNPs showed that rs6738097 (NPAS2) and rs1554338 (CRY2) were significantly associated with the SP phenotype (respective Empirical p-values of 0.0003 and 0.005). The associations remained significant for rs6738097 (NPAS2) after Bonferroni correction. The epistasis analysis between rs6738097 (NPAS2) and rs1554338 (CRY2) suggested an additive effect. Genetic variations in NPAS2 might be a biomarker for a seasonal pattern in BD.

  14. Hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in Great Lakes tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaker, Peter L.; Corsi, Steven; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Baldwin, Austin K.; Lutz, Michelle A.

    2017-01-01

    Great Lakes tributaries are known to deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens (i.e. protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) human viruses, (8) and bovine viruses (8)) eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes Basin over 29 months from February 2011 to June 2013. Sampling locations represented a wide variety of land cover classes from urban to agriculture to forest. A custom automated pathogen sampler was deployed at eight sampling locations which provided unattended, flow-weighted, large-volume (120–1630 L) sampling. Human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria were detected by real-time qPCR in 16%, 14%, and 1.4% of 290 samples collected while protozoa were never detected. The most frequently detected pathogens were: bovine polyomavirus (11%), and human adenovirus C, D, F (9%). Human and bovine viruses were present in 16.9% and 14.8% of runoff-event samples (n = 189) resulting from precipitation and snowmelt, and 13.9% and 12.9% of low-flow samples (n = 101), respectively, indicating multiple delivery mechanisms could be influential. Data indicated human and bovine virus prevalence was different depending on land cover within the watershed. Occurrence, concentration, and flux of human viruses were greatest in samples from the three sampling locations with greater than 25% urban influence than those with less than 25% urban influence. Similarly, occurrence, concentration, and flux of bovine viruses were greatest in samples from the two sampling locations with greater than 50 cattle/km2 than those with less than 50 cattle/km2. In seasonal analysis, human and bovine viruses occurred more frequently in spring and winter seasons than during the fall and summer. Concentration, occurrence, and flux in the context of hydrologic condition, seasonality, and land use must be considered for each watershed individually to develop effective watershed management

  15. Seasonality in cholera dynamics: A rainfall-driven model explains the wide range of patterns in endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, Theo; King, Aaron A.; Bouma, Menno J.; Rodó, Xavier; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-10-01

    Seasonal patterns in cholera dynamics exhibit pronounced variability across geographical regions, showing single or multiple peaks at different times of the year. Although multiple hypotheses related to local climate variables have been proposed, an understanding of this seasonal variation remains incomplete. The historical Bengal region, which encompasses the full range of cholera's seasonality observed worldwide, provides a unique opportunity to gain insights on underlying environmental drivers. Here, we propose a mechanistic, rainfall-temperature driven, stochastic epidemiological model which explicitly accounts for the fluctuations of the aquatic reservoir, and analyze with this model the historical dataset of cholera mortality in the Bengal region. Parameters are inferred with a recently developed sequential Monte Carlo method for likelihood maximization in partially observed Markov processes. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a major driver of the seasonal dynamics of cholera. Rainfall tends to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to the longer residence times of water in the environment and an associated dilution effect, whereas it enhances cholera resurgence in dry regions. Moreover, the dynamics of the environmental water reservoir determine whether the seasonality is unimodal or bimodal, as well as its phase relative to the monsoon. Thus, the full range of seasonal patterns can be explained based solely on the local variation of rainfall and temperature. Given the close connection between cholera seasonality and environmental conditions, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms would allow the better management and planning of public health policies with respect to climate variability and climate change.

  16. Seasonal patterns in the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium, S. mattheei and S. mansoni in the highveld region of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandiwana, S K; Christensen, N O; Frandsen, F

    1987-12-01

    The pattern of fluctuation in the population size of Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, in their infection rates with Schistosoma haematobium/S. mattheei and S. mansoni, respectively, and in the cercarial population size as monitored using hamster immersions, was elucidated in streams in the temperate highveld region of Zimbabwe over a 27-month period during 1982-1984. The results revealed that transmission of S. mansoni was erratic and unpredictable without a clearcut seasonal transmission pattern. In contrast, transmission of S. haematobium and S. mattheei exhibited a marked seasonal pattern, being most intensive during the hot, dry season (September-November) and markedly reduced during the cold, dry season (June-August). During the rainy (December-February) and warm, post-rainy (March-May) seasons transmission was moderate and variable, but occasionally intensive. The results also showed that rodent immersion is to be preferred to measurements of snail population size and snail infection rate in elucidating seasonality of transmission of schistosomiasis.

  17. Assessment of optimal strategies in a two-patch dengue transmission model with seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Lee, Hyojung; Lee, Chang Hyeong; Lee, Sunmi

    2017-01-01

    Emerging and re-emerging dengue fever has posed serious problems to public health officials in many tropical and subtropical countries. Continuous traveling in seasonally varying areas makes it more difficult to control the spread of dengue fever. In this work, we consider a two-patch dengue model that can capture the movement of host individuals between and within patches using a residence-time matrix. A previous two-patch dengue model without seasonality is extended by adding host demographics and seasonal forcing in the transmission rates. We investigate the effects of human movement and seasonality on the two-patch dengue transmission dynamics. Motivated by the recent Peruvian dengue data in jungle/rural areas and coast/urban areas, our model mimics the seasonal patterns of dengue outbreaks in two patches. The roles of seasonality and residence-time configurations are highlighted in terms of the seasonal reproduction number and cumulative incidence. Moreover, optimal control theory is employed to identify and evaluate patch-specific control measures aimed at reducing dengue prevalence in the presence of seasonality. Our findings demonstrate that optimal patch-specific control strategies are sensitive to seasonality and residence-time scenarios. Targeting only the jungle (or endemic) is as effective as controlling both patches under weak coupling or symmetric mobility. However, focusing on intervention for the city (or high density areas) turns out to be optimal when two patches are strongly coupled with asymmetric mobility.

  18. Autoregression as a means of assessing the strength of seasonality in a time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upshur Ross EG

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the seasonal variation of disease is receiving increasing attention from health researchers. Available statistical tests for seasonality typically indicate the presence or absence of statistically significant seasonality but do not provide a meaningful measure of its strength. Methods We propose the coefficient of determination of the autoregressive regression model fitted to the data ( as a measure for quantifying the strength of the seasonality. The performance of the proposed statistic is assessed through a simulation study and using two data sets known to demonstrate statistically significant seasonality: atrial fibrillation and asthma hospitalizations in Ontario, Canada. Results The simulation results showed the power of the in adequately quantifying the strength of the seasonality of the simulated observations for all models. In the atrial fibrillation and asthma datasets, while the statistical tests such as Bartlett's Kolmogorov-Smirnov (BKS and Fisher's Kappa support statistical evidence of seasonality for both, the quantifies the strength of that seasonality. Corroborating the visual evidence that asthma is more conspicuously seasonal than atrial fibrillation, the calculated for atrial fibrillation indicates a weak to moderate seasonality ( = 0.44, 0.28 and 0.45 for both genders, males and females respectively, whereas for asthma, it indicates a strong seasonality ( = 0.82, 0.78 and 0.82 for both genders, male and female respectively. Conclusions For the purposes of health services research, evidence of the statistical presence of seasonality is insufficient to determine the etiologic, clinical and policy relevance of findings. Measurement of the strength of the seasonal effect, as can be determined using the technique, is also important in order to provide a robust sense of seasonality.

  19. Seasonal and diel patterns in sedimentary flux of krill fecal pellets recorded by an echo sounder

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders

    2013-11-01

    We used a moored upward-facing 200 kHz echo sounder to address sedimentation of fecal pellets (FPs) from dielly migrating Meganyctiphanes norvegica. The echo sounder was located on the bottom at 150 m depth in the Oslofjord, Norway, and was cabled to shore for continuous measurements during winter and spring. Records of sinking pellets were for the first time observed with an echo sounder. Seasonal patterns of sedimentation of krill FPs were strongly correlated with data from continuous measurement of fluorescence, which illustrate the development of the spring bloom. Sedimenting particles were first observed as fluorescence values started to increase at the end of February and continued to increase until the bloom suddenly culminated at the end of March. This collapse of the bloom was detected on the echo sounder as a pulse of slowly sinking acoustic targets over a 2 d period. Prior to this event, there was a strong diel pattern in sedimentation, which correlated, with some time lag, with the diel migration of krill foraging at night near the surface. Pellet average sinking speeds ranged between 423 m d−1 and 804 m d−1, with a strong relation to pellet target strength, which is an acoustic proxy for size. This novel approach shows that echo sounders may be a valuable tool in studies of vertical pellet flux and, thereby, carbon flux, providing temporal resolution and direct observation of the sedimentation process, which are not obtained from standard methods.

  20. An Assessment of the Skill of GEOS-5 Seasonal Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Rienecker, Michele M.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal forecast skill of the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office coupled global climate model (CGCM) is evaluated based on an ensemble of 9-month lead forecasts for the period 1993 to 2010. The results from the current version (V2) of the CGCM consisting of the GEOS-5 AGM coupled to the MOM4 ocean model are compared with those from an earlier version (V1) in which the AGCM (the NSIPP model) was coupled to the Poseidon Ocean Model. It was found that the correlation skill of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) forecasts is generally better in V2, especially over the sub-tropical and tropical central and eastern Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean. Furthermore, the improvement in skill in V2 mainly comes from better forecasts of the developing phase of ENSO from boreal spring to summer. The skill of ENSO forecasts initiated during the boreal winter season, however, shows no improvement in terms of correlation skill, and is in fact slightly worse in terms of root mean square error (RMSE). The degradation of skill is found to be due to an excessive ENSO amplitude. For V1, the ENSO amplitude is too strong in forecasts starting in boreal spring and summer, which causes large RMSE in the forecast. For V2, the ENSO amplitude is slightly stronger than that in observations and V1 for forecasts starting in boreal winter season. An analysis of the terms in the SST tendency equation, shows that this is mainly due to an excessive zonal advective feedback. In addition, V2 forecasts that are initiated during boreal winter season, exhibit a slower phase transition of El Nino, which is consistent with larger amplitude of ENSO after the ENSO peak season. It is found that this is due to weak discharge of equatorial Warm Water Volume (WWV). In both observations and V1, the discharge of equatorial WWV leads the equatorial geostrophic easterly current so as to damp the El Nino starting in January. This process is delayed by about 2 months in V2 due to the slower phase

  1. Varied representation of the West Pacific pattern in multiple dynamical seasonal predictions of APCC-MME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Young

    2017-04-01

    West Pacific (WP) teleconnection pattern is one of the well-known primary modes of boreal winter low-frequency variability (LFV) resolved in 500 hPa geopotential height and its phase and amplitude strongly influence regional weather conditions including temperature and rainfall extremes [Baxter and Nigam, 2015; Hsu and Wallace, 1985; Linkin and Nigam, 2008; Mo and Livezey, 1986; Thompson and Wallace, 1998; Wallace and Gutzler, 1981]. This study primary aims to evaluate individual 11 GCMs seasonal hindcasts employed as members of multi-model ensemble (MME) produced in APEC Climate Center (APCC) in representing WP. For the extensive and comprehensive evaluation, this study applied seven verification metrics in three scopes: (a) temporal representation of observed indices, (b) spatial mode separation in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), and (c) regional mode isolated in the preset longitudinal domain. Verification results display quite large inter-model spread. Some models mimic observed index variability while others display large bias of index variability compared to climatology. Basic north-south dipole pattern is mostly well reproduced in both rotated and unrotated loading modes. However, each individual seasonal forecast model exhibits slightly different behavior (e.g. amplification/weakening, zonal and meridional shift, downstream extension and so forth) in representing spatial structure of WP. When taking all 7 metrics into account, one Europe (CMCC) model, one Oceania (POAMA) model and two North America (NASA and NCEP) models are classified as relatively good performers while PNU is classified as a matchless poor performer out of 11. Least WP representing skill of PNU is sort of consistent with the largest bias of NH total variability. This study further tries to examine winter mean biases of individual models and figure out how mean bias is linked to WP representation in model world. Model bias of winter climatology is investigated focusing on six large scale

  2. Simulated Vegetation Response to Climate Change in California: The Importance of Seasonal Production Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Pitts, B.

    2013-12-01

    MC1 dynamic global vegetation model simulates vegetation response to climate change by simulating vegetation production, soil biogeochemistry, plant biogeography and fire. It has been applied at a wide range of spatial scales, yet the spatio-temporal patterns of simulated vegetation production, which drives the model's response to climate change, has not been examined in detail. We ran MC1 for California at a relatively fine scale, 30 arc-seconds, for the historical period (1895-2006) and for the future (2007-2100), using downscaled data from four CMIP3-based climate projections: A2 and B1 GHG emissions scenarios simulated by PCM and GFDL GCMs. The use of these four climate projections aligns our work with a body of climate change research work commissioned by the California Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. The four climate projections vary not only in terms of changes in their annual means, but in the seasonality of projected climate change. We calibrated MC1 using MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011 as a guide, and adapting a published technique for adjusting simulated vegetation production by increasing the simulated plant rooting depths. We evaluated the simulation results by comparing the model output for the historical period with several benchmark datasets, summarizing by EPA Level 3 Ecoregions. Multi-year summary statistics of model predictions compare moderately well with Kuchler's potential natural vegetation map, National Biomass and Carbon Dataset, Leenhouts' compilation of fire return intervals, and, of course, the MODIS NPP data for 2000-2011. When we compared MC1's monthly NPP values with MODIS monthly GPP data (2000-2011), however, the seasonal patterns compared very poorly, with NPP/GPP ratio for spring (Mar-Apr-May) often exceeding 1, and the NPP/GPP ratio for summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) often flattening to zero. This suggests MC1's vegetation production algorithms are overly biased for spring production at the cost of summer production. We

  3. Pattern of exposure to information and its impact on seasonal influenza vaccination uptake in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, E K H; Lee, S; Lee, S S

    2017-08-12

    Uptake of annual influenza vaccination of healthcare workers (HCWs) varies, and remains at a suboptimal level in many countries. As HCWs are often exposed to a variety of information about vaccination, the pattern of exposure may impact their decision; this deserves further investigation. Practising nurses in Hong Kong were invited to participate in an anonymous online survey in February 2016, after the winter seasonal peak. The questionnaire covered demographics, work nature and experiences, vaccination uptake history and reasons for vaccination decisions. Two behavioural categories for access to information were defined - passive exposure to information and active information-seeking - differentiated by the source, type and nature of information accessed. Chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression were performed to compare vaccinated and unvaccinated nurses. In total, 1177 valid returns were received from nurses. The median age of respondents was 32 years and 86% were female. The overall vaccination rate was 33%. Passive exposure to information from the workplace, professional body and social network was not predictive of vaccination decision, but passive exposure to information from mass media was predictive [odds ratio (OR) 1.78]. Active information-seeking, such as consulting a senior (OR 2.46), organizing promotional activities (OR 2.85) and undertaking an information search (OR 2.43), was significantly associated with increased vaccination uptake. A cumulative effect could be demonstrated for active information-seeking (OR 1.86), but not for passive exposure to information. The current strategy of promotions and campaigns for seasonal influenza vaccination in HCWs may not be effective in increasing vaccination coverage. Measures targeting information-seeking behaviours may serve as an alternative approach. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Seasonal rockfall risk assessment along transportation network: a sample from Mallorca (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Inmaculada; Reichenbach, Paola; Herrera, Gerardo; Rius, Joan; Aguilo, Raul; Roldan, Francisco J.

    2014-05-01

    In the literature there are numerous works focusing on rockfall risk assessment along transportation corridors which take into account several factors, including the annual average traffic volume. Few papers examine in detail examples with a strong seasonal distribution of people travelling along roads, in particular in regions with a great importance for tourism. In these areas, potential blockages along the road network can cause significant economic losses, considering not only direct costs, but also indirect ones related to a reduction in tourism arrivals, with the consequent loss of jobs and profits. In this work we present a methodology for rockfall risk assessment focusing on the reliability and applicability of the evaluation in a test site located in the island of Mallorca, a region which welcomes over 11.3 million visitors per year and where tourism represents the main source of income (83% of its GDP). The Ma-10 road (111 km), located in the north-western sector of the island along the coastal face of the Tramuntana range, has been affected by 85 rockfall events during the past 18 years, which caused repairing costs valued at approximately 2M Euro (Mateos et al., 2013). Rockfalls are triggered by heavy rainfall and freeze-thaw cycles and, for these reasons, autumn and winter can be considered as the most hazardous seasons (Mateos et al., 2012). The road has heavy traffic estimated at 7.200 vehicles per day on average, with a seasonal variation of people travelling in vehicles, the summer being most prominent- up to 6 times the average- due to the pattern of tourism arrivals. To analyse the seasonal rockfall hazard and risk along the Ma-10 road, we obtained the extent of the areas potentially subject to rockfall hazards using STONE, a physically-based rockfall simulation computer program (Guzzetti et al, 2002). The availability of historical rockfalls mapped in detail allowed checking the STONE results, and identifying a hazardous area on the southern

  6. Seasonal changes in english walnut (Juglans regia L.) (Juglandaceae), fruit properties and host use patterns by Rhagoletis zoqui (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhagoletis zoqui Bush is a Neosubtropical, univoltine, frugivorous tephritid fly that exploits both native Juglans spp. and the introduced, Palearctic English walnut, Juglans regia. The seasonal development of commercial J. regia fruit and the pattern of host exploitation by R. zoqui were tracked ov...

  7. Seasonal variation in food pattern but not in energy and nutrient intakes of rural Beninese school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Inadequate energy and nutrient intakes are a major nutritional problem in developing countries. A recent study in Beninese school-aged children in different seasons revealed a high prevalence of stunting and poor iron status that might be related to the food pattern. Objective: To

  8. Deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on the Baltic Sea: seasonal patterns and nitrogen isotope composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rolff

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and phosphorus on the central Baltic Sea (Baltic Proper was estimated monthly at two coastal stations and two isolated islands in 2001 and 2002. Yearly nitrogen deposition ranged between 387 and 727 mg N m−2 yr−1 (average 617 and was composed of ~10% organic N and approximately equal amounts of ammonium and nitrate. Winter nitrate peaks at the isolated islands possibly indicated ship emissions. Load weighted δ15N of deposited N was 3.7‰ and 0.35‰ at the coastal stations and the isolated islands respectively. Winter δ15N was ~3‰ lighter than in summer, reflecting winter dominance of nitrate. The light isotopic composition of deposited nitrogen may cause overestimates of nitrogen fixation in basin-wide isotopic budgeting, whereas relatively heavy deposition of ammonium during summer instead may cause underestimates of fixation in budgets of the upper mixed layer. δ15N in atmospherically deposited nitrate and ammonium was estimated by regression to −7.9 and 13.5‰ respectively. Phosphorus deposition showed no clear seasonal pattern and was considerably lower at the isolated islands. Organic P constituted 20–40% of annual P deposition. P deposition is unlikely to be a major source for cyanobacterial blooms but may potentially prolong an ongoing bloom.

  9. Seasonal and geographical influence on sleeping patterns inferred from mobile phone data

    CERN Document Server

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Kaski, Kimmo

    2016-01-01

    Influence of the sunrise, sunset and daylight on the human sleep wake cycle has been primarily studied using questionnaires from limited size cohorts. The studies indicate that it varies along the year while the sunrise and sunset could be related with the onset and conclusion of sleep. Here, we take an empirical data-driven approach by utilizing anonymized mobile phone data or "digital footprints" of very large size cohort during a year. Using aggregated calling patterns we construct the distributions for the daily first and last calls in different cities along the year. We also characterize a daily period of low calling activity that allows to infer the dependence of the sleep-wake cycle on geographical location and the seasonal changes. We find rather surprisingly that the mobile phone users synchronize their last and first calls with the local sun transit time along the longitude they are located. Further analysis reveals that the difference between the durations of the low activity period in the summer a...

  10. Training patterns and negative health outcomes in triathlon: longitudinal observations across a full competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, L C; Landers, G J; Grove, J R; Dawson, B; Goodman, C

    2010-12-01

    Despite heavy training requirements, triathlon is a sport that is rapidly increasing in popularity. Yet, there is limited research detailing the relationship between training, the incidence of injuries and illness, psychological stress, overtraining and athlete burnout amongst triathletes. Six hypotheses relating inter-individual differences to training factors were generated to evaluate change in self-reported measures of these negative health outcomes over a training year. Thirty, well-trained, triathletes (males n=20: age=27.1±9.1 years and females n=10: age=27.4±6.6 years) from a local triathlon club participated in this study. The study commenced during pre-season training, and involved weekly monitoring of each athlete until the end of the competitive season 45 weeks later. Linear Mixed Modelling was used for the analysis. Signs and symptoms of injury and illness (SAS) were significantly associated with increases in training factors (P≤0.05); however, greatest impact on SAS was produced by psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Common symptoms of overtraining were significantly affected by increases in exposure to both training and psychological stressors (P≤0.05). Mood disturbance was not significantly affected by training factors (P>0.05) but rather increases in psychological stressors (P≤0.001). Finally, each of the three athlete burnout subscales were significantly affected by both psychological (P≤0.001) stressors as well as varying combinations of training factors (P≤0.05). Exposure to stressors (either training or psychological) had significant effects on all negative health outcomes assessed.

  11. Assessment of Seasonal and Annual Rainfall Trends and Variability in Sharjah City, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Merabtene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a few studies on rainfall spatial and temporal variability in the UAE have been carried out, evidence of the impact of climate change on rainfall trends has not been reported. This study aims at assessing the significance of long-term rainfall trends and temporal variability at Sharjah City, UAE. Annual rainfall and seasonal rainfall extending over a period of 81 years (1934–2014 recorded at Sharjah International Airport have been analyzed. To this end, several parametric and nonparametric statistical measures have been applied following systematic data quality assessment. The analyses revealed that the annual rainfall trend decreased from −3 mm to −9.4 mm per decade over the study periods. The decreasing annual rainfall trend is mainly driven by the significant drop in winter rainfall, particularly during the period from 1977 to 2014. The results also indicate that high probability extreme events have shifted toward low frequency (12.7 years with significant variations in monthly rainfall patterns and periodicity. The findings of the present study suggest reevaluating the derivation of design rainfall for infrastructure of Sharjah City and urge developing an integrated framework for its water resources planning and risk under climate change impacts scenarios.

  12. Seasonal patterns of birth for subjects with bulimia nervosa, binge eating, and purging: results from the National Women's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Dansky, Bonnie S; O'Neil, Patrick M; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2012-01-01

    Studies of birth patterns in anorexia nervosa have shown relative increases between March and August, while studies in Bulimia Nervosa (BN) have been negative. Since there are no studies using representative, nonclinical samples, we looked for seasonal birth patterns in women with BN and in those who ever endorsed bingeing or purging. A national, representative sample of 3,006 adult women completed structured telephone interviews including screenings for bulimia nervosa (BN) and questions about month, date, and year of birth. Season of birth was calculated using traditional definitions. Differences across season of birth between subjects with (n = 85) and without BN (n = 2,898), those with (n = 749) and without bingeing (n = 2,229), and those with (n = 267) and without any purging (n = 2,715) were compared using chi-square analyses. There were significant differences across season of birth between subjects: (1) with and without BN (p = 0.033); (2) with and without bingeing (p = 0.034), and; (3) with and without purging (p = 0.001). Fall had the highest relative number of births for all categories, while spring had the lowest. In a national representative study of nontreatment seeking subjects significant differences in season of birth were found for subjects with lifetime histories of BN, binge eating and purging. © 2011 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2012). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0 and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  14. Global-scale pattern of peatland Sphagnum growth driven by photosynthetically active radiation and growing season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, J.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Yu, Z.

    2012-07-01

    High-latitude peatlands contain about one third of the world's soil organic carbon, most of which is derived from partly decomposed Sphagnum (peat moss) plants. We conducted a meta-analysis based on a global data set of Sphagnum growth measurements collected from published literature to investigate the effects of bioclimatic variables on Sphagnum growth. Analysis of variance and general linear models were used to relate Sphagnum magellanicum and S. fuscum growth rates to photosynthetically active radiation integrated over the growing season (PAR0) and a moisture index. We found that PAR0 was the main predictor of Sphagnum growth for the global data set, and effective moisture was only correlated with moss growth at continental sites. The strong correlation between Sphagnum growth and PAR0 suggests the existence of a global pattern of growth, with slow rates under cool climate and short growing seasons, highlighting the important role of growing season length in explaining peatland biomass production. Large-scale patterns of cloudiness during the growing season might also limit moss growth. Although considerable uncertainty remains over the carbon balance of peatlands under a changing climate, our results suggest that increasing PAR0 as a result of global warming and lengthening growing seasons, without major change in cloudiness, could promote Sphagnum growth. Assuming that production and decomposition have the same sensitivity to temperature, this enhanced growth could lead to greater peat-carbon sequestration, inducing a negative feedback to climate change.

  15. Seasonal transport patterns of intense Saharan dust events at the Mediterranean island of Lampedusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, D.; di Sarra, A.; Monteleone, F.; Pace, G.; Piacentino, S.; Sferlazzo, D. M.

    2008-05-01

    Saharan dust (SD) episodes occurring at the Mediterranean island of Lampedusa (35.52° N, 12.63° E) from May 1999 to December 2005 have been shown to occur in the 26% of the cloud-free days [Meloni, D., di Sarra, A., Biavati, G., DeLuisi, J.J., Monteleone, F., Pace, G., Piacentino, S., Sferlazzo, D.M., 2007. Seasonal behavior of Saharan dust events at the Mediterranean island of Lampedusa in the period 1999-2005, Atmos. Environ. 41, 3041-3056]. In this paper we focus on intense SD events detected until September 2006, characterized by large values of the Saharan Dust Event Index (SDEI), the sum of the daily average aerosol optical depth at 500 nm, τ, over the duration of the dust episode. The SDEI index provides an indication about the intensity of SD events, due either to a long duration and/or to high dust optical depth. A total of 24 episodes characterized by large values of SDEI are examined. The NCEP-based maps of geopotential height and temperature at 700 mbar are used to identify the main circulation patterns driving SD to the Central Mediterranean and Lampedusa. Dust transport episodes in summer last for several days, and the corresponding SDEI values are the highest of the year. These episodes are mainly governed by two circulation patterns: the trough extending near the Atlantic coast of Europe and the high pressure system present in North Africa, generally above 25° N. This configuration causes strong south-westerly flows from the Sahara towards Southern Italy. The time evolution of τ for these long SD events shows that the largest values (> 0.3) are usually observed when the two patterns are present simultaneously, while low (< 0.3) τ values are measured when the Atlantic trough influence is weak. Moreover, the most probable loading region typically shows a warm kernel in North-Western Sahara, with a tongue extending north-eastward towards Sicily. In spring, moderate to high τ are measured, and SD episodes last as long as 13 days. Two synoptic

  16. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  17. Clinical Age-Specific Seasonal Conjunctivitis Patterns and Their Online Detection in Twitter, Blog, Forum, and Comment Social Media Posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S; McLeod, Stephen D; Chodosh, James; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Fathy, Cherie A; Lietman, Thomas M; Porco, Travis C

    2018-02-01

    We sought to determine whether big data from social media might reveal seasonal trends of conjunctivitis, most forms of which are nonreportable. Social media posts (from Twitter, and from online forums and blogs) were classified by age and by conjunctivitis type (allergic or infectious) using Boolean and machine learning methods. Based on spline smoothing, we estimated the circular mean occurrence time (a measure of central tendency for occurrence) and the circular variance (a measure of uniformity of occurrence throughout the year, providing an index of seasonality). Clinical records from a large tertiary care provider were analyzed in a similar way for comparison. Social media posts machine-coded as being related to infectious conjunctivitis showed similar times of occurrence and degree of seasonality to clinical infectious cases, and likewise for machine-coded allergic conjunctivitis posts compared to clinical allergic cases. Allergic conjunctivitis showed a distinctively different seasonal pattern than infectious conjunctivitis, with a mean occurrence time later in the spring. Infectious conjunctivitis for children showed markedly greater seasonality than for adults, though the occurrence times were similar; no such difference for allergic conjunctivitis was seen. Social media posts broadly track the seasonal occurrence of allergic and infectious conjunctivitis, and may be a useful supplement for epidemiologic monitoring.

  18. Assessing the Development of Preschoolers' Mathematical Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchelmore, Michael C.; Papic, Marina M.; Mulligan, Joanne T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of patterning strategies during the year prior to formal schooling was studied in 53 children from 2 similar preschools. One preschool implemented a 6-month intervention focusing on repeating and spatial patterns. Children from the intervention group demonstrated greater understanding of unit of repeat and spatial structuring, and…

  19. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    KAUST Repository

    Gasol, Josep M.

    2016-10-11

    phytoplankton composition played a minor role. Daily integrated primary production was fairly constant throughout the year: similar to previous oxygen-based estimates in winter but considerably lower than these in summer. The difference between 14C- and oxygen-based estimates of primary production could be explained by community respiration. Annually integrated primary production amounted to a rather modest 48 g C m–2 yr–1 (equivalent to 130 mg C m–2 d–1). Although no interannual patterns were detected, our work soundly establishes the seasonal trends for the coastal NW Mediterranean, therefore setting the basis for future detection of change.

  20. Seasonal patterns in phytoplankton photosynthetic parameters and primary production at a coastal NW Mediterranean site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Gasol

    2016-09-01

    phytoplankton composition played a minor role. Daily integrated primary production was fairly constant throughout the year: similar to previous oxygen-based estimates in winter but considerably lower than these in summer. The difference between 14C- and oxygen-based estimates of primary production could be explained by community respiration. Annually integrated primary production amounted to a rather modest 48 g C m–2 yr–1 (equivalent to 130 mg C m–2 d–1. Although no interannual patterns were detected, our work soundly establishes the seasonal trends for the coastal NW Mediterranean, therefore setting the basis for future detection of change.

  1. ASSESSING ATYPICAL SEASONAL AFFECTIVE-DISORDER COMPLAINTS BY MEANS OF SELF-RATING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; JANSEN, JHC

    1993-01-01

    The atypical complaints of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) are usually assessed clinically by means of 7 questions added to the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSDadd). In this study, these complaints were assessed by means of relevant and modified items of the Beck Depression Inventory

  2. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  3. Assessing responsiveness of a volatile and seasonal supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; Arlbjørn, Jan Stentoft; Hvolby, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    . Assessment of the company’s product differentiation model shows that toy products are mostly innovative or ‘‘intermediate’’, but not functional. A proposed new product differentiation model using risk-influencing determinants has enabled the toy company to differentiate its new products, to deal...... with volatility, and to design for a responsive supply chain. These findings have also enabled the extension of Fisher’s Model to volatile supply chains. This new product differentiation model adds a physically responsive supply chain for ‘‘intermediate’’ products into the Fisher’s Model....

  4. World climate patterns in grassland and savanna and their relation to growing seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kirk Steinhorst

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available The climate at eleven IBP savanna or grassland study sites from five continents are described and principal components analysis is used to compare them. A multivariate linear discriminant function based on mean monthly precipitation, mean monthly temperature, latitude and altitude, is used to predict the length of the growing season at each site. At most sites, the actual and predicted start and end of the growing season agreed closely. It is concluded that growing season on a world-wide basis may be predicted fairly reliably from a small number of abiotic variables by means of a multivariate discriminant function.

  5. Host Reproductive Phenology Drives Seasonal Patterns of Host Use in Mosquitoes

    OpenAIRE

    Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Ligon, Russell A.; Graham, Sean P.; Guyer, Craig; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Ditchkoff, Stephen S.; Eubanks, Micky D.; Hassan, Hassan K.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal shifts in host use by mosquitoes from birds to mammals drive the timing and intensity of annual epidemics of mosquito-borne viruses, such as West Nile virus, in North America. The biological mechanism underlying these shifts has been a matter of debate, with hypotheses falling into two camps: (1) the shift is driven by changes in host abundance, or (2) the shift is driven by seasonal changes in the foraging behavior of mosquitoes. Here we explored the idea that seasonal changes in ho...

  6. Seasonal Patterns of Sporophyte Growth, Fertility, Fouling, and Mortality of Saccharina latissima in Skagerrak, Norway: Implications for Forest Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guri Sogn Andersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the Skagerrak coast the kelp Saccharina latissima has suffered severe stand reductions over the last decade, resulting in loss of important habitats. In the present study, healthy kelp plants were transplanted into four deforested areas and their patterns of growth, reproduction, and survival were monitored through subsequent seasons. Our main objective was to establish whether the kelp plants were able to grow and mature in deforested areas. We observed normal patterns of growth and maturation at all study sites. However, heavy fouling by epiphytes occurred each summer, followed by high kelp mortality. The study shows that the seasonal variations and the life stage timing of S. latissima make formation of self-sustainable populations impossible in the present environment. Most noteworthy, we suggest that fouling by epiphytes is involved in the lack of kelp forest recovery in Skagerrak, Norway.

  7. Disappearing seasonality in birthweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-11-01

    We estimated seasonality in birthweight over time and assessed how seasonality changed. We analyzed all full-term singletons (N = 8,268,693) born in South Korea in 1997-2014. We first pooled all years and regressed birthweight on birth season while flexibly controlling for a large set of covariates. We then repeated the analysis by birth year and charted the trends in seasonality in birthweight. When we pooled all years, babies born in winter were the heaviest, while those born in summer the lightest; the difference in birthweight was about 11 g. When we analyzed the data by birth year, however, seasonality almost disappeared by the end of the period. Whatever causes the seasonality has lost its influence in Korea. Replication studies can determine whether other countries exhibit the same patterns. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:767-773, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Patterns of Resistance in Managing Assessment Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneen, Christopher; Boud, David

    2014-01-01

    Achieving change in assessment practices in higher education is difficult. One of the reasons for this is resistance among those responsible for teaching and assessing. This paper seeks to explore this resistance through an analysis of staff dialogue during a major attempt to change the assessment practices at one institution. An institution-wide…

  9. Seasonal variation in objectively assessed physical activity among children and adolescents in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolle, Elin; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Andersen, Lars B

    2009-01-01

    seasonal differences in physical activity among 9-year-olds, and the activity pattern varied across the seasons. The results emphasize the need to take season into account when developing physical activity interventions for children. Season appears to have less influence on adolescent's physical activity...... found between mean physical activity level and season among the 15-year-olds. However, the adolescents also had higher odds (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.32) of meeting the physical activity recommendations in spring than in winter. CONCLUSION: In a large population-based sample, we observed substantial...

  10. Breath alcohol concentrations of college students in field settings: seasonal, temporal, and contextual patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, John D; Johnson, Mark B; Shillington, Audrey M; Lange, James E; Voas, Robert B

    2008-03-01

    Seasonality in alcohol consumption has implications for epidemiology and prevention. In this research we examined seasonal, temporal, and contextual variation in drinking among college students at a large West Coast university. We used a field survey (across a 3-year period) to collect anonymous breath alcohol concentrations from students sampled randomly as they walked on and near the campus on weekend nights. After controlling for student demographics, we found that the breath alcohol concentration samples we collected during the spring and winter were significantly higher than those collected during the fall. Subsequent analyses indicated that this difference could be attributed to fewer students drinking in the fall rather than to students consuming smaller quantities of alcohol. Seasonal trends in college student drinking mirror seasonal trends demonstrated in the general population. This research may help guide future intervention or prevention efforts.

  11. Seasonal Habitat Patterns of Japanese Common Squid (Todarodes Pacificus Inferred from Satellite-Based Species Distribution Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene D. Alabia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the spatio-temporal distributions of the species habitat in the marine environment is central to effectual resource management and conservation. Here, we examined the potential habitat distributions of Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus in the Sea of Japan during a four-year period. The seasonal patterns of preferential habitat were inferred from species distribution models, built using squid occurrences detected from night-time visible images and remotely-sensed environmental factors. The predicted squid habitat (i.e., areas with high habitat suitability revealed strong seasonal variability, characterized by a reduction of potential habitat, confined off of the southern part of the basin during the winter–spring period (December–May. Apparent expansion of preferential habitat occurred during summer–autumn months (June–November, concurrent with the formation of highly suitable habitat patches in certain regions of the Sea of Japan. These habitat distribution patterns were in response to changes in oceanographic conditions and synchronous with seasonal migration of squid. Moreover, the most important variables regulating the spatio-temporal patterns of suitable habitat were sea surface temperature, depth, sea surface height anomaly, and eddy kinetic energy. These variables could affect the habitat distributions through their impacts on growth and survival of squid, local nutrient transport, and the availability of favorable spawning and feeding grounds.

  12. How vertical patterns in leaf traits shift seasonally and the implications for modeling canopy photosynthesis in a temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coble, Adam P; VanderWall, Brittany; Mau, Alida; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2016-09-01

    Leaf functional traits are used in modeling forest canopy photosynthesis (Ac) due to strong correlations between photosynthetic capacity, leaf mass per area (LMA) and leaf nitrogen per area (Narea). Vertical distributions of these traits may change over time in temperate deciduous forests as a result of acclimation to light, which may result in seasonal changes in Ac To assess both spatial and temporal variations in key traits, we measured vertical profiles of Narea and LMA from leaf expansion through leaf senescence in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. To investigate mechanisms behind coordinated changes in leaf morphology and function, we also measured vertical variation in leaf carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C), predawn turgor pressure, leaf water potential and osmotic potential. Finally, we assessed potential biases in Ac estimations by parameterizing models with and without vertical and seasonal Narea variations following leaf expansion. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that hydrostatic constraints on leaf morphology drive the vertical increase in LMA with height early in the growing season; however, LMA in the upper canopy continued to increase over time during light acclimation, indicating that light is primarily driving gradients in LMA later in the growing season. Models with no seasonal variation in Narea overestimated Ac by up to 11% early in the growing season, while models with no vertical variation in Narea overestimated Ac by up to 60% throughout the season. According to the multilayer model, the upper 25% of leaf area contributed to over 50% of Ac, but when gradients of intercellular CO2, as estimated from δ(13)C, were accounted for, the upper 25% of leaf area contributed to 26% of total Ac Our results suggest that ignoring vertical variation of key traits can lead to considerable overestimation of Ac. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Post-Season Neurophysiological Deficits Assessed by ImPACT and fMRI in Athletes Competing in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauman, Eric A; Breedlove, Katherine M; Breedlove, Evan L; Talavage, Thomas M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognitive assessment, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and head impact monitoring were used to evaluate neurological changes in high school football players throughout competitive seasons. A substantial number of asymptomatic athletes exhibited neurophysiological changes that persisted post-season, with abnormal measures significantly more common in athletes receiving 50 or more hits per week during the season.

  14. Assessment of an ensemble seasonal streamflow forecasting system for Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, James C.; Wang, Quan J.; Robertson, David E.; Schepen, Andrew; Li, Ming; Michael, Kelvin

    2017-11-01

    Despite an increasing availability of skilful long-range streamflow forecasts, many water agencies still rely on simple resampled historical inflow sequences (stochastic scenarios) to plan operations over the coming year. We assess a recently developed forecasting system called forecast guided stochastic scenarios (FoGSS) as a skilful alternative to standard stochastic scenarios for the Australian continent. FoGSS uses climate forecasts from a coupled ocean-land-atmosphere prediction system, post-processed with the method of calibration, bridging and merging. Ensemble rainfall forecasts force a monthly rainfall-runoff model, while a staged hydrological error model quantifies and propagates hydrological forecast uncertainty through forecast lead times. FoGSS is able to generate ensemble streamflow forecasts in the form of monthly time series to a 12-month forecast horizon. FoGSS is tested on 63 Australian catchments that cover a wide range of climates, including 21 ephemeral rivers. In all perennial and many ephemeral catchments, FoGSS provides an effective alternative to resampled historical inflow sequences. FoGSS generally produces skilful forecasts at shorter lead times ( < 4 months), and transits to climatology-like forecasts at longer lead times. Forecasts are generally reliable and unbiased. However, FoGSS does not perform well in very dry catchments (catchments that experience zero flows more than half the time in some months), sometimes producing strongly negative forecast skill and poor reliability. We attempt to improve forecasts through the use of (i) ESP rainfall forcings, (ii) different rainfall-runoff models, and (iii) a Bayesian prior to encourage the error model to return climatology forecasts in months when the rainfall-runoff model performs poorly. Of these, the use of the prior offers the clearest benefit in very dry catchments, where it moderates strongly negative forecast skill and reduces bias in some instances. However, the prior does not

  15. Changes in Hydraulic Gradient, Hyporheic Exchange, and Patterns of Nutrient Concentration between Dry and Wet Season Flows for a Tropical Mountain Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, M.; Endreny, T.; Lautz, L.; Siegel, D.

    2009-05-01

    Mountain streams are a common source in Central America for community water supplies (CWS). These streams become dewatered by the CWS during dry season low flows, with potential impacts on hydraulic gradients, hyporheic exchange flow, terrestrial-aquatic linkages, and nutrient dynamics, which may ultimately affect aquatic and riparian micro-ecosystems. We are presenting preliminary results of a study conducted in Buena Vista, a village in Yoro, Honduras where the mountain stream was instrumented and manipulated to measure impacts of a CWS. Piezometric head and stream water levels were taken at 7 cross-sections along 30 m of step-pool stream, and water quality samples were retrieved from 48 pairs of riparian and stream piezometers and monitoring wells. We computed vertical hydraulic gradients, zones of hyporheic upwelling and downwelling, and nutrient patterns, and their change with streamflow. Streamflow ranged from 30 L/s in the wet-season high flow to about 2 L/s in the dry-season low flow, and were dewatered to about 1 L/s. A HEC- RAS water-surface profile model was calibrated to observed stages to establish gradients along the entire reach, and river head was then input as a boundary condition into a MODFLOW groundwater model to examine patterns of hyporheic exchange. Changes in hydraulic gradients and fluxes are compared with baseline conditions during the dry season low flow without dewatering. Noticeable changes in hydraulic gradient occurred between high and low flows, but changes in low flow to dewatered flow were negligible. Lengths and location of hyporheic upwelling and downwelling zones shifted slightly with changes in flow, but again the dewatering had a minor impact. Concentrations of nitrate, sulfate, chloride, fluoride and dissolved oxygen were detected in the hyporheic zone, the stream water, and adjacent ground water. We are exploring mixing models to assess the extent to which hyporheic exchange migrated to and from the creek to adjacent

  16. Incidence Patterns of Pediatric and Adolescent Orthopaedic Fractures According to Age Groups and Seasons in South Korea: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Seok; Chung, Chin Youb; Choi, In Ho; Kim, Tae Won; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Lee, Seung Yeol; Lee, Sang Hyeong; Kwon, Dae Gyu; Park, Jung Woo; Kim, Tae Gyun; Choi, Young; Cho, Tae-Joon; Yoo, Won Joon

    2013-01-01

    Background Fractures which need urgent or emergency treatment are common in children and adolescents. This study investigated the incidence patterns of pediatric and adolescent orthopaedic fractures according to age groups and seasons in South Korea based on population data. Methods Data on the number of pediatric and adolescent patients under the age of 18 years who utilized medical services due to fractures were retrieved from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service in South Korea. The data included four upper extremity and two lower extremity fractures according to four age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-18 years). Incidences of the fractures were calculated as the incidence per 10,000 per year, and patterns according to age groups and seasons were demonstrated. Results The annual incidence of clavicle, distal humerus, both forearm bone, distal radius, femoral shaft and tibial shaft fractures were 27.5, 34.6, 7.7, 80.1, 2.5, and 9.6 per 10,000 per year in children and adolescents, respectively. Clavicle and distal radius fractures showed significant seasonal variation for all age groups but femoral shaft fracture showed no significant seasonal variation for any of the age groups. Conclusions The four upper extremity fractures tended to show greater variations than the two lower extremity fractures in the nationwide database in South Korea. The study results are believed to be helpful in the planning and assignment of medical resources for fracture management in children and adolescents. PMID:24009900

  17. Assessment of printability for printed electronics patterns by measuring geometric dimensions and defining assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sung Woong [Dept. of Robotics Engineering, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol; Kim, Chung Hwan [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The printability of patterns for printed electronic devices determines the performance, yield rate, and reliability of the devices; therefore, it should be assessed quantitatively. In this paper, parameters for printability assessment of printed patterns for width, pinholes, and edge waviness are suggested. For quantitative printability assessment, printability grades for each parameter are proposed according to the parameter values. As examples of printability assessment, printed line patterns and mesh patterns obtained using roll-to-roll gravure printing are used. Both single-line patterns and mesh patterns show different levels of printability, even in samples obtained using the same printing equipment and conditions. Therefore, for reliable assessment, it is necessary to assess the printability of the patterns by enlarging the sampling area and increasing the number of samples. We can predict the performance of printed electronic devices by assessing the printability of the patterns that constitute them.

  18. Does Tuberculosis Have a Seasonal Pattern among Migrant Population Entering Iran?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Moosazadeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background There are few quantitative documents about the seasonal incidence of tuberculosis (TB among immigrant populations. Concerning the significant role of recognizing seasonal changes of TB in improving the TB control program, this study determines the trend and seasonal temporal changes of TB among immigrants entering Iran. Methods In this longitudinal study, data from the Iranian TB register Program (from 2005 to 2011 was used. The aggregated number of monthly and seasonal TB cases was obtained by adding the daily counts. Data was analyzed by Chi-square, Independent T-test, ANOVA, and Poisson regression using Stata 11 and SPSS 20 software. Results Among 74,155 registered patients with TB, 14.3% (10,587 were non-Iranian who had immigrated to Iran from 29 different countries. The highest aggregated number of seasonal and monthly incidence of TB in immigrants was observed in spring (2824, P= 0.007 and in May (1037, P< 0.001. The number of non-Iranian patients with TB increased significantly over the years (β= 0.016, P= 0.001. Conclusion This study shows that immigrants constitute a significant portion of TB patients recorded in Iran and this trend is increasing. Also, the peak incidence of this disease is the second month of the spring.

  19. Spatial and seasonal toxicity in a stormwater management facility: evidence obtained by adapting an integrated sediment quality assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixier, Guillaume; Rochfort, Quintin; Grapentine, Lee; Marsalek, Jiri; Lafont, Michel

    2012-12-15

    Stormwater ponds have been widely used to control increased surface runoff resulting from urbanization, and to enhance runoff quality. As receiving waters, they are impacted by intermittent stormwater pollution while also serving as newly created aquatic habitats, which partly offset changes of aquatic ecosystems and their biodiversity by urbanization. Thus, determining ecological risks in stormwater ponds is important for the preservation and rehabilitation of biodiversity in urban areas. Limitations of the conventional toxicity assessment techniques in stormwater ponds have led us to use the sediment quality triad approach with the specific analyses of oligochaetes. The latter analyses build on the earlier work by the Cemagref (Lyon, France) and use the oligochaetes as bioindicators of the sediment quality. This integrative approach was tested at eight sites in the Terraview-Willowfield stormwater facility in Toronto, Ontario, in all four seasons (summer 2008-spring 2009). The facility receives direct runoff from the MacDonald-Cartier freeway with a traffic intensity of 340,000 vehicles/d. Sediment chemistry results indicate that several heavy metals and PAH compounds exceeded the Ontario sediment quality guidelines in the facility. Regardless of the season, laboratory bioassays revealed a strong spatial variation in sediment toxicity along the flow path from the inlet to the outlet, agreeing with decreasing concentrations of contaminants in sediment, especially of heavy metals. However, in situ assessments of the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and in particular of the oligochaete community revealed an overriding influence of seasonally varying toxicity. This seasonal pattern was described as high toxicity in spring and recovery in fall and corresponded to the influx and flushing-out of road salts and of several heavy metals within the facility. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Satellite assessment of early season forecast for vegetation condition in grazing allotments in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen years of enhanced vegetation index data from the MODIS sensor are examined in conjunction with precipitation and the Palmer drought severity index to assess how well growing season conditions for vegetation within grazing allotments of Nevada can be predicted at different times of the year. ...

  1. Characterization of regional influenza seasonality patterns in China and implications for vaccination strategies: spatio-temporal modeling of surveillance data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of influenza seasonal patterns in the inter-tropical zone impedes the establishment of effective routine immunization programs. China is a climatologically and economically diverse country, which has yet to establish a national influenza vaccination program. Here we characterize the diversity of influenza seasonality in China and make recommendations to guide future vaccination programs.We compiled weekly reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza A and B infections from sentinel hospitals in cities representing 30 Chinese provinces, 2005-2011, and data on population demographics, mobility patterns, socio-economic, and climate factors. We applied linear regression models with harmonic terms to estimate influenza seasonal characteristics, including the amplitude of annual and semi-annual periodicities, their ratio, and peak timing. Hierarchical Bayesian modeling and hierarchical clustering were used to identify predictors of influenza seasonal characteristics and define epidemiologically-relevant regions. The annual periodicity of influenza A epidemics increased with latitude (mean amplitude of annual cycle standardized by mean incidence, 140% [95% CI 128%-151%] in the north versus 37% [95% CI 27%-47%] in the south, p0.6 in provinces located within 27.4°N-31.3°N, slope of latitudinal gradient with latitude -0.016 [95% CI -0.025 to -0.008], p<0.001. In contrast, influenza B activity predominated in colder months throughout most of China. Climate factors were the strongest predictors of influenza seasonality, including minimum temperature, hours of sunshine, and maximum rainfall. Our main study limitations include a short surveillance period and sparse influenza sampling in some of the southern provinces.Regional-specific influenza vaccination strategies would be optimal in China; in particular, annual campaigns should be initiated 4-6 months apart in Northern and Southern China. Influenza surveillance should be strengthened in mid

  2. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa [Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, LAQAT-UNA, Universidad Nacional, P.O. Box 86-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Black, Paleah [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, P.O. Box 450 Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: drslean@gmail.com [P.O. Box 309, Apsley, Ontario, K0L 1A0 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. {yields} With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m{sup -3}. {yields} During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. {yields} We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. {yields} With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean

  3. Enhanced seasonal predictability of the summer mean temperature in Central Europe favored by new dominant weather patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, P.

    2017-07-01

    In this study two complementary approaches have been combined to estimate the reliability of the data-driven seasonal predictability of the meteorological summer mean temperature (T_{JJA} ) over Europe. The developed model is based on linear regressions and uses early season predictors to estimate the target value T_{JJA} . We found for the Potsdam (Germany) climate station that the monthly standard deviations (σ ) from January to April and the temperature mean (m) in April are good predictors to describe T_{JJA} after 1990. However, before 1990 the model failed. The core region where this model works is the north-eastern part of Central Europe. We also analyzed long-term trends of monthly Hess/Brezowsky weather types as possible causes of the dynamical changes. In spring, a significant increase of the occurrences for two opposite weather patterns was found: Zonal Ridge across Central Europe (BM) and Trough over Central Europe (TRM). Both currently make up about 30% of the total alternating weather systems over Europe. Other weather types are predominantly decreasing or their trends are not significant. Thus, the predictability may be attributed to these two weather types where the difference between the two Z500 composite patterns is large. This also applies to the north-eastern part of Central Europe. Finally, the detected enhanced seasonal predictability over Europe is alarming, because severe side effects may occur. One of these are more frequent climate extremes in summer half-year.

  4. Seasonal patterns in energy partitioning of two freshwater marsh ecosystems in the Florida Everglades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkle L. Malone; Christina L. Staudhammer; Henry W. Loescher; Paulo Olivas; Steven F. Oberbauer; Michael G. Ryan; Jessica Schedlbauer; Gregory Starr

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed energy partitioning in short- and long-hydroperiod freshwater marsh ecosystems in the Florida Everglades by examining energy balance components (eddy covariance derived latent energy (LE) and sensible heat (H) flux). The study period included several wet and dry seasons and variable water levels, allowing us to gain better mechanistic information about the...

  5. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-à-vis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Knowledge of mean rainfall and its variability of smaller spatial scale are important for the planners in various sectors including water and agriculture. In the present work, long rainfall data series (1901–2006) of districts of Maharashtra in monthly and seasonal scales are constructed and then mean rainfall and coefficient of ...

  6. Seasonal patterns in aquatic bird counts at five Andean lakes of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guevara, E.A.; Santander, T.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal (semestral) counts of aquatic birds at five Andean lakes in Ecuador (Colta, La Mica, Yambo, Yahuarcocha and San Pablo) were analyzed to detect trends in population size between 2004 and 2011. Trends of four abundant species (Ardea alba, Anas georgica, Fulica ardesiaca and Oxyura

  7. Seasonal and regional patterns in performance for a Baltic Sea Drainage Basin hydrologic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyon, S.W.; Meidani, Roya; Velde, van der Ype; Dahlke, H.E.; Swaney, D.P.; Mörth, Carl Magnus; Humborg, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the ability of the Catchment SIMulation (CSIM) hydrologic model to describe seasonal and regional variations in river discharge over the entire Baltic Sea drainage basin (BSDB) based on 31 years of monthly simulation from 1970 through 2000. To date, the model has been

  8. Hydrologic, land cover and seasonal patterns of waterborne pathogens in great lakes tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Great Lakes tributaries deliver waterborne pathogens from a host of sources. To examine the hydrologic, land cover, and seasonal variability of waterborne pathogens, protozoa (2), pathogenic bacteria (4) and human (8) and bovine (8) viruses from eight rivers were monitored in the Great Lakes watersh...

  9. The influence of season of birth on the pattern of lip prints in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The lip print was collected using glass slide and developed with carbon black powder. Each print was divided into ten compartments for final analyses of lip prints. Chi-square test was used to test for association between the season of birth and lip prints. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05. The result shows the ...

  10. Seasonal pattern of infestation by the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae in pomegranate cultivars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, S.A.; Goldansaz, S.H.; Fotoukkiaii, S.M.; Menken, S.B.J.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) orchards in the Middle East are typically composed of a mix of different cultivars in which variation in fruit infestation by carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been observed. However, seasonal variation in infestation and

  11. Seasonal patterns in acidity of precipitation and their implications for forest stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Hornbeck; Gene E. Likens; John S. Eaton

    1976-01-01

    Data collected since 1965 at a network of 9 stations in the northeastern United States show that precipitation is most acid in the growing season (May-September) and least acid in winter (December-February). For the Hubbard Brook station in New Hampshire, where the mean hydrogen ion content of precipitation ranges between 46 μeq/l in winter and 102 μ...

  12. Seasonal precipitation patterns along pathways of South American low-level jets and aerial rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda, Germán.; Jaramillo, Liliana; Vallejo, Luisa F.

    2014-01-01

    We study the seasonal dynamics of the eastern Pacific (CHOCO) and Caribbean low-level jets (LLJ), and aerial rivers (AR) acting on tropical and subtropical South America. Using the ERA-Interim reanalysis (1979-2012), we show that the convergence of both LLJs over the eastern Pacific-western Colombia contributes to the explanation of the region's world-record rainfall. Diverse variables involved in the transport and storage of moisture permit the identification of an AR over northern South America involving a midtropospheric easterly jet that connects the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans across the Andes, with stronger activity in April to August. Other major seasonal AR pathways constitute part of a large gyre originating over the tropical North Atlantic, veering to the southeast over the eastern Andes and reaching regions of northern Argentina and southeastern Brazil. We illustrate the distribution of average seasonal precipitation along the LLJs and AR pathways with data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (1998-2011), combined with considerations of CAPE, topography, and land cover. In addition, the theory of the biotic pump of atmospheric moisture (BiPAM) is tested at seasonal time scales, and found to hold in 8 out of 12 ARs, and 22 out of 32 forest-covered tracks (64% in distance) along the ARs. Deviations from BiPAM's predictions of rainfall distribution are explained by the effects of topography, orography, and land cover types different from forests. Our results lend a strong observational support to the BiPAM theory at seasonal time scales over South American forested flat lands.

  13. Optimizing Photosynthetic and Respiratory Parameters Based on the Seasonal Variation Pattern in Regional Net Ecosystem Productivity Obtained from Atmospheric Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Chen, J.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, F.; Zhang, S.; Ju, W.; Yuan, W.; Mo, G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we explore the feasibility of optimizing ecosystem photosynthetic and respiratory parameters from the seasonal variation pattern of the net carbon flux. An optimization scheme is proposed to estimate two key parameters (Vcmax and Q10) by exploiting the seasonal variation in the net ecosystem carbon flux retrieved by an atmospheric inversion system. This scheme is implemented to estimate Vcmax and Q10 of the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) to improve its NEP simulation in the Boreal North America (BNA) region. Simultaneously, in-situ NEE observations at six eddy covariance sites are used to evaluate the NEE simulations. The results show that the performance of the optimized BEPS is superior to that of the BEPS with the default parameter values. These results have the implication on using atmospheric CO2 data for optimizing ecosystem parameters through atmospheric inversion or data assimilation techniques.

  14. Double-Cone Localization and Seasonal Expression Pattern Suggest a Role in Magnetoreception for European Robin Cryptochrome 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther, Anja; Einwich, Angelika; Sjulstok, Emil

    2018-01-01

    structure of the erCry4 protein, which suggests that erCry4 should bind Flavin. We also found that Cry1a, Cry1b, and Cry2 mRNA display robust circadian oscillation patterns, whereas Cry4 shows only a weak circadian oscillation. When we compared the relative mRNA expression levels of the cryptochromes during......-migratory seasons. Cry4 protein is specifically expressed in the outer segments of the double cones and long-wavelength single cones in European robins and chickens. A localization of Cry4 in double cones seems to be ideal for light-dependent magnetoreception. Considering all of the data presented here, especially...... including its localization within the European robin retina, its likely binding of Flavin, and its increased expression during the migratory season in the migratory bird but not in chicken, Cry4 could be the magnetoreceptive protein....

  15. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-11-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature ( PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  16. Double-Cone Localization and Seasonal Expression Pattern Suggest a Role in Magnetoreception for European Robin Cryptochrome 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Anja; Einwich, Angelika; Sjulstok, Emil; Feederle, Regina; Bolte, Petra; Koch, Karl-Wilhelm; Solov'yov, Ilia A; Mouritsen, Henrik

    2017-12-27

    Birds seem to use a light-dependent, radical-pair-based magnetic compass. In vertebrates, cryptochromes are the only class of proteins that form radical pairs upon photo-excitation. Therefore, they are currently the only candidate proteins for light-dependent magnetoreception. Cryptochrome 4 (Cry4) is particularly interesting because it has only been found in vertebrates that use a magnetic compass. However, its structure and localization within the retina has remained unknown. Here, we sequenced night-migratory European robin (Erithacus rubecula) Cry4 from the retina and predicted the currently unresolved structure of the erCry4 protein, which suggests that erCry4 should bind Flavin. We also found that Cry1a, Cry1b, and Cry2 mRNA display robust circadian oscillation patterns, whereas Cry4 shows only a weak circadian oscillation. When we compared the relative mRNA expression levels of the cryptochromes during the spring and autumn migratory seasons relative to the non-migratory seasons in European robins and domestic chickens (Gallus gallus), the Cry4 mRNA expression level in European robin retinae, but not in chicken retinae, is significantly higher during the migratory season compared to the non-migratory seasons. Cry4 protein is specifically expressed in the outer segments of the double cones and long-wavelength single cones in European robins and chickens. A localization of Cry4 in double cones seems to be ideal for light-dependent magnetoreception. Considering all of the data presented here, especially including its localization within the European robin retina, its likely binding of Flavin, and its increased expression during the migratory season in the migratory bird but not in chicken, Cry4 could be the magnetoreceptive protein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Seasonal patterns of wind-induced upwelling/downwelling in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Bakun

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The historical file of wind observations from maritime weather reports is summarized to identify the characteristic seasonal distributions of wind-induced Ekman upwelling and downwelling in the Mediterranean Sea. Both coastal upwelling/downwelling and wind-stress curl-driven open ocean upwelling/downwelling are treated in a unified description. Vigorous upwelling zones are found in the eastern Aegean Sea, off the west coast of Greece, and in the Gulf of Lyons. The southern coast of the Mediterranean is found to be primarily a downwelling area, although significant coastal upwelling does appear in the Gulf of Sidra during the spring and summer seasons, and along the Algerian coast during summer.

  18. Seasonal pattern of metal bioaccumulation and their toxicity on Sphagnum squarrosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anuj

    2006-01-01

    Present study was undertaken as an attempt to study the effect of pollutants on biological responses of Sphagnum growing at Kainchi, Kumaon hills (Uttranchal). Sphagnum plants of almost identical size, collected from the marked sites of Kainchi in different seasons viz., monsoon, winter, summer and again in monsoon, were analysed for chlorophyll, protein, shoot length and nitrate reductase and peroxidase activities. Maximum chlorophyll, protein, shoots length and nitrate reductase activities were observed during the monsoon while minimum in summers. The abundance of Sphagnum and two other bryophytes, Marchantia and Plagiochasma was also higher in monsoon than in other seasons. The study also indicated that Sphagnum has more bioaccumulation and tolerance potential for heavy metals than Marchantia and Plagiochasma.

  19. Seasonal and spatial patterns of microbial diversity along a trophic gradient in the interconnected lakes of the Osterseen Lake District, Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eZwirglmaier

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Osterseen Lake district in Bavaria consists of 19 small interconnected lakes that exhibit a pronounced trophic gradient from eutrophic to oligotrophic. It therefore presents a unique model system to address ecological questions regarding niche adaptation and Baas Becking’s long standing hypothesis of everything is everywhere, but the environment selects.Here, we present the first assessment of the microbial diversity in these lakes. We sampled the lakes in August and December and used 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons to analyze the microbial diversity. The diversity patterns between lakes and seasons were compared and the bacterial community composition was correlated with key chemical and physical parameters. Distinct patterns of bacterial diversity only emerged at the level of individual OTUs (operational taxonomic units, but not at the level of the major bacterial phyla. This emphasizes the high functional and physiological diversity among bacterial species within a phylum and calls for analysis of biodiversity at the level of OTUs in order to understand fine-scale biogeography. We were able to identify a number of cosmopolitan OTUs as well as specialist OTUs that were restricted to certain lakes or seasons, suggesting adaptation to specific ecological niches.

  20. Leaf morphophysiology of a Neotropical mistletoe is shaped by seasonal patterns of host leaf phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalon, Marina Corrêa; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Domingos, Fabricius Maia Chaves Bicalho; Franco, Augusto Cesar

    2016-04-01

    Several mistletoe species are able to grow and reproduce on both deciduous and evergreen hosts, suggesting a degree of plasticity in their ability to cope with differences in intrinsic host functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of host phenology on mistletoe water relations and leaf gas exchange. Mistletoe Passovia ovata parasitizing evergreen (Miconia albicans) hosts and P. ovata parasitizing deciduous (Byrsonima verbascifolia) hosts were sampled in a Neotropical savanna. Photosynthetic parameters, diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance, pre-dawn and midday leaf water potential, and stomatal anatomical traits were measured during the peak of the dry and wet seasons, respectively. P. ovata showed distinct water-use strategies that were dependent on host phenology. For P. ovata parasitizing the deciduous host, water use efficiency (WUE; ratio of photosynthetic rate to transpirational water loss) was 2-fold lower in the dry season than in the wet season; in contrast, WUE was maintained at the same level during the wet and dry seasons in P. ovata parasitizing the evergreen host. Generally, mistletoe and host diurnal cycles of stomatal conductance were linked, although there were clear differences in leaf water potential, with mistletoe showing anisohydric behaviour and the host showing isohydric behaviour. Compared to mistletoes attached to evergreen hosts, those parasitizing deciduous hosts had a 1.4-fold lower stomatal density and 1.2-fold wider stomata on both leaf surfaces, suggesting that the latter suffered less intense drought stress. This is the first study to show morphophysiological differences in the same mistletoe species parasitizing hosts of different phenological groups. Our results provide evidence that phenotypical plasticity (anatomical and physiological) might be essential to favour the use of a greater range of hosts.

  1. Modeling and Statistical Analysis of the Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Seasonal Influenza in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katriel, Guy; Yaari, Rami; Roll, Uri; Stone, Lewi

    2012-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza outbreaks are a serious burden for public health worldwide and cause morbidity to millions of people each year. In the temperate zone influenza is predominantly seasonal, with epidemics occurring every winter, but the severity of the outbreaks vary substantially between years. In this study we used a highly detailed database, which gave us both temporal and spatial information of influenza dynamics in Israel in the years 1998–2009. We use a discrete-time stochastic epidemic SIR model to find estimates and credible confidence intervals of key epidemiological parameters. Findings Despite the biological complexity of the disease we found that a simple SIR-type model can be fitted successfully to the seasonal influenza data. This was true at both the national levels and at the scale of single cities.The effective reproductive number Re varies between the different years both nationally and among Israeli cities. However, we did not find differences in Re between different Israeli cities within a year. Re was positively correlated to the strength of the spatial synchronization in Israel. For those years in which the disease was more “infectious”, then outbreaks in different cities tended to occur with smaller time lags. Our spatial analysis demonstrates that both the timing and the strength of the outbreak within a year are highly synchronized between the Israeli cities. We extend the spatial analysis to demonstrate the existence of high synchrony between Israeli and French influenza outbreaks. Conclusions The data analysis combined with mathematical modeling provided a better understanding of the spatio-temporal and synchronization dynamics of influenza in Israel and between Israel and France. Altogether, we show that despite major differences in demography and weather conditions intra-annual influenza epidemics are tightly synchronized in both their timing and magnitude, while they may vary greatly between years. The predominance of

  2. Two distinct patterns of seasonal variation of airborne black carbon over Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Cao, Junji; Tie, Xuexi; Wang, Hailong; Zhu, Chongshu; Yang, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Airborne black carbon (BC) mass concentrations were measured from November 2012 to June 2013 at Ranwu and Beiluhe, located in the southeastern and central Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Monthly mean BC concentrations showawinter (November–February) high (413.2 ng m$-$3) and spring (March–June) low(139.1 ng m$-$3) at Ranwu, but in contrast awinter lowand spring high at Beiluhe (204.8 and 621.6 ng m$-$3, respectively). By examining the meteorological conditions at various scales, we found that themonthly variation of airborne BC over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP) was highly influenced by regional precipitation and over the hinterland by winds. Local precipitation at both sites showed little impact on the seasonal variation of airborne BC concentrations. Potential BC source regions are identified using air mass backward trajectory analysis. At Ranwu, BC was dominated by the air masses from the northeastern India and Bangladesh in both winter and spring, whereas at Beiluhe it was largely contributed by air masses from the south slope of Himalayas in winter, and from the arid region in the north of the TP in spring. Thewinter and spring seasonal peak of BC in the southern TP is largely contributed by emissions from South Asia, and this seasonal variation is heavily influenced by the regional monsoon. In the northern TP, BC had high concentrations during spring and summer seasons, which is very likely associated with more efficient transport of BC over the arid regions on the north of Tibetan Plateau and in Central Asia. Airborne BC concentrations at the Ranwusampling site showed a significant diurnal cyclewith a peak shortly after sunrise followed by a decrease before noon in both winter and spring, likely shaped by local human activities and the diurnal variation of wind speed. At the Beiluhe sampling site, the diurnal variation of BC is different and less distinct.

  3. Patterns of community participation across the seasons: A year-long case study of three Canadian wheelchair users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie; Borisoff, Jaimie F; Grant, Lea E; Chan, Franco H N

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of wheelchair users' community participation across a one-year period, including periods with substantial differences in weather conditions. We sought to develop a detailed understanding of the patterns of, and influences on, wheelchair use and participation within wheelchair users' own communities. We conducted an instrumental case study of three purposefully selected individuals who use a wheelchair. Participants' wheelchairs were instrumented with a GPS data logger and data were collected for one week per month across a year. A prompted recall interview was conducted with participants each month, in order to gain an understanding of the influences on their community participation patterns. For each participant, the percent of trips taken at various trip distance ranges and the mean trips/days and overall distance traveled at or above 0 °C and below 0 °C are reported. Three distinct patterns were identified in response to variations in weather conditions: (1) season and transportation options are linked: winter limits community participation; (2) winter conditions are surmountable: with the right supports year-round participation is maintained; and (3) pre-planning is the key: winter conditions affects ease, choices and options but not overall participation. While winter weather conditions created community participation challenges, individuals responded differently based on their unique circumstances. The findings highlight the importance of policy that addresses the dynamic nature of weather and the needs of people with disabilities as specific individuals. Implications for rehabilitation Wheelchair users experience both similar and unique challenges regarding seasonal weather conditions that influence their community participation patterns. While some individual wheelchair users effectively maintain their community participation patterns across the year, they employ their own specific strategies in

  4. Daily and seasonal patterns of CO2 fluxes and evapotranspiration in maize-grass intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia B. Machado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies that investigate the relationships between CO2 fluxes and evapotranspiration (ET are important for predicting how agricultural ecosystems will respond to climate changes. However, none was made on the maize-grass intercropping system in Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the ET and CO2 fluxes in a signal grass pasture intercropped with maize, in São João, Pernambuco, Brazil, in a drought year. Furthermore, the soil water storage (SWS and leaf area index (LAI were determined. The latent heat flux was the main consumer of the available energy and the daily and seasonal ET and CO2 variations were mainly controlled by rainfall, through the changes in soil water content and consequently in SWS. The agroecosystem acted as an atmospheric carbon source, during drier periods and lower LAI, and as an atmospheric carbon sink, during wetter periods and higher LAI values. In a dry year, the intercropping sequestered 2.9 t C ha-1, which was equivalent to 8.0 kg C ha-1 d-1. This study showed strong seasonal fluctuations in maize-grass intercropping CO2 fluxes, due to seasonality of rainfall, and that this agroecosystem is vulnerable to low SWS, with significant reduction in CO2 uptake during these periods.

  5. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth.

  6. Seasonal and spatial patterns of growth of rainbow trout in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Micheal D.; Korman, Josh; Walters, Carl J.; Kennedy, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) have been purposely introduced in many regulated rivers, with inadvertent consequences on native fishes. We describe how trout growth rates and condition could be influencing trout population dynamics in a 130 km section of the Colorado River below Glen Canyon Dam based on a large-scale mark–recapture program where ∼8000 rainbow trout were recaptured over a 3-year period (2012–2014). There were strong temporal and spatial variations in growth in both length and weight as predicted from von Bertalanffy and bioenergetic models, respectively. There was more evidence for seasonal variation in the growth coefficient and annual variation in the asymptotic length. Bioenergetic models showed more variability for growth in weight across seasons and years than across reaches. These patterns were consistent with strong seasonal variation in invertebrate drift and effects of turbidity on foraging efficiency. Highest growth rates and relative condition occurred in downstream reaches with lower trout densities. Results indicate that reduction in rainbow trout abundance in Glen Canyon will likely increase trout size in the tailwater fishery and may reduce downstream dispersal into Grand Canyon.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Seasonal Population Fluctuation on Regional Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations are not static or uniformly distributed across space and time. This consideration has a notable impact on natural hazard analyses which seek to determine population exposure and risk. This paper focuses on the coupling of population and environmental models to address the effect of seasonally varying populations on exposure to flood risk. A spatiotemporal population modelling tool, SurfaceBuilder247, has been combined with LISFLOOD-FP flood inundation model outputs for a study area centred on the coastal resort town of St Austell, Cornwall, United Kingdom (UK. Results indicate strong seasonal cycles in populations and their exposure to flood hazard which are not accounted for in traditional population datasets and flood hazard assessments. Therefore, this paper identifies and demonstrates considerable enhancements to the current handling of spatiotemporal population variation within hazard exposure assessment and disaster risk management.

  8. Blood indicators of seasonal metabolic patterns in captive adult gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1983-01-01

    Blood samples and physical data were collected weekly from a colony of gray wolves (Canis lupus) maintained under natural weather arid light conditions. Sampling over 33 continuous months indicated that hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and thyroxine exhibited consistent circannual patterns of variation in both males and females. Hemoglobin levels peaked at 15-16 g/dl in January in females and at 16-17 g/dl in February in males, and were lowest in August at 10.5-11.5 g/dl (P patterns of hematocrit, red blood cells, and MCHC were similarly timed. Females also had a cyclic pattern of white blood cell counts and body weight; their weight peaked in early February and was lowest in August (P pattern.

  9. Seasonal patterns of arthropods occurring on sheltered and unsheltered pig carcasses in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, N; Maldonado, M; Oliva, A

    2002-03-28

    Differences in the succession of insects and other Arthropoda (invertebrate animals with jointed legs), on domestic pig carcasses placed under a roof and under the open sky have been studied in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina (latitude 34 degrees 45'S) in all the seasons of the year. Faunal associations proved different for each treatment in winter: the common bluebottle Calliphora vicina was found in both, but on the sheltered carcass Cochliomyia macellaria and the rare Phaenicia cluvia were found as well. In the fall, the difference between sheltered and unsheltered carcasses was small (six species on the former and five species on the latter); in spring and summer, the difference was negligible.

  10. The seasonal and spatial patterns of ingestion of polyfilament nylon fragments by estuarine drums (Sciaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, David V; Barletta, Mário; da Costa, Monica Ferreira

    2012-02-01

    Artisanal fisheries in tropical estuaries are an important economic activity worldwide. However, gear (e.g. ropes, nets, buoys, crates) and vessels are often in use under dangerous conditions. Polyfilament nylon ropes are used until they are well beyond human and environmental safety limits. Severe wear and tear results in the contamination of the environment with micro-fragments. The spread of these fragments in the marine environment and their ingestion by the biota are documented in the scientific literature and are increasing concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ingestion of plastic fragments by two fish (drum) species in relation to seasonal, habitat and fish size-class variation. The stomach contents of 569 individuals of Stellifer brasiliensis and Stellifer stellifer from the main channel of the Goiana Estuary were examined to identify variation in the number and the weight of plastic fragments and relate this variation to differences among the seasons (early dry, late dry, early rainy and late rainy), the habitats within the estuary (upper, middle and lower) and the size classes of the fish (juveniles, sub-adults and adults). Plastic fragments were found in 7.9% of the individuals of these two drum species captured from December 2005 to August 2008. Nylon fragments occurred in 9.2% of S. stellifer and 6.9% of S. brasiliensis stomachs. The highest number of nylon fragments ingested was observed in adults during the late rainy season in the middle estuary. Blue polyfilament nylon ropes are used extensively in fisheries and can be lost, inappropriately discarded or damaged during use in the estuary. These fragments were the only type of plastic detected during this study. The ingestion of nylon fragments by fish probably occurred during the animals' normal feeding activities. During the rainy season, the discharge of freshwater transports nylon fragments to the main channel and makes the fragments more available to fish. Fishery activities are

  11. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Michelle L; McLellan, Bruce N

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C) and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C) and hot (27.9-40.1°C) days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  12. Seasonal habitat-use patterns of nekton in a tide-restricted and unrestricted New England salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, K.B.; Roman, C.T.

    2001-01-01

    Many New England salt marshes remain tide-restricted or are undergoing tidal restoration. Hydrologic manipulation of salt marshes affects marsh biogeochemistry and vegetation patterns, but responses by fishes and decapod crustaceans (nekton) remain unclear, This study examines nekton habitat-use patterns in the tide-restricted Hatches Harbor salt marsh (Provincetown, Massachusetts) relative to a downstream, unrestricted marsh. Nekton assemblages were sampled in tidal creek, marsh pool, and salt marsh surface habitats. Pools and creeks were sampled every two weeks for one year to account for seasonal variability, and the marsh surface was sampled at two-week intervals in summer and fall. Density, richness, and community composition of nekton in creek and marsh surface habitats were similar between the unrestricted and restricted marsh, but use of pools differed drastically on the two sides of the tide-restricting dike. In 95% of the cases tested, restricted marsh habitats provided equal or greater habitat value for nekton than the same habitat in the unrestricted marsh (based on density), suggesting that the restricted marsh did not provide a degraded habitat for most species. For some species, the restricted marsh provided nursery, breeding, and overwintering habitat during different seasons, and tidal restoration of this salt marsh must be approached with care to prevent losses of these valuable marsh functions.

  13. Effect of season and high ambient temperature on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L McLellan

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence daily and annual activity patterns of a species provides insights to challenges facing individuals, particularly when climate shifts, and thus is important in conservation. Using GPS collars with dual-axis motion sensors that recorded the number of switches every 5 minutes we tested the hypotheses: 1. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos increase daily activity levels and active bout lengths when they forage on berries, the major high-energy food in this ecosystem, and 2. Grizzly bears become less active and more nocturnal when ambient temperature exceeds 20°C. We found support for hypothesis 1 with both male and female bears being active from 0.7 to 2.8 h longer in the berry season than in other seasons. Our prediction under hypothesis 2 was not supported. When bears foraged on berries on a dry, open mountainside, there was no relationship between daily maximum temperature (which varied from 20.4 to 40.1°C and the total amount of time bears were active, and no difference in activity levels during day or night between warm (20.4-27.3°C and hot (27.9-40.1°C days. Our results highlight the strong influence that food acquisition has on activity levels and patterns of grizzly bears and is a challenge to the heat dissipation limitation theory.

  14. Advance and prospectus of seasonal prediction: assessment of the APCC/CliPAS 14-model ensemble retrospective seasonal prediction (1980-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin; Lee, June-Yi; Fu, X.; Liu, P. [University of Hawaii, Department of Meteorology and International Pacific Research Center, IPRC, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Honolulu, HI (United States); Kang, In-Sik; Kug, J.S. [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul (Korea); Shukla, J.; Jin, E.K.; Kinter, J.; Kirtman, B. [George Mason University and COLA, Climate Dynamics Program, Calverton, MD (United States); Park, C.K. [APEC Climate Center, Busan (Korea); Kumar, A.; Schemm, J. [Climate Prediction Center/NCEP, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Cocke, S.; Krishnamurti, T. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Luo, J.J. [Frontier Research Center for Global Chnage, Yokohama (Japan); Zhou, T.; Wang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG/Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Yun, W.T. [Korean Meteorological Administration, Seoul (Korea); Alves, O. [Bureau of Meteorology Research Center, Melburne (Australia); Lau, N.C.; Rosati, T.; Stern, W. [Princeton University, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory/NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lau, W.; Pegion, P.; Schubert, S.; Suarez, M. [Godard Space Flight Center/NASA, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2009-07-15

    We assessed current status of multi-model ensemble (MME) deterministic and probabilistic seasonal prediction based on 25-year (1980-2004) retrospective forecasts performed by 14 climate model systems (7 one-tier and 7 two-tier systems) that participate in the Climate Prediction and its Application to Society (CliPAS) project sponsored by the Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation Climate Center (APCC). We also evaluated seven DEMETER models' MME for the period of 1981-2001 for comparison. Based on the assessment, future direction for improvement of seasonal prediction is discussed. We found that two measures of probabilistic forecast skill, the Brier Skill Score (BSS) and Area under the Relative Operating Characteristic curve (AROC), display similar spatial patterns as those represented by temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) score of deterministic MME forecast. A TCC score of 0.6 corresponds approximately to a BSS of 0.1 and an AROC of 0.7 and beyond these critical threshold values, they are almost linearly correlated. The MME method is demonstrated to be a valuable approach for reducing errors and quantifying forecast uncertainty due to model formulation. The MME prediction skill is substantially better than the averaged skill of all individual models. For instance, the TCC score of CliPAS one-tier MME forecast of Nino 3.4 index at a 6-month lead initiated from 1 May is 0.77, which is significantly higher than the corresponding averaged skill of seven individual coupled models (0.63). The MME made by using 14 coupled models from both DEMETER and CliPAS shows an even higher TCC score of 0.87. Effectiveness of MME depends on the averaged skill of individual models and their mutual independency. For probabilistic forecast the CliPAS MME gains considerable skill from increased forecast reliability as the number of model being used increases; the forecast resolution also increases for 2 m temperature but slightly decreases for precipitation. Equatorial Sea Surface

  15. Spatial and seasonal patterns in fish assemblage in Corrego Rico, upper Parana River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erico L. H Takahashi

    Full Text Available The upper Paraná River basin drains areas of intensive industry and agriculture, suffering negative impacts. The Córrego Rico flows through sugar cane fields and receives urban wastewater. The aim of this work is to describe and to compare the fish assemblage structure in Córrego Rico. Six standardized bimonthly samples were collected between August 2008 and June 2009 in seven different stretches of Córrego Rico. Fishes were collected with an experimental seine and sieves, euthanized, fixed in formalin and preserved in ethanol for counting and identification. Data were recorded for water parameters, instream habitat and riparian features within each stretch. Non-metric multidimensional scaling, species richness and diversity analysis were performed to examine spatial and seasonal variation in assemblage structure. Fish assemblage structure was correlated with instream habitat and water parameters. The fish assemblage was divided in three groups: upper, middle and lower reaches. High values of richness and diversity were observed in the upper and lower stretches due to connectivity with a small lake and Mogi Guaçu River, respectively. Middle stretches showed low values of richness and diversity suggesting that a small dam in the middle stretch negatively impacts the fish assemblage. Seasonal differences in fish assemblage structure were observed only in the lower stretches.

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of High Mountain Asia's snowmelt season identified with an automated snowmelt detection algorithm, 1987–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High Mountain Asia (HMA – encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges – is the primary water source for much of Asia, serving more than a billion downstream users. Many catchments receive the majority of their yearly water budget in the form of snow, which is poorly monitored by sparse in situ weather networks. Both the timing and volume of snowmelt play critical roles in downstream water provision, as many applications – such as agriculture, drinking-water generation, and hydropower – rely on consistent and predictable snowmelt runoff. Here, we examine passive microwave data across HMA with five sensors (SSMI, SSMIS, AMSR-E, AMSR2, and GPM from 1987 to 2016 to track the timing of the snowmelt season – defined here as the time between maximum passive microwave signal separation and snow clearance. We validated our method against climate model surface temperatures, optical remote-sensing snow-cover data, and a manual control dataset (n = 2100, 3 variables at 25 locations over 28 years; our algorithm is generally accurate within 3–5 days. Using the algorithm-generated snowmelt dates, we examine the spatiotemporal patterns of the snowmelt season across HMA. The climatically short (29-year time series, along with complex interannual snowfall variations, makes determining trends in snowmelt dates at a single point difficult. We instead identify trends in snowmelt timing by using hierarchical clustering of the passive microwave data to determine trends in self-similar regions. We make the following four key observations. (1 The end of the snowmelt season is trending almost universally earlier in HMA (negative trends. Changes in the end of the snowmelt season are generally between 2 and 8 days decade−1 over the 29-year study period (5–25 days total. The length of the snowmelt season is thus shrinking in many, though not all, regions of HMA. Some areas exhibit later peak signal separation (positive

  17. Spatiotemporal patterns of High Mountain Asia's snowmelt season identified with an automated snowmelt detection algorithm, 1987-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor; Bookhagen, Bodo; Rheinwalt, Aljoscha

    2017-10-01

    High Mountain Asia (HMA) - encompassing the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding mountain ranges - is the primary water source for much of Asia, serving more than a billion downstream users. Many catchments receive the majority of their yearly water budget in the form of snow, which is poorly monitored by sparse in situ weather networks. Both the timing and volume of snowmelt play critical roles in downstream water provision, as many applications - such as agriculture, drinking-water generation, and hydropower - rely on consistent and predictable snowmelt runoff. Here, we examine passive microwave data across HMA with five sensors (SSMI, SSMIS, AMSR-E, AMSR2, and GPM) from 1987 to 2016 to track the timing of the snowmelt season - defined here as the time between maximum passive microwave signal separation and snow clearance. We validated our method against climate model surface temperatures, optical remote-sensing snow-cover data, and a manual control dataset (n = 2100, 3 variables at 25 locations over 28 years); our algorithm is generally accurate within 3-5 days. Using the algorithm-generated snowmelt dates, we examine the spatiotemporal patterns of the snowmelt season across HMA. The climatically short (29-year) time series, along with complex interannual snowfall variations, makes determining trends in snowmelt dates at a single point difficult. We instead identify trends in snowmelt timing by using hierarchical clustering of the passive microwave data to determine trends in self-similar regions. We make the following four key observations. (1) The end of the snowmelt season is trending almost universally earlier in HMA (negative trends). Changes in the end of the snowmelt season are generally between 2 and 8 days decade-1 over the 29-year study period (5-25 days total). The length of the snowmelt season is thus shrinking in many, though not all, regions of HMA. Some areas exhibit later peak signal separation (positive trends), but with generally smaller magnitudes

  18. Trend and Seasonal Patterns of Injuries and Mortality Due to Motorcyclists Traffic Accidents; A Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Marjan; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Esmaeilpour Aghdam, Mohammad; Mohammadian, Mahdi; Maleki, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    To investigate trend and seasonal pattern of occurrence and mortality of motorcycle accidents in patients referred to hospitals of Isfahan. This cross-sectional study was carried out using traffic accidents data of Isfahan province, extracted from Ministry of Health (MOH) database from 2006 to 2010. During the study period, 83648 people injured due to motorcycle traffic accidents were referred to hospitals, all of them entered in the study. Logistic regression model was used to calculate the hospital mortality odds ratio, and Cochrane-Armitage test was used for assessment of linear trend. During the study period, the hospital admission for motorcycle accident was 83,648 and 89.3% (74743) of them were men. Mean age in accidents time was 26.41±14.3 years. The injuries and death sex ratio were 8.4 and 16.9, respectively. Lowest admission rate was during autumn and highest during summer. The injury mortality odds ratio was 1.01 (CI 95% 0.73-1.39) in the Spring, 1.34 (CI95% 1.01-1.79) in summer and 1.17 (CI95% 0.83-1.63). It was also calculated to be 2.51 (CI95% 1.36-4.64) in age group 40-49, 2.39 (CI95% 1.51-5.68) in 50-59 and 4.79 (CI95% 2.49-9.22) in 60-69 years. The mortality odds ratio was 3.53 (CI95% 2.77-4.5) in rural place, 1.33 (CI95% 1.15-1.54) in men, and 2.44 (CI95% 2.09-2.85) in the road out of town and village. In addition, trend of motorcycle accidents mortality was increasing (p<0.001). Motorcycle accidents injuries are more common in men, summer, young age and rural roads. These high risk groups need more attention, care and higher training.

  19. Using Acoustics to Determine Eelgrass Bed Distribution and to Assess the Seasonal Variation of Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoki, Shiori; Shao, Huamei; Morita, Yuka; Minami, Kenji; Shoji, Jun; Hori, Masakazu; Miyashita, Kazushi

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass beds are an important source of primary production in coastal ecosystems. Understanding seasonal variation in the abundance and distribution of eelgrass is important for conservation, and the objectives of this study were to 1) monitor seasonal variation in eelgrass beds using an acoustic monitoring method (Quantitative echo sounder) and 2) broadly quantify the carbon circulation function. We obtained acoustic data of eelgrass beds in coastal areas north and east of Ikunojima Island. Surveys were conducted nine times over the 3-year period from 2011 to 2013 in order to monitor seasonal variation. Acoustic data were obtained and used to estimate the spatial distribution of eelgrass by geostatistical methods. To determine supporting services, we determined carbon sink and carbon fixation by eelgrass beds using data from the National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (2011). The height and distribution of eelgrass beds were at a maximum in May and at a minimum in November of each year. Distribution trends were different between the north and east areas. Supporting services showed the same patterns throughout the year. The area of distribution was considered to be coincident with the life history of eelgrass. Distribution differed by area and changed yearly due to the effects of bottom characteristics and wind direction. Quantifying the supporting services of eelgrass beds was shown to be useful for managing the conservation of coastal ecosystems.

  20. Deposition of mercury in forests across a montane elevation gradient: Elevational and seasonal patterns in methylmercury inputs and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Demers, Jason D.; Sauer, Amy K.; Blackwell, Bradley D.; Montesdeoca, Mario R.; Shanley, James B.; Ross, Donald S.

    2017-08-01

    Global mercury contamination largely results from direct primary atmospheric and secondary legacy emissions, which can be deposited to ecosystems, converted to methylmercury, and bioaccumulated along food chains. We examined organic horizon soil samples collected across an elevational gradient on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA to determine spatial patterns in methylmercury concentrations across a forested montane landscape. We found that soil methylmercury concentrations were highest in the midelevation coniferous zone (0.39 ± 0.07 ng/g) compared to the higher elevation alpine zone (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/g) and particularly the lower elevation deciduous zone (0.17 ± 0.02 ng/g), while the percent of total mercury as methylmercury in soils decreased with elevation. We also found a seasonal pattern in soil methylmercury concentrations, with peak methylmercury values occurring in July. Given elevational patterns in temperature and bioavailable total mercury (derived from mineralization of soil organic matter), soil methylmercury concentrations appear to be driven by soil processing of ionic Hg, as opposed to atmospheric deposition of methylmercury. These methylmercury results are consistent with spatial patterns of mercury concentrations in songbird species observed from other studies, suggesting that future declines in mercury emissions could be important for reducing exposure of mercury to montane avian species.

  1. Deposition of mercury in forests across a montane elevation gradient: Elevational and seasonal patterns in methylmercury inputs and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Demers, Jason D.; Sauer, Amy K.; Blackwell, Bradley D.; Montesdeoca, Mario R.; Shanley, James B.; Ross, Donald S.

    2017-01-01

    Global mercury contamination largely results from direct primary atmospheric and secondary legacy emissions, which can be deposited to ecosystems, converted to methylmercury, and bioaccumulated along food chains. We examined organic horizon soil samples collected across an elevational gradient on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA to determine spatial patterns in methylmercury concentrations across a forested montane landscape. We found that soil methylmercury concentrations were highest in the midelevation coniferous zone (0.39 ± 0.07 ng/g) compared to the higher elevation alpine zone (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/g) and particularly the lower elevation deciduous zone (0.17 ± 0.02 ng/g), while the percent of total mercury as methylmercury in soils decreased with elevation. We also found a seasonal pattern in soil methylmercury concentrations, with peak methylmercury values occurring in July. Given elevational patterns in temperature and bioavailable total mercury (derived from mineralization of soil organic matter), soil methylmercury concentrations appear to be driven by soil processing of ionic Hg, as opposed to atmospheric deposition of methylmercury. These methylmercury results are consistent with spatial patterns of mercury concentrations in songbird species observed from other studies, suggesting that future declines in mercury emissions could be important for reducing exposure of mercury to montane avian species.

  2. Does the Dietary Pattern of Shanghai Residents  Change across Seasons and Area of Residence:  Assessing Dietary Quality Using the Chinese Diet  Balance Index (DBI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jiajie; Yu, Huiting; Zhu, Zhenni; Lu, Ye; Liu, Changhe; Yao, Chunxia; Bai, Pinqing; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Zou, Shurong; Wu, Fan

    2017-03-08

    Few studies have applied the Chinese Diet Balance Index (DBI) in evaluating dietary quality across seasons. The Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) included 1680 participants from all districts of Shanghai from 2012 to 2013. Dietary data were obtained using three-day 24-h recall in spring, summer, fall, and winter. Higher bound score (HBS), lower bound score (LBS) and diet quality distance (DQD) were calculated according to compliance with the dietary guidelines and based on the recommendations for consumption within the main food groups. HBS, LBS, and DQD represent over-intake, under-intake, and overall imbalance of the diet, respectively. 836 males and 844 females were included. The HBS indicated that 10.08%, 11.84%, 10.31%, and 12.73% people have moderate or high levels of over-intake of food in spring, summer, fall, and winter, respectively; and 74.04%, 37.61%, 53.09%, and 42.72% people have moderate or high levels of deficit food intake for each of the four seasons. The mean HBS and LBS among the four seasons were statistically significant difference (p diet is common among people living in Shanghai. Seasonality and area of residence were found to be two significant predictors. Strengthening the accessibility and the supply of food across seasons and regions should be considered.

  3. Seasonal pattern of reverse mounting in the groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, B.S.; Koford, Rolf R.; Vehrencamp, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    We observed reverse mounting behavior in a color-banded population of Groove-billed Anis (Crotophaga sulcirostris) in Costa Rica. Sex was determined with measurements and laparotomies. Reverse mounting appeared nearly identical to mounting by males. Of 27 mountings in which at least one bird was banded, 15 were reverse mountings. Only reverse mountings (11 observations) were observed in the pre-breeding period. During the breeding season males mounted females in 12 of 16 mountings; one of the reverse mountings followed nest predation. The timing of reverse mounting in anis suggests that it has an adaptive function in courtship. The proximate mechanism may be differential timing between partners in the development of breeding condition or of sexual motivation.

  4. Geospatial approach for assessment of biophysical vulnerability to agricultural drought and its intra-seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Vinay Kumar; Dhakar, Rajkumar

    2016-03-01

    The study presents a methodology to assess and map agricultural drought vulnerability during main kharif crop season at local scale and compare its intra-seasonal variations. A conceptual model of vulnerability based on variables of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity was adopted, and spatial datasets of key biophysical factors contributing to vulnerability were generated using remote sensing and GIS for Rajasthan State of India. Hazard exposure was based on frequency and intensity of gridded standardized precipitation index (SPI). Agricultural sensitivity was based on soil water holding capacity as well as on frequency and intensity of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)-derived trend adjusted vegetation condition index (VCITadj). Percent irrigated area was used as a measure of adaptive capacity. Agricultural drought vulnerability was derived separately for early, mid, late, and whole kharif seasons by composting rating of factors using linear weighting scheme and pairwise comparison of multi-criteria evaluation. The regions showing very low to extreme rating of hazard exposure, drought sensitivity, and agricultural vulnerability were identified at all four time scales. The results indicate that high to extreme vulnerability occurs in more than 50% of net sown area in the state and such areas mostly occur in western, central, and southern parts. The higher vulnerability is on account of non-irrigated croplands, moderate to low water holding capacity of sandy soils, resulting in higher sensitivity, and located in regions with high probability of rainfall deficiency. The mid and late season vulnerability has been found to be much higher than that during early and whole season. Significant correlation of vulnerability rating with food grain productivity, drought recurrence period, crop area damaged in year 2009 and socioeconomic indicator of human development index (HDI) proves the general soundness of methodology. Replication of this methodology

  5. Moderate-resolution sea surface temperature data and seasonal pattern analysis for the Arctic Ocean ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith C.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Lee, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important environmental characteristic in determining the suitability and sustainability of habitats for marine organisms. In particular, the fate of the Arctic Ocean, which provides critical habitat to commercially important fish, is in question. This poses an intriguing problem for future research of Arctic environments - one that will require examination of long-term SST records. This publication describes and provides access to an easy-to-use Arctic SST dataset for ecologists, biogeographers, oceanographers, and other scientists conducting research on habitats and/or processes in the Arctic Ocean. The data cover the Arctic ecoregions as defined by the "Marine Ecoregions of the World" (MEOW) biogeographic schema developed by The Nature Conservancy as well as the region to the north from approximately 46°N to about 88°N (constrained by the season and data coverage). The data span a 29-year period from September 1981 to December 2009. These SST data were derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument measurements that had been compiled into monthly means at 4-kilometer grid cell spatial resolution. The processed data files are available in ArcGIS geospatial datasets (raster and point shapefiles) and also are provided in text (.csv) format. All data except the raster files include attributes identifying latitude/longitude coordinates, and realm, province, and ecoregion as defined by the MEOW classification schema. A seasonal analysis of these Arctic ecoregions reveals a wide range of SSTs experienced throughout the Arctic, both over the course of an annual cycle and within each month of that cycle. Sea ice distribution plays a major role in SST regulation in all Arctic ecoregions.

  6. A Digital Map From External Forcing to the Final Surface Warming Pattern and its Seasonal Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, only the thermodynamic processes (e.g., water vapor, cloud, surface albedo, and atmospheric lapse rate) that directly influence the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative energy flux balance are considered in climate feedback analysis. One of my recent research areas is to develop a new framework for climate feedback analysis that explicitly takes into consideration not only the thermodynamic processes that the directly influence the TOA radiative energy flux balance but also the local dynamical (e.g., evaporation, surface sensible heat flux, vertical convections etc) and non-local dynamical (large-scale horizontal energy transport) processes in aiming to explain the warming asymmetry between high and low latitudes, between ocean and land, and between the surface and atmosphere. In the last 5-6 years, we have developed a coupled atmosphere-surface climate feedback-response analysis method (CFRAM) as a new framework for estimating climate feedback and sensitivity in coupled general circulation models with a full physical parameterization package. In the CFRAM, the isolation of partial temperature changes due to an external forcing alone or an individual feedback is achieved by solving the linearized infrared radiation transfer model subject to individual energy flux perturbations (external or due to feedbacks). The partial temperature changes are addable and their sum is equal to the (total) temperature change (in the linear sense). The CFRAM is used to isolate the partial temperature changes due to the external forcing, due to water vapor feedback, clouds, surface albedo, local vertical convection, and non-local atmospheric dynamical feedbacks, as well as oceanic heat storage. It has been shown that seasonal variations in the cloud feedback, surface albedo feedback, and ocean heat storage/dynamics feedback, directly caused by the strong annual cycle of insolation, contribute primarily to the large seasonal variation of polar warming. Furthermore, the

  7. Seasonal patterns of stored-product insects at a rice mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    The temporal and spatial patterns in flight activity outside of a rice mill were evaluated for the lesser grain borer [Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)], warehouse beetle [Trogoderma variabile (Ballion)], cigarette beetle [Lasioderma serricorne (F.)], and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (H'bner)] to...

  8. Isolating weather effects from seasonal activity patterns of a temperate North American Colubrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. George; Frank R. III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2015-01-01

    Forecasting the effects of climate change on threatened ecosystems and species will require an understanding of how weather influences processes that drive population dynamics. We have evaluated weather effects on activity patterns of western ratsnakes, a widespread predator of birds and small mammals in eastern North America. From 2010-2013 we radio-tracked 53...

  9. Estimating dew formation in rice, using seasonally averaged diel patterns of weather variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, W.; Goudriaan, J.

    2004-01-01

    If dew formation cannot be measured it has to be estimated. Available simulation models for estimating dew formation require hourly weather data as input. However, such data are not available for places without an automatic weather station. In such cases the diel pattern of weather variables might

  10. Otolith microstructure analysis to resolve seasonal patterns of hatching and settlement in western Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehberg-Haas, Sabine; Hammer, Cornelius; Hillgruber, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    and to differentiate between true annuli and secondary structures such as settlement checks. Otoliths were collected from fish off Fehmarn Island in 2008 and 2009, and were examined for macrostructural and microstructural patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. All fish examined were age-0. Back...

  11. Assessment of DNA damage in a group of professional dancers during a 10-month dancing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Filipa; Teixeira, Eduardo; Amorim, Tânia; Costa, Carla; Pereira, Cristiana; Fraga, Sónia; De Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; Teixeira, João Paulo; Costa, Solange

    2017-01-01

    Despite the numerous health benefits of physical activity, some studies reported that increased intensity and duration may induce oxidative stress in several cellular components including DNA. The aim of this study was to assess the level of basal DNA damage as well as oxidative DNA damage in a group of professional dancers before and after a 10-month dancing season. A group of individuals from general population was also assessed as a control. The alkaline version of the comet assay was the method selected to measure both basal DNA damage and oxidative stress, since this method quantifies both endpoints. In order to measure oxidative stress, the comet assay was coupled with a lesion-specific endonuclease (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase) to detect oxidized purines. The levels of oxidative DNA damage in dancers were significantly increased after the dancing season. Pre-season levels of oxidative DNA damage were lower in dancers than those obtained from the general population, suggesting an adaptation of antioxidant system in dancers. Results of the present biomonitoring study indicate the need for more effective measures to protect ballet dancers from potentially occupational health risks related to regular intensive physical exercise.

  12. Assessing the thermal dissipation sap flux density method for monitoring cold season water transport in seasonally snow-covered forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Allison M; Bowling, David R

    2017-07-01

    Productivity of conifers in seasonally snow-covered forests is high before and during snowmelt when environmental conditions are optimal for photosynthesis. Climate change is altering the timing of spring in many locations, and changes in the date of transition from winter dormancy can have large impacts on annual productivity. Sap flow methods provide a promising approach to monitor tree activity during the cold season and the winter-spring and fall-winter transitions. Although sap flow techniques have been widely used, cold season results are generally not reported. Here we examine the feasibility of using the Granier thermal dissipation (TD) sap flux density method to monitor transpiration and dormancy of evergreen conifers during the cold season. We conducted a laboratory experiment which demonstrated that the TD method reliably detects xylem water transport (when it occurs) both at near freezing temperature and at low flow rate, and that the sensors can withstand repeated freeze-thaw events. However, the dependence between sensor output and water transport rate in these experiments differed from the established TD relation. In field experiments, sensors installed in two Abies forests lasted through two winters and a summer with low failure. The baseline (no-flow) sensor output varied considerably with temperature during the cold season, and a new baseline algorithm was developed to accommodate this variation. The Abies forests differed in elevation (2070 and 2620 m), and there was a clear difference in timing of initiation and cessation of transpiration between them. We conclude that the TD method can be reliably used to examine water transport during cold periods with associated low flow conditions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. What drives the seasonal pattern of δ13C in the net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange across the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczka, B. M.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Lai, C. T.; Pataki, D. E.; Saleska, S. R.; Torn, M. S.; Vaughn, B. H.; Wehr, R. A.; Bowling, D. R.

    2016-12-01

    The seasonal pattern of δ13C of atmospheric CO2 depends upon both local and non-local land-atmosphere exchange and atmospheric transport. It has been suggested that the seasonal pattern is driven primarily from local variation in the δ13C of the net CO2 flux (exchange between vegetation and the atmosphere) as a result of variation of stomatal conductance of the vegetation. Here we study local variation of δ13C of the land-atmosphere exchange at 7 sites across the United States representing forests (Harvard, Howland, Niwot Ridge, Wind River), grasslands (Southern Great Plains, Rannell Prairie) and an urban center (Salt Lake City). Using a simple 2-part mixing model with background corrections we find that the δ13C of the net exchange of CO2 was most enriched at the grassland sites (-18.9 o/oo), and most depleted at the urban site (-29.6 o/oo) due to the contribution of C4 photosynthesis and fossil fuel emissions, respectively. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle was most pronounced at the C3/C4 grassland and the urban sites. In contrast, the forested sites have a reduced seasonal cycle, and remain almost constant during the growing season (0.49 o/oo change). Furthermore, by accounting for relatively fast δ13C variations in non-local sources at Niwot Ridge we find that the seasonal pattern in δ13C of net exchange is eliminated altogether. These results support the idea that a coherent, global seasonal pattern in δ13C of net exchange is influenced by seasonal transitions in C3/C4 grass, and the intensity and seasonal timing of fossil fuel emissions. This will have important implications for studies that use δ13C to constrain large-scale carbon fluxes.

  14. Meerkat close calling patterns are linked to sex, social category, season and wind, but not fecal glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Mausbach

    Full Text Available It is well established that animal vocalizations can encode information regarding a sender's identity, sex, age, body size, social rank and group membership. However, the association between physiological parameters, particularly stress hormone levels, and vocal behavior is still not well understood. The cooperatively breeding African meerkats (Suricata suricatta live in family groups with despotic social hierarchies. During foraging, individuals emit close calls that help maintain group cohesion. These contact calls are acoustically distinctive and variable in rate across individuals, yet, information on which factors influence close calling behavior is missing. The aim of this study was to identify proximate factors that influence variation in call rate and acoustic structure of meerkat close calls. Specifically, we investigated whether close calling behavior is associated with sex, age and rank, or stress hormone output (i.e., measured as fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM concentrations as individual traits of the caller, as well as with environmental conditions (weather and reproductive seasonality. To disentangle the effects of these factors on vocal behavior, we analyzed sound recordings and assessed fGCM concentrations in 64 wild but habituated meerkats from 9 groups during the reproductive and non-reproductive seasons. Dominant females and one-year old males called at significantly higher rates compared to other social categories during the reproductive season. Additionally, dominant females produced close calls with the lowest mean fundamental frequencies (F0 and the longest mean pulse durations. Windy conditions were associated with significantly higher call rates during the non-reproductive season. Fecal GCM concentrations were unrelated to close calling behavior. Our findings suggest that meerkat close calling behavior conveys information regarding the sex and social category of the caller, but shows no association with f

  15. Exploring the physical controls of regional patterns of flow duration curves – Part 2: Role of seasonality, the regime curve, and associated process controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sivapalan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to explore the process controls underpinning regional patterns of variations of streamflow regime behavior, i.e., the mean seasonal variation of streamflow within the year, across the continental United States. The ultimate motivation is to use the resulting process understanding to generate insights into the physical controls of another signature of streamflow variability, namely the flow duration curve (FDC. The construction of the FDC removes the time dependence of flows. Thus in order to better understand the physical controls in regions that exhibit strong seasonal dependence, the regime curve (RC, which is closely connected to the FDC, is studied in this paper and later linked back to the FDC. To achieve these aims a top-down modeling approach is adopted; we start with a simple two-stage bucket model, which is systematically enhanced through addition of new processes on the basis of model performance assessment in relation to observations, using rainfall-runoff data from 197 United States catchments belonging to the MOPEX dataset. Exploration of dominant processes and the determination of required model complexity are carried out through model-based sensitivity analyses, guided by a performance metric. Results indicated systematic regional trends in dominant processes: snowmelt was a key process control in cold mountainous catchments in the north and north-west, whereas snowmelt and vegetation cover dynamics were key controls in the north-east; seasonal vegetation cover dynamics (phenology and interception were important along the Appalachian mountain range in the east. A simple two-bucket model (with no other additions was found to be adequate in warm humid catchments along the west coast and in the south-east, with both regions exhibiting strong seasonality, whereas much more complex models are needed in the dry south and south-west. Agricultural catchments in the mid-west were found to be difficult to predict

  16. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiller, B.L.; Zufelt, R.K.; Turner, S.; Cadwell, L.L.; Bender, L.; Turner, G.K.

    2000-10-10

    Population characteristics of the Rattlesnake Hills elk herd indicate reduced herd growth rates from the 1980s compared to the 1990s (McCorquodale 1988; Eberhardt 1996). However, the population continued to grow approximately 25% annually through the 1990s, reaching a high of 838 animals in summer 1999. Calf recruitment rates appear to be cyclic and are likely related to reduced calf survival during the first weeks of life; however, late-term abortions may also have occurred. The cause(s) could be predator-related and/or a function of shifts in nutritional condition (age-class distributions, assuming older-age cows are less likely to recruit calves, major climate shifts) or changes in the human-related disturbances during gestation, and/or calf rearing periods. In fall 1999 and spring 2000, the population was reduced from 838 individuals to 660 individuals. The primary controlling factors were modified hunting seasons on private and state lands and the large-scale roundup conducted in spring 2000. Continued removal of animals (particularly females) within the population will be pivotal to maintain the population at a level that minimizes land damage complaints, animal-vehicle collisions, use of central Hanford areas, and deterioration of natural resources.

  17. Activity of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima revealed by camera trapping: Patterns with respect to season, daily period and rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yosuke; Hongo, Shun; Honda, Takeaki; Okamura, Hiroki; Higo, Yuma

    2018-01-01

    Animals are subject to various scales of temporal environmental fluctuations, among which daily and seasonal variations are two of the most widespread and significant ones. Many biotic and abiotic factors change temporally, and climatic factors are particularly important because they directly affect the cost of thermoregulation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the activity patterns of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) with a special emphasis on the effect of thermal conditions. We set 30 camera traps in the coniferous forest of Yakushima and monitored them for a total of 8658 camera-days between July 2014 and July 2015. Over the one-year period, temperature had a positive effect, and rainfall had a negative effect on the activity of macaques during the day. Capture rate was significantly higher during the time period of one hour after sunrise and during midday. During winter days, macaques concentrated their activity around noon, and activity shifted from the morning toward the afternoon. This could be interpreted as macaques shifting their activity to warmer time periods within a single day. Japanese macaques decreased their activity during the time before sunrise in seasons with lower temperatures. It was beneficial for macaques to be less active during cooler time periods in a cold season. Even small amounts of rainfall negatively affected the activity of Japanese macaques, with capture rates decreasing significantly even when rainfall was only 0.5–1 mm/min. In conclusion, thermal conditions significantly affected the activity of wild Japanese macaques at various time scales. PMID:29293657

  18. Activity of wild Japanese macaques in Yakushima revealed by camera trapping: Patterns with respect to season, daily period and rainfall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Hanya

    Full Text Available Animals are subject to various scales of temporal environmental fluctuations, among which daily and seasonal variations are two of the most widespread and significant ones. Many biotic and abiotic factors change temporally, and climatic factors are particularly important because they directly affect the cost of thermoregulation. The purpose of the present study was to determine the activity patterns of wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata with a special emphasis on the effect of thermal conditions. We set 30 camera traps in the coniferous forest of Yakushima and monitored them for a total of 8658 camera-days between July 2014 and July 2015. Over the one-year period, temperature had a positive effect, and rainfall had a negative effect on the activity of macaques during the day. Capture rate was significantly higher during the time period of one hour after sunrise and during midday. During winter days, macaques concentrated their activity around noon, and activity shifted from the morning toward the afternoon. This could be interpreted as macaques shifting their activity to warmer time periods within a single day. Japanese macaques decreased their activity during the time before sunrise in seasons with lower temperatures. It was beneficial for macaques to be less active during cooler time periods in a cold season. Even small amounts of rainfall negatively affected the activity of Japanese macaques, with capture rates decreasing significantly even when rainfall was only 0.5-1 mm/min. In conclusion, thermal conditions significantly affected the activity of wild Japanese macaques at various time scales.

  19. Influence of the Anomalous Patterns of the Mascarene and Australian Highs on Precipitation during the Prerainy Season in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the features of precipitation during the prerainy season in South China (PSCPRS and the atmospheric circulation in the Southern Hemisphere (SH, which is expected to influence the PSCPRS significantly. The Morlet wavelet method revealed that the PSCPRS has significant interannual variability, especially in its quasi-biennial oscillation. The PSCPRS exhibits a significant monsoonal precipitation pattern. Using singular value decomposition (SVD and composite analysis, the anomalous characteristics of SH atmospheric circulations and their impacts on the PSCPRS are studied. The results reveal that eastward movements or extensions of the Mascarene high (MH and Australian high (AH, which have quasi-baroclinic geopotential height structures in the lower and middle troposphere, are the most significant factors affecting the PSCPRS. Their impacts on the PSCPRS anomalies are further studied using the index east of the MH (IEMH and index east of the AH (IEAH. The IEMH and IEAH have notable significant positive correlations with the PSCPRS. When either the IEMH or IEAH is stronger (weaker, more (less rainfall occurs during the prerainy season in South China.

  20. Multi-scale analysis of relationship between landscape pattern and urban river water quality in different seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Wang, Guofeng; Zhang, Qianwen; Zhang, Zhonghao

    2016-05-05

    Water quality is highly dependent on the landscape characteristics. In this study, we investigated the relationships between water quality and landscape pattern (composition and configuration) in Huzhou City, China. The water quality variables, including pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), NH3-N, petroleum, dissolved total phosphorus (DTP), and total nitrogen (TN) in low water, normal water and flood periods were identified by investigating 34 sampling sites in Huzhou City during the period from 2001 to 2007. Landscape composition and landscape configuration metrics were calculated for different scales. It was found that scales and seasons both play important role when analyzing the relationships between landscape characteristics of different land use types. The results implied that some water quality parameters such as CODMn, petroleum are more polluted in flood period than the other two seasons at different scales, while DTP and TN are more polluted in low water period. Influences of different landscape metrics on water quality should operate at different spatial scales. The results shown in this paper will effectively provide scientific basis for the policy making in sustainable development of water environment.

  1. Seasonal and vertical patterns of egg-laying by the freshwater fish louse Argulus foliaceus (Crustacea: Branchiura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A J; Gault, N F S; Dick, J T A

    2006-01-30

    Argulus foliaceus is a damaging fish ectoparasite for which new control measures are being developed based on egg-removal. In an attempt to develop further understanding of seasonal and vertical egg-laying patterns in this parasite, egg-laying activity was monitored over the period 14 April to 17 November 2003 in 2 rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fisheries in Northern Ireland, UK. At Site 1, egg-laying was continuous from 21 April to 17 November, when water temperature was above 8 to 10 degrees C. At Site 2, egg-laying was continuous from 4 June to 29 October. In the early months of the season, egg-laying was recorded mainly within the top 1 m of the water column; however, a significant shift to deep water egg-laying was recorded between 7 July and 17 November at Site 1 and between 20 August and 29 October at Site 2. Egg clutches were preferentially laid at depths of up to 8.5 m during this time (Site 2), a feature of egg-laying hitherto unappreciated. Temperature and dissolved oxygen did not differ significantly among depths, but there was an increase in water clarity over time. However, the precise environmental triggers for deep water egg-laying are still unclear. These new insights into the reproductive behaviour of this species will be useful in developing control methods based on egg-removal.

  2. How do seasonality and host traits influence the distribution patterns of parasites on juveniles and adults of Columba livia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Hugo Leonardo da Cunha; Bergmann, Fabiane Borba; Dos Santos, Paulo Roberto Silveira; Silveira, Tony; Krüger, Rodrigo Ferreira

    2017-12-01

    Parasites may influence host fitness and consequently exert a selective pressure on distinct phenotypes of the host population. This pressure can result in an evolutionary response, maintaining only individuals with certain traits in the population. The present study was aimed at identifying the morphological characteristics of juveniles and adults of Columba livia that may influence the distribution patterns of lice, Pseudolynchia canariensis and Haemoproteus columbae and how the populations of these parasites vary throughout the seasons of the year. Between July 2012 and July 2014, 377 specimens of C. livia were captured. We observed a significant increase in the mean intensities of infestation by pigeon flies and lice, as well as in species richness of ectoparasites during the warmest seasons, suggesting a reproductive synchrony between ectoparasites and host species. Bill length, body mass, and body length did not affect the infestation levels of ectoparasites on adults and juveniles of C. livia with three distinct plumage colors. In juveniles, plumage color affected only the mean intensity of infestation by lice, with Spread individuals as the most infested. This indicates that melanin in feathers was not an effective barrier against ectoparasites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of Land Transitions Patterns from Multivariate Time Series Using Seasonal Trend Analysis and Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Parmentier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing biophysical changes in land change areas over large regions with short and noisy multivariate time series and multiple temporal parameters remains a challenging task. Most studies focus on detection rather than the characterization, i.e., the manner by which surface state variables are altered by the process of changes. In this study, a procedure is presented to extract and characterize simultaneous temporal changes in MODIS multivariate times series from three surface state variables the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, land surface temperature (LST and albedo (ALB. The analysis involves conducting a seasonal trend analysis (STA to extract three seasonal shape parameters (Amplitude 0, Amplitude 1 and Amplitude 2 and using principal component analysis (PCA to contrast trends in change and no-change areas. We illustrate the method by characterizing trends in burned and unburned pixels in Alaska over the 2001–2009 time period. Findings show consistent and meaningful extraction of temporal patterns related to fire disturbances. The first principal component (PC1 is characterized by a decrease in mean NDVI (Amplitude 0 with a concurrent increase in albedo (the mean and the annual amplitude and an increase in LST annual variability (Amplitude 1. These results provide systematic empirical evidence of surface changes associated with one type of land change, fire disturbances, and suggest that STA with PCA may be used to characterize many other types of land transitions over large landscape areas using multivariate Earth observation time series.

  4. Spatial and seasonal patterns of ichthyoplankton assemblages in the Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengguang; Ye, Zhenjiang; Wan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Surveys were conducted in five voyages in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent coastal area from March to December 2011 during full moon spring tides. The ichthyoplankton assemblages and the environmental factors that affect their spatial and seasonal patterns were determined. Totally 35 and 12 fish egg and larvae taxa were identified, respectively. Over the past several decades, the egg and larval species composition has significantly changed in Haizhou Bay and its adjacent waters, most likely corresponding with the alteration of fishery resources, which are strongly affected by anthropogenic activities and climate change. The Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index identified four assemblages: near-shore bay assemblage, middle bay assemblage and two closely related assemblages (near-shore/middle bay assemblage and middle/edge of bay assemblage). The primary species of each assemblage principally reflected the spawning strategies of adult fish. The near-shore bay assemblage generally occurred in near-shore bay, with depths measuring <20 m, and the middle bay assemblage generally occurred in the middle of bay, with depths measuring 20 to 40 m. Spatial and seasonal variations in ichthyoplankton in each assemblage were determined by interactions between biological behavioral traits and oceanographic features, particularly the variation of local conditions within the constraint of a general reproductive strategy. The results of Spearman's rank correlation analysis indicated that both fish egg and larval abundance were positively correlated with depth, which is critical to the oceanographic features in Haizhou Bay.

  5. Foliar Phenolic Compounds in Norway Spruce with Varying Susceptibility to Chrysomyxa rhododendri: Analyses of Seasonal and Infection-Induced Accumulation Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ganthaler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary phenolic metabolites are involved in plant responses to various biotic stress factors, and are apparently important for the defense against fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated their role in defense against the rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri in Norway spruce. The fungal pathogen undergoes a seasonal lifecycle with host shift; after overwintering in rhododendron shrubs, it attacks the sprouting current-year spruce needles and causes needle fall in autumn. Repeated infections lead to reduced timber yield and severe problems with rejuvenation in subalpine Norway spruce forests. Trees with varying susceptibility to infection by C. rhododendri were selected and foliar phenolic composition was assessed using UHPLC-MS. We report on seasonal accumulation patterns and infection-related changes in the concentrations of 16 metabolites, including flavonoids, stilbenes, simple phenylpropanoids and the precursor shikimic acid, and their correlation with the infection degree of the tree. We found significant variation in the phenolic profiles during needle development: flavonoids were predominant in the first weeks after sprouting, whereas stilbenes, picein and shikimic acid increased during the first year. Following infection, several flavonoids and resveratrol increased up to 1.8 fold in concentration, whereas picein and shikimic acid were reduced by about 70 and 60%, respectively. The constitutive and early stage infection-induced concentrations of kaempferol, quercetin and taxifolin as well as the late stage infection-induced concentrations of stilbenes and picein were negatively correlated with infection degree. We conclude that a combination of constitutive and inducible accumulation of phenolic compounds is associated with the lower susceptibility of individual trees to C. rhododendri. The potentially fungicidal flavonoid aglycones may limit hyphal growth and prevent development of infection symptoms, and high levels of stilbenes may

  6. Foliar Phenolic Compounds in Norway Spruce with Varying Susceptibility to Chrysomyxa rhododendri: Analyses of Seasonal and Infection-Induced Accumulation Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganthaler, Andrea; Stöggl, Wolfgang; Kranner, Ilse; Mayr, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Secondary phenolic metabolites are involved in plant responses to various biotic stress factors, and are apparently important for the defense against fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated their role in defense against the rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri in Norway spruce. The fungal pathogen undergoes a seasonal lifecycle with host shift; after overwintering in rhododendron shrubs, it attacks the sprouting current-year spruce needles and causes needle fall in autumn. Repeated infections lead to reduced timber yield and severe problems with rejuvenation in subalpine Norway spruce forests. Trees with varying susceptibility to infection by C. rhododendri were selected and foliar phenolic composition was assessed using UHPLC-MS. We report on seasonal accumulation patterns and infection-related changes in the concentrations of 16 metabolites, including flavonoids, stilbenes, simple phenylpropanoids and the precursor shikimic acid, and their correlation with the infection degree of the tree. We found significant variation in the phenolic profiles during needle development: flavonoids were predominant in the first weeks after sprouting, whereas stilbenes, picein and shikimic acid increased during the first year. Following infection, several flavonoids and resveratrol increased up to 1.8 fold in concentration, whereas picein and shikimic acid were reduced by about 70 and 60%, respectively. The constitutive and early stage infection-induced concentrations of kaempferol, quercetin and taxifolin as well as the late stage infection-induced concentrations of stilbenes and picein were negatively correlated with infection degree. We conclude that a combination of constitutive and inducible accumulation of phenolic compounds is associated with the lower susceptibility of individual trees to C. rhododendri. The potentially fungicidal flavonoid aglycones may limit hyphal growth and prevent development of infection symptoms, and high levels of stilbenes may impede the infection

  7. Assessment of the Effectiveness of a Seasonal-Long Insecticide-Based Control Strategy against Aedes albopictus Nuisance in an Urban Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beniamino Caputo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal-long larvicide treatments and/or outdoor space-spray applications of insecticides are frequently applied to reduce Aedes albopictus nuisance in urban areas of temperate regions, where the species has become a permanent pest affecting people's quality of life and health. However, assessments of the effectiveness of sequential interventions is a difficult task, as it requires to take into account the cumulative and combined effect of multiple treatments, as well as the mosquito seasonal dynamics (rather than mosquito abundance before and after single treatments. We here present the results of the effectiveness assessment of a seasonal-long calendar-based control intervention integrating larvicide treatments of street catch basins and night-time adulticide ground spraying in the main University hospital in Rome (Italy. Cage-experiments and an intensive monitoring of wild mosquito abundance in treated and untreated sites were carried out along an entire season. Sticky traps were used to monitor adult abundance and site-specific eco-climatic variations (by recording water left over in each trap, in order to disentangle the effect of insecticide treatments from eco-climatic drivers on mosquito seasonal dynamics. Despite the apparent limited impact of single adulticide sprayings assessed based on mortality in caged and wild mosquitoes, the results of the temporal analysis showed that mosquito seasonal patterns were initially comparable in the two sites, diverged in the absence of diverging eco-climatic conditions and remained stable afterwards. This allowed to attribute the lack of the expected Ae. albopictus population expansion in the treated site to the combined effect of multiple adulticide sprayings and larvicide treatments carried out during the whole season. The approach proposed was proved to be successful to assess effects of seasonal-long control treatments on adult mosquito population dynamics and could represent a valuable

  8. Three years of seasonal dose assessment from outdoors gamma exposure in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.; Sanches, Matias P.; Betti, Flavio; Pecequilo, Brigitte R.S., E-mail: janetegc@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Measurements of external (outdoors) gamma exposure from natural background radiation have been used to estimate the average annual doses in Sao Paulo city. Twelve monitoring stations were placed in different regions of the town including both urban (where building materials are present) and outskirts areas. Seasonally surveys observing the four seasons from 2008 to 2010 have been carried out. The data were drawn from a 3-month sampling using the thermoluminescent dosimetry. The effective doses values are quite similar (slightly higher during the winter), so it can be considered that these results are not under significant influence (or variability) of seasonal environmental conditions like temperature, wind or rain. Dose values over the three years period, from Vila Carrao district, exclusively an urban location with mostly no green areas, present the highest values, while the lower values were always obtained for Tucuruvi district, near the biggest urban forest, Parque Estadual da Cantareira. Over the assessed period, the mean of the average annual effective doses was 1.3 {+-} 0.1 mSv.y{sup -1}. For the same period, the average annual background from nuclear and radioactive facility at IPEN was 0.75 {+-} 0.12 mSv.y{sup -1}. (author)

  9. National Assessment of Climate Resources for Tourism Seasonality in China Using the Tourism Climate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a very important industry, and it is deeply affected by climate. This article focuses on the role of climate in tourism seasonality and attempts to assess the impacts of climate resources on China’s tourism seasonality by using the Tourism Climate Index (TCI. Seasonal distribution maps of TCI scores indicate that the climates of most regions in China are comfortable for tourists during spring and autumn, while the climate conditions differ greatly in summer and winter, with “excellent”, “good”, “acceptable” and “unfavorable” existing almost by a latitudinal gradation. The number of good months throughout China varies from zero (the Tibetan Plateau area to 10 (Yunnan Province, and most localities have five to eight good months. Moreover, all locations in China can be classified as winter peak, summer peak and bi-modal shoulder peak. The results will provide some useful information for tourist destinations, travel agencies, tourism authorities and tourists.

  10. Vertical and seasonal patterns in competition for microalgae between intertidal gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, A J

    1984-10-01

    Grazing by the snail Nerita atramentosa and the limpet Cellana tramoserica caused similarly great reductions in abundance of microalgae - measured by direct counts and by estimation of chlorophyll analyses. A smaller snail, Bembicium nanum, caused smaller reductions of microalgal resources, compared with ungrazed areas. These results were consistent with the competitive abilities of these three species. Chlorophyll concentrations in samples of grazed rocks were reliable estimates of the nature and abundance of food available to the grazers.Inter- and intra-specific competition amongst Nerita and Cellana were investigated at various densities in experimental cages. To examine the effects of different availability of food resources, the experiments were repeated at three heights on the shore (abundance of food decreases with height) and during autumn/winter and spring/summer periods of the year (less food is available during summer).Density-dependent mortality of Cellana was caused by the presence of other limpets, or of Nerita. Mortality was greatest at higher levels and during the spring/summer and was significantly, negatively correlated with mean chlorophyll concentration in the experimental cages. The only exception was that all limpets suddenly died in cages at the highest level during the summer period, which cannot be explained solely by competitive interactions. Nerita showed no density-dependent mortality during the short periods of these experiments. Tissue-weights of Nerita declined with increased density, but the effect of Cellana was not as great as the intraspecific effect of Nerita. Snails retained weight better at lower than at higher levels, and during the autumn/winter which is consistent with the availability of food. Tissue weights of both Nerita and Cellana were positively correlated with chlorophyll concentrations inside the cages in both seasons investigated.These experimental results demonstrate that intensity of competition will vary from

  11. Influence of physiological phenology on the seasonal pattern of ecosystem respiration in deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Richardson, Andrew D; Mahecha, Miguel D; Cremonese, Edoardo; Delpierre, Nicolas; Galvagno, Marta; Law, Beverly E; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Black, T Andrew; Carvalhais, Nuno; Ceccherini, Guido; Chen, Jiquan; Gobron, Nadine; Koffi, Ernest; Munger, J William; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Robustelli, Monica; Tomelleri, Enrico; Cescatti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the environmental and biotic drivers of respiration at the ecosystem level is a prerequisite to further improve scenarios of the global carbon cycle. In this study we investigated the relevance of physiological phenology, defined as seasonal changes in plant physiological properties, for explaining the temporal dynamics of ecosystem respiration (RECO) in deciduous forests. Previous studies showed that empirical RECO models can be substantially improved by considering the biotic dependency of RECO on the short-term productivity (e.g., daily gross primary production, GPP) in addition to the well-known environmental controls of temperature and water availability. Here, we use a model-data integration approach to investigate the added value of physiological phenology, represented by the first temporal derivative of GPP, or alternatively of the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, for modeling RECO at 19 deciduous broadleaved forests in the FLUXNET La Thuile database. The new data-oriented semiempirical model leads to an 8% decrease in root mean square error (RMSE) and a 6% increase in the modeling efficiency (EF) of modeled RECO when compared to a version of the model that does not consider the physiological phenology. The reduction of the model-observation bias occurred mainly at the monthly time scale, and in spring and summer, while a smaller reduction was observed at the annual time scale. The proposed approach did not improve the model performance at several sites, and we identified as potential causes the plant canopy heterogeneity and the use of air temperature as a driver of ecosystem respiration instead of soil temperature. However, in the majority of sites the model-error remained unchanged regardless of the driving temperature. Overall, our results point toward the potential for improving current approaches for modeling RECO in deciduous forests by including the phenological cycle of the canopy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  12. Internal Revenue Service: Assessment of Budget Request for Fiscal Year 2003 and Interim Results of 2002 Tax Filing Season

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, James

    2002-01-01

    ...) and the 2002 tax filing season. As you requested, our statement assesses the support for various aspects of IRS s budget request, including the linkage between resources requested and expected results, and IRS's performance...

  13. Effect of diurnal and seasonal temperature variation on Cussac cave ventilation using co2 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyraube, Nicolas; Lastennet, Roland; Villanueva, Jessica Denila; Houillon, Nicolas; Malaurent, Philippe; Denis, Alain

    2017-08-01

    Cussac cave was investigated to assess the cave air temperature variations and to understand its ventilation regime. This cave is located in an active karst system in the south west part of France. It has a single entrance and is considered as a cold air trap. In this study, air mass exchanges were probed. Measurements of temperature and Pco2 with a 30-min frequency were made in several locations close to the cave entrance. Speed of the air flow was also measured at the door of cave entrance. Results show that cave air Pco2 varies from 0.18 to 3.33 %. This cave appears to be a CO2 source with a net mass of 2319 tons blown in 2009. Carbon-stable isotope of CO2 (13Cco2) ranges from -20.6 ‰ in cold season to -23.8 ‰ in warm season. Cave air is interpreted as a result of a mix between external air and an isotopically depleted air, coming from the rock environment. The isotopic value of the light member varies through time, from -23.9 to -22.5 ‰. Furthermore, this study ascertains that the cave never stops in communicating with the external air. The ventilation regime is identified. (1) In cold season, the cave inhales at night and blows a little at the warmest hours. However, in warm season, (2) cave blows at night, but (3) during the day, a convection loop takes place in the entrance area and prevents the external air from entering the cave, confirming the cold air trap.

  14. Teachers' Assessment Patterns and their Effect on Senior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated teachers' assessment patterns and their effect on senior secondary II students' achievement and retention in English grammar. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A quasi experimental design was used. The instruments used for data collection were ...

  15. Assessment of mobile phone use pattern among undergraduates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of mobile phone use pattern by undergraduates was carried out. The survey research design was used in this study whose population consists of undergraduate students of the University of Calabar, Nigeria in the 2014 /2015 academic session. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection.

  16. The invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the central Baltic Sea: seasonal phenology and hydrographic influence on spatio-temporal distribution patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, M.; Haslob, H.; Huwer, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    study was to investigate the seasonal phenology of this introduced species and whether it is able to form a self-sustaining population in this area. Therefore, the variability of temporal and spatial distribution of M. leidyi in the Bornholm Basin was analyzed over the first 4 years following...... the invasion and related to ambient hydrographic parameters. Results show a clear seasonal pattern. In contrast to the majority of other native and exotic habitats, the seasonal phenology showed highest abundances in spring and autumn months and only sporadic or even no appearance during summer. Vertical...

  17. Generalized Extreme Value Distribution Models for the Assessment of Seasonal Wind Energy Potential of Debuncha, Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip; Ebobenow Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The method of generalized extreme value family of distributions (Weibull, Gumbel, and Frechet) is employed for the first time to assess the wind energy potential of Debuncha, South-West Cameroon, and to study the variation of energy over the seasons on this site. The 29-year (1983–2013) average daily wind speed data over Debuncha due to missing values in the years 1992 and 1994 is gotten from NASA satellite data through the RETScreen software tool provided by CANMET Canada. The data is partit...

  18. Concentration-discharge patterns in a small urban headwater stream in a seasonally dry water-limited tropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwenzi, Willis; Chinyama, Shyleen R.; Togarepi, Sydney

    2017-07-01

    The simplicity of the hydrochemical stationarity concept renders it attractive for partitioning solutes between geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The current study used a small urban headwater stream in a seasonally dry environment to address two research questions: (1) What concentration (C)-discharge (Q) patterns exist in small urban headwater streams?; and (2) Do the C-Q patterns persist across C-Q metrics and temporal scales? Four C-Q metrics were tested: concentration-discharge (C-Q), concentration-cumulative discharge (C-ΣQ), load (L)-discharge (L-Q) and normalized concentration-normalized discharge (NC-NQ). C-Q and NC-NQ revealed discharge-invariant behaviour for Ca, two linear relationships with threshold-like transitions from negative to positive slopes for Mg, K and Na, and positive linear relationships for Fe, Pb and PO43-. The threshold-like transitions with distinct breakpoints were more apparent in C-ΣQ patterns for all solutes. These patterns are consistent with three hypotheses: (1) negative linear to zero slope relationships indicate dilution followed by discharge-invariant behaviour (Ca); (2) negative to positive linear relationships (Mg, K and Na) point to dilution followed by solute enrichment or flushing; and (3) positive to negative linear relationships (Pb, Fe and PO43-) suggest initial solute mobilization followed by dilution. The three dominant behaviours were robust across weekly, fortnightly and monthly timescales. Significant linear L-Q relationships were observed for all solutes, suggesting that loads can be predicted from discharge. Our findings suggest that C-Q relationships are highly dynamic, and multiple processes control streamflow hydrochemistry at different times depending on antecedent discharge. The application of multiple C-Q metrics provided additional insights not apparent by using a single metric. The insights are critical to understanding of catchment hydrology and conceptual representation of hydrochemical processes

  19. Ecological patterns of phytoplankton assemblages in Lake Garda: seasonal, spatial and historical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico SALMASO

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of phytoplankton assemblages in the two main basins of the deep (Zmax=350 m and large (49 km3 subalpine Lake Garda (Northern Italy was investigated through monthly samplings from 1998 to 2000. The algal development was strongly typified by the alternation, from spring to autumn, of Fragilaria crotonensis and Mougeotia sp. and by the increasing importance of filaments of the complex Planktothrix rubescens/agardhii in summer and autumn. These three “master species” are characterised by higher biovolumes and/or more regular and wide annual development in comparison to the other dominant taxa. The simultaneous application of ordination (NMDS-Non metric Multi Dimensional Scaling and cluster analysis techniques revealed an ordered and coherent temporal succession of phytoplankton assemblages in the two main basins of the lake. These temporal and spatial regularities arise from the high inertia and resilience against perturbations that characterise the deep and large lakes, and contrast sharply with the less ordered or chaotic and unpredictable seasonal assemblages that may be found in small and shallow lakes. It is stressed that, owing to the use of different methodologies, the modifications of the phytoplankton assemblages in the last fifty years must be interpreted with particular caution. The only demonstrable differences seem to indicate that, with the speeding up of eutrophication processes in the 1960s and 1970s, detectable populations of Planktothrix and irregular increases of Conjugatophyceae (Mougeotia sp., Closterium aciculare were established. During and after the 1980s, the increase of phosphorus concentrations in the lake and the progression towards more mesotrophic conditions was accompanied by the appearance of further substantial populations of cyanobacteria (Planktolyngbya limnetica, Anabaena lemmermannii. In contrast with these signs of alteration, Fragilaria crotonensis, Asterionella formosa, Ceratium

  20. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.

    2012-01-01

    Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782

  1. A probabilistic risk assessment for the Kirtland's warbler potentially exposed to chlorpyrifos and malathion during the breeding season and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dwayne Rj; Priest, Colleen D; Olson, Adric D; Teed, R Scott

    2017-11-04

    Two organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos and malathion, are currently undergoing reregistration in the United States and were recently used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as case studies to develop a national procedure for evaluating risks to endangered species. One of the endangered bird species considered by the USEPA was the Kirtland's warbler (Setophaga kirtlandii). The Kirtland's warbler is an endangered migratory species that nests exclusively in young jack pine stands in Michigan and Wisconsin, and winters in the Bahamas. We developed probabilistic models to assess the risks of chlorpyrifos and malathion to Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season and the spring and fall migrations. The breeding area model simulates acute and chronic exposure and risk to each of 10 000 birds over a 60-d period following initial pesticide application. The model is highly species specific with regard to the foraging behavior of Kirtland's warblers during the breeding season. We simulated the maximum application rate and number of applications allowed on the labels for representative use patterns that could be found within 3 km of the breeding areas of Kirtland's warbler. The migration model simulates 10 000 birds during the course of their 12- to 23-d migration between their breeding area and the Bahamas. The model takes advantage of more than a century of observations of when, where, and for how long Kirtland's warblers forage in different habitats during the course of their migration. The data indicate that warblers only infrequently stop over in habitats that could be treated with chlorpyrifos and malathion. The breeding area and migration models resulted in predictions of very low acute and chronic risk for both pesticides to Kirtland's warblers. These results were expected, given that field observations indicate that the Kirtland's warbler has dramatically increased in abundance in recent decades. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017

  2. Assessing Sahelian vegetation and stress from seasonal time series of polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard

    . By detrending time series for the Senegal River basin, spatially coherent patterns of index trends were found, suggesting that real information is present in the daily anomalies of both NDVI and SIWSI. It was found necessary with spatial aggregation on quite coarse scale for significant analysis results when...... index (NDVI), which combines red and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions. From NDVI data a greening of the Sahel have been identified since the 80s and attributed to increasing trends in annual rainfall for large parts of the region. One part of this thesis analyses time series of parameterized MODIS...... that short term variations in anomalies from seasonally detrended time series of indices could carry information on vegetation stress was examined and confirmed. However, it was not found sufficiently robust on pixel level to be implemented for monitoring vegetation water stress on a per-pixel basis...

  3. A large predatory reef fish species moderates feeding and activity patterns in response to seasonal and latitudinal temperature variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Molly; Heupel, Michelle; Tobin, Andrew; Pratchett, Morgan

    2017-10-11

    Climate-driven increases in ocean temperatures are expected to affect the metabolic requirements of marine species substantially. To mitigate the impacts of increasing temperatures in the short-term, it may be necessary for ectothermic organisms to alter their foraging behaviour and activity. Herein, we investigate seasonal variation in foraging behaviour and activity of latitudinally distinct populations of a large coral reef predator, the common coral trout, Plectropomus leopardus, from the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. P. leopardus exhibited increased foraging frequency in summer versus winter time, irrespective of latitude, however, foraging frequency substantially declined at water temperatures >30 °C. Foraging frequency also decreased with body size but there was no interaction with temperature. Activity patterns were directly correlated with water temperature; during summer, the low-latitude population of P. leopardus spent up to 62% of their time inactive, compared with 43% for the high-latitude population. The impact of water temperature on activity patterns was greatest for larger individuals. These results show that P. leopardus moderate their foraging behaviour and activity according to changes in ambient temperatures. It seems likely that increasing ocean temperatures may impose significant constraints on the capacity of large-bodied fishes to obtain sufficient prey resources while simultaneously conserving energy.

  4. Assessment of palatal rugae patterns in Manipuri and Kerala population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surekha, R; Anila, Koneru; Reddy, Vikram S; Hunasgi, Santosh; Ravikumar, Shamala; Ramesh, Neela

    2012-07-01

    Palatal rugae comprises three to seven ridges radiating out tangentially from the incisive papilla on the anterior part of the palate. These rugae patterns are studied for various reasons, mainly in the fields of anthropology, genetics, orthodontics, prosthodontics, and forensic science. To compare the palatal rugae pattern in two different populations (Manipuri and Kerala), and to assess the predominant pattern if any in the selected groups. Sixty maxillary study models (30 from each group including males and females) were examined in the age group ranging from 17 to 23 years. Palatal rugae pattern were analyzed on the right and left sides of the palate for total number, length, shape, direction, and unification. After analyzing the rugae patterns in both the groups and between the two sides of the palate, the wavy pattern was found to be predominant followed by curved, straight, and circular in overall population. Manipuri population showed predominant curved shape than the Kerala population and was statistically significant. Females in general had slightly more rugae than males and the left side of the palate showed comparatively more number of rugae than on the right side. A statistically significant association between the shape of the rugae and population exists although, subtle. Parameters like direction and unification need more attention for better understanding.

  5. Landsat-Based Long-Term Monitoring of Total Suspended Matter Concentration Pattern Change in the Wet Season for Dongting Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhubin Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impacts of environmental change and anthropogenic activities on the historical and current total suspended matter (TSM pattern in Dongting Lake, China, is a large challenge. We addressed this challenge by using more than three decades of Landsat data. Based on in situ measurements, we developed an algorithm based on the near-infrared (NIR band to estimate TSM in Dongting Lake. The algorithm was applied to Landsat images to derive TSM distribution maps from 1978 to 2013 in the wet season, revealing significant inter-annual and spatial variability. The relationship of TSM to water level, precipitation, and wind speed was analyzed, and we found that: (1 sand mining areas usually coincide with regions that have high TSM levels in Dongting Lake; (2 water level and seven-day precipitation were both important to TSM variation, but no significant relationship was found between TSM and wind speed or other meteorological data; (3 the increased level of sand mining in response to rapid economic growth has deeply influenced the TSM pattern since 2000 due to the resuspension of sediment; and (4 TSM variation might be associated with policy changes regarding the management of sand mining; it might also be affected by lower water levels caused by the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam since 2000.

  6. Pan-Arctic aerosol number size distributions: seasonality and transport patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Eyal; Krejci, Radovan; Tunved, Peter; Leaitch, Richard; Nguyen, Quynh T.; Massling, Andreas; Skov, Henrik; Barrie, Leonard

    2017-07-01

    important on a regional scale and it is most active in summer. Cloud processing is an additional factor that enhances the Nacc annual cycle.There are some consistent differences between the sites that are beyond the year-to-year variability. They are the result of differences in the proximity to the aerosol source regions and to the Arctic Ocean sea-ice edge, as well as in the exposure to free-tropospheric air and in precipitation patterns - to mention a few. Hence, for most purposes, aerosol observations from a single Arctic site cannot represent the entire Arctic region. Therefore, the results presented here are a powerful observational benchmark for evaluation of detailed climate and air chemistry modelling studies of aerosols throughout the vast Arctic region.

  7. Injury Patterns among Elite Football Players: A Media-based Analysis over 6 Seasons with Emphasis on Playing Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventer, L; Eek, F; Hofstetter, S; Lames, M

    2016-10-01

    The study objective was to describe the types, localizations and severity of injuries among first division Bundesliga football players, and to study the effect of playing position on match and training injury incidence and severity, based on information from the public media. Exposure and injuries data from 1 448 players over 6 consecutive seasons were collected from a media-based register. In total, 3 358 injuries were documented. The incidence rate for match and training injuries was 11.5 per 1 000 match-hours (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9-12.2), and 61.4 per 100 player-seasons (95% CI: 58.8-64.1), respectively. Strains (30.3%) and sprains (16.7%) were the major injury types, with the latter causing significantly longer lay-off times than the former. Significant differences between the playing positions were found regarding injury incidence and injury burden (lay-off time per incidence-rate), with wing-defenders sustaining significantly lower incidence-rates of groin injuries compared to forwards (rate ratio: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.17-0.96). Wing-midfielders had the highest incidence-rate and injury burden from match injuries, whereas central-defenders sustained the highest incidence-rate and injury burden from training injuries. There were also significant differences in match availability due to an injury across the playing positions, with midfielders sustaining the highest unavailability rates from a match and training injury. Injury-risk and patterns seem to vary substantially between different playing positions. Identifying positional differences in injury-risk may be of major importance to medical practitioners when considering preventive measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Spatio-temporal patterns in vegetation start of season across the island of Ireland using the MERIS Global Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian; Dwyer, Edward; Cawkwell, Fiona; Eklundh, Lars

    2012-03-01

    Spring phenophases such as the beginning of leaf unfolding, measured in the Irish gardens of the International Phenological Garden (IPG) network, indicate an earlier spring occurrence hence a longer growing season. However, these measurements are limited to selected species of trees at a few point locations in the southern half of the country. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology, based on satellite remote sensing, to measure the vegetation start of season (SOS) across the whole island of Ireland on an annual basis, complementary to existing ground-based methods. The SOS metric was extracted for each year in a 7-year time series of 10-day composited, 1.2 km reduced resolution MERIS Global Vegetation Index (MGVI) data from 2003 to 2009, based on curve fitting, using the time series analysis software, TIMESAT. Spatio-temporal variability in the SOS was detected across the island on an annual basis and highlighted in a series of anomaly images showing variation from the 7-year mean SOS. The 2006 SOS was late across the island while there were strong geographical gradients to the SOS anomalies in 2009 when it occurred later in the south and earlier in the north. There was a mix of early and late anomaly values throughout the country in the other years. Qualitatively, the spatial patterns in the timing of the SOS were related to the distribution of landcover types as indicated by the CORINE Land Cover map (CLC). Three statistically separable groups of CLC classes were derived from differences in the SOS, namely agricultural and forest land cover types, peat bogs, and natural and semi-natural vegetation types. These groups demonstrated that vegetation in cultivated areas like pastures has a significantly earlier SOS than in areas of unmanaged vegetation such as peat bogs. An initial climate analysis indicated that an anomalously cold winter and spring in 2005/2006 delayed the 2006 SOS countrywide; while a cold winter followed by a mild spring in 2009 caused

  9. Pan-Arctic aerosol number size distributions: seasonality and transport patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Freud

    2017-07-01

    by precipitation is shown to be important on a regional scale and it is most active in summer. Cloud processing is an additional factor that enhances the Nacc annual cycle.There are some consistent differences between the sites that are beyond the year-to-year variability. They are the result of differences in the proximity to the aerosol source regions and to the Arctic Ocean sea-ice edge, as well as in the exposure to free-tropospheric air and in precipitation patterns – to mention a few. Hence, for most purposes, aerosol observations from a single Arctic site cannot represent the entire Arctic region. Therefore, the results presented here are a powerful observational benchmark for evaluation of detailed climate and air chemistry modelling studies of aerosols throughout the vast Arctic region.

  10. Are seasonal correction factors useful in assessing the health risk from domestic radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Crockett, R.G.M.; Phillips, P.S.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Gillmore, G.K. [Bradford Univ., School of Archaeological, Geographical and Environmental Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Following an intensive survey of domestic radon levels in the UK, the former National Radiological Protection Board (N.R.P.B.), now the Radiation Protection Division of the Health Protection Agency (H.P.A.-R.P.D.) established a measurement protocol and promulgated a set of Seasonal Correction Factors (S.C.F.) applicable to the United Kingdom as a whole. Radon levels are assumed to exhibit systematic repeatable annual variation, generally higher in winter than in summer, and the S.C.F. comprise numerical multipliers which convert a one-month oree-month radon measurement, commencing in any month of the year, to an effective annual mean radon concentration. In a recent project to assess the utility of short-term exposures in quantifying domestic radon levels, radon variability in a set of 34 houses on common radon-rich geology was found to depart significantly from that predicted by the H.P.A.-R.P.D. seasonal correction factors, with year-end discontinuities at both 1-month and 3- month measurement resolutions. Following this study, monitoring with electrets was continued in four properties, with weekly radon concentration data now available for a total duration of three years. Analysis of this data has permitted the derivation of reliable local seasonal correction factors. Overall, these are significantly lower than those recommended by H.P.A.-R.P.D., but are comparable with other results from the UK and from abroad, particularly those that recognise geological diversity and are consequently prepared on a regional rather than a national basis. The discussion calls into question the validity of using nationally aggregated factors, especially for shorter exposures. (authors)

  11. Does an In-Season Only Neuromuscular Training Protocol Reduce Deficits Quantified by the Tuck Jump Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Madelyn F.; Brent, Jensen L.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female athletes are 4–6 times more likely to suffer an ACL injury than males in comparable sports. A link between landing biomechanics and ACL injury has led to the development of injury prevention focused training protocols. It is often difficult to measure the protocols’ efficacy of different protocols on reduction of ACL injury-related factors. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to test the effects of in-season neuromuscular training on a field-based evaluation used to help identify athletes at risk for ACL injuries. The hypothesis was that the ACL injury prevention training program included with an in-season soccer program would demonstrate increased improvement in the Tuck Jump Assessment (TJA) scores at post-season follow-up testing relative to standard in-season soccer training. METHODS Forty-nine female soccer players were tested with TJA before and after participation in either in-season injury prevention training (IN) or standard in-season soccer training (CTRL). Participants were filmed performing the TJA with digital video cameras and scored by two separate raters, each viewing randomized videos. The groups received neuromuscular training synthesized from previous protocols demonstrated to decrease ACL injury. A mixed design (2X2; group by time) repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the interaction and main effects of group (ACL intervention training in-season vs. standard soccer in-season training) and time (pre vs. post-season) on dynamic TJA scores. RESULTS There was a significant main effect of time on TJA score (p=0.04) for athletes measured at pre- and post-season. The IN group reduced measured landing and jumping deficits from 5.4 ± 1.6 to 4.9 ± 1.0 points following training. CTRL showed a 14% reduction in TJA deficit points following the soccer season. CONCLUSIONS The tested hypothesis that the in-season ACL intervention training can be utilized to reduce measured TJA deficits above and beyond a standard in-season soccer

  12. Behavioural activity of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus under semi-natural rearing systems: establishing a seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Díez Valle

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The activity of 2 populations of wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, L. 1758, consisting of 14 adults (>9 mo of age each (4 males and 10 females, was analysed over 2 consecutive years. Rabbits were captured in the wild and kept in 2 separate enclosures of 0.5 ha, with each enclosure divided into 2 zones: a smaller area where warrens were located (breeding area and a larger area where food and water were provided (feeding area. Seven rabbits in each enclosure were individually tagged with a microchip (2 males and 5 females and, after installing 2 detection devices, it was possible to identify which of the 2 areas they were located in and record the length of time spent in each. To regulate the size of the breeding population, young rabbits produced in the enclosures were captured and removed regularly. Considering the number of movements between areas and the time spent in the feeding area, a circadian activity pattern was found, reporting 2 maximum activity peaks coinciding with twilight (18.35% of the total movements, 6-8 a.m. and daybreak (22.95%, 7-10 p.m. while activity was dramatically decreased during the midday hours (1.86%, 10 a.m.-4 p.m.. Rabbits displayed a seasonal pattern throughout the year, with maximum activity levels during winter (45.76% of the total movements, January-March and spring (42.91%, April-June, which could be related to higher reproductive activity at this time of the year as a higher breeding output was reported in June and September. The levels of activity exhibited by males (13.44% daily activity rate were significantly higher than those displayed by females (9.80%. No significant differences were found regarding time spent on the feeding area in relation to season or gender. The average duration of each foray to the feeding area was higher during the summer, higher for females than males and higher during the middle of the night than the rest of the day.

  13. Seasonal assessment, treatment and removal of heavy metal concentrations in a tropical drinking water reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Moshood Keke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are present in low concentrations in reservoirs, but seasonal anthropogenic activities usually elevate the concentrations to a level that could become a health hazard. The dry season concentrations of cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were assessed from three sites for 12 weeks in Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria. Triplicate surface water samples were collected and analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The trend in the level of concentrations in the three sites is site C > B > A, while the trend in the levels of the concentrations in the reservoir is Ni > Fe > Zn > Pb > Cd > Cu > Hg. Ni, Cd, Pb and Hg were found to be higher than the WHO guidelines for the metals in drinking water. The high concentration of these metals was from anthropogenic watershed run-off of industrial effluents, domestic sewages and agricultural materials into the reservoir coming from several human activities such as washing, bathing, fish smoking, especially in site C. The health effects of high concentration of these metals in the reservoir were highlighted. Methods for the treatment and removal of the heavy metals from the reservoir during water purification such as active carbon adsorption, coagulation-flocculation, oxidation-filtration, softening treatment and reverse osmosis process were highlighted. Other methods that could be used include phytoremediation, rhizofiltration, bisorption and bioremediation. Watershed best management practices (BMP remains the best solution to reduce the intrusion of the heavy metals from the watershed into the reservoir.

  14. Seasonal patterns of biomass, growth and reproduction in Dictyota cervicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M; Bruggemann, JH; Breeman, AM

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in thallus length, biomass, reproduction, total biomass m(-2) and size structure were monitored in populations of Dictyota cervicomis and Stoechospermum polypodioides on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea. These tropical reef flats are exposed to extreme temperatures of

  15. Seasonal patterns of biomass, growth and reproduction in Dictyota cervicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides (Dictyotales, Phaeophyta) on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea (Eritrea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateweberhan, M.; Bruggemann, J.H.; Breeman, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal patterns in thallus length, biomass, reproduction, total biomass m-2 and size structure were monitored in populations of Dictyota cervicornis and Stoechospermum polypodioides on a shallow reef flat in the southern Red Sea. These tropical reef flats are exposed to extreme temperatures of

  16. Seasonal spatial patterns of projected anthropogenic warming in complex terrain: a modeling study of the western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, David E.; Li, Sihan; Mote, Philip W.; Shell, Karen M.; Massey, Neil; Sparrow, Sarah N.; Wallom, David C. H.; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-04-01

    Changes in near surface air temperature (Δ T) in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing are expected to show spatial heterogeneity because energy and moisture fluxes are modulated by features of the landscape that are also heterogeneous at these spatial scales. Detecting statistically meaningful heterogeneity requires a combination of high spatial resolution and a large number of simulations. To investigate spatial variability of projected Δ T, we generated regional, high-resolution (25-km horizontal), large ensemble (100 members per year), climate simulations of western United States (US) for the periods 1985-2014 and 2030-2059, the latter with atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5. Using the large ensemble, 95 % confidence interval sizes for grid-cell-scale temperature responses were on the order of 0.1 °C, compared to 1 °C from a single ensemble member only. In both winter and spring, the snow-albedo feedback statistically explains roughly half of the spatial variability in Δ T. Simulated decreases in albedo exceed 0.1 in places, with rates of change in T per 0.1 decrease in albedo ranging from 0.3 to 1.4 °C. In summer, Δ T pattern in the northwest US is correlated with the pattern of decreasing precipitation. In all seasons, changing lapse rates in the low-to-middle troposphere may account for up to 0.2 °C differences in warming across the western US. Near the coast, a major control of spatial variation is the differential warming between sea and land.

  17. Pattern of diseases among visitors to Mina health centers during the Hajj season, 1429 H (2008 G).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzahrani, Abdullah G; Choudhry, Abdul Jamil; Al Mazroa, Mohammad A; Turkistani, Abdul Hafiz M; Nouman, Ghassan S; Memish, Ziad A

    2012-03-01

    While performing the Hajj, hajjis face different risks related to the environment, their behaviors and their health conditions that can result in a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of diseases among pilgrims seeking medical services in Mina primary health care centers (PHCCs) during the Hajj season in 1429 (2008). This is a descriptive study based on the medical records of a random sample of 4136 patients who attended 13 randomly selected Mina PHCCs from 8 to 12 Dhu-Alhijja, 1429 H (6-10 December 2008). The majority of the patients were men (70.7%), and most of the patients were between 45 and 64 years of age (42.8%). One-fifth (20.2%) of the patients suffered from multiple diseases. Respiratory diseases were the most common (60.8%), followed by musculoskeletal (17.6%), skin (15.0%) and gastrointestinal (13.1%) diseases. Diabetes, asthma and hypertension each constituted less than 3% of the total diseases. Respiratory diseases were the most common independent of nationality or the day of visit, while the frequency of the other diseases varied according to nationality and the day of visit. The most frequently prescribed drugs were analgesics, antipyretics, antibiotics and cough syrups. This study describes the pattern of diseases among pilgrims attending Mina PHCCs, which may aid in providing the best possible health care services to pilgrims. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Statistical Pattern-Based Assessment of Structural Health Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In structural health monitoring (SHM, various sensors are installed at critical locations of a structure. The signals from sensors are either continuously or periodically analyzed to determine the state and performance of the structure. An objective comparison of the sensor data at different time ranges is essential for assessing the structural condition or excessive load experienced by the structure which leads to potential damage in the structure. The objectives of the current study are to establish a relationship between the data from various sensors to estimate the reliability of the data and potential damage using the statistical pattern matching techniques. In order to achieve these goals, new methodologies based on statistical pattern recognition techniques have been developed. The proposed methodologies have been developed and validated using sensor data obtained from an instrumented bridge and road test data from heavy vehicles. The application of statistical pattern matching techniques are relatively new in SHM data interpretation and current research demonstrates that it has high potential in assessing structural conditions, especially when the data are noisy and susceptible to environmental disturbances.

  19. [Characteristics and adaptation of seasonal drought in southern China under the background of climate change. V. Seasonal drought characteristics division and assessment in southern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Hua; Sui, Yue; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Shu-Wei; Li, Mao-Song

    2013-10-01

    Zoning seasonal drought based on the study of drought characteristics can provide theoretical basis for formulating drought mitigation plans and improving disaster reduction technologies in different arid zones under global climate change. Based on the National standard of meteorological drought indices and agricultural drought indices and the 1959-2008 meteorological data from 268 meteorological stations in southern China, this paper analyzed the climatic background and distribution characteristics of seasonal drought in southern China, and made a three-level division of seasonal drought in this region by the methods of combining comprehensive factors and main factors, stepwise screening indices, comprehensive disaster analysis, and clustering analysis. The first-level division was with the annual aridity index and seasonal aridity index as the main indices and with the precipitation during entire year and main crop growing season as the auxiliary indices, dividing the southern China into four primary zones, including semi-arid zone, sub-humid zone, humid zone, and super-humid zone. On this basis, the four primary zones were subdivided into nine second-level zones, including one semi-arid area-temperate-cold semi-arid hilly area in Sichuan-Yunnan Plateau, three sub-humid areas of warm sub-humid area in the north of the Yangtze River, warm-tropical sub-humid area in South China, and temperate-cold sub-humid plateau area in Southwest China, three humid areas of temperate-tropical humid area in the Yangtze River Basin, warm-tropical humid area in South China, and warm humid hilly area in Southwest China, and two super-humid areas of warm-tropical super-humid area in South China and temperate-cold super-humid hilly area in the south of the Yangtze River and Southwest China. According to the frequency and intensity of multiple drought indices, the second-level zones were further divided into 29 third-level zones. The distribution of each seasonal drought zone was

  20. Assessing senescence patterns in populations of large mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaillard, J.-M.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical models such as those of Gompertz and Weibull are commonly used to study senescence in survival for humans and laboratory or captive animals. For wild populations of vertebrates, senescence in survival has more commonly been assessed by fitting simple linear or quadratic relationships between survival and age. By using appropriate constraints on survival parameters in Capture-Mark-Recapture (CMR models, we propose a first analysis of the suitability of the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models for describing aging-related mortality in free-ranging populations of ungulates. We first show how to handle the Gompertz and the two-parameter Weibull models in the context of CMR analyses. Then we perform a comparative analysis of senescence patterns in both sexes of two ungulate species highly contrasted according to the intensity of sexual selection. Our analyses provide support to the Gompertz model for describing senescence patterns in ungulates. Evolutionary implications of our results are discussed

  1. ECOSYSTEM HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF MINING CITIES BASED ON LANDSCAPE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem health assessment (EHA is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005–2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.

  2. Ecosystem Health Assessment of Mining Cities Based on Landscape Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Liu, Y.; Lin, M.; Fang, F.; Xiao, R.

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystem health assessment (EHA) is one of the most important aspects in ecosystem management. Nowadays, ecological environment of mining cities is facing various problems. In this study, through ecosystem health theory and remote sensing images in 2005, 2009 and 2013, landscape pattern analysis and Vigor-Organization-Resilience (VOR) model were applied to set up an evaluation index system of ecosystem health of mining city to assess the healthy level of ecosystem in Panji District Huainan city. Results showed a temporal stable but high spatial heterogeneity landscape pattern during 2005-2013. According to the regional ecosystem health index, it experienced a rapid decline after a slight increase, and finally it maintained at an ordinary level. Among these areas, a significant distinction was presented in different towns. It indicates that the ecosystem health of Tianjijiedao town, the regional administrative centre, descended rapidly during the study period, and turned into the worst level in the study area. While the Hetuan Town, located in the northwestern suburb area of Panji District, stayed on a relatively better level than other towns. The impacts of coal mining collapse area, land reclamation on the landscape pattern and ecosystem health status of mining cities were also discussed. As a result of underground coal mining, land subsidence has become an inevitable problem in the study area. In addition, the coal mining subsidence area has brought about the destruction of the farmland, construction land and water bodies, which causing the change of the regional landscape pattern and making the evaluation of ecosystem health in mining area more difficult. Therefore, this study provided an ecosystem health approach for relevant departments to make scientific decisions.

  3. International services trade patterns and specialization potential: a comparative Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobirca Ana

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to comparatively examine the international competitiveness of services trade, by determining its pattern and structure of specialization for Romania and Bulgaria, on the EU-25 services market. In other words, the research attempts to identify Romania's and Bulgaria’s ability to overcome difficulties and challenges that might arise from the hard competition within the enlarged EU, in the field of foreign trade in services. To this end, the paper attempts to suggest a multilevel framework for assessing the international competitiveness of Romania’s and Bulgaria’s services trade.

  4. Assessment of errors and uncertainty patterns in GIA modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Spada, G.

    During the last decade many efforts have been devoted to the assessment of global sea level rise and to the determination of the mass balance of continental ice sheets. In this context, the important role of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) has been clearly recognized. Yet, in many cases only one......, such as time-evolving shorelines and paleo-coastlines. In this study we quantify these uncertainties and their propagation in GIA response using a Monte Carlo approach to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of GIA errors. A direct application is the error estimates in ice mass balance in Antarctica and Greenland...

  5. Predictive influence of sea surface temperature on teleconnection patterns in North Atlantic. A case study on winter seasonal forecast in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, I.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Ramos, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal forecast in medium latitudes is a research field not too much developed, but it is likely to improve considerable as the dynamics of atmosphere and ocean as a coupled system are better understood. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between the global sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and the most important teleconnection patterns which affect the North Atlantic area: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), East Atlantic pattern (EA), Scandinavia pattern (SCA), East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern (EA/WR) and Europe Polar/Eurasia pattern (POL). The relationship between SSTA and those patterns will be explored in autumn and winter, the seasons with the highest quantity of rainfall in the area under study. These teleconnection patterns have a relationship with climate characteristics in Europe. Therefore, any forecast skill over teleconnection patterns will mean a forecast skill on climate. The SST data was provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA. The teleconnection indices were taken from the Climate Prediction Center of the NOAA between 1950 and 2006. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1951-2006 for two locations at NW Iberian Peninsula were obtained from the database of MeteoGalicia, the forecast center of the Regional Government of Galicia. The methodology used in this work is the same one used in Phillips and McGregor, 2002 and Lorenzo el al., 2009. Results show that SST anomalies in certain areas of the world ocean have a great potential to improve seasonal climate forecast in the mid-latitudes. A potential predictability for NAO and EA patterns in winter and for SCA and EA patterns in autumn was obtained. The value of those kind of correlations have been studied for a particular region, located at the NW part of the Iberian Peninsula, highlighting the possibility of perform a climate forecast for autumn and winter. This work could serve like a reference for many other regions in Europe, whose climate is

  6. Seasonal patterns in plankton communities in a pluriannual time series at a coastal Mediterranean site (Gulf of Naples: an attempt to discern recurrences and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ribera d'Alcalà

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The annual cycle of plankton was studied over 14 years from 1984 to 2000 at a coastal station in the Gulf of Naples, with the aim of assessing seasonal patterns and interannual trends. Phytoplankton biomass started increasing over the water column in February-early March, and generally achieved peak values in the upper layers in late spring. Another peak was often recorded in autumn. Diatoms and phytoflagellates dominated for the largest part of the year. Ciliates showed their main peaks in phase with phytoplankton and were mainly represented by small (< 30 mm naked choreotrichs. Mesozooplankton increased in March-April, reaching maximum concentrations in summer. Copepods were always the most abundant group, followed by cladocerans in summer. At the interannual scale, a high variability and a decreasing trend were recorded over the sampling period for autotrophic biomass. Mesozooplankton biomass showed a less marked interannual variability. From 1995 onwards, phytoplankton populations increased in cell number but decreased in cell size, with intense blooms of small diatoms and undetermined coccoid species frequently observed in recent years. In spite of those interannual variations, the different phases of the annual cycle and the occurrence of several plankton species were remarkably regular.

  7. Assessing disaster preparedness among latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers in eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sloane; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Britt, Amber Foreman

    2012-08-30

    Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW) are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs' and their families. Qualitative (N = 21) focus groups (3) and quantitative (N = 57) survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.). Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population's native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as "charlas" (talks) and brochures.

  8. Assessment of cereal stand structure and its changes during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Křen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical evolution of approaches used for the assessment of the cereal stand structure development is presented. Weaknesses and strengths of these approaches are discussed that are based on: - dividing of cereal yield into yield components and growth analysis, - modular concept of plant growth, - use of laws of plant population biology in order to explain autoregulation and compensation in stands.The presented methods are assessed with respect to labour intensity and possibilities of utilization of obtained information. Other possibilities of diagnostics of the cereal stand state and structure using a current level of knowledge and new technologies enabling to determine spectral characteristics of the stand by areal sensing are outlined. Based on the character of processes influencing the stand structure, the growing season of cereals was divided into the three parts:1. vegetative, including the period from emergence till the end of tillering (BBCH 10-29,2. generative, including the period of stem elongation and heading (BBCH 30-59,3. reproductive, including anthesis, grain formation and maturation (BBCH 60-99.To optimize the stand structure, data necessary for decision making in cereal crop management practices were proposed for the above listed development stages.

  9. Assessment of errors and uncertainty patterns in GIA modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Spada, G.

    During the last decade many efforts have been devoted to the assessment of global sea level rise and to the determination of the mass balance of continental ice sheets. In this context, the important role of glacial-isostatic adjustment (GIA) has been clearly recognized. Yet, in many cases only one......, such as time-evolving shorelines and paleo-coastlines. In this study we quantify these uncertainties and their propagation in GIA response using a Monte Carlo approach to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of GIA errors. A direct application is the error estimates in ice mass balance in Antarctica and Greenland...... expansion of the oceans and other sources of water during the deglaciation different from the one coming from ice-sheets account for further sea level rise since LGM, and the water stored in atmosphere, groundwater and lakes accounts for negative contribution to it. In this way we aim to assess which GIA...

  10. Cross-seasonal patterns of avian influenza virus in breeding and wintering migratory birds: a flyway perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nichola J.; Takekawa, John Y.; Cardona, Carol J.; Meixell, Brandt W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Runstadler, Jonathan A.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of avian influenza viruses (AIV) in nature is intrinsically linked with the movements of wild birds. Wild birds are the reservoirs for the virus and their migration may facilitate the circulation of AIV between breeding and wintering areas. This cycle of dispersal has become widely accepted; however, there are few AIV studies that present cross-seasonal information. A flyway perspective is critical for understanding how wild birds contribute to the persistence of AIV over large spatial and temporal scales, with implications for how to focus surveillance efforts and identify risks to public health. This study characterized spatio-temporal infection patterns in 10,389 waterfowl at two important locations within the Pacific Flyway--breeding sites in Interior Alaska and wintering sites in California's Central Valley during 2007-2009. Among the dabbling ducks sampled, the northern shoveler (Anas clypeata) had the highest prevalence of AIV at both breeding (32.2%) and wintering (5.2%) locations. This is in contrast to surveillance studies conducted in other flyways that have identified the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and northern pintail (Anas acuta) as hosts with the highest prevalence. A higher diversity of AIV subtypes was apparent at wintering (n=42) compared with breeding sites (n=17), with evidence of mixed infections at both locations. Our study suggests that wintering sites may act as an important mixing bowl for transmission among waterfowl in a flyway, creating opportunities for the reassortment of the virus. Our findings shed light on how the dynamics of AIV infection of wild bird populations can vary between the two ends of a migratory flyway.

  11. Seasonal patterns and control of gas exchange in local populations of the Mediterranean evergreen shrub Pistacia lentiscus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexas, Jaume; Gulías, Javier; Jonasson, Sven; Medrano, Hipólito; Mus, Mauricio

    2001-02-01

    We examined temporal and spatial variations in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, intrinsic water-use efficiency, sub-stomatal CO 2 concentration, apparent carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll fluorescence in the Mediterranean shrub Pistacia lentiscus. The study was done at the extremes of a precipitation and temperature gradient on the coast and in the mountains of Mallorca, Spain, with gas exchange measurements at different times of the year, and combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in a controlled experiment. The objectives were to relate annual variation in photosynthetic functions to environmentally induced constraints and to quantify to which extent local differences in climate can affect photosynthesis in shrub populations. In the mountain population, net photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn, when water was abundant and temperature was moderately high. It was reduced in winter paralleling reduced carboxylation efficiency. Photosynthesis was at the annual minimum in summer at both sites due to drought-induced stomata closure combined with impaired function of the Calvin cycle. The coastal population maintained high photosynthesis in mid winter but had a pronounced decline in spring, and the summer decline lasted longer than in the mountains. Integrated over the seasons, net photosynthesis was about 25 % lower in the coastal than in the mountain population, in spite of maintained high mid winter photosynthesis. Hence, the reduction at the coast was mainly due to early onset of drought in spring and a long period of summer drought, showing that local climatic differences can cause pronounced spatial differences in plant carbon balance. As a consequence, similar differences probably also occur as a function of year-to-year variability of precipitation patterns and temperatures.

  12. Segregation or aggregation? Sex-specific patterns in the seasonal occurrence of white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, B; Bradford, R

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal patterns of occurrence of male and female white sharks Carcharodon carcharias at the Neptune Islands in South Australia were reviewed. Analyses of a 14 year data series indicate that females seasonally aggregate in late autumn and winter coinciding with the maximum in-water availability of lactating female long-nose fur seals and seal pups. During this period, observed male:female sex ratios were similar; whereas during late spring and summer, males continued to visit, but females were rarely recorded. There was no evidence for segregation by sex or size at the Neptunes, but the highly focused seasonal pattern of occurrence of females compared with the year-round records of males suggests that there are likely to be differences between the sexes in overall distribution and movement patterns across southern Australia. It is suggested that foraging strategies and prey selection differ between sexes in C. carcharias across the life-history stages represented and that sex-specific foraging strategies may play an important role in structuring movement patterns and the sex ratios observed at such aggregation sites. Differences between sexes in distribution, movement patterns and foraging strategies are likely to have implications for modelling the consequences of fisheries by-catch between regions or jurisdictions and other spatially or temporally discrete anthropogenic effects on C. carcharias populations. Such differences urge for caution when estimating the size of C. carcharias populations based on observations at pinniped colonies due to the likelihood of sex-specific differences in movements and patterns of residency. These differences also suggest a need to account for sex-specific movement patterns and distribution in population and movement models as well as under conservation actions. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Vertical jump assessment on volleyball: a follow-up of three seasons of a high-level volleyball team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borràs, Xantal; Balius, Xavier; Drobnic, Franchek; Galilea, Piero

    2011-06-01

    This is a longitudinal descriptive study whose purpose is to assess the physical state of male volleyball players competing at the international level, comparing their jump heights during 3 different seasons. National team sample relies upon trainer decisions, and it was different every season. There were 23, 15, and 13 players in the first, second, and third years, respectively. Subjects underwent a vertical test protocol consisting of rocket jump, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ with arms (CMJa), and spike jump (DJb) at the preparation period of the national team season. In 2007, an extra evaluation was performed during the competitive period. A contact mat was used for the assessment. An increase of jump height was observed over the years, with SJ and DJb increasing significantly (FSJ = 5.4; FDJb = 4.7; p jumps.

  14. Seasonality of rotavirus in South Asia: a meta-analysis approach assessing associations with temperature, precipitation, and vegetation index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsna S Jagai

    Full Text Available Rotavirus infection causes a significant proportion of diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide leading to dehydration, hospitalization, and in some cases death. Rotavirus infection represents a significant burden of disease in developing countries, such as those in South Asia.We conducted a meta-analysis to examine how patterns of rotavirus infection relate to temperature and precipitation in South Asia. Monthly rotavirus data were abstracted from 39 published epidemiological studies and related to monthly aggregated ambient temperature and cumulative precipitation for each study location using linear mixed-effects models. We also considered associations with vegetation index, gathered from remote sensing data. Finally, we assessed whether the relationship varied in tropical climates and humid mid-latitude climates.Overall, as well as in tropical and humid mid-latitude climates, low temperature and precipitation levels are significant predictors of an increased rate of rotaviral diarrhea. A 1°C decrease in monthly ambient temperature and a decrease of 10 mm in precipitation are associated with 1.3% and 0.3% increase above the annual level in rotavirus infections, respectively. When assessing lagged relationships, temperature and precipitation in the previous month remained significant predictors and the association with temperature was stronger in the tropical climate. The same association was seen for vegetation index; a seasonal decline of 0.1 units results in a 3.8% increase in rate of rotavirus.In South Asia the highest rate of rotavirus was seen in the colder, drier months. Meteorological characteristics can be used to better focus and target public health prevention programs.

  15. Belowground carbon allocation by trees drives seasonal patterns of extracellular enzyme activities by altering microbial community composition in a beech forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Koranda, Marianne; Kitzler, Barbara; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Schnecker, Jörg; Schweiger, Peter; Rasche, Frank; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sessitsch, Angela; Richter, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Plant seasonal cycles alter carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) availability for soil microbes, which may affect microbial community composition and thus feed back on microbial decomposition of soil organic material and plant N availability. The temporal dynamics of these plant–soil interactions are, however, unclear. Here, we experimentally manipulated the C and N availability in a beech forest through N fertilization or tree girdling and conducted a detailed analysis of the seasonal pattern of microbial community composition and decomposition processes over 2 yr. We found a strong relationship between microbial community composition and enzyme activities over the seasonal course. Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities were highest during late summer, whereas cellulase and protease peaked in late autumn. Girdling, and thus loss of mycorrhiza, resulted in an increase in soil organic matter-degrading enzymes and a decrease in cellulase and protease activity. Temporal changes in enzyme activities suggest a switch of the main substrate for decomposition between summer (soil organic matter) and autumn (plant litter). Our results indicate that ectomycorrhizal fungi are possibly involved in autumn cellulase and protease activity. Our study shows that, through belowground C allocation, trees significantly alter soil microbial communities, which may affect seasonal patterns of decomposition processes. PMID:20553392

  16. Responses of landscape pattern of China's two largest freshwater lakes to early dry season after the impoundment of Three-Gorges Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haipeng; Zeng, Guangming; Liang, Jie; Chen, Jin; Xu, Jijun; Dai, Juan; Sang, Lianhai; Li, Xiaodong; Ye, Shujing

    2017-04-01

    The effects of hydrologic cycle change (caused by human activity and global climate change) on ecosystems attract the increasing attention around the world. As a result of impounding of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), climate change and sand mining, the dry season of Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake (China's two largest freshwater lakes) came early after the TGD impoundment. It was the primary cause of the increasing need for sluice/dam construction to store water in the Lakes and attracted increasing attention. In this paper, we compared the landscape pattern between three hydrologic years with early dry season (EY) and three normal hydrologic years (NY) of each lake by remote sensing technology, to reveal the effect of early dry season on landscape pattern. The results showed that early dry season caused expanding of Phalaris to mudflat zone in Poyang Lake, while caused expanding of Carex to Phalaris zone and expanding of Phalaris to mudflat zone in Dongting Lake. In landscape level, there was no significant difference in landscape grain size, landscape grain shape, habitat connectivity and landscape diversity between EY and NY in the two lakes. While in habitat class level, there were significant changes in area of mudflat and Phalaris and grain size of mudflat in Poyang Lake, and in area of Carex, grain size of Phalaris and grain shape of Carex and Phalaris in Dongting Lake. These changes will impact migrating birds of East Asian and migratory fishes of Yangtze River.

  17. Assessment of GloSea4 seasonal forecasts for SADC and the global oceans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to demonstrate the skill of the UK Met Office Hadley Centre’s coupled global seasonal forecasting system, GloSea4, as a seasonal forecasting tool for the Southern African Development Community (SADC...

  18. Assessment of validation of health-economics decision models in intervention studies of seasonal influenza and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, P.T.; Frederix, G.W.; Al, M.J.; Feenstra, T.F.; Vemer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review recently published health-economic (HE) decision models to assess the reporting of validation efforts. An infectious disease (seasonal influenza, SI) and a chronic disease (breast cancer, BC) were used as examples, giving a preliminary insight in the reporting of

  19. Variation patterns in individual fish responses to chemical stress among estuaries, seasons and genders: the case of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) in the Bay of Biscay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Jean; Gauthier, Olivier; Quiniou, Louis; Devaux, Alain; Bony, Sylvie; Evrard, Estérine; Cachot, Jérôme; Chérel, Yan; Larcher, Thibaut; Riso, Ricardo; Pichereau, Vianney; Devier, Marie Hélène; Budzinski, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to describe and model variation patterns in individual fish responses to contaminants among estuaries, season and gender. Two hundred twenty-seven adult European flounders were collected in two seasons (winter and summer) in four estuaries along the Bay of Biscay (South West France), focusing on a pristine system (the Ster), vs. three estuaries displaying contrasted levels of contaminants (the Vilaine, Loire and Gironde). Twenty-three variables were measured by fish, considering the load of contaminants (liver metals, liver and muscle persistent organic pollutants, muscle polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons); the gene expression (Cyt C oxydase, ATPase, BHMT, Cyt P450 1A1, ferritin); the blood genotoxicity (Comet test); and liver histology (foci of cellular alteration-tumour, steatosis, inflammation, abnormal glycogen storage). Canonical redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to model these variables using gender, season and estuary of origin as explanatory variables. The results underlined the homogeneity of fish responses within the pristine site (Ster) and more important seasonal variability within the three contaminated systems. The complete model RDA was significant and explained 35 % of total variance. Estuary and season respectively explained 30 and 5 % of the total independent variation components, whilst gender was not a significant factor. The first axis of the RDA explains nearly 27 % of the total variance and mostly represents a gradient of contamination. The links between the load of contaminants, the expression of several genes and the biomarkers were analysed considering different levels of chemical stress and a possible multi-stress, particularly in the Vilaine estuary.

  20. Phenological patterns of Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is more affected by ENSO than seasonal factors and host plant availability in a Brazilian Savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovesan, Mônica; Specht, Alexandre; Carneiro, Eduardo; Paula-Moraes, Silvana Vieira; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2017-09-01

    The identification of factors responsible for the population dynamics is fundamental for pest management, since losses can reach 18% of annual production. Besides regular seasonal environmental factors and crop managements, additional supra-annual meteorological phenomena can also affect population dynamics, although its relevance has been rarely investigated. Among crop pests, Spodoptera stands out due to its worldwide distribution, high degree of polyphagy, thus causing damages in several crops in the world. Aiming to distinguish the relevance of different factors shaping population dynamics of Spodoptera in an ecosystem constituted of dry and rainy seasons, the current study used circular statistics to identify phenological patterns and test if its population fluctuation is driven by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect, seasonal meteorological parameters, and/or host plant availability. Samplings were done in an intercropping system, in the Brazilian Savanna, during the new moon cycles between July/2013 and June/2016. Species were recorded all year round, but demonstrated differently non-uniform distribution, being concentrated in different seasons of the year. Population fluctuations were mostly affected by the ENSO intensity, despite the contrasting seasonal meteorological variation or host plant availability in a 400-m radius. Studies involving the observation of supra-annual phenomena, although rare, reach similar conclusions in relation to Neotropical insect fauna. Therefore, it is paramount to have long-term sampling studies to obtain a more precise response of the pest populations towards the agroecosystem conditions.

  1. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  2. A spatial and seasonal assessment of river water chemistry across North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, J J; Dise, N B; Taylor, K G; Allott, T E H; Scholefield, P; Davies, H; Neal, C

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents information on the spatial and seasonal patterns of river water chemistry at approximately 800 sites in North West England based on data from the Environment Agency regional monitoring programme. Within a GIS framework, the linkages between average water chemistry (pH, sulphate, base cations, nutrients and metals) catchment characteristics (topography, land cover, soil hydrology, base flow index and geology), rainfall, deposition chemistry and geo-spatial information on discharge consents (point sources) are examined. Water quality maps reveal that there is a clear distinction between the uplands and lowlands. Upland waters are acidic and have low concentrations of base cations, explained by background geological sources and land cover. Localised high concentrations of metals occur in areas of the Cumbrian Fells which are subjected to mining effluent inputs. Nutrient concentrations are low in the uplands with the exception sites receiving effluent inputs from rural point sources. In the lowlands, both past and present human activities have a major impact on river water chemistry, especially in the urban and industrial heartlands of Greater Manchester, south Lancashire and Merseyside. Over 40% of the sites have average orthophosphate concentrations >0.1mg-Pl(-1). Results suggest that the dominant control on orthophosphate concentrations is point source contributions from sewage effluent inputs. Diffuse agricultural sources are also important, although this influence is masked by the impact of point sources. Average nitrate concentrations are linked to the coverage of arable land, although sewage effluent inputs have a significant effect on nitrate concentrations. Metal concentrations in the lowlands are linked to diffuse and point sources. The study demonstrates that point sources, as well as diffuse sources, need to be considered when targeting measures for the effective reduction in river nutrient concentrations. This issue is clearly important

  3. Seasonal Changes in Central England Temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric

    The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... of the seasonal cycle is also documented. The literature so far has concentrated on the measurement of this phenomenon by various methods, among which complex demodulation and wavelet decompositions are prominent. We offer new insight by considering a model that allows for seasonally varying deterministic...

  4. An accelerated step test to assess dancer pre-season aerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Shaw; Rakov, Sara

    2014-03-01

    As the technical performance demands of dance increase, professional companies and pre-professional schools are implementing pre-season screenings that require an efficient, cost effective way to measure dancer aerobic fitness. The aim of this study was to assess an accelerated 3-minute step test (112 beats·min(-1)) by comparing it to the well-studied YMCA step test (96 beats·min(-1)) and a benchmark standard, an incremental treadmill test, using heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2) as variables. Twenty-six professional and pre- professional dancers (age 20 ± 2.02 years) were fitted with a telemetric gas analysis system and HR monitor. They were tested in the following order: 96 step, 112 step, and treadmill test, with rest to return to baseline heart rate between each test. The step and treadmill tests were compared using Intra-class Correlation Coefficients [ICC (3, k)] calculated with analysis of variance (p dancers representing a diverse range of genres and training levels is needed.

  5. The weather roulette: assessing the economic value of seasonal wind speed predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Cortesi, Nicola; Torralba-Fernandez, Veronica; Soret, Albert; Gonzalez-Reviriego, Nube; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    Climate prediction is an emerging and highly innovative research area. For the wind energy sector, predicting the future variability of wind resources over the coming weeks or seasons is especially relevant to quantify operation and maintenance logistic costs or to inform energy trading decision with potential cost savings and/or economic benefits. Recent advances in climate predictions have already shown that probabilistic forecasting can improve the current prediction practices, which are based in the use of retrospective climatology and the assumption that what happened in the past is the best estimation of future conditions. Energy decision makers now have this new set of climate services but, are they willing to use them? Our aim is to properly explain the potential economic benefits of adopting probabilistic predictions, compared with the current practice, by using the weather roulette methodology (Hagedorn & Smith, 2009). This methodology is a diagnostic tool created to inform in a more intuitive and relevant way about the skill and usefulness of a forecast in the decision making process, by providing an economic and financial oriented assessment of the benefits of using a particular forecast system. We have selected a region relevant to the energy stakeholders where the predictions of the EUPORIAS climate service prototype for the energy sector (RESILIENCE) are skillful. In this region, we have applied the weather roulette to compare the overall prediction success of RESILIENCE's predictions and climatology illustrating it as an effective interest rate, an economic term that is easier to understand for energy stakeholders.

  6. Testing the WelFur assessment protocol for mink on-farm in three seasons of production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Steen Henrik; Hansen, Steffen W

    2011-01-01

    Welfare Quality® seems to develop into a standard for farm animal welfare assessment and European Fur Breeders’ Association initiated the “WelFur” project in 2009 in order to develop a welfare assessment protocol for mink and fox farms after the WQ standards. The assessment is based on four...... principles and 12 underlying criteria, to be measured at the farm. Based on validity, reliability and feasibility 22 measures have been selected for use in the three seasons of mink production: 1. Breeders during winter, 2. Dams with kits during spring, and 3. Juveniles during growth in the autumn, in order...... to cover the life cycle of the mink. The final welfare assessment is categorised as: ’Excellent’, ’Above average’, ’Acceptable’ or ’Not classified’ according to the welfare score for each of the four principles. The protocols for the three seasons are being tested in several countries and the Danish...

  7. Publication patterns in UK research assessment 1992-2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J.; Loach, T.; Szomszor, M.

    2016-07-01

    For 30 years, outputs published by UK researchers have been submitted for cyclical assessment by peer panels, creating a unique longitudinal dataset. This is the first analysis covering 921,254 submitted outputs and 36,244 case study references across 25 years, five assessment cycles and both academic impact and economic/societal impact. For submitted outputs, document types shift towards journal articles across time. The time-spread of outputs is skewed to the most recent publication years in early RAE cycles, a pattern not reported at the time but one that then changes synchronously for science and engineering but not for social science or humanities. The skew and later changes are cohesive across disciplines and institutions. For impact case study references, the time-spread of the earliest of the six references for each study is uniform for science and engineering, although the overall timespread for references is skewed. About 42% of case study references with DOIs can be identified as RAE/REF submitted outputs, at about the same rate in every publication year for 1996-2013. Implications for assessment are discussed. (Author)

  8. Seasonal Distribution, Biology, and Human Attraction Patterns of Culicine Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Forest Near Puerto Almendras, Iquitoes, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, James

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted, as part of a field-ecology study of arboviral activity in the Amazon Basin of Peru, to determine the taxonomy, frequency, seasonal, and vertical distributions of potential mosquito vectors...

  9. Assessing Disaster Preparedness among Latino Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Eastern North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Foreman Britt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters including hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, tornadoes, and fires often involve substantial physical and mental impacts on affected populations and thus are public health priorities. Limited research shows that vulnerable populations such as the low-income, socially isolated migrant and seasonal farmworkers (MSFW are particularly susceptible to the effects of natural disasters. This research project assessed the awareness, perceived risk, and practices regarding disaster preparedness and response resources and identified barriers to utilization of community and government services during or after a natural disaster among Latino MSFWs’ and their families. Qualitative (N = 21 focus groups (3 and quantitative (N = 57 survey methodology was implemented with Latino MSFWs temporarily residing in rural eastern North Carolina to assess perceived and actual risk for natural disasters. Hurricanes were a top concern among the sample population, many participants shared they lacked proper resources for an emergency (no emergency kit in the house, no evacuation plan, no home internet, a lack of knowledge of what should be included in an emergency kit, etc.. Transportation and language were found to be additional barriers. Emergency broadcasts in Spanish and text message alerts were identified by the population to be helpful for disaster alerts. FEMA, American Red Cross, local schools and the migrant clinic were trusted places for assistance and information. In summary, tailored materials, emergency alerts, text messages, and news coverage concerning disaster threats should be provided in the population’s native language and when feasible delivered in a culturally appropriate mechanism such as “charlas” (talks and brochures.

  10. Assessing Climate Change Impacts for DoD installations in the Southwest United States During the Warm Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-10

    FINAL REPORT Assessing Climate Change Impacts for DoD Installations in the Southwest United States During the Warm Season SERDP Project RC...DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2012 to March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessing climate change impacts for DoD installations in...select NARCCAP and UA-ATMO downscaled CMIP models. Figure 9: July-August precipitation during the period of historical climate versus climate change

  11. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizauskas, Carrie A; Turner, Wendy C; Pitts, Neville; Getz, Wayne M

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia) were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  12. Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay among stress, reproduction, and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Cizauskas

    Full Text Available Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha National Park (ENP, Namibia, and found strong seasonal effects. Infection intensities of all three GI macroparasites examined (strongyle helminths, Strongyloides helminths, and Eimeria coccidia were highest in the wet season, concurrent with the timing of anthrax outbreaks. Parasites also declined with increased acquired immune responses. We found hormonal evidence that both mares and ewes are overwhelmingly seasonal breeders in ENP, and that reproductive hormones are correlated with immunosuppression and higher susceptibility to GI parasite infections. Stress hormones largely peak in the dry season, particularly in zebra, when parasite infection intensities are lowest, and are most strongly correlated with host mid-gestation rather than with parasite infection intensity. Given the evidence that GI parasites can cause host pathology, immunomodulation, and immunosuppression, their persistence in ENP hosts without inducing chronic stress responses supports the hypothesis that hosts are tolerant of their parasites. Such tolerance would help to explain the ubiquity of these organisms in ENP herbivores, even in the face of their potential immunomodulatory trade-offs with anti-anthrax immunity.

  13. Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from humans in Northern Europe: seasonal pattern of infestation, attachment sites and duration of feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The common tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of the tick-borne encephalitis virus and of several species of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, which are the etiological agents of Lyme borreliosis. The risk to contract bites of I. ricinus is dependent on many factors including the behaviour of both ticks and people. The tick’s site of attachment on the human body and the duration of tick attachment may be of clinical importance. Data on I. ricinus ticks, which were found attached to the skin of people, were analysed regarding potentially stage-specific differences in location of attachment sites, duration of tick attachment (= feeding duration), seasonal and geographical distribution of tick infestation in relation to age and gender of the tick-infested hosts. Methods During 2008–2009, 1770 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands removed 2110 I. ricinus ticks. Participants provided information about the date of tick detection and location on their body of each attached tick. Ticks were identified to species and developmental stage. The feeding duration of each nymph and adult female tick was microscopically estimated based on the scutal and the coxal index. Results In 2008, participants were tick-bitten from mid-May to mid-October and in 2009 from early April to early November. The infestation pattern of the nymphs was bimodal whereas that of the adult female ticks was unimodal with a peak in late summer. Tick attachment site on the human body was associated with stage of the tick and gender of the human host. Site of attachment seemed to influence the duration of tick feeding. Overall, 63% of nymphs and adult female ticks were detected and removed more than 24 hours after attachment. Older persons, compared to younger ones, and men, compared to women, removed “their” ticks after a longer period of tick attachment. Conclusions The infestation behaviour of the different tick stages concerning where on the

  14. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Tao; Nachtigall, Paul E; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Jian-Chang; Duan, Guo-Qin; Cao, Han-Jiang; Wang, Ding

    2015-01-01

    A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis). Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  15. Passive Acoustic Monitoring the Diel, Lunar, Seasonal and Tidal Patterns in the Biosonar Activity of the Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphins (Sousa chinensis in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Tao Wang

    Full Text Available A growing demand for sustainable energy has led to an increase in construction of offshore windfarms. Guishan windmill farm will be constructed in the Pearl River Estuary, China, which sustains the world's largest known population of Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis. Dolphin conservation is an urgent issue in this region. By using passive acoustic monitoring, a baseline distribution of data on this species in the Pearl River Estuary during pre-construction period had been collected. Dolphin biosonar detection and its diel, lunar, seasonal and tidal patterns were examined using a Generalized Linear Model. Significant higher echolocation detections at night than during the day, in winter-spring than in summer-autumn, at high tide than at flood tide were recognized. Significant higher echolocation detections during the new moon were recognized at night time. The diel, lunar and seasonal patterns for the echolocation encounter duration also significantly varied. These patterns could be due to the spatial-temporal variability of dolphin prey and illumination conditions. The baseline information will be useful for driving further effective action on the conservation of this species and in facilitating later assessments of the effects of the offshore windfarm on the dolphins by comparing the baseline to post construction and post mitigation efforts.

  16. Using Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Data to Analyze the Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Dry Season Rice Production in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shew, A. M.; Ghosh, A.

    2017-10-01

    Remote sensing in the optical domain is widely used in agricultural monitoring; however, such initiatives pose a challenge for developing countries due to a lack of high quality in situ information. Our proposed methodology could help developing countries bridge this gap by demonstrating the potential to quantify patterns of dry season rice production in Bangladesh. To analyze approximately 90,000 km2 of cultivated land in Bangladesh at 30 m spatial resolution, we used two decades of remote sensing data from the Landsat archive and Google Earth Engine (GEE), a cloud-based geospatial data analysis platform built on Google infrastructure and capable of processing petabyte-scale remote sensing data. We reconstructed the seasonal patterns of vegetation indices (VIs) for each pixel using a harmonic time series (HTS) model, which minimizes the effects of missing observations and noise. Next, we combined the seasonality information of VIs with our knowledge of rice cultivation systems in Bangladesh to delineate rice areas in the dry season, which are predominantly hybrid and High Yielding Varieties (HYV). Based on historical Landsat imagery, the harmonic time series of vegetation indices (HTS-VIs) model estimated 4.605 million ha, 3.519 million ha, and 4.021 million ha of rice production for Bangladesh in 2005, 2010, and 2015 respectively. Fine spatial scale information on HYV rice over the last 20 years will greatly improve our understanding of double-cropped rice systems, current status of production, and potential for HYV rice adoption in Bangladesh during the dry season.

  17. USING MULTI-TEMPORAL REMOTE SENSING DATA TO ANALYZE THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF DRY SEASON RICE PRODUCTION IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shew

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing in the optical domain is widely used in agricultural monitoring; however, such initiatives pose a challenge for developing countries due to a lack of high quality in situ information. Our proposed methodology could help developing countries bridge this gap by demonstrating the potential to quantify patterns of dry season rice production in Bangladesh. To analyze approximately 90,000 km2 of cultivated land in Bangladesh at 30 m spatial resolution, we used two decades of remote sensing data from the Landsat archive and Google Earth Engine (GEE, a cloud-based geospatial data analysis platform built on Google infrastructure and capable of processing petabyte-scale remote sensing data. We reconstructed the seasonal patterns of vegetation indices (VIs for each pixel using a harmonic time series (HTS model, which minimizes the effects of missing observations and noise. Next, we combined the seasonality information of VIs with our knowledge of rice cultivation systems in Bangladesh to delineate rice areas in the dry season, which are predominantly hybrid and High Yielding Varieties (HYV. Based on historical Landsat imagery, the harmonic time series of vegetation indices (HTS-VIs model estimated 4.605 million ha, 3.519 million ha, and 4.021 million ha of rice production for Bangladesh in 2005, 2010, and 2015 respectively. Fine spatial scale information on HYV rice over the last 20 years will greatly improve our understanding of double-cropped rice systems, current status of production, and potential for HYV rice adoption in Bangladesh during the dry season.

  18. Assessment of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Strategies of a Double Skin Façade in a Monsoon Climate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongwan Koo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As climate change and global warming have become two of the most significant environmental issues today, the double-skin façade (DSF is getting considerable attention as an energy-efficient passive design. This study is aimed at assessing the seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF targeting library facilities in the climate region with hot summers and cold winters. Toward this end, this study was conducted in four steps: (i establishment of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (ii application of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (iii analysis of energy saving effect by season; and (iv life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analyses for selecting an optimal DSF. Results show that a shaft box DSF energy model (EMS #2, which applied winter strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 4.13%, while a multi-story DSF energy model (EMM #5, which applied summer strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 12.67%. In terms of savings to investment ratio (SIR40 and breakeven point (BEP40, the multi-story DSF (3.20; 9 years was superior. The results of this study can be used for (i seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF in East Asian monsoon climates, and (ii as a guideline for the application of a DSF both in existing and new buildings.

  19. Assessment of GloseA4 seasonal forecasts for SADC and the global oceans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal forecast skill over southern Africa may improve through the combination of forecasts. In the southern African region, however, only a small number of institutions have the capability to run global models operationally which can feed...

  20. A new classification of large-scale climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal circulation patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Gang Dai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a large-scale climate classification for investigating the characteristics of the climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal precipitation, moisture transport and moisture divergence using in situ observations and ERA40 reanalysis data. The results indicate that the climate can be attributed to four regimes around the Plateau. They situate in East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and the semi-arid zone in northern Central Asia throughout the dryland of northwestern China, in addition to the Köppen climate classification. There are different collocations of seasonal temperature and precipitation: 1 in phase for the East and South Asia monsoon regimes, 2 anti-phase for the Central Asia regime, 3 out-of-phase for the westerly regime. The seasonal precipitation concentrations are coupled with moisture divergence, i.e., moisture convergence coincides with the Asian monsoon zone and divergence appears over the Mediterranean-like arid climate region and westerly controlled area in the warm season, while it reverses course in the cold season. In addition, moisture divergence is associated with meridional moisture transport. The northward/southward moisture transport corresponds to moisture convergence/divergence, indicating that the wet and dry seasons are, to a great extent, dominated by meridional moisture transport in these regions. The climate mean southward transport results in the dry-cold season of the Asian monsoon zone and the dry-warm season, leading to desertification or land degradation in Central Asia and the westerly regime zone. The mean-wind moisture transport (MMT is the major contributor to total moisture transport, while persistent northward transient eddy moisture transport (TEMT plays a key role in dry season precipitation, especially in the Asian monsoon zone. The persistent TEMT divergence is an additional mechanism of the out-of-phase collocation in the westerly regime zone. In addition

  1. Patterns of circulating corticosterone in a population of rattlesnakes afflicted with snake fungal disease: Stress hormones as a potential mediator of seasonal cycles in disease severity and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M.; Moore, Ignacio T.; Akçay, Çağlar; Vernasco, Ben J.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Farrell, Terence M.

    2018-01-01

    Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging threat to snake populations in the United States. Fungal pathogens are often associated with a physiological stress response mediated by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), and afflicted individuals may incur steep coping costs. The severity of SFD can vary seasonally; however, little is known regarding (1) how SFD infection relates to HPA activity and (2) how seasonal shifts in environment, life history, or HPA activity may interact to drive seasonal patterns of infection severity and outcomes. To test the hypothesis that SFD is associated with increased HPA activity and to identify potential environmental or physiological drivers of seasonal infection, we monitored baseline corticosterone, SFD infection severity, foraging success, body condition, and reproductive status in a field-active population of pigmy rattlesnakes. Both plasma corticosterone and the severity of clinical signs of SFD peaked in the winter. Corticosterone levels were also elevated in the fall before the seasonal rise in SFD severity. Severely symptomatic snakes were in low body condition and had elevated corticosterone levels compared to moderately infected and uninfected snakes. The monthly mean severity of SFD in the population was negatively related to population-wide estimates of body condition and temperature measured in the precedent month and positively correlated with corticosterone levels measured in the precedent month. Symptomatic females were less likely to enter reproductive bouts compared to asymptomatic females. We propose the hypothesis that the seasonal interplay among environment, host energetics, and HPA activity initiates trade-offs in the fall that drive the increase in SFD prevalence, symptom severity, and decline in condition observed in the population through winter.

  2. Assessing the impact of seasonal population fluctuation on regional flood risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alan; Newing, Andy; Quinn, Niall; Martin, David; Cockings, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the integration of population and environmental models to address the effect of seasonally varying populations on exposure to flood risk. A spatiotemporal population modelling tool, Population24/7, has been combined with LISFLOOD-FP inundation model outputs for a study area centred on St Austell, Cornwall, UK. Results indicate seasonal cycles in populations and their exposure to flood hazard which are not accounted for in traditional population datasets or flood hazard a...

  3. Residential fuelwood assessment, state of Minnesota, 2007-2008 heating season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimi Barzen; Ronald Piva; Chun Yi Wy; Rich. Dahlman

    2009-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2008, the cooperating partners conducted a survey to determine the volume of residential fuelwood burned during the 2007-2008 heating season. Similar surveys were conducted for the 1960, 1969-1970, 1979-1980, 1984-1985, 1988-1989, 1995-1996, and 2002-2003 heating seasons. These surveys are part of a long-term effort to monitor trends in...

  4. Perceived crosstalk assessment on patterned retarder 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Bochao; Liu, Yue; Huang, Yi; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-03-01

    CONTEXT: Nowadays, almost all stereoscopic displays suffer from crosstalk, which is one of the most dominant degradation factors of image quality and visual comfort for 3D display devices. To deal with such problems, it is worthy to quantify the amount of perceived crosstalk OBJECTIVE: Crosstalk measurements are usually based on some certain test patterns, but scene content effects are ignored. To evaluate the perceived crosstalk level for various scenes, subjective test may bring a more correct evaluation. However, it is a time consuming approach and is unsuitable for real­ time applications. Therefore, an objective metric that can reliably predict the perceived crosstalk is needed. A correct objective assessment of crosstalk for different scene contents would be beneficial to the development of crosstalk minimization and cancellation algorithms which could be used to bring a good quality of experience to viewers. METHOD: A patterned retarder 3D display is used to present 3D images in our experiment. By considering the mechanism of this kind of devices, an appropriate simulation of crosstalk is realized by image processing techniques to assign different values of crosstalk to each other between image pairs. It can be seen from the literature that the structures of scenes have a significant impact on the perceived crosstalk, so we first extract the differences of the structural information between original and distorted image pairs through Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) algorithm, which could directly evaluate the structural changes between two complex-structured signals. Then the structural changes of left view and right view are computed respectively and combined to an overall distortion map. Under 3D viewing condition, because of the added value of depth, the crosstalk of pop-out objects may be more perceptible. To model this effect, the depth map of a stereo pair is generated and the depth information is filtered by the distortion map. Moreover, human attention

  5. Patterns of fruit and vegetable availability and price competitiveness across four seasons are different in local food outlets and supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpiani, Natalie; Wilde, Parke; Rogers, Beatrice; Stewart, Hayden

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effect of seasonality on fruit and vegetable availability and prices across three outlet types (farmers' markets, roadside stands and conventional supermarkets). Cross-sectional survey of geographically clustered supermarkets, farmers' markets and roadside stands. Enumerators recorded the availability and lowest price for eleven fruits and eighteen vegetables in each season of 2011. Price data were collected at retail outlets located in central and eastern North Carolina. The sample consisted of thirty-three supermarkets, thirty-four farmers' markets and twenty-three roadside stands. Outside the local harvest season, the availability of many fruits and vegetables was substantially lower at farmers' markets and roadside stands compared with supermarkets. Given sufficient availability, some items were significantly cheaper (Pmarkets than supermarkets). Although small samples limited statistical power in many non-peak comparisons, these results also showed some differences by item: two-thirds of fruits were cheaper at one or both direct outlets in the spring and autumn, whereas five of eighteen vegetables cost more at direct retail year-round. Commonly consumed fruits and vegetables were more widely available at supermarkets in central and eastern North Carolina than at direct retail outlets, in each season. Contingent on item availability, price competitiveness of the direct retail outlets varied by fruit and vegetable. For many items, the outlets compete on price in more than one season.

  6. Seasonality in seeking mental health information on Google

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Rosenquist, J Niels; Ford, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    .... This article assesses the viability of aggregate Internet search queries for real-time monitoring of several mental health problems, specifically in regard to seasonal patterns of seeking out mental health information...

  7. Phytoplankton dynamics in relation to seasonal variability and upwelling and relaxation patterns at the mouth of Ria de Aveiro (West Iberian Margin over a four-year period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Vidal

    Full Text Available From June 2004 to December 2007, samples were weekly collected at a fixed station located at the mouth of Ria de Aveiro (West Iberian Margin. We examined the seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in composition and community structure of the phytoplankton in relation to the main environmental drivers and assessed the influence of the oceanographic regime, namely changes in frequency and intensity of upwelling events, over the dynamics of the phytoplankton assemblage. The samples were consistently handled and a final subset of 136 OTUs (taxa with relative abundance > 0.01% was subsequently submitted to various multivariate analyses. The phytoplankton assemblage showed significant changes at all temporal scales but with an overriding importance of seasonality over longer- (inter-annual or shorter-term fluctuations (upwelling-related. Sea-surface temperature, salinity and maximum upwelling index were retrieved as the main driver of seasonal change. Seasonal signal was most evident in the fluctuations of chlorophyll a concentration and in the high turnover from the winter to spring phytoplankton assemblage. The seasonal cycle of production and succession was disturbed by upwelling events known to disrupt thermal stratification and induce changes in the phytoplankton assemblage. Our results indicate that both the frequency and intensity of physical forcing were important drivers of such variability, but the outcome in terms of species composition was highly dependent on the available local pool of species and the timing of those events in relation to the seasonal cycle. We conclude that duration, frequency and intensity of upwelling events, which vary seasonally and inter-annually, are paramount for maintaining long-term phytoplankton diversity likely by allowing unstable coexistence and incorporating species turnover at different scales. Our results contribute to the understanding of the complex mechanisms of coastal phytoplankton dynamics in

  8. Seasonality in cholera dynamics : a rainfall-driven model explains the wide range of patterns of an infectious disease in endemic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baracchini, Theo; Pascual, Mercedes; King, Aaron A.; Bouma, Menno J.; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An explanation for the spatial variability of seasonal cholera patterns has remained an unresolved problem in tropical medicine te{pascual_2002}. Previous studies addressing the role of climate drivers in disease dynamics have focused on interannual variability and modelled seasonality as given te{king_nature}. Explanations for seasonality have relied on complex environmental interactions that vary with spatial location (involving regional hydrological models te{bertuzzo_2012}, river discharge, sea surface temperature, and plankton blooms). Thus, no simple and unified theory based on local climate variables has been formulated te{emch_2008}, leaving our understanding of seasonal variations of cholera outbreaks in different regions of the world incomplete. Through the analysis of a unique historical dataset containing 50 years of monthly meteorological, demographic and epidemiological records, we propose a mechanistic, SIR-based stochastic model for the population dynamics of cholera driven by local rainfall and temperature that is able to capture the full range of seasonal patterns in this large estuarine region, which encompasses the variety of patterns worldwide. Parameter inference was implemented via new statistical methods that allow the computation of maximum-likelihood estimates for partially observed Markov processes through sequential Monte-Carlo te{ionides_2011}. Such a model may provide a unprecedented opportunity to gain insights on the conditions and factors responsible for endemicity around the globe, and therefore, to also revise our understanding of the ecology of Vibrio cholerae. Results indicate that the hydrological regime is a decisive driver determining the seasonal dynamics of cholera. It was found that rainfall and longer water residence times tend to buffer the propagation of the disease in wet regions due to a dilution effect, while also enhancing cholera incidence in dry regions. This indicates that overall water levels matter and appear

  9. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen(®) method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen(®) method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h(-1) while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen(®) method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen(®) items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen(®) method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  10. Assessment and limits of the existent seasonal forecasts as support for the decision making process in the Sahel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Maurizio; Genesio, Lorenzo; di Vecchia, Andrea; Tarchiani, Vieri; Vignaroli, Patrizio

    2010-05-01

    The economy of West Africa sahelian countries is based on the primary sector and the population's food security is strictly linked to rainfed crops production. The sahelian countries constitute a belt from Senegal to Chad characterized by an unimodal rainfall distribution during the summer months. The rainfall spatial and time distribution are very variable: dry spells and shifts in the rainy season onset are very frequent. The famines that stroke the region in the past demonstrate that in these ecosystems drought represents a key factor for the food security. In particular, anomalies in precipitation amount and distribution represent the major cause of losses in rainfed agriculture. The early availability of information on the development of the rainy season is essential for decision makers to assess the level of risk in terms of spatial extension and intensity, to take consequent decision on the mobilization of national/international stocks and to provide information for farmers orienting their choices for risk reduction. Addressing these needs, since late 90's the scientific community begins to develop long term meteorological forecast models. Nowadays, despite the general awareness on their potential role in food crises prevention, seasonal forecasts are still under exploited at regional/national level. Indeed, the major constraints to their operational use are (i) the reduced skill in intercepting key aspects of the agricultural season such as starting and ending date and presence of dry spells, and (ii) the difficulty of decision makers of understanding and consequently handling the level of uncertainty of the predictive information. Today the growing demand for early information to support decision-making requires an improvement in the suitability of seasonal forecasts and in their tailoring to users. The aim of this paper is contributing to the scientific debate on Seasonal Forecast proposing possible orientations for models further development and the

  11. Seasonal Variation in Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…

  12. Dormancy-associated MADS genes from the EVG locus of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] have distinct seasonal and photoperiodic expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhigang; Reighard, Gregory Lynn; Abbott, Albert Glenn; Bielenberg, Douglas Gary

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and sequencing of the non-dormant evg mutant in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] identified six tandem-arrayed DAM (dormancy-associated MADS-box) genes as candidates for regulating growth cessation and terminal bud formation. To narrow the list of candidate genes, an attempt was made to associate bud phenology with the seasonal and environmental patterns of expression of the candidates in wild-type trees. The expression of the six peach DAM genes at the EVG locus of peach was characterized throughout an annual growing cycle in the field, and under controlled conditions in response to a long day-short day photoperiod transition. DAM1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 were responsive to a reduction in photoperiod in controlled conditions and the direction of response correlated with the seasonal timing of expression in field-grown trees. DAM3 did not respond to photoperiod and may be regulated by chilling temperatures. The DAM genes in peach appear to have at least four distinct patterns of expression. DAM1, 2, and 4 are temporally associated with seasonal elongation cessation and bud formation and are the most likely candidates for control of the evg phenotype.

  13. Validity of the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients for assessing dietary patterns in NCAA athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurka, Jonathan M; Buman, Matthew P; Ainsworth, Barbara E

    2014-01-01

    Athletes may be at risk for developing adverse health outcomes due to poor eating behaviors during college. Due to the complex nature of the diet, it is difficult to include or exclude individual food items and specific food groups from the diet. Eating behaviors may better characterize the complex interactions between individual food items and specific food groups. The purpose was to examine the Rapid Eating Assessment for Patients survey (REAP) as a valid tool for analyzing eating behaviors of NCAA Division-I male and female athletes using pattern identification. Also, to investigate the relationships between derived eating behavior patterns and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) while stratifying by sex and aesthetic nature of the sport. Two independent samples of male (n = 86; n = 139) and female (n = 64; n = 102) collegiate athletes completed the REAP in June-August 2011 (n = 150) and June-August 2012 (n = 241). Principal component analysis (PCA) determined possible factors using wave-1 athletes. Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) determined factors accounting for error and confirmed model fit in wave-2 athletes. Wave-2 athletes' BMI and WC were recorded during a physical exam and sport participation determined classification in aesthetic and non-aesthetic sport. Mean differences in eating behavior pattern score were explored. Regression models examined interactions between pattern scores, participation in aesthetic or non-aesthetic sport, and BMI and waist circumference controlling for age and race. A 5-factor PCA solution accounting for 60.3% of sample variance determined fourteen questions for EFA and CFA. A confirmed solution revealed patterns of Desserts, Healthy food, Meats, High-fat food, and Dairy. Pattern score (mean ± SE) differences were found, as non-aesthetic sport males had a higher (better) Dessert score than aesthetic sport males (2.16 ± 0.07 vs. 1.93 ± 0.11). Female aesthetic athletes had a higher score

  14. Multi-annual and seasonal patterns of waterbird assemblages in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (El Mellah lagoon of Northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telailia Salah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Mediterranean coastal lagoons have raised considerable environmental concerns. Long-term studies of seasonal changes in waterbird assemblages are therefore extremely important in terms of ecological relevance and conservation of these sensitive ecosystems. An ornithological survey of four years was carried out in a typical costal wetland (El Mellah lagoon of Northeastern Algeria. Intra-seasonal comparison of waterbird assemblages (diversity indices demonstrates clear changes between the wintering and the breeding periods. It seems that the first one was rich in term of species number than the second season (43 against 24. In contrast, the breeding seasons were more equilibrate (high values of Simpson, Shannon and evenness index. Additionally, curves in the diversity/dominance diagram revealed that both wintering and breeding assemblages share the same characteristics of community structure, few dominant species (with intermediate relative abundance and many rare species with the relative abundance lower than 0.1. Invertebrates (25 species and piscivorous (11 species are the most abundant guilds over the four years of study (no significant differences among years have been calculated. The marked decline in bird species diversity recorded in this study (in comparison with previous studies is mainly due to salinity oscillations (due to aquaculture activities and may be of concern to wetland managers and it might be useful to provide some guidelines about the characteristics that coastal lagoons have to follow in the construction process to enhance the biodiversity.

  15. Dietary Intake Patterns are Consistent across Seasons in a Cohort of Healthy Adults in a Metropolitan Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Shanna; Zambell, Kirsten; Amar, Marcelo J.; Arango, Carolina; Kelley, Rachel C.; Miszewski, Susan G.; Tryon, Samantha; Courville, Amber B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current literature provides conflicting data regarding seasonal variability in dietary intake. Objective To examine seasonal variation in dietary intake in healthy adults from the metropolitan Washington, DC area. Design This study utilized an observational cohort design. Participants/setting Male and female healthy volunteers (n=103) between the ages of 18–75 years were recruited from the metropolitan Washington, DC area to participate in a clinical study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center from February 2011 to June 2014. Main outcome measures Three to seven day food records were collected from subjects (n=76) at three time points (12–15 weeks apart). Subjects were excluded from analysis (n=27) if they completed less than three time points. Food records were reviewed by nutrition staff, assigned to a season and coded in Nutrient Data System for Research for energy, macronutrient, micronutrient and food group serving analysis. Statistical Analyses Multivariate general linear models were run on energy, macronutrient, micronutrient, and food group intakes while being adjusted for age, sex, race, and BMI. Results Subjects had an average BMI of 25 ± 3.9 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) and average age of 34 ± 12.4 years. Subject demographics were 71.1% White, 9.2% Black/African American, 13.2% Asian, and 6.6% unknown race with 44.7% males and 55.3% females. Mean intake of energy across seasons was 2214.6 ± 623.4 kcal with 17.3 ± 4.1%, 33.6 ± 5.5%, 46.6 ± 8.0%, and 2.7 ± 3.2% of calories from protein, fat, carbohydrate, and alcohol, respectively. Intakes of energy, macronutrients, micronutrients, and food groups did not differ between seasons. Conclusions People living in the metropolitan Washington, DC area did not exhibit seasonal variation in dietary intake. Therefore, when designing studies of nutrient intake in a metropolitan population, these findings suggest that investigators do not need to consider the season during which diet is

  16. Disaster risk assessment pattern in higher education centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Omidvari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Disasters are one of the most important challenges which must be considered by every management system. Higher education centers have high disaster risk because of their risk factors (existence of historical and scientific documents and resources and expensive laboratory equipment in these centers emphasizes the importance of disaster management. Moreover, the existence of young volunteers of human resources in universities urges the necessity of making these people familiar with disaster management rules and responses in emergency conditions. Creating appropriate tools for disaster management assessment makes it correct and precise in higher education systems using the presented conceptual model. The present model was planned so as to cover three phases which exist before, during, and after disaster. Studies were performed in one of the largest higher education centers in Tehran: Science and Research Branch of Islamic Azad University Campus. Results showed high-risk disasters in these centers which must be taken into consideration continuously. The objective of this study was to create appropriate patterns of disaster risk management in these centers.

  17. Assessment of alcohol use patterns among spanish-speaking patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfipour, Shahram; Cisneros, Victor; Anderson, Craig L; Roumani, Samer; Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Weiss, Jie; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Dykzeul, Brad; Vaca, Federico

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess drinking patterns of Spanish-speaking patients using a bilingual computerized alcohol screening and brief intervention (CASI) tablet computer equipped with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). This retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary university hospital emergency department (ED) between 2006 and 2010. Data from 1816 Spanish-speaking ED patients were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test for independence, and the Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test for comparisons using quantitative variables. Overall, 15% of Spanish-speaking patients were at-risk drinkers, and 5% had an AUDIT score consistent with alcohol dependency (≥20). A higher percentage of Spanish-speaking males than females were at-risk drinkers or likely dependent. Spanish-speaking males exhibited higher frequency of drinking days per week and higher number of drinks per day compared with females. Among older patients, nondrinking behavior increased and at-risk drinkers decreased. The majority of males and females were ready to change their behavior after the CASI intervention; 61% and 69%, respectively, scored 8-10. This study indicated that CASI was an effective tool for detecting at-risk and likely dependent drinking behavior in Spanish-speaking ED patients. The majority of patients were ready to change their drinking behavior. More alcohol screening and brief intervention tools should be tested and become readily accessible for Spanish-speaking patients.

  18. Importation of yellow fever into China: assessing travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Leong, W Y

    2017-07-01

    Rapid increase in trade and a growing air passenger market encourages high travel volume between the regions associated with increasing risks of such importations including China. Eleven Chinese workers infected during the 2016 yellow fever (YF) outbreak in Angola imported YF into China highlighting the potential for spread into Asia. Using outbound and inbound travel data, we assessed travel patterns from and to YF endemic countries in relation to China. Among YF endemic countries, Angola has the second highest number of travellers into China and also receives the second highest number of Chinese visitors. We estimated that China needs around half a million YF vaccine doses to cover their population travelling to YF endemic countries. The recent importation cases into China also unmasked the low YF vaccination coverage among Chinese travellers and workers to Angola, indicating the need to ensure better adherence to the International Health Regulations. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017.. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Distinct Seasonal Patterns of Bacterioplankton Abundance and Dominance of Phyla α-Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in Qinhuangdao Coastal Waters Off the Bohai Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaodong He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Qinhuangdao coastal waters in northern China are heavily impacted by anthropogenic and natural activities, and we anticipate a direct influence of the impact on the bacterioplankton abundance and diversity inhabiting the adjacent coastal areas. To ascertain the anthropogenic influences, we first evaluated the seasonal abundance patterns and diversity of bacterioplankton in the coastal areas with varied levels of natural and anthropogenic activities and then analyzed the environmental factors which influenced the abundance patterns. Results indicated distinct patterns in bacterioplankton abundance across the warm and cold seasons in all stations. Total bacterial abundance in the stations ranged from 8.67 × 104 to 2.08 × 106 cells/mL and had significant (p < 0.01 positive correlation with total phosphorus (TP, which indicated TP as the key monitoring parameter for anthropogenic impact on nutrients cycling. Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria were the most abundant phyla in the Qinhuangdao coastal waters. Redundancy analysis revealed significant (p < 0.01 influence of temperature, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a on the spatiotemporal abundance pattern of α-Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria groups. Among the 19 identified bacterioplankton subgroups, α-Proteobacteria (phylum Proteobacteria was the dominant one followed by Family II (phylum Cyanobacteria, representing 19.1–55.2% and 2.3–54.2% of total sequences, respectively. An inverse relationship (r = -0.82 was observed between the two dominant subgroups, α-Proteobacteria and Family II. A wide range of inverse Simpson index (10.2 to 105 revealed spatial heterogeneity of bacterioplankton diversity likely resulting from the varied anthropogenic and natural influences. Overall, our results suggested that seasonal variations impose substantial influence on shaping bacterioplankton abundance patterns. In addition, the predominance of only a few cosmopolitan species in the Qinhuangdao coastal

  20. Analysis of a firn core for assessing POP seasonal accumulation on an Alpine glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Sara; Negrelli, Christian; Maggi, Valter; Finizio, Antonio; Vighi, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (DDTs, HCHs, HCB) and selected PCBs were analyzed in samples from a firn core drilled on the Lys Glacier (4240 m above sea level, Monte Rosa Group, Italian Alps) in Summer 2000. The samples covered a relatively short time interval (from 1997 to 2000) and a seasonal detail breakdown was possible. A probable seasonal trend was observed only for gamma-HCH, a pesticide currently used in some European countries. For all other chemicals, a seasonal trend was not evident, and this supports the hypothesis of the prevailing role of long-range transport in comparison with local emissions for POP pollution in high mountains. The role of temperature on air-snow exchange has also been highlighted.

  1. Real-time real-world analysis of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness: method development and assessment of a population-based cohort in Stockholm County, Sweden, seasons 2011/12 to 2014/15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leval, Amy; Hergens, Maria Pia; Persson, Karin; Örtqvist, Åke

    2016-10-27

    Real-world estimates of seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) are important for early detection of vaccine failure. We developed a method for evaluating real-time in-season vaccine effectiveness (IVE) and overall seasonal VE. In a retrospective, register-based, cohort study including all two million individuals in Stockholm County, Sweden, during the influenza seasons from 2011/12 to 2014/15, vaccination status was obtained from Stockholm's vaccine register. Main outcomes were hospitalisation or primary care visits for influenza (International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 codes J09-J11). VE was assessed using Cox multivariate stratified and non-stratified analyses adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, comorbidities and previous influenza vaccinations. Stratified analyses showed moderate VE in prevention of influenza hospitalisations among chronically ill adults ≥ 65 years in two of four seasons, and lower but still significant VE in one season; 53% (95% confidence interval (CI): 33-67) in 2012/13, 55% (95% CI: 25-73) in 2013/14 and 18% (95% CI: 3-31) in 2014/15. In conclusion, seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with substantial reductions in influenza-specific hospitalisation, particularly in adults ≥ 65 years with underlying chronic conditions. With the use of population-based patient register data on influenza-specific outcomes it will be possible to obtain real-time estimates of seasonal influenza VE. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  2. Inter-annual variability of year-round NEE over 18 years, and environmental controls on seasonal patterns at an arctic wet sedge tundra, CMDL Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, A. A. M.; Oechel, W. C.; Goodrich, J. P.; Gioli, B.; Burba, G. G.; Shen, S. S. P.; Murphy, P.; Zona, D.

    2016-12-01

    To refine understanding of the total annual carbon balance in the Arctic, it is critical to extend long-term site-level CO2 flux data collection. These data are critical to addressing the environmental controls and processes responsible for temporal variability and seasonal patterns of net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (NEE). This dataset represents the longest running eddy covariance tower in the Arctic, which is located in an Alaskan wet sedge tundra ecosystem and is adjacent to the NOAA Climate Monitoring & Diagnostic Laboratory (CMDL). In addition to analyzing the year-to-year controls on NEE and its long-term trends, this work will complement a parallel study of the 40 year record of CO2 concentration measurements from the NOAA Barrow synoptic sampling station. For long-term, retrospective measurements, missing values are unavoidable, resulting from system failure, sensors icing-up during winter, losing network connections due to the harsh conditions, necessary instrument repairs, etc. Therefore, to analyze the annual sums, diurnal patterns, and seasonal vs. annual fluxes, the choice of gap-filling approach is critical and can dominate the magnitude of uncertainties, especially for periods with long gaps (> 1 month). We have applied different gap-filling methods such as artificial neural networks (ANN), and multiple linear regression (MLR) driven by micrometeorological parameters in an effort to minimize the associated uncertainties. Following gap-filling, a stepwise multiple regression against meteorological drivers including average summer PAR, average air and soil temperature, growing season length, duration of the zero curtain, growing degree days (GDD), date of snow melt, date of freeze up, and length of the summer was applied to determine the parameters that best explain the magnitude and sign of NEE in different seasons. These statistical analyses show that growing degree days were strongly correlated with summer NEE, which increased with higher GDD

  3. Integrated assessment modeling of atmospheric pollutants in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Part I: hourly and seasonal ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, James W; Odman, Mehmet T; Wilkinson, James G; Russell, Armistead G; Doty, Kevin G; Norris, William B; McNider, Richard T

    2005-07-01

    Recently, a comprehensive air quality modeling system was developed as part of the Southern Appalachians Mountains Initiative (SAMI) with the ability to simulate meteorology, emissions, ozone, size- and composition-resolved particulate matter, and pollutant deposition fluxes. As part of SAMI, the RAMS/EMS-95/URM-1ATM modeling system was used to evaluate potential emission control strategies to reduce atmospheric pollutant levels at Class I areas located in the Southern Appalachians Mountains. This article discusses the details of the ozone model performance and the methodology that was used to scale discrete episodic pollutant levels to seasonal and annual averages. The daily mean normalized bias and error for 1-hr and 8-hr ozone were within U.S. Environment Protection Agency guidance criteria for urban-scale modeling. The model typically showed a systematic overestimation for low ozone levels and an underestimation for high levels. Because SAMI was primarily interested in simulating the growing season ozone levels in Class I areas, daily and seasonal cumulative ozone exposure, as characterized by the W126 index, were also evaluated. The daily ozone W126 performance was not as good as the hourly ozone performance; however, the seasonal ozone W126 scaled up from daily values was within 17% of the observations at two typical Class I areas of the SAMI region. The overall ozone performance of the model was deemed acceptable for the purposes of SAMI's assessment.

  4. Aspects of seasonality and flood generating circulation patterns in a mountainous catchment in south-eastern Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrow, Th; Merz, B; Lindenschmidt, K.-E; Thieken, A. H

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of discharge series, precipitation fields and flood producing atmospheric circulation patterns reveal that two governing flood regimes exist in the Mulde catchment in south-eastern Germany...

  5. Assessment of seasonal variation for air pollutant accumulation by Zizyphus tree under washing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Mohamed Abdulraheem; El-Nakhlawy, Fathy Saad; Almehmadi, Fahd Mosallam; Ihsan, Muhammad Zahid; Al-Shareef, Abdulmohsin Rajeh

    2016-06-01

    A field study was carried out near Jeddah Industrial Zone to estimate the leaf impairment, physiological disorders, and air pollutant accumulation potential of Ziziphus tree. The experiment was triplicated in RCBD design with factorial arrangement having seasonality as the main plot and washing as subplot treatments along with the control. Accumulation of heavy metals and micronutrients in plant foliage varied significantly under the influence of seasons and washing treatments. The maximum accumulation of cadmium, chromium, nickel, and lead were perceived in summer season while the minimum was observed in winter. Contrarily, a greater acquisition of iron, copper, zinc, and manganese was observed in autumn. Washing significantly reduced the accumulation of Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb by 58, 90, 80, and 96 %, while Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn by 89, 37, 60, and 93 %, respectively. Leaf protein and nitrogen content illustrated a greater adjustment for pollutants by presenting a minimum variation (14-18 % and 2-3 %) to seasonality. In contrast, leaf area and stomatal aperture were significantly disturbed and resulted in minimum recovery under washing. Correlation analysis revealed a stronger negative interaction of heavy metal accumulation to leaf features while non-significant interaction was perceived for microelements. In conclusion, planting of Ziziphus trees along industrial areas may impede potential threats of toxic pollutants to human and ecosystem.

  6. Forecasting of Sporadic Demand Patterns with Seasonality and Trend Components: An Empirical Comparison between Holt-Winters and (SARIMA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gamberini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Items with irregular and sporadic demand profiles are frequently tackled by companies, given the necessity of proposing wider and wider mix, along with characteristics of specific market fields (i.e., when spare parts are manufactured and sold. Furthermore, a new company entering into the market is featured by irregular customers' orders. Hence, consistent efforts are spent with the aim of correctly forecasting and managing irregular and sporadic products demand. In this paper, the problem of correctly forecasting customers' orders is analyzed by empirically comparing existing forecasting techniques. The case of items with irregular demand profiles, coupled with seasonality and trend components, is investigated. Specifically, forecasting methods (i.e., Holt-Winters approach and (SARIMA available for items with seasonality and trend components are empirically analyzed and tested in the case of data coming from the industrial field and characterized by intermittence. Hence, in the conclusions section, well-performing approaches are addressed.

  7. Phosphorus cycle in Germiston Lake. III. Seasonal patterns in the absorption, translocation and release of phosphorus by Potamogeton pectinatus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaak, J.F.; Swanepoel, J.H.; Schoonbee, H.J. (Rand Afrikaans Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1982-07-01

    The seasonal fluctuation in the phosphorus absorption, translocation, and release by the roots and shoots of Potamogeton pectinatus L. in Germiston Lake, is discussed. Shoot absorption exceeds that by the roots during spring and winter, while the reverse applies for summer and autumn. The shoots consistently release more phosphorus per plant than the roots. Both shoots and roots absorb considerably more phosphorus than what they release to the environment. This macrophyte, therefore, mainly acts as a phosphorus reservoir in Germiston Lake.

  8. A new classification of large-scale climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal circulation patterns

    OpenAIRE

    DAI, Xin-Gang; Wang, Ping

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop a large-scale climate classification for investigating the characteristics of the climate regimes around the Tibetan Plateau based on seasonal precipitation, moisture transport and moisture divergence using in situ observations and ERA40 reanalysis data. The results indicate that the climate can be attributed to four regimes around the Plateau. They situate in East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and the semi-arid zone in northern Central Asia throughout the dryland ...

  9. Assessing Climate Change in Early Warm Season and Impacts on Wildfire Potential in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, J.; Nghiem, S. V.; Fujioka, F.; Myoung, B.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires are an important concern in the Southwestern United States (SWUS) where the prevalent semi-arid to arid climate, vegetation types and hot and dry warm seasons challenge strategic fire management. Although they are part of the natural cycle related to the region's climate, significant growth of urban areas and expansion of the wildland-urban interface, have made wildfires a serious high-risk hazard. Previous studies also showed that the SWUS region is prone to frequent droughts due to large variations in wet season rainfall and has suffered from a number of severe wildfires in the recent decades. Despite the increasing trend in large wildfires, future wildfire risk assessment studies at regional scales for proactive adaptations are lacking. Our previous study revealed strong correlations between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and temperatures during March-June in SWUS. The abnormally warm and dry conditions in an NAO-positive spring, combined with reduced winter precipitation, can cause an early start of a fire season and extend it for several seasons, from late spring to fall. A strong interannual variation of the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) during the early warm season was also found in the 35 year period 1979 - 2013 of the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset. Thus, it is crucial to investigate the climate change impact that early warm season temperatures have on future wildfire danger potential. Our study reported here examines fine-resolution fire-weather variables for 2041-2070 projected in the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). The high-resolution climate data were obtained from multiple regional climate models (RCM) driven by multiple climate scenarios projected from multiple global climate models (GCMs) in conjunction with multiple greenhouse gas concentration pathways. The local wildfire potential in future climate is investigated using both the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) and the

  10. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  11. Recurrent laryngeal nerve recovery patterns assessed by serial electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniello, Randal C; Park, Andrea M; Bhatt, Neel K; Al-Lozi, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    Following acute injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) is increasingly being used to determine prognosis for recovery. The LEMG findings change during the recovery process, but the timing of these changes is not well described. In this canine study, LEMGs were obtained serially following model RLN injuries. Animal Study. Thirty-six canine RLNs underwent crush (n = 6), complete transection with reanastomosis (n = 6), half-transection half-crush (n = 5), cautery (n = 5), stretch (n = 5), inferior crush (n = 4), or inferior transection with reanastomosis (n = 5) injuries. Injuries were performed 5 cm from cricoid or were 5 cm further inferior. Under light sedation, LEMG of thyroarytenoid muscles was performed monthly for 6 months following injury. At 6 months, spontaneous and induced vocal fold motion was assessed. Except for the stretch injury, the remaining groups showed very similar recovery patterns. Fibrillation potentials (FPs) and/or positive sharp waves (PSWs; signs of bad prognosis) were seen in all cases at 1 month and lasted on average for 2.26 months (range = 1-4 months). Motor unit potentials of at least 2+ (scale = 0-4+; signs of good prognosis) were seen beginning at 3.61 months (range = 2-6 months). The stretch injury was less severe, with 3 of 5 showing no FPs/PSWs at 1 month; all recovered full mobility. Ten of the 36 thyroarytenoid muscles (27.8%) had 1 electromyograph showing both bad prognosis and good prognosis signs simultaneously at 2 to 4 months postinjury. LEMG can be used to predict RNL recovery, but timing is important and LEMG results earlier than 3 months may overestimate a negative prognosis. NA Laryngoscope, 126:651-656, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Characterization of free amino acids, bacteria and fungi in size-segregated atmospheric aerosols in boreal forest: seasonal patterns, abundances and size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Aku; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Bäck, Jaana; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Parshintsev, Jevgeni

    2017-11-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and constitute ˜ 30 % of atmospheric aerosol particle mass in sizes > 1 µm. PBAP components, such as bacteria, fungi and pollen, may affect the climate by acting as cloud-active particles, thus having an effect on cloud and precipitation formation processes. In this study, size-segregated aerosol samples ( 10 µm) were collected in boreal forest (Hyytiälä, Finland) during a 9-month period covering all seasons and analysed for free amino acids (FAAs), DNA concentration and microorganism (bacteria, Pseudomonas and fungi). Measurements were performed using tandem mass spectrometry, spectrophotometry and qPCR, respectively. Meteorological parameters and statistical analysis were used to study their atmospheric implication for results. Distinct annual patterns of PBAP components were observed, late spring and autumn being seasons of dominant occurrence. Elevated abundances of FAAs and bacteria were observed during the local pollen season, whereas fungi were observed at the highest level during autumn. Meteorological parameters such as air and soil temperature, radiation and rainfall were observed to possess a close relationship with PBAP abundances on an annual scale.

  13. Using earth observation-based dry season NDVI trends for assessment of changes in tree cover in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern

    2014-01-01

    -based trends were generally not confirmed at the local scale based on selected study cases, partly caused by a temporal mismatch between data sets (i.e. different periods of analysis). Analysis of desert area NDVImin trends indicates less stable values for VGT and GIMMS data as compared with MODIS....... This suggests that trends in dry season NDVImin derived from VGT and GIMMS should be used with caution as an indicator for changes in tree cover, whereas the MODIS data stream shows a better potential for tree-cover change analysis in the Sahel......., with a potential reduction in tree cover having important implications for the Sahelian population. Large-scale EO-based evaluation of changes in Sahelian tree cover is assessed by analysing long-term trends in dry season minimum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVImin) derived from three different...

  14. An assessment on seasonal analysis of wind energy characteristics and wind turbine characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E.K.; Akpinar, S. [Firat University, Elazig (Turkey)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents seasonal variations of the wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics in the regions around Elazig, namely Maden, Agin and Keban. Mean wind speed data in measured hourly time series format is statistically analyzed for the six year period 1998-2003. The probability density distributions are derived from the time series data and their distributional parameters are identified. Two probability density functions are fitted to the measured probability distributions on a seasonal basis. The wind energy characteristics of all the regions are studied based on the Weibull and Rayleigh distributions. Energy calculations and capacity factors for the wind turbine characteristics were determined for wind machines of different sizes between 300 and 2300 kW. It was found that Maden is the best region, among the regions analyzed, for wind characteristics and wind turbine characteristics. (author)

  15. Occurrence, seasonal variation and risk assessment of antibiotics in the reservoirs in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinbo; Wu, Wei; Zhao, Xinhua

    2014-09-01

    The occurrence and seasonal variability of five groups (tetracycline, quinolone, chloramphenicol, macrolide and sulfonamide) of antibiotics were investigated in the surface water of four reservoirs. The dissolved concentrations of 29 antibiotics were in the ngL(-1) level. Trace levels of all target antibiotics were analyzed using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. All of the antibiotics were detected at all sampling sites, indicating widespread occurrence of antibiotics in the study area. The detection of florfenicol, josamycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin and sulfameter is the first report of these compounds in reservoir samples. The results showed an association between the presence of some antibiotics at Panjiakou reservoir and cage culture of fish. Twenty-three types of antibiotics showed significant seasonal variations (pantibiotics detected could cause very low risk to algae, daphnid and fish. Further health risk need to be investigated because these reservoirs are drinking water sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reproducibility and Validity of a Food Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Dietary Consumption via the Dietary Pattern Method in a Chinese Rural Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Liu

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ that was developed to assess the overall dietary consumption via dietary pattern method in a rural population in southwest China.A total of 179 participants aged between 40 and 70 years old were included in this study. Participants administered FFQ at baseline (FFQ1 and one year later (FFQ2 to assess the reproducibility. Six 3-day 24-hour recalls (24HRs were completed between the administrations of two FFQs to determine the validity. Dietary patterns from three separate dietary sources were derived by using principle component factor analysis. Comparisons between dietary pattern scores were made by using Pearson or intraclass correlation coefficient, cross-classification analysis, weighted kappa (κ statistic and Bland-Altman analysis. The de-attenuated method was adopted to correct the monthly and seasonally variation and the partial correlation analysis was used correct the influence by total energy intake.Two major dietary factors, labeled as prudent pattern and processed food pattern, were identified. The prudent pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of wheat, rice, fresh vegetables, bean products, nuts, red meat, white meat and fresh eggs; and the processed food pattern was characterized by higher factor loadings of pickled vegetables, preserved vegetables and salted meat. Between Two FFQs, intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.57 for prudent pattern and 0.55 for processed food pattern, partial Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.51 for the prudent pattern and 0.56 for the processed food pattern; weighted κ statistic ranged from 0.45 (for the prudent pattern to 0.56 (for the processed food pattern. Between FFQs and 24HRs, de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.78 for the prudent pattern and from 0.55 to 0.61 for the processed food pattern; partial Pearson correlation coefficients ranged

  17. Assessing the Impact of Seasonal Population Fluctuation on Regional Flood Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Smith; Andy Newing; Niall Quinn; David Martin; Samantha Cockings; Jeffrey Neal

    2015-01-01

    Human populations are not static or uniformly distributed across space and time. This consideration has a notable impact on natural hazard analyses which seek to determine population exposure and risk. This paper focuses on the coupling of population and environmental models to address the effect of seasonally varying populations on exposure to flood risk. A spatiotemporal population modelling tool, SurfaceBuilder247, has been combined with LISFLOOD-FP flood inundation model outputs for a stu...

  18. Assessment of oral allergy syndrome in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis by food challenge test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahzad Jabbari Azad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral allergy syndrome (OAS characterized by oral IgE-mediated symptoms, which is caused by cross-reactivity between proteins in pollens, fresh fruit and vegetables. OAS is presents in 40% to 80% of Allergic rhinitis patients. Association between oral allergy syndrome and duration of seasonal allergic rhinitis is not well known. Early treatment of Patients with OAS caused improvement in quality of life and relief of their symptoms. Material and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study between March 2012 to September 2012, 103 consecutive patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis were entered to this study. Their sensitizations to common aeroallergens were confirmed by skin prick test (SPT by three mm more than negative control. According to food allergy history and prick-to-prick test results, we considered 63 of 103 patients for single-blind oral food challenge test. Data analyzed bty SPSS software (ver 11.5, and by Chi squeare test and paired T test. P-value lower than 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Among studied cases, 63 patients (61.2% with 28.8±10.6 years old had OAS and 40 (38.8% with 26.8±13.2 years old not OAS. We found that there was significant difference between duration of seasonal allergic rhinitis in OAS group (7±5.9 years and non-OAS group (5±4 years (P=0.03, CI=0.03-0.04. This syndrome was more in women and patients who had concomitant asthma and allergic conjunctivitis but statistical association was not significant. Conclusions: This study showed that all of the patients with hay fever do not develop OAS. Duration of seasonal allergic rhinitis was associated significantly with oral allergy syndrome. However, further studies with more sample size and double-blind placebo controlled methods might be needed.

  19. Transfer of atmospheric matter through the euphotic layer in the northwestern Mediterranean: seasonal pattern and driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migon, Christophe; Sandroni, Valérie; Marty, Jean-Claude; Gasser, Beat; Miquel, Juan-Carlos

    The transfer of atmospheric particulate matter through the surface marine layer was studied by comparing atmospheric and marine fluxes. Time series were obtained from the coupling of a coastal atmospheric sampling station (Cap Ferrat, French Riviera) and a marine sampling site (DYFAMED site, central Ligurian Sea). Liquid phase traps were used for measuring total atmospheric fluxes and sediment traps deployed at 200 m depth for measuring marine fluxes. Fluxes of mass, aluminium, and soluble anthropogenic metals (Cd, Pb and Zn) were obtained from both these reservoirs. Physical and biological time series data acquired at the DYFAMED site also were used to describe a three-step seasonal transfer scenario: In summer and autumn, during the period of water stratification, marine fluxes are low and do not account for the transfer of lithogenic material, as revealed by low Al to mass flux ratios and high proportions of organic carbon at 200 m depth. Atmospheric material accumulates along the thermocline, while a series of physico-chemical processes lead to the formation of small (⩽150 μm) non-biogenic organic aggregates. In winter, the sinking of dense water that occurs in the Ligurian Sea is responsible for a rapid downward transfer of the lithogenic matter accumulated in the surface layer. The fact that soluble trace metals (e.g., cadmium) accumulated in the surface layer are only partially found in sediment traps may indicate that sorption processes play a minor role in the formation of organic aggregates, compared with coagulation processes. In spring, nutrients brought to surface waters by the winter vertical mixing allow phytoplanktonic blooms, and the transfer of atmospheric matter is then governed by the temporal variations of biological activity. The seasonal variability of the vertical transfer leads to the concept of seasonal variability of elemental residence times in the euphotic layer.

  20. Global Assessment of Seasonal Potential Distribution of Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyniszewska, Anna M.; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly) is one of the world's most economically damaging pests. It displays highly seasonal population dynamics, and the environmental conditions suitable for its abundance are not constant throughout the year in most places. An extensive literature search was performed to obtain the most comprehensive data on the historical and contemporary spatio-temporal occurrence of the pest globally. The database constructed contained 2328 unique geo-located entries on Medfly detection sites from 43 countries and nearly 500 unique localities, as well as information on hosts, life stages and capture method. Of these, 125 localities had information on the month when Medfly was recorded and these data were complemented by additional material found in comprehensive databases available online. Records from 1980 until present were used for medfly environmental niche modeling. Maximum Entropy Algorithm (MaxEnt) and a set of seasonally varying environmental covariates were used to predict the fundamental niche of the Medfly on a global scale. Three seasonal maps were also produced: January-April, May-August and September-December. Models performed significantly better than random achieving high accuracy scores, indicating a good discrimination of suitable versus unsuitable areas for the presence of the species. PMID:25375649

  1. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management – a regional assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rauch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  2. Technical Note: Seasonality in alpine water resources management - a regional assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Fleischhacker, E.; Rauch, W.

    2008-01-01

    Alpine regions are particularly affected by seasonal variations in water demand and water availability. Especially the winter period is critical from an operational point of view, as being characterised by high water demands due to tourism and low water availability due to the temporal storage of precipitation as snow and ice. The clear definition of summer and winter periods is thus an essential prerequisite for water resource management in alpine regions. This paper presents a GIS-based multi criteria method to determine the winter season. A snow cover duration dataset serves as basis for this analysis. Different water demand stakeholders, the alpine hydrology and the present day water supply infrastructure are taken into account. Technical snow-making and (winter) tourism were identified as the two major seasonal water demand stakeholders in the study area, which is the Kitzbueheler region in the Austrian Alps. Based upon different geographical datasets winter was defined as the period from December to March, and summer as the period from April to November. By determining potential regional water balance deficits or surpluses in the present day situation and in future, important management decisions such as water storage and allocation can be made and transposed to the local level.

  3. a preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While some data are available on seasonal reproduct- ive patterns for female eland (Posselt, 1963; Skinner,. 1966, 1967; Skinner & van Zyl, 1969), no data what- soever are available on the seasonal reproductive pattern in the eland bull. In assessing animals for meat produc- tion it is important that any natural limitations on ...

  4. A Stochastic Model to Study Rift Valley Fever Persistence with Different Seasonal Patterns of Vector Abundance: New Insights on the Endemicity in the Tropical Island of Mayotte.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Cavalerie

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a zoonotic vector-borne disease causing abortion storms in cattle and human epidemics in Africa. Our aim was to evaluate RVF persistence in a seasonal and isolated population and to apply it to Mayotte Island (Indian Ocean, where the virus was still silently circulating four years after its last known introduction in 2007. We proposed a stochastic model to estimate RVF persistence over several years and under four seasonal patterns of vector abundance. Firstly, the model predicted a wide range of virus spread patterns, from obligate persistence in a constant or tropical environment (without needing vertical transmission or reintroduction to frequent extinctions in a drier climate. We then identified for each scenario of seasonality the parameters that most influenced prediction variations. Persistence was sensitive to vector lifespan and biting rate in a tropical climate, and to host viraemia duration and vector lifespan in a drier climate. The first epizootic peak was primarily sensitive to viraemia duration and thus likely to be controlled by vaccination, whereas subsequent peaks were sensitive to vector lifespan and biting rate in a tropical climate, and to host birth rate and viraemia duration in arid climates. Finally, we parameterized the model according to Mayotte known environment. Mosquito captures estimated the abundance of eight potential RVF vectors. Review of RVF competence studies on these species allowed adjusting transmission probabilities per bite. Ruminant serological data since 2004 and three new cross-sectional seroprevalence studies are presented. Transmission rates had to be divided by more than five to best fit observed data. Five years after introduction, RVF persisted in more than 10% of the simulations, even under this scenario of low transmission. Hence, active surveillance must be maintained to better understand the risk related to RVF persistence and to prevent new introductions.

  5. Interannual variations in length of day and atmospheric angular momentum, and their seasonal associations with El Niño/Southern Oscillation-like sea surface temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefeng; Xiao, Ziniu; Shi, Wenjing; Zhong, Qi; Wang, Qiguang; Li, Huanlian

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the seasonal connections between the interannual variations in LOD (length of day)/AAMglobe (the relative atmospheric angular momentum for the whole globe) and the ENSO-like SST (El Niño/Southern Oscillation-like sea surface temperature) pattern and corresponding zonal and vertical circulations. Consistent with previous studies, the ENSO-like SST impact the following season LOD/AAMglobe, with the strongest correlations in DJF (December, January, and February), when it is likely to be the peak El Niño/La Niña period. Lag correlations between the interannual variations in LOD/AAMglobe and surface temperature, and the interannual variations in LOD and both zonal circulation and vertical airflow around the equator, consistently indicate that the LOD/AAMglobe reflect the potential impacts of variations in the Earth's rotation rate on the following season's sea surface temperatures (SST) over the tropical central and eastern Pacific (where the ENSO-like SST pattern is located). Moreover, the centers of strongest variation in the AAMcolumn (the relative atmospheric angular momentum for an air column and the unit mass over a square meter) are located over the mid-latitudinal North Pacific in DJF and MAM (March, April, and May), and over the mid-latitudinal South Pacific in JJA (June, July, and August) and SON (September, October, and November). This suggests that the AAMcolumn over the mid-latitudinal Pacific around 30°N (30°S) dominate the modulation of Earth's rotation rate, and then impact the variations in LOD during DJF and MAM (JJA and SON).

  6. Using principal component analysis and annual seasonal trend analysis to assess karst rocky desertification in southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Xiao, Yi; Xiao, Yang; Xu, Weihua

    2017-06-01

    Increasing exploitation of karst resources is causing severe environmental degradation because of the fragility and vulnerability of karst areas. By integrating principal component analysis (PCA) with annual seasonal trend analysis (ASTA), this study assessed karst rocky desertification (KRD) within a spatial context. We first produced fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data from a moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer normalized difference vegetation index using a dimidiate pixel model. Then, we generated three main components of the annual FVC data using PCA. Subsequently, we generated the slope image of the annual seasonal trends of FVC using median trend analysis. Finally, we combined the three PCA components and annual seasonal trends of FVC with the incidence of KRD for each type of carbonate rock to classify KRD into one of four categories based on K-means cluster analysis: high, moderate, low, and none. The results of accuracy assessments indicated that this combination approach produced greater accuracy and more reasonable KRD mapping than the average FVC based on the vegetation coverage standard. The KRD map for 2010 indicated that the total area of KRD was 78.76 × 103 km2, which constitutes about 4.06% of the eight southwest provinces of China. The largest KRD areas were found in Yunnan province. The combined PCA and ASTA approach was demonstrated to be an easily implemented, robust, and flexible method for the mapping and assessment of KRD, which can be used to enhance regional KRD management schemes or to address assessment of other environmental issues.

  7. Diet of Mysis diluviana reveals seasonal patterns of omnivory and consumption of invasive species in offshore Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Brian P.; Bunnell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in Lake Michigan’s lower trophic levels were hypothesized to have influenced the diet of omnivorous Mysis diluviana. In this study, the stomach contents of Mysis were examined from juvenile and adults collected monthly (April–October) from a 110-m bottom depth site to describe their seasonal diet in LakeMichigan during 2010. Diatoms were the most common prey item ingested, followed by calanoid copepods, and chrysophytes. Dreissenid veligers were documented in mysid diets for the first time in the Great Lakes, and Cercopagis pengoi were not only consumed but even preferred by adults in summer. Diet proportions by weight were dominated by calanoids, although diets showed a marked shift toward cladocerans in autumn. Juvenile and adult Mysis selected primarily for cladoceran prey but also selected for some calanoid copepod taxa. Comparing available Mysis diet data from 1985 to 2010 indicated generally fewer cladocerans and rotifers per gut and less consistent differences in copepods and Peridinium consumed. The seasonal composition of phyto- and zooplankton prey documented herein should be useful to those seeking to understand the trophic role of Mysis in offshore food webs, but caution should be expressed when generalizing similarities in Mysis diets across other lakes because Lake Michigan’s population seems relatively more herbivorous.

  8. Seasonal variation and gender pattern of phenolic and flavonoid contents in Pistacia chinensis Bunge inflorescences and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lele; Yang, Minglei; Gao, Junlan; Jin, Shan; Wu, Zhengyan; Wu, Lifang; Zhang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Pistacia chinensis Bunge (P. chinensis) is a deciduous and dioecious perennial arbor of the family Anacardiaceae that flowers from March to April and bears fruit from September to October. There are three rapidly growing stages in the annual growth process of P. chinensis. However, the knowledge of the secondary metabolites related to P. chinensis gender and growth season remains scant. In this study, HPLC was used to qualitatively and quantitatively determine the content of the catechin hydrate, rutin, quercetin, and kaempferol contents in male and female tree inflorescences and leaves. Total phenolics and flavonoids were also detected using a spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the contents of these compounds fluctuated with seasons and they reached the highest levels in nascent leaves. The fluctuations of these compounds followed different pathways of evolution, by increasing or decreasing in male and female trees throughout the whole growth process because they had their own biological functions. Moreover, the extracts exhibited DPPH radical scavenging bioactivity and showed no significant cytotoxicity towards 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Together, these results demonstrated that P. chinensis has great potential as an antioxidant medicine, and the best harvest time is in the spring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in the Netherlands : A prospective and retrospective study of seasonal mood variation in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mersch, PPA; Middendorp, HM; Bouhuys, AL; Beersma, DGM; van den Hoofdakker, RH; Middendorp, Hermine M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in The Netherlands. Methods: The subjects (n = 5356), randomly selected from community registers, were given the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and the Centre for Epidemiological

  10. Seasonal patterns in metazoan parasite community of the "Fat Sleeper" Dormitator latifrons (Pisces: Eleotridae from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Violante-González

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Dormitator is among the most important fish genera in the Mexican Pacific coastal lagoon systems. In Tres Palos Lagoon, the Fat Sleeper Dormitator latifrons is one of the most significant species based on catch volume, although it is only consumed locally. Very little information exists on this species’ parasitofauna. Composition and temporal variation in the metazoan parasite community structure of Dormitator latifrons from Tres Palos Lagoon (99º47’ W, 16º48’ N, Guerrero, Mexico, were determined using seasonal samples taken between April 2000 and June 2002. Ten parasite species (55 817 individuals were recovered from 219 examined hosts. These species included eight helminths (Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa, Echinochasmus leopoldinae, Clinostomum complanatum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Saccocoelioides lamothei, Parvitaenia cochlearii, Contracaecum sp. and Neoechinorhynchus golvani and two crustaceans (Argulus sp. and Ergasilus sp.. Five of the helminth species exhibited seasonal variation in their infection dynamics associated with environmental changes during the dry and rainy seasons. The variations in the infection dynamics generated changes in the community structure over time. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1419-1427. Epub 2008 September 30.Entre abril del 2000 y junio del 2002 se efectuó un estudio para determinar la composición y la variación temporal en la estructura de la comunidad de parásitos metazoarios del popoyote Dormitator latifrons en la laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México, a partir de muestras temporales. Se recuperaron diez especies de parásitos (55 817 individuos de 219 hospederos examinados. Estas especies incluyeron ocho helmintos (Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa, Echinochasmus leopoldinae, Clinostomum complanatum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Saccocoelioides lamothei, Parvitaenia cochlearii, Contracaecum sp. y Neoechinorhynchus golvani y dos crustáceos (Argulus sp. y Ergasilus sp.. Cinco de las especies de

  11. Spatial-temporal reproducibility assessment of global seasonal forecasting system version 5 model for Dam Inflow forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, S.; Suh, A. S.; Soohee, H.

    2016-12-01

    The GloSea5(Global Seasonal forecasting system version 5) is provided and operated by the KMA(Korea Meteorological Administration). GloSea5 provides Forecast(FCST) and Hindcast(HCST) data and its horizontal resolution is about 60km (0.83° x 0.56°) in the mid-latitudes. In order to use this data in watershed-scale water management, GloSea5 needs spatial-temporal downscaling. As such, statistical downscaling was used to correct for systematic biases of variables and to improve data reliability. HCST data is provided in ensemble format, and the highest statistical correlation(R2 = 0.60, RMSE = 88.92, NSE = 0.57) of ensemble precipitation was reported for the Yongdam Dam watershed on the #6 grid. Additionally, the original GloSea5(600.1mm) showed the greatest difference(-26.5%) compared to observations(816.1mm) during the summer flood season. However, downscaled GloSea5 was shown to have only a ?3.1% error rate. Most of the underestimated results corresponded to precipitation levels during the flood season and the downscaled GloSea5 showed important results of restoration in precipitation levels. Per the analysis results of spatial autocorrelation using seasonal Moran's I, the spatial distribution was shown to be statistically significant. These results can improve the uncertainty of original GloSea5 and substantiate its spatial-temporal accuracy and validity. The spatial-temporal reproducibility assessment will play a very important role as basic data for watershed-scale water management.

  12. VHF radar observation of atmospheric winds, associated shears and C2n at a tropical location: interdependence and seasonal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Jain

    Full Text Available The turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n is an important parameter of the atmosphere. VHF radars have been used extensively for the measurements of C2n. Presently, most of such observations are from mid and high latitudes and only very limited observations are available for equatorial and tropical latitudes. Indian MST radar is an excellent tool for making high-resolution measurements of atmospheric winds, associated shears and turbulence refractivity structure constant (C2n. This radar is located at Gadanki (13.45° N, 79.18° E, a tropical station in India. The objective of this paper is to bring out the height structure of C2n for different seasons using the long series of data (September 1995 – August 1999 from Indian MST radar. An attempt is also made to understand such changes in the height structure of C2n in relation to background atmospheric parameters such as horizontal winds and associated shears. The height structure of C2n, during the summer monsoon and post-monsoon season, shows specific height features that are found to be related to Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ winds. It is important to examine the nature of the radar back-scatterers and also to understand the causative mechanism of such scatterers. Aspect sensitivity of the received radar echo is examined for this purpose. It is observed that radar back-scatterers at the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric heights are more anisotropic, with horizontal correlation length of 10–20 m, as compared to those observed at lower and middle tropospheric heights.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology; tropical meteorology; turbulence

  13. Joint pattern of seasonal hydrological droughts and floods alternation in China's Huai River Basin using the multivariate L-moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ShaoFei; Zhang, Xiang; She, DunXian

    2017-06-01

    Under the current condition of climate change, droughts and floods occur more frequently, and events in which flooding occurs after a prolonged drought or a drought occurs after an extreme flood may have a more severe impact on natural systems and human lives. This challenges the traditional approach wherein droughts and floods are considered separately, which may largely underestimate the risk of the disasters. In our study, the sudden alternation of droughts and flood events (ADFEs) between adjacent seasons is studied using the multivariate L-moments theory and the bivariate copula functions in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China with monthly streamflow data at 32 hydrological stations from 1956 to 2012. The dry and wet conditions are characterized by the standardized streamflow index (SSI) at a 3-month time scale. The results show that: (1) The summer streamflow makes the largest contribution to the annual streamflow, followed by the autumn streamflow and spring streamflow. (2) The entire study area can be divided into five homogeneous sub-regions using the multivariate regional homogeneity test. The generalized logistic distribution (GLO) and log-normal distribution (LN3) are acceptable to be the optimal marginal distributions under most conditions, and the Frank copula is more appropriate for spring-summer and summer-autumn SSI series. Continuous flood events dominate at most sites both in spring-summer and summer-autumn (with an average frequency of 13.78% and 17.06%, respectively), while continuous drought events come second (with an average frequency of 11.27% and 13.79%, respectively). Moreover, seasonal ADFEs most probably occurred near the mainstream of HRB, and drought and flood events are more likely to occur in summer-autumn than in spring-summer.

  14. Moss functioning in different taiga ecosystems in interior Alaska : I. Seasonal, phenotypic, and drought effects on photosynthesis and response patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skre, O; Oechel, W C

    1981-02-01

    Carbon dioxide exchange rates in excised 2-year-old shoot sections of five common moss species were measured by infrared gas analysis in mosses collected from different stands of mature vegetation near Fairbanks, Alaska. The maximum rates of net photosynthesis ranged from 2.65 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in Polytrichum commune Hedw. to 0.25 in Spagnum nemoreum Scop. Intermediate values were found in Sphagnum subsecundum Nees., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) B.S.G., and Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. Dark respiration rates at 15°C ranged from 0.24 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in S. subsecundum to 0.57 mg CO 2 g -1 h -1 in H. splendens. The dark respiration rates were found to increase in periods of growth or restoration of tissue (i.e., after desiccation). There was a strong decrease in the rates of net photosynthesis during the winter and after long periods of desiccation.Due to increasing amounts of young, photosynthetically active tissue there was a gradual increase in the rates of net photosynthesis during the season to maximum values in late August. As an apparent result of constant respiration rates and increasing gross photosynthetic rates, the optimum temperature for photosynthesis at light saturation and field capacity increased during the season in all species except Polytrichum, with a corresponding drop in the compensation light intensities. Sphagnum subsecundum seemed to be the most light-dependent species.Leaf water content was found to be an important limiting factor for photosynthesis in the field. A comparison between sites showed that the maximum rates of net photosynthesis increased with increasing nutrient content in the soil but at the permafrostfree sites photosynthesis was inhibited by frequent moisture stress.

  15. Seasonal pattern of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and mortality in Lithobates areolatus: affirmation of Vredenburg's "10,000 zoospore rule".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa C Kinney

    Full Text Available To fully comprehend chytridiomycosis, the amphibian disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, it is essential to understand how Bd affects amphibians throughout their remarkable range of life histories. Crawfish Frogs (Lithobates areolatus are a typical North American pond-breeding species that forms explosive spring breeding aggregations in seasonal and semipermanent wetlands. But unlike most species, when not breeding Crawfish Frogs usually live singly--in nearly total isolation from conspecifics--and obligately in burrows dug by crayfish. Crayfish burrows penetrate the water table, and therefore offer Crawfish Frogs a second, permanent aquatic habitat when not breeding. Over the course of two years we sampled for the presence of Bd in Crawfish Frog adults. Sampling was conducted seasonally, as animals moved from post-winter emergence through breeding migrations, then back into upland burrow habitats. During our study, 53% of Crawfish Frog breeding adults tested positive for Bd in at least one sample; 27% entered breeding wetlands Bd positive; 46% exited wetlands Bd positive. Five emigrating Crawfish Frogs (12% developed chytridiomycosis and died. In contrast, all 25 adult frogs sampled while occupying upland crayfish burrows during the summer tested Bd negative. One percent of postmetamorphic juveniles sampled were Bd positive. Zoospore equivalents/swab ranged from 0.8 to 24,436; five out of eight frogs with zoospore equivalents near or >10,000 are known to have died. In summary, Bd infection rates in Crawfish Frog populations ratchet up from near zero during the summer to over 25% following overwintering; rates then nearly double again during and just after breeding--when mortality occurs--before the infection wanes during the summer. Bd-negative postmetamorphic juveniles may not be exposed again to this pathogen until they take up residence in crayfish burrows, or until their first breeding, some years later.

  16. Seasonal flows of international British Columbia-Alaska rivers: The nonlinear influence of ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Sean W.; Hood, Eran; Dalhke, Helen; O'Neel, Shad

    2016-01-01

    The northern portion of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest (PCTR) is one of the least anthropogenically modified regions on earth and remains in many respects a frontier area to science. Rivers crossing the northern PCTR, which is also an international boundary region between British Columbia, Canada and Alaska, USA, deliver large freshwater and biogeochemical fluxes to the Gulf of Alaska and establish linkages between coastal and continental ecosystems. We evaluate interannual flow variability in three transboundary PCTR watersheds in response to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO). Historical hydroclimatic datasets from both Canada and the USA are analyzed using an up-to-date methodological suite accommodating both seasonally transient and highly nonlinear teleconnections. We find that streamflow teleconnections occur over particular seasonal windows reflecting the intersection of specific atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic processes. The strongest signal is a snowmelt-driven flow timing shift resulting from ENSO- and PDO-associated temperature anomalies. Autumn rainfall runoff is also modulated by these climate modes, and a glacier-mediated teleconnection contributes to a late-summer ENSO-flow association. Teleconnections between AO and freshet flows reflect corresponding temperature and precipitation anomalies. A coherent NPGO signal is not clearly evident in streamflow. Linear and monotonically nonlinear teleconnections were widely identified, with less evidence for the parabolic effects that can play an important role elsewhere. The streamflow teleconnections did not vary greatly between hydrometric stations, presumably reflecting broad similarities in watershed characteristics. These results establish a regional foundation for both transboundary water management and studies of long-term hydroclimatic and environmental change.

  17. SEASONAL AND DIURNAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) COMMUNITIES IN A VEGETATION TRANSITION REGION OF SOUTHEASTERN NEW MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The densities of active ant colonies were estimated in three habitats: creosotebush shrubland, grassland, and shinnery-oak mesquite dunes. Diurnal foraging patterns were studied at bait boards. Species richness of ant communities in this transitional region (8-12 species) was co...

  18. Effects of hydrographic variability on the spatial, seasonal and diel diving patterns of southern elephant seals in the eastern Weddell Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Biuw

    Full Text Available Weddell Sea hydrography and circulation is driven by influx of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC at its eastern margin. Entrainment and upwelling of this high-nutrient, oxygen-depleted water mass within the Weddell Gyre also supports the mesopelagic ecosystem within the gyre and the rich benthic community along the Antarctic shelf. We used Conductivity-Temperature-Depth Satellite Relay Data Loggers (CTD-SRDLs to examine the importance of hydrographic variability, ice cover and season on the movements and diving behavior of southern elephant seals in the eastern Weddell Sea region during their overwinter feeding trips from Bouvetøya. We developed a model describing diving depth as a function of local time of day to account for diel variation in diving behavior. Seals feeding in pelagic ice-free waters during the summer months displayed clear diel variation, with daytime dives reaching 500-1500 m and night-time targeting of the subsurface temperature and salinity maxima characteristic of CDW around 150-300 meters. This pattern was especially clear in the Weddell Cold and Warm Regimes within the gyre, occurred in the ACC, but was absent at the Dronning Maud Land shelf region where seals fed benthically. Diel variation was almost absent in pelagic feeding areas covered by winter sea ice, where seals targeted deep layers around 500-700 meters. Thus, elephant seals appear to switch between feeding strategies when moving between oceanic regimes or in response to seasonal environmental conditions. While they are on the shelf, they exploit the locally-rich benthic ecosystem, while diel patterns in pelagic waters in summer are probably a response to strong vertical migration patterns within the copepod-based pelagic food web. Behavioral flexibility that permits such switching between different feeding strategies may have important consequences regarding the potential for southern elephant seals to adapt to

  19. Assessment methods of injection moulded nano-patterned surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, S.; Bisacco, G.; Hansen, H. N.

    2014-01-01

    algorithm for feature recognition. To compare the methods, the mould insert and a number of replicated nano-patterned surfaces, injection moulded with an induction heating aid, were measured on nominally identical locations by means of an atomic force microscope mounted on a manual CMM....

  20. Assessment of Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Sex Distribution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to find out the possibility of a unique pattern of palm and finger prints (Dermatoglyphics) among 192 adults (96 males and 96 females) of Esan origin who, at the time of this study, were residing in Esan-land - the central senatorial district of Edo state, Nigeria. The subjects were selected via ...

  1. The assessment of ambient air pollution pattern in Shah Alam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study implements the statistical analysis to establish the association between air pollution trends with the industrial activities in Shah Alam, Selangor. PCA used to identify most significant parameters contributing to air pollution and it sources of pollutions, whereas SPC used to determine the pattern and contribution ...

  2. Assessment of Pattern of Cigarette Smoking and Associated Factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The WHO has estimated that there are about 1,300 million smokers globally and about 75% of these are in the developing countries. It is also predicted that if the current pattern of smoking continues, by 2020, there will be 10 million tobacco-related deaths annually worldwide and seven million (70%) of these ...

  3. Femoral neck fractures: A prospective assessment of the pattern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To review the pattern of femoral neck fractures, complications and outcome following fixation with Austin-Moore endoprosthesis. METHOD: A two year prospective study in patients who had fracture of the femoral neck based on strict inclusion criteria. All the patients were treated by Austin-Moore ...

  4. Pattern Recognition for Reliability Assessment of Water Distribution Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifunović, N.

    2012-01-01

    The study presented in this manuscript investigates the patterns that describe reliability of water distribution networks focusing to the node connectivity, energy balance, and economics of construction, operation and maintenance. A number of measures to evaluate the network resilience has been

  5. Assessment of errors and uncertainty patterns in GIA modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Spada, G.

    , such as time-evolving shorelines and paleo-coastlines. In this study we quantify these uncertainties and their propagation in GIA response using a Monte Carlo approach to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of GIA errors. A direct application is the error estimates in ice mass balance in Antarctica and Greenland...

  6. Assessment of errors and uncertainty patterns in GIA modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Spada, G.

    2012-01-01

    , such as time-evolving shorelines and paleo coastlines. In this study we quantify these uncertainties and their propagation in GIA response using a Monte Carlo approach to obtain spatio-temporal patterns of GIA errors. A direct application is the error estimates in ice mass balance in Antarctica and Greenland...

  7. A longitudinal study of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in an urban population of Rattus norvegicus in Brazil: the influences of seasonality and host features on the pattern of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Raquel O; Maldonado Júnior, Arnaldo; Olifiers, Natalie; Garcia, Juberlan S; Bertolino, Ana Valéria F A; Luque, José L

    2014-03-10

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic parasite and the most important cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide in humans. In Brazil, this disease has been reported in the states of Espírito Santo and Pernambuco. The parasite has been detected in the naturally infected intermediate host, in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. The murid Rattus norvegicus R. rattus were recently reported to be naturally infected in Brazil. In this study, we conducted a two-year investigation of the dissemination pattern of A. cantonensis in R. norvegicus in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and examined the influence of seasonality, year, host weight and host gender on parasitological parameters of A. cantonensis in rats. The study was conducted in an area of Trindade, São Gonçalo municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Prevalence of infected rats, intensity and abundance of A. cantonensis were calculated, and generalized linear models were created and compared to verify the contribution of host gender, host weight, year and seasonality to the variations in A. cantonensis abundance and prevalence in rats. The prevalence of A. cantonensis infection was stable during the rainy (71%, CI 58.9- 81.6) and dry seasons (71%, CI 57.9-80.8) and was higher in older rats and in females. Seasonality, host weight (used as a proxy of animal age) and gender were all contributing factors to variation in parasite abundance, with females and heavier (older) animals showing larger abundance of parasites, and extreme values of parasite abundance being more frequent in the dry season. The high prevalence of this parasite throughout the study suggests that its transmission is stable and that conditions are adequate for the spread of the parasite to previously unaffected areas. Dispersion of the parasite to new areas may be mediated by males that tend to have larger dispersal ability, while females may be more important for maintaining the parasite on

  8. Seasonal variation in water uptake patterns of three plant species based on stable isotopes in the semi-arid Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Fu, Bojie; Lu, Nan; Zhang, Li

    2017-12-31

    Water is a limiting factor and significant driving force for ecosystem processes in arid and semi-arid areas. Knowledge of plant water uptake pattern is indispensable for understanding soil-plant interactions and species coexistence. The 'Grain for Green' project that started in 1999 in the Loess Plateau of China has led to large scale vegetation change. However, little is known about the water uptake patterns of the main plant species that inhabit in this region. In this study, the seasonal variations in water uptake patterns of three representative plant species, Stipa bungeana, Artemisia gmelinii and Vitex negundo, that are widely distributed in the semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau, were identified by using dual stable isotopes of δ2H and δ18O in plant and soil water coupled with a Bayesian mixing model MixSIAR. The soil water at the 0-120cm depth contributed 79.54±6.05% and 79.94±8.81% of the total water uptake of S. bungeana and A. gmelinii, respectively, in the growing season. The 0-40cm soil contributed the most water in July (74.20±15.20%), and the largest proportion of water (33.10±15.20%) was derived from 120-300cm soils in August for A. gmelinii. However, V. negundo obtained water predominantly from surface soil horizons (0-40cm) and then switched to deep soil layers (120-300cm) as the season progressed. This suggested that V. negundo has a greater degree of ecological plasticity as it could explore water sources from deeper soils as the water stress increased. This capacity can mainly be attributed to its functionally dimorphic root system. V. negundo may have a competitive advantage when encountering short-term drought. The ecological plasticity of plant water use needs to be considered in plant species selection and ecological management and restoration of the arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the Loess Plateau. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reflectance–Elevation Relationships and Their Seasonal Patterns over Twelve Glaciers in Western China Based on Landsat 8 Data

    OpenAIRE

    Xinwu Li; Wenjin Wu; Baiqing Xu; Siyang Yin; Ruifang Yang; Shu Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Albedo/reflectance is of great importance for glaciers’ mass balance and energy budget. Elevation could be a major factor of influence for glacier reflectance, and therefore when studying glacier reflectance, the altitude ranges should be considered. However, due to the limitations of traditional earth observation systems, conventional analyses usually consider the spatial and temporal patterns of the reflectance average, which is severely restricted. The launch of Landsat-8 gives us the oppo...

  10. Seasonal variability of the drought phenomena in the Danube River catchment area and its relationship with large-scale anomaly patterns in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelcea, Silvia; Ionita, Monica; Scholz, Patrick; Rimbu, Norel

    2013-04-01

    Seasonal variability of the drought phenomena in the Danube River catchment area and its relationship with the large-scale climate anomaly patterns for the spring season (March-May) is investigated trough a statistical analysis of the self calibrated Palmer drought severity index (scPDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and global climate anomaly fields. Empirical orthogonal functions analysis (EOFs) was employed to study the spatio-temporal variability of the drought phenomena over the Danube River catchment area. The first EOF mode (EOF1) for both scPDSI and SPEI shows a monopolar structure with negative loadings all over the catchment area, while the second EOF (EOF2) shows a dipole structure between the western part and the eastern part of the catchment area. A composite analysis reveals that the drought conditions, in spring, over the whole catchment area (corresponding to EOF1) are related to a sea surface temperature pattern characterized by positive SST anomalies over the eastern part of the U.S. coast and the western part of the European coast and negative SST anomalies over the central and the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The corresponding atmospheric circulation pattern is characterized by negative Geopotential Height at 500 mb (Z500) over Greenland and positive Z500 anomalies over the central Atlantic Ocean extending up to the whole European continent. Dry (wet) conditions over the western (eastern) part of the Danube River catchment area, related to the second mode of variability (EOF2), are related with a more regional SST pattern characterized by negative SST anomalies over the eastern coast of U.S and the Mediterranean Sea and positive SST anomalies over the western coast of Europe. The corresponding Z500 pattern is characterized by a center of positive Z500 anomalies over the British Isles and the north-western part of Europe and negative Z500 anomalies over the southern part of Europe. A wavelet analysis

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries of China: Distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinxia; Liu, Jingling; Shi, Xuan; You, Xiaoguang; Cao, Zhiguo

    2016-08-15

    The distribution, seasonal variations and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water from three estuaries in Hai River Basin of China, which has been suffering from different anthropogenic pressures, were investigated. In three estuaries, the average concentration of ΣPAHs was the lowest in Luan River estuary, followed by Hai River estuary, and the highest in Zhangweixin River estuary. There were significant seasonal variations in ΣPAHs, the concentrations of ΣPAHs were higher in November than in May and August. The composition profiles of PAHs in different sites were significantly different, and illustrated seasonal variations. Generally, 2-ring (Nap) and 3-ring PAHs (Acp, Fl and Phe) were the most abundant components at most sampling sites in three estuaries. The PAHs in three estuaries were mainly originated from pyrogenic sources. A method based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and risk quotient (RQ) was proposed to assess the ecological risk of ΣPAHs, with the ecological risk of individual PAHs being considered separately. The results showed that the ecological risks caused by ΣPAHs were high in Hai River estuary and Zhangweixin River estuary, and moderate in Luan River estuary. The mean values of ecological risk in August were lower than those in November. The contributions of individual PAHs to ecological risk were different in May, August and November. 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs accounted for much more ecological risk than 2-ring, 5-ring and 6-ring, although the contributions of 5-ring and 6-ring to ecological risk were higher than these to PAHs concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Objective assessment of dietary patterns by use of metabolic phenotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Gibson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised that metabo......BACKGROUND: Accurate monitoring of changes in dietary patterns in response to food policy implementation is challenging. Metabolic profiling allows simultaneous measurement of hundreds of metabolites in urine, the concentrations of which can be affected by food intake. We hypothesised...... that metabolic profiles of urine samples developed under controlled feeding conditions reflect dietary intake and can be used to model and classify dietary patterns of free-living populations. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, crossover trial, we recruited healthy volunteers (aged 21-65 years, BMI 20......-35 kg/m(2)) from a database of a clinical research unit in the UK. We developed four dietary interventions with a stepwise variance in concordance with the WHO healthy eating guidelines that aim to prevent non-communicable diseases (increase fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dietary fibre; decrease...

  13. A quantitative assessment of changes in seasonal potential predictability for the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan, M. Azhar; Kang, In-Sik; Almazroui, Mansour; Abid, M. Adnan; Kucharski, Fred

    2013-11-01

    Changes over the twentieth century in seasonal mean potential predictability (PP) of global precipitation, 200 hPa height and land surface temperature are examined by using 100-member ensemble. The ensemble simulations have been conducted by using an intermediate complexity atmospheric general circulation model of the International Center for Theoretical Physics, Italy. Using the Hadley Centre sea surface temperature (SST) dataset on a 1° grid, two 31 year periods of 1920-1950 and 1970-2000 are separated to distinguish the periods of low and high SST variability, respectively. The standard deviation values averaged for the (“Niño-3.4”; 5°S-5°N, 170°W-120°W) region are 0.71 and 1.15 °C, for the periods of low and high SST variability, respectively, with a percentage change of 62 % during December-January-February (DJF). The leading eigenvector and the associated principal component time series, also indicate that the amplitude of SST variations have positive trend since 1920s to recent years, particularly over the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) region. Our hypothesis states that the increase in SST variability has increased the PP for precipitation, 200 hPa height and land surface temperature during the DJF. The analysis of signal and noise shows that the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio is much increased over most of the globe, particularly over the tropics and subtropics for DJF precipitation. This occurs because of a larger increase in the signal and at the same time a reduction in the noise, over most of the tropical areas. For 200 hPa height, the S/N ratio over the Pacific North American (PNA) region is increasing more than that for the other extratropical regions, because of a larger percentage increase in the signal and only a small increase in noise. It is also found that the increase in seasonal mean transient signal over the PNA region is 50 %, while increase in the noise is only 12 %, during the high SST variability period, which indicates

  14. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  15. Assessment of Unusual Gigantic Jets observed during the Monsoon season: First observations from Indian Subcontinent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet K.; Chanrion, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Gigantic Jets are electric discharges from thunderstorm cloud tops to the bottom of ionosphere at similar to 90 km altitude and electrically connect the troposphere and lower ionosphere. Since their first report in 2002, sporadic observations have been reported from ground and space based...... observations. Here we report first observations of Gigantic Jets in Indian subcontinent over the Indo-Gangetic plains during the monsoon season. Two storms each produced two jets with characteristics not documented so far. Jets propagated similar to 37 km up remarkably in similar to 5 ms with velocity...... of these Gigantic jets suggests that Gigantic Jets may bend when initiated at the edge of clouds with misaligned vertical charge distribution....

  16. Trophic pathways supporting juvenile Chinook and Coho salmon in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska: patterns of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial resource use across a seasonally dynamic habitat mosaic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, Kristin M.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Schoen, Erik R.; Nightengale, Timothy L.; Stricker, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Contributions of terrestrial-, freshwater-, and marine-derived prey resources to stream fishes vary over time and space, altering the energy pathways that regulate production. In this study, we determined large-scale use of these resources by juvenile Chinook and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and Oncorhynchus kisutch, respectively) in the glacial Susitna River, Alaska. We resolved spatial and temporal trophic patterns among multiple macrohabitat types along a 97 km segment of the river corridor via stable isotope and stomach content analyses. Juvenile salmon were supported primarily by freshwater-derived resources and secondarily by marine and terrestrial sources. The relative contribution of marine-derived prey to rearing salmon was greatest in the fall within off-channel macrohabitats, whereas the contributions of terrestrial invertebrate prey were generally greatest during midsummer, across all macrohabitats. No longitudinal (upstream–downstream) diet pattern was discernable. These results highlight large-scale spatial and seasonal patterns of energy flow and the dynamic interplay of pulsed marine and terrestrial prey subsidies to juvenile Chinook and coho salmon in a large, complex, and relatively pristine glacial river.

  17. Assessment of trend and seasonality in road accident data: an Iranian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi, Alireza; Bahrampour, Abbas; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH) and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non-stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  18. Assessment of Trend and Seasonality in Road Accident Data: An Iranian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Zolala

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic accidents and their related deaths have become a major concern, particularly in developing countries. Iran has adopted a series of policies and interventions to control the high number of accidents occurring over the past few years. In this study we used a time series model to understand the trend of accidents, and ascertain the viability of applying ARIMA models on data from Taybad city. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study. We used data from accidents occurring in Taybad between 2007 and 2011. We obtained the data from the Ministry of Health (MOH and used the time series method with a time lag of one month. After plotting the trend, non stationary data in mean and variance were removed using Box-Cox transformation and a differencing method respectively. The ACF and PACF plots were used to control the stationary situation. Results The traffic accidents in our study had an increasing trend over the five years of study. Based on ACF and PACF plots gained after applying Box-Cox transformation and differencing, data did not fit to a time series model. Therefore, neither ARIMA model nor seasonality were observed. Conclusion Traffic accidents in Taybad have an upward trend. In addition, we expected either the AR model, MA model or ARIMA model to have a seasonal trend, yet this was not observed in this analysis. Several reasons may have contributed to this situation, such as uncertainty of the quality of data, weather changes, and behavioural factors that are not taken into account by time series analysis.

  19. Abundance, seasonal patterns and diet of the non-native jellyfish Blackfordia virginica in a Portuguese estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, F.; Chainho, P.; Costa, J. L.; Domingos, I.; Angélico, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Blackfordia virginica, a non-indigenous hydrozoan introduced in many systems around the world, has been observed in the Mira estuary, southwest of Portugal, since 1984. Monthly sampling (January 2013-January 2014) at a fixed location with high abundance of the medusae confirmed the occurrence of a seasonal cycle associated with temperature and photoperiod. The beginning of the medusa cycle occurred in May immediately after the spring zooplankton bloom during April. Examination of the gut contents of B. virginica medusae revealed that copepods, the most abundant group in the zooplankton community, were highly predated. Barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs were also identified in the guts. The medusae showed positive selection for copepods, and negative selection for barnacle nauplii, decapod crustacean larvae and anchovy eggs. The mortality rate of copepods (used as a model prey group) induced by medusae predation was estimated and showed the potential impact of this species in the ecosystem, ranging between 2.34 d-1 and 0.02 d-1, with a minimum copepod half-life of 0.30 days.

  20. Geographical and Seasonal Patterns of Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneol in Environmental Water in Jiangsu Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to obtain the basic data of two common odorants—geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (GSM and 2-MIB—in environmental water. More specifically, the headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS was applied to determine the levels of GSM and 2-MIB in water samples, and the samples were collected depending on water sources, conventional treatment processes, and seasons. The significant difference was shown for the 2-MIB levels of source water P<0.05, the concentrations of GSM and 2-MIB decreased significantly as treatment process of tap water moved forward (P<0.0001, and the significant differences for the levels of GSM and 2-MIB were observed among three sampling periods (P<0.01. The levels of GSM and 2-MIB in all water samples were lower than 10 ng L−1, the odor threshold concentration (OTC, and the conventional treatment process plays a significant role in removing odorants in tap water.

  1. Testosterone and tusks: maturation and seasonal reproductive patterns of live, free-ranging male dugongs (Dugong dugon) in a subtropical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M; Keeley, Tamara

    2012-05-01

    Knowledge of male reproductive status and activity in free-ranging animals is vital to understanding reproductive patterns and population dynamics. Until now, almost all information regarding reproductive behavior of the dugong, a cryptic marine mammal, has relied on post-mortem examination. We examined the relationships between body length, tusk eruption (secondary sexual characteristic), seasonality, and group association on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in 322 free-ranging dugongs (159 males, 163 females) in subtropical Moreton Bay, Australia. Fecal testosterone concentrations demonstrated biologically meaningful differences in testicular activity between sexes and across reproductive/age classes, and were correlated with circulating concentrations in serum. Male dugongs have a pre-reproductive period that persists until a body length of 240 cm is achieved. Puberty apparently occurs between 240 and 260 cm body length when fecal testosterone levels increase fourfold (>500 ng/g) over juvenile levels, and is associated with tusk eruption. However, social maturity may be delayed until male dugongs are larger than 260 cm with well-developed tusks. In mature males, the lowest (testosterone concentrations occur in the austral autumn months with maximal concentrations in September-October, coincident with the onset of a spring mating season. During spring, solitary mature males had fecal testosterone concentrations double those of mature males sampled within groups, potentially suggesting a mating strategy involving roving of reproductively active males. This study demonstrates that single-point physiological data from individuals across a population have value as indicators of reproductive processes. Our approach provides an efficacious non-lethal method for the census of reproductive status and seasonality in live male dugongs.

  2. Effects of Urbanization and Seasonal Cycle on the Surface Urban Heat Island Patterns in the Coastal Growing Cities: A Case Study of Casablanca, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Bahi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon is a harmful environmental problem in urban areas affecting both climatic and ecological processes. This paper aims to highlight and monitor the spatial distribution of Surface UHI (SUHI in the Casablanca region, Morocco, using remote sensing data. To achieve this goal, a time series of Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI-TIRS images was acquired from 1984 to 2016 and analyzed. In addition, nocturnal MODIS images acquired from 2005 to 2015 were used to evaluate the nighttime SUHI. In order to better analyze intense heat produced by urban core, SUHI intensity (SUHII was computed by quantifying the difference of land surface temperature (LST between urban and rural areas. The urban core SUHII appears more significant in winter seasons than during summer, while the pattern of SUHII becomes moderate during intermediate seasons. During winter, the average daytime SUHII gradually increased in the residential area of Casablanca and in some small peri-urban cities by more than 1 °C from 1984 to 2015. The industrial areas of the Casablanca region were affected by a significant rise in SUHII exceeding 15 °C in certain industrial localities. In contrast, daytime SUHII shows a reciprocal effect during summer with emergence of a heat island in rural areas and development of cool islands in urban and peri-urban areas. During nighttime, the SUHII remains positive in urban areas year-round with higher values in winter as compared to summer. The results point out that the seasonal cycle of daytime SUHII as observed in the Casablanca region is different from other mid-latitude cities, where the highest values are often observed in summer during the day.

  3. Overwintering strategies of migratory birds: a novel approach for estimating seasonal movement patterns of residents and transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Kendall, William L.; Saracco, James F.; White, Gary C.

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of movement patterns in wildlife populations has played an important role in current ecological knowledge and can inform landscape conservation decisions. Direct measures of movement can be obtained using marked individuals, but this requires tracking individuals across a landscape or multiple sites.We demonstrate how movements can be estimated indirectly using single-site, capture–mark–recapture (CMR) data with a multi-state open robust design with state uncertainty model (MSORD-SU). We treat residence and transience as two phenotypic states of overwintering migrants and use time- and state-dependent probabilities of site entry and persistence as indirect measures of movement. We applied the MSORD-SU to data on eight species of overwintering Neotropical birds collected in 14 countries between 2002 and 2011. In addition to entry and persistence probabilities, we estimated the proportions of residents at a study site and mean residence times.We identified overwintering movement patterns and residence times that contrasted with prior categorizations of territoriality. Most species showed an evidence of residents entering sites at multiple time intervals, with transients tending to enter between peak resident movement times. Persistence and the proportion of residents varied by latitude, but were not always positively correlated for a given species.Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that migratory songbirds commonly move among habitats during the overwintering period. Substantial proportions of populations appear to be comprised of transient individuals, and residents tend to persist at specific sites for relatively short periods of time. This information on persistence and movement patterns should be explored for specific habitats to guide landscape management on the wintering grounds, such as determining which habitats are conserved or restored as part of certification programmes of tropical agroforestry crops. We suggest that

  4. Inter- and size-specific patterns of fish seasonal migration between a shallow lake and its streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Christian; Brodersen, J.; Nilsson, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    This study used passive telemetry (passive integrated transponders) to evaluate winter migration in three species of cyprinids (roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), white bream (Blicca bjoerkna (L.)) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus (L.))) and their potential predators (pike (Esox lucius (L.......)) and perch (Perca fluviatilis (L.))) between a shallow lake and its streams. Migration patterns were investigated from October to June, and a substantial part of the roach (40%) and white bream (55%) populations tagged in the lake during autumn migrated during winter into the streams, whereas only very few...... piscivores (white bream, only few rudd (

  5. Assessing dissolved methane patterns in central New York groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren E. McPhillips

    2014-07-01

    New hydrological insights for this region: There was no significant difference between methane concentrations in valleys versus upslope locations, in water wells less than or greater than 1 km from a conventional gas well, and across different geohydrologic units. Methane concentrations were significantly higher in groundwater dominated by sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate compared with groundwater dominated by calcium bicarbonate, indicating bedrock interactions and lengthy residence times as controls. A multivariate regression model of dissolved methane using only three variables (sodium, hardness, and barium explained 77% of methane variability, further emphasizing the dominance of geochemistry and hydrogeology as controls on baseline methane patterns.

  6. Seasonal pattern of source and transport processes of natural and anthropic surfactants in coastal aerosol (Tuscany coast - Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becagli, Silvia; Ghedini, Costanza; Peeters, Stephane; Rottiers, Andre; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto; Jalba, Adriana; Dayan, Uri; Temara, Ali

    2010-05-01

    the fine and the coarse aerosol fractions indicated different sources and transport processes. MBAS concentrations show a clear maximum during the winter months in the fine fraction (PM 2.5) and summer maxima in the coarse (PM 10-2.5) fraction, and considering the prevailing different synoptic conditions in the different seasons, we suppose that MBAS have different dominant sources in the two seasons: in winter, MBAS likely originated from polluted continental areas, in the summer MBAS probably reflected the production of biogenic surfactants in the water mass during algal blooms or increased activity in the sea grass meadow. Low but detectable LAS concentrations could be measured mainly in the coarse fraction of the collected coastal aerosols. The data indicate a primary source of LAS, probably originating from the sea surface microlayer in coastal regions receiving untreated waste water discharge. Then, MBAS signal was not an appropriate surrogate measurement of LAS in aerosols. MBAS and LAS can have a primary marine source, but MBAS can be considered a marker of biogenic activity while LAS can be used as a marker of anthropogenic activity in areas receiving waste water discharges.

  7. Seasonality of flood events in a changing climate - An uncertainty assessment for Europe through the combination of different climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Stephanie; Voß, Frank; Schneider, Christof

    2010-05-01

    Global climate models (GCMs) project an increasing intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events due to climate change. As a result, the frequency and magnitude of severe flood events is expected to increase in many regions. Furthermore, a change in the seasonality of flood events can be anticipated. In regions that regularly experience snowmelt floods, for instance, temperature increase will lead to a decreased snow accumulation and to a shortened duration of the snowpack. Thus, the risk of spring floods may be reduced. This study aims to estimate the impact of the projected climate change on the seasonality of flood events in the European region. For this purpose large scale river discharge simulations were carried out with the integrated, global model WaterGAP3 (Water - Global Assessment and Prognosis) with a spatial resolution of the grid cells of 5'. WaterGAP3 couples a hydrological model for the simulation of the terrestrial water cycle with a water use model that computes withdrawal and consumptive water use of the sectors manufacturing, electricity production, agriculture and private households. Thus, on the basis of daily climate input parameters with a spatial resolution of 0.5° and downscaled to the 5' grid scale level daily stream flow was simulated and analyzed. First, the seasonality of flood events of defined recurrence periods was determined for the reference period 1961-1990 and validated against measured river discharge data. Subsequently, WaterGAP3 was forced with bias corrected time series originating from simulation runs of different GCMs for the scenario period 2071-2100. To asses the uncertainty that arises from the GCM output used as input forcing to the hydrological model, the calculations were carried out for three different GCMs (Echam5, CNRM, ISLP) and two emission scenarios (A2 and B1 of the IPCC SRES scenarios), respectively. The study demonstrates that the selection of a particular GCM is a major source of uncertainty in assessing

  8. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textiles on a soil surface during summer and winter seasons studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueland, Maiken; Howes, Johanna M.; Forbes, Shari L.; Stuart, Barbara H.

    2017-10-01

    Textiles are a valuable source of forensic evidence and the nature and condition of textiles collected from a crime scene can assist investigators in determining the nature of the death and aid in the identification of the victim. Until now, much of the knowledge of textile degradation in forensic contexts has been based on the visual inspection of material collected from soil environments. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the potential of a more quantitative approach to the understanding of forensic textile degradation through the application of infrared spectroscopy. Degradation patterns of natural and synthetic textile materials as they were subjected to a natural outdoor environment in Australia were investigated. Cotton, polyester and polyester - cotton blend textiles were placed on a soil surface during the summer and winter seasons and were analysed over periods 1 and 1.5 years, respectively, and examined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy. Statistical analysis of the spectral data obtained for the cotton material correlated with visual degradation and a difference in the onset of degradation between the summer and winter season was revealed. The synthetic material did not show any signs of degradation either visually or statistically throughout the experimental period and highlighted the importance of material type in terms of preservation. The cotton section from the polyester - cotton blend samples was found to behave in a similar manner to that of the 100% cotton samples, however principal component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the degradation patterns were less distinct in both the summer and winter trial for the blend samples. These findings indicated that the presence of the synthetic material may have inhibited the degradation of the natural material. The use of statistics to analyse the spectral data obtained for textiles of forensic interest provides a better foundation for the interpretation of the data

  9. Genetics Home Reference: seasonal affective disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is genetic testing? How can I find a genetics professional in my area? Other Names for This Condition affective disorder, seasonal depression in a seasonal pattern depression; seasonal major depressive ...

  10. Factors Affecting Variance in Classroom Assessment Scoring System Scores: Season, Context, and Classroom Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Martha; Han, Myae; Vukelich, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Early care and education programme quality is usually assessed at the classroom level. One such measure of classroom quality is the classroom assessment scoring system (CLASS). In an effort to ensure higher quality programming, the CLASS is being used to direct teacher professional development. However, there has been relatively little research on…

  11. Assessing the Climate Sensitivity of Cold Content and Snowmelt in Seasonal Alpine and Subalpine Snowpacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, K. S.; Molotch, N. P.

    2016-12-01

    In cold, high-elevation sites, snowpack cold content acts as a buffer against climate warming by resisting snowmelt during periods of positive energy fluxes. To test the climate sensitivity of cold content and snowmelt, we employed the physical SNOWPACK snow model, forced with a 23-year, hourly, quality-controlled, gap-filled meteorological dataset from the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in the Front Range mountains of Colorado. SNOWPACK was run at two points with seasonal snowpacks within the LTER, one in the alpine (3528 m) and one in the subalpine (3022 m). Model output was validated using snow water equivalent (SWE), snowpack temperature, and cold content data from snow pits dug near the met stations and automated SWE data from nearby SNOTEL snow pillows. Cold content accumulates primarily through additions of new snow, while negative energy fluxes—cooling through longwave emission and sublimation—play a lesser role, particularly in the deeper snowpack of the alpine. On average, the snowpack energy balance becomes positive on April 1 in the alpine and March 8 in the subalpine. Peak SWE occurs after these dates and its timing is primarily determined by the amount of precipitation received after peak cold content, with persistent snowfall delaying the main snowmelt pulse. Years with lower cold content, due to reduced precipitation and/or increased air temperature, experience an earlier positive energy balance with more melt events occurring before the date of peak SWE, which has implications for soil moisture, streamflow volume and timing, water uptake by vegetation, and microbial respiration. Synthetic warming experiments show significant cold content reductions and increased late-winter/early-spring melt as positive energy balances occur earlier in the snow season (a forward shift between 5.1 and 21.0 days per °C of warming). These results indicate cold, high-elevation sites, which are critical for water resources in the western

  12. Assessing helminth community structure and patterns in gizzard helminths of blue-winged teal (Anas discors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, David W; Fedynich, Alan M

    2013-10-01

    Helminth community structure (prevalence and abundance) and patterns (associations and distributions) of gizzard worms were examined in blue-winged teal (Anas discors) migrating through south Texas to their wintering grounds (n = 50) and as they migrated back to their breeding grounds (n = 50). Three species of nematodes (Amidostomum acutum, Epomidiostomum uncinatum, and Streptocara crassicauda) and 1 species of cestode (Gastrotaenia cygni) were recovered, representing 1,164 helminth individuals. Amidostomum acutum was the most prevalent (92%) and abundant (817 individuals; 70% of total worms), while G. cygni was the least prevalent (16%) and abundant (23 individuals; 2%). Ninety-eight blue-winged teal were infected with 1 to 4 species. Amidostomum acutum and E. uncinatum were the most frequently (45%) observed association of 2 or more species, followed by A. acutum, E. uncinatum, and S. crassicauda (19%), and A. acutum and S. crassicauda (14%). Significant positive correlations were mainly between A. acutum and E. uncinatum, whereas negative correlations were found between each of these 2 species and S. crassicauda. Prevalence and abundance of A. acutum and S. crassicauda were not influenced by season, host age, or host sex. However, E. uncinatum varied by season and host age. The percent similarity index indicated a relatively consistent component community pattern of high similarity irrespective of season, host age, and sex. The same helminth species were found in both fall and spring, indicating that other helminth species were not being acquired on the wintering grounds.

  13. Seasonality of tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Fares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was designed to review previous studies and analyse the current knowledge and controversies related to seasonal variability of tuberculosis (TB to examine whether TB has an annual seasonal pattern. Study Design and Methods: Systematic review of peer reviewed studies identified through literature searches using online databases belonging to PubMed and the Cochrane library with key words "Tuberculosis, Seasonal influence" and " Tuberculosis, Seasonal variation". The search was restricted to articles published in English. The references of the identified papers for further relevant publications were also reviewed. Results: Twelve studies conducted between the period 1971 and 2006 from 11 countries/regions around the world (South Western Cameroon, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, Japan, Kuwait, Spain, UK, Ireland, Russia, and Mongolia were reviewed. A seasonal pattern of tuberculosis with a mostly predominant peak is seen during the spring and summer seasons in all of the countries (except South Western Cameroon and Russia. Conclusions: The observation of seasonality leads to assume that the risk of transmission of M. tuberculosis does appear to be the greatest during winter months. Vitamin D level variability, indoor activities, seasonal change in immune function, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are potential stimuli of seasonal tuberculosis disease. Additionally, seasonal variation in food availability and food intake, age, and sex are important factors which can play a role in the tuberculosis notification variability. Prospective studies regarding this topic and other related subjects are highly recommended.

  14. Assessment of human respiration patterns via noncontact sensing using Doppler multi-radar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changzhan; Li, Changzhi

    2015-03-16

    Human respiratory patterns at chest and abdomen are associated with both physical and emotional states. Accurate measurement of the respiratory patterns provides an approach to assess and analyze the physical and emotional states of the subject persons. Not many research efforts have been made to wirelessly assess different respiration patterns, largely due to the inaccuracy of the conventional continuous-wave radar sensor to track the original signal pattern of slow respiratory movements. This paper presents the accurate assessment of different respiratory patterns based on noncontact Doppler radar sensing. This paper evaluates the feasibility of accurately monitoring different human respiration patterns via noncontact radar sensing. A 2.4 GHz DC coupled multi-radar system was used for accurate measurement of the complete respiration patterns without any signal distortion. Experiments were carried out in the lab environment to measure the different respiration patterns when the subject person performed natural breathing, chest breathing and diaphragmatic breathing. The experimental results showed that accurate assessment of different respiration patterns is feasible using the proposed noncontact radar sensing technique.

  15. A prospective epidemiological study of injury incidence and injury patterns in a Hong Kong male professional football league during the competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Wai-Yuk Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the match and training injury incidence, injury patterns and severity, and their monthly variation in a Hong Kong male professional football league. The study design was a prospective cohort study. Seven teams in the Hong Kong Football Association first division league and 152 players from 10 professional teams participated in this study. On a weekly basis throughout the 9-month season, time-loss injuries and individual exposure were collected from injury recorders team visits. Operational injury definitions and procedures followed the recommendations of a football consensus. The overall injury incidence was 7.4 injuries/1000 player hours and 296 injuries were recorded. The relative risk of match injury was 17 times greater than the risk of training injury [relative ratio (RR, 17.3; 95% confidence injury (CI, 11.6–25.7; p < 0.001]. Ankle sprain was the most common injury type (16.2% of all injuries and 52% of these injuries were recurrent. Thigh strain was the second most common injury type with 82% of the injuries involving the hamstring muscle and 80% of hamstring strains were noncontact injuries. During the competitive season, the relative risk of injury was highest in October (RR, 6.8; 95% CI, 6.7–6.9; p < 0.001 and February (RR, 4.7; 95% CI, 4.3–5.2; p < 0.001. This highlighted that Hong Kong professional football has a high match injury incidence. The relative risk of injury was highest at the beginning of the competitive season. A prospective multicentre epidemiological study is warranted to examine regional differences in injury risks. Coaches, players, health professionals, and researchers should join their efforts to investigate the effect on injury incidence and injury pattern associated with the duration and content of the preseason period, and the number of friendly matches held during preseason.

  16. Assessment of long-term monthly and seasonal trends of warm (cold), wet (dry) spells in Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokoohaki, H.; Anandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    A few recent studies have focused on trends in rainfall, temperature, and frost indicators at different temporal scales using centennial weather station data in Kansas; our study supplements this work by assessing the changes in spell indicators in Kansas. These indicators provide the duration between temperature-based (warm and cold) and precipitation-based (wet and dry) spells. For wet (dry) spell calculations, a wet day is defined as a day with precipitation ≥1 mm, and a dry day is defined as one with precipitation ≤1 mm. For warm (cold) spell calculations, a warm day is defined as a day with maximum temperature >90th percentile of daily maximum temperature, and a cold day is defined as a day with minimum temperature periods (through 1919, 1920-1949, 1950-1979, and 1980-2009). The definitions and software provided by Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) were adapted for application to Kansas. The long- and short-term trends in these indices were analyzed at monthly and seasonal timescales. Monthly results indicate that ADSL is decreasing and AWSL is increasing throughout the state. AWSD and ACSD both showed an overall decreasing trend, but AWSD trends were variable during the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Results of seasonal analysis revealed that the fall season recorded the greatest increasing trend for ACSD and the greatest decreasing trend for AWSD across the whole state and during all time periods. Similarly, the greatest increasing and decreasing trends occurred in winter for AWSL and ADSL, respectively. These variations can be important indicators of climatic change that may not be represented in mean conditions. Detailed geographical and temporal variations of the spell indices also can be beneficial for updating management decisions and providing adaptation recommendations for local and regional agricultural production.

  17. Assessment of Ecosystem Water Conservation Value In The Beijing Four Seasons Flower Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of field investigation and multi-source data analysis, Beijing Four Seasons Flower Valley declared in 2008 towards valley economy water conservation function and value was estimated by means of rainfall storage capacity as well as ecological economy. The results showed that: Landscape structure of FSFV was forest land-cultivated land-grassland. FSFV had the highest water conservation function in Beijing valleys, with the capacity of 1101.13 m3/hm2. Annual total amount of water conservation was 31.20×106 m3, accounting for 10.07% of Beijing valleys, and the total value of water conservation was 3.61×108 Yuan. High water conservation capacity areas were mainly located in the eastern mountainous region with broadleaf forest centralized distribution. Low water conservation function areas were mainly occurred in the regions effected by human activities. Forest ecosystem had the highest capacity of water conservation of 1116 m3/hm2, while construction ecosystem had the lowest. Higher degree of human activities, lower capacity of water conservation. Shrub forest and broadleaf forest had the largest contribution on valley water conservation, with contribution rate of 36.35% and 35.62%. Ranking of water conservation capacity, broadleaf forest had the highest value of 1135 m3/hm2, followed by coniferous forest, shrub forest and mixed forest.

  18. QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF INDOOR SWIMMING POOL AND SEASONAL BATHING RESORTS WATER USING MICROTOX® TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Łaskawiec

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The tests were to specify the toxic effect on the basis of Vibrio fischeri luminescence inhibition caused by chemical compounds present in pool water samples. The testing tool was Microtox®; This biotest produces quick results thus making it a comfortable tool for testing water for various toxicants. Furthermore, UV254 absorbance measure was carried out and its value was a proxy parameter for defining participation of precursors to disinfection by-products in the samples. Some of the samples had high UV254 values, one of them was 144 m 1. The Microtox® quality tests of indoor and outdoor swimming pool water presented in the paper proved impact of such factors like air exchange or supply of pool water circulation on water quality. Seasonal bathing waters had lower toxicity values. In the context of the work specifies that the impurities in the water cause its toxicity. However, there was no relationship between high UV254 absorbance values and higher toxicity of the samples. The toxicological analysis may serve as a screening test of swimming pool water quality. It is of key importance to check the free chlorine value for a water sample. High chlorine concentration can cause higher bioluminescence inhibition values.

  19. Prominence of seasonal water quality assessment in a tropical river using multivariate analysis: Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Prince; Joseph, Sabu; Chidambaram, S.

    2017-10-01

    An account of seasonal water quality variability has been taken as a proxy for the changes of environmental setting occurring in the catchment areas and helps to illustrate the ecological system processes associated with it. The present study in Meenachil River ( L = 78 km, A = 1272 km2) comprising of stations from upstream to downstream for pre monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post monsoon (POM). Ca2+ and SO4 2- show an erratic trend while extreme deviations were observed at S6 and S7 stations. Na+, K+, Cl-, DIC and DOC showed a similar trend in most stations, i.e. (PRM > POM > MON). Significant rise of DIC and DOC at S7 during POM and PRM could explicate changes ensued in adjacent Vembanad lake system. Strong correlations of DIC and DOC for Na+, K+ and Cl- ions were noted in the study. HCA dendrogram reveals that ion chemistry in S6 and S7 was strictly controlled by neighbouring lake water dynamics. The results demonstrate high F1 variance of 73, 68 and 72% followed by F2 comprising of 17, 19 and 21% for PRM, MON and POM, respectively. General understanding into the autochthonous process associated within the river lake interface region was evident from the nutrient variability scenario.

  20. Assessment of Unusual Gigantic Jets observed during the Monsoon season: First observations from Indian Subcontinent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh; Maurya, Ajeet K; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Cummer, Steven A; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Cohen, Morris B; Siingh, Devendraa; Kumar, Sushil

    2017-11-27

    Gigantic Jets are electric discharges from thunderstorm cloud tops to the bottom of ionosphere at ~90 km altitude and electrically connect the troposphere and lower ionosphere. Since their first report in 2002, sporadic observations have been reported from ground and space based observations. Here we report first observations of Gigantic Jets in Indian subcontinent over the Indo-Gangetic plains during the monsoon season. Two storms each produced two jets with characteristics not documented so far. Jets propagated ~37 km up remarkably in ~5 ms with velocity of ~7.4 × 106ms-1 and disappeared within ~40-80 ms, which is faster compared to jets reported earlier. The electromagnetic signatures show that they are of negative polarity, transporting net negative charge of ~17-23 C to the lower ionosphere. One jet had an unusual form observed for the first time, which emerged from the leading edge of a slowly drifting complex convective cloud close to the highest regions at ~17 km altitude. A horizontal displacement of ~10 km developed at ~50 km altitude before connecting to the lower ionosphere. Modeling of these Gigantic jets suggests that Gigantic Jets may bend when initiated at the edge of clouds with misaligned vertical charge distribution.

  1. Rainfall-derived growing season characteristics for agricultural impact assessments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosino, Chiara; Chandler, Richard E.; Todd, Martin C.

    2014-02-01

    Precipitation variability imposes significant pressure in areas where agricultural practice is dominated by smallholder farmers who are dependent on subsistence farming. Advances in the understanding of this variability, in both time and space, have an important role to play in increasing the resilience of agricultural systems. The need is particularly pressing in regions of the world such as the African continent, which is already affected by multiple stresses including poverty and economic and political instability. In this paper, we explore the use of generalised linear models (GLMs) for this purpose, via a case study from north-east South Africa. A GLM is used to link the local rainfall variability to large-scale climate drivers identified from previous subcontinental-scale analyses, and the ability of the resulting model to simulate precipitation features that are relevant in agricultural applications is evaluated. We focus in particular on a set of growing season indices, proposed for the investigation of intraseasonal characteristics relevant for maize production in the region. Seven indices were computed from spatially averaged daily rainfall series from nine stations in the study area. As a first attempt to use GLMs for this type of application, the results are encouraging and suggest that the models are able to reproduce a range of agriculture-relevant indices. However, further research into spatial correlation structure is recommended to improve the multisite generation of the rainfall-derived characteristics.

  2. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess...

  3. Food patterns and nutritional assessment in Galician university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Arias, José J; Lorenzo, Tania; Lamas, Alexandre; Regal, Patricia; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    The access of the young people to the university marks a fundamental break in their lives that may also result in a substantial change in their dietary habits. The aim of this study was to characterize the food patterns, body composition and biochemical profiles of Galician university students from the University of Santiago de Compostela (Campus de Lugo). A total of 62 students participated in this survey. For each individual, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid profile were measured. Also, the participants filled questionnaires of dietary habits, Mediterranean and Atlantic diet adherence, risk of type II diabetes and physical activity, lifestyle and personal and family histories. A BMI within the normal range was shown by 72% of students. Eight volunteers (12.90%) presented high levels of total cholesterol (>200 mg/dL), and 54.55% of women had levels of HDL-cholesterol above 60 mg/dL. Five students had levels of glucose above 100 mg/dL, being four men and one woman. None of the participants presented high blood pressure, but 11.29% were in pre-hypertension status. The intake of carbohydrates was below the recommendations, while protein and lipids were above. There was an excessive consumption of bakery, alcohol beverages, sausages and ready-made food. The students showed medium adherence to Atlantic and Mediterranean diet and low risk of type II diabetes mellitus and a sedentary lifestyle. Since university students are a group especially prone to poor dietary habits, it seems necessary to promote changes towards healthier meals and rescue the Mediterranean-like dietary pattern.

  4. Seasonality and temporal clustering of Kawasaki syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane C; Cayan, Daniel R; Tong, Garrick; Bainto, Emelia V; Turner, Christena L; Shike, Hiroko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2005-03-01

    The distribution of a syndrome in space and time may suggest clues to its etiology. The cause of Kawasaki syndrome, a systemic vasculitis of infants and children, is unknown, but an infectious etiology is suspected. Seasonality and clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases were studied in Japanese children with Kawasaki syndrome reported in nationwide surveys in Japan. Excluding the years that contained the 3 major nationwide epidemics, 84,829 cases during a 14-year period (1987-2000) were analyzed. To assess seasonality, we calculated mean monthly incidence during the study period for eastern and western Japan and for each of the 47 prefectures. To assess clustering, we compared the number of cases per day (daily incidence) with a simulated distribution (Monte Carlo analysis). Marked spatial and temporal patterns were noted in both the seasonality and deviations from the average number of Kawasaki syndrome cases in Japan. Seasonality was bimodal with peaks in January and June/July and a nadir in October. This pattern was consistent throughout Japan and during the entire 14-year period. Some years produced very high or low numbers of cases, but the overall variability was consistent throughout the entire country. Temporal clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases was detected with nationwide outbreaks. Kawasaki syndrome has a pronounced seasonality in Japan that is consistent throughout the length of the Japanese archipelago. Temporal clustering of cases combined with marked seasonality suggests an environmental trigger for this clinical syndrome.

  5. Seasonality and Temporal Clustering of Kawasaki Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane C.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Tong, Garrick; Bainto, Emelia V.; Turner, Christena L.; Shike, Hiroko; Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Yanagawa, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Background The distribution of a syndrome in space and time may suggest clues to its etiology. The cause of Kawasaki syndrome, a systemic vasculitis of infants and children, is unknown, but an infectious etiology is suspected. Methods Seasonality and clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases were studied in Japanese children with Kawasaki syndrome reported in nationwide surveys in Japan. Excluding the years that contained the 3 major nationwide epidemics, 84,829 cases during a 14-year period (1987–2000) were analyzed. To assess seasonality, we calculated mean monthly incidence during the study period for eastern and western Japan and for each of the 47 prefectures. To assess clustering, we compared the number of cases per day (daily incidence) with a simulated distribution (Monte Carlo analysis). Results Marked spatial and temporal patterns were noted in both the seasonality and deviations from the average number of Kawasaki syndrome cases in Japan. Seasonality was bimodal with peaks in January and June/July and a nadir in October. This pattern was consistent throughout Japan and during the entire 14-year period. Some years produced very high or low numbers of cases, but the overall variability was consistent throughout the entire country. Temporal clustering of Kawasaki syndrome cases was detected with nationwide outbreaks. Conclusions Kawasaki syndrome has a pronounced seasonality in Japan that is consistent throughout the length of the Japanese archipelago. Temporal clustering of cases combined with marked seasonality suggests an environmental trigger for this clinical syndrome. PMID:15703537

  6. Perfluoroalkyl substances in the Daling River with concentrated fluorine industries in China: seasonal variation, mass flow, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Wang, Pei; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated concentrations and composition profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface water from the Daling River in different seasons. The highest concentration of ΣPFASs (9540 ng L(-1)) and dominant homologues were found in surface water collected in summer. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were the dominant PFASs in four seasons with a total contribution of over 90%. The discharge of two fluorine chemical industry parks was predicted to be the main contamination source of PFASs in the study area. The daily and annual mass flows were calculated according to data of detected PFAS concentrations and water discharge, and the annual mass loading of PFASs into the Bohai Sea from the Daling River reached to 461 kg year(-1). Hazard assessment indicated that concentrations of PFASs in study area had little risk to aquatic organisms and wildlife. However, the multiple health risk would be relatively high if the water was served as drinking water in the study area.

  7. An Assessment of Productivity Patterns of Grass-Dominated Rangelands in the Hindu Kush Karakoram Region, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Mueen Qamer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands in the Hindu Kush Karakoram region provide a resource base for nomadic livestock grazing, which is one of the major traditional livelihood practices in the area. The present study assessed the spatiotemporal patterns and trends of rangelands using satellite remote-sensing time-series data. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data, collected at fortnightly intervals over 12 years (2001–2012, were used as a proxy for the vegetation conditions of the grasslands. The analysis revealed that rangeland productivity increased with increasing elevation up to the sub-alpine zone, which had a higher productivity than the moist temperate zone and humid sub-tropical zone. The high sub-alpine productivity was attributed to seasonal amplitude and the extended length of the growing season in the phenological cycle. In the temporal analysis of productivity, the majority of the area exhibited improvements in vegetation conditions, which were strongest in the humid sub-tropical zones and weakest in the alpine zones. The sub-alpine grasslands were found to be the most productive and heterogeneous habitat; however, the relatively strong negative temporal trend in productivity in this zone indicates ongoing degradation in these rangelands. Thus, special attention is needed for the sustainable management of rangelands in the sub-alpine zones of the Hindu Kush Karakoram region.

  8. Seasonal variation in the hip score of dogs as assessed by the New Zealand Veterinary Association hip dysplasia scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, A J; Bridges, J P; Cave, N J; Jones, G

    2012-03-01

    To determine whether there is a seasonal variation in the phenotypic hip score of dogs born in New Zealand as assessed by the New Zealand Veterinary Association (NZVA) canine hip dysplasia (CHD) scheme. Data from dogs born in New Zealand between 1988 and 2009 that have been scored for CHD were retrospectively evaluated for the effect of month of birth on radiographic phenotype. Data included both the total score and the subtotal score, comprising Norberg's angle, the subluxation score and changes to the cranial acetabular edge, for each dog. Datasets were created for all breeds combined and for the four most populous breeds using the scheme (German Shepherd dog, Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever and Rottweiler) and stratified according to month of birth and season. Due to the skewed nature of the data, a Kruskal-Wallis Rank Sum test was used to test for statistical significance. Additionally, χ² analysis was performed using the median of each dataset (proportion above/below the median). The null hypothesis was that there would be no effect of month of birth, and hence seasonality, on hip phenotype for dogs born and scored in New Zealand by the NZVA. For all breeds combined, month of birth had an effect on total and subtotal NZVA CHD scores (phip score in the autumn months of March and April than other months. When individual large breed data were analysed, there was an effect of month of birth on total and subtotal scores for the Labrador Retriever and the Rottweiler (p ≤ 0.05), but not the German Shepherd dog or Golden Retriever breeds. Being born in the autumn was associated with a protective effect on hip phenotype in some breeds. These results suggest that weather and/or another seasonal factor may have a significant environmental effect on the phenotype of the coxofemoral joint. The protective effect of being born in autumn suggests that a decreased level of exercise during subsequent development over winter may positively impact on final coxofemoral

  9. Environmental control of the seasonal variations in the daily pattern of melatonin synthesis in the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivien-Roels, B; Pitrosky, B; Zitouni, M; Malan, A; Canguilhem, B; Bonn, D; Pévet, P

    1997-04-01

    Nocturnal patterns of pineal melatonin concentrations were measured at hourly intervals in the European hamster, Cricetus cricetus, maintained under different natural or experimental environmental conditions. There were pronounced variations in the night peak of pineal melatonin both in the duration and the amplitude of the melatonin peak and in the onset and decline of melatonin synthesis. The duration of the melatonin peak increased proportionally with increased dark period. The amplitude increased abruptly from LD 16/8 to LD 15/9 and remained constant in all other photoperiods. The onset of synthesis started 6:00 hours after the onset of darkness in LD 16/8, 15/9, and 14/10, while it started 4:00 hours after dark onset in shorter photoperiods (LD 12/12 and 10/14). This result is opposite to that observed in the rat. The decline of synthesis was delayed as darkness increased and was directly related to lights on in long photoperiods, while it was endogenous in short photoperiods. Temperature, under a long photoperiod, also seems to be implicated in the regulation of the amplitude of the melatonin peak.

  10. Relating group size and posting activity of an online community of financial investors: Regularities and seasonal patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, P.; Casarin, R.; Dondio, P.; Squazzoni, F.

    2018-03-01

    Group size can potentially affect collective activity and individual propensity to contribute to collective goods. Mancur Olson, in his Logic of Collective Action, argued that individual contribution to a collective good tends to be lower in groups of large size. Today, online communication platforms represent an interesting ground to study such collaborative dynamics under possibly different conditions (e.g., lower costs related to gather and share information). This paper examines the relationship between group size and activity in an online financial forum, where users invest time in sharing news, analysis and comments with other investors. We looked at about 24 million messages shared in more than ten years in the finanzaonline.com online forum. We found that the relationship between the number of active users and the number of posts shared by those users is of the power type (with exponent α > 1) and is subject to periodic fluctuations, mostly driven by hour-of-the-day and day-of-the-week effects. The daily patterns of the exponent showed a divergence between working week and weekend days. In general, the exponent was lower before noon, where investors are typically interested in market news, higher in the late afternoon, where markets are closing and investors need better understanding of the situation. Further research is needed, especially at the micro level, to dissect the mechanisms behind these regularities.

  11. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-kV Transmission Line.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1992-06-01

    Although several kinds of biological effects of electric and magnetic fields have been reported from laboratory studies, few have been independently replicated. When this study was being planned, the suppression of nighttime melatonin in rodents was thought to represent one of the strongest known effects of these fields. The effect had been replicated by a single laboratory for 60-Hz electric fields, and by multiple laboratories for d-c magnetic fields. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the effect of electric and magnetic fields on melatonin would also occur in sheep exposed to a high voltage transmission line. The specific hypothesis tested by this experiment was as follows: The electrical environment produced by a 60-Hz, 500-kV transmission line causes a depression in nocturnal melatonin in chronically exposed female lambs. This may mimic effects of pinealectomy or constant long-day photoperiods, thus delaying the onset of reproductive cycles. Results of the study do not provide evidence to support the hypothesis. Melatonin concentrations in the sheep exposed to the transmission line showed the normal pattern of low daytime and high nighttime serum levels. As compared to the control group, there were no statistically significant group differences in the mean amplitude, phase, or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation.

  12. Feasibility assessment for battery electric vehicles based on multi-day activity-travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-11

    A Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) feasibility considering State Of Charge (SOC) level is : assessed using multiday activity-travel patterns to overcome the limitations of using one-day : activity-travel patterns. Since multi-day activity-travel patter...

  13. Female gender but not season of birth is associated with mood seasonality in a near-equatorial Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciano L. Milfont

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies conducted mainly in countries located in the Northern Hemisphere have shown that season of birth influences mood seasonality. Greater mood seasonality has been observed for individuals born during spring/summer months than those born during autumn/winter months. Expanding past research to the Southern Hemisphere, in this study we examine the influence of season of birth on mood seasonality in a sample of 1,247 healthy young Brazilians. METHOD: The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire was used to compute a global seasonality score as a measure of mood seasonality in a cross-sectional study. RESULTS: Analysis of covariance was conducted to examine the effects of month of birth and gender on mood seasonality, with age entered as a covariate. A main effect of gender was observed, F (1, 1197 = 17.86, p .05. CONCLUSION: The unexpected finding is tentatively explained by differences in geographic location and weather fluctuations between the sampling location in Brazil and other countries where season of birth has been found to influence mood seasonality. Additional studies with larger samples from the Southern Hemisphere are necessary to shed additional light on the possible significant influence of season of birth on mood.

  14. An Assessment of Design Patterns' Influence on a Java-based E-Commerce Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maria Mouratidou; Vassilios Lourdas; Alexander Chatzigeorgiou; Christos K Georgiadis

    2010-01-01

    .... Another goal is to assess the influence of design patterns on the maintainability of the e-commerce application under study by examining the evolution of software metrics when performing certain extensions...

  15. Seasonal Patterns of Melatonin, Cortisol, and Progesterone Secretion in Female Lambs Raised Beneath a 500-KV Transmission Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jack Monroe, Jr.

    There is ongoing controversy about the possibility of adverse biological effects from environmental exposures to electric and magnetic fields. These fields are produced by all electrical equipment and appliances including electrical transmission lines. The objective of this environmental science study was to investigate the possible effects of a high voltage transmission line on domestic sheep (Ovis aries L.), a species that can often be found near such lines. The study was primarily designed to determine whether a specific effect of electric and magnetic fields found in laboratory animals also occurs in livestock under natural environmental conditions. The effect is the ability of fields, at levels found in the environment, to significantly depress the normally high nocturnal concentrations of the pineal hormone-melatonin. Ten female Suffolk lambs were penned for 10 months directly beneath a 500-kV transmission line near Estacada, Oregon. Ten other lambs of the same type were penned in a control area away from the transmission line where electric and magnetic fields were at ambient levels. Serum melatonin was analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) from 6618 blood samples collected at 0.5 to 3-hour intervals over eight 48-hour periods. Serum progesterone was analyzed by RIA from blood samples collected twice weekly. Serum cortisol was also assayed by RIA from the blood samples collected during the 48-hour samples. Results showed that lambs in both the control and line groups had the typical pattern of melatonin secretion consisting of low daytime and high nighttime serum concentrations. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in melatonin levels, or in the phase or duration of the nighttime melatonin elevation. Age at puberty and number of reproductive cycles also did not differ between groups. Serum cortisol showed a circadian rhythm with highest concentrations during the day. There were, however, no differences in cortisol concentrations

  16. [Food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear during warm seasons in Kekexili region on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ai-Chun; Jiang, Zhi-Gang; Li, Chun-Wang; Cai, Ping

    2010-12-01

    Tibetan brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus) is an endemic subspecies of brown bear on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. We once reported a preliminary study on the summer food habit of Tibetan brown bear from July to August, 2005 in the Kekexili (Hoh Xil).. However, the hunting modes of the Tibetan brawn bear have not been reported. From July to August, 2009, we collected additional data on food habits and hunting patterns of Tibetan brown bear in the Kekexili region. We found Tibetan brown bears are more raptatorial than vegetarian, and their basal food was plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), relative frequency occurrence of pika in the fecal residual of brawn bear was 37.3%, dry weight of pika residuals was 44.7%, respectively, followed by wild yak (Bos grunniens) , 18.7% and 30.2%, and Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsoni) 15.0% and 16.2%. Both prey actively mode and scavenge mode were used by Tibetan brown bears in Kekexili. Tibetan brawn bears actively dug and hunted for pika and scavenged bodies of wild yak, Tibetan antelope and Tibetan gazelle. We observed that Tibetan brawn bears spent about 10% of their time to dig and to hunt for pika but we had never seen Tibetan brawn bears actively hunted large mammals such as wild yak, Tibetan antelope and Tibetan gazelle. The total amount of Tibetan antelope, Tibetan gazelle and wild yak ingested by Tibetan brown bear through scavenge was about the same amount of Plateau pika and Himalayan marmot (Marmota himalayana) eaten by the bear.

  17. Water quality assessment of Lebanese coastal rivers during dry season and pollution load into the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Ahmad; El Jeblawi, Saadieh W

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and microbiological properties of Lebanese perennial coastal rivers were studied during the dry season extending from July to September 2004. The results indicate significant levels of pollution in all eight rivers. Although many physical and chemical variables were within WHO guidelines for drinking water, coliform levels were unacceptably high indicating pollution from untreated sewage. The most polluted rivers in most categories were the Abu Ali and Antelias. With the exception of bacterial and phosphate loadings, Awali River provides the highest amount of pollution to the Mediterranean mainly due to its high water flow, although it is one of the least polluted rivers. The urgent need for controlling wastewater dumping into river streams is emphasized. The data obtained should serve as a reference point to assess the efficiency of planned wastewater treatment plants.

  18. InSAR imagery pattern matching validation for landslide assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbulea, Manole-Stelian; Gogu, Radu; Teleaga, Delia; Marcel Manoli, Daniel; Priceputu, Adrian; Gaitanaru, Dragos Stefan; Ungureanu, Constantin; Anghel, Alexandra; Andronic, Adrian; Niculescu, Alexandru; Liviu Bugea, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    quantify the point displacement. The set of maps resulted from analysis show the displacement field of the landslides or the velocity-time diagrams, making this kind of information vital for early detection of changes in the landslide state of activity. Furthermore, the analysis of cumulative displacement maps in a quasi-continuous surface allows identification of a landslide characterized by different patterns, indicating partial activations or other site-specific surface processes. The research carried-out proposes calibrating pattern recognition algorithms by classical on-site monitoring such as topographical and inclinometrical surveys. The image processing provides information about the dynamics of vertical displacements of soil surface and can be used to identify both landslide type and horizontal geometry giving hints about the total displaced mass. This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Program for research - Space Technology and Advanced Research - STAR, project number 30/2012.

  19. Seasonal patterns of parasitism of the tropical spiders Theridion evexum (Araneae, Theridiidae and Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae, Araneidae by the wasps Zatypota petronae and Polysphincta gutfreundi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Barrantes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rates of parasitism of Theridion evexum by the parasitoid wasp Zatypota petronae, and Allocyclosa bifurca by Polysphincta gutfreundi, were followed for two years. Parasitism of T. evexum was very low (mean 1.39+1.8%, and restricted to nearly seven months of the year. Parasitism of A. bifurca was higher (mean 7.8+7.6%, and did not show a seasonal pattern. Reproduction of the host spider T. evexum was highly seasonal, with only one, highly coordinated generation per year, while adults of A. bifurca were present year round. Short-term autocorrelation on parasitism rates over time at different sites suggest that P. gutfreundi tend to return to the same sites to hunt hosts over periods of a few weeks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 749-754. Epub 2008 June 30.Las tasas de parasitismo de Theridion evexum por la avispa parasitoide Zatypota petronae y de Allocyclosa bifurca por Polysphincta gutfreundi fueron estudiadas durante dos años. El parasitismo en T. evexum fue muy bajo (promedio 1.39+1.8% y restringido a aproximadamente siete meses del año. El parasitismo en A. bifurca fue más alto (promedio 7.8+7.6% y no mostró un claro patrón estacional. La reproducción de la araña hospedera T. evexum fue muy estacional, con solamente una generación por año, mientras que los adultos de A. bifurca estuvieron presentes todo el año. Autocorrelaciones de las tasas de parasitismo entre censos consecutivos en diferentes sitios sugiere que P. gutfreundi tiende a retornar a los mismos sitios para parasitar las arañas hospederas durante algunas semanas.

  20. Patterns and drivers of plant functional group dominance across the Western Hemisphere: a macroecological re-assessment based on a massive botanical dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristine Engemann; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Plant functional group dominance has been linked to climate, topography and anthropogenic factors. Here, we assess existing theory linking functional group dominance patterns to their drivers by quantifying the spatial distribution of plant functional groups at a 100-km grid scale. We use...... influence and topography were secondarily important. Our results support the prediction that future climate change and anthropogenic pressures could shift geographical patterns in dominance of plant functional groups, with probable consequences for ecosystem functioning....... a range of hypothesized predictors. The functional groups showed distinct geographical patterns of dominance across the New World. Temperature seasonality and annual precipitation were most frequently selected, supporting existing hypotheses for the geographical dominance of each functional group. Human...

  1. Multi-seasonal pattern in 5-year record of stable H, O and S isotope compositions of precipitation (Wrocław, SW Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka, Maciej; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Hałas, Stanisław; Jędrysek, Mariusz-Orion; Strąpoć, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Sulphur dioxide is still a major industrial pollutant in the atmosphere. However, its origin is not always easily traceable, particularly at regional scale where numerous sulphur sources coexist. Geochemical tracers, such as the stable sulphur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopic compositions of sulphates in precipitation, have been successfully applied for estimation of the S-contribution from multiple sources to the atmosphere. However, the majority of previous studies conducted over relatively short time spans have revealed a short-term seasonal trends only and were unable to capture multi seasonal systematics. Here, we present results from a five-year monitoring program conducted in Wrocław (SW Poland). We have determined the Local Meteoric Water Line of δ2H= (6.91 ± 0.25) × δ18O + (2.39 ± 2.43) and sulphates stable sulphur (δ34S(SO4) 0.3-5.4‰) and oxygen (δ18O(SO4) 4.7-19.1‰) isotope composition in precipitation. The stable sulphur isotope results confirm that sulphates in precipitation primarily originate from high temperature (minimum mean over sampling period 680 °C) combustion of fuels with δ34S signatures ≤4.4‰. The stable oxygen isotope composition of sulphates and precipitation water indicates that the primary sulphate (generated directly by industrial processes) contribution was <49% during the whole study period, with a mean of ∼20% during the non-heating and ∼40% during the heating periods. The δ34S(SO4) value for precipitation displays multi-seasonal oscillations with an amplitude of about 2‰, which has not been previously reported. The mechanism driving the oscillation needs further investigation in order to reveal possible associations between this phenomenon and climatic patterns or changes in fossil fuel use. This new evidence from 5-year-long records needs to be taken into consideration when analysing trends from shorter-term observations.

  2. Dengue fever virus in Pakistan: effects of seasonal pattern and temperature change on distribution of vector and virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Nazish; Javed, Sundus; Nabgha-E-Amen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Tahir, Faheem; Bokhari, Habib

    2017-01-01

    Dengue fever is regarded as one of the most prominent emerging arboviral infections in Pakistan since its first epidemic almost 2 decades ago. Interplay between potential vectors, susceptible host, and lax environmental conditions may promote the infection, leading to an epidemic. These factors may indeed have played a major role in the spread of the disease in the country, which was limited to Karachi till 2006. With recent natural disasters such as the earthquake in 2005 and flooding in 2010, 2011 and 2012, numbers of vector-borne diseases and outbreaks including dengue fever are on the rise in Pakistan. Therefore, it is a major concern for health sector workers and of utmost importance to have some understanding of the factors affecting disease outbreak for better risk assessment in the region. In the following report we review the climatic as well as host- and vector-associated factors involved in the outbreak of dengue epidemics in Pakistan and highlight high-risk zones in the country. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Assessing the relationship between surface urban heat islands and landscape patterns across climatic zones in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiquan; Huang, Xin; Li, Jiayi

    2017-08-24

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect exerts a great influence on the Earth's environment and human health and has been the subject of considerable attention. Landscape patterns are among the most important factors relevant to surface UHIs (SUHIs); however, the relationship between SUHIs and landscape patterns is poorly understood over large areas. In this study, the surface UHI intensity (SUHII) is defined as the temperature difference between urban and suburban areas, and the landscape patterns are quantified by the urban-suburban differences in several typical landscape metrics (ΔLMs). Temperature and land-cover classification datasets based on satellite observations were applied to analyze the relationship between SUHII and ΔLMs in 332 cities/city agglomerations distributed in different climatic zones of China. The results indicate that SUHII and its correlations with ΔLMs are profoundly influenced by seasonal, diurnal, and climatic factors. The impacts of different land-cover types on SUHIs are different, and the landscape patterns of the built-up and vegetation (including forest, grassland, and cultivated land) classes have the most significant effects on SUHIs. The results of this study will help us to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between the SUHI effect and landscape patterns.

  4. Physical activity pattern of children assessed by triaxial accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, M B; Kuipers, H; Gerver, W-J M; Westerterp, K R

    2004-10-01

    Accelerometry was used to assess the relationship between the physical activity level (PAL) and time spent on activities of various intensities in children. A total of 20 children aged 8.6+/-3.3 y wore a triaxial accelerometer (Tracmor2) for 2 weeks. PAL was calculated with Tracmor2 output data. The fraction of time spent on activities with a given level of intensity (low, moderate, high) was calculated. The fractions of time spent on activities of different intensities were compared with previously obtained data for young adults and elderly persons. PAL showed an inverse relation with the percentage of time spent on low-intensity activities (r = -0.76; P < 0.0001) and a positive relation with the percentage of time spent on high-intensity activities (r = 0.93; P < 0.0001). The fraction of time spent on low-intensity activities was smaller in children than in young adults (P < 0.05) and elderly persons (P < 0.0001), while the fraction spent on high-intensity activities (P < 0.0001) was larger. The present data are important for a better understanding of physical activity in children, which is necessary for education and prevention about physical (in)activity in childhood. Our observations suggest that to obtain a higher PAL in children, they should be given the opportunities to perform high-intensity activities.

  5. An economic model assessing the value of microneedle patch delivery of the seasonal influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Mvundura, Mercy; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zapf, Kristina M; Marinan, Kathleen; Wateska, Angela R; Snyder, Bill; Swaminathan, Savitha; Jacoby, Erica; Norman, James J; Prausnitz, Mark R; Zehrung, Darin

    2015-09-08

    New vaccine technologies may improve the acceptability, delivery (potentially enabling self-administration), and product efficacy of influenza vaccines. One such technology is the microneedle patch (MNP), a skin delivery technology currently in development. Although MNPs hold promise in preclinical studies, their potential economic and epidemiologic impacts have not yet been evaluated. We utilized a susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) transmission model linked to an economic influenza outcomes model to assess the economic value of introducing the MNP into the current influenza vaccine market in the United States from the third-party payer and societal perspectives. We also explored the impact of different vaccination settings, self-administration, the MNP price, vaccine efficacy, compliance, and MNP market share. Outcomes included costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cases, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs; cost/QALY). With healthcare provider administration, MNP introduction would be cost-effective (ICERs ≤$23,347/QALY) at all MNP price points ($9.50-$30) and market shares (10-60%) assessed, except when compliance and efficacy were assumed to be the same as existing vaccines and the MNP occupied a 10% market share. If MNP self-administration were available (assuming the same efficacy as current technologies), MNP compliance or its efficacy would need to increase by ≥3% in order to be cost-effective (ICERs ≤$1401/QALY), assuming a 2% reduction in administration success with unsupervised self-administration. Under these conditions, MNP introduction would be cost-effective for all price points and market shares assessed. When healthcare providers administered the MNP, its introduction would be cost-effective or dominant (i.e., less costly and more effective) in the majority of scenarios assessed. If self-administration were available, MNP introduction would be cost-effective if it increased compliance enough to overcome any

  6. Evaluating the utility and seasonality of NDVI values for assessing post-disturbance recovery in a subalpine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buma, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Forest disturbances around the world have the potential to alter forest type and cover, with impacts on diversity, carbon storage, and landscape composition. These disturbances, especially fire, are common and often large, making ground investigation of forest recovery difficult. Remote sensing offers a means to monitor forest recovery in real time, over the entire landscape. Typically, recovery monitoring via remote sensing consists of measuring vegetation indices (e.g., NDVI) or index-derived metrics, with the assumption that recovery in NDVI (for example) is a meaningful measure of ecosystem recovery. This study tests that assumption using MODIS 16-day imagery from 2000 to 2010 in the area of the Colorado's Routt National Forest Hinman burn (2002) and seedling density counts taken in the same area. Results indicate that NDVI is rarely correlated with forest recovery, and is dominated by annual and perennial forb cover, although topography complicates analysis. Utility of NDVI as a means to delineate areas of recovery or non-recovery are in doubt, as bootstrapped analysis indicates distinguishing power only slightly better than random. NDVI in revegetation analyses should carefully consider the ecology and seasonal patterns of the system in question.

  7. Assessing Sahelian vegetation and stress from seasonal time series of polar orbiting and geostationary satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen Lundegaard

    provide good sensitivity to canopy water content, which can make vegetation stress detection possible. Furthermore, the high frequency observations in the optical spectrum now available from geostationary instruments have the potential for detection of changes in vegetation related surface properties...... on short timescales, which are challenging from polar orbiting instruments. Geostationary NDVI and the NIR and SWIR based Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI) indices are compared with extensive field data from the Dahra site, supplemented by data from the Agoufou and Demokeya sites. The indices...... are also compared with output from hydrological modelling of the Senegal River basin and a gridded rainfall product. It was shown that NIR/SWIR based indices are better suited for assessing water stress related changes in vegetation status, as compared to the more commonly applied NDVI. The hypothesis...

  8. Assessing Woody Vegetation Trends in Sahelian Drylands Using MODIS Based Seasonal Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Martin; Hiernaux, Pierre; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Mbow, Cheikh; Kergoat, Laurent; Tagesson, Torbern; Ibrahim, Yahaya Z.; Wele, Abdoulaye; Tucker, Compton J.; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Woody plants play a major role for the resilience of drylands and in peoples' livelihoods. However, due to their scattered distribution, quantifying and monitoring woody cover over space and time is challenging. We develop a phenology driven model and train/validate MODIS (MCD43A4, 500m) derived metrics with 178 ground observations from Niger, Senegal and Mali to estimate woody cover trends from 2000 to 2014 over the entire Sahel. The annual woody cover estimation at 500 m scale is fairly accurate with an RMSE of 4.3 (woody cover %) and r(exp 2) = 0.74. Over the 15 year period we observed an average increase of 1.7 (+/- 5.0) woody cover (%) with large spatial differences: No clear change can be observed in densely populated areas (0.2 +/- 4.2), whereas a positive change is seen in sparsely populated areas (2.1 +/- 5.2). Woody cover is generally stable in cropland areas (0.9 +/- 4.6), reflecting the protective management of parkland trees by the farmers. Positive changes are observed in savannas (2.5 +/- 5.4) and woodland areas (3.9 +/- 7.3). The major pattern of woody cover change reveals strong increases in the sparsely populated Sahel zones of eastern Senegal, western Mali and central Chad, but a decreasing trend is observed in the densely populated western parts of Senegal, northern Nigeria, Sudan and southwestern Niger. This decrease is often local and limited to woodlands, being an indication of ongoing expansion of cultivated areas and selective logging.We show that an overall positive trend is found in areas of low anthropogenic pressure demonstrating the potential of these ecosystems to provide services such as carbon storage, if not over-utilized. Taken together, our results provide an unprecedented synthesis of woody cover dynamics in theSahel, and point to land use and human population density as important drivers, however only partially and locally offsetting a general post-drought increase.

  9. Seasonal foraging responses of beavers to sodium-enhanced foods: An experimental assessment with field feeding trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strules, Jennifer; DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Salt drive is a seasonal phenomenon common to several classes of wild herbivores. Coincident with shifts of nutrient quality when plants resume growth in the spring, sodium is secondarily lost as surplus potassium is excreted. The beaver (Castor canadensis) is an herbivore whose dietary niche closely follows that of other herbivores that are subject to salt drive, but no published studies to date have assessed the likelihood of its occurrence. To quantify if beavers experience seasonal salt drive, we designed a field experiment to measure the foraging responses of beavers to sodium-enhanced foods. We used sodium-treated (salted) and control (no salt) food items (aspen [Populus tremuloides] and pine [Pinus spp.] sticks) during monthly feeding trials at beaver-occupied wetlands. If conventional ontogeny of salt drive was operant, we expected to observe greater utility of sodium-treated food items by beavers in May and June. Further, if water lilies (Nymphaea spp. and Nuphar spp.) supply beavers with sodium to meet dietary requirements as is widely speculated, we expected foraging responses to sodium-treated food items at wetlands where water lilies were absent to be greater than at wetlands where water lily was present. Aspen was selected by beavers in significantly greater amounts than pine. There was no difference between the mean percent consumed of salted and control aspen sticks by beavers at lily and non-lily wetlands, and no differences in temporal consumption associated with salted or control pine sticks at either wetland type. Salted pine was consumed in greater amounts than unsalted pine. We propose that the gastrointestinal or renal physiology of beavers may preclude solute loss, thereby preventing salt drive.

  10. Assessing the Utility of Seasonal SST Forecasts to the Fisheries Management Process: a Pacific Sardine Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, D.; Stock, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    It is well established that environmental fluctuations affect the productivity of numerous fish stocks. Recent advances in prediction capability of dynamical global forecast systems, such as the state of the art NOAA Geophysical Fluid dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) 2.5-FLOR model, allow for climate predictions of fisheries-relevant variables at temporal scales relevant to the fishery management decision making process. We demonstrate that the GFDL FLOR model produces skillful seasonal SST anomaly predictions over the continental shelf , where most of the global fish yield is generated. The availability of skillful SST projections at this "fishery relevant" scale raises the potential for better constrained estimates of future fish biomass and improved harvest decisions. We assessed the utility of seasonal SST coastal shelf predictions for fisheries management using the case study of Pacific sardine. This fishery was selected because it is one of the few to already incorporate SST into its harvest guideline, and show a robust recruitment-SST relationship. We quantified the effectiveness of management under the status quo harvest guideline (HG) and under alternative HGs including future information at different levels of uncertainty. Usefulness of forecast SST to management was dependent on forecast uncertainty. If the standard deviation of the SST anomaly forecast residuals was less than 0.65, the alternative HG produced higher long-term yield and stock biomass, and reduced the probability of either catch or stock biomass falling below management-set threshold values as compared to the status quo. By contrast, probability of biomass falling to extremely low values increased as compared to the status quo for all alternative HGs except for a perfectly known future SST case. To safeguard against occurrence of such low probability but costly events, a harvest cutoff biomass also has to be implemented into the HG.

  11. Assessment of students' GSM phone use pattern at the faculty of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed Students' GSM phone use pattern at Faculty of Education, University of Uyo. The specific objectives are to determine the gender and other characteristic of GSM phone owners among the students, ascertain the features of GSM phones that students preferred to use and to assess the use to which ...

  12. Assessing diel variation of CH4 flux from rice paddies through temperature patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Caesar Arloo R.; Alberto, Ma Carmelita R.; Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2017-10-01

    The diel variation in methane (CH4) flux from irrigated rice was characterized during the dry and wet cropping seasons in 2013 and 2014 using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. The EC technique has the advantage of obtaining measurements of fluxes at an extremely high temporal resolution (10Hz), meaning it records 36,000 measurements per hour. The EC measurements can very well capture the temporal variations of the diel (both diurnal and nocturnal) fluxes of CH4 and the environmental factors (temperature, surface energy flux, and gross ecosystem photosynthesis) at 30-min intervals. The information generated by this technique is important to enhance our mechanistic understanding of the different factors affecting the landscape scale diel CH4 flux. Distinct diel patterns of CH4 flux were observed when the data were partitioned into different cropping periods (pre-planting, growth, and fallow). The temporal variations of the diel CH4 flux during the dry seasons were more pronounced than during the wet seasons because the latter had so much climatic disturbance from heavy monsoon rains and occasional typhoons. Pearson correlation analysis and Granger causality test were used to confirm if the environmental factors evaluated were not only correlated with but also Granger-causing the diel CH4 flux. Soil temperature at 2.5 cm depth (Ts 2.5 cm) can be used as simple proxy for predicting diel variations of CH4 fluxes in rice paddies using simple linear regression during both the dry and wet seasons. This simple site-specific temperature response function can be used for gap-filling CH4 flux data for improving the estimates of CH4 source strength from irrigated rice production.

  13. Season of sampling and season of birth influence serotonin metabolite levels in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjen J Luykx

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monoamine (MA turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA, dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75. The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050, with predicted maximum (PC(max and minimum (PC(min concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PC(max = 172 and PC(min = 126. The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. CONCLUSION: In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall.

  14. Assessment of energy balance of Indian farm women in relation to their nutritional profile in lean and peak agricultural seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suman; Sinwal, Sushma; Rathore, Hemu

    2012-01-01

    In India, the farm women are not only involved in household activities but also contribute in various farm operations, animal husbandry. The objective was to assess nutritional profile of the farmwomen and their occupational health problems, to compare the physiological workload in lean and peak seasons and to find out relationship between physiological workload and nutritional intake. The study was conducted on a sample of 90 farmwomen. Energy Intake was calculated using physiological fuel values of carbohydrate, fat and protein. Energy Expenditure Rate (EER), Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) and Energy Balance were calculated. The physiological workload was assessed using sub-maximal workload technique. The results revealed that all the respondents of all categories were, more or less, performing all the agriculture, allied and household activities. In all the agriculture activities physiological hazards such as body pain and fatigue were dominant. Dietary, nutritional and energy intake was lower for heavy workers, from all landholding and BMI categories. HR and OCR were in linear relationship in all BMI categories. Physical work capacity increased with good nutritional status and decreased with age. Regression equations were suggested for calculating oxygen consumption (y) at their known heart rate (x) during various agriculture operations.

  15. Spatial, seasonal and diurnal patterns in physicochemical characteristics and sources of PM2.5 in both inland and coastal regions within a megacity in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yingze; Liu, Jiayuan; Han, Suqin; Shi, Xurong; Shi, Guoliang; Xu, Hong; Yu, Haofei; Zhang, Yufen; Feng, Yinchang; Russell, Armistead G

    2018-01-15

    Day and night PM2.5 samples were collected at coastal and inland stations in a megacity in China. Temporal, spatial, and directional characteristics of PM2.5 concentrations and compositions were investigated. Average PM2.5 concentration was higher at inland (153.28μg/m3) than at coastal (114.46μg/m3). PM2.5 were significantly influenced by season and site but insignificantly by diurnal pattern. Sources were quantified by a two-way and a newly developed three-way receptor models conducted using ME2. Secondary sulfate and SOC (SS&SOC, 25% and 23%), coal and biomass burning (CC&BB, 20% and 21%), crustal and cement dust (CRD&CED, 19% and 21%), secondary nitrate (SN, 13% and 18%), vehicular exhaust (VE, 14% and 17%), and sea salt (SEA, 6% and 2%) were major sources for coastal and inland. Different mechanisms of heavy pollution were observed: heavy PM2.5 caused by primary sources and secondary sources showed similar frequency at coast, while most of heavy pollutions at inland site might be associated with the elevation of secondary particles. For spatial characteristics, SS&SOC, CRD&CED contributions were higher at coastal; SN and VE presented higher fractions at inland. Higher SS&SOC, SN and CC&BB in winter might be attributed to intensive coal combustion for residential warming and to stable meteorological conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of the relative success of sporozoite inoculations in individuals exposed to moderate seasonal transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiegel André

    2009-07-01

    natural challenges. Such a study design and the results obtained suggest that, despite a small sample size, this approach can contribute to assess the impact of intervention methods, such as the efficacy vector-control measures or of malaria pre-erythrocytic stages vaccines.

  17. Assessing performance and seasonal bias of pollen-based climate reconstructions in a perfect model world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Kira; Trachsel, Mathias; Telford, Richard J.; Laepple, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructions of summer, winter or annual mean temperatures based on the species composition of bio-indicators such as pollen, foraminifera or chironomids are routinely used in climate model-proxy data comparison studies. Most reconstruction algorithms exploit the joint distribution of modern spatial climate and species distribution for the development of the reconstructions. They rely on the space-for-time substitution and the specific assumption that environmental variables other than those reconstructed are not important or that their relationship with the reconstructed variable(s) should be the same in the past as in the modern spatial calibration dataset. Here we test the implications of this "correlative uniformitarianism" assumption on climate reconstructions in an ideal model world, in which climate and vegetation are known at all times. The alternate reality is a climate simulation of the last 6000 years with dynamic vegetation. Transient changes of plant functional types are considered as surrogate pollen counts and allow us to establish, apply and evaluate transfer functions in the modeled world. We find that in our model experiments the transfer function cross validation r2 is of limited use to identify reconstructible climate variables, as it only relies on the modern spatial climate-vegetation relationship. However, ordination approaches that assess the amount of fossil vegetation variance explained by the reconstructions are promising. We furthermore show that correlations between climate variables in the modern climate-vegetation relationship are systematically extended into the reconstructions. Summer temperatures, the most prominent driving variable for modeled vegetation change in the Northern Hemisphere, are accurately reconstructed. However, the amplitude of the model winter and mean annual temperature cooling between the mid-Holocene and present day is overestimated and similar to the summer trend in magnitude. This effect occurs because

  18. Evaluation of Indirect Measurement Method of Seasonal Patterns of Leaf Area Index in a High-Density Short Rotation Coppice Culture of Poplar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek M. Tripathi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is an important determinant of biomass production and yield of short rotation bio-energy plantation. An accurate measurement of LAI is critical for quantifying light interception and penetration within the canopy, and subsequently understanding its influence on the stand carbon and energy balance. The aim of the current study is validation of the Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer which serves as an indirect method for the evaluation of the seasonal patterns of LAI, relation between LAI and above ground woody dry biomass and to determine the specific leaf area in short-rotation poplar hybrid clone J-105 (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii in uncoppiced (1st rotation and coppiced (2nd rotation, respectively. LAI was measured in uncoppiced and coppiced by two different methods using indirect (SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and direct (litterfall collection. Sunscan Plant Canopy Analyzer was compared against litterfall collection (only way to retrieve the actual LAI. Simple regression (R2 = 0.82 model was fitted to validate indirect measurement method and a very good agreement (82% was observed in LAI values estimated from SunScan Plant Canopy Analyzer and from litterfall collection. Seasonal variability of LAI in a short rotation coppice (SRC culture of poplar clone J-105 was evaluated over six years period (2008–2013, for uncoppiced (2008 and 2009 and coppiced (2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 culture. The maximum canopy LAI (LAImax reached 7.3 (uncoppiced and 9.5 (coppiced. The linear regression (R2 = 0.93 for average LAI and above ground woody dry biomass was determined, and it was found that LAI acts an indicator of biomass productivity. Specific leaf area (SLA was estimated in both uncoppiced and coppiced culture of poplar. The maximum SLA was found to be 138.9 cm2g−1 in uncoppiced and 126.9 cm2g−1 in coppiced. To conclude, the evaluated indirect LAI measurement method is portable, reliable and faster than direct LAI measurement

  19. Seasonal Biophysical Dynamics of the Amazon from Space Using MODIS Vegetation Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Didan, K.; Ratana, P.; Ferreira, L.

    2002-12-01

    We utilized the Terra- Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Vegetation Index (VI) products to analyze the seasonal and spatial patterns of photosynthetic vegetation activity over the Amazon Basin and surrounding regions of Brazil. The seasonal patterns of vegetation activity were studied along two, eco-climatic transects extending from (1) the cerrado region (Brasilia National Park) to the seasonal tropical forest (Tapajos National Forest) and (2) the caatinga biome to the seasonal and per-humid tropical forests. In addition to the climatic transects, we also investigated the seasonal dynamics of altered, land conversion areas associated with pastures and clearcutting land use activities. Both the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) at 250-m, 500-m, and 1-km were used to extract seasonal profile curves. The quality assurance (QA) information of the output products was used in noise removal and data filtering prior to the generation of the seasonal profiles. Histogram analyses were also performed at coarse (biome) scale and fine, site intensive (flux towers) scale. The seasonal patterns of the cerrado and caatinga were very pronounced with distinct dry and wet seasonal trends. We observed decreasing dry-wet seasonal patterns in the transitional areas near Araguaia National Park. In contrast, the seasonal behavior of the tropical forests were much harder to assess, but indicated slight seasonal trends that ran counter to rainfall activity. This may be attributed to new leaf growth in the dry season. We further found MODIS VI seasonal patterns to vary significantly in land converted and land degraded areas.

  20. Assessing the variation in the predictability of South African seasonal climate with HadRM3P ensemble spreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun Lawal, Kamoru; Stone, Daithi A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-04-01

    This study assesses the existence of trends and inter-annual variations in the predictability of the South African seasonal climate using a quasi-stochastic atmospheric system. The paper analyze the ensemble spread of a 50-year HadRM3P model simulations (ranging from 30 to 1000 simulations per month) with different initial conditions for monthly near surface air temperature and rainfall. It quantifies the ensemble spreads of the simulations using the standard deviation (sensitive to outliers) and the distance between 90th and 10th percentiles (Range of Possibility, less sensitive to outliers). Inter-annual variability and trends of standard deviation and range of possibility are then investigated and compared. Spatial-temporal variabilities of standard deviation and range of possibility indicate significantly negative trends in the ensemble spreads for precipitation majorly over inland provinces, from late austral spring to mid austral summer. Temperature exhibits coastal-inland provinces dichotomy, as both metrics of scale show negative trends over the coastal provinces in austral spring and early periods of austral summer. Negative trends of the spatial-temporal variations of the ensemble width implies narrowing of the range of possible predicted values, reduction in uncertainties within the prediction, and the existence of convergent systems in two or more similar states which may become progressively more similar. There exist some agreements between the standard deviation and range of possibility as 0.55 Africa.

  1. Large variations in diurnal and seasonal patterns of sap flux among Aleppo pine trees in semi-arid forest reflect tree-scale hydraulic adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Yakir; Tatarinov, Fyodor; Rohatyn, Shani; Rotenberg, Eyal; Grünzweig, José M.; Klein, Tamir; Yakir, Dan

    2015-04-01

    Adjustments and adaptations of trees to drought vary across different biomes, species and habitats, with important implications for tree mortality and forest dieback associated with global climate change. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between the patterns of variations in water flux dynamics and drought resistance in Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) trees in a semi-arid stand (Yatir forest, Israel). We measured sap flow (SF) and variations in stem diameter, complemented with short-term campaigns of leaf-scale measurements of water vapour and CO2 gas exchange, branch water potential and hydraulic conductivity, as well as eddy flux measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) from a permanent flux tower at the site. SF rates were well synchronized with ET, reaching maximum rates during midday in all trees during the rainy season (Dec-Apr). However, during the dry season (May-Nov), the daily trend in the rates of SF greatly varied among trees, allowing classification into three tree classes: 1) trees with SF maximum rate constantly occurring in mid-day (12:00-13:00); 2)trees showing a shift to an early morning SF peak (04:00-06:00); and 3) trees shifting their daily SF peak to the evening (16:00-18:00). This classification did not change during the four years study period, between 2010 and 2014. Checking for correlation of tree parameters as DBH, tree height, crown size, and competition indices with rates of SF, indicated that timing of maximum SF in summer was mainly related to tree size (DBH), when large trees tended to have a later SF maximum. Dendrometer measurements indicated that large trees (high DBH) had maximum daily diameter in the morning during summer and winter, while small trees typically had maximum daily diameter during midday and afternoon in winter and summer, respectively. Leaf-scale transpiration (T) measurements showed typical morning peak in all trees, and another peak in the afternoon in large trees only. Different diurnal

  2. An Assessment of Correlation between Dermatoglyphic Patterns and Sagittal Skeletal Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Susha Miriam; Philip, Biju; Madathody, Deepika; Mathew, Manu; Paul, Jose; Dlima, Johnson Prakash

    2017-03-01

    Investigators over years have been fascinated by dermatoglyphic patterns which has led to the development of dermatoglyphics as a science with numerous applications in various fields other than being the best and most widely used method for personal identification. To assess the correlation between dermatoglyphic patterns and sagittal skeletal discrepancies. A total of 180 patients, aged 18-40 years, were selected from those who attended the outpatient clinic of the Deparment of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Mar Baselios Dental College, Kothamangalam, Kerala, India. The fingerprints of both hands were taken by ink and stamp method after proper hand washing. The patterns of arches, loops and whorls in fingerprints were assessed. The total ridge count was also evaluated. Data was also sent to the fingerprint experts for expert evaluation. The sagittal jaw relation was determined from the patient's lateral cephalogram. The collected data was then statistically analyzed using Chi-square tests, ANOVA and Post-hoc tests and a Multinomial regression prediction was also done. A significant association was observed between the dermatoglyphic pattern exhibited by eight fingers and the sagittal skeletal discrepancies (ppattern was observed in the skeletal Class II with maxillary excess group and skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency group while an increased distribution of loop pattern was seen in the skeletal Class III with mandibular excess group and skeletal Class III with maxillary deficiency group. Higher mean of total ridge count was also seen in the groups of skeletal Class II with maxillary excess and skeletal Class II with mandibular deficiency. Multinomial regression predicting skeletal pattern with respect to the fingerprint pattern showed that the left thumb impression fits the best model for predicting the skeletal pattern. There was a significant association between dermatoglyphic patterns and sagittal skeletal discrepancies. Dermatoglyphics

  3. Estimating blue whale skin isotopic incorporation rates and baleen growth rates: Implications for assessing diet and movement patterns in mysticetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets-Vass, Geraldine; Newsome, Seth D; Calambokidis, John; Serra-Valente, Gabriela; Jacobsen, Jeff K; Aguíñiga-García, Sergio; Gendron, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis in mysticete skin and baleen plates has been repeatedly used to assess diet and movement patterns. Accurate interpretation of isotope data depends on understanding isotopic incorporation rates for metabolically active tissues and growth rates for metabolically inert tissues. The aim of this research was to estimate isotopic incorporation rates in blue whale skin and baleen growth rates by using natural gradients in baseline isotope values between oceanic regions. Nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope values of blue whale skin and potential prey were analyzed from three foraging zones (Gulf of California, California Current System, and Costa Rica Dome) in the northeast Pacific from 1996-2015. We also measured δ15N and δ13C values along the lengths of baleen plates collected from six blue whales stranded in the 1980s and 2000s. Skin was separated into three strata: basale, externum, and sloughed skin. A mean (±SD) skin isotopic incorporation rate of 163±91 days was estimated by fitting a generalized additive model of the seasonal trend in δ15N values of skin strata collected in the Gulf of California and the California Current System. A mean (±SD) baleen growth rate of 15.5±2.2 cm y-1 was estimated by using seasonal oscillations in δ15N values from three whales. These oscillations also showed that individual whales have a high fidelity to distinct foraging zones in the northeast Pacific across years. The absence of oscillations in δ15N values of baleen sub-samples from three male whales suggests these individuals remained within a specific zone for several years prior to death. δ13C values of both whale tissues (skin and baleen) and potential prey were not distinct among foraging zones. Our results highlight the importance of considering tissue isotopic incorporation and growth rates when studying migratory mysticetes and provide new insights into the individual movement strategies of blue whales.

  4. Cold-season patterns of reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple and ice-damaged trees of two age classes following drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. L. Wong; K. L. Baggett; A. H. Rye

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of summer drought on the composition and profiles of cold-season reserve and soluble carbohydrates in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) trees (50-100 years old or ~200 years old) in which the crowns were nondamaged or damaged by the 1998 ice storm. The overall cold season reserve...

  5. Melatonin adjusts the expression pattern of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and induces antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of seasonal affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Andras David; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Goda, Ryosei; Matsuo, Haruka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that C57BL/6J mice exhibit depression-like behavior under short photoperiod and suggested them as an animal model for investigating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this study, we tested if manipulations of the circadian clock with melatonin treatment could effectively modify depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and brain serotonergic system in C57BL/6J mice. Under short photoperiods (8-h light/16-h dark), daily melatonin treatments 2 h before light offset have significantly altered the 24-h patterns of mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (per1, per2, bmal1 and clock) within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) mostly by increasing amplitude in their expressional rhythms without inducing robust phase shifts in them. Melatonin treatments altered the expression of genes of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe (tph2, sert, vmat2 and 5ht1a) and serotonin contents in the amygdala. Importantly, melatonin treatment reduced the immobility in forced swim test, a depression-like behavior. As a key mechanism of melatonin-induced antidepressant-like effect, the previously proposed phase-advance hypothesis of the circadian clock could not be confirmed under conditions of our experiment. However, our findings of modest adjustments