WorldWideScience

Sample records for seasat economic assessment

  1. SEASAT economic assessment. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions. [management analysis of the economic benefits of the SEASAT program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A summary is presented of the economic benefits that can be derived from using the SEASAT Satellite System. A statement of the major findings of case studies of the practical applications of the SEASAT program to the following areas is given: (1) offshore oil and natural gas industry, (2) ocean mining, (3) coastal zones, (4) oil exploration in Arctic regions, (5) ocean fishing, and (6) ports and harbors. Also given is a description of the SEASAT System and its performance. A computer program, used to optimize SEASAT System's costs and operational requirements, is also considered.

  2. Seasat microwave wind and rain observations in severe tropical and midlatitude marine storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, P. G.; Hawkins, J. D.; Gentry, R. C.; Cardone, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results of studies concerning Seasat measurements in and around tropical and severe midlatitude cyclones over the open ocean are presented, together with an assessment of their accuracy and usefulness. Complementary measurements of surface wind speed and direction, rainfall rate, and the sea surface temperature obtained with the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), and the Seasat SAR are analyzed. The Seasat data for the Hurrricanes Fico, Ella, and Greta and the QE II storm are compared with data obtained from aircraft, buoys, and ships. It is shown that the SASS-derived wind speeds are accurate to within 10 percent, and the directions are accurate to within 20 percent. In general, the SASS estimates tend to measure light winds too high and intense winds too low. The errors of the SMMR-derived measurements of the winds in hurricanes tend to be higher than those of the SASS-derived measurements.

  3. Ocean tides from Seasat-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendershott, M. C.; Munk, W. H.; Zetler, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    Two procedures for the evaluation of global tides from SEASAT-A altimetry data are elaborated: an empirical method leading to the response functions for a grid of about 500 points from which the tide can be predicted for any point in the oceans, and a dynamic method which consists of iteratively modifying the parameters in a numerical solution to Laplace tide equations. It is assumed that the shape of the received altimeter signal can be interpreted for sea state and that orbit calculations are available so that absolute sea levels can be obtained.

  4. Economic assessment of sterifeed process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat

    2004-01-01

    The economics of a processing technology depends on its cost. Two types of costs commonly used in the estimation are a fixed cost and the other is variable cost. The cost structure that included in the fixed cost, mainly, the cost of land, building and machineries, and the variable cost covers raw materials, salary / wages, utilities, irradiation charge, other miscellaneous expenses and contingencies. The assessment were made by treating the economic data using discounted cash flow projection method to deduce the economic indicators: Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Benefit to Cost (B/C) ratio, that would suggest the project feasibility, either feasible or otherwise. The NPV, IRR, B/C deduced from Sterifeed Process showed the economic of this technology was infeasible due high cost incurred in transportation, labour as well as the cost of machinery. This is accomplished by sensitivity test performed on these cost components. However, cost structure derived from Sterifeed Plant serves as a model cost structure for economic assessment in production of Sterifeed, a fermented ruminant feed, and to work further on the economic of the project. This paper discuss economic evaluation of Sterifeed process in different scenarios that carried out in the Sterifeed process operations and deduction were made to derive a model production unit for commercialisation. (Author)

  5. Economic assessment of energetic scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandjean, Alain; Bureau, Dominique; Schubert, Katheline; Henriet, Fanny; Maggiar, Nicolas; Criqui, Patrick; Le Teno, Helene; Baumstark, Luc; Crassous, Renaud; Roques, Fabien

    2013-09-01

    This publication gathers contributions proposed by different members of the Economic Council for a Sustainable Development (CEDD) on the issue of energy transition, and more precisely on scenarios elaborated with respect to energy transition. A first set of contributions addresses models of energy transition (assessment of scenario costs to reach a factor 4; the issue of de-carbonation of energy consumption; study of ELECsim, a tool to highlight costs of scenarios of evolution of the electric power system). The second part addresses arbitrations and choice assessment (the importance of social and economic impacts of scenarios; challenges related to the joint definition of the discount rate and of the evolution of carbon value in time; the issue of assessment of the integration of renewable energies into the power system)

  6. Regional Files of GEOS3/SEASAT/GEOSAT Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity anomalies and sea surface heights have been computed on a 0.125 degree grid in the ocean areas from a combined GEOS3/SEASAT/GEOSAT altimeter data set. This...

  7. Health economic assessment: a methodological primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven

    2009-12-01

    This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs), an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis), and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  8. Health Economic Assessment: A Methodological Primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Simoens

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This review article aims to provide an introduction to the methodology of health economic assessment of a health technology. Attention is paid to defining the fundamental concepts and terms that are relevant to health economic assessments. The article describes the methodology underlying a cost study (identification, measurement and valuation of resource use, calculation of costs, an economic evaluation (type of economic evaluation, the cost-effectiveness plane, trial- and model-based economic evaluation, discounting, sensitivity analysis, incremental analysis, and a budget impact analysis. Key references are provided for those readers who wish a more advanced understanding of health economic assessments.

  9. Assessing economic tradeoffs in forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernie Niemi; Ed. Whitelaw

    1999-01-01

    Method is described for assessing the competing demands for forest resources in a forest management plan by addressing economics values, economic impacts, and perceptions of fairness around each demand. Economics trends and forces that shape the dynamic ecosystem-economy relation are developed. The method is demonstrated through an illustrative analysis of a forest-...

  10. Expression of San Andreas fault on Seasat radar image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, F. F., Jr.; Blom, R.; Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    A Seasat image (23.5 cm wavelength) of the Durmid Hills in southern California, the San Andreas Fault was analyzed. It is shown that a prominent southeast trending tonal lineament exists that is bright on the southwest side and dark on the northeast side. The cause of the contrasting signatures on opposite sides of the lineament was determined and the geologic signficance of the lineament was evaluated.

  11. Techno-Economics & Life Cycle Assessment (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Davis, R.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the techno-economic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) capabilities at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and describes the value of working with NREL on TEA and LCA.

  12. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review of existing models and methods for assessing potential consequences of accidents in the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system identifies economic consequence assessment methods as a weak point. Existing methods have mostly been designed to assess economic consequences of reactor accidents, the possible scale of which can be several orders of magnitude greater than anything possible in the HLW disposal system. There is therefore some question about the applicability of these methods, their assumptions, and their level of detail to assessments of smaller accidents. The US Dept. of Energy funded this study to determine needs for code modifications or model development for assessing economic costs of accidents in the HLW disposal system. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) review the literature on economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the HLW disposal system before closure. (2) Determine needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system. (3) Gather data that might be useful for the needed revisions for modeling economic impacts on this scale

  13. DUPIC fuel cycle economics assessment (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, H. B.; Roh, G. H.; Kim, D. H.

    1999-04-01

    This is a state-of-art report that describes the current status of the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis conducted by the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group of the DUPIC fuel development project. For the DUPIC fuel cycle economics analysis, the DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment group has organized the 1st technical meeting composed of 8 domestic specialists from government, academy, industry, etc. and a foreign specialist of hot-cell design from TRI on July 16, 1998. This report contains the presentation material of the 1st technical meeting, published date used for the economics analysis and opinions of participants, which could be utilized for further DUPIC fuel cycle and back-end fuel cycle economics analyses. (author). 11 refs., 7 charts

  14. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab

  15. Geologic coal assessment: The interface with economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic resource assessments describe the location, general characteristics, and estimated volumes of resources, whether in situ or technically recoverable. Such compilations are only an initial step in economic resource evaluation. This paper identifies, by examples from the Illinois and Appalachian basins, the salient features of a geologic assessment that assure its usefulness to downstream economic analysis. Assessments should be in sufficient detail to allocate resources to production units (mines or wells). Coal assessments should include the spatial distribution of coal bed characteristics and the ability to allocate parts of the resource to specific mining technologies. For coal bed gas assessment, the production well recoveries and well deliverability characteristics must be preserved and the risk structure should be specified so dryholes and noncommercial well costs are recovered by commercially successful wells. ?? 2001 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  16. Applications of Seasat to the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA satellite Seasat-A (to be launched in 1978) has applications to the offshore oil, gas, and mining industries including: (1) improvements in weather and wave forecasting, (2) studies of past wind and wave statistics for planning design requirements, and (3) monitoring ice formation, breakup, and movement in arctic regions. The primary geographic areas which will be monitored by Seasat-A include: the Beaufort Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. east coast, West Africa, Equatorial East Pacific, the Gulf of Alaska, and the North Sea. Seasat-A instrumentation used in ocean monitoring consists of a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a microwave radiometer, and a visible and infrared radiometer. The future outlook of the Seasat program is planned in three phases: measurement feasibility demonstration (1978-1980), data accessibility/utility demonstration (1980-1983), and operational system demonstration (1983-1985).

  17. Concept of economic readiness levels assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniaristanto, Sutopo, W.; Widiyanto, A.; Putri, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    This research aims to build a concept of Economic Readiness Level (ERL) assessment for incubation center. ERL concept is arranged by considering both market and business aspects. Every aspect is divided into four phases and each of them consists of some indicators. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used to develop the ERL in calculating the weight of every single aspect and indicator. Interval scale between 0 and 4 is also applied in indicator assessment. In order to calculate ERL, score in every indicator and the weight of both the aspect and indicator are considered. ERL value is able to show in detail the innovative product readiness level from economic sight, market and business aspect. There are four levels in Economic Readiness Level scheme which are investigation, feasibility, planning and introduction.

  18. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available

  19. Managing Air Quality - Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human health and environmental assessments characterize health and environmental risks associated with exposure to pollution. Economic assessments evaluate the cost and economic impact of a policy or regulation & can estimate economic benefits.

  20. Preliminary Economic Assessment of KALIMER-600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Kee-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Su; Hahn, Do-Hee

    2008-01-01

    The GIF(GEN IV International Forum) established an Economic Modelling Working Group(EMWG) in 2003 to create economic models and guidelines to facilitate in a future evaluation of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems and assess progress toward the GIF economic goals. These goals are to have a life cycle cost advantage over other energy sources, and to have a level of financial risk comparable to other energy projects. To do this, EMWG has been developed the G4-ECONS model, which is a generic EXCEL-based model for computation of the projected levelized unit electricity cost and/or levelized non-electricity unit product cost from GEN IV energy systems. KALIMER-600 has been developed as a new design concept based on the KALIMER-150 design. KALIMER-600 is a unique design concept which has a potential to achieve GEN IV technology goals even though there is a room for a design improvement in order to make the KALIMER-600 more competitive with future generation reactors. The objective of this study is to the assess economics of KALIMER-600 by using the G4-ECONS model

  1. Economic assessment of mushroom project commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hassan Hamdani Hassan Mutaat; Meswan Maskom

    2010-01-01

    The market value of mushroom is worth US $45 billion comprising: US $28-30 billion from food, US $9-10 billion from medicinal products and US $3.5-4 billion from wild mushroom. Malaysian import deficit of mushroom over the year 2001-2007 was 40,933 metric ton that worth of RM 187.7 million. The existing local market is lucrative and the potential world market is very large. Having cultivation technology in placed, understanding key value chains of cultivation technology processes, this paper assesses the case study of project economic of mushroom commercialization. (author)

  2. Economic Journal in Russia: Quality Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to assess economic journals included in the List of peer-reviewed scientific journals and editions that are authorized to publish the principal research findings of doctoral (candidate’s dissertations (the VAK List, it was established by the Decision of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation and entered into force on December 01, 2016. The general assessment of the journals that include more than 380 titles is carried out by analyzing their bibliometric indicators in the system of the Russian Science Citation Index, in particular, by examining the values of their impact factors. The analysis conducted at the Institute of Socio-economic Development of Territories of RAS shows that a relatively small number of economic journals publish a significant proportion of articles that obtain a large share of citations. The author reveals that the new VAK List includes over 50% of journals specializing in economic sciences, which have a lower level of citation or which are virtually not cited at all. This indirectly indicates that such journals are “left behind” the “main stream of science”, that their significance is local, availability low, attractiveness for the audience and scientific authority insufficient. The analysis proves that when forming the list of peer-reviewed scientific publications recommended for publication of dissertation research findings, along with other criteria, it is advisable to use tools that help assess the level of the journal. It is very important that the evaluation had quantitative expression and served as a specific measure for ranking the journals. One of these tools may be a criterion value for the two-year impact factor, which helps identify journals with a sufficient citation level. The paper presents the results of analysis of the RSCI list, which was proposed by the Council for Science under the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation as an

  3. An economic assessment of low carbon vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerton, P. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harrison, P. [European Climate Foundation ECF, Brussels (Belgium)] (eds.)

    2013-03-15

    The study aimed to analyse the economic impacts of decarbonizing light duty vehicles. As part of the study, the impacts of the European Commissions proposed 2020 CO2 regulation for cars and vans have been assessed. The analysis showed that a shift to low-carbon vehicles would increase spending on vehicle technology, therefore generating positive direct employment impacts, but potentially adding 1,000-1,100 euro to the capital cost of the average new car in 2020. However, these additional technology costs would be offset by fuel savings of around 400 euro per year, indicating an effective break-even point for drivers of approximately three years. At the EU level, the cost of running and maintaining the European car fleet would become 33-35 billion euro lower each year than in a 'do nothing scenario' by 2030, leading to positive economic impacts including indirect employment gains. Data on the cost of low carbon vehicle technologies has largely been sourced from the auto industry itself, with the study supported by a core working group including Nissan, GE, the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA), and the European Storage Battery Manufacturers Association (Eurobat). Fuel price projections for the study were based on the IEA's World Energy Outlook, while technical modelling was carried out using the transport policy scoping tool SULTAN (developed by Ricardo-AEA for the European Commission) and the Road Vehicle Cost and Efficiency Calculation Framework, also developed by Ricardo-AEA. Macro-economic modelling was done using the E3ME model, which has previously been used for several European Commission and EU government impact assessments. This report focuses on efficient use of fossil fuels in internal combustion- and hybrid electric vehicles. It will be followed by a second report, which will focus on further reducing the use of fossil fuels by also substituting them with domestically produced energy carriers, such as electricity and

  4. Large-scale analysis and forecast experiments with wind data from the Seasat A scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W. E.; Atlas, R.; Kalnay, E.; Halem, M.; Woiceshyn, P. M.; Peteherych, S.; Edelmann, D.

    1984-01-01

    A series of data assimilation experiments is performed to assess the impact of Seasat A satellite scatterometer (SASS) wind data on Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) model forecasts. The SASS data are dealiased as part of an objective analysis system utilizing a three-pass procedure. The impact of the SASS data is evaluated with and without temperature soundings from the NOAA 4 Vertical Temperature Profile Radiometer (VTPR) instrument in order to study possible redundancy between surface wind data and upper air temperature data. In the northern hemisphere the SASS data are generally found to have a negligible effect on the forecasts. In the southern hemisphere the forecast impact from SASS data is somewhat larger and primarily beneficial in the absence of VTPR data. However, the inclusion of VTPR data effectively eliminates the positive impact over Australia and South America. This indicates that SASS data can be beneficial for numerical weather prediction in regions with large data gaps, but in the presence of satellite soundings the usefulness of SASS data is significantly reduced.

  5. Global surface wind and flux fields from model assimilation of Seasat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, R.; Busalacchi, A. J.; Kalnay, E.; Bloom, S.; Ghil, M.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for dealiasing Seasat data and developing global surface wind and latent and sensible heat flux fields are discussed. Seasat data from September 20, 1978 was dealiased using the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) analysis/forecast system. The wind data obtained with the objective GLA forecast model are compared to the data subjectively dealiased by Peteherych et al. (1984) and Hoffman (1982, 1984). The GLA procedure is also verified using simulated Seasat data. The areas of high and low heat fluxes and cyclonic and anticyclonic wind stresses detected in the generated fields are analyzed and compared to climatological fields. It is observed that there is good correlation between the time-averaged analyses of wind stress obtained subjectively and objectively, and the monthly mean wind stress and latent fluxes agree with climatological fields and atmospheric and oceanic features.

  6. Improved land use classification from Landsat and Seasat satellite imagery registered to a common map base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the case of Landsat Multispectral Scanner System (MSS) data, ambiguities in spectral signature can arise in urban areas. A study was initiated in the belief that Seasat digital SAR could help provide the spectral separability needed for a more accurate urban land use classification. A description is presented of the results of land use classifications performed on Landsat and preprocessed Seasat imagery that were registered to a common map base. The process of registering imagery and training site boundary coordinates to a common map has been reported by Clark (1980). It is found that preprocessed Seasat imagery provides signatures for urban land uses which are spectrally separable from Landsat signatures. This development appears to significantly improve land use classifications in an urban setting for class 12 (Commercial and Services), class 13 (Industrial), and class 14 (Transportation, Communications, and Utilities).

  7. Seasat synthetic aperture radar ( SAR) response to lowland vegetation types in eastern Maryland and Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M.D.; Milton, N.M.; Segal, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Examination of Seasat SAR images of eastern Maryland and Virginia reveals botanical distinctions between vegetated lowland areas and adjacent upland areas. Radar returns from the lowland areas can be either brighter or darker than returns from the upland forests. Scattering models and scatterometer measurements predict an increase of 6 dB in backscatter from vegetation over standing water. This agrees with the 30-digital number (DN) increase observed in the digital Seasat data. The density, morphology, and relative geometry of the lowland vegetation with respect to standing water can all affect the strength of the return L band signal.-from Authors

  8. (Non-) behavioral economics: a programmatic assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner

    2007-01-01

    Economic theory has evolved without paying proper attention to behavioral approaches, especially to social, economic, and cognitive psychology. This has recently changed by including behavioral economics courses in many doctoral study programs. Although this new development is most welcome, the typical topics of the behavioral economics courses are not truly behavioral. More specifically, we question whether neoclassical repairs or game fitting exercises as well as more or less mechanic adapt...

  9. Economic impacts assessment of pleuropneumonia burden and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a trans-boundary infectious and contagious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. It is a disease of high economic importance because of its ability to compromise food security. Information on its economic burden in pastoral cattle ...

  10. Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic status of Ghanians of Subsaharan Africa assessed by subjective perception as against objective criteria: methodological considerations. The Mamprobi (Ghana) Cardiovascular Helath Programme 1975-1980.

  11. Introduction to economic assessment - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Ann; Sin, Chih Hoong

    2014-07-01

    This is the second in a series of four continuing professional development articles that explain some of the principles of economic assessment (EA) and describe how they may be applied in practice by front line practitioners leading service innovations. It introduces a methodology, with associated tools and templates, that has been used by practising nurses to conduct EAs. Our purpose is to equip readers with the knowledge to develop a technically competent, pragmatic EA that will contribute towards evidence-informed decision making and assure the best use of limited resources. If you have not already read the first article in this series ( McMahon and Sin 2013), we strongly advise you to do so as each article purposefully draws and builds on those that have gone before. The time out exercises in the first article required you to access source material located on the RCN website and identify a service innovation in your workplace. The time out exercises in this article draw in these same sources. We begin this article by recapping on the points covered in the first article before exploring the implications of the principles of EA and how to apply them in practice. In this article, we refer to and draw on a companion article published in this edition of Nursing Management ( pages 38-41) that sets out the most commonly cited approaches to EA in health and social care. We aim to enable readers, along with those they seek to influence, to make an informed decision as to what may be an appropriate EA approach in any specific context.

  12. Methodology of Economic Assessment of Corporate Finance Management Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Juscu Nicolae Cristian

    2011-01-01

    “The methodology of economic assessment of corporate finance management effectiveness” deals with the analysis of the basic issues of economic aspects of corporate finance management effectiveness; the paper presents the essential issues of the existing methods for establishing the economic effectiveness of corporate finance management and control; it also proposes the improvement of the approach regarding the assessment of finance management effectiveness of a company.

  13. Economic assessment of plutonium recycle to LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper presents an economic evaluation of plutonium recycle in LWR's using published estimates of the cost of the various fuel cycle operations. Total, discounted and levelized fuel cycle costs are computed for four national nuclear power growth pattern scenarios; ''super large'' (>100GW(e) by 2000), ''large'' (60-70GW(e) by 2000) ''medium'' (20-25 GW(e) by 2000) and ''small'' (5-10GW(e) by 2000). It is concluded that in the ''super-large'' and ''large'' cases recycle of uranium and plutonium would have a slight economic advantage over the once-through cycle. In the ''medium'' and ''small'' cases there would be no economic advantage up to the year 2000. The uncertainty in unit fuel cycle costs is large compared with the differences between the two fuel cycles and different conclusions can easily be drawn based on different unit cost assumptions

  14. The Seasat SAR Wind and Ocean Wave Monitoring Capabilities: A case study for pass 1339m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    A well organized low energy 11 sec. swell system off the East Coast of the U.S. was detected with the Seasat Synthetic Aperture Radar and successfully tracked from deep water, across the continental shelf, and into shallow water. In addition, a less organized 7 sec. system was tentatively identified in the imagery. Both systems were independently confirmed with simultaneous wave spectral measurements from a research pier, aircraft laser profilometer data, and Fleet Numerical Spectral Ocean Wave Models.

  15. Assessing sufficient capability: A new approach to economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Paul Mark; Roberts, Tracy E; Barton, Pelham M; Coast, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    Amartya Sen's capability approach has been discussed widely in the health economics discipline. Although measures have been developed to assess capability in economic evaluation, there has been much less attention paid to the decision rules that might be applied alongside. Here, new methods, drawing on the multidimensional poverty and health economics literature, are developed for conducting economic evaluation within the capability approach and focusing on an objective of achieving "sufficient capability". This objective more closely reflects the concern with equity that pervades the capability approach and the method has the advantage of retaining the longitudinal aspect of estimating outcome that is associated with quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), whilst also drawing on notions of shortfall associated with assessments of poverty. Economic evaluation from this perspective is illustrated in an osteoarthritis patient group undergoing joint replacement, with capability wellbeing assessed using ICECAP-O. Recommendations for taking the sufficient capability approach forward are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  17. economic assessment of the performance of private sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Economic and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria ... This paper critically attempts to assess the performance of the private sector ... economy would depend to a large extent on the quantity ..... New York, USA: McGraw.

  18. An Assessment of Economic Stability under the New European Economic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe HURDUZEU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis, followed by the sovereign debt crisis, resulted in high unemployment, unsustainable public finances and deepening disparities between Euro Area member states, and underlined the necessity of strengthening economic coordination. In order to lessen the effects of the crises, to prevent further deepening of the economic context and the appearance of new similar situations, the European framework was improved by the provisions of the new economic governance. The aim of this paper is to assess the effects regarding macroeconomic stability within Euro Area member states, achieved under the new economic governance framework. In this respect, the first part of the paper consists in an overview of the provisions imposed through the European Semester, the reformed Stability and Growth Pact and the other elements of the new European governance. In order to assess the achievement of economic stability we analyzed data for Southern Euro Area member states, during 2009-2013, as this group of countries registered most issues during 2013. We took into consideration five important indicators, essential in any economy that form the macroeconomic stability pentagon: economic growth rate, unemployment rate, inflation rate, budgetary balance and current account balance. By comparing the area obtained through the macroeconomic stability pentagon, we conclude on meeting one of the main objectives of the new European governance: economic stability.

  19. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  20. Elements for a comprehensive assessment of natural resources: bridging environmental economics with ecological economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Romero, Paulo Cesar; Cubillos Gonzalez, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The predominance of economic assessments regarding the value of natural resources has caused a sub-valuing of the real benefits which societies can obtain from nature. This is due to a lack of knowledge about the complexity of ecological functions, as well as a dismissal of the integrated relations of the sub-systems which make up the environment. It is therefore necessary to establish conceptual bridges between environmental sciences to fill in the gaps in economic valuation methods by recurring to diverse measuring scales, participation from the different actors involved, and a principle of precaution regarding the limits of nature. This paper explores the concepts of value and economic valuation methods from the perspectives of Environmental Economics and Ecological Economics. It then proposes an integration of valuing methodologies which take into account how complementary and complex natures value relations are. This proposal of valuing integrally ecosystem goods and services contributes to adjusting political decisions more accordingly to real environmental conditions.

  1. Linking Physical Climate Research and Economic Assessments of Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stainforth, David; Calel, Raphael

    2017-04-01

    Evaluating climate change policies requires economic assessments which balance the costs and benefits of climate action. A certain class of Integrated Assessment Models (IAMS) are widely used for this type of analysis; DICE, PAGE and FUND are three of the most influential. In the economics community there has been much discussion and debate about the economic assumptions implemented within these models. Two aspects in particular have gained much attention: i) the costs of damages resulting from climate change - the so-called damage function, and ii) the choice of discount rate applied to future costs and benefits. There has, however, been rather little attention given to the consequences of the choices made in the physical climate models within these IAMS. Here we discuss the practical aspects of the implementation of the physical models in these IAMS, as well as the implications of choices made in these physical science components for economic assessments[1]. We present a simple breakdown of how these IAMS differently represent the climate system as a consequence of differing underlying physical models, different parametric assumptions (for parameters representing, for instance, feedbacks and ocean heat uptake) and different numerical approaches to solving the models. We present the physical and economic consequences of these differences and reflect on how we might better incorporate the latest physical science understanding in economic models of this type. [1] Calel, R. and Stainforth D.A., "On the Physics of Three Integrated Assessment Models", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, in press.

  2. NEW INSTITUTIONAL ECONOMICS FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING AND IMPROVING AGRARIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bachev

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics and suggest a framework for assessing efficiency of farms and agrarian organizations. Our new approach includes: study of farm and agrarian organizations as governing rather than production structure; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative market, contract, internal, and hybrid modes of governance; analysis of level of transaction costs and their institutional, behavioral, dimensional, technological and natural factors; determination of criteria of farm efficiency and its effective boundaries; specification of economic role of government and needs for public interventions in agrarian sector; assessment of comparative efficiency of alternative forms of public involvement.

  3. Overcoming barriers to integrating economic analysis into risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sandra

    2011-09-01

    Regulatory risk analysis is designed to provide decisionmakers with a clearer understanding of how policies are likely to affect risk. The systems that produce risk are biological, physical, and social and economic. As a result, risk analysis is an inherently interdisciplinary task. Yet in practice, risk analysis has been interdisciplinary in only limited ways. Risk analysis could provide more accurate assessments of risk if there were better integration of economics and other social sciences into risk assessment itself. This essay examines how discussions about risk analysis policy have influenced the roles of various disciplines in risk analysis. It explores ways in which integrated bio/physical-economic modeling could contribute to more accurate assessments of risk. It reviews examples of the kind of integrated economics-bio/physical modeling that could be used to enhance risk assessment. The essay ends with a discussion of institutional barriers to greater integration of economic modeling into risk assessment and provides suggestions on how these might be overcome. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Economic assessment model architecture for AGC/AVLIS selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoglund, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    The economic assessment model architecture described provides the flexibility and completeness in economic analysis that the selection between AGC and AVLIS demands. Process models which are technology-specific will provide the first-order responses of process performance and cost to variations in process parameters. The economics models can be used to test the impacts of alternative deployment scenarios for a technology. Enterprise models provide global figures of merit for evaluating the DOE perspective on the uranium enrichment enterprise, and business analysis models compute the financial parameters from the private investor's viewpoint

  5. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  6. Integrated environmental and economic assessment of waste management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Sanchez, Veronica

    in the “Optimization approach” the scenarios are the results of an optimization process. • The cost approach describes cost principles and level of LCA integration. Conventional and Environmental LCCs are financial assessments, i.e. include marketed goods/services, but while Environmental LCCs include environmental...... assessment of SWM systems alongside environmental impacts assessment to take budget constrains into account. In light of the need for combined environmental and economic assessment of SWM, this PhD thesis developed a consistent and comprehensive method for integrated environmental and economic assessment...... of SWM technologies and systems. The method resulted from developing further the generic Life Cycle Costing (LCC) framework suggested by Hunkeler et al. (2008) and Swarr et al. (2011) to apply it on the field of SWM. The method developed includes: two modelling approaches (Accounting and Optimization...

  7. "Economics with Training Wheels": Using Blogs in Teaching and Assessing Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Blogs provide a dynamic interactive medium for online discussion, consistent with communal constructivist pedagogy. The author of this article describes and evaluates a blog assignment used in the teaching and assessment of a small (40-60 students) introductory economics course. Using qualitative and quantitative data collected across four…

  8. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  9. Economic Risk Assessment Taking Into Account the Volume Oscillator Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Mihaela LAPADUSI

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic risk can be assessed from many points of view, but generally speaking it means the firm's inability to match workload with cost structure. Expansion of production capacity, adaptation to new technologies, diversification of products are only a few factors influencing risk. These, along with financial risk and bankruptcy risk constitute the most important category of risk which presents a great interest for the banks, shareholders, managers, business partners, etc. The purpose of this article is to provide a brief overview of tje oscillation of your company's activity from the point of view of economic risk. The main objective of this research lies in economic risk assessment by means of the margin of safety, the safety index and critical time point.

  10. Assessment of mutual influence of economic and ecological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vasil’evich Druzhinin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers two issues: the assessment of the influence of economic development on the environment and the assessment of the impact of climate change on the development of certain economic sectors. The authors used methods of statistical analysis and economic-mathematical modeling. The article reveals differences in the dynamics and defines the nature of the relationship between GRP per capita and emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere (including greenhouse gases for Russia’s regions. It is shown that the dynamics in some regions in 2000–2011 corresponds to the environmental Kuznets curve. The factors that affect the reduction of anthropogenic impact were determined. Several models for estimating the impact of changes in climatic conditions on the productivity of various crops were designed and tested

  11. Economic assessment of a waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Wang, L.; Zhou, W.; Wu, J.; Wang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports an economic assessment on a hydride hydrogen recovery, purification, storage, transportation and application project (HRPSTA) set for a system including a nitrogenous fertilizer plant and a float glass factory. In this project, a pretreatment unit and metal hydride containers are used to recover and purify the hydrogen from the purge gas of the ammonia fertilizer plant and to transport and use the hydrogen in the tin bath in the float glass factory. Detailed economic assessment, cost analysis and a cash flow statement are presented, and financial net present value (NPV), as well as intrinsic rate of return (IRR), is calculated. The results shows that this project, which is feasible technologically, is profitable economically. (Author)

  12. Economic evaluation of influenza vaccination : Assessment for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Bos, Jasper M.; Van Gennep, Mark; Jager, Johannes C.; Baltussen, Rob; Sprenger, Marc J.W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the costs associated with influenza and the cost effectiveness (net costs per life-year gained) of influenza vaccination in The Netherlands. Design and setting: The economic evaluation comprised a cost-of-illness assessment and a

  13. An assessement of global energy resource economic potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercure, Jean-François; Salas, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global economic energy potentials for all major natural energy resources. This work is based on both an extensive literature review and calculations using natural resource assessment data. Economic potentials are presented in the form of cost-supply curves, in terms of energy flows for renewable energy sources, or fixed amounts for fossil and nuclear resources, with strong emphasis on uncertainty, using a consistent methodology that allow direct comparisons to be made. In order to interpolate through available resource assessment data and associated uncertainty, a theoretical framework and a computational methodology are given based on statistical properties of different types of resources, justified empirically by the data, and used throughout. This work aims to provide a global database for natural energy resources ready to integrate into models of energy systems, enabling to introduce at the same time uncertainty over natural resource assessments. The supplementary material provides theoretical details and tables of data and parameters that enable this extensive database to be adapted to a variety of energy systems modelling frameworks. -- Highlights: ► Global energy potentials for all major energy resources are reported. ► Theory and methodology for calculating economic energy potentials is given. ► An uncertainty analysis for all energy economic potentials is carried out.

  14. Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic Growth. ... Furthermore, it calls for effective implementation and monitoring of financial policies as well as adequate supervision of the financial sector by the relevant authorities to avoid lopsided compliance with financial and monetary guidelines. Keywords: ...

  15. Economic assessment of Q fever in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Prins, J.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were

  16. Economic assessment of oil palm projects in Nigeria. | Nwawe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, this study was designed to economically assess oil palm projects in Nigeria. Secondary data used for this study were collected from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) and related journals. The data collected were analyzed using discounted cash flow techniques. The result shows that at 32% interest ...

  17. Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...

  18. Methodology for reliability, economic and environmental assessment of wave energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.; Muirhead, S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the Preliminary Actions in Wave Energy R and D for DG XII's Joule programme, methodologies were developed to facilitate assessment of the reliability, economics and environmental impact of wave energy. This paper outlines these methodologies, their limitations and areas requiring further R and D. (author)

  19. Writing, Evaluating and Assessing Data Response Items in Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the problems in writing data response items in economics for use by A Level and General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) students. Examines the experience of two series of workshops on writing items, evaluating them and assessing responses from schools. Offers suggestions for producing packages of data response items as…

  20. The DCFR and consumer protection: an economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luth, H.A.; Cseres, K.; Larouche, P.; Chirico, F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will discuss consumer protection in the DCFR. It will screen the DCFR and its model of consumer protection through the lens of economic analysis. The assessment will examine the general role of mandatory rules, which justification grounds they are based on and how this general model is

  1. Assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of grain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to noticeably and systematically assess ecological, economic and social effects of the grain for green project on county level, this study investigated the benefits of carbon sequestration to the soil of farmland-converted forestland (in 0 to 20 cm soil depth), the change in household income structure and social ...

  2. A Model for Assessing the Gender Aspect in Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ona Rakauskienė

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to develop a conceptual model for assessing the impact of the gender aspect on economic policy at macro– and microeconomic levels. The research methodology is based on analysing scientific approaches to the gender aspect in economics and gender–responsive budgeting as well as determining the impact of the gender aspect on GDP, foreign trade, the state budget and the labour market. First, the major findings encompass the main idea of a conceptual model proposing that a socio–economic picture of society can be accepted as completed only when, alongside public and private sectors, includes the care/reproductive sector that is dominated by women and creating added value in the form of educated human resources; second, macroeconomics is not neutral in terms of gender equality. Gender asymmetry is manifested not only at the level of microeconomics (labour market and business but also at the level of macroeconomics (GDP, the state budget and foreign trade, which has a negative impact on economic growth and state budget revenues. In this regard, economic decisions, according to the principles of gender equality and in order to achieve gender equality in economics, must be made, as the gender aspect has to be also implemented at the macroeconomic level.

  3. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  4. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  5. Brick industry: Technical and economic assessment of energy saving measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G.; Romeo, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    Starting from a detailed energy analysis of the production cycle of bricks, the authors make a technical and economic assessment of any possible measure aimed at rationalizing energy. They take energy conservation into consideration not only through the use of exhausted oil residues, but also through the employment of a turboalternator or an internal combustion engine for cogeneration. Both applications of cogeneration prove to be highly interesting from an economic viewpoint even though the turboalternator is put at a disadvantage in competing with internal combustion engines since it increases the overall cogeneration plant costs with respect to the latter.

  6. Accelerator assisted repositories, technical issue identification and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, T.; Favale, A.; Berwald, D. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An investigation (technical and economic) is presented to quantify the impact of accelerator assisted repository (AAR) system on the US national nuclear repository strategy. An overview of US spent fuel policy is presented which provides a means to comparatively assess competing spent fuel disposition technologies under investigation. The advantages of an AAR system are highlighted and discussed. A companion economic analysis is presented. The results indicate that although a US geologic waste repository will continue to be required, waste partitioning and accelerator transmutation of selected actinides, and long-lived fission products, can result in substantial benefits. (author) 18 refs.

  7. Economic assessment of the construction industry: A construction-economics nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Herbert Marion, Jr.

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an economic assessment of the construction industry. More specifically, this study addresses ambiguities within the literature that are associated with the construction-economics nexus. The researcher 1) investigated the relationships between economic indicators and stock prices of U.S. construction equipment manufacturers, 2) investigated the relationships between energy production, consumption, and corruption, and 3) determined the economic effect electricity generation and electricity consumption has on economies of scale. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics in this study and determined that economists, researchers, policy-makers, and others should have predicted the 2007-08 world economic collapse 5-6 years prior to realization of the event given that construction indices and GDP grossly regressed from statistically acceptable trends as early as 2002 and perhaps 2000. Substantiating this claim, the effect of the cost of construction materials and labor, i.e. construction index, on GDP was significant for years leading up to the collapse (1970-2007). Additionally, it was determined that energy production and consumption are predictors of governmental corruption in some countries. In the Republic of Botswana, for example, the researcher determined that energy production and consumption statistically jointly effected governmental corruption. In addition to determining statistical effect, a model for predicting governmental corruption was developed based on energy production and consumption volumes. Also, the researcher found that electricity generation in the 25 largest world economies had a statistically significant effect on GDP. Electricity consumption also had an effect on GDP, as well, but not on other economic indicators. More importantly than the quantitative findings, the researcher concluded that the construction-economics nexus is far more complex than most policy-makers realize. As such

  8. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Building, University College Dublin 4, Belfield (Ireland)

    2009-10-15

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers. (author)

  9. Economic assessment of the use value of geospatial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI) contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms) of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1) a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2) a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3) a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  10. An economic assessment of potential ethanol production pathways in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverell, Rory; McDonnell, Kevin; Ward, Shane; Devlin, Ger

    2009-01-01

    An economic assessment was conducted on five biomass-to-ethanol production pathways utilising the feedstock: wheat, triticale, sugarbeet, miscanthus and straw. The analysis includes the costs and margins for all the stakeholders along the economic chain. This analysis reveals that under current market situations in Ireland, the production of ethanol under the same tax regime as petrol makes it difficult to compete against that fuel, with tax breaks, however, it can compete against petrol. On the other hand, even under favourable tax breaks it will be difficult for indigenously produced ethanol to compete against cheaper sources of imported ethanol. Therefore, the current transport fuel market has no economic reason to consume indigenously produced ethanol made from the indigenously grown feedstock analysed at a price that reflects all the stakeholders' costs. To deliver a significant penetration of indigenous ethanol into the market would require some form of compulsory inclusion or else considerable financial supports to feedstock and ethanol producers.

  11. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  12. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies. PMID:27243040

  13. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmar Rodrigues Moreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices and 19.77% (market prices of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68% was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%, despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  14. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD) has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted by DOE/MD and its national laboratory contractors. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. A secondary intent of the paper is to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact cost and schedule. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost-estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  15. An economic assessment of population health risk in region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Vladimirovna Zaytseva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method of economic assessment of population health risk as a tool of life qualitymanagement and qualityof labor resources in the region (as factors of a region’s economic security. The technique is based on the cost of reducing the period of disability in the implementation of population health risk and takes into account the effects of risk prevention on levels of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. The method intends to support making decisions on planning measures to reduce population health risk at the level of regions, territories and separate objects to assess their cost-performance, optimization of investment and operating costs to reduce the population health risk and sustainable development of the territory

  16. Assessing the economic effects of Latin American independence

    OpenAIRE

    Prados de la Escosura, Leandro

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the economic consequences of independence in Latin America. Grand interpretations that assess Nineteenth Century Latin America by comparison to the U.S. performance are examined and the alternative approach of using African and Asian post-colonial experiences as the yardstick is explored. Empirical evidence on the consequences of removing the colonial burden and opening up to the international economy is, then, examined. The paper concludes with discussion of when Latin A...

  17. Socio-economic Scenarios in Climate Assessments (IC11). Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Drunen, M.; Berkhout, F.

    2011-09-01

    It is widely recognised that projections of social and economic futures are circumscribed by irreducible uncertainties and ignorance. A common analytical response is to develop scenarios that map a range of alternative possible outcomes. The application of scenarios in climate assessments in the Netherlands was investigated in this report, focusing on the use of the socio-economic scenarios 'Welvaart en Leefomgeving' (WLO - The Future of the Dutch Built Environment). This research was carried out within the Climate Changes Spatial Planning (CcSP) programme. WLO scenarios have been applied in climate assessment studies. WLO generates figures and data that are useful. Nevertheless we encountered several CcSP projects that did not apply any socio-economic scenarios, whilst this seemed necessary based on their objectives. In general, climate assessments make little sense if socio-economic developments are not taken into account. Interestingly, some of the studies that did apply socio-economic scenarios, picked only one or two of the scenarios generated by WLO. From a theoretical point of view this selective 'shopping' may lead to a tunnel vision, because it is impossible to estimate which scenario is more probable than the others. At the other hand it is often impractical to explore all four scenarios. The time horizon of WLO was in several cases too short for climate assessments. As it is probable that the structure of society has changed significantly by 2040, it is difficult to quantitatively support the storylines as was done in WLO, because many model assumptions are not correct anymore. Possibly it is better to take a backcasting approach for the second half of the century for the purpose of the CcSP programme. The two case studies described in this report provide examples of good practice that are likely to be useful in future projects that deal with scenarios. In addition, this study produced an interactive website (www.climatescenarios.nl) that provides key

  18. New local diesel power stations: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, R.J.; Reuben, B.G.

    1992-01-01

    A recent investigation examined the economic potential for electricity generation in the U.K. using large slow-speed two-stroke diesel engines of around 40MW unit output. Large diesels are a high efficiency technology, resilient to fuel quality, and with high reliability. Economic analysis compared diesels with other generating options for a range of fuel scenarios and discount rates. Merit order potential and total costs were also assessed. The diesels show superior economic qualities, both in terms of investment criteria and high merit position. They are economically comparable with combined cycle gas turbines, but combined cycle plant is essentially large-scale, whereas diesels in 40 MW units sizes can provide small-scale, high-efficiency local generation. Slow-speed diesels represent a sound investment for electricity supply. Diesels in local power stations in southern England would increase supply security and diversity. They are compatible with a cautious investment approach and are appropriate for the new market conditions in electricity supply. (author)

  19. Technical and economic assessment of solar hybrid repowering. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-09-01

    Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM) has performed a Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Hybrid Repowering under funding by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Western Energy Supply and Transmission (WEST) Associates, and a number of southwestern utilities. Solar hybrid repowering involves placement of solar hardware adjacent to and connected to existing gas- and oil-fueled electric generation units to displace some of or all the fossil fuel normally used during daylight hours. The subject study assesses the technical economic viability of the solar hybrid repowering concept within the southwestern United States and the PNM system. This document is a final report on the study and its results. The study was divided into the six primary tasks to allow a systematic investigation of the concept: (1) market survey and cost/benefit analysis, (2) study unit selection, (3) conceptual design and cost estimates, (4) unit economic analysis, (5) program planning, future phases, and (6) program management. Reeves Station No. 2 at Albuquerque, New Mexico, was selected for repowering with a design goal of 50 percent (25 MWe). The solar system design is based on the 10 MW solar central receiver pilot plant preliminary design for Barstow, California. SAN--1608-4-2 contains the technical drawings. (WHK)

  20. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Revised assessments of the economics of fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, W.E.; Ward, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Although fusion power is being developed because of its large resource base, low environmental impact and high levels of intrinsic safety, it is also important to investigate the economics of a future fusion power plant in order to assess the potential market for the electricity produced. As part of the PPCS (Power Plant Conceptual Study) in Europe, published in 2005, an assessment was made of the likely economic performance of the range of fusion power plant concepts studied. Since that time, new work has been carried out, within the fusion programme, and particularly in the EU DEMO study, that changes a number of the important assumptions made in the PPCS. These changes allow either reduced cost versions of the PPCS plant models or, alternatively, plants with less ambitious technical assumptions at constant cost. The impact of the new results, emerging from the EU DEMO studies, on the role of fusion in the future energy market is described. A new energy economics model is employed to analyse the potential market performance of fusion power in a range of future energy scenarios and this shows that there can be a significant role for fusion in a future energy market.

  2. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu Tao; Ma Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu Jian; Zhang Shiqiu

    2007-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  3. An economic assessment of U.S. MHTGR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, L. Daniel

    1990-01-01

    GCRA's economic goal for the U.S. MHTGR design is for the equilibrium plants to have at least a 10% power cost advantage over comparably sized, state-of-the-art coal plants. In addition, the designers are challenged to limit the overall financial risk to be on par with such a coal plant. During the past year, cost estimates and economic assessments have been updated in the U.S. MHTGR Program. Further, a major study has been completed adapting the MHTGR to a water desalination/cogeneration application. These results will be presented along with a discussion of the key GCRA design requirements that limit the overall financial risk to the prospective owner/operators of future MHTGR plants. (author)

  4. Power station impacts: socio-economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, John; Elson, Martin; Barrett, Brendan; Wee, D. Van der

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the local social and economic impacts of a proposed nuclear power station development at Hinkley Point in Somerset. The proposed development, Hinkley Point C, would be an addition to the existing Hinkley Point A Magnox station, commissioned in 1965, and the Hinkley Point B Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) station, commissioned in 1976. It is hoped that the study will be of assistance to the CEGB, the Somerset County and District Councils and other agencies in their studies of the proposed development. In addition, the study seeks to apply and further develop the methodology and results from previous studies by the Power Station Impacts (PSI) team for predicting the social and economic effects of proposed power station developments on their localities. (author)

  5. An economic assessment of U.S. MHTGR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mears, L Daniel [Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    GCRA's economic goal for the U.S. MHTGR design is for the equilibrium plants to have at least a 10% power cost advantage over comparably sized, state-of-the-art coal plants. In addition, the designers are challenged to limit the overall financial risk to be on par with such a coal plant. During the past year, cost estimates and economic assessments have been updated in the U.S. MHTGR Program. Further, a major study has been completed adapting the MHTGR to a water desalination/cogeneration application. These results will be presented along with a discussion of the key GCRA design requirements that limit the overall financial risk to the prospective owner/operators of future MHTGR plants. (author)

  6. Development and usage of a false color display technique for presenting Seasat-A scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A computer generated false color program which creates digital multicolor graphics to display geophysical surface parameters measured by the Seasat-A satellite scatterometer (SASS) is described. The data is incrementally scaled over the range of acceptable values and each increment and its data points are assigned a color. The advantage of the false color display is that it visually infers cool or weak data versus hot or intense data by using the rainbow of colors. For example, with wind speeds, levels of yellow and red could be used to imply high winds while green and blue could imply calmer air. The SASS data is sorted into geographic regions and the final false color images are projected onto various world maps with superimposed land/water boundaries.

  7. SEASAT demonstration experiments with the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.; Balon, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Despite its failure, SEASAT-1 acquired a reasonable volume of data that can be used by industrial participants on a non-real-time basis to prove the concept of microwave sensing of the world's oceans from a satellite platform. The amended version of 8 experimental plans are presented, along with a description of the satellite, its instruments, and the data available. Case studies are summarized for the following experiments: (1) Beaufort Sea oil, gas, and Arctic operations; (2) Labrador Sea oil, gas, and sea ice; (3) Gulf of Mexico pipelines; (4) U.S. East Coast offshore oil and gas; (5) worldwide offshore drilling and production operations; (6) Equatorial East Pacific Ocean mining; (7) Bering Sea ice project; and (8) North Sea oil and gas.

  8. Assessing the ecological and economic sustainability of energy crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanegraaf, M.C.; Biewinga, E.E.; Bijl, G. van der

    1998-01-01

    The production and use of biomass for energy has both positive and negative impacts on the environment. The environmental impacts of energy crops should be clarified before political choices concerning energy are made. An important aid to policy-making would be a systematic methodology to assess the environmental sustainability of energy crops. So far, most studies on the environmental aspects of energy crops deal mainly with the energy production of the crops and the possible consequences for CO 2 mitigation. The Dutch Centre for Agriculture and Environment (CLM) has developed a systematic methodology to assess the ecological and socio-economic sustainability of biomass crops. The method is best described as a multicriteria analysis of process chains and is very much related to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Characteristics of our methodology are the use of: definition of functional units; analysis of the entire lifecycle; definition of yield levels and corresponding agricultural practices; analysis of both ecological and economic criteria; definition of reference systems; definition of procedures for normalisation and weighting. CLM has applied the method to assess the sustainability of ten potentially interesting energy crops in four European regions. The results are used to outline the perspectives for large scale production of biomass crops with regard to the medium and long term land availability in Europe. For the crops considered, net energy budget ranges from 85 GJ net avoided energy per ha for rape seed for fuel to 248 GJ net avoided fossil energy per ha for silage maize for electricity from gasification. The methodology of the tool and its results were discussed at the concerted action ''Environmental aspects of biomass production and routes for European energy supply'' (AIR3-94-2455), organised by CLM in 1996. Major conclusions of the research: multicriteria analyhsis of process lifecycles is at present the best available option to assess the ecological

  9. Economic assessment factors relating to spent nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is in two parts. Part I discusses the factors to be applied in an economic assessment of reprocessing. It sets forth three basic cost components, namely capital costs, operating costs and the cost of capital utilization. It lists the various components of each cost area. Part II proposes a relationship between these respective cost areas, tabulates a range of costs and then develops unit costs for reprocessing operations. Finally, an addendum to the paper gives a more detailed breakdown of the capital costs of a reprocessing plant

  10. Economic assessment of a waste hydrogen utilization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.; Zhou, H.; Zhou, W.; Wu, J.; Wang, Q.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports the economic assessment on an hybrid hydrogen recovery, purification, storage, transportation and application project (HRPSTA) set for a system including a nitrogenous fertilizer plant and a float glass factory. A pretreatment unit and metal hydride containers are used to recover and purify the hydrogen from the purge gas of the ammonia fertilizer plant and to transport and use the hydrogen on the tin bath in the float glass factory. Cost analysis and cash flow statements are presented, and financial value and rate of return are calculated. The project is shown to be technologically and financially feasible. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 4 refs

  11. Ex post socio-economic assessment of the Oresund Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, M.Aa.; Rich, Jeppe

    2013-01-01

    -economic assessment, the consumer benefits including all freight and passenger modes, are compared with the cost profile of the bridge. The monetary contributions are extrapolated to a complete 50 year period. It is revealed that the bridge from 2000–2010 generated a consumer surplus of €2 billion in 2000 prices...... to the current transport flows. The importance of having the right assumptions and the ability to model the phasing-in process are underlined. Secondly, we offer a wider discussion on why some projects are more beneficial than others. This is done by comparing the Oresund Bridge, the Channel Tunnel...

  12. Clinical and economic outcomes assessment in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L.J.; Miller, D.D.; Berman, D.S.; Hachamovitch, R.

    2000-01-01

    The future of nuclear medicine procedures, as understood within our current economic climate, depends upon its ability to provide relevant clinical information at similar or lower comparative costs. With an ever-increasing emphasis on cost containment, outcome assessment forms the basis of preserving the quality of patient care. Today, outcomes assessment encompasses a wide array of subjects including clinical, economic, and humanistic (i.e., quality of life) outcomes. For nuclear cardiology, evidence-based medicine would require a threshold level of evidence in order to justify the added cost of any test in a patient's work-up. This evidence would include large multicenter, observational series as well as randomized trial data in sufficiently large and diverse patient populations. The new movement in evidence-based medicine is also being applied to the introduction of new technologies, in particular when comparative modalities exist. In the past 5 years, it has seen a dramatic shift in the quality of outcomes data published in nuclear cardiology. This includes the use of statistically rigorous risk-adjusted techniques as well as large populations (i.e., >500 patients) representing multiple diverse medical care settings. This has been the direct result of the development of multiple outcomes databases that have now amassed thousands of patients worth of data. One of the benefits of examining outcomes in large patient datasets is the ability to assess individual endpoints (e.g., cardiac death) as compared with smaller datasets that often assess combined endpoints (e.g., death, myocardial infarction, or unstable angina). New technologies for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease have contributed to the rising costs of care. In the United States and in Europe, costs of care have risen dramatically, consuming an ever-increasing amount of available resources. The overuse of diagnostic angiography often leads to unnecessary revascularization that does not lead to

  13. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemfert, C.

    2001-10-01

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  14. Economic Assessment of the Use Value of Geospatial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bernknopf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1 a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2 a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3 a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  15. A GIS tool for the economic assessment of renewable technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmmud, F.; Woods, J.; Watson, S.; Halliday, J.; Hossain, J.

    1997-01-01

    A Geographical Information System (GIS) has the potential to analyse a large area for the optimum selection and siting of renewable energy systems. This paper reports on a GIS based scheme for the economic assessment of a selected number of wind and photovoltaic systems in the state of Karnataka, in India. This involved the implementation of an appropriate GIS methodology. The preparation of the GIS database is often the most arduous task in GIS operations. Thus, a description of the GIS methodology and the preparation of the database for the analysis of a selection of wind and photovoltaic systems is given. This approach has enabled the identification of the high potential areas in terms of the levelised electricity costs. An overall assessment of the region for present and future scenarios is also given. (author)

  16. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  17. Assessing groundwater policy with coupled economic-groundwater hydrologic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kevin B.; Brown, Casey; Yang, Yi-Chen E.; Ahlfeld, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This study explores groundwater management policies and the effect of modeling assumptions on the projected performance of those policies. The study compares an optimal economic allocation for groundwater use subject to streamflow constraints, achieved by a central planner with perfect foresight, with a uniform tax on groundwater use and a uniform quota on groundwater use. The policies are compared with two modeling approaches, the Optimal Control Model (OCM) and the Multi-Agent System Simulation (MASS). The economic decision models are coupled with a physically based representation of the aquifer using a calibrated MODFLOW groundwater model. The results indicate that uniformly applied policies perform poorly when simulated with more realistic, heterogeneous, myopic, and self-interested agents. In particular, the effects of the physical heterogeneity of the basin and the agents undercut the perceived benefits of policy instruments assessed with simple, single-cell groundwater modeling. This study demonstrates the results of coupling realistic hydrogeology and human behavior models to assess groundwater management policies. The Republican River Basin, which overlies a portion of the Ogallala aquifer in the High Plains of the United States, is used as a case study for this analysis.

  18. Quality assessment of published health economic analyses from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Márcio; Iskedjian, Michael; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-05-01

    Health economic analyses have become important to healthcare systems worldwide. No studies have previously examined South America's contribution in this area. To survey the literature with the purpose of reviewing, quantifying, and assessing the quality of published South American health economic analyses. A search of MEDLINE (1990-December 2004), EMBASE (1990-December 2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1990-December 2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-December 2004), and Sistema de Informacion Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-December 2004) was completed using the key words cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), cost-utility analysis (CUA), cost-minimization analysis (CMA), and cost-benefit analysis (CBA); abbreviations CEA, CUA, CMA, and CBA; and all South American country names. Papers were categorized by type and country by 2 independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using a 12 item checklist, characterizing scores as 4 (good), 3 (acceptable), 2 (poor), 1 (unable to judge), and 0 (unacceptable). To be included in our investigation, studies needed to have simultaneously examined costs and outcomes. We retrieved 25 articles; one duplicate article was rejected, leaving 24 (CEA = 15, CBA = 6, CMA = 3; Brazil = 9, Argentina = 5, Colombia = 3, Chile = 2, Ecuador = 2, 1 each from Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Variability between raters was less than 0.5 point on overall scores (OS) and less than 1 point on all individual items. Mean OS was 2.6 (SD 1.0, range 1.4-3.8). CBAs scored highest (OS 2.8, SD 0.8), CEAs next (OS 2.7, SD 0.7), and CMAs lowest (OS 2.0, SD 0.5). When scored by type of question, definition of study aim scored highest (OS 3.0, SD 0.8), while ethical issues scored lowest (OS 1.5, SD 0.9). By country, Peru scored highest (mean OS 3.8) and Uruguay had the lowest scores (mean OS 2.2). A nonsignificant time trend was noted for OS (R2 = 0.12; p = 0.104). Quality scores of health economic analyses

  19. The impact of inclusion criteria in health economic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive

  20. Waste-to-methanol: Process and economics assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Centi, Gabriele; Salladini, Annarita; Palo, Emma; Perathoner, Siglinda; Spadaccini, Luca

    2017-11-01

    The waste-to-methanol (WtM) process and related economics are assessed to evidence that WtM is a valuable solution both from economic, strategic and environmental perspectives. Bio-methanol from Refuse-derived-fuels (RdF) has an estimated cost of production of about 110€/t for a new WtM 300t/d plant. With respect to waste-to-energy (WtE) approach, this solution allows various advantages. In considering the average market cost of methanol and the premium as biofuel, the WtM approach results in a ROI (Return of Investment) of about 29%, e.g. a payback time of about 4years. In a hybrid scheme of integration with an existing methanol plant from natural gas, the cost of production becomes a profit even without considering the cap for bio-methanol production. The WtM process allows to produce methanol with about 40% and 30-35% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions with respect to methanol production from fossil fuels and bio-resources, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Technology and economic assessment of lactic acid production and uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, R.; Tsai, S.P.

    1996-03-01

    Lactic acid has been an intermediate-volume specialty chemical (world production {approximately}50,000 tons/yr) used in a wide range of food-processing and industrial applications. Potentially, it can become a very large-volume, commodity-chemical intermediate produced from carbohydrates for feedstocks of biodegradable polymers, oxygenated chemicals, environmentally friendly ``green`` solvents, and other intermediates. In the past, efficient and economical technologies for the recovery and purification of lactic acid from fermentation broths and its conversion to the chemical or polymer intermediates had been the key technology impediments and main process cost centers. Development and deployment of novel separations technologies, such as electrodialysis with bipolar membranes, extractive and catalytic distillations, and chemical conversion, can enable low-cost production with continuous processes in large-scale operations. The emerging technologies can use environmentally sound lactic acid processes to produce environmentally useful products, with attractive process economics. These technology advances and recent product and process commercialization strategies are reviewed and assessed.

  2. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  3. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  4. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  5. An economic assessment of contemporary kidney transplant practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, David A; Schnitzler, Mark A; Xiao, Huiling; Irish, William; Tuttle-Newhall, Elizabeth; Chang, Su-Hsin; Kasiske, Bertram L; Alhamad, Tarek; Lentine, Krista L

    2018-05-01

    Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for end-stage renal disease, prolonging survival and reducing spending. Prior economic analyses of kidney transplantation, using Markov models, have generally assumed compatible, low-risk donors. The economic implications of transplantation with high Kidney Donor Profile Index (KDPI) deceased donors, ABO incompatible living donors, and HLA incompatible living donors have not been assessed. The costs of transplantation and dialysis were compared with the use of discrete event simulation over a 10-year period, with data from the United States Renal Data System, University HealthSystem Consortium, and literature review. Graft failure rates and expenditures were adjusted for donor characteristics. All transplantation options were associated with improved survival compared with dialysis (transplantation: 5.20-6.34 quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] vs dialysis: 4.03 QALYs). Living donor and low-KDPI deceased donor transplantations were cost-saving compared with dialysis, while transplantations using high-KDPI deceased donor, ABO-incompatible or HLA-incompatible living donors were cost-effective (<$100 000 per QALY). Predicted costs per QALY range from $39 939 for HLA-compatible living donor transplantation to $80 486 for HLA-incompatible donors compared with $72 476 for dialysis. In conclusion, kidney transplantation is cost-effective across all donor types despite higher costs for marginal organs and innovative living donor practices. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  7. Economical-environmental assessment on technologies producing electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafzadeh, K.

    2000-01-01

    Currently, the electric power industry is undergoing substantial regulatory and organizational change with respect to economical and environmental aspects. Under these circumstances, with utilization of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) concept, we consider the assessment of Technologies producing energy from financial and pollution viewpoint. AHP techniques is one of the efficient methods in analysis of complex and multi-criteria problems, which has plenty of applications. General pattern of this assessment has been introduced, and the main goal is determining of overall priority weights for each technology. With using this pattern, overall priority weights has been determined for thermal, combined cycle and Gas turbine plants. It has been cleared that relative priority of these plants will change, if relative priority of assessment criterions changes. For application of this approach, capital budgeting process and selection of some suitable technologies among the alternatives candidate for construction have been presented. In this process the objective is to maximize the sum of overall priority weights of technologies which have been identified from AHP. Constraints are about the construction budget and annual budget for emission allowances. This process is in the integer programming IP form an has been applied to three kind of power plants with reasonable assumptions

  8. Low carbon national strategy. A macro-economical assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baiz, Adam; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence; Callonnec, Gael

    2016-11-01

    This publication briefly reports the use of the Three-ME model (Multi-sector Macroeconomic Model for the Evaluation of Environmental and Energy) to assess the combined effect of the several instruments mobilised for the transition towards a low carbon economy within the French National Low Carbon Strategy (SNBC). It first presents the Three-ME model which has been developed since 2008 by the OFCE and the Ademe, is a neo-Keynesian and hybrid model, and which comprises 14.000 equations and 70.000 parameters dealing with prices, interest rates, investments, salaries, foreign trade, State policy, a production function, and a consumption function. Some characteristics of the SNBC scenario are indicated, as well as those of a reference trend-based scenario. Obtained results are then briefly commented in terms of positive ecological and economic impacts of a carbon tax and of sector-based measures defined within the SNBC

  9. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW.

  10. Technical and economic assessment of energy conversion technologies for MSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal processes for municipal solid wastes (MSW) based on pyrolysis and/or gasification that have relevance to the emerging UK market are described in this report, and the results of the technical and economical assessment of these processes are presented. The Mitsui R21 Technology, the Thermoselect Process, the Nippon Steel Waste Melting Process, the Pyropleq Process, and the Compact Power Process are selected for detailed comparison on the basis of the overall technical concept, the energy balance and the requirements for consumables, environmental performance, and the technical and commercial status of the technology. Details are also given of a comparison of the novel thermal technologies with conventional mass burn incineration for MSW

  11. Continuity of supply - Economic assessment and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preotescu, Dan; Albert, Hermina

    2004-01-01

    of risks that might occur, then in a subsequent stage to quantify them (economic assessment). The paper describes the most significant risk categories involved in the operation of grid companies that play on the electricity market, and a methodology to assess them is proposed. The importance and outcomes of the interconnection between the power system and the conditions to be monitored in the points where contracts between partners are carried out (electric power systems, countries) will be taken into account. (authors)

  12. Ecological-economical approach to assessment of environment state at the Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugunova, N.S.; Balykbaeva, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents methods used for ecological-economical assessment of the environment condition at the former Semipalatinsk Test Site. It also presents methodology of calculating ecological and economical parameters for different options. Besides, the paper provides data describing assessment of ecological and economical damage caused by defense establishment activities at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. (author)

  13. Design of an electric motorway - Social-economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragnol, Ludovic; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2017-07-01

    The author reports an exploratory analysis of the economic viability of a solution of electrification of goods road transport based on the use of electrical motorways, i.e. motorways along which a catenary system would be installed to feed trucks equipped with a pantograph (a German research project). The objective is here to assess whether such a project of electrification (financed of not by users through a toll) would be profitable. The author first assesses market costs and non-market costs of each transport mode while taking hypotheses on the concerned traffic into account, and by using a full costing approach. A hierarchy of likelihood of the different studied scenarios is then built up, which allows technological choices to be sorted. Scenarios are based on a reference situation (thermal propulsion), on the use of a hybrid truck on electric motorway, of an electric shuttle tractor on electric motorway, or of an electric truck on a conventional motorway. Then, the author proposes a real-life simulations based of motorway traffic data, and on the use of the Modev traffic model

  14. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  15. The assessing the economic stability of the agricultural organizations of the Kemerovo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekacheva Vera Mikhailovna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the essence of economic stability analyzed in this article. The authors define the concept, the problems and the basic criteria for assessing the economic sustainability of the agricultural organizations of the Kemerovo region.

  16. Atmospheric water distribution in a midlatitude cyclone observed by the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurdie, L. A.; Katsaros, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Patterns in the horizontal distribution of integrated water vapor, integrated liquid water and rainfall rate derived from the Seasat Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) during a September 10-12, 1978 North Pacific cyclone are studied. These patterns are compared with surface analyses, ship reports, radiosonde data, and GOES-West infrared satellite imagery. The SMMR data give a unique view of the large mesoscale structure of a midlatitude cyclone. The water vapor distribution is found to have characteristic patterns related to the location of the surface fronts throughout the development of the cyclone. An example is given to illustrate that SMMR data could significantly improve frontal analysis over data-sparse oceanic regions. The distribution of integrated liquid water agrees qualitatively well with corresponding cloud patterns in satellite imagery and appears to provide a means to distinguish where liquid water clouds exist under a cirrus shield. Ship reports of rainfall intensity agree qualitatively very well with SMMR-derived rainrates. Areas of mesoscale rainfall, on the order of 50 km x 50 km or greater are detected using SMMR derived rainrates.

  17. The application of statistical methods to assess economic assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Dianov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to consideration and evaluation of machinery, equipment and special equipment, methodological aspects of the use of standards for assessment of buildings and structures in current prices, the valuation of residential, specialized houses, office premises, assessment and reassessment of existing and inactive military assets, the application of statistical methods to obtain the relevant cost estimates.The objective of the scientific article is to consider possible application of statistical tools in the valuation of the assets, composing the core group of elements of national wealth – the fixed assets. Firstly, capital tangible assets constitute the basis of material base of a new value creation, products and non-financial services. The gain, accumulated of tangible assets of a capital nature is a part of the gross domestic product, and from its volume and specific weight in the composition of GDP we can judge the scope of reproductive processes in the country.Based on the methodological materials of the state statistics bodies of the Russian Federation, regulations of the theory of statistics, which describe the methods of statistical analysis such as the index, average values, regression, the methodical approach is structured in the application of statistical tools to obtain value estimates of property, plant and equipment with significant accumulated depreciation. Until now, the use of statistical methodology in the practice of economic assessment of assets is only fragmentary. This applies to both Federal Legislation (Federal law № 135 «On valuation activities in the Russian Federation» dated 16.07.1998 in edition 05.07.2016 and the methodological documents and regulations of the estimated activities, in particular, the valuation activities’ standards. A particular problem is the use of a digital database of Rosstat (Federal State Statistics Service, as to the specific fixed assets the comparison should be carried

  18. Techno-Economic Assessment of Four CO2 Storage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruson J.-F.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS should be a key technology in order to achieve a decline in the CO2 emissions intensity of the power sector and other intensive industry, but this potential deployment could be restricted by cost issues as the International Energy Agency (IEA in their last projections (World Energy Outlook 2013 has considered only around 1% of global fossil fuel-fired power plants could be equipped with CCS by 2035. The SiteChar project funded by 7th Framework Programme of European Commission gives the opportunity to evaluate the most influential parameters of techno-economic evaluations of four feasible European projects for CO2 geological storage located onshore and offshore and related to aquifer storage or oil and gas reservoirs, at different stages of characterization. Four potential CO2 storage sites have been assessed in terms of storage costs per tonne of CO2 permanently stored (equivalent cost based. They are located offshore UK, onshore Denmark, offshore Norway and offshore Italy. The four SiteChar techno-economic evaluations confirm it is not possible to derive any meaningful average cost for a CO2 storage site. The results demonstrate that the structure of costs for a project is heterogeneous and the storage cost is consequently site dependent. The strategy of the site development is fundamental, the technical choices such as the timing, rate and duration of injection are also important. The way monitoring is managed, using observation wells and logging has a strong impact on the estimated monitoring costs. Options to lower monitoring costs, such as permanent surveys, exist and should be further investigated. Table 1 below summarizes the cost range in Euro per tonne (Discount Rate (DR at 8% for the different sites, which illustrates the various orders of magnitude due to the specificities of each site. These figures have how to be considered with care. In particular the Italian and Norwegian sites present very specific

  19. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  20. Energy consumption and economic growth. Assessing the evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondroyiannis, George; Lolos, Sarantis; Papapetrou, Evangelia

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light into the empirical relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, for Greece (1960-1996) employing the vector error-correction model estimation. The vector specification includes energy consumption, real GDP and price developments, the latter taken to represent a measure of economic efficiency. The empirical evidence suggests that there is a long-run relationship between the three variables, supporting the endogeneity of energy consumption and real output. These findings have important policy implications, since the adoption of suitable structural policies aiming at improving economic efficiency can induce energy conservation without impeding economic growth

  1. A comparative assessment of the economic benefits from shale gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is an attempt to inform the policy debate by highlighting both the potential economic benefits and environmental costs. To date, the Econometrix report (published in 2012) provides the only estimate of the economic impacts that may emanate from developing the Karoo's shale gas. The report uses a Keynesian ...

  2. Probabilistic Criterion for the Economical Assessment of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juanico, L; Florido, Pablo; Bergallo, Juan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a MonteCarlo probabilistic model for the economic evaluation of nuclear power plants is presented.The probabilistic results have shown a wide spread on the economic performance due to the schedule complexity and coupling if tasks.This spread increasing to the discount rate, end hence, it becomes more important for developing countries

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  4. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Prospects of Stand-By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an economic analysis of two stand-by power supply options for a typical Nigerian household namely diesel generator plant and solar powered systems. The analysis reveals that solar systems are the most economically viable. The environmental benefits associated with substituting diesel powered ...

  5. Assessing the economic wind power potential in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gass, Viktoria; Schmidt, Johannes; Strauss, Franziska; Schmid, Erwin

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, electricity production from wind energy is projected to increase by approximately 16% until 2020. The Austrian energy plan aims at increasing the currently installed wind power capacity from approximately 1 GW to 3 GW until 2020 including an additional capacity of 700 MW until 2015. The aim of this analysis is to assess economically viable wind turbine sites under current feed-in tariffs considering constraints imposed by infrastructure, the natural environment and ecological preservation zones in Austria. We analyze whether the policy target of installing an additional wind power capacity of 700 MW until 2015 is attainable under current legislation and developed a GIS based decision system for wind turbine site selection.Results show that the current feed-in tariff of 9.7 ct kW h −1 may trigger an additional installation of 3544 MW. The current feed-in tariff can therefore be considered too high as wind power deployment would exceed the target by far. Our results indicate that the targets may be attained more cost-effectively by applying a lower feed-in tariff of 9.1 ct kW h −1 . Thus, windfall profits at favorable sites and deadweight losses of policy intervention can be minimized while still guaranteeing the deployment of additional wind power capacities. - Highlight: ► Wind supply curves with high spatial resolution for whole Austria are derived. ► Current feed-in tariff higher than necessary to attain targets. ► Previous feed-in tariffs were too low to achieve targets. ► Current support scheme leads to high social welfare losses. ► Policy makers face high information asymmetry when setting feed-in tariffs.

  6. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, N.; Walle, B. van de; Hardeman, F.; Sohier, A.; Soudan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  7. An assessment of once-through homogeneous thorium fuel economics for light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Hyung Kook; Noh, Jae Man; Yoo, Jae Woon

    2001-01-01

    The fuel economics of an once-through homogeneous thorium fuel concept for PWR was assessed by doing a detailed core analysis. In addition to this, the fuel economics assessment was also performed for two other ways enhancing the economic potential of thorium fuel; thorium utilization in the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly and Duplex thorium fuel concepts. As a results of fuel economics assessment, the thorium fuel cycle does not show any economic incentives in preference to uranium fuel cycle under the 18-months fuel cycle for PWR. However, the utilization of thorium is the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly and Duplex thorium fuel cycle and show superior fuel economics to uranium fuel under the longer fuel cycle scheme. The economic potential of once-through thorium fuel cycle is expected to be increased further by utilizing the Duplex thorium fuel in the mixed core with uranium fuel assembly

  8. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecological zone of Nigeria, to determine the compatibility and economic viability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and garden egg (Solanum gelio) intercrop during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Two sweetpotato varieties; NR05/022 and ...

  9. Assessing economic and demographic impacts of intermodal transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-14

    There exists a large literature of transportation impacts on economic and demographic change. Prior studies have focused on single modes of transportation individually rather than integrating these modes. Yet, little work has been undertaken to study...

  10. An Economic Assessment of the Impact of ICT on Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: ICT, Water economics, water Resource Management, Nigeria, International. Water Wars. 1 ... the methodology employed in the study. ..... Jamieson, D.G and Fedra, K (1996) The 'Water Ware' decision-support systems for river.

  11. Economic Assessment of Rising Global Demand for Farmland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    and homogeneous group in a country with political competition and stability. However, if the power distribution between the farmers and the political-economic elite is highly equal, this may have negative welfare effects, because the competition for rents will be very high, and hence a large amount of resources...... incomes, with poverty reductions and general economic development as the ultimate outcome. On the other hand it could also induce a neo-colonial scramble for land, where politically and economically powerful actors appropriate land at the expense of rural populations, whose livelihoods depend on this land...... increasing land values will mainly benefit the rural populations or the political-economic elites. In addition, it takes into account the deeper determinants of the extent to which farmers are able to obtain political power, and thereby claim their rights to a share of the benefits from increased value...

  12. Special Issue on Using Econometrics for Assessing Economic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled ‘theory first' versus ‘reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue.......Two methodological approaches to empirical economics which are labelled ‘theory first' versus ‘reality first' are introduced building the background for the discussion of the individual contributions to this special issue....

  13. The physical and mathematical model of dynamic economic analysis and assessment for NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiming

    1992-01-01

    A set physical and mathematical model of dynamic economic analysis referring to international general sub-item and account of investment and constant money levelized model and combining current economic analysis method in China for nuclear power plant was established. The model can be used in economic analysis not only for nuclear power plant but also for coal-fired power plant and can satisfy demand of doing economic analysis and assessment for nuclear power plant and conventional power plant

  14. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Industries Economic Security: Regional Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Viktorovna Akberdina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the interaction of the forms of network integration and the development of complimentary production networks in terms of economic security. Currently, the most developed countries are occurring a transition from the industrial society to the information society. The industry 4.0 as the continuous communication at all levels and characterizes the production processes, in which technologies and devices interact automatically in the value-added chain. Under these new conditions, the former types of organizational structures of economic entities are not sufficiently effective. Therefore, there is a need to create new, modern types of organizational structures. One of these types is network structures. Currently, they are becoming characteristic features of the new economy. Regional economic security depends on internal and external threats, which lead to unstable situations. Regional crisis situations are influenced by both macroeconomic crisis processes and local features of economic and social development, as well as the resource potential, geographical location, national and other peculiarities. The article defines the specific characteristics of the regions of the Ural Federal District, as well as the current situation of the regional economy and threats to the region. The authors have evaluated the economic security of complimentary production networks at the regional level. This evaluation has revealed the interconnection between complimentary production networks and the construction industry in the national economy. We have defined the economic security of complimentary production networks and specified the concept of complimentary production networks. The research findings may be applied by organizations as a new perspective of industry using network forms related to economic security

  16. Economic assessment of solar electricity production from organic-based photovoltaic modules in a domestic environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzopardi, Brian; Emmott, Christopher J. M.; Urbina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of OPV based on an existing pre-industrial manufacturing process and the associated detailed material inventory.......This paper presents an economic assessment of OPV based on an existing pre-industrial manufacturing process and the associated detailed material inventory....

  17. Global assessment of the economics of land degradation and improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkonya, Ephraim

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation—defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment report as the long-term loss of ecosystems services—is a global problem, negatively affecting the livelihoods and food security of billions of people. Intensifying efforts, mobilizing more investments and strengthening the policy commitment for addressing land degradation at the global level needs to be supported by a careful evaluation of the costs and benefits of action versus costs of inaction against land degradation. Consistent with the definition of land degradation, we adopt the Total Economic Value (TEV) approach to determine the costs of land degradation and use remote sensing data and global statistical databases in our analysis. The results show that the annual costs of land degradation due to land use and land cover change (LUCC) are about US231 billion per year or about 0.41 % of the global GDP of US56.49 trillion in 2007. Contrary to past global land degradation assessment studies, land degradation is severe in both tropical and temperate countries. However, the losses from LUCC are especially high in Sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for 26 % of the total global costs of land degradation due to LUCC. However, the local tangible losses (mainly provisioning services) account only for 46 % of the total cost of land degradation and the rest of the cost is due to the losses of ecosystem services (ES) accruable largely to beneficiaries other than the local land users. These external ES losses include carbon sequestration, biodiversity, genetic information and cultural services. This implies that the global community bears the largest cost of land degradation, which suggests that efforts to address land degradation should be done bearing in mind that the global community,as a whole, incurs larger losses than the local communities experiencing land degradation. The cost of soil fertility mining due to using land degrading management practices on maize, rice and wheat is estimated to be

  18. Assessing the economic and fiscal effects of repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, R.A.; Leistritz, F.L.; Halstead, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The development of high-level nuclear waste repositories can be expected to produce a substantial stimulus to the local economy, but the magnitude and speed of this stimulus may pose planning problems for nearby communities. The chapter is divided into two major sections: 1) a review of the major economic and fiscal effects likely to occur, and 2) a discussion of the methods and techniques which can be used to estimate the magnitude, timing, and distribution of such effects. The six categories of effects described are those on employment patterns and characteristics, income, local trade and service firms, community price structure changes, other basic economic sectors, and public sector costs and revenues

  19. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  20. Economic Assessment of Palm Oil Processing in Owerri Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study. Seventy five (75) palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was ...

  1. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  2. 108 AN ASSESSMENT OF TAX RELIEFS AND ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As advantageous as the payment of taxes to the government is, as a result of its ... Therefore, this study seeks to examine the nature of tax reliefs available to tax ... in the level of economic activity or tax payer's behaviour, then the tax policy ... The implication of this is that any tax payer that receives earned income shall be.

  3. Toward linking demographic and economic models for impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.A.; Meenan, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Yucca Mountain Project, in Southern Nevada, is to evaluate the effects of the development of a high-level nuclear waste repository. As described in the Section 175 Report to the Congress of the US, the temporal scope of this repository project encompasses approximately 70 years and includes four phases: Site characterization and licensing, construction, operation, and closure and decommissioning. If retrieval of the waste were to be required, the temporal scope of the repository project could be extended to approximately 100 years. The study of the potential socioeconomic effects of this project is the foundation for this paper. This paper focuses on the economic and demographic aspects and a possible method to interface the two. First, the authors briefly discuss general socioeconomic modeling theory from a county level view point, as well as methods for the apportionment of county level data to sub-county areas. Next, the authors describe the unique economic and demographic conditions which exist in Nevada at both the state and county levels. Finally, the authors evaluate a possible procedure for analyzing repository effects at a sub-county level; this involves discussion of an interface linking the economic and demographic aspects, which is based on the reconciliation of supply and demand for labor. The authors conclude that the basis for further model development may rely on the interaction of supply and demand to produce change in wage rates. These changes in expected wages should be a justification for allocating economic migrants (who may respond to Yucca Mountain Project development) into various communities

  4. Cost Assessment Methodology and Economic Viability of Tidal Energy Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Segura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of technologies with which to harness the energy from ocean currents will have considerable possibilities in the future thanks to their enormous potential for electricity production and their high predictability. In this respect, the development of methodologies for the economic viability of these technologies is fundamental to the attainment of a consistent quantification of their costs and the discovery of their economic viability, while simultaneously attracting investment in these technologies. This paper presents a methodology with which to determine the economic viability of tidal energy projects, which includes a technical study of the life-cycle costs into which the development of a tidal farm can be decomposed: concept and definition, design and development, manufacturing, installation, operation and maintenance and dismantling. These cost structures are additionally subdivided by considering their sub-costs and bearing in mind the main components of the tidal farm: the nacelle, the supporting tidal energy converter structure and the export power system. Furthermore, a technical study is developed in order to obtain an estimation of the annual energy produced (and, consequently, the incomes generated if the electric tariff is known by considering its principal attributes: the characteristics of the current, the ability of the device to capture energy and its ability to convert and export the energy. The methodology has been applied (together with a sensibility analysis to the particular case of a farm composed of first generation tidal energy converters in one of the Channel Island Races, the Alderney Race, in the U.K., and the results have been attained by means of the computation of engineering indexes, such as the net present value, the internal rate of return, the discounted payback period and the levelized cost of energy, which indicate that the proposed project is economically viable for all the case studies.

  5. Techno-Economic Assessment of Micro-Algae Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Global oil consumption is rising at an unprecedented rate renewing interest in alternative fuels. Micro-algae represents a promising feedstock due to inherent advantages such as high solar energy efficiencies, large lipid fractions, and utilization of various waste streams including industrial flue gas. Current technological challenges have limited the commercial viability of microalgae based biofuel production systems. This study directly evaluates and compares the economic viability of biom...

  6. Italian Residential Buildings: Economic Assessments for Biomass Boilers Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Carlini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is increasingly used for energy generation since it represents a useful alternative to fossil fuel in order to face the pollutions and the global warming problem. It can be exploited for heating purposes and for supplying domestic hot water. The most common applications encompass wood and pellet boilers. The economic aspect is becoming an important issue in order to achieve the ambitious targets set by the European Directives on Renewable Sources. Thus, the present paper deals with the economic feasibility of biomass boiler plants with specific regard to an existing residential building. An Italian case study is further investigated, focusing the attention on European and national regulations on energy efficiency and considering the recent public incentives and supporting measures. The main thermoclimatic parameters—that is, heating degree days (HDDs, building thermal insulation and thermal needs—are taken into account. Moreover, the following economic indicators are calculated: cumulative cash flow, discounted cumulative cash flow, payback period (PP, net present value (NPV, Internal rate of return (IRR, discounted payback period (DPP, and profit index (PI.

  7. An economic assessment of the U.S. MHTGR design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mears, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    US utilities and users have established an economic goal for the US MHTGR reference plant design which is the development of a design that has an evaluated economic advantage of at least 10% in the 30 year levelized busbar cost of electricity relative to a comparable sized, state-of-the-art coal fired plant while requiring equivalent institutional resources and posing equivalent financial risks. The term ''equivalent institutional resources'' means that approximately the same level of qualified personnel and organizational capability, functioning within similar corporate cultures, is required to successfully procure, license, operate, maintain and decommission the plants. The term ''equivalent financial risks'' means that approximately the same level of uncertainty exists for receiving an adequate return on investment, such that investors will be equally likely to invest in the MHTGR or coal plants. This paper presents a summary of the background, approach, and the current estimate for the US reference MHTGR electric generating plant. The plant is composed of two power building blocks producing a total output of 538 MW(e). Each building block consists of two reactor modules and one turbine-generator set. Additional economic results are given for a cogeneration application with a seawater desalination plant. (author)

  8. Economic assessment of new technology of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Song, K. D.; Lee, M. K.; Moon, K. H.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. S.; Choi, H. B.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the change in the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel on the power generation cost. In doing so, the installed capacity of nuclear power plants until the year 2040 were forecasted by using the trend analysis technique. This study used the NUFCAP computer code, developed by KAERI, which allows to conduct quantitative evaluation of the volumes of nuclear fuel and spent fuel as well as unit and system costs of nuclear fuel cycle. As a result of this study, it was found that there was little economic difference between the two possible options for the Korean electric system, direct disposal and DUPIC fuel cycle. The rate of discount and the manufacturing cost of DUPIC fuel were resulted in the most significant factors affecting the economics of the two options. Finally, it was expected that the result of this study provided the arguing point for the international debate on the economics of DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author). 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Assessment of methane-related fuels for automotive fleet vehicles: technical, supply, and economic assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    The use of methane-related fuels, derived from a variety of sources, in highway vehicles is assessed. Methane, as used here, includes natural gas (NG) as well as synthetic natural gas (SNG). Methanol is included because it can be produced from NG or the same resources as SNG, and because it is a liquid fuel at normal ambient conditions. Technological, operational, efficiency, petroleum displacement, supply, safety, and economic issues are analyzed. In principle, both NG and methanol allow more efficient engine operation than gasoline. In practice, engines are at present rarely optimized for NG and methanol. On the basis of energy expended from resource extraction to end use, only optimized LNG vehicles are more efficient than their gasoline counterparts. By 1985, up to 16% of total petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel could be displaced by large fleets with central NG fueling depots. Excluding diesel vehicles, which need technology advances to use NG, savings of 8% are projected. Methanol use by large fleets could displace up to 8% of petroleum-based highway vehicle fuel from spark-ignition vehicles and another 9% from diesel vehicles with technology advances. The US NG supply appears adequate to accommodate fleet use. Supply projections, future price differential versus gasoline, and user economics are uncertain. In many cases, attractive paybacks can occur. Compressed NG now costs on average about $0.65 less than gasoline, per energy-equivalent gallon. Methanol supply projections, future prices, and user economics are even more uncertain. Current and projected near-term methanol supplies are far from adequate to support fleet use. Methanol presently costs more than gasoline on an equal-energy basis, but is projected to cost less if produced from coal instead of NG or petroleum.

  10. Economic and Technical Assessment of Wood Biomass Fuel Gasification for Industrial Gas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anastasia M. Gribik; Ronald E. Mizia; Harry Gatley; Benjamin Phillips

    2007-09-01

    This project addresses both the technical and economic feasibility of replacing industrial gas in lime kilns with synthesis gas from the gasification of hog fuel. The technical assessment includes a materials evaluation, processing equipment needs, and suitability of the heat content of the synthesis gas as a replacement for industrial gas. The economic assessment includes estimations for capital, construction, operating, maintenance, and management costs for the reference plant. To perform these assessments, detailed models of the gasification and lime kiln processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The material and energy balance outputs from the Aspen Plus model were used as inputs to both the material and economic evaluations.

  11. Health Economics of Dengue: A Systematic Literature Review and Expert Panel's Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Mark E.; Beutels, Philippe; Meltzer, Martin I.; Shepard, Donald S.; Hombach, Joachim; Hutubessy, Raymond; Dessis, Damien; Coudeville, Laurent; Dervaux, Benoit; Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S.; Kuritsky, Joel N.

    2011-01-01

    Dengue vaccines are currently in development and policymakers need appropriate economic studies to determine their potential financial and public health impact. We searched five databases (PubMed, EMBASE, LILAC, EconLit, and WHOLIS) to identify health economics studies of dengue. Forty-three manuscripts were identified that provided primary data: 32 report economic burden of dengue and nine are comparative economic analyses assessing various interventions. The remaining two were a willingness-to-pay study and a policymaker survey. An expert panel reviewed the existing dengue economic literature and recommended future research to fill information gaps. Although dengue is an important vector-borne disease, the economic literature is relatively sparse and results have often been conflicting because of use of inconsistent assumptions. Health economic research specific to dengue is urgently needed to ensure informed decision making on the various options for controlling and preventing this disease. PMID:21363989

  12. Exergetic and Economic Assessment of Distillation Hybrid Configurations for Bioethanol Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Bilyaminu; Olawale, Adegboyega Surajudeen; Mohammed, Saidu Waziri

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-economics analysis was used to identify the most economic distillation hybrid configuration to dehydrate bioethanol mash (12 wt%) to fuel grade (99.5 wt%) based on economic objective of minimization of operating cost in this work. Three different hybrids of THIDC with azeotropic and, extractive distillation units were assessed using similar feed and product specifications of 1200 kmol/h (12 % by weight ethanol) and 55 kmol/h (99.5 % by weight ethanol) respectively . The six hybrid conf...

  13. Energetical and economical assessment of the waste heat problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demicheli, U.; Voort, E. van der; Schneiders, A.; Zegers, P.

    1977-01-01

    Electrical power plants produce large quantities of low grade heat that remain unused. For ecological reasons this waste heat must be dispersed by means of expensive cooling devices. Waste heat could be used in acquacultural and agricultural complexes this replacing large amounts of primary energy. Energetical and economical aspects are discussed. The state of the art of these and other utilisations is outlined. A different approach to the problem is to reduce the production of waste heat. Various strategies to achieve this challenge are outlined and their actual state and possible future developments are discussed. Finally, the various most promising utilizations are examined from an energetical point of view

  14. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  15. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, J. A.; Tanwani, A.; Healy, M. L.; Dahlben, L. J.

    2010-02-01

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach 1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling 1,906, 1,706, and 485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  16. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  17. Economic assessment of single-walled carbon nanotube processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaacs, J. A., E-mail: jaisaacs@coe.neu.ed [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States); Tanwani, A. [Infojini Solutions Inc. (United States); Healy, M. L. [Babcock Power Inc. (United States); Dahlben, L. J. [Northeastern University, NSF Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The carbon nanotube market is steadily growing and projected to reach $1.9 billion by 2010. This study examines the economics of manufacturing single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) using process-based cost models developed for arc, CVD, and HiPco processes. Using assumed input parameters, manufacturing costs are calculated for 1 g SWNT for arc, CVD, and HiPco, totaling $1,906, $1,706, and $485, respectively. For each SWNT process, the synthesis and filtration steps showed the highest costs, with direct labor as a primary cost driver. Reductions in production costs are calculated for increased working hours per day and for increased synthesis reaction yield (SRY) in each process. The process-based cost models offer a means for exploring opportunities for cost reductions, and provide a structured system for comparisons among alternative SWNT manufacturing processes. Further, the models can be used to comprehensively evaluate additional scenarios on the economics of environmental, health, and safety best manufacturing practices.

  18. Economic valuation of acidic deposition damages: Preliminary results from the 1985 NAPAP [National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program] damage assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callaway, J.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Nesse, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper identifies methods used to evaluate the economic damages of acid deposition in the 1985 Damage Assessment being coordinated by the National Acid Precipitation Program. It also presents the preliminary estimates of economic damages for the Assessment. Economic damages are estimated for four effect areas: commercial agriculture and forests, recreational fishing and selected types of materials. In all but the last area, methods are used which incorporate the behavioral responses of individuals and firms or simulated physical damages to resources at risk. The preliminary nature of the estimated damages in each area is emphasized. Over all, the damage estimates should be interpreted with caution. 44 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Water Reuse Strategies in Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper evaluates the environmental sustainability and economic feasibility of four water reuse designs through economic input-output life cycle assessments (EIO-LCA) and benefit/cost analyses. The water reuse designs include: 1. Simple Greywater Reuse System for Landscape Ir...

  20. Ecological catastrophe and economical damages. The problems of assessment from Amoco-Cadiz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnieux, F.; Rainelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    This book strikes the balance of the accident of the tanker ship Amoco-Cadiz (environmental effects and economic impact) and sets the problem of damages assessment, liabilities, victims compensation. 99 refs., 41 figs., 43 tabs

  1. Economic assessment of a proposed integrated resource recovery facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    This report comprises an initial economic and market appraisal of the proposals made by Materials Recycling Management (MRM) Ltd for a commercial plant engaged in waste treatment and energy recovery. The MRM design is an integrated waste handling system for commercial and industrial non hazardous wastes and civic amenity wastes. After primary separation into three selected broad waste categories, wastes are processed in the plant to recover basic recyclables such as paper, timber, plastics and metals. A quantity of material is directed for composting and the remainder converted into a fuel and combusted on site for energy recovery. Wastes unworthy of processing would be sent for disposal. A basic technical review has been undertaken. The focus of this review has been on the main processing plant where materials are segregated and the fuel and compost produced. (author)

  2. Low-level radioactive waste management: an economic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper has presented an overview of the economics of low-level radioactive waste disposal. It is hoped that this paper will assist the states in their efforts to determine their approach to the management of low-level wastes. Although the economies of scale realized by a larger facility are emphasized, the conclusion is that every state and region must examine its need for low-level waste disposal services and consider the interrelated factors that affect the volume of waste to be disposed, including waste reduction techniques, interim storage for not a single recommended capacity for a facility, but an acknowledgement of contingencies. In theory, per cubic foot disposal costs decrease as facility size increases. But theory does not preclude a state from constructing its own site, or a region generating small volumes of waste from building a shared facility. All factors should be weighed before a site is chosen and its size is determined

  3. Economic Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies Participating in California Electricity Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Townsend, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    As the electric sector evolves and increasing amounts of variable renewable generation are installed on the system, there are greater needs for system flexibility and sufficient capacity, and greater concern for overgeneration from renewable sources not well matched in time with electric loads. Hydrogen systems have the potential to support the grid in each of these areas. However, limited information is available about the economic competitiveness of hydrogen system configurations. This paper quantifies the value for hydrogen energy storage and demand response systems to participate in select California wholesale electricity markets using 2012 data. For hydrogen systems and conventional storage systems (e.g., pumped hydro, batteries), the yearly revenues from energy, ancillary service, and capacity markets are compared to the yearly cost to establish economic competitiveness. Hydrogen systems can present a positive value proposition for current markets. Three main findings include: (1) For hydrogen systems participating in California electricity markets, producing and selling hydrogen was found to be much more valuable than producing and storing hydrogen to later produce electricity; therefore systems should focus on producing and selling hydrogen and opportunistically providing ancillary services and arbitrage. (2) Tighter integration with electricity markets generates greater revenues (i.e., systems that participate in multiple markets receive the highest revenue). (3) More storage capacity, in excess of what is required to provide diurnal shifting, does not increase competitiveness in current California wholesale energy markets. As more variable renewable generation is installed, the importance of long duration storage may become apparent in the energy price or through additional markets, but currently, there is not a sufficiently large price differential between days to generate enough revenue to offset the cost of additional storage. Future work will involve

  4. Detection and tracking of a low energy swell system off the U.S. East Coast with the Seasat SAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that on the morning of September 28, 1978, at 1520 GMT, Seasat approached the East Coast of the U.S. with the 100 km swath of its synthetic aperture radar (SAR) running approximately parallel to the coast but displayed eastward by about 20 km. This pass is analyzed and the following conclusions are drawn: (1) the SAR can successfully detect low-energy swell systems with wave heights under 1 m (actually 0.65 + or - 0.25 m); (2) the refraction of low-energy but well-organized swells deriving from changes in the local depth of the ocean is clearly detectable in both wavelength and direction; and (3) the complexity of the ocean spectrum (whether composed of more than one system or spread in direction and wave number) appears to have little bearing on the threshold detection limits.

  5. Precipitable water: Its linear retrieval using leaps and bounds procedure and its global distribution from SEASAT SMMR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Eight subsets using two to five frequencies of the SEASAT scanning multichannel microwave radiometer are examined to determine their potential in the retrieval of atmospheric water vapor content. Analysis indicates that the information concerning the 18 and 21 GHz channels are optimum for water vapor retrieval. A comparison with radiosonde observations gave an rms accuracy of approximately 0.40 g sq cm. The rms accuracy of precipitable water using different subsets was within 10 percent. Global maps of precipitable water over oceans using two and five channel retrieval (average of two and five channel retrieval) are given. Study of these maps reveals the possibility of global moisture distribution associated with oceanic currents and large scale general circulation in the atmosphere. A stable feature of the large scale circulation is noticed. The precipitable water is maximum over the Bay of Bengal and in the North Pacific over the Kuroshio current and shows a general latitudinal pattern.

  6. Assessing the Financial and Market Components of the Enterprise’s Economic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhlakova Viktoriia V.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most common in assessing economic security of an enterprise is the functional approach, but it needs to be improved on the basis of accumulated knowledge in the science of economic security at the micro-level, thus allowing for different organizing its usage. In order to assess the economic security of enterprise using a functional approach, it is proposed to abandon many functional components in favor of focusing on the financial and market ones, and to discard the traditional rollup of the normalized single and complex indicators to obtain an integral measure of the enterprise’s economic security. In order to assess the economic security of enterprise by the financial and market components, it is proposed to use the signature criteria for the selected indicators by each component, the number of which should be small. For each of the assessed components of the enterprise’s economic security four single indicators were selected, making possible to visualize the assessments by using the elliptic form of the Euler – Venn circles for the four multitudes of assessments as to each component.

  7. [Medico-economic assessment of the Pontoise Hospital stroke unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekhlef, F; Decup, D; Niclot, P; Servan, J; Descombes, S; Richecoeur, J; Ollivier, A

    2010-11-01

    Annually, approximately 120,000 people in France have a stroke. Various controlled studies have pointed out the benefits of treatment in a stroke unit (SU). The objective of this study was to evaluate, from a medical point of view, the economic impact of the Pontoise Hospital SU. Based on the national cost study (NCS [étude nationale des coûts: ENC]) we analyzed data of five diagnosis related groups (DRG) which have a principle diagnosis in relation with stroke. This work was limited to strokes and transient ischemic events in adults and excluded sub-arachnoid hemorrhage. Medical and economic parameters were collected over the period from January to October 2006 and compared with those of the same period in 2005, that is to say before the opening of the SU. Three hundred and twenty-three hospital stays occurred between January 1st and October 31st, 2006 and 216 during the same time period before the opening of the SU, an increase of approximately 50% of all stroke-related admissions in our hospital. The number of stays carried out in the neurology unit increased by 29%. There was no significant difference between the two periods regarding age (median 69 versus 70 years) and sex- ratio. Average length of stay (ALS) was the same (9 days). There were no significant differences concerning the death rate (5.6% versus 6.2%) and that of discharge to home (44.6% versus 44.4%). The cost by stay in 2006 was 3534 euros [median; min 664-max 57,542] versus 3541 euros in 2005 [681-35,149] (p=0.57). Analysis by DRG highlighted an increase in the cost for serious strokes, cerebral infarctions and hemorrhages. For transitory ischemic events, the cost and the ALS decreased. After the opening of the SU, there was an increase in the activity without an increase in the total cost. This could be related in part to the limited means allocated to the stroke unit at its opening (in particular medical staff). The NCS can be used to evaluate the activity of a stroke unit. This work could

  8. Short-run Economic Assessment of the Transportation Recovery Policy After an Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koike Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a short-run economic damage assessment model. The model contains two sub models. One is the conventional traffic assignment model, which calculates traveling time under the damaged transportation infrastructure. The other is the economic damage assessment model, which determines the decrease in production level in the short run. This method facilitates the identification of critical infrastructure that could reduce the economic damage when the disaster occurs. As a case study, we applied this model to several recovery plans for transport facilities. The results suggest that the proposed comprehensive model should be considered as a prevention plan.

  9. Faba beans and peas in poultry feed: economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskina, Liga; Cerina, Sallija

    2017-10-01

    Broiler diets mainly consist of cereals and protein-rich feed sources; in the EU-27, poultry farming consumes 24% of the total amount of protein-rich feedstuffs. Since the EU produces only 30% of the total quantity of protein crops used for feed, it is necessary to promote the use of traditional European protein crops (beans, peas) for feed in livestock farming. The research aim is to identify economic gains from the production of broiler chicken meat, replacing soybean meal with domestic faba beans and field peas in broiler chicken diets. Adding field peas and faba beans to the broiler feed ration resulted in a significant live weight increase (5.74-11.95%) at the selling age, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio by 0.61-6.06%, and decrease in the product unit cost (15.34-37.06%) as well as an increase in the production efficiency factor (8.70-48.54), compared with the control group. The optimum kind of legume species used in the broiler diet was peas, which were added in the amount of 200 g kg -1 , resulting in live weight gain, a decrease in the feed conversion ratio and an increase in the production efficiency factor. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Issues in assessing the economic benefits of ambient ozone control: some examples from agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Information on the economic benefits arising from alternative secondary National Ambient Air Quality Standards can provide one measure of regulatory efficiency. If benefits assessments are to be used in assessing regulatory impacts of federal standards as recently ordered by President Ronald Reagan, the economic concept of benefits, the limitations of benefits analysis, and the validity of those estimates needs to be clarified. Some methodological and applied issues which can effect the validity of environmental economic assessments as they pertain to agriculture are reviewed. Recent studies from the assessment literature on agriculture are critiqued with respect to how well they address such issues. An attempt is made to identify potential sources of variability in estimates found within that literature. Finally, implications for performance of future assessments are discussed.

  11. Technical and economic assessment of photovoltaic-driven desalination systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Karaghouli, Ali; Renne, David; Kazmerski, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Solar desalination systems are approaching technical and cost viability for producing fresh-water, a commodity of equal importance to energy in many arid and coastal regions worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) represent an ideal, clean alternative to fossil fuels, especially for remote communities such as grid-limited villages or isolated islands. These applications for water production in remote areas are the first to be nearing cost-competitiveness due to decreasing PV prices and increasing fossil fuel prices over the last five years. The electricity produced from PV systems for desalination applications can be used for electro-mechanical devices such as pumps or in direct-current (DC) devices. Reverse osmosis (RO) and electrodialysis (ED) desalination units are the most favorable alternatives to be coupled with PV systems. RO usually operates on alternating current (AC) for the pumps, thus requiring a DC/AC inverter. In contrast, electrodialysis uses DC for the electrodes at the cell stack, and hence, it can use the energy supplied from the PV panels with some minor power conditioning. Energy storage is critical and batteries are required for sustained operation. In this paper, we discuss the operational features and system designs of typical PV-RO and PV-ED systems in terms of their suitability and optimization for PV operation. For PV-RO and PV-ED systems, we evaluate their electricity need, capital and operational costs, and fresh-water production costs. We cover ongoing and projected research and development activities, with estimates of their potential economics. We discuss the feasibility of future solar desalination based on expected (or predicted) improvements in technology of the desalination and PV systems. Examples are provided for Middle East and other parts of the World. (author)

  12. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Developing Green GDP Accounting for Thai Agricultural Sector Using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment to Assess Green Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Attavanich, Witsanu; Mungkung, Rattanawan; Mahathanaseth, Itthipong; Sanglestsawai, Santi; Jirajari, Athiwatr

    2016-01-01

    There is no indicator measuring Thailand’s green growth by valuing the resource degradation and environmental damage costs. This article aims to estimate Thailand’s green gross domestic (GDP) that takes into account environmental damage costs with the detailed analysis on the agricultural sector using the Economic Input Output - Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) approach. The representative product in each sector was selected based on the available life cycle inventory data, economic values and...

  14. Spatial Analysis and Safety Assessment of Social and Economic Development of Small and Medium Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Orekhova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the spatial patterns of socio-economic development of small and medium-sized cities in the Volgograd region. We know that small and medium-sized cities as spatial socio-economic systems are not only the support frame of settlement, but the main “engine” of innovative impulses for the surrounding periphery. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the effort to implement a spatial approach to the assessment of the economic security of small and medium-sized cities (SCR. The content of the economic security of cities is determined by two system characteristics of the socio-economic system: economic activity (EA and quality of life (QL of the urban population, or SCR = F (EA; QL. For finding spatial patterns in GIS, great interest is in investigating the environment of each city by calculating the local statistical characteristics of geo-variability which allow assessing trends of spatial variation of the six components of security (human security, technosphere safety, environmental safety, etc., local variations in emissions and their values indicators Ki. The successful solution of these problems is possible with the use of tools of exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA in ARCGIS, and in particular, the Voronoy maps. The spatial approach has allowed to perform an integrated assessment of the economic security and to evaluate safety risks in small and medium-sized cities of the Volgograd region with the security system of indicators.

  15. Socio-economic impact assessment and community engagement to reduce conflict over mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rolfe; Stewart Lockie [Central Queensland University, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The broad aim of this project was to assist coal mining companies develop effective processes for engaging with their communities and developing impact assessment and planning processes that can be agreed by their stakeholders. The range of project outcomes have been summarised in a series of reports, as follows. Report 1. Overview of social and economic issues associated with the Bowen Basin coal industry; Report 2. A review of environmental impact assessments (EIA) for coal mine developments and the use of economic and social impact assessment in the Bowen Basin - tools and trends; Report 3. Accounting for social and economic impacts in annual sustainability reporting; Report 4. Regional Economic impact assessment: an overview of the input-output methods; Report 5. The impact of coal industry development projects on the Central Highlands, Fitzroy and Queensland economies: An application of input-output method; Report 6. Regional Economic impact assessment: factors influencing workforce mobility to regional mining towns; Report 7. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the township of Blackwater; Report 8. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the Bauhinia Shire (Springsure and Rolleston); Report 9. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (Blackwater); Report 10. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (the Bauhinia Shire); and Report 11. Summary and Recommendations. This report includes a number of summary findings about the social and economic impacts of coal mining on the communities in the Bowen Basin. The approaches used are outlined and briefly discussed.

  16. Methodological approach for assessing the economic impact of forest fires using MODIS remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Rodríguez y Silva; Juan Ramón Molina Martínez; Miguel Castillo Soto

    2013-01-01

    Assessing areas affected by forest fires requires comprehensive studies covering a wide range of analyzes. From an economic standpoint, assessing the affected area in monetary terms is crucial. Determining the degree of loss in the value of natural resources, both those of a tangible and intangible nature, enables knowing the residual value remaining after a fire, i.e...

  17. Economic assessment of using nonmetallic materials in the direct utilization of geothermal energy. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabibbo, S.V.; Ammerlaan, T.

    1979-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of nonmetallic materials in three direct-use geothermal applications was assessed. An extensive review of the available literature was conducted in order to ascertain those processes for which sufficient design and cost data had been published to permit this economic assessment to be made. Only three such processes could be found and they are discussed.

  18. Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy : an assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van J.A.J.; Romijn, H.A.; Balkema, A.J.; Faaij, A.

    2014-01-01

    This is an assessment of key economic, environmental and social issues pertaining to jatropha biofuels, based on almost 150 studies covering 26 countries. The assessment aims to furnish a state-of-the-art overview and identify knowledge gaps. So far, total jatropha production has remained small.

  19. Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy: an assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske; Romijn, Henny; Balkema, Annelies; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    This is an assessment of key economic, environmental and social issues pertaining to jatropha biofuels, based on almost 150 studies covering 26 countries. The assessment aims to furnish a state-of-the-art overview and identify knowledge gaps. So far, total jatropha production has remained small.

  20. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  1. Economic security integrated assessment: a case study for OJSC “Sintez”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esembekova A. U.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article seeks to define a comprehensive assessment of economic security of an organization by calculating ratios. The authors aim to determine the financial stability and the probability of bankruptcy in order to assess the liquidity of the organization, and learn how well it is protected from internal and external threats.

  2. A Study on improvement of environmental assessment system in social, economic, and environmental sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Young Sook; Koo, Doh Wan; Keum, Kee Yong [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental assessment system is assessed as a mechanism that can achieve the goal for environmental policy in 21st century. As it can evaluate social and economic feasibility of large-scale development program, this system can achieve a sustainable society by mitigating social conflicts arising from environmental problems. For making the environmental assessment system substantial, this study was implemented by the need of improvement of the system, by analyzing problems of social, economic, and environmental evaluation, which is implemented under the present system. 44 refs., 1 fig., 25 tabs.

  3. On economic resolution and uncertainty in hydrocarbon exploration assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I.

    1998-01-01

    When assessment of parameters of a decision tree for a hydrocarbon exploration project can lie within estimated ranges, it is shown that the ensemble average expected value has two sorts of uncertainties: one is due to the expected value of each realization of the decision tree being different than the average; the second is due to intrinsic variance of each decision tree. The total standard error of the average expected value combines both sorts. The use of additional statistical measures, such as standard error, volatility, and cumulative probability of making a profit, provide insight into the selection process leading to a more appropriate decision. In addition, the use of relative contributions and relative importance for the uncertainty measures guides one to a better determination of those parameters that dominantly influence the total ensemble uncertainty. In this way one can concentrate resources on efforts to minimize the uncertainty ranges of such dominant parameters. A numerical illustration is provided to indicate how such calculations can be performed simply with a hand calculator. (author)

  4. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  5. INPRO economic assessment of the IRIS nuclear reactor for deployment in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho, E-mail: orlando@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN - RJ), Rua Helio de Almeida, 75, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, 21941-906 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > First INPRO evaluation of IRIS economic competitiveness for deployment in Brazil. > Plant arrangement of three independent IRIS single units constructed in series. > Angra 3 reactor used as reference design for judgment of IRIS economic potential. > IRIS economically competes with 2nd generation nuclear power plants in Brazil - Abstract: This paper presents the results of the economic assessment of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) for deployment in Brazil using the assessment methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy will be available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Among its missions is the development of a methodology to assess innovative nuclear energy systems (INSs) on a global, regional and national basis. In 2005, Brazil submitted a proposal for the assessment of two small-size reactors as components of an INS, completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. One of the reactors assessed was IRIS, a small-size, modular, integral-type PWR reactor. IRIS was evaluated with regard to the areas of reactor safety and economics only. This paper outlines the rationale for the study and summarizes the results of the economic assessment. The study concluded that the reference design of IRIS complies with most of INPRO economics criteria and has potential to comply with the remaining ones.

  6. Improving the Assessment of Regional Economic Potential (on Example of Rostov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai A. Kurianov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a number of problematic issues concerning the possibility of improving existing approaches to assessing regional economic potential. Based on the analysis of existing approaches it is concluded that presence of a number of inherent common disadvantages, which include the exclusion of complex assessment elements of intangible resources, isolation from development goals in the region, ignoring the possibility of incremental reserves development static evaluation results. To overcome these ambiguities the authors' approach to improving assessment procedures based on the allocation of the essential nature of the category «regional economic potential», which unites, on the one hand, the resources available for regional development (actual potential, and on the other hand, resources in respect of which the region has the opportunity to attract them as a tool for further development of (stochastic potential. As the degree of implementation of this option is determined by the quality of regional governance, the most important element of the economic potential of the region is also an effective mechanism for management of existing and potential resources of various types. The practical implementation of the proposed methodology suppose, for example, estimate the economic potential of the Rostov region. At the first stage of the evaluation determine the most important elements of this potential and their ranking, on the second – assessment of the status of these elements from the point of view of their availability, ability to attract and management efficiency, and the third – the normalized assessment of regional economic potential.

  7. Coal-fueled high-speed diesel engine development: Task 2, Market assessment and economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakwani, R. M.; Wilson, Jr., R. P.; Winsor, R. E.

    1991-12-01

    Based on the preliminary coal engine design developed, this task was conducted to identify the best opportunity(s) to enter the market with the future coal-fueled, high-speed diesel engine. The results of this market and economic feasibility assessment will be used to determine what specific heavy duty engine application(s) are most attractive for coal fuel, and also define basic economic targets for the engine to be competitive.

  8. Assessment of the impacts of oil: Opportunities and challenges for economic development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the impacts of oil and discusses the opportunities and challenges for enhancing economic development in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis in this paper is that we provide a more comprehensive analysis using the most recent secondary data to discuss the positive and negative impacts of oil for enhancing economic development in Sudan. We explain that the various positive impacts of oil and the opportunities for enhancing development in Sudan's economy inc...

  9. The assessment of risk management system’s economic efficiency in retail banking

    OpenAIRE

    Cvilikas, Aurelijus; Paužuolis, Vaidas

    2014-01-01

    The banking risk management is always a relevant topic in financial sector’s academic literature, but the detailed analysis of current studies showed that there is a lack of studies in risk management’s economic efficiency assessment in retail banking, where the risk management system’s administration cost may be a significant part of total credit institution’s cost. The scientific problem of this article is: how the economic efficiency of retail banking risk management system could be ...

  10. Methodology of economic efficiency assessment and its application to radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, J.

    1988-01-01

    The share of the radioactive waste treatment process in the total economic balance of nuclear power plants is assessed. Only liquid wastes are considered for simplification. The amount, specific activity and concentration are the basic parameters significant from the economic point of view. The solution of problems associated with the radioactive waste formation (its minimization, e.g., by improving leakproofness, limiting the number of rinsings, optimization of chemical operation regimens) and sorting exhibits an economic effect several times higher (as much as an order of magnitude) than it is theoretically attainable by improving the disposal process. (M.D.). 2 figs

  11. Economic Assessment of FMDv Releases from the National Bio and Agro Defense Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendell, Dustin L.; Marsh, Thomas L.; Coble, Keith H.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Szmania, Sara C.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the economic consequences of hypothetical foot-and-mouth disease releases from the future National Bio and Agro Defense Facility in Manhattan, Kansas. Using an economic framework that estimates the impacts to agricultural firms and consumers, quantifies costs to non-agricultural activities in the epidemiologically impacted region, and assesses costs of response to the government, we find the distribution of economic impacts to be very significant. Furthermore, agricultural firms and consumers bear most of the impacts followed by the government and the regional non-agricultural firms. PMID:26114546

  12. The application of multiloop diagnostics model to assess and improve the economic security of enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluzhnikov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author’s research is dedicated to the enhancement of the level of the enterprise economic safety. This task involves developing the concept of an integrated system for early prevention of dangers and threats of business activity, substantiation of procedures for regulating the activities of the enterprise in accordance with the changing external and internal factors. Multiloop diagnostics model is proposed to identify causal relations of management dysfunction. It allows you to receive an adequate assessment of the basic parameters of activity of the enterprise and accurately identify its status. Researching problems of economic safety of the enterprise such diagnostic methods as economic and logical analysis, statistical monitoring and strategic management were applied. There was made a conclusion that a qualitative assessment is a key tool of the level assessment of the enterprise economic safety, its control, and monitoring. It allows you to get reliable information about the real possibilities of the enterprise at different stages of development, to monitor and evaluate the level of economic security, find effective solutions to transition to a higher level of economic safety of the enterprise.

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improvng the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development staff...

  15. Integrated impact assessment of climate and socio-economic change on dairy farms in a watershed in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Wim; Kanellopoulos, Argyris; Ven, van de Gerrie; Reidsma, Pytrik

    2016-01-01

    Climate and socio-economic change will affect the land use and the economic viability of Dutch dairy farms. Explorations of future scenarios, which include different drivers and impacts, are needed to perform ex-ante policy assessment. This study uses a bio-economic farm model to assess impacts

  16. Unitary assessment of economical efficiency of the energy resources for electricity production in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Gheorghe

    2004-01-01

    In our country, within the studies, on which the development strategies of power output are based on, the assessment of the economical efficiency of the use of two main energetic resources, the fuel used in cogeneration thermal power plants and the water used in hydropower plants respectively, was made in compliance with non-unitary specific norms. In contradiction with the degree of utilization of hydroelectric resources, realized all over the world in the developed countries (80-90%) resulted that in our country, where the degree of utilization is only 40%, the use of hydroelectric potential is not yet justified from technical-economical point of view. This anomaly was determined by the cause of non-unitary assessment of the economic efficiency for the cogeneration thermo-power plants and hydropower plants. This paper presents comparatively the elements, which were to the basis of the assessment of the economic efficiency for two types of electrical power plants, and one presents a proposal in the aim to perform a unitary assessment of the economical efficiency by applying efficiently the laws in force. (author)

  17. Assessing the potential of economic instruments for managing drought risk at river basin scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Economic instruments work as incentives to adapt individual decisions to collectively agreed goals. Different types of economic instruments have been applied to manage water resources, such as water-related taxes and charges (water pricing, environmental taxes, etc.), subsidies, markets or voluntary agreements. Hydroeconomic models (HEM) provide useful insight on optimal strategies for coping with droughts by simultaneously analysing engineering, hydrology and economics of water resources management. We use HEMs for evaluating the potential of economic instruments on managing drought risk at river basin scale, considering three criteria for assessing drought risk: reliability, resilience and vulnerability. HEMs allow to calculate water scarcity costs as the economic losses due to water deliveries below the target demands, which can be used as a vulnerability descriptor of drought risk. Two generic hydroeconomic DSS tools, SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS ( both programmed in GAMS) have been developed to evaluate water scarcity cost at river basin scale based on simulation and optimization approaches. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water according to the system priorities and operating rules, and evaluate the scarcity costs using economic demand functions. The optimization tool allocates water resources for maximizing net benefits (minimizing total water scarcity plus operating cost of water use). SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), while OPTIGAMS is used to simulate the effect of ideal water markets by economic optimization. These tools have been applied to the Jucar river system (Spain), highly regulated and with high share of water use for crop irrigation (greater than 80%), where water scarcity, irregular hydrology and groundwater overdraft cause droughts to have significant economic, social and environmental consequences. An econometric model was first used to explain the variation

  18. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...

  19. Techno-economic viability assessments of greener propulsion technology under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalianda, D.K.; Kyprianidis, K.G.; Sethi, V.; Singh, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced method is presented for techno-economic assessment under potential environmental regulatory policy scenarios. • The viability of the contra-rotating open rotor concept is investigated under various environmental policies. • CO_2 taxation is needed to drive the aerospace industry towards greener solutions. - Abstract: Sustainability of the aviation industry, as any other industry, depends on the elasticity of demand for the product and profitability through minimising operating costs. Of paramount importance is assessing and understanding the interdependency and effects of environmentally optimised solutions and emission mitigation policies. This paper describes the development and application of assessment methodologies to better understand the effects of environmental taxation/energy policies aimed at environmental pollution reduction and the future potential economic impact they may have on the adaptation of “greener” novel technologies. These studies are undertaken using a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment approach. The methodology demonstrated allows the assessment of the economic viability of new technologies compared to conventional technologies, for various CO_2 emission taxation and fuel price scenarios. It considers relative increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. A study undertaken as a ‘proof of concept’ compares a Counter Rotating Open Rotor aircraft with a conventional aircraft for short range operations. It indicates that at current fuel price and with no carbon taxation, a highly fuel efficient technology, such as the one considered, could be rendered economically unviable. The work goes on to demonstrate that in comparison to the conventional aircraft, any economic benefits that may be accrued from improvement in fuel consumption through such a technology, may well be negated through increases in acquisition price and maintenance costs. The work further demonstrates that if policy

  20. Review of regional economic models with special reference to labor impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.; Mason, B.

    1979-06-01

    This paper reviews several regional economic models and examines the capabilities of these models for assessing the total employment impacts of solar energy adoption. Five generic analytic methods are discussed: economic base analysis, shift-share analysis, demographic-economic interaction models, input-output analysis, and industrial location analysis. Ten regional models incorporating some aspect of these methods are reviewed. From the model review, the conclusion is drawn that there is no single model that fits all of the necessary criteria for planned research efforts. Models that appear to hold promise are the Economic Activity Analysis (EAA) Model, the Regional Industrial Multipliers System (RIMS), the Multiregion, Multi-industry (MRMI) Model, and the MULTIREGION model.

  1. The assessment of eco-design with a comprehensive index incorporating environmental impact and economic profit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuo; Fu, Yun; Wang, Xiuteng; Xu, Bingsheng; Li, Zheng

    2017-11-01

    Eco-design is an advanced design approach which plays an important part in the national innovation project and serves as a key point for the successful transformation of the supply structure. However, the practical implementation of the pro-environmental designs and technologies always faces a dilemma situation, where some processes can effectively control their emissions to protect the environment at relatively high costs, while others pursue the individual interest in making profit by ignoring the possible adverse environmental impacts. Thus, the assessment on the eco-design process must be carried out based on the comprehensive consideration of the economic and environmental aspects. Presently, the assessment systems in China are unable to fully reflect the new environmental technologies regarding their innovative features or performance. Most of the assessment systems adopt scoring method based on the judgments of the experts, which are easy to use but somewhat subjective. The assessment method presented in this paper includes the environmental impact (EI) assessment based on LCA principal and willingness-to-pay theory, and economic profit (EP) assessment mainly based on market price. The results from the assessment are in the form of EI/EP, which evaluate the targeted process from a combined perspective of environmental and economic performance. A case study was carried out upon the utilization process of coal fly ash, which indicates the proposed method can compare different technical processes in an effective and objective manner, and provide explicit and insightful suggestions for decision making.

  2. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Halsnæs, K; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, K

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible adaptation requires better flood risk quantification and assessment of appropriate adaptation actions in term of costs and benefits. This paper presents an economic assessment of three prevailing climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in a Danish case study, Odense. A risk-based evaluation framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best to adapt to urban pluvial flooding due to climate impacts in cities.

  3. The socio-economic impact assessment for nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamm, J.; Wlodarczyk, T.

    1992-01-01

    The concept for disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste will undergo public scrutiny as it is examined under the Canadian Environmental Assessment and Review Process (EARP). This process presents a number of challenges in preparing the socio-economic impact assessment (SEIA) component of an Environment Impact Statement. These challenges relate to defining the scope of the SEIA, adapting site-specific methodologies to an assessment of a concept, and addressing evolving public concerns and issues. This paper reports that in meeting these challenges a generic process-oriented SEIA has been developed that emphasizes the importance of defining policies and processes to manage socio-economic impacts. In addition, public involvement and attitude research has facilitated the assessment of the concept at the societal level

  4. The role of decision analytic modeling in the health economic assessment of spinal intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Natalie C; Skelly, Andrea C; Ziewacz, John E; Cahill, Kevin; McGirt, Matthew J

    2014-10-15

    Narrative review. To review the common tenets, strengths, and weaknesses of decision modeling for health economic assessment and to review the use of decision modeling in the spine literature to date. For the majority of spinal interventions, well-designed prospective, randomized, pragmatic cost-effectiveness studies that address the specific decision-in-need are lacking. Decision analytic modeling allows for the estimation of cost-effectiveness based on data available to date. Given the rising demands for proven value in spine care, the use of decision analytic modeling is rapidly increasing by clinicians and policy makers. This narrative review discusses the general components of decision analytic models, how decision analytic models are populated and the trade-offs entailed, makes recommendations for how users of spine intervention decision models might go about appraising the models, and presents an overview of published spine economic models. A proper, integrated, clinical, and economic critical appraisal is necessary in the evaluation of the strength of evidence provided by a modeling evaluation. As is the case with clinical research, all options for collecting health economic or value data are not without their limitations and flaws. There is substantial heterogeneity across the 20 spine intervention health economic modeling studies summarized with respect to study design, models used, reporting, and general quality. There is sparse evidence for populating spine intervention models. Results mostly showed that interventions were cost-effective based on $100,000/quality-adjusted life-year threshold. Spine care providers, as partners with their health economic colleagues, have unique clinical expertise and perspectives that are critical to interpret the strengths and weaknesses of health economic models. Health economic models must be critically appraised for both clinical validity and economic quality before altering health care policy, payment strategies, or

  5. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial 'socially' performs in comparison with its alternatives. 'Industrial economics' methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a 'pragmatic regulatory impact analysis', that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is 'pragmatic' in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess 'what happens' with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  6. Socio-economic analysis: a tool for assessing the potential of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignon, Jean-Marc

    2011-07-01

    Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) has a long history, especially in the USA, of being used for the assessment of new regulation, new infrastructure and more recently for new technologies. Under the denomination of Socio-Economic Analysis (SEA), this concept is used in EU safety and environmental regulation, especially for the placing of chemicals on the market (REACh regulation) and the operation of industrial installations (Industrial Emissions Directive). As far as REACh and other EU legislation apply specifically to nanomaterials in the future, SEA might become an important assessment tool for nanotechnologies. The most important asset of SEA regarding nanomaterials, is the comparison with alternatives in socio-economic scenarios, which is key for the understanding of how a nanomaterial "socially" performs in comparison with its alternatives. "Industrial economics" methods should be introduced in SEAs to make industry and the regulator share common concepts and visions about economic competitiveness implications of regulating nanotechnologies, SEA and Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can complement each other : Socio-Economic LCA are increasingly seen as a complete assessment tool for nanotechnologies, but the perspective between Social LCA and SEA are different and the respective merits and limitations of both approaches should be kept in mind. SEA is a "pragmatic regulatory impact analysis", that uses a cost/benefit framework analysis but remains open to other disciplines than economy, and open to the participation of stakeholders for the construction of scenarios of the deployment of technologies and the identification of alternatives. SEA is "pragmatic" in the sense that it is driven by the purpose to assess "what happens" with the introduction of nanotechnology, and uses methodologies such as Life Cycle Analysis only as far as they really contribute to that goal. We think that, being pragmatic, SEA is also adaptative, which is a key quality to handle the novelty of

  7. Two economic, energetic, and environmental assessments of the French nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vielle, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents two studies, which try to assess the economic, energy and environmental impact of the French nuclear program. First, the two models used are described briefly and then each study is discussed separately. The main results are summarized in the conclusion. (author). 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of the debut incursion of the avian influenza virus into Nigeria in January 2006, severe outbreaks occurred in a number of poultry farms leading to widespread fears and a lot of apprehension. The objectives of the study were to assess, document and highlight the economic and social implications of the disease ...

  9. assessment of the economic and social implications of the avian flu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2006-01-22

    Jan 22, 2006 ... KEYWORDS: Assessment, Economic, Social Implications, Avian Flu, Nigerian Poultry. INTRODUCTION. Avian flu is a highly infectious, contagious and zoonotic disease of man, poultry and other birds caused by the avian influenza type A virus, Emmanuel et.al. (2006). The avian influenza virus belongs to ...

  10. Assessment of potential economic and environmental impacts caused by Phytophthora ramorum in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hella Kehlenbeck

    2008-01-01

    Economic and environmental impacts of Phytophthora ramorum in Europe were evaluated within the European Union framework 6 project on ?Risk Analysis for P. ramorum a pathogen threat to Europe? (RAPRA). Impact assessment was conducted according to three different scenarios: 1. ?Nursery System? - describes losses occurring in...

  11. Is the Learning Community of Economics and Accounting Effective? Empirical Assessment of Class Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumph, Carolyn Fabian; Kim, Myeong Hwan; Han, Yongseung; Minke, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Learning communities are increasingly used at colleges and universities, as one of the goals of a learning community is to increase interaction among students and teach them how to apply knowledge. The goal of this research is to assess the learning community of the economics and accounting students in their class performance measured by class…

  12. Assessing the economic impacts of agricultural carbon sequestration: Terraces and agroforestry in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antle, J.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Valdivia, R.O.

    2007-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for information about the economic impact of agricultural carbon (C) sequestration in the developing world, but as yet no studies have assessed the potential for farmers in the highland tropics to participate in C contracts. In this paper we show how an

  13. Preventing chronic lung disease in an aging society by improved building ventilation : An economic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franchimon, F.; Ament, A.H.J.A.; Pernot, C.E.E.; Knies, J.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Leading edge ventilation systems in buildings might slow down the degradation of quality of life in a population. We therefore performed an economic assessment to determine the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (the amount of money needed to produce one healthy life year) for a full-scale

  14. An Integrated Hydro-Economic Modelling Framework to Evaluate Water Allocation Strategies II: Scenario Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, B.; Malano, H.; Davidson, B.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Bharati, L.; Sylvain, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the results of an assessment of the hydrological and economic implications of reallocating water in the Musi sub-basin, a catchment within the Krishna Basin in India, are reported. Policy makers identified a number of different but plausible scenarios that could apply in the sub-basin,

  15. Techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-based chemicals from glutamic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammens, T.M.; Gangarapu, S.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Scott, E.L.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, possible process steps for the production of bio-based industrial chemicals from glutamic acid are described, including a techno-economic assessment of all processes. The products under investigation were those that were shown to be synthesized from glutamic acid on lab-scale, namely

  16. A socio-economic impact assessment of a project to identify and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of the Best Management Practices (BMP) project on social and economic wellbeing at the Zanyokwe Irrigation Scheme (ZIS) in central Eastern Cape Province. The BMP project is a knowledge-based initiative aimed at introducing management practices in order to improve ...

  17. A socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity on the Ghanaian market: implications for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Adofo, K.; Buckman, E.S.; Frempong, G.; Jongerden, J.P.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Given the importance of cowpea [Vignaunguiculata(L)Walp] in fighting malnutrition and poverty, a socio-economic assessment of cowpea diversity found on the Ghanaian market was conducted. The objective was to investigate emerging consumer preference for cowpea and make recommendations for the

  18. 78 FR 52761 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; One Year Assessment of the Social and Economic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; One Year Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Hurricane Sandy on New... Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce, as part of its...

  19. Pre-economic analysis of HTR in preparation for a comprehensive economic assessment of HTRs in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredimas, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.bredimas@strane-innovation.com

    2014-05-01

    High temperature nuclear reactors will address mainly the industrial cogeneration market and compete with gas cogeneration, the current reference technology. The key question for HTR is therefore: how far are HTRs competitive against gas technologies? This simple question demands a complex response. First, the cogeneration scheme has to be discussed according the specificities in heat usage of every industry as they will impact the design. Second, the costs, revenues and risks of the different lifecycle phases for both a HTR and gas cogeneration plant have to be assessed and compared. These parameters will greatly depend on each location (personnel costs, gas local prices, CO{sub 2} pricing, etc.). A particular attention has to be given to the risk interactions between the cogeneration plant and the industrial facility it is supplying with heat and electricity (e.g. tritium contamination in industrial processes, explosion of flammable products in industrial site). This paper aims mainly at starting exchanges at international level with other equivalent initiatives in order to assess in general terms the economic viability of HTR worldwide, in relation to the evaluation of the HTR global market.

  20. Pre-economic analysis of HTR in preparation for a comprehensive economic assessment of HTRs in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredimas, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    High temperature nuclear reactors will address mainly the industrial cogeneration market and compete with gas cogeneration, the current reference technology. The key question for HTR is therefore: how far are HTRs competitive against gas technologies? This simple question demands a complex response. First, the cogeneration scheme has to be discussed according the specificities in heat usage of every industry as they will impact the design. Second, the costs, revenues and risks of the different lifecycle phases for both a HTR and gas cogeneration plant have to be assessed and compared. These parameters will greatly depend on each location (personnel costs, gas local prices, CO 2 pricing, etc.). A particular attention has to be given to the risk interactions between the cogeneration plant and the industrial facility it is supplying with heat and electricity (e.g. tritium contamination in industrial processes, explosion of flammable products in industrial site). This paper aims mainly at starting exchanges at international level with other equivalent initiatives in order to assess in general terms the economic viability of HTR worldwide, in relation to the evaluation of the HTR global market

  1. Public health and economic risk assessment of waterborne contaminants and pathogens in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntunen, Janne; Meriläinen, Päivi; Simola, Antti

    2017-12-01

    This study shows that a variety of mathematical modeling techniques can be applied in a comprehensive assessment of the risks involved in drinking water production. In order to track the effects from water sources to the end consumers, we employed four models from different fields of study. First, two models of the physical environment, which track the movement of harmful substances from the sources to the water distribution. Second, a statistical quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess the public health risks of the consumption of such water. Finally, a regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the economic effects of increased illnesses. In order to substantiate our analysis, we used an illustrative case of a recently built artificial recharge system in Southern Finland that provides water for a 300,000 inhabitant area. We examine the effects of various chemicals and microbes separately. Our economic calculations allow for direct effects on labor productivity due to absenteeism, increased health care expenditures and indirect effects for local businesses. We found that even a considerable risk has no notable threat to public health and thus barely measurable economic consequences. Any epidemic is likely to spread widely in the urban setting we examined, but is also going to be short-lived in both public health and economic terms. Our estimate for the ratio of total and direct effects is 1.4, which indicates the importance of general equilibrium effects. Furthermore, the total welfare loss is 2.4 times higher than the initial productivity loss. The major remaining uncertainty in the economic assessment is the indirect effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A comparative assessment of the economics of plutonium disposition including comparison with other nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, K.A.; Miller, J.W.; Reid, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    DOE has been evaluating three technologies for the disposition of approximately 50 metric tons of surplus plutonium from defense-related programs: reactors, immobilization, and deep boreholes. As part of the process supporting an early CY 1997 Record of Decision (ROD), a comprehensive assessment of technical viability, cost, and schedule has been conducted. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has managed and coordinated the life-cycle cost (LCC) assessment effort for this program. This paper discusses the economic analysis methodology and the results prior to ROD. Other objectives of the paper are to discuss major technical and economic issues that impact plutonium disposition cost and schedule. Also to compare the economics of a once-through weapons-derived MOX nuclear fuel cycle to other fuel cycles, such as those utilizing spent fuel reprocessing. To evaluate the economics of these technologies on an equitable basis, a set of cost estimating guidelines and a common cost-estimating format were utilized by all three technology teams. This paper also includes the major economic analysis assumptions and the comparative constant-dollar and discounted-dollar LCCs

  3. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  4. Assessing future economic impacts of acidic deposition on the recreational fishery of eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the socio-economic impacts and net economic value effects related to potential reduction in acidic deposition on the sports fishery of eastern Canada. Impacts and net economic effects that would have occurred from 1950 to 1985 if emission/deposition controls were in place are measured. Impacts and net economic effects that will occur from 1986 to 2021 if controls are put in place in the future are also measured. The study incorporated the latest data describing the relationship of acidic deposition to lake pH levels and ultimate impact on fish survival, and applies a spatial analysis system to model changes in sport fish availability with respect to pH changes and fish survival responses. It was found that if emission controls were put in place beginning in 1950 the Canadian economy would have accrued $4.3 billion in net economic value from 1950 to 1985 inclusive. The 1986 value of the historical stream of losses that occurred because controls were not put in place is $24 billion assuming a 10% rate of return. If controls were put in place in the future, net economic value to Canada due to increased angler activity would be $4.2 billion for the period 1986-2021. The value in 1986 would be $925 million. 9 figs., 34 tabs

  5. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-12-01

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs.

  7. STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURE COMPLEX ON ECONOMIC SITUATION IN THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A. Malinovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing the impact of infrastructure investment on the economic situation of the region. It is suggested that economic and social effects of, as well as instant and deferred. Using regression analysis allowed us to estimate the nature of different types of effects that affect the economic system of the region.

  8. An enviro-economic function for assessing energy resources for district energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    District energy (DE) systems provide an important means of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and the significant related concerns associated with global climate change. DE systems can use fossil fuels, renewable energy and waste heat as energy sources, and facilitate intelligent integration of energy systems. In this study, an enviro-economic function is developed for assessing various energy sources for a district energy system. The DE system is assessed for the considered energy resources by considering two main factors: CO 2 emissions and economics. Using renewable energy resources and associated technologies as the energy suppliers for a DE system yields environmental benefits which can lead to financial advantages through such instruments as tax breaks; while fossil fuels are increasingly penalized by a carbon tax. Considering these factors as well as the financial value of the technology, an analysis approach is developed for energy suppliers of the DE system. In addition, the proposed approach is modified for the case when thermal energy storage is integrated into a DE system. - Highlights: • Developed a function to assess various energy sources for a district energy system. • Considered CO 2 emissions and economics as two main factors. • Applied renewable energy resources technologies as the suppliers for a DE system. • Yields environmental benefits can lead to financial benefits by tax breaks. • Modified enviro-economic function for the TES integrated into a DE system

  9. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel. A technology, market, and economic assessment for Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  10. Quality Assessment of Economic Evaluations of Suicide and Self-Harm Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lizell Bustamante; Eddleston, Michael; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2018-01-01

    Background: Death following self-harm constitutes a major global public health challenge and there is an urgent need for governments to implement cost-effective, national suicide prevention strategies. Aim: To conduct a systematic review and quality appraisal of the economic evaluations...... of interventions aimed at preventing suicidal behavior. Method: A systematic literature search was performed in several literature databases to identify relevant articles published from 2003 to 2016. Drummond's 10-item appraisal tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Results....... The discussion of suicide and self-harm prevention should be as nuanced as possible, including health economics along with cultural, social, and political aspects....

  11. Considerations on the assessment of economic benefits of industrial tracer application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guizerix, J.; Margrita, R.

    1990-01-01

    The benefit of a particular tracer study which can always theoretically be derived is practically very difficult to assess for decision-making which is more often based on rough estimates of it. Other criteria, as safety, environmental protection, 'social benefit', may replace the purely economic considerations. The economic benefits of industrial tracer applications can clearly be perceived through the commercial success of businesses offering tracer services, which implies that all factors involved in the law of supply and demand have (tacitly or explictly) been accounted. (orig.) [de

  12. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  13. Performance assessment of hybrid power generation systems: Economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sharafi, Abdullah; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Sahin, Ahmet Z.; Ayar, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-step optimization tool for hybrid power generation systems is introduced. • Economical aspects and the impact of the system on the environment are considered. • A hybrid system comprises PV array-wind turbine-battery-diesel engine is considered. • Real time analysis of the system for full year simulation is carried out. • System optimum configuration at point where total performance index is maximized. - Abstract: This article aims to introduce a double-step performance assessment tool for the hybrid power generation systems. As a case study, a hybrid system comprising PV array, wind-turbine, battery bank and diesel engine is incorporated in hourly based simulations to meet power demand of a residence unit at Dhahran area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Different indicators related to economical and environmental performance assessments of the hybrid system have been considered. In the economic related assessment case, cost of electricity, energy excess percentage, and operating life cycle indicators have been considered and combined to develop the first overall performance index. Renewable contribution, renewable source availability and environmental impact indicators have been considered for the environmental assessment case and they are combined in the second performance index. For either economical or environmental cases, the optimum configuration of the system is achieved by maximizing the first and second overall performance indicators. This innovative optimization tools gives the designer the freedom to assign suitable weights associated with economical aspect, environmental impact, governmental regulations and social impact, for the first and second overall performance indicators, and combine them in the total performance index. The optimum system configuration is at the point where the total performance index is maximized.

  14. Uncertainty assessment of climate change adaptation using an economic pluvial flood risk framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    It is anticipated that climate change is likely to lead to an increasing risk level of flooding in cities in northern Europe. One challenging question is how to best address the increasing flood risk and assess the costs and benefits of adapting to such changes. We established an integrated...... approach for identification and assessment of climate change adaptation options by incorporating climate change impacts, flood inundation modelling, economic tool and risk assessment and management. The framework is further extended and adapted by embedding a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the total...

  15. A socio-economic assessment of proposed road user charging schemes in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2007-01-01

    -economic analysis of four different proposed road pricing schemes for the Copenhagen area. The purpose was to assess all benefits and costs involved, including impacts on traffic and environment, maintenance and financing costs as well as tax distortion effects. It was concluded that the socio-economic surplus......Road pricing. congestion charging, toll-systems and other road charging instruments are intensively discussed in many countries. Although many partial analyses of the consequences have been published, few overall socio-economic analyses have been carried out. The article presents such a socio...... of the projects depends crucially on the congestion level. With the Current traffic level, road pricing will not yet be socially expedient in Copenhagen. However, if the opening year is postponed to 2015, the two most favourable schemes will turn positive. The analyses also showed that the magnitude of demand...

  16. Software Integration of Life Cycle Assessment and Economic Analysis for Process Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakula, Sawitree; Malakula, Pomthong; Siemanonda, Kitipat

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...

  17. STUDY REGARDING THE ASSESSMENT OF THE FINANCIAL STABILITY OF THE ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baltes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The research presents both theoretical and practicalthe evolution of the financial stability assessed through the solvency indicators, the real economic growth rate and the GDP deflator in the manufacturing companies from Romania, through the Vector Autoregression Model (VAR. The sample consists in 36 companies belonging to the manufacturing industry in Romania, listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, on the first and second category. The study is conducted during the period 2007-2014 and demonstrated the fact that a change in the real economic growth causes a positive change in the GDP deflator. Not lastly, the change of the real economic growth also determines a positive change of the patrimonial solvency, and a change in the GDP deflator produces a reduction of the patrimonial solvency.

  18. Assessment of TEES reg sign applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  19. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  20. Assessment of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Vine-Growing Combining Life Cycle Assessment, Life Cycle Costing and Multicriterial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Falcone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The wine sector is going through a significant evolution dealing with the challenges of competition issues in international markets and with necessary commitments to sustainability improvement. In the wine supply chain, the agricultural phase represents a potential source of pollution and costs. From the farmers’ point of view, these contexts require them to be more attentive and find a compromise among environmental benefits, economic benefits, and costs linked to farming practices. This paper aims to make a sustainability assessment of different wine-growing scenarios located in Calabria (Southern Italy that combines conflicting insights, i.e., environmental and economic ones, by applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Life Cycle Costing (LCC to identify the main hotspots and select the alternative scenarios closest to the ideal solution through the VIKOR multicriteria method. In particular, the latter allowed us to obtain synthetic indices for a two-dimensional sustainability assessment. Conventional practices associated to the espalier training system represent the best compromise from both environmental and economic points of view, due to the higher yield per hectare. The choices regarding Functional Unit (FU and indicators were shown to have a high influence on results.

  1. A Framework for Assessing the Social and Economic Impact of Sustainable Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räikkönen Minna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Investments towards sustainable development are vital for the future and they must be carefully planned to deliver immediate and long-term benefits. Hence, the ability to communicate the forms of impact of sustainable investments to local societies, people, investors and other stakeholders can provide a competitive advantage. However, the assessments are often under pressure to demonstrate short-term effects rather than emphasise the long-term impact. In addition, indirect and intangible forms of impacts should not be measured solely in economic terms. This paper proposes an assessment framework to support the integrated economic and social impact assessment of sustainable investments aimed at improving physical and socio-economic wellbeing. The framework is demonstrated in two case studies: new construction and renovation investments in affordable housing and social impact investment in sustainable development. The investments in the case studies are evaluated, selected and prioritized not only in terms of money but also with regard to sustainability, social acceptability and their overall impact on society, as a whole. The results indicate that a systematic integrated assessment of monetary and non-monetary factors can be successfully combined with the sustainable development decisions.

  2. Economic assessment of the IRIS reactor for deployment in Brazil using INPRO methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves Filho, Orlando Joao Agostinho

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the main results of the evaluation of the economic competitiveness of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) for deployment in Brazil using the assessment methodology developed under the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), co-ordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). INPRO was initiated in 2001 and has the main objective of helping to ensure that nuclear energy will be available to contribute in a sustainable manner to the energy needs of the 21st century. Among its missions are the development of a methodology to assess innovative nuclear energy systems (INS) on a global, regional and national basis, and to facilitate the co-operation among IAEA Member States for planning the development and deployment of INS. Brazil joined INPRO since its beginning and in 2005 submitted a proposal for the screening assessment of two small-sized integral-type PWR reactors as alternative components of an INS completed with a conventional open nuclear fuel cycle based on enriched uranium. This paper outlines the rationale and the main results of the economic assessment of the IRIS-based INS completed in August 2008. The study concluded that IRIS reference design satisfies most of INPRO criteria in the area of economics. (author)

  3. Economic Assessment of SMART Deployment in Korea using DEEP 5.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kyu-dong; Roh, Myung-sub

    2015-01-01

    SMART is designed to produce 330MW thermal energy and 40,000m 3 /day desalinated water with enhanced safety system. The design acquired the standard design certification from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) for the first time in the world. Nonetheless, SMART is estimated to have a higher cost of energy compared to other power sources, so investors were restrained from ploughing their asset into construction of the first unit as a demonstration plant. Such a dismal economic outlook discouraged Korean nuclear power industry and potential purchasers from deploying SMART. In this study, economic assessments were conducted to figure out economic competitiveness of SMART. Desalination Economics Evaluation Program (DEEP) software which was developed and distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used to analyze the cost of electricity and water of SMART and other power plants. This study set out to evaluate the economic competitiveness of deploying SMART in Korea. This implies that controlling overnight construction cost is a key factor of the economic competitiveness of SMART. SMART is appropriate for small-medium sized remote electricity demand, so a related case study was conducted. A comparison of economic value between SMART and other alternative power sources were conducted using DEEP software. The alternative power sources were coal power plant and combined cycle gas turbine plant. Assuming those power plants generates certain amount of water to be fairly compared with SMART, DEEP software calculated SMART should be built with maximum 9,000-10,000 $/kWe construction cost. Compared to the plants with CCS facility, allowance of SMART construction cost increases to be 11,000-12,000 $/kWe. Another assumption was considered to highlight the merit of SMART which emits almost zero carbon compounds. Applying carbon tax to the previous study, LCOE of SMART and other power sources was calculated. The result shows that overnight construction

  4. Economic Assessment of SMART Deployment in Korea using DEEP 5.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kyu-dong; Roh, Myung-sub [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SMART is designed to produce 330MW thermal energy and 40,000m{sup 3}/day desalinated water with enhanced safety system. The design acquired the standard design certification from Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC) for the first time in the world. Nonetheless, SMART is estimated to have a higher cost of energy compared to other power sources, so investors were restrained from ploughing their asset into construction of the first unit as a demonstration plant. Such a dismal economic outlook discouraged Korean nuclear power industry and potential purchasers from deploying SMART. In this study, economic assessments were conducted to figure out economic competitiveness of SMART. Desalination Economics Evaluation Program (DEEP) software which was developed and distributed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was used to analyze the cost of electricity and water of SMART and other power plants. This study set out to evaluate the economic competitiveness of deploying SMART in Korea. This implies that controlling overnight construction cost is a key factor of the economic competitiveness of SMART. SMART is appropriate for small-medium sized remote electricity demand, so a related case study was conducted. A comparison of economic value between SMART and other alternative power sources were conducted using DEEP software. The alternative power sources were coal power plant and combined cycle gas turbine plant. Assuming those power plants generates certain amount of water to be fairly compared with SMART, DEEP software calculated SMART should be built with maximum 9,000-10,000 $/kWe construction cost. Compared to the plants with CCS facility, allowance of SMART construction cost increases to be 11,000-12,000 $/kWe. Another assumption was considered to highlight the merit of SMART which emits almost zero carbon compounds. Applying carbon tax to the previous study, LCOE of SMART and other power sources was calculated. The result shows that overnight

  5. Techno-economic assessment of Levulinic Acid Plant from Sorghum Bicolor in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozan, M.; Ryan, B.; Krisnandi, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The increasing need of energy is one of the main energy security issues in Indonesia. Hence, alternative energy is needed. Levulinic acid (LA) is among chemical platform used in the synthesis for avariety of high-value materials, such as fuels and commodity chemicals. It is predicted that global LA market demand to reach 3.1 tons in 2016. This study examines industrial processdesign and economic analysis for LA production in Indonesia.Sorghum bicolor was used as feed because of its high cellulose, low lignin contents and availability in Indonesia. The conventional economic problem from biomass based production was diminished sincethe valuable waste from pretreatment processwas sold to otherindustry.This plant was recommended to be built in an industrial estate area in Jawa Timur (East Java) province. Results from simulation using SuperPro Designer 9.0 was used for the techno-economic assessment.The plant assessment showed that the minimum production capacity was 7.7 ton per day to achieve an internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period (PBP) values of 19.61% and 3.93 years, respectively. Sensitivity analysis showed that product selling price was the most predominant factor for IRR, NPV, PBP and ROI. Raw material and water had low effects on those economic parameters. These values indicated that LA plant was feasible to be built in Indonesia.

  6. A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.-H.; Hwang, Y.-D.; Konishi, T.; Hudi Hastowo

    2005-01-01

    A joint study between KAERI and BATAN, which is entitled 'A preliminary economic feasibility assessment of nuclear desalination in Madura Island', is being conducted under the framework of the Interregional Technical Cooperation Project of IAEA, signed on Oct. 10, 2001 at IAEA. The duration of the project is January 2002 to December 2004. An economic feasibility of nuclear desalination using system-integrated modular advanced reactor (SMART), which will provide Madura Island with electricity and potable water and also support industrialisation and tourism, will be assessed during the project. The scope of this joint study includes the analyses for the short- and long-term energy and water demand as well as the supply plan for Madura Island, evaluation of the site characteristics, environmental impacts and health aspects, technical and economic evaluation of SMART and its desalination system, including the feasibility of its being identified on the Madura Island. KAERI and BATAN are cooperating in conducting a joint study, and IAEA provides technical support and a review of the study products. This paper presents the interim results of the joint study by focussing on the technical and economic aspects of nuclear desalination using SMART in Madura Island. (author)

  7. Developing integrated performance assessment and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudyakova T.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of assessing and forecasting the level of financial and economic enterprise stability through the integrated indicators development. Currently, many enterprises operate under variable external environment, which imposes a strict requirement to consider this uncertainty. For the evaluation, analysis and prediction of the sustainability of the enterprise in the conditions of crisis we believe it possible and necessary to use the apparatus of probability theory and mathematical statistics. This problem solution will improve quantitative assessing the financial and economic stability level, forecasting possible scenarios of the enterprise development and, therefore, based on the proactive management principles and adaptation processes will greatly increase their effective functioning, as well as reduce bankruptcy probability.

  8. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Sin, Gürkan; Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...... the economic risk; (ii) perform the monetary valuation of environmental impact categories under uncertainty; (iii) quantify the potential environmental risk; (iv) measure the alternatives’ eco-efficiency identifying possible trade-offs; and, lastly (v) propose a joint risk assessment matrix......The need to achieve a sustainable process performance has become increasingly important in order to keep a competitive advantage in the global markets. Development of comprehensive and systematic methods to accomplish this goal is the subject of this work. To this end, a multi-level framework...

  9. Economic assessment of nuclear power plant operation with regard to effective use of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svec, P.; Raninec, S.; Mizov, J.

    1988-01-01

    The essential preconditions are discussed for the better utilization of fuel in nuclear power plants. The MORNAP program which models the operation of the reactor is used for assessing the consequences of various fuel utilization strategies on technical and economic parameters of WWER-440 nuclear power plant operation. Some results of model calculation are given for the third and fourth units of the Jaslovske Bohunice nuclear power plant. The calculations have served for the economic assessment of the transition of part of the nuclear fuel from a three-campaign to a four-campaign cycle. This transition reduces fuel costs by 1.7%. The implementation of this strategy on a larger scale is expected to save 7 to 9% of fuel costs. (Z.M.). 2 tabs., 7 refs

  10. A framework for techno-economic & environmental sustainability analysis by risk assessment for conceptual process evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Sin, Gürkan; Carvalho, Ana

    2016-01-01

    the economic risk; (ii) perform the monetary valuation of environmental impact categories under uncertainty; (iii) quantify the potential environmental risk; (iv) measure the alternatives’ eco-efficiency identifying possible trade-offs; and, lastly (v) propose a joint risk assessment matrix......The need to achieve a sustainable process performance has become increasingly important in order to keep a competitive advantage in the global markets. Development of comprehensive and systematic methods to accomplish this goal is the subject of this work. To this end, a multi-level framework...... for techno-economic and environmental sustainability analysis through risk assessment is proposed for the early-stage design and screening of conceptual process alternatives. The alternatives within the design space are analyzed following the framework’s work-flow, which targets the following: (i) quantify...

  11. Techno-economic Assessment of Biomass Pellets for Power Generation in India

    OpenAIRE

    Purohit, P.; Chaturvedi, V.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass pellet production has increased considerably in recent years, mainly due to the demand created by policies and bioenergy-use targets in the European Union (EU). Global biomass pellet production was 24.1 million tonne (Mt) in 2014. In this study, a preliminary attempt has been made to assess the techno-economic feasibility of biomass pellets for electricity generation in India produced from biomass surplus available from agriculture and forestry/wasteland. Biomass surplus availability ...

  12. Regional economic impact assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Hogan, Dylan; Edwards, Deborah A; Smith, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    The present paper describes a methodology for evaluating impacts of Superfund remedial alternatives on the regional economy in the context of a broader sustainability evaluation. Although economic impact methodology is well established, some applications to Superfund remedial evaluation have created confusion because of seemingly contradictory results. This confusion arises from failure to be explicit about 2 opposing impacts of remediation expenditures: 1) positive regional impacts of spending additional money in the region and 2) negative regional impacts of the need to pay for the expenditures (and thus forgo other expenditures in the region). The present paper provides a template for economic impact assessment that takes both positive and negative impacts into account, thus providing comprehensive estimates of net impacts. The paper also provides a strategy for identifying and estimating major uncertainties in the net impacts. The recommended methodology was applied at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, located along the Lower Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, USA. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed remedial alternatives that it estimated would cost up to several billion dollars, with construction durations possibly lasting decades. The economic study estimated regional economic impacts-measured in terms of gross regional product (GRP), personal income, population, and employment-for 5 of the USEPA alternatives relative to the "no further action" alternative. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:32-42. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  13. Microalgal cultivation for value-added products: a critical enviro-economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Pandey, Arya; Ahmad, Shamshad; Kumar, Ashwani; Pathak, Vinayak V; Tyagi, V V

    2017-08-01

    The present review focuses on the cultivation of algal biomass for generating value-added products (VAP) and to assess their economic benefits and harmful environmental impact. Additionally, the impact of bioreactor designs on the yield of microalgal biomass for VAP is also considered. All these factors are discussed in relation to the impact of microalgae production on the bio-economy sector of commercial biotechnology.

  14. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 2, 4 were inputted to INIS. They deal with nuclear fusion as a potential energy source, with environmental aspects of disposal of ashes from power plants in the Czech Republic, and with land reclamation after mining activities. (Z.S.)

  15. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  16. Payloads development for European land mobile satellites: A technical and economical assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, G.; Rispoli, F.; Sassorossi, T.; Spazio, Selenia

    1990-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has defined two payloads for Mobile Communication; one payload is for pre-operational use, the European Land Mobile System (EMS), and one payload is for promoting the development of technologies for future mobile communication systems, the L-band Land Mobile Payload (LLM). A summary of the two payloads and a description of their capabilities is provided. Additionally, an economic assessment of the potential mobile communication market in Europe is provided.

  17. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 32 papers contained in Vol. 1, 2 were inputted to INIS. They deal with models of radionuclide transport in food chains and the use of aerial monitoring in the study of environmental contamination. (Z.S.)

  18. An investigation for the economic assessment of uranium deposits and mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnajim, N.

    1980-01-01

    It is the aim of this thesis to supply a comprehensive basis for decisions to be made in connection with the detection, exploration, extraction processing and marketing of uranium. The deposit types and forms, the technologies of exploration, extraction and processing as well as the most economic procedure for the exploitation of such deposits are presented in detail. This results in an assessment system which serves to consider the necessity for the construction of uranium ore deposits. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Fairness, Credibility and Effectiveness in the Copenhagen Accord: An Economic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Favero; Enrica De Cian

    2010-01-01

    State-of-the-art literature on climate change policies has proposed numerous approaches for the Post-Kyoto agreement. However, in analysing the outcome of negotiations, the feeling is that a huge gap exists between policy makers and scientists. This paper tries to bridge this gap by providing a critical and comparative analysis of the Copenhagen Accord provisions, linking them to a part of the climate-economy literature. It assesses Copenhagen outcome in terms of economic efficiency, environm...

  20. Integrated economic assessment of energy and forestry mitigation options using MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    There have been a number of economic assessment of GHG mitigation studies carried out in Indonesia. Several alternative mitigation options for energy and non-energy sectors have been described and the economic assessment of the options has been done for each sectors. However, most of the economic assessment particularly for non-energy sector, was not to find a least cost option but the lowest cost options. A program called MARKAL developed by a consortium of energy specialists from more than a dozen countries in the early 1980s, is a program that can be used for optimization, so that the least cost options could be selected. Indonesia has used this program intensively for energy system analysis. Attempt to use this program for other sector has not been developed as this program was designed for energy sector. Therefore, using MARKAL for other sector, all activities of the other sectors should be treated as energy activities. This study is aimed to use MARKAL for analysing both energy and forestry sector together. This paper described briefly the methodology of using MARKAL for both energy and forestry sectors. As the activities in energy sector have unique characteristics, thus only forest activities are described in more detail. (au)

  1. Methods of international health technology assessment agencies for economic evaluations--a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Tim; Jacobs, Esther; Morfeld, Jana-Carina; Pieper, Dawid

    2013-09-30

    The number of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) agencies increases. One component of HTAs are economic aspects. To incorporate economic aspects commonly economic evaluations are performed. A convergence of recommendations for methods of health economic evaluations between international HTA agencies would facilitate the adaption of results to different settings and avoid unnecessary expense. A first step in this direction is a detailed analysis of existing similarities and differences in recommendations to identify potential for harmonization. The objective is to provide an overview and comparison of the methodological recommendations of international HTA agencies for economic evaluations. The webpages of 127 international HTA agencies were searched for guidelines containing recommendations on methods for the preparation of economic evaluations. Additionally, the HTA agencies were requested information on methods for economic evaluations. Recommendations of the included guidelines were extracted in standardized tables according to 13 methodological aspects. All process steps were performed independently by two reviewers. Finally 25 publications of 14 HTA agencies were included in the analysis. Methods for economic evaluations vary widely. The greatest accordance could be found for the type of analysis and comparator. Cost-utility-analyses or cost-effectiveness-analyses are recommended. The comparator should continuously be usual care. Again the greatest differences were shown in the recommendations on the measurement/sources of effects, discounting and in the analysis of sensitivity. The main difference regarding effects is the focus either on efficacy or effectiveness. Recommended discounting rates range from 1.5%-5% for effects and 3%-5% for costs whereby it is mostly recommended to use the same rate for costs and effects. With respect to the analysis of sensitivity the main difference is that oftentimes the probabilistic or deterministic approach is recommended

  2. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  3. Integrating economic and environmental indicators in the assessment of desertification risk: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, L. [Piazza F. Morosini 12, Rome (Italy); Zitti, M.; Ceccarelli, T. [Ufficio Centrale di Ecologia Agraria, Rome (Italy)

    2008-09-30

    Desertification is a complex phenomenon which reduces the soil fertility involving ecological and economic processes that characterize the environment at different geographic scales. The most widely accepted definition of desertification is the one given by the United Nations Convention. It defines desertification as 'land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human actities'.Desertification involves many countries featuring different ecological, economic, and social conditions. In Mediterranean Europe, high human pressure, economic development, and climatic changes combine to produce land consumption, soil erosion, salinization, and fire risk, all considered as key factors to start desertification processes. For many years the term desertification has been strictly associated to geo-physical conditions, but in very complex ecosystems the study of the interaction of physical patterns with population and social characteristics is necessary to better delineate areas at risk. The aims of this paper are therefore (i) to review recent findings in term of desertification processes and risk assessment in the Mediterranean basin, (ii) to illustrate a simplified model in which social and economic variables may significantly accelerate land degradation leading to desertification, (iii) to suggest a set of demographic, economic, and institutional indicators suitable to contribute to the assessment of desertification risk in the Mediterranean basin, (iv) to built a synthetic index based on a multivariate approach and, finally, (v) to compare such index with a standard index of desertification risk only referring to geo-physical conditions. As a conclusion, new findings to be achieved in the context of human impact on environment as an original contribution to the study of desertification were delineated.

  4. Integrating uncertainties to the combined environmental and economic assessment of algal biorefineries: A Monte Carlo approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, Paula; Montazeri, Mahdokht; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Eckelman, Matthew J

    2018-06-01

    The economic and environmental performance of microalgal processes has been widely analyzed in recent years. However, few studies propose an integrated process-based approach to evaluate economic and environmental indicators simultaneously. Biodiesel is usually the single product and the effect of environmental benefits of co-products obtained in the process is rarely discussed. In addition, there is wide variation of the results due to inherent variability of some parameters as well as different assumptions in the models and limited knowledge about the processes. In this study, two standardized models were combined to provide an integrated simulation tool allowing the simultaneous estimation of economic and environmental indicators from a unique set of input parameters. First, a harmonized scenario was assessed to validate the joint environmental and techno-economic model. The findings were consistent with previous assessments. In a second stage, a Monte Carlo simulation was applied to evaluate the influence of variable and uncertain parameters in the model output, as well as the correlations between the different outputs. The simulation showed a high probability of achieving favorable environmental performance for the evaluated categories and a minimum selling price ranging from $11gal -1 to $106gal -1 . Greenhouse gas emissions and minimum selling price were found to have the strongest positive linear relationship, whereas eutrophication showed weak correlations with the other indicators (namely greenhouse gas emissions, cumulative energy demand and minimum selling price). Process parameters (especially biomass productivity and lipid content) were the main source of variation, whereas uncertainties linked to the characterization methods and economic parameters had limited effect on the results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency Assessment of Economic International Cooperation in Development of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina V. Beresneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on efficiency assessment of economic cooperation in development of Arctic offshore oil and gas resources. The author developed an economic model based on cost-benefit analysis (CBA. CBA is used in some countries (EU, USA, Australia as an analytic tool to make public policy decisions. CBA is based on the method of discounting cash flows associated with costs and benefits of public policy. It is assumed that all public goals are equally important inter alia, hence public bodies should opt for those initiatives that maximize public benefits for every dollar spent from the state budget. There are five stages of economic modeling: 1 the definition of public benefits and costs associated with the public initiative; 2 monetary valuation of costs and benefits; 3 the definition of discounting period and discounting rate; 4 the calculation of net present value of cash flows; 5 the comparison of initiatives' net present values. The model is built with a number of hypotheses assumed. It allows making evaluation of investments into the technology to decrease the cost of Arctic offshore oil and gas development. Moreover, the model has two scenarios describing a public policy to support technology development with international economic cooperation and without it. Under given hypotheses both scenarios return positive net present value of policies which proves that governmental initiative to support Arctic technology development is economically justified. Also the model sows that the scenario with international cooperation is more efficient from economic point of view. It is explained by two factors: the higher speed of technology transfer (due W international cooperation and the opportunity to use financial leverage (attracting the funds from foreign partners. The model allows closing the existing scientific gap between the theory of CBA method and its practical use in public decision making.

  6. Integrating life-cycle environmental and economic assessment with transportation and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail V; Nahlik, Matthew J; Fraser, Andrew M; Kimball, Mindy A; Garikapati, Venu M

    2013-01-01

    The environmental outcomes of urban form changes should couple life-cycle and behavioral assessment methods to better understand urban sustainability policy outcomes. Using Phoenix, Arizona light rail as a case study, an integrated transportation and land use life-cycle assessment (ITLU-LCA) framework is developed to assess the changes to energy consumption and air emissions from transit-oriented neighborhood designs. Residential travel, commercial travel, and building energy use are included and the framework integrates household behavior change assessment to explore the environmental and economic outcomes of policies that affect infrastructure. The results show that upfront environmental and economic investments are needed (through more energy-intense building materials for high-density structures) to produce long run benefits in reduced building energy use and automobile travel. The annualized life-cycle benefits of transit-oriented developments in Phoenix can range from 1.7 to 230 Gg CO2e depending on the aggressiveness of residential density. Midpoint impact stressors for respiratory effects and photochemical smog formation are also assessed and can be reduced by 1.2-170 Mg PM10e and 41-5200 Mg O3e annually. These benefits will come at an additional construction cost of up to $410 million resulting in a cost of avoided CO2e at $16-29 and household cost savings.

  7. An Assessment of Direct and Indirect Economic Losses of Climatic Extreme Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Willner, S. N.; Wenz, L.; Levermann, A.

    2015-12-01

    Risk of extreme weather events like storms, heat extremes, and floods has already risen due to anthropogenic climate change and is likely to increase further under future global warming. Additionally, the structure of the global economy has changed importantly in the last decades. In the process of globalization, local economies have become more and more interwoven forming a complex network. Together with a trend towards lean production, this has resulted in a strong dependency of local manufacturers on global supply and value added chains, which may render the economic network more vulnerable to climatic extremes; outages of local manufacturers trigger indirect losses, which spread along supply chains and can even outstrip direct losses. Accordingly, in a comprehensive climate risk assessment these inter-linkages should be considered. Here, we present acclimate, an agent based dynamic damage propagation model. Its agents are production and consumption sites, which are interlinked by economic flows accounting for the complexity as well as the heterogeneity of the global supply network. Assessing the economic response on the timescale of the adverse event, the model permits to study temporal and spatial evolution of indirect production losses during the disaster and in the subsequent recovery phase of the economy. In this study, we focus on the dynamic economic resilience defined here as the ratio of direct to total losses. This implies that the resilience of the system under consideration is low if the high indirect losses are high. We find and assess a nonlinear dependence of the resilience on the disaster size. Further, we analyze the influence of the network structure upon resilience and discuss the potential of warehousing as an adaptation option.

  8. Economic evaluations of comprehensive geriatric assessment in surgical patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Gilgamesh; Saravana-Bawan, Bianka; van der Westhuizen, Brenden; Chambers, Thane; Ohinmaa, Arto; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2017-10-01

    Seniors presenting with surgical disease face increased risk of postoperative morbidity and mortality and have increased treatment costs. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) is proposed to reduce morbidity, mortality, and the cost after surgery. A systematic review of CGA in emergency surgical patients was conducted. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness; secondary outcomes were length of stay, return of function, and mortality. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were predefined. Systematic searches of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database were performed. Text screening, bias assessment, and data extraction were performed by two authors. There were 560 articles identified; abstract review excluded 499 articles and full-text review excluded 53 articles. Eight studies were included; one nonorthopedic trauma and seven orthopedic trauma studies. Bias assessment revealed moderate to high risk of bias for all studies. Economic evaluation assessment identified two high-quality studies and six moderate or low quality studies. Pooled analysis from four studies assessed loss of function; loss of function decreased in the experimental arm (odds ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.97). Pooled results for length of stay from five studies found a significant decrease (mean difference: -1.17, 95% CI: -1.63 to -0.71) after excluding the nonorthopedic trauma study. Pooled mortality was significantly decreased in seven studies (risk ratio: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.67-0.90). All studies decreased cost and improved health outcomes in a cost-effective manner. CGA improved return of function and mortality with reduced cost or improved utility. Our review suggests that CGA is economically dominant and the most cost-effective care model for orthogeriatric patients. Further research should examine other surgical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Towards an integrated economic assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, H.; Piontek, F.; Stevanovic, M.; Popp, A.; Bauer, N.; Dietrich, J.; Mueller, C.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-12-01

    For a detailed understanding of the effects of climate change on global agricultural production systems, it is essential to consider the variability of climate change patterns as projected by General Circulation Models (GCMs), their bio-physical impact on crops and the response in land-use patterns and markets. So far, approaches that account for the interaction of bio-physical and economic impacts are largely lacking. We present an integrative analysis by using a soft-coupled system of a biophysical impact model (LPJmL, Bondeau et al. 2007), an economically driven land use model (MAgPIE, Lotze-Campen et al. 2008) and an integrated assessment model (ReMIND-R, Leimbach et al. 2010) to study climate change impacts and economic damages in the agricultural sector. First, the dynamic global vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL is used to derive climate change impacts on crop yields for wheat, maize, soy, rice and other major crops. A range of different climate projections is used, taken from the dataset provided by the Intersectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISI-MIP, www.isi-mip.org), which bias-corrected the latest CMIP5 climate data (Taylor et al. 2011). Crop yield impacts cover scenarios with and without CO2 fertilization as well as different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and different GCMs. With increasing temperature towards the end of the century yields generally decrease in tropical and subtropical regions, while they tend to benefit in higher latitudes. LPJmL results have been compared to other global crop models in the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP, www.agmip.org). Second, changes in crop yields are analysed with the spatially explicit agro-economic model MAgPIE, which covers their interaction with economic development and changes in food demand. Changes in prices as well as welfare changes of producer and consumer surplus are taken as economic indicators. Due to climate-change related reductions in

  10. Techno-Economic Assessment of Redundancy Systems for a Cogeneration Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohd Amin Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of distributed power generation has advantage as well as disadvantage. One of the disadvantages is that the plant requires a dependable redundancy system to provide back up of power during failure of its power generation equipment. This paper presents a study on techno-economic assessment of redundancy systems for a cogeneration plant. Three redundancy systems were investigated; using public utility, generator set and gas turbine as back up during failures. Results from the analysis indicate that using public utility provides technical as well as economic advantages in comparison to using generator set or turbine as back up. However, the economic advantage of the public utility depends on the frequency of failures the plant will experience as well on the maximum demand charge. From the break even analysis of the understudied plant, if the number of failures exceeds 3 failures per year for the case of maximum demand charge of RM56.80, it is more economical to install a generator set as redundancy. The study will be useful for the co-generator operators to evaluate the feasibility of redundancy systems.

  11. PLEXFIN a computer model for the economic assessment of nuclear power plant life extension. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA developed PLEXFIN, a computer model analysis tool aimed to assist decision makers in the assessment of the economic viability of a nuclear power plant life/licence extension. This user's manual was produced to facilitate the application of the PLEXFIN computer model. It is widely accepted in the industry that the operational life of a nuclear power plant is not limited to a pre-determined number of years, sometimes established on non-technical grounds, but by the capability of the plant to comply with the nuclear safety and technical requirements in a cost effective manner. The decision to extend the license/life of a nuclear power plant involves a number of political, technical and economic issues. The economic viability is a cornerstone of the decision-making process. In a liberalized electricity market, the economics to justify a nuclear power plant life/license extension decision requires a more complex evaluation. This user's manual was elaborated in the framework of the IAEA's programmes on Continuous process improvement of NPP operating performance, and on Models for analysis and capacity building for sustainable energy development, with the support of four consultants meetings

  12. Assessment of the Impact of the Narcotics Market on the Regional Socio-Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Nikolaevich Klevakin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the market of narcotics as a part of the formal and informal economy. By narcotics, the author means psychoactive substances and plants containing them, which are banned, subject to control or non-prohibited, but have a psychophysical effect on human body. Drug-related psychoactive substances are classified according to the prohibition criterion and restrictions on a turnover with reference to the illegal (criminal or shadow economy. The author considers the illegal drug market as a latent self-organizing system of socio-economic relations of criminal and shadow nature. Such market is oriented towards the turnover of potentially illegal or dangerous psychoactive substances, which are prohibited or restricted for use in non-medical purposes. The analysis of the state and development of the drug situation on the territory of the entities of the Ural Federal District confirms the relevance of the problem of drug abuse. In recent years, the primary incidence of drug addiction and harmful drug use among the adolescents aged 15–17 have grown. Synthetic narcotics and psychotropic substances of high narcogenicity dominate in the current drug market. Over the past 5 years, the average cost of a single dose of drug remains virtually unchanged. This reflects the conditional balance of purchasing power and competition in the drug market. The disparity in the volume of seized cannabis drugs and the number of cannabinoid users observed by medical institutions suggests a high level of latency in this category of drug users. To assess the degree of negative impact of the drug market, the author proposes to use a method of calculating the socioeconomic costs of the consequences of drug addiction. The methodology is supplemented with tools for determining the number of psychoactive substances consumers on the basis of the mass of these substances withdrawn from illicit trafficking, using the concentration and recalculation coefficients

  13. Assessing economic impact of storm surge under projected sea level rise scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Angel, D. C.; Yoskowitz, D.

    2017-12-01

    Global sea level is expected to rise 0.2-2m by the year 2100. Rising sea level is expected to have a number of impacts such as erosion, saltwater intrusion, and decline in coastal wetlands; all which have direct and indirect socio-economic impact to coastal communities. By 2050, 25% of the world's population will reside within flood-prone areas. These statistics raise a concern for the economic cost that sea level and flooding has on the growing coastal communities. Economic cost of storm surge inundation and rising seas may include loss or damage to public facilities and infrastructure that may become temporarily inaccessible, as well as disruptions to business and services. This goal of this project is to assess economic impacts of storms under four SLR scenarios including low, intermediate-low, intermediate-high, and high (0.2m, 0.5m, 1.2m and 2m, respectively) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico region. To assess flooding impact on communities from storm surge, this project utilizes HAZUS-MH software - a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based modeling tool developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency - to estimate physical, economic, and social impacts of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and hurricanes. The HAZUS database comes integrated with aggregate and site specific inventory which includes: demographic data, general building stock, agricultural statistics, vehicle inventory, essential facilities, transportation systems, utility systems (among other sensitive facilities). User-defined inundation scenarios will serve to identify assets at risk and damage estimates will be generated using the Depth Damage Function included in the HAZUS software. Results will focus on 3 communities in the Gulf and highlight changes in storm flood impact. This approach not only provides a method for economic impact assessment but also begins to create a link between ecosystem services and natural and nature-based features such as wetlands, beaches and dunes

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the nonproliferation alternative systems assessment program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This NASAP assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems

  15. Indicators for Assessing the Socio-Economic Responsibility of Entrepreneurship in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dielini Maryna M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to determine the main indicators that can be used for assessing the socio-economic responsibility of Ukrainian enterprises, and group these indicators by categories of stakeholders. There presented main recipients towards which the socio-economic responsibility of entrepreneurship is directed, namely, enterprise employees; owners (shareholders; consumers of products; suppliers and competitors; society and state. Forms and instruments for realizing the socio-economic responsibility of enterprises (SERE are presented, and on this basis a system of indicators is developed that can be used in the assessment of the SERE. The indicators have both quantitative and qualitative representation and also provide an opportunity to cover the full scale of the manifestation of the SERE regarding the interest groups. Much attention is paid to the ensuring of profitability of an enterprise (as the main objective of corporate social responsibility, according to A. Carroll, as well as deductions for the development of personnel, both professional and recreational, and for the development of society, welfare of the population in the form of spending on social investment, socially responsible marketing, monetary grants for research, charitable activities, and other tools of the SEPE manifestation.

  16. Landfill mining in Austria: foundations for an integrated ecological and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Baumgartner, Rupert J; Sarc, Renato; Ragossnig, Arne; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Eisenberger, Martin; Budischowsky, Andreas; Pomberger, Roland

    2014-09-01

    For the first time, basic technical and economic studies for landfill mining are being carried out in Austria on the basis of a pilot project. An important goal of these studies is the collection of elementary data as the basis for an integrated ecological and economic assessment of landfill mining projects with regard to their feasibility. For this purpose, economic, ecological, technical, organizational, as well as political and legal influencing factors are identified and extensively studied in the article. An important aspect is the mutual influence of the factors on each other, as this can significantly affect the development of an integrated assessment system. In addition to the influencing factors, the definition of the spatial and temporal system boundaries is crucial for further investigations. Among others, the quality and quantity of recovered waste materials, temporal fluctuations or developments in prices of secondary raw material and fuels attainable in the markets, and time and duration of dumping, play a crucial role. Based on the investigations, the spatial system boundary is defined in as much as all the necessary process steps, from landfill mining, preparing and sorting to providing a marketable material/product by the landfill operator, are taken into account. No general accepted definition can be made for the temporal system boundary because the different time-related influencing factors necessitate an individual project-specific determination and adaptation to the facts of the on-site landfill mining project. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Ecological and Economic Assessment of Micro-/Milli-Continuous Campaign Manufacturing: The Case of Writing Ink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Grundemann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many products from the fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries are currently manufactured batch-wise in multi-product plants. However, this processing scheme suffers from severe drawbacks, such as a high specific energy demand, cleaning costs and high staff requirements. Transferring batch into continuous campaign productions may overcome these drawbacks. Using the case of writing ink, such a continuous manufacturing scheme was developed employing micro- and milli-structured components in order to intensify certain unit operations. In this paper, an ecological and economic assessment of both production concepts considering all lifecycle stages is presented. The aim of our work is to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two multi-product plants and to derive recommendations for the most efficient design and operation of a continuous campaign manufacturing plant. The results show that lower environmental impacts are related to continuous processing, which is due to the option for energy integration in this case. Furthermore, in the economic assessment, continuous processing proved to be economically viable. In this case, reduced staff requirements based on a highly automated manufacturing plant are the key to lower personnel costs. In general, the results emphasize the importance of such micro-/milli-continuous multi-product plants for the future manufacturing of newly developed products in the mentioned industries.

  18. Economic Assessment of Flood Control Facilities under Climate Uncertainty: A Case of Nakdong River, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongseok Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change contributes to enhanced flood damage that has been increasing for the last several decades. Understanding climate uncertainties improves adaptation strategies used for investment in flood control facilities. This paper proposes an investment decision framework for one flood zone to cope with future severe climate impacts. This framework can help policy-makers investigate the cost of future damage and conduct an economic assessment using real options under future climate change scenarios. The proposed methodology provides local municipalities with an adaptation strategy for flood control facilities in a flood zone. Using the proposed framework, the flood prevention facilities in the Nakdong River Basin of South Korea was selected as a case study site to analyze the economic assessment of the investments for flood control facilities. Using representative concentration pathway (RCP climate scenarios, the cost of future flood damage to 23 local municipalities was calculated, and investment strategies for adaptation were analyzed. The project option value was determined by executing an option to invest in an expansion that would adapt to floods under climate change. The results of the case study showed that the proposed flood facilities are economically feasible under both scenarios used. The framework is anticipated to present guidance for establishing investment strategies for flood control facilities of a flood zone in multiple municipalities’ settings.

  19. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  20. Assessing the state-level consequences of global warming: Socio-economic and energy demand impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, B.M. Gailmard, S.; Marsh, D.; Septoff, A.

    1996-01-01

    The large body of research on climate change has begun to recognize a significant deficiency: the lack of analysis of the impact of climate change at a spatial level consistent with the anticipated occurrence of climate change. Climate change is likely to vary by region, while impact analysis has focused on much larger political units. Clearly, adaptation/mitigation strategies must be developed at a level consistent with political and policy-making processes. This paper specifically addresses this deficiency by identifying the potential socio-economic and energy demand consequences of climate change for subnational regions. This is accomplished via the development and application of a regional simultaneous equation, econometric simulation model that focuses on five states (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin) in the Great Lakes region of the US. This paper presents a process for obtaining state-specific assessments of the consequences of climate change for the socio-economic system. As such, it provides an indication of which economic sectors are most sensitive to climate change for a specific state (Indiana), a set of initial mitigation/adaptation strategies for this state, and the results of testing these strategies in the policy analysis framework enabled by the model. In addition, the research demonstrates an effective methodology for assessing impacts and policy implications of climate change at a level consistent with policy making authority

  1. Economic Impact Assessment of Wind Power Integration: A Quasi-Public Goods Property Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of wind power into power grid will bring some impacts on the multiple subjects of electric power system. Economic impacts of wind power integration on multiple subjects of China’s electric power system were quantitatively assessed from Quasi-public goods property perspective in this paper. Firstly, the Quasi-public goods property of transmission services provided by power grid corporations was elaborated. Secondly, the multiple subjects of China’s electric power system, which include electricity generation enterprises (EGEs, power grid corporations (PGCs, electricity consumers (ECs, and environment, were detailed analyzed. Thirdly, based on the OPF-based nodal price model and transmission service cost allocation model, the economic impact assessment model of wind power integration was built from Quasi-public goods property perspective. Then, the IEEE-24 bus system employed in this paper was introduced according to current status of China’s electric power system, and the modeling of wind turbine was also introduced. Finally, the simulation analysis was performed, and the economic impacts of wind power integration on EGEs, PGCs, ECs and Environment were calculated. The results indicate, from Quasi-public goods property perspective, the wind power integration will bring positive impacts on EGEs, PGCs and Environment, while negative impacts on ECs. The findings can provide references for power system managers, energy planners, and policy makers.

  2. Thermo-Economic Assessment of Advanced,High-Temperature CANDU Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinks, Norman J.; Pontikakis, Nikos; Duffey, Romney B.

    2002-01-01

    Research underway on the advanced CANDU examines new, innovative, reactor concepts with the aim of significant cost reduction and resource sustainability through improved thermodynamic efficiency and plant simplification. The so-called CANDU-X concept retains the key elements of the current CANDU designs, including heavy-water moderator that provides a passive heat sink and horizontal pressure tubes. Improvement in thermodynamic efficiency is sought via substantial increases in both pressure and temperature of the reactor coolant. Following on from the new Next Generation (NG) CANDU, which is ready for markets in 2005 and beyond, the reactor coolant is chosen to be light water but at supercritical operating conditions. Two different temperature regimes are being studied, Mark 1 and Mark 2, based respectively on continued use of zirconium or on stainless-steel-based fuel cladding. Three distinct cycle options have been proposed for Mark 1: the High-Pressure Steam Generator (HPSG) cycle, the Dual cycle, and the Direct cycle. For Mark 2, the focus is on simplification via a Direct cycle. This paper presents comparative thermo-economic assessments of the CANDU-X cycle options, with the ultimate goal of ascertaining which particular cycle option is the best overall in terms of thermodynamics and economics. A similar assessment was already performed for the NG CANDU. The economic analyses entail obtaining cost estimates of major plant components, such as heat exchangers, turbines and pumps. (authors)

  3. An Initial Assessment of the Economic Value of Coastal and Freshwater Wetlands in West Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian V. Eppink

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many countries in West Asia, defined in this study as the Arabic-speaking countries of the Arabian Peninsula plus Turkey and Iran, have enacted environmental conservation laws but regional underlying drivers of environment change, such as rising incomes and fast-growing populations, continue to put pressure on remaining wetlands. This paper aims to inform conservation efforts by presenting the first regional assessment of the economic value of coastal and freshwater wetlands in West Asia. Using scenario analysis we find that, dependent on the discount rate used, the present value of the regional economic loss of not protecting wetlands by 2050 is between US dollar 2.3 billion and US dollar 7.2 billion (expressed in 2007 US dollars. The method used for this assessment, however, is not suitable for expressing national realities adequately. We therefore suggest that detailed localized studies are conducted to improve insight into the drivers and the social and economic effects of wetland loss in West Asia.

  4. Integrated environmental assessment of future energy scenarios based on economic equilibrium models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igos, E.; Rugani, B.; Rege, S.; Benetto, E.; Drouet, L.; Zachary, D.; Haas, T.

    2014-01-01

    The future evolution of energy supply technologies strongly depends on (and affects) the economic and environmental systems, due to the high dependency of this sector on the availability and cost of fossil fuels, especially on the small regional scale. This paper aims at presenting the modeling system and preliminary results of a research project conducted on the scale of Luxembourg to assess the environmental impact of future energy scenarios for the country, integrating outputs from partial and computable general equilibrium models within hybrid Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) frameworks. The general equilibrium model for Luxembourg, LUXGEM, is used to evaluate the economic impacts of policy decisions and other economic shocks over the time horizon 2006-2030. A techno-economic (partial equilibrium) model for Luxembourg, ETEM, is used instead to compute operation levels of various technologies to meet the demand for energy services at the least cost along the same timeline. The future energy demand and supply are made consistent by coupling ETEM with LUXGEM so as to have the same macro-economic variables and energy shares driving both models. The coupling results are then implemented within a set of Environmentally-Extended Input-Output (EE-IO) models in historical time series to test the feasibility of the integrated framework and then to assess the environmental impacts of the country. Accordingly, a dis-aggregated energy sector was built with the different ETEM technologies in the EE-IO to allow hybridization with Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) and enrich the process detail. The results show that the environmental impact slightly decreased overall from 2006 to 2009. Most of the impacts come from some imported commodities (natural gas, used to produce electricity, and metalliferous ores and metal scrap). The main energy production technology is the combined-cycle gas turbine plant 'Twinerg', representing almost 80% of the domestic electricity production in Luxembourg

  5. Assessing the Economic Impact of Vaccine Availability When Controlling Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaud Porphyre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Predictive models have been used extensively to assess the likely effectiveness of vaccination policies as part of control measures in the event of a foot and mouth disease (FMD outbreak. However, the availability of vaccine stocks and the impact of vaccine availability on disease control strategies represent a key uncertainty when assessing potential control strategies. Using an epidemiological, spatially explicit, simulation model in combination with a direct cost calculator, we assessed how vaccine availability constraints may affect the economic benefit of a “vaccination-to-live” strategy during a FMD outbreak in Scotland, when implemented alongside culling of infected premises and dangerous contacts. We investigated the impact of vaccine stock size and restocking delays on epidemiological and economic outcomes. We also assessed delays in the initial decision to vaccinate, maximum daily vaccination capacity, and vaccine efficacy. For scenarios with conditions conducive to large outbreaks, all vaccination strategies perform better than the strategy where only culling is implemented. A stock of 200,000 doses, enough to vaccinate 12% of the Scottish cattle population, would be sufficient to maximize the relative benefits of vaccination, both epidemiologically and economically. However, this generates a wider variation in economic cost than if vaccination is not implemented, making outcomes harder to predict. The probability of direct costs exceeding £500 million is reduced when vaccination is used and is steadily reduced further as the size of initial vaccine stock increases. If only a suboptimal quantity of vaccine doses is initially available (100,000 doses, restocking delays of more than 2 weeks rapidly increase the cost of controlling outbreaks. Impacts of low vaccine availability or restocking delays are particularly aggravated by delays in the initial decision to vaccinate, or low vaccine efficacy. Our findings confirm that

  6. Assessing social and economic effects of perceived risk: Workshop summary: Draft: BWIP Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Liebow, E.B.

    1988-03-01

    The US Department of Energy sponsored a one-day workshop to discuss the complex dimensions of risk judgment formation and the assessment of social and economic effects of risk perceptions related to the permanent underground storage of highly radioactive waste from commercial nuclear power plants. Affected parties have publicly expressed concerns about potentially significant risk-related effects of this approach to waste management. A selective review of relevant literature in psychology, decision analysis, economics, sociology, and anthropology was completed, along with an examination of decision analysis techniques that might assist in developing suitable responses to public risk-related concerns. The workshop was organized as a forum in which a set of distinguished experts could exchange ideas and observations about the problems of characterizing the effects of risk judgments. Out of the exchange emerged the issues or themes of problems with probabilistic risk assessment techniques are evident; differences exist in the way experts and laypersons view risk, and this leads to higher levels of public concern than experts feel are justified; experts, risk managers, and decision-makers sometimes err in assessing risk and in dealing with the public; credibility and trust are important contributing factors in the formation of risk judgments; social and economic consequences of perceived risk should be properly anticipated; improvements can be made in informing the public about risk; the role of the public in risk assessment, risk management and decisions about risk should be reconsidered; and mitigation and compensation are central to resolving conflicts arising from divergent risk judgments. 1 tab

  7. Economic assessment of flood forecasts for a risk-averse decision-maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier-Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-04-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. It has also been suggested in past studies that ensemble forecasts might possess a greater economic value than deterministic forecasts. However, the vast majority of recent hydro-economic literature is based on the cost-loss ratio framework, which might be appealing for its simplicity and intuitiveness. One important drawback of the cost-loss ratio is that it implicitly assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. By definition, a risk-neutral individual is indifferent to forecasts' sharpness: as long as forecasts agree with observations on average, the risk-neutral individual is satisfied. A risk-averse individual, however, is sensitive to the level of precision (sharpness) of forecasts. This person is willing to pay to increase his or her certainty about future events. In fact, this is how insurance companies operate: the probability of seeing one's house burn down is relatively low, so the expected cost related to such event is also low. However, people are willing to buy insurance to avoid the risk, however small, of loosing everything. Similarly, in a context where people's safety and property is at stake, the typical decision maker is more risk-averse than risk-neutral. Consequently, the cost-loss ratio is not the most appropriate tool to assess the economic value of flood forecasts. This presentation describes a more realistic framework for assessing the economic value of such forecasts for flood mitigation purposes. Borrowing from economics, the Constant Absolute Risk Aversion utility function (CARA) is the central tool of this new framework. Utility functions allow explicitly accounting for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker and fully exploiting the information related to ensemble forecasts' uncertainty. Three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared in terms of quality (comparison with

  8. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard; Garnett, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  9. Regional sustainability in Northern Australia. A quantitative assessment of social, economic and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia); Industrial Ecology Program, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Integrated Sustainability Analysis, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Garnett, Stephen [School for Environmental Research, Charles Darwin University, NT 0909 (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    This paper seeks to provide a picture of sustainability of the Northern Territory by analysing a number of sustainability indicators across indigenous status and remoteness class. The paper seeks to extend current socio-economic statistics and analysis by including environmental considerations in a 'triple bottom line' or 'sustainability assessment' approach. Further, a life-cycle approach is employed for a number of indicators so that both direct and indirect impacts are considered where applicable. Whereas urban populations are generally doing better against most quantitative economic and social indicators, environmental indicators show the opposite, reflecting the increasing market-based environmental impacts of urban populations. As we seek to value these environmental impacts appropriately, it would be beneficial to start incorporating these results in policy and planning. (author)

  10. Interactive model to assess economics of anaerobic digestion of the farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    An interactive computer model, to provide economic assessment for on the farm anaerobic digestion systems was designed. The model is accessed as part of the MASEC Models Library. It consists of two phases: engineering analysis and economic analysis. User inputs are stored in a data base and may be retained for future use. Model outputs include a recap of user inputs, calculations for gas production, digester heat requirements, system revenues, yearly cash flow, and a graph of the net present value of the investment. The model is generalized so that nonfarm applications may also be analyzed. The program will work equally well for various digester designs such as continuously stirred reactors, plug flow systems, and fluidized bed columns.

  11. Regulatory Assessment of the Effects of Economic Deregulation of the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The European Commission Nuclear Regulators Working Group (NRWG) appointed a Task Force (TF) to develop a common view among European regulators on the assessment of typical safety consequences resulting from economic pressure on operators as a result of deregulation of electricity markets. Although the report seems to imply that there are only negative aspects of deregulation, this is not the case. As the focus of the TF has been potential safety consequences we have not dealt with potential positive effects of deregulation. To provide a general background to the analyses of the safety consequences, the TF undertook a survey of the current situation within the EU and candidate countries on aspects of economic deregulation of the countries nuclear industry and the experiences so far of regulating these issues. Answers were submitted in of July 2001. 13 NRWG members with nuclear power plants took part in the survey. (author)

  12. Techno-economic assessment of novel vanadium redox flow batteries with large-area cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a promising electrochemical storage system for stationary megawatt-class applications. The currently limited cell area determined by the bipolar plate (BPP) could be enlarged significantly with a novel extruded large-area plate. For the first time a techno-economic assessment of VRFB in a power range of 1 MW-20 MW and energy capacities of up to 160 MWh is presented on the basis of the production cost model of large-area BPP. The economic model is based on the configuration of a 250 kW stack and the overall system including stacks, power electronics, electrolyte and auxiliaries. Final results include a simple function for the calculation of system costs within the above described scope. In addition, the impact of cost reduction potentials for key components (membrane, electrode, BPP, vanadium electrolyte) on stack and system costs is quantified and validated.

  13. Assessing economic impacts of China's water pollution mitigation measures through a dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Changbo; Jia Yangwen; Wang Hao; Bressers, Hans T A; Su, Z

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, we apply an extended environmental dynamic computable general equilibrium model to assess the economic consequences of implementing a total emission control policy. On the basis of emission levels in 2007, we simulate different emission reduction scenarios, ranging from 20 to 50% emission reduction, up to the year 2020. The results indicate that a modest total emission reduction target in 2020 can be achieved at low macroeconomic cost. As the stringency of policy targets increases, the macroeconomic cost will increase at a rate faster than linear. Implementation of a tradable emission permit system can counterbalance the economic costs affecting the gross domestic product and welfare. We also find that a stringent environmental policy can lead to an important shift in production, consumption and trade patterns from dirty sectors to relatively clean sectors.

  14. Technical and economic assessment of processes for the production of butanol and acetone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    This report represents a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of a process which produces mixed solvents (butaol/acetone/ethanol) via fermentation of sugars derived from renewable biomass resources. The objective is to assess the technology of producing butanol/acetone from biomass, and select a viable process capable of serving as a base case model for technical and economic analysis. It is anticipated that the base case process developed herein can then be used as the basis for subsequent studies concerning biomass conversion processes capable of producing a wide range of chemicals. The general criteria utilized in determining the design basis for the process are profit potential and non-renewable energy displacement potential. The feedstock chosen, aspen wood, was selected from a number of potential renewable biomass resources as the most readily available in the United States and for its relatively large potential for producing reducing sugars.

  15. Overall performance assessment of a combined cycle power plant: An exergo-economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ahmet Z.; Al-Sharafi, Abdullah; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Khaliq, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An exergo-economic analysis is carried out for a combined cycle power plant. • An overall performance index (OPI) is defined to analyze the power plant. • Four performance indicators and three scenarios are considered in the analysis. • The optimum configuration of the power plant differs for each scenarios considered. - Abstract: An exergo-economic analysis is carried out for a combined cycle power plant using the first law and the second law of thermodynamics, and the economic principles while incorporating GT PRO/PEACE Software Packages. An overall performance index (OPI) is defined to assess and analyze the optimum operational and design configurations of the power plant. Four performance indicators are considered for the analysis; namely, energy efficiency (ENE), exergy efficiency (EXE), levelized cost of electricity (COE), and the total investment (TI) cost. Three possible scenarios are considered in which different weight factor is assigned to the performance indicators when assessing the performance. These scenarios are: (i) the conventional case in which the levelized cost of electricity is given a high priority, (ii) environmental conscious case in which the exergy efficiency is given a high priority, and (iii) the economical case in which the total cost of investment is given a high priority. It is shown that the optimum size and the configuration of the power plant differ for each scenarios considered. The selection and optimization of the size and configuration of the power plant are found to be depending on the user priorities and the weight factors assigned to the performance indicators.

  16. A framework for assessing Health Economic Evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Astrid

    2012-08-16

    Health economic evaluations support the health care decision-making process by providing information on costs and consequences of health interventions. The quality of such studies is assessed by health economic evaluation (HEE) quality appraisal instruments. At present, there is no instrument for measuring and improving the quality of such HEE quality appraisal instruments. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to establish a framework for assessing the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments to support and improve their quality, and to apply this framework to those HEE quality appraisal instruments which have been subject to more scrutiny than others, in order to test the framework and to demonstrate the shortcomings of existing HEE quality appraisal instruments. To develop the quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments, the experiences of using appraisal tools for clinical guidelines are used. Based on a deductive iterative process, clinical guideline appraisal instruments identified through literature search are reviewed, consolidated, and adapted to produce the final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments. The final quality assessment framework for HEE quality appraisal instruments consists of 36 items organized within 7 dimensions, each of which captures a specific domain of quality. Applying the quality assessment framework to four existing HEE quality appraisal instruments, it is found that these four quality appraisal instruments are of variable quality. The framework described in this study should be regarded as a starting point for appraising the quality of HEE quality appraisal instruments. This framework can be used by HEE quality appraisal instrument producers to support and improve the quality and acceptance of existing and future HEE quality appraisal instruments. By applying this framework, users of HEE quality appraisal instruments can become aware of methodological deficiencies

  17. Methods of assessing functioning of organizational and economic mechanism during innovation process implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinkov Maksim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes methods of assessing the efficiency of organizational and economic mechanism of an industrial enterprise when implementing innovation processes. These methods allow continuous monitoring at all stages of innovation process implementation, lead to reduction in costs of innovation activity and enable maximum use of the creative potential of enterprise personnel. The significance and attractiveness of this method is ensured by the fact that it can be applied by industrial companies in any market fields regardless of the lifecycle stage applicable to the studied goods, company and/or innovative process because the composition and the number of specific indicators can be adjusted by the work group both before the study and in the course of the company’s innovative activities (at any stage of their implementation. The multi-sided approach proposed for assessing the efficiency of organizational and economic mechanism of the industrial enterprise when implementing innovation processes ensures full and accurate assessment of the impact of certain factors on the final result.

  18. Accuracy, precision, and economic efficiency for three methods of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) population density assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Andrew M; Parrella, Michael P

    2011-08-01

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a major horticultural pest and an important vector of plant viruses in many parts of the world. Methods for assessing thrips population density for pest management decision support are often inaccurate or imprecise due to thrips' positive thigmotaxis, small size, and naturally aggregated populations. Two established methods, flower tapping and an alcohol wash, were compared with a novel method, plant desiccation coupled with passive trapping, using accuracy, precision and economic efficiency as comparative variables. Observed accuracy was statistically similar and low (37.8-53.6%) for all three methods. Flower tapping was the least expensive method, in terms of person-hours, whereas the alcohol wash method was the most expensive. Precision, expressed by relative variation, depended on location within the greenhouse, location on greenhouse benches, and the sampling week, but it was generally highest for the flower tapping and desiccation methods. Economic efficiency, expressed by relative net precision, was highest for the flower tapping method and lowest for the alcohol wash method. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed for all three methods used. If relative density assessment methods such as these can all be assumed to accurately estimate a constant proportion of absolute density, then high precision becomes the methodological goal in terms of measuring insect population density, decision making for pest management, and pesticide efficacy assessments.

  19. Assessment of the economic costs of damage caused by air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Cost-benefit analysis is one of the fundamental tools for the development of economic instruments for pollution control. The costs of various abatement measures are reasonably well characterised. However, assessment of the economic costs of pollutant impacts is less well developed. This paper reports on two studies carried out for DGXII of the European Commission, the ExternE-Project and the Green Accounting Research Project. Both studies have been performed by international, multi-disciplinary research teams. Analysis of the effects of emissions of PM 10 , SO 2 , NO x and VOCs (as ozone precursors) has included assessment of human health, materials, crops and other terrestrial ecosystems, and freshwater fisheries. The analysis follows the 'impact pathway' approach, linking dose-response functions, valuation data and other models. It differs significantly to earlier 'top-down' approaches that made only very limited use of the wealth of scientific data available. Most success has been achieved in analysis of impacts on human health, building materials and crops. Significant uncertainties exist for these receptors, though these have been identified and are now being addressed. Assessment of impacts on other receptors, perhaps most notably forests, is more limited. The methodology is particularly applicable for analysis of impacts on receptors for which the critical loads approach is not appropriate. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Institutional Design for Strategic Environmental Assessment on Urban Economic and Social Development Planning in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Guojun; Zhou Li; Zhang Lei

    2011-01-01

    The National Economic and Social Development Plans (NESDPs) of cities in China, given their comprehensive, integrated and strategic nature, have significant and profound impacts on the development of cities and their embedded ecological environments. Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) on city NESDPs have the potential to improve environmental policy integration at strategic level and to safeguard the sustainable development of cities. However, these plans are normally exempted from the current SEA requirement in China. We argue that it is more feasible to apply SEAs on city NESDPs before SEAs are expanded to higher level NESDPs in China. This article attempts to propose a China-specific institutional design for SEAs on city NESDPs based on experiments in selected cities and within the current legal framework. To obtain a holistic view about the long-term development of cities, more qualitative and descriptive analysis-based assessment methods should be adopted to broaden participation, to encourage the exchange of information and to reach consensus. - Highlights: → National Economic and Social Development Plans for Cities (NESDPs) in China is a very popular and significant decision made by municipal government. → We propose a institutional framework to conduct strategic environmental assessment to NESDPs. → The key features of the institutional framework are the independent SEA approval committee and a professional consulting agency.

  1. Future developments and technological and economic assessment of methods for producing synthetic liquid fuel from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlikhter, E B; Khor' kov, A V; Zhorov, Yu M

    1980-11-01

    Promising methods for obtaining synthetic liquid fuel from coal are surveyed and described: thermal dissolution of coal by means of a hydrogen donor solution: hydrogenation; gasification with subsequent synthesis and pyrolysis. A technological and economic assessment of the above processes is given. Emphasis is placed on methods employing catalytic conversion of methanol into hydrocarbon fuels. On the basis of thermodynamic calculations of the process for obtaining high-calorific liquid fuel from methanol the possibility of obtaining diesel fractions as well as gasoline is demonstrated. (12 refs.) (In Russian)

  2. Comparative environmental and economic assessment of production, use and recycling of aluminium cans: Bologna vs Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Princigallo, Raffaele; Visini, Davide; Bonoli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    in the integrated LCA -LCC analysis. The comparative analysis of aluminium cans production, use, collection and recycling in the two systems showed that the best option from an environmental point of view is also leading to higher costs and trade - offs need to be considered in the decision making process....... and Copenhagen. We performed a combined Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Costing (LCC) analysis of the purchasing, production and wa ste management of beer aluminium cans, with the aim to compare the environmental and economic performances of the two systems and to identify potential misalignment...

  3. State of the art for assessing the off-side economic consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Diaz, E.

    1996-01-01

    The paper is intended to offer a wide perspective on th methodologies for assessing the off-side economic consequences of nuclear accidents. The element which can contribute to the cost are first reviewed, namely the application of countermeasures against radioactive contamination: population movements, decontamination, food bans; together with the resulting health effects if this is the case. The basic characteristics of the existing models and codes are also presented, including the most recent developments and intercomparisons of results. Some applications of this kind of studies in different fields are outlined. (Author) 17 refs

  4. Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mustafizur Rahman

    2017-03-01

      Keywords: GHG emission, cost of electricity, off-grid, wind energy, electricity generation. Article History: Received October 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 26th 2017; Accepted February 4th 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Rahman, M.M., Baky, M.A.H, and Islam, A.K.M.S. (2017 Electricity from Wind for Off-Grid Applications in Bangladesh: A Techno-Economic Assessment. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.55-64

  5. Organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the region: comparative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Igorevna Antipina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes the approach to evaluate the organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the regions in quantitative and qualitative indicators, as well as the method to calculate the assessment of regulatory support of this activity. It justifies the author’s approach of comparative efficiency evaluation of innovation legislation and regions’ innovation development level. The article gives the qualitative estimation of regulatory support of innovation development in the regions that are innovation leaders. It singles out key directions to develop regulatory support of innovation activity, which encourage RF subjects’ innovation activity

  6. Proceedings of the second international conference on environmental impact assessment of all economical activities. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the conference consist of 3 volumes: Vol. 1 - 'Environmental Impact Assessment of all Economical Activities including Industry'; Vol. 2 - 'Air Pollution Control and Prevention'; Vol. 3 - Waste Management and Environmental Problems in Construction Industry'. Out of 39 papers contained in Vol. 3, 3 were inputted to INIS. They deal with the use of portable radioisotope X-ray fluorescence analyzers in the determination of building material contamination by toxic elements, with underground waste repositories and ground water contamination, and the impact of the Temelin nuclear power plant on the hydrosphere and other environmental components. (Z.S.)

  7. Assessment of the Economic Potential of Distributed Wind in Colorado, Minnesota, and New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    This work seeks to identify current and future spatial distributions of economic potential for behind-the-meter distributed wind, serving primarily rural or suburban homes, farms, and manufacturing facilities in Colorado, Minnesota, and New York. These states were identified by technical experts based on their current favorability for distributed wind deployment. We use NREL's Distributed Wind Market Demand Model (dWind) (Lantz et al. 2017; Sigrin et al. 2016) to identify and rank counties in each of the states by their overall and per capita potential. From this baseline assessment, we also explore how and where improvements in cost, performance, and other market sensitivities affect distributed wind potential.

  8. Assessing the impact of the Nitrate Directive on farming systems using a bio-economic modelling chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belhouchette, H.; Louhichi, K.; Therond, O.; Mouratiadou, I.; Wery, J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Flichman, G.

    2011-01-01

    Bio-economic models can be used to assess the impact of policy and environmental measures through economic and environmental indicators. Focusing on agricultural systems, farmers’ decisions in terms of cropping systems and the associated crop management at field scale are essential in such studies.

  9. Economic assessment of RFID coupled with open source technologies for wood traceability in Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperandio G

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess the economic sustainability of the implementation of a wood traceability system in Calabria based on RFID and open source technologies. We identified a break-even point in its implementation under different scenarios in order to highlight the economic sustainability limits, expressed in terms of m3 or tons of processed product. The results showed that the use of RFID technology along the supply chain could lead to an effective operational simplification and to a more efficient use of resources. Based on the average market prices for timber (80-120 € / m3, the implementation of RFID technology led to an increase in timber price by 8% under the worst scenarios. This suggests that the use of open source technologies for wood traceability is already feasible and economically sustainable, as 40% of private companies stated their willingness to pay a premium price (on average 3.25% higher for purchasing certified local wood products in Calabria. Moreover, we expect a further reduction of tags and hardware costs in the next future, up to half the costs estimated in this work, thus making the application of such technology to timber traceability even more affordable.

  10. Economical assessment of a wind-hydrogen energy system using WindHyGen registered software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, Monica; Ayerbe, Elixabete; Garde, Raquel; Rivas, David M.; Azcarate, Cristina; Blanco, Rosa; Mallor, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of analyzing the economical feasibility of a wind-hydrogen energy storage and transformation system. Energy systems based on certain renewable sources as wind power, have the drawback of random input making them a non-reliable supplier of energy. Regulation of output energy requires the introduction of new equipment with the capacity to store it. We have chosen the hydrogen as an energy storage system due to its versatility. The advantage of these energy storage systems is that the energy can be used (sold) when the demand for energy rises, and needs (prices) therefore are higher. There are two disadvantages: (a) the cost of the new equipment and (b) energy loss due to inefficiencies in the transformation processes. In this research we develop a simulation model to aid in the economic assessment of this type of energy systems, which also integrates an optimization phase to simulate optimal management policies. Finally we analyze a wind-hydrogen farm in order to determine its economical viability compared to current wind farms. (author)

  11. Integrating System Dynamic and Fuzzy Logic for Economic Assessment of BOT Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnad Nasirzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The selection of the most appropriate project for the investment is one of the most important decisions that should be made by the private investors. This problem is of vital importance in BOT projects, where the total investment as well as the investor's profit should be recovered by the project's income. There are several approaches proposed by the researchers to determine the best economical project in comparison to other projects. The previous researches, however, faced with some major defects. As an example, the effects of various factors affecting the project evaluation process as well as the existing risks and uncertainties are not taken into account. In this research, economic assessment of BOT projects is performed by integrating system dynamic simulation approach and fuzzy logic. For this purpose, first the project's NPV is modeled considering all the influencing factors qualitatively. The relationships that exist between different factors are then determined and the quantitative model is built. Using the developed model, the value of NPV is simulated considering the effects of all the influencing factors and the existing uncertainties. Finally, the value of project's NPV is determined as a triangular fuzzy number. Finally, the best alternative project is selected by comparing the simulated values of NPV. To evaluate the capabilities and performance of the proposed model, the project economical evaluation is performed for two highway projects and the best project is selected.

  12. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  13. Integration of Microalgae-Based Bioenergy Production into a Petrochemical Complex: Techno-Economic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of modern society has resulted in an increased demand for energy, mainly from fossil fuels. The use of this source of energy has led to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the atmosphere. In this context, microalgae culturing may be an effective solution to reduce the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, since these microorganisms can capture CO2 and, simultaneously, produce bioenergy. This work consists of a techno-economic assessment of a microalgal production facility integrated in a petrochemical complex, in which established infrastructure allows efficient material and energy transport. Seven different scenarios were considered regarding photosynthetic, lipids extraction and anaerobic digestion efficiencies. This analysis has demonstrated six economically viable scenarios able to: (i reduce CO2 emissions from a thermoelectric power plant; (ii treat domestic wastewaters (which were used as culture medium; and (iii produce lipids and electrical and thermal energy. For a 100-ha facility, considering a photosynthetic efficiency of 3%, a lipids extraction efficiency of 75% and an anaerobic digestion efficiency of 45% (scenario 3, an economically viable process was obtained (net present value of 22.6 million euros, being effective in both CO2 removal (accounting for 1.1 × 104 t per year and energy production (annual energy produced was 1.6 × 107 kWh and annual lipids productivity was 1.9 × 103 m3.

  14. Assessing the Previous Economic Knowledge of Beginning Students in Germany: Implications for Teaching Economics in Basic Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Roland; Förster, Manuel; Zlatkin-Troitschanskaia, Olga; Carstensen, Vivian

    2016-01-01

    Study-related prior knowledge plays a decisive role in business and economics degree courses. Prior knowledge has a significant influence on knowledge acquisition in higher education, and teachers need information on it to plan their introductory courses accordingly. Very few studies have been conducted of first-year students' prior economic…

  15. Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2010-05-01

    Assessment of economically optimal water management and geospatial potential for large-scale water storage Weerasinghe, Harshi; Schneider, Uwe A Water is an essential but limited and vulnerable resource for all socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. Water scarcity accelerated due to population expansion, improved living standards, and rapid growth in economic activities, has profound environmental and social implications. These include severe environmental degradation, declining groundwater levels, and increasing problems of water conflicts. Water scarcity is predicted to be one of the key factors limiting development in the 21st century. Climate scientists have projected spatial and temporal changes in precipitation and changes in the probability of intense floods and droughts in the future. As scarcity of accessible and usable water increases, demand for efficient water management and adaptation strategies increases as well. Addressing water scarcity requires an intersectoral and multidisciplinary approach in managing water resources. This would in return safeguard the social welfare and the economical benefit to be at their optimal balance without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems. This paper presents a geographically explicit method to assess the potential for water storage with reservoirs and a dynamic model that identifies the dimensions and material requirements under an economically optimal water management plan. The methodology is applied to the Elbe and Nile river basins. Input data for geospatial analysis at watershed level are taken from global data repositories and include data on elevation, rainfall, soil texture, soil depth, drainage, land use and land cover; which are then downscaled to 1km spatial resolution. Runoff potential for different combinations of land use and hydraulic soil groups and for mean annual precipitation levels are derived by the SCS-CN method. Using the overlay and decision tree algorithms

  16. Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2014-05-01

    Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling

  17. Assessment of economic benefits and costs of marine managed areas in Hawaii, 1998 - 2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  18. Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in Hawaii 1998-2003 (NODC Accession 0001756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset combines the research results from a number of papers carried out under the study "Assessment of Economic Benefits and Costs of Marine Managed Areas in...

  19. An assessment of the economic and environmental implications for Canada of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The National Climate Change Process was launched in April 1998 to examine the feasibility and implications of Canada's commitment to the Kyoto Protocol. The Analysis Modelling Group (AMG) was designated to assess the economic and environmental consequences for Canada in achieving the target. This report summarizes the analytical approach, the assumptions, the results and the main findings of the AMG's efforts to analyse the macro-/micro-economic, social, health and environmental implications of the Kyoto Protocol. The role of the AMG was to provide policymakers with guidance on some issues such as the economic implications of different broad policy approaches, the potential costs of greater access to the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms, the sectoral and regional distributions of emissions reductions, and the degree to which Canada's competitive position could be affected by the achievement of the Protocol. The relative importance of greenhouse gas reduction was also discussed along with a review of actions that offer significant potential for emissions reductions. The AMG examined five policy packages or Paths which are differentiated by different degrees of reliance on specific measures and tradable permit systems and by the imposition of sectoral versus national targets. It was concluded that at the national level, attainment of the target results in sustained, long-term negative economic impacts. In the long run, the reduction in gross domestic product (GDP) relative to the business-as-usual case, ranges from 0 to 3 per cent depending on the path-scenario combination. It was emphasized that it is important to provide perspective on these estimates. 37 refs., 64 figs

  20. Assessment of private economic benefits and positive environmental externalities of tea plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hui; Ren, Xiaoyi; Li, Shiyu; Wu, Xu; Cheng, Hao; Xu, Bin; Gu, Baojing; Yang, Guofu; Peng, Changhui; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    Tea plantations are rapidly expanding in China and other countries in the tropical and subtropical zones, driven by relatively high private economic benefit. However, the impact of tea plantations on the regional environment, including ecosystem services and disservices are unclear. In this study, we developed an assessment framework for determining the private economic benefits and environmental externalities (the algebraic sum of the regulating services and disservices) of tea plantations in China. Our results showed that tea plantations provided private economic benefits of 5,652 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) (7.6 yuan = 1 USD in 2007) for tea farmers, plus positive environmental externalities of 6,054 yuan ha(-1) year(-1) for the society. The environmental externalities were calculated as the sum of the value of four regulating services, including carbon sequestration (392 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil retention (72 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)); soil fertility protection (3,189 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and water conservation (2,685 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), and three disservices, including CO2 emission (-39 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)), N2O emission (-137 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)) and nonpoint source pollution (-108 yuan ha(-1) year(-1)). Before the private optimal level, the positive environmental externalities can be maintained by private economic benefits; if a social optimal level is required, subsidies from government are necessary.

  1. Dairy foods and osteoporosis: an example of assessing the health-economic impact of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, F J B; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Fardellone, P; Rizzoli, R; Rocher, E; Poley, M J

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a major health concern, carrying a substantial burden in terms of health outcomes and costs. We constructed a model to quantify the potential effect of an additional intake of calcium from dairy foods on the risk of osteoporotic fracture, taking a health economics perspective. This study seeks, first, to estimate the impact of an increased dairy consumption on reducing the burden of osteoporosis in terms of health outcomes and costs, and, second, to contribute to a generic methodology for assessing the health-economic outcomes of food products. We constructed a model that generated the number of hip fractures that potentially can be prevented with dairy foods intakes, and then calculated costs avoided, considering the healthcare costs of hip fractures and the costs of additional dairy foods, as well as the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures associated with low nutritional calcium intake. Separate analyses were done for The Netherlands, France, and Sweden, three countries with different levels of dairy products consumption. The number of hip fractures that may potentially be prevented each year with additional dairy products was highest in France (2,023), followed by Sweden (455) and The Netherlands (132). The yearly number of DALYs lost was 6,263 for France, 1,246 for Sweden, and 374 for The Netherlands. The corresponding total costs that might potentially be avoided are about 129 million, 34 million, and 6 million Euros, in these countries, respectively. This study quantified the potential nutrition economic impact of increased dairy consumption on osteoporotic fractures, building connections between the fields of nutrition and health economics. Future research should further collect longitudinal population data for documenting the net benefits of increasing dairy consumption on bone health and on the related utilization of healthcare resources.

  2. Life cycle assessment of biochar systems: estimating the energetic, economic, and climate change potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kelli G; Gloy, Brent A; Joseph, Stephen; Scott, Norman R; Lehmann, Johannes

    2010-01-15

    Biomass pyrolysis with biochar returned to soil is a possible strategy for climate change mitigation and reducing fossil fuel consumption. Pyrolysis with biochar applied to soils results in four coproducts: long-term carbon (C) sequestration from stable C in the biochar, renewable energy generation, biochar as a soil amendment, and biomass waste management. Life cycle assessment was used to estimate the energy and climate change impacts and the economics of biochar systems. The feedstocks analyzed represent agricultural residues (corn stover), yard waste, and switchgrass energy crops. The net energy of the system is greatest with switchgrass (4899 MJ t(-1) dry feedstock). The net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for both stover and yard waste are negative, at -864 and -885 kg CO(2) equivalent (CO(2)e) emissions reductions per tonne dry feedstock, respectively. Of these total reductions, 62-66% are realized from C sequestration in the biochar. The switchgrass biochar-pyrolysis system can be a net GHG emitter (+36 kg CO(2)e t(-1) dry feedstock), depending on the accounting method for indirect land-use change impacts. The economic viability of the pyrolysis-biochar system is largely dependent on the costs of feedstock production, pyrolysis, and the value of C offsets. Biomass sources that have a need for waste management such as yard waste have the highest potential for economic profitability (+$69 t(-1) dry feedstock when CO(2)e emission reductions are valued at $80 t(-1) CO(2)e). The transportation distance for feedstock creates a significant hurdle to the economic profitability of biochar-pyrolysis systems. Biochar may at present only deliver climate change mitigation benefits and be financially viable as a distributed system using waste biomass.

  3. An Assessment of the Economic Potential of Offshore Wind in the United States from 2015 to 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiter, Philipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kilcher, Levi [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maness, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This study describes an assessment of the spatial variation of levelized cost of energy (LCOE) and levelized avoided cost of energy to understand the economic viability of fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind technologies across major U.S. coastal areas between 2015 and 2030. In particular, this study offers insights into the available offshore wind resource by region at different levels of LCOE and an assessment of the economically viable resource capacity in the United States.

  4. Solar-generated steam for oil recovery: Reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Joel; Fowler, Garrett; Cheng, Kris; Kovscek, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated assessment of solar thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). • Analyses of reservoir performance, economics, and life cycle factors. • High solar fraction scenarios show economic viability for TEOR. • Continuous variable-rate steam injection meets the benchmarks set by conventional steam flood. - Abstract: The viability of solar thermal steam generation for thermal enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) in heavy-oil sands was evaluated using San Joaquin Valley, CA data. The effectiveness of solar TEOR was quantified through reservoir simulation, economic analysis, and life-cycle assessment. Reservoir simulations with continuous but variable rate steam injection were compared with a base-case Tulare Sand steamflood project. For equivalent average injection rates, comparable breakthrough times and recovery factors of 65% of the original oil in place were predicted, in agreement with simulations in the literature. Daily cyclic fluctuations in steam injection rate do not greatly impact recovery. Oil production rates do, however, show seasonal variation. Economic viability was established using historical prices and injection/production volumes from the Kern River oil field. For comparison, this model assumes that present day steam generation technologies were implemented at TEOR startup in 1980. All natural gas cogeneration and 100% solar fraction scenarios had the largest and nearly equal net present values (NPV) of $12.54 B and $12.55 B, respectively. Solar fraction refers to the steam provided by solar steam generation. Given its large capital cost, the 100% solar case shows the greatest sensitivity to discount rate and no sensitivity to natural gas price. Because there are very little emissions associated with day-to-day operations from the solar thermal system, life-cycle emissions are significantly lower than conventional systems even when the embodied energy of the structure is considered. We estimate that less than 1 g of CO 2 /MJ of refined

  5. Trends And Economic Assessment Of Integration Processes At The Metal Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discussed the integration process from the perspective of three dimensions that characterize the corresponding increase in the number and appearance of new relationships; strength, character, and stability of emerging communications; dynamics and the appropriate form of the process. In the article, trends of development of integration processes in metallurgy are identified, identification of five stages of development in Russian metal trading are justified. We propose a step by step way to implement the integration process, developed a methodical approach to assessing the feasibility of economic integration processes steel producers and steel traders, including three consecutive stages of its implementing respectively, the principles of reflexive control, entropy approach, the traditional assessment of mergers and acquisitions. The algorithm for the practical realization of the author’s approach, which allows to identify the optimal trajectory of the integration process as a series of horizontal and vertical integration steps is developed.

  6. Economic assessment of an emerging disease: the case of Schmallenberg virus in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waret-Szkuta, A; Alarcon, P; Hasler, B; Rushton, J; Corbière, F; Raboisson, D

    2017-04-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) was first detected in 2011 in Germany and then in France in 2012. This study simulates the production of different ruminant systems in France and estimates, through partial budget analyses, the economic cost of SBV at the farm level, under two disease scenarios (a high-impact and low-impact scenario). A partial budget is used to evaluate the financial effect of incremental changes, and includes only resources or production that will be changed. In the high-impact scenario, the estimated impact of SBV ranged from €23 to €43 per cow per year and €19 to €37 per ewe per year. In the low-impact scenario, it was approximately half (for cows) or one-third (for ewes) of this amount. These financial impacts represent 0.6% to 63% of the gross margin, depending on the chosen scenario and the livestock system being considered. The impacts of SBV come mainly from: the extra costs from purchasing and raising replacement heifers and losses in milk production (dairy cows); the losses in calf or lamb production (beef systems and meat sheep); and the losses in milk production and from unsold replacement lambs (dairy sheep). The use of integrated production and economic models enabled the authors to estimate the cost of SBV and to tackle the problem of scarce data, which is a difficulty for most emerging diseases, by their very nature. It also allowed the authors to develop an accurate disease impact assessment for several production systems, over a short time span. Extrapolating from this economic assessment to predict the scenario in coming years depends on the immunity period of the disease and the length of the production cycles.

  7. Assessment of socio-economic potential of regions for placement of the logistic infrastructure objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nelevich Rakhmangulov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, at the regional markets, there is a disproportion between the growing demand for transportation and logistics services and the availability of facilities needed for their implementation, which is because the high logistics costs and does not meet the strategic objectives of the country to create a common economic space. The article describes the system of market factors that have the most significant influence on the distribution of logistics facilities. Study and evaluation of potential changes in the region of logistics facility disposition are proposed to perform using simulation techniques and statistical data analysis. The article presents the engineered multivariate statistical models that control the kind and effect of correlation between socio-economic development factors of regions, as well as a simulation model, which allows to assess the dynamics of these factors and predict demand for logistics infrastructure facilities. The choice of region (subject dislocation of the logistics center is proposed to realize by the developed technique based on the calculation of the integrated index that takes into account differences in the level of socio-economic and infrastructural development of the regions. This technique in conjunction with a simulation model is applicable to a variety of administrative and territorial levels (region, city and allows to take into account both the current demand in the logistics infrastructure and demand dynamics. The technique given in the article can be used to assess the level of attractiveness of the Russian Federation in the development of public and private investment projects for the development of logistics infrastructure

  8. Technical and Economic Assessment of Solar Photovoltaic for Groundwater Extraction on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackley, Rob D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Thomle, Jonathan N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The overall goal of environmental remediation is to protect human health and the environment. Implementing renewable energy sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV) in groundwater extraction and pump-and-treat (P&T) systems may help minimize the environmental footprint of remediation efforts. The first step in considering solar PV for powering Hanford groundwater extraction is assessing the technical and economic feasibility and identifying potential target locations where implementation would be most successful. Accordingly, a techno-economic assessment of solar PV for Hanford groundwater extraction was completed in FY15. Multiple solar PV alternatives ranging in size from 1.2 to 22.4 kWp DC were evaluated and compared against traditional grid-powered systems. Results indicate that the degree to which solar PV alternatives are feasible is primarily a function of the distance of avoided power cable costs and the inclusion of an energy storage component. Standalone solar PV systems provide an energy source at the well and avoid the costs and logistics associated with running long lengths of expensive power cable to the well-head. When solar PV systems include a battery storage component, groundwater can be pumped continuously day and night in a year-round schedule. However, due to the high cost premium of the energy storage component, a fully solar-powered solution could not provide an economic direct replacement for line-powered pumping systems. As a result, the most ideal target locations for successful implementation of solar PV on the Hanford Site are remote or distant extraction wells where the primary remedial objective is contaminant mass removal (as opposed to hydraulic containment) and three-season (March through October) intermittent pumping is acceptable (e.g. remediation of hexavalent chromium in 200-UP-1).

  9. A preliminary social and economic assessment of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.; York, K.; Wood, M.; Radford, L.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This assessment involved assembling a comprehensive data base for the local Tri-Cities impact area and the surrounding region, establishing a network of local and regional contacts, making preliminary judgments about potential social impacts caused by the proposed repository, and recommending further research. This report concludes that growth effects under the anticipated work force scenario are expected to be relatively minor. With a strong public involvement program on the part of the project developers, including an ongoing dialogue with local and regional planners, potential socio-economic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Specific recommendations are made for filling gaps in the available data, exploring key issues in more detail, and improving the analysis of social impacts. The report was prepared by the Battelle-Human Affairs Research Center in 1980 and 1981

  10. [Contextual indicators to assess social determinants of health and the Spanish economic recession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-León, Andrés; Daponte Codina, Antonio; Mateo, Inmaculada; Arroyo-Borrell, Elena; Bartoll, Xavier; Bravo, María José; Domínguez-Berjón, María Felicitas; Renart, Gemma; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Bolívar Muñoz, Julia; Saez, Marc; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Palència, Laia; López, María José; Saurina, Carme; Puig, Vanessa; Martín, Unai; Gotsens, Mercè; Borrell, Carme; Serra Saurina, Laura; Sordo, Luis; Bacigalupe, Amaia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Ruiz, Miguel; Bernal, Mariola

    To provide indicators to assess the impact on health, its social determinants and health inequalities from a social context and the recent economic recession in Spain and its autonomous regions. Based on the Spanish conceptual framework for determinants of social inequalities in health, we identified indicators sequentially from key documents, Web of Science, and organisations with official statistics. The information collected resulted in a large directory of indicators which was reviewed by an expert panel. We then selected a set of these indicators according to geographical (availability of data according to autonomous regions) and temporal (from at least 2006 to 2012) criteria. We identified 203 contextual indicators related to social determinants of health and selected 96 (47%) based on the above criteria; 16% of the identified indicators did not satisfy the geographical criteria and 35% did not satisfy the temporal criteria. At least 80% of the indicators related to dependence and healthcare services were excluded. The final selection of indicators covered all areas for social determinants of health, and 62% of these were not available on the Internet. Around 40% of the indicators were extracted from sources related to the Spanish Statistics Institute. We have provided an extensive directory of contextual indicators on social determinants of health and a database to facilitate assessment of the impact of the economic recession on health and health inequalities in Spain and its autonomous regions. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. A new economic assessment index for the impact of climate change on grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming; Feng, Guolin

    2007-03-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community. This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional “yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)” or “yield impact of weather factor” to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore, the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China, and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  12. Development and Application of Urban Landslide Vulnerability Assessment Methodology Reflecting Social and Economic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonkyung Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An urban landslide vulnerability assessment methodology is proposed with major focus on considering urban social and economic aspects. The proposed methodology was developed based on the landslide susceptibility maps that Korean Forest Service utilizes to identify landslide source areas. Frist, debris flows are propagated to urban areas from such source areas by Flow-R (flow path assessment of gravitational hazards at a regional scale, and then urban vulnerability is assessed by two categories: physical and socioeconomic aspect. The physical vulnerability is related to buildings that can be impacted by a landslide event. This study considered two popular building structure types, reinforced-concrete frame and nonreinforced-concrete frame, to assess the physical vulnerability. The socioeconomic vulnerability is considered a function of the resistant levels of the vulnerable people, trigger factor of secondary damage, and preparedness level of the local government. An index-based model is developed to evaluate the life and indirect damage under landslide as well as the resilience ability against disasters. To illustrate the validity of the proposed methodology, physical and socioeconomic vulnerability levels are analyzed for Seoul, Korea, using the suggested approach. The general trend found in this study indicates that the higher population density areas under a weaker fiscal condition that are located at the downstream of mountainous areas are more vulnerable than the areas in opposite conditions.

  13. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  14. Outage Risk Assessment and Management (ORAM) technology to improve outage safety and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalra, S.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken an aggressive program, called ORAM (Outage Risk Assessment and Management), to provide utilities with tools and technology to assist in managing risk during the planning and conduct of outages. The ORAM program consists of the following 6 steps: i) Perform utility surveys and visits on shutdown risk management needs, ii) Perform probabilistic shutdown safety assessments (PSSAs) to identify generic insights that can be incorporated into risk management guidelines and identify selected areas for the development of contingency actions, iii) Develop risk management guidelines (RMG's) that provide a systematic approach to the planning and conduct of outages from a safety perspective. Incorporate insights from the shutdown safety assessments and other operating experience into the RMG's. iv) Develop selected contingency actions including a thermalhydraulic tool kit to address higher risk time periods and activities identified in the shutdown safety assessments, v) Develop computer software that integrates all of the above capability into an easy to use tool for effective shutdown operation management for utilities, vi) Provide assistance in the transfer of this technology and the application of these tools. This paper briefly describes the technical approach and tools developed under EPRI's ORAM program and its applications for improving outage safety and economics. (author)

  15. Expansion of environmental impact assessment for eco-efficiency evaluation of China's economic sectors: An economic input-output based frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhencheng; Wang, Jigan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-09-01

    Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO 2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal. Moreover, Construction sector is found to be the destination of the largest sector-to-sector environmental impact flows for the five impact categories and make the most contributions to the total environmental impacts. Another key finding is that Agriculture sector is both the largest net exporter and the greatest contributor for water withdrawal category. DEA results indicate that seven sectors are eco-efficient while over 70% of China's economic sectors are inefficient and require significant improvements. The average target improvements range between 23.30% and 35.06% depending on the impact category. Further sensitivity analysis reveals that the average sensitivity ratios vary from 7.7% to 15.7% among the six impact categories, which are found to be negatively correlated with their improvement potentials. Finally, several policy recommendations are made to mitigate environmental impacts of China's economic sectors and improve their eco-efficiency levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Final report of the project performance assessment and economic evaluation of nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Anttila, M.; Hautojaervi, A.

    1993-05-01

    The publication is the final report of project Performance Assessment and Economic Evaluation of Nuclear Waste Management (TOKA) at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), forming part of the Publicly Financed Nuclear Waste Management Research Programme (JYT). The project covers safety and cost aspects of all phases of nuclear waste management. The main emphasis has been on developing an integrated system of models for performance assessment of nuclear waste repositories. During the four years the project has so far been in progress, the total amount of work has been around 14 person-years. Computer codes are the main tools in the project, they are either developed by the project team or acquired from abroad. In-house model development has been especially active in groundwater flow, near-field and migration modelling. The quantitative interpretation of Finnish tracer experiments in the laboratory and natural analogue studies at Palmottu support performance assessments via increased confidence in the migration concepts used. The performance assessment philosophy adopted by the team consists of deterministic modelling and pragmatic scenario analysis. This is supported by the long-term experience in practical performance assessment of the team, and in theoretical probabilistic modelling exercises. The radiological risks of spent fuel transportation from the Loviisa nuclear power plant to Russia have been analysed using a probabilistic computer code and Finnish traffic accident statistics. The project assists the authorities in the annual assessment of utility estimates of funding needs for future nuclear waste management operations. The models and methods used within the project are tested in international verification/validation projects

  17. An ecological and economic assessment of absorption-enhanced-reforming (AER) biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffels, Tobias; McKenna, Russell; Fichtner, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis of biomass gasification with new absorption enhanced reforming technology. • Energy- and mass balances for three different process configurations to produce heat, SNG and/or hydrogen. • Ecological (based on LCA) and economic (based on production costs) assessment of the technology. • Comparison of results with existing operational plants producing similar products. - Abstract: Biomass gasification with absorption enhanced reforming (AER) is a promising technology to produce a hydrogen-rich product gas that can be used to generate electricity, heat, substitute natural gas (SNG) and hydrogen (5.0 quality). To evaluate the production of the four products from an ecological and economic point of view, three different process configurations are considered. The plant setup involves two coupled fluidized beds: the steam gasifier and the regenerator. Subsequently the product gas can be used to operate a CHP plant (configuration one), be methanised (configuration two) or used to produce high-quality hydrogen (configuration three). Regarding ecological criteria, the global warming potential, the acidification potential and the cumulative energy demand of the processes are calculated, based on a life-cycle assessment approach. The economic analysis is based on the levelized costs of energy generation (LCOE). The AER-based processes are compared to conventional and renewable reference processes, which they might stand to substitute. The results show that the AER processes are beneficial from an ecological point of view as they are less carbon intensive (mitigating up to 800gCO 2 -eq.kW -1 h el -1 ), require less fossil energy input (only about 0.5kWh fossil kW -1 h el -1 ) and have a comparable acidification potential (300–900mgSO 2 -eq.kW -1 h el -1 ) to most reference processes. But the results depend heavily on the extent to which excess heat can be used to replace conventional heating processes, and hence on the exact location of the plant

  18. Assessment of the economic sanctions influence on the Russian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyara F. Zakirova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the impact of economic sanctions on the key indicators of the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks of the Russian Federation by comparing them to the indicators of nonsanctioned credit institutions. Methods logical method method of comparative analysis statistical methods method of graphic images. Results the article examines the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. The sanctions affecting the Russian banking system are presented in chronological order. It is stated that the negative impact of the Western sanctions on the banking system is not denied. The authors analyze scientific works devoted to the effect of sanctions on Russian banks. The analysis revealed the absence of comprehensive studies of the effect of sanctions on the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks. For this assessment the authors analyzed the performance indicators of six sanctioned and six nonsanctioned Russian banks with the largest assets. It is proved that economic sanctions led to deterioration of the financial results of the sanctioned banks increased their dependence on the domestic interbank market and the funds from Bank of Russia. Other changes were mainly due to the overall economic situation internal policies of banks and the policy of the Bank of Russia not the sanctions. nbsp Scientific novelty the article for the first time basing on the comparative analysis of the main performance indicators of the sanctioned and nonsanctioned banks proved the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. However despite the banking sector adaptation to the existing conditions through their reorientation to the domestic market it should be noted that a certain tension ensuring the longterm liquidity is still preserved. The cost of the available longterm resources to be attracted remains relatively high which influences the financial results of the banking sector. Therefore without

  19. Technical and economic assessments commercial success for IGCC technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, T.

    1998-01-01

    The experiences gained from several Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration plants operating in the US and Europe facilitate commercial success of this advanced coal-based power generation technology. However, commercialization of coal-based IGCC technology in the West, particularly in the US, is restricted due to the low price of natural gas. On the contrary, in China--the largest coal producer and consumer in the world--a lack of natural gas supply, strong demand for air pollution control and relatively low costs of manufacturing and construction provide tremendous opportunities for IGCC applications. The first Chinese IGCC demonstration project was initiated in 1994, and other potential IGCC projects are in planning. IGCC applications in re-powering, fuel switching and multi-generation also show a great market potential in China. However, questions for IGCC development in China remain; where are realistic opportunities for IGCC projects and how can these opportunities be converted into commercial success? The answers to these questions should focus on the Chinese market needs and emphasize economic benefits, not just clean, or power. High price of imported equipment, high financing costs, and the technical risk of first-of-a-kind installation barricade IGCC development in China. This paper presents preliminary technical and economic assessments for four typical IGCC applications in the Chinese marketplace: central power station, fuel switching, re-powering, and multi-generation. The major factors affecting project economics--such as plant cost, financing, prices of fuel and electricity and operating capacity factor--are analyzed. The results indicate that well-proven technology for versatile applications, preferred financing, reduction of the plant cost, environmental superiority and appropriate project structure are the key for commercial success of IGCC in China

  20. The Impact of Economic Parameter Uncertainty Growth on Regional Energy Demand Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vasilyevna Mazurova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the forecasting studies based on the energy demand and prices in the region in terms of the complex interconnections between economy (and energy and the growth of uncertainty of the future development of the country and territories. The authors propose a methodological approach, which combines the assessment of the price elasticity of energy demand with the optimization of energy and fuel regional supply. In this case, the price elasticity of demand is determined taking into account the comparison of cost-effectiveness of using different types of fuel and energy by different consumers. The originality of the proposed approach consists in simulating the behaviour of suppliers’ (energy companies and large customers’ (power plants, boiler rooms, industry, transport, population depending on energy price changes, the existing and new technologies, energy-saving activities and restrictions on fuel supplies. To take into account the uncertainty of future economic and energy conditions, some parameters such as prospective technical and economic parameters, price, technological parameters are set as the intervals of possible values with different probability levels. This approach allows making multivariate studies with different combinations of the expected conditions and receiving as a result the range of the projected values of studied indicators. The multivariate calculations show that the fuel demand has a nonlinear dependence on the consumer characteristics, pricing, projection horizon, and the nature of the future conditions uncertainty. The authors have shown that this effect can be significant and should be considered in the forecasts of the development of fuel and energy sector. The methodological approach and quantitative evaluation can be used to improve the economic and energy development strategies of the country and regions

  1. A Hydro-Economic Approach to Representing Water Resources Impacts in Integrated Assessment Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshen, Paul H.; Strzepek, Kenneth, M.

    2004-01-14

    Grant Number DE-FG02-98ER62665 Office of Energy Research of the U.S. Department of Energy Abstract Many Integrated Assessment Models (IAM) divide the world into a small number of highly aggregated regions. Non-OECD countries are aggregated geographically into continental and multiple-continental regions or economically by development level. Current research suggests that these large scale aggregations cannot accurately represent potential water resources-related climate change impacts. In addition, IAMs do not explicitly model the flow regulation impacts of reservoir and ground water systems, the economics of water supply, or the demand for water in economic activities. Using the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT) model of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as a case study, this research implemented a set of methodologies to provide accurate representation of water resource climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models. There were also detailed examinations of key issues related to aggregated modeling including: modeling water consumption versus water withdrawals; ground and surface water interactions; development of reservoir cost curves; modeling of surface areas of aggregated reservoirs for estimating evaporation losses; and evaluating the importance of spatial scale in river basin modeling. The major findings include: - Continental or national or even large scale river basin aggregation of water supplies and demands do not accurately capture the impacts of climate change in the water and agricultural sector in IAMs. - Fortunately, there now exist gridden approaches (0.5 X 0.5 degrees) to model streamflows in a global analysis. The gridded approach to hydrologic modeling allows flexibility in aligning basin boundaries with national boundaries. This combined with GIS tools, high speed computers, and the growing availability of socio-economic gridded data bases allows assignment of

  2. Techno-economic and life-cycle assessment of an attached growth algal biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jay; Sims, Ronald C; Quinn, Jason C

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the sustainability of generating renewable diesel via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass from a rotating algal biofilm reactor. Pilot-scale growth studies and laboratory-scale HTL experiments were used to validate an engineering system model. The engineering system model served as the foundation to evaluate the economic feasibility and environmental impact of the system at full scale. Techno-economic results indicate that biomass feedstock costs dominated the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP), with a base case of $104.31per gallon. Life-cycle assessment results show a base-case global warming potential (GWP) of 80gCO2-eMJ(-1) and net energy ratio (NER) of 1.65 based on a well-to-product system boundary. Optimization of the system reduces MFSP, GWP and NER to $11.90Gal(-1), -44gCO2-eMJ(-1), and 0.33, respectively. The systems-level impacts of integrating algae cultivation with wastewater treatment were found to significantly reduce environmental impact. Sensitivity analysis showed that algal productivity most significantly affected fuel selling price, emphasizing the importance of optimizing biomass productivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental and economic assessment of the chemical absorption process in Korea using the LEAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ho-Jun; Lee, Seungmoon; Maken, Sanjeev; Ahn, Se-Woong; Park, Jin-Won; Min, Byoungryul; Koh, Wongun

    2007-01-01

    CO 2 emission from fossil fuels is a major cause for the global warming effect, but it is hard to remove completely in actuality. Moreover, energy consumption is bound to increase for the continuous economic development of a country that has an industrial formation requiring high-energy demand. Therefore, we need to consider not only a device for CO 2 mitigation but also its impact when a CO 2 mitigation device is applied. The device for CO 2 emission mitigation can be classified into three fields: energy consumption reduction, development of CO 2 removal and recovery technology, and development of alternative energy technology. Among these options, CO 2 removal and recovery technology has a merit that can be applied to a process in the near future. Therefore, research for CO 2 removal and recovery is actively progressing in Korea. In this study, environmental and economic assessment according to the energy policy change for climate change agreement and increase of CO 2 mitigation technology is accomplished, on the bases of operating data for the CO 2 chemical absorption pilot plant that is installed in the Seoul coal steam power plant. The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system (LEAP) was used to analyze the alternative scenario, and results were shown quantitatively

  4. A methodological framework to assess the environmental and economic effects of injection barriers against seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siarkos, Ilias; Latinopoulos, Dionysis; Mallios, Zisis; Latinopoulos, Pericles

    2017-05-15

    Seawater intrusion is responsible for the progressive deterioration of groundwater quality in numerous coastal aquifers worldwide. As a consequence, seawater intrusion may constitute a serious threat to local groundwater resources, as well as to the regional economy of coastal areas. To alleviate these negative effects, a number of well-designed protective measures could be implemented. The implementation of these measures is usually associated with significant benefits for the environment and the local economy. In this perspective, the present study investigates the particular case of constructing injection barriers for controlling seawater intrusion by developing a methodological framework that combines numerical modeling with spatial and cost-benefit analyses. To this task, we introduce a novel approach, which considers the socio-economic aspects of seawater intrusion in the modeling procedure, and at the same time focuses on the spatial and temporal relationships between water salinity and farmers' income. To test the proposed methodology two alternative artificial recharge scenarios - with different volumes of water used for injection - are assessed. According to the results of this analysis, both scenarios are likely to have a positive impact on groundwater quality, as well as, a net economic benefit to local society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Kazemzadeh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ► We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ► Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ► Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ► Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO 2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  6. Environmental and economic life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment processes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jinglan; Hong, Jingmin; Otaki, Masahiro; Jolliet, Olivier

    2009-02-01

    Life cycle assessment for sewage sludge treatment was carried out by estimating the environmental and economic impacts of the six alternative scenarios most often used in Japan: dewatering, composting, drying, incineration, incinerated ash melting and dewatered sludge melting, each with or without digestion. Three end-of-life treatments were also studied: landfilling, agricultural application and building material application. The results demonstrate that sewage sludge digestion can reduce the environmental load and cost through reduced dry matter volume. The global warming potential (GWP) generated from incineration and melting processes can be significantly reduced through the reuse of waste heat for electricity and/or heat generation. Equipment production in scenarios except dewatering has an important effect on GWP, whereas the contribution of construction is negligible. In addition, the results show that the dewatering scenario has the highest impact on land use and cost, the drying scenario has the highest impact on GWP and acidification, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the highest impact on human toxicity due to re-emissions of heavy metals from incinerated ash in the melting unit process. On the contrary, the dewatering, composting and incineration scenarios generate the lowest impact on human toxicity, land use and acidification, respectively, and the incinerated ash melting scenario has the lowest impact on GWP and cost. Heavy metals released from atmospheric effluents generated the highest human toxicity impact, with the effect of dioxin emissions being significantly lower. This study proved that the dewatered sludge melting scenario is an environmentally optimal and economically affordable method.

  7. Waste collection systems for recyclables: An environmental and economic assessment for the municipality of Aarhus (Denmark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.W.; Merrild, H.; Moller, J.; Christensen, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    Recycling of paper and glass from household waste is an integrated part of waste management in Denmark, however, increased recycling is a legislative target. The questions are: how much more can the recycling rate be increased through improvements of collection schemes when organisational and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed by means of a life cycle assessment and an assessment of the municipality's costs. Kerbside collection would provide the highest recycling rate, 31% compared to 25% in the baseline scenario, but bring schemes with drop-off containers would also be a reasonable solution. Collection of recyclables at recycling centres was not recommendable because the recycling rate would decrease to 20%. In general, the results showed that enhancing recycling and avoiding incineration was recommendable because the environmental performance was improved in several impact categories. The municipal costs for collection and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought.

  8. macro-economic assessment of energy visions 2030-2050 by the ADEME - Technical document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callonnec, G.; Landa, G.; Maillet, P.; Reynes, F.

    2013-10-01

    After a brief presentation of the energy transition scenario designed by the ADEME and which is based on principles of efficiency and sobriety, and on a largely de-carbonated energy supply, this report presents the ThreeME model (ThreeME stands for macro-economic multi-sector model of assessment of energy and environment policies). It is a neo-Keynesian model which integrates a dynamic interaction between supply and demand. The application of this model to energy transition is discusses as well as the model calibration. Results are then discussed (reference scenario, modelling of the ADEME scenario) and expansionary effects are outlined in terms of household purchasing power, investment, employment, reduction of trade balance deficit, induced effects on GDP, shadow value of carbon, and public finances

  9. Bioethanol from lignocellulose. An ecological and economic assessment of selected concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Kathleen; Zech, Konstantin; Mueller-Langer, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of an increased use of residual and waste materials in this paper the specific GHG emissions and production costs of different lignocellulosic based bioethanol concepts are assessed and compared to a conventional wheat based bioethanol concept and to the fossil reference. In order to find the best concept regarding both the environment and the economics the GHG emissions and production costs are compared and the GHG mitigation costs are calculated. Concept 5 (reference concept with C5 sugar to bioethanol and a natural gas-/biogasboiler) could be a good compromise between the both targets. Furthermore this concept has lower GHG emissions and lower production costs compared to the conventional wheat based bioethanol concept.

  10. A methodology to assess the economic impact of power storage technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghandour, Laila; Johnson, Timothy C

    2017-08-13

    We present a methodology for assessing the economic impact of power storage technologies. The methodology is founded on classical approaches to the optimal stopping of stochastic processes but involves an innovation that circumvents the need to, ex ante , identify the form of a driving process and works directly on observed data, avoiding model risks. Power storage is regarded as a complement to the intermittent output of renewable energy generators and is therefore important in contributing to the reduction of carbon-intensive power generation. Our aim is to present a methodology suitable for use by policy makers that is simple to maintain, adaptable to different technologies and easy to interpret. The methodology has benefits over current techniques and is able to value, by identifying a viable optimal operational strategy, a conceived storage facility based on compressed air technology operating in the UK.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy management: flexibility, risk and optimization'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Modeling the assessment of the economic factors impact on the development of social entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absalyamov, T.; Kundakchyan, R.; Zulfakarova, L.; Zapparova, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with the research of modern trends in the development of social entrepreneurship in Russia. The results of the research allow the authors to identify a system of factors that affect the development of entrepreneurship in the modern Russian economy. Moreover, the authors argue the regional specificity of the development of social entrepreneurship. The paper considers specific features and formulates the main limitations of the development of entrepreneurship and the competitive environment in the social sphere. The authors suggest an econometric model for assessing the influence of economic factors on the development of socially-oriented entrepreneurship and present an algorithm for calculating its components. The results of the econometric analysis identify the main factors of the change in the performance indicators of entrepreneurial activity and determine the degree of their impact on social entrepreneurship. The results and conclusions can serve as an estimation of the socioeconomic consequences of the sustainability disruption of the entrepreneurial potential realization in the social sphere.

  12. Environmental and economic assessment of discharges from Gulf of Mexico Region Oil and Gas Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettleson, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    Task 3 (Environmental Field Sampling and Analysis of NORM, Heavy Metals, and Organics) and 4 (Monitoring of the Recovery of Impacted Wetland and Open Bay Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana and Texas) activities involved continued data analysis and report writing. Task 5 (Assessment of Economic Impacts of Offshore and Coastal Discharge Requirements on Present and Future Operations in the Gulf of Mexico Region) was issued as a final report during the previous reporting period. Task 6 (Synthesis of Gulf of Mexico Seafood Consumption and Use Patterns) activities included the preparation of the final report. There were no Task 7 (Technology Transfer Plan) activities to report. Task 8 (Project Management and Deliverables) activities involved the submission of the necessary reports and routine management

  13. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW RECLAMATION METHOD FOR CURRENTLY WORKING TECHNOGENIC MASSIFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Strizhenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  14. Thermo-economic assessment of the integration of steam cycles on offshore platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Tock, Laurence; Breuhaus, Peter

    2014-01-01

    thermodynamic and economic performance indicators. The results illustrate the benefits of converting the gas turbines into a combined cycle. Using seawater results in smaller power generation and greater CO2-emissions than using process water, as the additional power generation in the combined cycle......The integration of steam bottoming cycles on oil platforms is often seen as a possible route to mitigate the CO2-emissions offshore. In this paper, a North Sea platform and its energy requirements are systematically analysed. The site-scale integration of steam networks is assessed by using...... is compensated by the significant pumping demand. This work emphasises that energy improvement efforts should be analysed at the scale of the overall site and not solely at the level of the combined cycle....

  15. Applying Bayesian decision theory to assess reprocessing economic and social cost-benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heising, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Bayesian decision theory, combined with conventional systems analysis techniques into the discipline called decision analysis, has been applied in this work to assess economic and social cost-benefits associated with reprocessing nuclear fuel. Particular attention in this paper is given to the models which have been developed to place numerical estimates in dollar terms on the three categories of social risks that have been identified with reprocessing. These categories include: (1) health, environment, and safety, (2) diversion of fissile material, including sabotage, terrorist acts, and subnational diversion, and (3) nuclear proliferation, defined to be a diversion at the national level to obtain weapons capability. The emphasis is placed on the third category, as proliferation risk has not been treated elsewhere in a quantitative fashion; most arguments have in the main been qualitative conjectures put forth by political scientists

  16. Economics within Social Studies: A Comparative Analysis of Student Performance on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deplazes, Svetlana P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall level of student achievement on the 2012 Kansas History-Government Assessment in Grades 6, 8, and high school, with major emphasis on the subject area of economics. It explored four specific research questions in order to: (1) determine the level of student knowledge of assessed economic…

  17. Assessing local and regional economic impacts of climatic extremes and feasibility of adaptation measures in Dutch arable farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Reidsma, P.; Schaap, B.; Andree, B. P.J.; Koomen, E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a method that combines local productivity factors, economic factors, crop-specific sensitivity to climatic extremes, and future climate change scenarios, to assess potential impacts of extreme weather events on agricultural production systems. Our assessment is spatially explicit and uses

  18. Physically-based Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Damage and Economic Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Estimating damage and economic losses caused by tropical cyclones (TC) is a topic of considerable research interest in many scientific fields, including meteorology, structural and coastal engineering, and actuarial sciences. One approach is based on the empirical relationship between TC characteristics and loss data. Another is to model the physical mechanism of TC-induced damage. In this talk we discuss about the physically-based approach to predict TC damage and losses due to extreme wind and storm surge. We first present an integrated vulnerability model, which, for the first time, explicitly models the essential mechanisms causing wind damage to residential areas during storm passage, including windborne-debris impact and the pressure-debris interaction that may lead, in a chain reaction, to structural failures (Lin and Vanmarcke 2010; Lin et al. 2010a). This model can be used to predict the economic losses in a residential neighborhood (with hundreds of buildings) during a specific TC (Yau et al. 2011) or applied jointly with a TC risk model (e.g., Emanuel et al 2008) to estimate the expected losses over long time periods. Then we present a TC storm surge risk model that has been applied to New York City (Lin et al. 2010b; Lin et al. 2012; Aerts et al. 2012), Miami-Dade County, Florida (Klima et al. 2011), Galveston, Texas (Lickley, 2012), and other coastal areas around the world (e.g., Tampa, Florida; Persian Gulf; Darwin, Australia; Shanghai, China). These physically-based models are applicable to various coastal areas and have the capability to account for the change of the climate and coastal exposure over time. We also point out that, although made computationally efficient for risk assessment, these models are not suitable for regional or global analysis, which has been a focus of the empirically-based economic analysis (e.g., Hsiang and Narita 2012). A future research direction is to simplify the physically-based models, possibly through

  19. The potential of geological storage of CO2 in Austria: a techno-economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüstle, Anna Katharina; Welkenhuysen, Kris; Bottig, Magdalena; Piessens, Kris; Ramirez, Andrea; Swenner, Rudy

    2014-05-01

    An impressive two-third or about 40GWh/y of electricity in Austria is produced from renewable energy sources, in particular hydro energy. For the remaining part the country depends on fossil fuels, which together with iron & steel production form the most CO2 intensive industries in Austria with a combined emission of just over 20Mt/y. According to the IEA, CO2 capture and geological storage (CCS) can reduce the global CO2 emission until 2050 by 17%. A correct assessment of CCS needs to start with the storage potential. Prior to this study, only general estimates of the theoretical capacity of Austrian reservoirs were available, thus, up until now, the realistic potential for CCS technology has not been assessed. Both for policy and industry, an assessment of the matched capacity is required, which is the capacity that actually will be used in CCS projects. This hurdle can be taken by applying a recently developed methodology (Welkenhuysen et al., 2013). This policy support system (PSS) consists of two parts, PSS Explorer and PSS III simulator. In brief, the methodology is based on expert judgements of potential reservoirs. These assessments can provide the best available data, including the expert's experience and possibly confidential data, without disclosing specific data. The geo-techno-economic calculation scheme PSS Explorer uses the expert input to calculate for each individual reservoir an assessment of the practical capacity (as probability density functions), in function of an acceptable price for storage. This practical capacity can then be used by the techno-economic PSS III simulator to perform advanced source-sink matching until 2050 and thus provide the matched reservoir capacity. The analysed reservoirs are 7 active or abandoned oil and gas reservoirs in Austria. The simulation of the electricity and iron & steel sector of Austria resulted in the estimation of the geological storage potential, taking into account geological, technological and

  20. Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Johanna; Barta, Zsolt; Börjesson, Pål; Wallberg, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase enzymes have been reported to contribute with a significant share of the total costs and greenhouse gas emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol production today. A potential future alternative to purchasing enzymes from an off-site manufacturer is to integrate enzyme and ethanol production, using microorganisms and part of the lignocellulosic material as feedstock for enzymes. This study modelled two such integrated process designs for ethanol from logging residues from spruce production, and compared it to an off-site case based on existing data regarding purchased enzymes. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy balances were studied in a life-cycle assessment, and cost performance in a techno-economic analysis. The base case scenario suggests that greenhouse gas emissions per MJ of ethanol could be significantly lower in the integrated cases than in the off-site case. However, the difference between the integrated and off-site cases is reduced with alternative assumptions regarding enzyme dosage and the environmental impact of the purchased enzymes. The comparison of primary energy balances did not show any significant difference between the cases. The minimum ethanol selling price, to reach break-even costs, was from 0.568 to 0.622 EUR L -1 for the integrated cases, as compared to 0.581 EUR L -1 for the off-site case. An integrated process design could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from lignocellulose-based ethanol production, and the cost of an integrated process could be comparable to purchasing enzymes produced off-site. This study focused on the environmental and economic assessment of an integrated process, and in order to strengthen the comparison to the off-site case, more detailed and updated data regarding industrial off-site enzyme production are especially important.

  1. Assessment of characteristics of patients with cholelithiasis from economically deprived rural Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gallstones have been regarded as one of the most expensive diseases in Gastroenterology, posing a great economic burden on developing nations. The majority of Pakistani people live in rural areas where healthcare facilities are not available or are very primitive. We aim to assess the characteristics among cholelithiasis patients from rural Karachi so that a prevention campaign can be launched in rural underprivileged settings to reduce the economic burden of this preventable disease. Method A total of 410 patients were included in the study after giving verbal consent as well as written consent. Variables such as age, weight, height, body mass index (BMI, blood pressure, waist circumference, number of children, monthly family income, number of siblings, and number of family members, were considered in this questionnaire. All data was analysed by SPSS ver. 16.0. Mean and standard deviation (SD were calculated for continuous variables. Frequency and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. Results Nearly 85.4% of the participants were female. The mean ± S.D. for age was 43.8 ± 9.59. Nearly 61% of the patients were illiterate. All of our patients were from low socioeconomic status and their mean salary ± S.D. was 6915 ± 1992 PKR (1 US $ = 90.37PKR. 75% of them were smokers with mean consumption ± S.D. of 7.5 ± 10 cigarettes per day. Fibre in diet was not used by 83.65% of patients. 40.2% were living in combined families. 61% were living in purchased homes. A positive history of diabetes mellitus was given by 45.1%, family history of cholelithiasis by 61% and history of hypertension by 31.7% of subjects. Soft drink consumption was given by 45.1% of patients; while only 8.5% used snacked daily. Tea was consumed by 95.1% of the subjects. Daily physical activity for 30 minutes was reported by only 13.4% of participants. Conclusion In conclusion, rural dwellers from low socioeconomic

  2. The integral indicator of socio-economic assessment in regard to resource-oriented territories development in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvashova, M. N.; Avramchikova, N. T.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.

    2016-04-01

    Economic peculiarity of Russian resource-oriented territories are based on a focal type of industrial complex, differentiation of economies within a principle of mining and processing of natural resources. To improve the economic condition and integrate into the world innovative process is essential to solve the problem of eliminating the prevalence of resourse focus in the industrial economic structure that could ensure the overcoming of the existing spa- cial dissociation and market mechanisms development in innovative promotion. The monitoring system, involving the integral indicator of socioeconomic and territorial potential assessment, has suggested by the authors. The integral indicator could guarantee the objective evaluation of economic condition within a territory that is vital for the governmental authorities to design strategies providing the economic development of administrative territories.

  3. A systematic review of financial and economic assessments of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) prevention and mitigation activities worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Trauffler, Martine; Dzieciol, Monika; Hutter, Sabine E; Burgstaller, Johann; Obritzhauser, Walter; Winter, Petra; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2017-02-01

    Infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in major economic losses either directly through decreased productive performance in cattle herds or indirectly, such as through expenses for control programs. The aim of this systematic review was to review financial and/or economic assessment studies of prevention and/or mitigation activities of BVDV at national, regional and farm level worldwide. Once all predefined criteria had been met, 35 articles were included for this systematic review. Studies were analyzed with particular focus on the type of financially and/or economically-assessed prevention and/or mitigation activities. Due to the wide range of possible prevention and/or mitigation activities, these activities were grouped into five categories: i) control and/or eradication programs, ii) monitoring or surveillance, iii) prevention, iv) vaccination and v) individual culling, control and testing strategies. Additionally, the studies were analyzed according to economically-related variables such as efficiency, costs or benefits of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the applied financial and/or economic and statistical methods, the payers of prevention and/or mitigation activities, the assessed production systems, and the countries for which such evaluations are available. Financial and/or economic assessments performed in Europe were dominated by those from the United Kingdom, which assessed mostly vaccination strategies, and Norway which primarily carried out assessments in the area of control and eradication programs; whereas among non-European countries the United States carried out the majority of financial and/or economic assessments in the area of individual culling, control and testing. More than half of all studies provided an efficiency calculation of prevention and/or mitigation activities and demonstrated whether the inherent costs of implemented activities were or were not justified. The dairy sector was three times more likely to

  4. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annique Smeding

    Full Text Available In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning, but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society. Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals, instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  5. Reducing the socio-economic status achievement gap at University by promoting mastery-oriented assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeding, Annique; Darnon, Céline; Souchal, Carine; Toczek-Capelle, Marie-Christine; Butera, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    In spite of official intentions to reduce inequalities at University, students' socio-economic status (SES) is still a major determinant of academic success. The literature on the dual function of University suggests that University serves not only an educational function (i.e., to improve students' learning), but also a selection function (i.e., to compare people, and orient them towards different positions in society). Because current assessment practices focus on the selection more than on the educational function, their characteristics fit better with norms and values shared by dominant high-status groups and may favour high-SES students over low-SES students in terms of performances. A focus on the educational function (i.e., mastery goals), instead, may support low-SES students' achievement, but empirical evidence is currently lacking. The present research set out to provide such evidence and tested, in two field studies and a randomised field experiment, the hypothesis that focusing on University's educational function rather than on its selection function may reduce the SES achievement gap. Results showed that a focus on learning, mastery-oriented goals in the assessment process reduced the SES achievement gap at University. For the first time, empirical data support the idea that low-SES students can perform as well as high-SES students if they are led to understand assessment as part of the learning process, a way to reach mastery goals, rather than as a way to compare students to each other and select the best of them, resulting in performance goals. This research thus provides a theoretical framework to understand the differential effects of assessment on the achievement of high and low-SES students, and paves the way toward the implementation of novel, theory-driven interventions to reduce the SES-based achievement gap at University.

  6. Improvement of economic security management system of municipalities with account of transportation system development: methods of assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe Sun, Pak; Vorona-Slivinskaya, Lubov; Voskresenskay, Elena

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the necessity of a complex approach to assess economic security of municipalities, which would consider municipal management specifics. The approach allows comparing the economic security level of municipalities, but it does not describe parameter differences between compared municipalities. Therefore, there is a second method suggested: parameter rank order method. Applying these methods allowed to figure out the leaders and outsiders of the economic security among municipalities and rank all economic security parameters according to the significance level. Complex assessment of the economic security of municipalities, based on the combination of the two approaches, allowed to assess the security level more accurate. In order to assure economic security and equalize its threshold values, one should pay special attention to transportation system development in municipalities. Strategic aims of projects in the area of transportation infrastructure development in municipalities include the following issues: contribution into creating and elaborating transportation logistics and manufacture transport complexes, development of transportation infrastructure with account of internal and external functions of the region, public transport development, improvement of transport security and reducing its negative influence on the environment.

  7. An evaluation grid for the assessments of macro-economic impacts of energy transition. Working paper Nr 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouvrard, Jean-Francois; Scapecchi, Pascale

    2014-05-01

    This study aims at comparing the main available macro-economic models used to assess the consequences of policies for energy transition, and at determining their scope and limitations of validity. More precisely, the authors study the impact of two categories of policy instruments (those aimed at modifying prices and incentive ones) and the role of the adopted modelling of technical progress and of the macro-economic closure of the model. In a first part, they present various tools or models used to assess economic impacts of energy transition: technical-economic, macro-economic, general balance, and hybrid models. Then, after a presentation of some principles adopted to analyse these various models, the authors discuss price-based tools, tools based on demand support, the key role of technological progress, the impact of the macro-economic closure on the reached objective. They finally discuss the results obtained by applying an evaluation grid to energy transition scenarios. A set of recommendations is finally proposed for a better assessment of these impacts

  8. Fenton mediated ultrasonic disintegration of sludge biomass: Biodegradability studies, energetic assessment, and its economic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; IvinShaju, C D; Kaliappan, S; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2016-12-01

    Mechanical disintegration of sludge through ultrasonication demands high energy and cost. Therefore, in the present study, a comprehensive investigation was performed to analyze the potential of a novel method, fenton mediated sonic disintegration (FSD). In FSD process, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of sludge was first removed via fenton treatment. It was subsequently disintegrated via ultrasonication. Energetic assessment and economic analysis were then performed using net energy and cost gain (spent) as key factor to evaluate the practical viability of the FSD process. FSD was found to be superior over sonic disintegration based on its higher sludge solubilization (34.4% vs. 23.2%) and methane production potential (0.3gCOD/gCOD vs. 0.2gCOD/gCOD). Both energy analysis and cost assessment of the present study revealed that FSD could reduce the energy demand of ultrasonication considerably with a positive net profit of about 44.93USD/Ton of sludge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Progress towards Sustainable Production: Environmental, Economic, and Social Assessments of the Cellulose Nanofiber Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dami Moon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the process for producing cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, which are considered to be a valuable sustainable woody biomass feedstock. The greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with CNF production are greater than the emissions associated with producing most plastic materials used in vehicle components because the grinding process during CNF production generates significant GHG emissions. The cost of CNF production is also higher than the cost of producing comparable plastics for automotive use because of the high cost of the pulverization process. The sensitivity analysis in this study suggested that GHG emissions and manufacturing costs could be reduced by 19.1–76.4% and 3.6–12.2%, respectively, by improving the energy efficiency of CNF production by two to five times. We compared the potential social risks associated with CNF production between Japan and Vietnam using a product social impact life cycle assessment database. It is desirable to reduce the social risk on the fair salary and child labor, and to improve the safe and healthy living conditions in the local communities that import wood chips harvested in Vietnam.

  10. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, Ch.E. [GE Nuclear Energy San Jose (United States)

    2001-07-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  11. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  12. Economic input-output life-cycle assessment of trade between Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Jonathan; Charpentier, Alex D; MacLean, Heather L

    2007-03-01

    With increasing trade liberalization, attempts at accounting for environmental impacts and energy use across the manufacturing supply chain are complicated by the predominance of internationally supplied resources and products. This is particularly true for Canada and the United States, the world's largest trading partners. We use an economic input-output life-cycle assessment (EIO-LCA) technique to estimate the economy-wide energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity for 45 manufacturing and resource sectors in Canada and the United States. Overall, we find that U.S. manufacturing and resource industries are about 1.15 times as energy-intensive and 1.3 times as GHG-intensive as Canadian industries, with significant sector-specific discrepancies in energy and GHG intensity. This trend is mainly due to a greater direct reliance on fossil fuels for many U.S. industries, in addition to a highly fossil-fuel based electricity mix in the U.S. To account for these differences, we develop a 76 sector binational EIO-LCA model that implicitly considers trade in goods between Canada and the U.S. Our findings show that accounting for trade can significantly alter the results of life-cycle assessment studies, particularly for many Canadian manufacturing sectors, and the production/consumption of goods in one country often exerts significant energy- and GHG-influences on the other.

  13. Economic assessment of S-prism including development and generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, Ch.E.

    2001-01-01

    S-PRISM is an advanced Fast Reactor plant design that utilizes compact modular pool-type reactors sized to enable factory fabrication and an affordable prototype test of a single Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) for design certification at minimum cost and risk. S-PRISM retains all of the key ALMR (advanced liquid metal reactor) design features including passive reactor shutdown, passive shutdown heat removal, and passive reactor cavity cooling that were developed under an earlier DOE program. Key factors that make S-PRISM competitive include: 1) The use of passive safety systems that eliminate the need for diesel generators and hardened active heat sinks to assure that sufficient heat is removed from the core, reactor, and containment systems following design and beyond design basis events. 2) A seven point advantage in the plant capacity factor (93 versus 86%) over a single large plant. 3) A much shorter construction schedule (45%) made possible by a modular design that allows near parallel (sequenced) construction of three relatively small, simple factory fabricated NSSSs instead of one large complex NSSS. This paper describes the approach, methods, and results of an in-depth economic assessment of S-PRISM. The assessment found that the generation cost from an NOAK plant would be less than 3 cents/kW-hr and that a design certification could be obtained in less than 15 years at a cost of 2.1 billion dollars. (authors)

  14. A proposed tool to integrate environmental and economical assessments of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthil, Kumaran D.; Ong, S.K.; Nee, A.Y.C.; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2003-01-01

    An attempt has been made to interpret the outcomes of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in terms of environmental costs. This attempt ensures the environmental accountability of the products while LCA ensures their eco-friendly nature. Keeping this as an objective, a Life Cycle Environmental Cost Analysis (LCECA) model was developed. This new tool incorporates costing into the LCA practice. This model prescribes a life cycle environmental cost model to estimate and correlate the effects of these costs in all the life cycle stages of the product. The newly developed categories of eco-costs are: costs of effluent treatment/control/disposal, environmental management systems, eco-taxes, rehabilitation, energy and savings of recycling and reuse strategies. The mathematical model of LCECA determines quantitative expressions between the total cost of products and the various eco-costs. The eco-costs of the alternatives are compared with the computational LCECA model. This method enables the environmental as well as the economic assessment of products, which leads to cost-effective, eco-friendly design of products

  15. Life cycle assessment and economic analysis of a low concentrating photovoltaic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Feo, G; Forni, M; Petito, F; Renno, C

    2016-10-01

    Many new photovoltaic (PV) applications, such as the concentrating PV (CPV) systems, are appearing on the market. The main characteristic of CPV systems is to concentrate sunlight on a receiver by means of optical devices and to decrease the solar cells area required. A low CPV (LCPV) system allows optimizing the PV effect with high increase of generated electric power as well as decrease of active surface area. In this paper, an economic analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA) study of a particular LCPV scheme is presented and its environmental impacts are compared with those of a PV traditional system. The LCA study was performed with the software tool SimaPro 8.0.2, using the Econinvent 3.1 database. A functional unit of 1 kWh of electricity produced was chosen. Carbon Footprint, Ecological Footprint and ReCiPe 2008 were the methods used to assess the environmental impacts of the LCPV plant compared with a corresponding traditional system. All the methods demonstrated the environmental convenience of the LCPV system. The innovative system allowed saving 16.9% of CO2 equivalent in comparison with the traditional PV plant. The environmental impacts saving was 17% in terms of Ecological Footprint, and, finally, 15.8% with the ReCiPe method.

  16. Risk assessment and economic appraisal of protection methods for the Tarascon-Arles railway embankment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheetham Mark

    2016-01-01

    ., existing geotechnical conditions and the railway embankment structure were required to undertake the risk assessment. For each hydraulic loading scenario, a detailed economic appraisal was undertaken for each method of protection involving the evaluation of damages associated with disruption to train services and the associated costs to repair the structure. The final stage of the project involved integrating the economic assessment into a wider reaching multi-criteria analysis including indicators for train security, maintainability and environmental impact aspects. The multi-criteria approach was tested under two management strategies to evaluate the effectiveness of each embankment protection system. This paper outlines how the risk assessment, economic appraisal and management-strategy based multi-criteria approach resulted in a highly optimized system of embankment protection with significant gains in terms of both reduced cost of implementation and environmental enhancement whilst maintaining the high levels of railway security required by SNCF-RESEAU.

  17. Cheating by Economics and Business Undergraduate Students: An Exploratory International Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Aurora A. C.; Rocha, Maria Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Today's economics and business students are expected to be our future business people and potentially the economic leaders and politicians of tomorrow. Thus, their beliefs and practices are liable to affect the definition of acceptable economics and business ethics. The empirical evaluation of the phenomenon of cheating in academia has almost…

  18. Treatments for hyperemesis gravidarum and nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a systematic review and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Amy; McParlin, Catherine; Robson, Stephen C; Beyer, Fiona; Moloney, Eoin; Bryant, Andrew; Bradley, Jennifer; Muirhead, Colin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Norman, Justine; Simpson, Emma; Swallow, Brian; Yates, Laura; Vale, Luke

    2016-10-01

    Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO, Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) Abstracts, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, British Nursing Index, Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Scopus, Conference Proceedings Index, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluations Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects were searched from inception to September 2014. References from studies and literature reviews identified were also examined. Obstetric Medicine was hand-searched, as were websites of relevant organisations. Costs came from NHS sources. A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for effectiveness, and population-based case series for adverse events and fetal outcomes. Treatments: vitamins B6 and B12, ginger, acupressure/acupuncture, hypnotherapy, antiemetics, dopamine antagonists, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonists, intravenous (i.v.) fluids, corticosteroids, enteral and parenteral feeding or other novel treatment. Two reviewers extracted data and quality assessed studies. Results were narratively synthesised; planned meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity and incomplete reporting. A simple economic evaluation considered the implied values of treatments. Seventy

  19. CANDU fuel cycle economic efficiency assessments using the IAEA-MESSAGE-V code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodea, Iosif; Margeanu, Cristina Alice; Aioanei, Corina; Prisecaru, Ilie; Danila, Nicolae

    2007-01-01

    The main goal of the paper is to evaluate different electricity generation costs in a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) using different nuclear fuel cycles. The IAEA-MESSAGE code (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) will be used to accomplish these assessments. This complex tool was supplied by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2002 at 'IAEA-Regional Training Course on Development and Evaluation of Alternative Energy Strategies in Support of Sustainable Development' held in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti. It is worthy to remind that the sustainable development requires satisfying the energy demand of present generations without compromising the possibility of future generations to meet their own needs. Based on the latest public information in the next 10-15 years four CANDU-6 based NPP could be in operation in Romania. Two of them will have some enhancements not clearly specified, yet. Therefore we consider being necessary to investigate possibility to enhance the economic efficiency of existing in-service CANDU-6 power reactors. The MESSAGE program can satisfy these requirements if appropriate input models will be built. As it is mentioned in the dedicated issues, a major inherent feature of CANDU is its fuel cycle flexibility. Keeping this in mind, some proposed CANDU fuel cycles will be analyzed in the paper: Natural Uranium (NU), Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU), Recovered Uranium (RU) with and without reprocessing. Finally, based on optimization of the MESSAGE objective function an economic hierarchy of CANDU fuel cycles will be proposed. The authors used mainly public information on different costs required by analysis. (authors)

  20. Environmental & economic life cycle assessment of current & future sewage sludge to energy technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, N; Pearce, P; Farrow, J; Thorpe, R B; Kirkby, N F

    2014-01-01

    The UK Water Industry currently generates approximately 800GWh pa of electrical energy from sewage sludge. Traditionally energy recovery from sewage sludge features Anaerobic Digestion (AD) with biogas utilisation in combined heat and power (CHP) systems. However, the industry is evolving and a number of developments that extract more energy from sludge are either being implemented or are nearing full scale demonstration. This study compared five technology configurations: 1 - conventional AD with CHP, 2 - Thermal Hydrolysis Process (THP) AD with CHP, 3 - THP AD with bio-methane grid injection, 4 - THP AD with CHP followed by drying of digested sludge for solid fuel production, 5 - THP AD followed by drying, pyrolysis of the digested sludge and use of the both the biogas and the pyrolysis gas in a CHP. The economic and environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) found that both the post AD drying options performed well but the option used to create a solid fuel to displace coal (configuration 4) was the most sustainable solution economically and environmentally, closely followed by the pyrolysis configuration (5). Application of THP improves the financial and environmental performance compared with conventional AD. Producing bio-methane for grid injection (configuration 3) is attractive financially but has the worst environmental impact of all the scenarios, suggesting that the current UK financial incentive policy for bio-methane is not driving best environmental practice. It is clear that new and improving processes and technologies are enabling significant opportunities for further energy recovery from sludge; LCA provides tools for determining the best overall options for particular situations and allows innovation resources and investment to be focused accordingly. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Peat briquette as an alternative to cooking fuel: A techno-economic viability assessment in Rwanda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakizimana, Jean de Dieu K.; Kim, Hyung-Taek

    2016-01-01

    Commercialization of peat briquetting technology was analyzed to know whether the technology is economically viable or not compared to commercialization of charcoal. The investigation of economic viability was assessed from raw-peat production to briquetting technologies. The briquettes were made by naturally dried of peat from Bisika, Bahimba, Ndongozi and Nyirabirande bogs, through a rotary pulverizer and a briquette press; they were carbonized into furnace at 450 °C to reduce its health effects. The burning rate of peat briquettes made varied from 0.178 kg/hour to 0.222 kg/hour. Ash content varying between 3 and 7.2 percent was also observed. The results showed that peat briquettes can be sold at USD0.18 per unit, with a total NPV of USD17.2 million. However, as the NPV tends to be zero, the selling price would be approximately USD0.155 per briquette. Monthly charcoal expenses were about USD23.20/household compared to a per-household cost of USD16.20/month of peat briquettes consumption; the supplanting of charcoal by peat briquettes would help the average Rwandan household reduce its monthly expenses by 30 percent. Peat briquettes utilization as cooking fuel in Rwanda could save 0.05 percent of CO_2 and more than 99 percent of CH_4 emissions, compared to charcoal emissions. - Highlights: • A technical process for peat production and peat briquetting. • An efficiency test of carbonized briquettes. • Commercialization of peat briquettes is compared to commercialization of charcoal. • Opportunities for greenhouse gas emissions reduction.

  2. Pre-eclampsia Diagnosis and Treatment Options: A Review of Published Economic Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Postma, Maarten J; Baker, Philip N; van Asselt, Antoinette D I

    2015-10-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy complication affecting both mother and fetus. Although there is no proven effective method to prevent pre-eclampsia, early identification of women at risk of pre-eclampsia could enhance appropriate application of antenatal care, management and treatment. Very little is known about the cost effectiveness of these and other tests for pre-eclampsia, mainly because there is no clear treatment path. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis and treatment options in pre-eclampsia. We searched three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library) for studies on screening, diagnosis, treatment or prevention of pre-eclampsia, published between 1994 and 2014. Only full papers written in English containing complete economic assessments in pre-eclampsia were included. From an initial total of 138 references, six papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Three studies were on the cost effectiveness of treatment of pre-eclampsia, two of which evaluated magnesium sulphate for prevention of seizures and the third evaluated the cost effectiveness of induction of labour versus expectant monitoring. The other three studies were aimed at screening and diagnosis, in combination with subsequent preventive measures. The two studies on magnesium sulphate were equivocal on the cost effectiveness in non-severe cases, and the other study suggested that induction of labour in term pre-eclampsia was more cost effective than expectant monitoring. The screening studies were quite diverse in their objectives as well as in their conclusions. One study concluded that screening is probably not worthwhile, while two other studies stated that in certain scenarios it may be cost effective to screen all pregnant women and prophylactically treat those who are found to be at high risk of developing pre-eclampsia. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview

  3. Shedding light on solar technologies-A techno-economic assessment and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Michael; Schmidt, Tobias S.; Wiederkehr, David; Schneider, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Solar power technologies will have to become a major pillar in the world's future energy system to combat climate change and resource depletion. However, it is unclear which solar technology is and will prove most viable. Therefore, a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies along the key quantitative and qualitative competitiveness criteria is needed. Based on a literature review and detailed techno-economic modeling for 2010 and 2020 in five locations, we provide such an assessment for the three currently leading large-scale solar technologies. We show that today these technologies cannot yet compete with conventional forms of power generation but approach competitiveness around 2020 in favorable locations. Furthermore, from a global perspective we find that none of the solar technologies emerges as a clear winner and that cost of storing energy differs by technology and can change the order of competitiveness in some instances. Importantly, the competitiveness of the different technologies varies considerably across locations due to differences in, e.g., solar resource and discount rates. Based on this analysis, we discuss policy implications with regard to fostering the diffusion of solar technologies while increasing the efficiency of policy support through an adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies. - Highlights: → We conduct a comprehensive comparative assessment of solar technologies (CSP/PV). → While solar technologies approach competitiveness in 2020, no clear winner emerges. → Solar resource and discount rate heavily impact competitiveness of solar technologies. → Adequate geographical allocation of solar technologies increases policy efficiency. → Focus on key cost down levers and strategic co-benefits of solar technologies needed.

  4. Theoretical and methodological aspects of assessing economic effectiveness of nuclear power plant construction using cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moravcik, A.

    1984-01-01

    The cost benefit of investments is devided into social and economic benefits. The postulates are discussed for the assessment of the cost benefit of capital costs of nuclear power plants. The relations are given for total cost benefit of capital costs expressed by the total profit rate of capital costs, and the absolute effectiveness exoressed by the socio-economic benefit of capital costs. The absolute cost benefit of capital costs is characterized by several complex indexes. Comparable capital cost benefit is used for assessing the effectiveness of interchangeable variants of solution. The minimum calculated costs serve as the criterion for selecting the optimal variant. (E.S.)

  5. Technical and economic assessment for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, S.M.; Ogle, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic assessment of available alternatives for asbestos abatement within Facility 20470 at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Dayton, Ohio. Each alternative was screened on the basis of technical feasibility, environmental impact, economics, and fulfillment of the IRP goals. Four alternatives for study are: establishing a special operations and maintenance program; enclosure; encapsulation with sealants; and removal, disposal, and replacement. Each of these alternatives was assessed for capability to control the release of asbestos fibers within Facility 20470. Alternatives 1 and 4 were determined to be acceptable, while Alternatives 2 and 3 were found to be unacceptable. 2 refs., 6 figs

  6. Carbon felt and carbon fiber - A techno-economic assessment of felt electrodes for redox flow battery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Kunz, Ulrich; Turek, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    Carbon felt electrodes belong to the key components of redox flow batteries. The purpose of this techno-economic assessment is to uncover the production costs of PAN- and rayon-based carbon felt electrodes. Raw material costs, energy demand and the impact of processability of fiber and felt are considered. This innovative, interdisciplinary approach combines deep insights into technical, ecologic and economic aspects of carbon felt and carbon fiber production. Main results of the calculation model are mass balances, cumulative energy demands (CED) and the production costs of conventional and biogenic carbon felts supplemented by market assessments considering textile and carbon fibers.

  7. The socio-economic dimension of flood risk assessment: insights of KULTURisk framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Gain, Animesh; Mojtahed, Vahid; Balbi, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The approaches for vulnerability and risk assessment have found different and often contrasting solutions by various schools of thought. The two most prominent communities in this field are: climate change adaptation (CCA), and disaster risk reduction (DRR). Although those communities have usually in common the aim of reducing socio-economic vulnerability and risk to natural hazards, they have usually referred to different definitions and conceptualizations. For example, the DRR community has always driven more emphasis on the concept of risk and vulnerability is considered as a physical/environmental input for the quantification of risk, while the CCA research stream, mainly under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), considered vulnerability as an output deriving from social conditions and processes such as adaptation or maladaptation. Recently, with the publication of the IPCC Special Report on extreme events and disasters (IPCC-SREX), the notions of vulnerability and risk are somehow integrated in order to jointly consider both climate change adaptation and disaster risk management. The IPCC-SREX indeed is expected to significantly contribute to find common language and methodological approaches across disciplines and, therefore, the opportunity emerges for proposing new operational solutions, consistent with the most recent evolution of concepts and terminology. Based on the development of the IPCC Report, the KULTURisk project developed an operational framework to support integrated assessment and decision support through the combination of contributions from diverse disciplinary knowledge, with emphasis on the social and economic dimensions. KIRAF (KULTURisk Integrated Risk Assessment Framework) is specifically aimed at comprehensively evaluate the benefits of risk mitigation measures with consideration of the dynamic context deriving from the consideration of climatic changes and their effects on natural disasters, within the

  8. ACADEMICS ASSESSMENT OF STUDENTS WEB 2.0 ACTIVITIES. CASE STUDY OF THE ECONOMIC PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacurezanu Ramona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation is the way through which the universities demonstrate their own value, but also that of their graduates. Our present paper suggests a debate regarding the evaluation of students in economics in a web 2.0 world. More precisely, we are trying to offer an answer to the question: Do the students of economics have the necessary computer science abilities to learn and to be evaluated in a 2.0 web environment? The paper starts off with the presentation of fundamental principles of assessment and teaching done with Web 2.0 means and methods. The exemplifications are added to this structure as they had been presented in the specialized works of this domain. The paper then goes on to present the results of our prospective study. Through this prospective study we wanted to identify the attributes based on which we could create the next phases of our research into elaborating the behavior of the students as it is observed during the process of evaluation. This evaluation takes place in a world that is bombarded with synchronic and a-synchronic means of communication called according to acronyms such as web 2.0, 3.0 and maybe even 4.0. It is in this context that we consider that the main purpose of the present paper is to determine the state of being prepared/ unprepared characterizing the student in the use (acceptance of the evaluation and assessment of certain softs for socialization. In order to achieve our purpose, we have carried out a survey based on which we were intending to obtain the students’ level of perception regarding the evaluation system they are subjected to through web 2.0 means as well as their reaction to the web type of evaluation. The result we obtained demonstrated that the students are willing to participate at a declarative level, but they are not actually willing to be evaluated through web 2.0 means when it comes to practice. The end of the study is where we identified the need for a better means of informing and

  9. Spatiotemporal Assessment of PM2.5-Related Economic Losses from Health Impacts during 2014–2016 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Particulate air pollution, especially PM2.5, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and, ultimately, economic losses for society, however, few studies have undertaken a spatiotemporal assessment of PM2.5-related economic losses from health impacts covering all of the main cities in China. Methods: PM2.5 concentration data were retrieved for 190 Chinese cities for the period 2014–2016. We used a log-linear exposure–response model and monetary valuation methods, such as value of a statistical life (VSL, amended human capital (AHC, and cost of illness to evaluate PM2.5-related economic losses from health impacts at the city level. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze uncertainty. Results: The average economic loss was 0.3% (AHC to 1% (VSL of the total gross domestic product (GDP of 190 Chinese cities from 2014 to 2016. Overall, China experienced a downward trend in total economic losses over the three-year period, but the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing regions experienced greater annual economic losses. Conclusions: Exploration of spatiotemporal variations in PM2.5-related economic losses from long-term health impacts could provide new information for policymakers regarding priority areas for PM2.5 pollution prevention and control in China.

  10. Socio-economic scenario development for the assessment of climate change impacts on agricultural land use: a pairwise comparison approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Audsley, E.; Fekete-Farkas, M.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change is strongly dependent on concurrent changes in socio-economic development pathways. This paper presents an integrated approach to the construction of socio-economic scenarios required for the analysis of climate change impacts...... on European agricultural land use. The scenarios are interpreted from the storylines described in the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) special report on emission scenarios (SRES), which ensures internal consistency between the evolution of socio-economics and climate change. A stepwise...... downscaling procedure based on expert-judgement and pairwise comparison is presented to obtain quantitative socio-economic parameters, e.g. prices and productivity estimates that are input to the ACCELERATES integrated land use model. In the first step, the global driving forces are identified and quantified...

  11. Estimating Potential GDP for the Romanian Economy and Assessing the Sustainability of Economic Growth: A Multivariate Filter Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of economic recovery and rebalancing, the necessity of modelling and estimating the potential output and output gap emerges in order to assess the quality and sustainability of economic growth, the monetary and fiscal policies, as well as the impact of business cycles. Despite the importance of potential GDP and the output gap, there are difficulties in reliably estimating them, as many of the models proposed in the economic literature are calibrated for developed economies and are based on complex macroeconomic relationships and a long history of robust data, while emerging economies exhibit high volatility. The object of this study is to develop a model in order to estimate the potential GDP and output gap and to assess the sustainability of projected growth using a multivariate filter approach. This trend estimation technique is the newest approach proposed by the economic literature and has gained wide acceptance with researchers and practitioners alike, while also being used by the IMF for Romania. The paper will be structured as follows. We first discuss the theoretical background of the model. The second section focuses on an analysis of the Romanian economy for the 1995–2013 time frame, while also providing a forecast for 2014–2017 and an assessment of the sustainability of Romania’s economic growth. The third section sums up the results and concludes.

  12. An Integrated Decision Support System with Hydrological Processes and Socio-economic Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Disse, Markus; Yu, Ruide

    2017-04-01

    The debate over the effectiveness of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in practice has lasted for years. As the complexity and scope of IWRM increases, the difficulties of hydrological modeling is shifting from the model itself into the links with other cognate sciences, to understand the interactions among water, earth, ecosystem and humans. This work presents the design and development of a decision support system (DSS) that links the outputs of hydrological models with real-time decision making on social-economic assessments and land use changes. Discharge and glacier geometry changes were simulated with hydrological model WASA. Irrigation and ecological water were simulated by a new commercial software MIKE HYDRO. Groundwater was simulated by MODFLOW. All the outputs of theses hydrological models were integrated as inputs into the DSS in three types of links: regression equations, stationary data inputs, or dynamic data inputs into DSS as the models running parallel in the simulation periods. Within DSS, three types of logics were established: equations, conditional statements and fuzzy logics. The programming was realized in C++. The implementation of DSS takes place in the Tarim River Basin. With the mainstream of 1,321km and located in an arid area in northwest China, the Tarim River is China's longest inland river. The Tarim basin on the northern edge of the Taklamakan desert is an extremely arid region. In this region, agricultural water consumption and allocation management are crucial to address the conflicts among irrigation water users from upstream to downstream. Since 2011, the German Ministry of Science and Education BMBF established the Sino-German SuMaRiO project, for the sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River. Project SuMaRiO focus on realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. This will have positive effects for nearly 10 million inhabitants of different ethnic groups

  13. Assessing current and future techno-economic potential of concentrated solar power and photovoltaic electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köberle, Alexandre C.; Gernaat, David E.H.J.; Vuuren, Detlef P. van

    2015-01-01

    CSP and PV technologies represent energy sources with large potentials. We present cost-supply curves for both technologies using a consistent methodology for 26 regions, based on geoexplicit information on solar radiation, land cover type and slope, exploring individual potential and interdependencies. For present day, both CSP and PV supply curves start at $0.18/kWh, in North Africa, South America, and Australia. Applying accepted learning rates to official capacity targets, we project prices to drop to $0.11/kWh for both technologies by 2050. In an alternative “fast-learning” scenario, generation costs drop to $0.06–0.07/kWh for CSP, and $0.09/kWh for PV. Competition between them for best areas is explored along with sensitivities of their techno-economic potentials to land use restrictions and land cover type. CSP was found to be more competitive in desert sites with highest direct solar radiation. PV was a clear winner in humid tropical regions, and temperate northern hemisphere. Elsewhere, no clear winner emerged, highlighting the importance of competition in assessments of potentials. Our results show there is ample potential globally for both technologies even accounting for land use restrictions, but stronger support for RD&D and higher investments are needed to make CSP and PV cost-competitive with established power technologies by 2050. - Highlights: • A consistent assessment of global potential for CSP and PV, with cost-supply curves for 26 regions. • Combined global CSP and PV potential below US$0.35/kWh estimated at 135,128 TWh per year. • Competition for same land-based solar resource implies that potentials cannot be added. • Attractive areas are MENA, Northern Chile, Australia, China and Southwestern USA. • Costs are projected to go down over time, reaching US$0.06–0.11/KWh for attractive sites in 2050

  14. Economic assessment of postoperative pain control strategies for treatment of adult patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Freitas dos Santos

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: The authors performed an economic assessment of opioids currently being used for control of postoperative pain relating to the surgical treatment of cancer (fentanyl and sufentanil within the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS, in the Portuguese acronym. Method: The assessment was based on the perspective of the government, in order to collaborate with the promotion of effectiveness in public policies of health, and to optimize the allocation of public resources into health. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed using data collected from the Brazilian Unified Health System and information from literature review, in order to build a decision tree on the alternatives for control of postoperative pain related to cancer treatment among adult patients. The outcomes considered were: effectiveness of postoperative analgesia and occurrence of nausea and vomit in the 48 hour period after surgery, and additional 24-hour cycles in patient follow-up. A univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to verify robustness of the model estimated. Results: Literature review showed a limited number of studies directly comparing fentanyl and sufentanil for control of postoperative pain. The adoption of sufentanil (cost = U$ 25.72 / outcome = 1.6 VAS points was dominant in relation to the use of fentanyl (cost = U$ 32.58 / outcome = 2.6 VAS points. The estimated model showed robustness in relation to changes in the parameters analyzed. Conclusion: Sufentanil presented higher cost-effectiveness ratio in relation to fentanyl for control of postoperative pain in surgeries related to cancer treatment among adult patients in the Brazilian Unified Health System.

  15. Technical and economic assessment of power generation from municipal solid waste incineration on steam cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Luna, Carlos Manuel; Carrocci, Luiz Roberto; Ferrufino, Gretta Larisa Aurora Arce; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Dept. of Energy. UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], e-mails: carrocci@feg.unesp.br, perrella@feg.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, there is a concern in development of environmentally friendly methods for a municipal solid waste (MSW) management and demand for renewable energy sources. The source of waste is increasing, and the capacity and availability Landfill treatment and disposal are coming to be insufficient. In Sao Paulo City, the 10 million inhabitants produce 10,000 t of residential solid waste daily, being that 76% this quantity goes to landfill sites. In order to adopt a new treatment technology for MSW that will promote a solution minimizing this problem, within the order of priorities regarding waste management, the MSW incineration with energy recovery shown as the leading choice on the point of view of efficiency in converting energy. MSW incineration with energy recovery received wide acceptance from various countries including European Union members and the rest of the world in the past 15 years. Incineration has the ability decrease 90 % the volume of waste to be used in landfills, increasing the useful life of existing as well as a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. MSW incineration systems have a low global warming potential (GWP). now has become a less important source of dioxins and furans due to the current available technology. MSW incineration with energy recovery could contribute considerably in the energy matrix, thus promote the conservation of non-renewable resources. This paper proposes the assessment the technical and economic feasibility of a steam cycle with conventional steam generator for MSW incineration with energy recovery for power generation in Sao Paulo City. Will be developed a thermoeconomic analysis aiming at the total power generation product of MSW incineration, and the assessment investment cost regarding the total sale of power generated. The study shows that Sao Paulo City has potential for power generation from the MSW incineration, although it has a high cost investment this technology shown as a suitable alternative for

  16. Economic, social, energy and environmental assessment of inter-municipality commuting: The case of Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, João-Pedro; Barata, Eduardo; Ramos, Pedro Nogueira; Cruz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Commuting is one of the main contributors to the high energy consumption patterns in modern economies. The need to reduce the energy spent in commuting has attracted the attention of academics and policy makers. The main goal of this research is to improve knowledge of the economic, social, energy and environmental opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting and to support policy-oriented strategies that explicitly take them into account. For this, we use hypothetical assumptions based on the baseline scenario that Portuguese households do not travel between municipalities for commuting purposes coupled with the expected changes in private final consumption. Accordingly, the direct, indirect and induced opportunity costs of inter-municipality commuting are assessed using an input–output model. The significance of the estimated virtual net benefits of commuting is analyzed according to their macroeconomic (GVA, taxes, international imports and employment), energy (primary energy consumption) and environmental (CO 2 emissions) dimensions. The results obtained empirically indicate that inter-municipality commuting has significant opportunity costs in the GVA and GDP as well as in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions. The results also indicate that commuters in metropolitan regions and long-distance commuters are responsible for a major share of these opportunity costs. - Highlights: • This paper provides an insight into the magnitude of opportunity costs of commuting. • Input–output modeling is valuable to assess changes in final consumption patterns. • About 25% of household's fuel consumption is due to inter-municipality commuting. • Inter-municipality commuting has net negative effects on GDP, GVA and employment. • The main opportunity costs come from metropolitan and long distance commuting

  17. Economic assessment of wild bird mortality induced by the use of lead gunshot in European wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Alessandro; Guberti, Vittorio; Nardelli, Riccardo; Pirrello, Simone; Serra, Lorenzo; Volponi, Stefano; Green, Rhys E

    2018-01-01

    In European wetlands, at least 40 bird species are exposed to the risk of lead poisoning caused by ingestion of spent lead gunshot. Adopting a methodology developed in North America, we estimated that about 700,000 individuals of 16 waterbird species die annually in the European Union (EU) (6.1% of the wintering population) and one million in whole Europe (7.0%) due to acute effects of lead poisoning. Furthermore, threefold more birds suffer sub-lethal effects. We assessed the economic loss due to this lead-induced mortality of these 16 species by calculating the costs of replacing lethally poisoned wild birds by releasing captive-bred ones. We assessed the cost of buying captive-bred waterbirds for release from market surveys and calculated how many captive-bred birds would have to be released to compensate for the loss, taking into account the high mortality rate of captive birds (72.7%) in the months following release into the wild. Following this approach, the annual cost of waterbird mortality induced by lead shot ingestion is estimated at 105 million euros per year in the EU countries and 142 million euros in the whole of Europe. An alternative method, based upon lost opportunities for hunting caused by deaths due to lead poisoning, gave similar results of 129 million euros per year in the EU countries and 185 million euros per year in the whole of Europe. For several reasons these figures should be regarded as conservative. Inclusion of deaths of species for which there were insufficient data and delayed deaths caused indirectly by lead poisoning and effects on reproduction would probably increase the estimated losses substantially. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the benefits of a restriction on the use of lead gunshot over wetlands could exceed the cost of adapting to non-lead ammunition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Approaches for Assessing the Economic Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    periods, unit timing (spread of investments over time); and, possibly, greater involvement of local industry and local labour. The effectiveness of all of these approaches to SMR design and deployment depends on the application and on market variables, such as interest rates, and needs to be assessed and demonstrated for specific cases. Upon the advice and with the support of IAEA Member States, the IAEA provides a forum for the exchange of information by experts and policy makers from industrialized and developing countries on the technical, economic, environmental and social aspects of SMR development and implementation in the twenty-first century, and makes this information available to all interested Member States by producing status reports and other publications dedicated to advances in SMR design and technology development. This report was prepared to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of SMR technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); to provide information on available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that are introducing SMRs into their energy mix. The report is intended for a variety of stakeholders including: design organizations involved in SMR development programmes; investors and potential users of innovative SMRs; and officers in the ministries or atomic energy commissions in Member States responsible for implementing nuclear technology development programmes or evaluating nuclear power deployment options in the near, medium and longer term. The main sections of this report highlight the experience with and future plans for SMRs in several Member States, and present the available methodological options to assist design organizations and guide potential users on the economic performance

  19. Economic and environmental assessment of cellulosic ethanol production scenarios annexed to a typical sugar mill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2017-01-01

    In this work different biorefinery scenarios were investigated, concerning the co-production of bioethanol and electricity from available lignocellulose at a typical sugar mill, as possible extensions to the current combustion of bagasse for steam and electricity production and burning trash on-filed. In scenario 1, the whole bagasse and brown leaves is utilized in a biorefinery and coal is burnt in the existing inefficient sugar mill boiler. Scenario 2 & 3 are assumed with a new centralized CHP unit without/with coal co-combustion, respectively. Also, through scenarios 4 & 5, the effect of water insoluble loading were studied. All scenarios provided energy for the sugarmill and the ethanol plant, with the export of surplus electricity. Economic analysis determined that scenario 1 was the most viable scenario due to less capital cost and economies-of scale. Based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results, scenario 2 outperformed the other scenarios, while three scenarios showed lower contribution to environmental burdens than the current situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

  1. Assessment of energy and economic performance of office building models: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X. Y.; Ye, C. T.; Li, H. S.; Wang, X. L.; Ma, W. B.

    2016-08-01

    Energy consumption of building accounts for more than 37.3% of total energy consumption while the proportion of energy-saving buildings is just 5% in China. In this paper, in order to save potential energy, an office building in Southern China was selected as a test example for energy consumption characteristics. The base building model was developed by TRNSYS software and validated against the recorded data from the field work in six days out of August-September in 2013. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for energy performance of building envelope retrofitting; five envelope parameters were analyzed for assessing the thermal responses. Results indicated that the key sensitivity factors were obtained for the heat-transfer coefficient of exterior walls (U-wall), infiltration rate and shading coefficient (SC), of which the sum sensitivity factor was about 89.32%. In addition, the results were evaluated in terms of energy and economic analysis. The analysis of sensitivity validated against some important results of previous studies. On the other hand, the cost-effective method improved the efficiency of investment management in building energy.

  2. Economic Assessment of an Integrated Membrane System for Secondary Effluent Polishing for Unrestricted Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gideon Oron

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Extra treatment stages are required to polish the secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse, primarily for agricultural irrigation. Improved technology for the removal of particles, turbidity, bacteria and cysts, without the use of disinfectants is based on MicroFiltration (MF and UltraFiltration (UF membrane technology and in series with Reverse Osmosis (RO for dissolved solids removal. Field experiments were conducted using a mobile UF and RO membrane pilot unit at a capacity of around 1.0 m3/hr. A management model was defined and tested towards optimal polishing of secondary effluent. The two major purposes of the management model are: (i to delineate a methodology for economic assessment of optimal membrane technology implementation for secondary effluent upgrading for unrestricted use, and; (ii to provide guidelines for optimal RO membrane selection in regards to the pretreatment stage. The defined linear model takes into account the costs of the feed secondary effluent, the UF pretreatment and the RO process. Technological constraints refer primarily to the longevity of the membrane and their performance. Final treatment cost (the objective function includes investment, operation and maintenance expenses, UF pretreatment, RO treatment, post treatment and incentive for low salinity permeate use. The cost range of water for irrigation according to the model is between 15 and 42 US cents per m3.

  3. Assessment of the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R. [Department of Hydraulic and Energy Engineering, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), c/Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Environmental constraints imposed on hydropower plant operation are usually given in the form of minimum environmental flows and, in some cases, in the form of maximum and minimum rates of change of flows, or ramping rates. Environmental constraints reduce the amount of water available to produce electricity and limit the contribution of peak hydropower plants to adapting the power supply to the demand and to providing certain ancillary services to the electrical grid, such as spinning reserve or load-frequency control. The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impact of environmental constraints on short-term hydropower plant operation. For that purpose, a revenue-driven daily optimization model based on mixed integer linear programming is used. The model considers the head variation and its influence on the units' efficiency, as well as the option of starting-up or shutting-down the plant at any hour of the day, should it be advantageous, while releasing the environmental flow through the bottom outlets. In order to illustrate the applicability of the methodology, it is applied in a real hydropower plant under different operating conditions and environmental constraints. (author)

  4. Assessing the Potential Economic Viability of Precision Irrigation: A Theoretical Analysis and Pilot Empirical Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Galioto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the value generated by the use of information to rationalize the use of water resources in agriculture. The study introduces the value of information concept in the field of irrigation developing a theoretical assessment framework to evaluate whether the introduction of “Precision Irrigation” (PI practices can improve expectations on income. This is supported by a Stakeholders consultation and by a numerical example, using secondary data and crop growth models. The study reveals that the value generated with the transition to PI varies with pedo-climate, economic, technological and other conditions, and it depends on the initial status of the farmer’s information environment. These factors affect the prerequisite needed to make viable PI. To foster the adoption of PI, stakeholders envisaged the need to set up free meteorological information and advisory service that supports farmers in using PI, as well as other type of instruments. The paper concludes that the profitability of adoption and the relevant impact on the environment cannot be considered as generally given, but must be evaluated case by case justifying (or not the activation of specific agricultural policy measures supporting PI practices to target regions.

  5. An expost economic assessment of the intervention against highly pathogenic avian influenza in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadou L. Fadiga

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the intervention against avian influenza in Nigeria. It applied a simple compartmental model to define endemic and burn-out scenarios for the risk of spread of HPAI in Nigeria. It followed with the derivation of low and high mortality risks associated to each scenario. The estimated risk parameters were subsequently used to stochastically simulate the trajectory of the disease, had no intervention been carried out. Overall, the intervention costs US$ 41 million, which was yearly dis- bursed in various amounts over the 2006-2010 period. The key output variables (incremental net benefit, disease cost, and benefit cost ratio were estimated for each randomly drawn risk parameter. With a 12% annual discount rate, the results show that the intervention was economically justified under the endemic scenario with high mortality risk. On average, incremental benefit under this scenario amounted to US$ 63.7 million, incremental net benefit to US$27.2 million, and benefit cost ratio estimated to 1.75.

  6. Economic Assessment of Overtopping BReakwater for Energy Conversion (OBREC: A Case Study in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Contestabile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs an optimal configuration assessment, in terms of the financial returns, of the Overtopping BReakwater for wave Energy Conversion (OBREC. This technology represents a hybrid wave energy harvester, totally embedded in traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Nine case studies along the southern coast of Western Australia have been analysed. The technique provides tips on how to estimate the quality of the investments, for benchmarking with different turbine strategy layouts and overlapping with the costs of traditional rubble mound breakwaters. Analyses of the offshore and nearshore wave climate have been studied by a high resolution coastal propagation model, forced with wave data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. Inshore wave conditions have been used to quantify the exploitable resources. It has been demonstrated that the optimal investment strategy is nonlinearly dependent on potential electricity production due to outer technical constraints. The work emphasizes the importance of integrating energy production predictions in an economic decision framework for prioritizing adaptation investments.

  7. Technical and economic assessment of the integrated solar combined cycle power plants in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani Hosseini, M.; Hosseini, R.; Valizadeh, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal efficiency, capacity factor, environmental considerations, investment cost, fuel and O and M costs are the main parameters for technical and economic assessment of solar power plants. This analysis has shown that the Integrated Solar Combined Cycle System with 67 MW e solar field(ISCCS-67) is the most suitable plan for the first solar power plant in Iran. The Levelized Energy Costs of combined cycle and ISCCS-67 power plants would be equal if 49 million dollars of ISCCS-67 capital cost supplied by the international environmental organizations such as Global Environmental Facilities and World Bank. This study shows that an ISCCS-67 saves 59 million dollars in fuel consumption and reduces about 2.4 million ton in CO 2 emission during 30 years operating period. Increasing of steam turbine capacity by 50%, and 4% improvement in overall efficiency are other advantages of iSCCS-67 power plant. The LEC of ISCCS-67 is 10% and so 33% lower than the combined cycle and gas turbine, respectively, at the same capacity factor with consideration of environmental costs

  8. 78 FR 7390 - Information Collection Request; Economic Assessment of Conservation Reserve Program Lands for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... enhance essential ecosystem resources, including wildlife, which has been documented to provide improved... Agricultural and Resource Economics. Estimate of Burden: Public reporting burden for this information...

  9. Assessment of nuclear fuel cycles with respect to assurance of energy supply; economic aspects; environmental aspects; non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This paper, which was presented to all INFCE Working Groups gives a broad qualitative assessment in tabular form of the following five fuel cycles: LWR once-through, LWR with thermal recycle, HWR once-through, HTR with uranium recycle, fast breeder reactor. The assessment is given of the assurance of supply aspects, the macro- and micro-economic aspects, the environmental aspects, and the non-proliferation, including safeguards, aspects of each fuel cycle

  10. Assessment of validation of health-economics decision models in intervention studies of seasonal influenza and breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, P.T.; Frederix, G.W.; Al, M.J.; Feenstra, T.F.; Vemer, P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to review recently published health-economic (HE) decision models to assess the reporting of validation efforts. An infectious disease (seasonal influenza, SI) and a chronic disease (breast cancer, BC) were used as examples, giving a preliminary insight in the reporting of

  11. Combined assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of structural solutions for residential construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraile-García, E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci

  12. Preliminary economic assessment of the use of waste frying oils for biodiesel production in Beirut, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Elyssa G; Salam, Darine A

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a method for assessing the costs of biodiesel production from waste frying oils in Beirut, Lebanon, was investigated with the aim of developing an economic evaluation of this alternative. A hundred restaurant and hotel enterprises in Beirut were surveyed for promoting them in participating in the biodiesel supply chain, and for data collection on waste frying oils generation, disposal methods and frequency, and acquisition cost. Also, waste frying oils were collected and converted into biodiesel using a one-step base catalyzed transesterification process. Physicochemical characteristics of the produced biodiesel were conforming to international standards. Data produced from laboratory scale conversion of waste frying oils to biodiesel, as well as data collected from the only biodiesel plant in Lebanon was used to determine the production cost of biodiesel. Geographic Information System was used to propose a real-time vehicle routing model to establish the logistics costs associated with waste frying oils collection. Comparing scenarios of the configuration collection network of waste frying oils, and using medium-duty commercial vehicles for collection, a logistics cost of US$/L 0.08 was optimally reached. For the calculation of the total cost of biodiesel production, the minimum, average, and maximum values for the non-fixed cost variables were considered emerging 81 scenarios for possible biodiesel costs. These were compared with information on the commercialization of diesel in Lebanon for the years 2011 through 2017. Although competitive with petroleum diesel for years 2011 to 2014, the total biodiesel cost presented less tolerance to declining diesel prices in the recent years. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the acquisition cost of waste frying oils is the key factor affecting the overall cost of biodiesel production. The results of this study validate the economic feasibility of waste frying oils' biodiesel production in the studied

  13. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Keegan, Conor; Barry, Sarah; Layte, Richard; Jowett, Matt; Normand, Charles

    2013-10-30

    The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess

  14. Is Higher Education Economically Unsustainable? An Exploration of Factors That Undermine Sustainability Assessments of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragakis, Antonios; van den Dobbelsteen, Andy; Maragakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    As students continue to review the sustainability of higher education institutions, there is a growing need to understand the economic returns of degrees as a function of a sustainable institution. This paper reviews a range of international research to summarize the economic drivers of higher education attainment. Although the cost inputs to…

  15. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  16. Assessing economic consequences of foot disorders in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Hogeveen, H.; Stassen, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    Foot disorders are an important health problem in dairy cattle, in terms of economics and animal welfare. The incidence, severity, and duration of foot disorders account for their importance. Prevalence of both subclinical and clinical foot disorders is high. More insight into the economic

  17. ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ASTRAKHAN REGION AND ITS DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almina B. Eldyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of statistical analysis of socio-economic development of Astrakhan region and its districts for the period 2008-2013, on the basis of which it was revealed the strongest economic inequality between the regions and the Krasnoyarsk region, where «Gazprom» that leads to huge imbalances in socio-economic development. Multivariate analysis to identify problem areas and priority directions of socio-economic development of municipal districts of the Astrakhan region was conducted.Application of the results of the analysis can enhance the effectiveness of actions of Executive bodies of various levels in the process of regulation of socio-economic development of society.

  18. The Role of Nuclear Power for Sustainable Development: Assessment of Nuclear Power's Contribution to National Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, B. J.; Lee, M. K.; Ahn, S. K.

    2008-04-01

    The study begins with a short review of nuclear power development in Korea within the overall reference energy system. It then explores changing circumstances, present energy balances and ultimately the needs underpinning future electricity requirements. The major part of the study uses a model-based approach to analyze and quantify economic linkages between nuclear technologies and other economic sectors, and to assess various techno-economic futures that include nuclear generation for the Korean power sector, exploring for each future scenario the optimal electricity supply mix. The results of the analysis represents that the nuclear industry in the Republic of Korea has already made strong contributions to the growth of the country. It has been an integral part of the country's economic development, evolving from an import- to an export-oriented industry, providing spin-offs to Korean technological innovation as well as to socio-economic development such as infrastructure and education. Furthermore, the study provides some meaningful suggestions and recommendations in order to make sound decisions for sustainable energy policy and strategies, in particular for achieving a balance in nuclear power development and socio-economic development consistent with sustainable energy development goals. In general, these reflect the increasing national (public and private) participation in the nuclear industry. Specifically, the study identifies the nuclear relevant strategies in four dimensions: innovative nuclear technology development, nuclear human resource development and management (HRD and M), investment and financing of the nuclear technology and enhancement of institutional framework

  19. A systematic review of socio-economic assessments in support of coastal zone management (1992-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gentil, Eric; Mongruel, Rémi

    2015-02-01

    Cooperation between the social and natural sciences has become essential in order to encompass all the dimensions of coastal zone management. Socio-economic approaches are increasingly recommended to complement integrated assessment in support of these initiatives. A systematic review of the academic literature was carried out in order to analyze the main types of socio-economic assessments used to inform the coastal zone management process as well as their effectiveness. A corpus of 1682 articles published between 1992 and 2011 was identified by means of the representative coverage approach, from which 170 were selected by applying inclusion/exclusion criteria and then classified using a content analysis methodology. The percentage of articles that mention the use of socio-economic assessment in support of coastal zone management initiatives is increasing but remains relatively low. The review examines the links between the issues addressed by integrated assessments and the chosen analytical frameworks as well as the various economic assessment methods which are used in the successive steps of the coastal zone management process. The results show that i) analytical frameworks such as 'risk and vulnerability', 'DPSIR', 'valuation', 'ecosystem services' and 'preferences' are likely to lead to effective integration of social sciences in coastal zone management research while 'integration', 'sustainability' and 'participation' remain difficult to operationalize, ii) risk assessments are insufficiently implemented in developing countries, and iii) indicator systems in support of multi-criteria analyses could be used during more stages of the coastal zone management process. Finally, it is suggested that improved collaboration between science and management would require that scientists currently involved in coastal zone management processes further educate themselves in integrated assessment approaches and participatory methodologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  20. Medical and health economic assessment of radiosurgery for the treatment of brain metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von der Schulenburg, Johann-Matthias

    2009-03-01

    treatment groups. Methodologically less rigorous studies provide no conclusive evidence with regard to medical effectiveness and safety, comparing SRS to WBRT, neurosurgery (NS or hypofractionated radiotherapy (HCSRT. The quality of life is not investigated in any of the studies. Within the searched databases a total of 320 economic publications are identified. Five publications are eligible for this report. The five reports have a quiet variable quality. Concerning the economic efficiency of alternative equipment, while assuming equal effectiveness, the calculations show, that economic efficiency depends to a large extend on the number of patients treated. In case the two alternative equipments are used solely for SRS, the Gamma Knife might be more cost-efficient. Otherwise an adapted linear accelerator is most likely to be beneficial because of its flexibility. One Health Technology Assessment (HTA states, that the cost for a Gamma Knife and a dedicated linear accelerator are comparable, while an adapted version is cheaper. No reports concerning ethical, legal and social aspects are identified. Discussion: Overall, quantity and quality of identified studies is limited. However, the identified studies indicate that the prognosis of patients with brain metastases is despite highly developed and modern treatment regimes still limited. Conclusive evidence with regard to the effectiveness of identified interventions is only available for the combined treatment of SRS and WBRT compared to SRS or WBRT alone. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence to compare SRS with WBRT, NS or HCSRT. The efficiency of the different equipments depends to a great extent on the number and the indications of the patients treated. If dedicated systems are used to their full capacity, there is some evidence for superior cost-effectiveness. If more treatment flexibility is required, adapted systems seem to be advantageous. However, equal treatment effectiveness is a necessary assumption for these

  1. The Salem Smart Power Center: An Assessment of Battery Performance and Economic Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducci, Patrick J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Alam, M. J.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Viswanathan, Vilayanur [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wu, Di [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Aladsair J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mongird, Kendall [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Somani, Abhishek [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Whitener, Kevin [Portland General Electric, OR (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This paper presents an assessment of the economic potential of a 5 MW/1.25 MWh Energy Storage System (ESS) installed at the Salem Smart Power Center (SSPC), a smart grid technology demonstration facility owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE) in Salem, Oregon. The ESS and the grid conditions in which it operates were modeled using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Battery Storage Evaluation Tool (BSET) to explore tradeoffs between services, and to develop optimal control strategies. This assessment monetized the value derived from nine services the SSPC could provide to PGE and the customers it serves. The ESS and the grid conditions in which it operates were modeled using PNNL’s in-house optimization tool BSET to explore tradeoffs between services, and to develop optimal control strategies. The analysis resulted in a number of lessons that provide crucial insights into the practical application of ESS, including; The SSPC, which was originally conceived as a research and test facility and built with the prevailing maturity technology level, was built at a cost ($20.4 million) that exceeds current day prices ($5.4 million) for a similarly designed and built 5 MW/1.25 MWh system; In terms of economic operation, the SSPC is currently underutilized, deployed only for primary frequency response. PNNL modeling indicates that optimal operation of the ESS could generate an additional value of $2.3 million over 20 years. It should also be noted that primary frequency response is the highest benefit application but requires a response from the SSPC only 17 hours each year. While optimally engaged, the ESS would provide arbitrage and ancillary services 78 percent of the time, but those services generate only 27 percent of the total value; Participation in Western EIM represents an interesting opportunity for PGE with a potential to generate $2.1 million value in PV terms over 20 years in the 5-min real-time market; With an energy to power ratio of

  2. A life cycle multi-objective economic and environmental assessment of distributed generation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaei, Amir; Freire, Fausto; Henggeler Antunes, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A lifecycle optimization model for distributed energy systems is developed. • Model estimates costs and environmental impacts of meeting the building energy demand. • Design and operating strategies to reduce costs and environmental impacts are discussed. • Pareto frontiers of costs vis-à-vis environmental impacts are presented. • Distributed generation can reduce the environmental impacts of the building sector. - Abstract: Distributed generation, namely cogeneration and solar technologies, is expected to play an important role in the future energy supply mix in buildings. This calls for a methodological framework to assess the economic and environmental performance of the building sector when such technologies are employed. A life-cycle model has been developed, combining distributed generation and conventional sources to calculate the cost and environmental impacts of meeting the building energy demand over a defined planning period. Three type of cogeneration technologies, solar photovoltaic and thermal, as well as conventional boilers along with the Portuguese electricity generation mix comprise the energy systems modeled. Pareto optimal frontiers are derived, showing the trade-offs between different types of impacts (non-renewable cumulative energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions, acidification, eutrophication) and cost to meet the energy demand of a commercial building. Our analysis shows that according to the objective to employ distributed generation (reducing cost or environmental impacts), a specific design and operational strategy for the energy systems shall be adopted. The strategies to minimize each type of impact and the associated cost trade-offs by exploring the solutions located on the Pareto optimal frontiers are discussed

  3. Environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis of triboelectric nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-02-22

    As the world economy grows and industrialization of the developing countries increases, the demand for energy continues to rise. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) have been touted as having great potential for low-carbon, non-fossil fuel energy generation. Mechanical energies from, amongst others, body motion, vibration, wind and waves are captured and converted by TENGs to harvest electricity, thereby minimizing global fossil fuel consumption. However, only by ascertaining performance efficiency along with low material and manufacturing costs as well as a favorable environmental profile in comparison with other energy harvesting technologies, can the true potential of TENGs be established. This paper presents a detailed techno-economic lifecycle assessment of two representative examples of TENG modules, one with a high performance efficiency (Module A) and the other with a lower efficiency (Module B) both fabricated using low-cost materials. The results are discussed across a number of sustainability metrics in the context of other energy harvesting technologies, notably photovoltaics. Module A possesses a better environmental profile, lower cost of production, lower CO2 emissions and shorter energy payback period (EPBP) compared to Module B. However, the environmental profile of Module B is slightly degraded due to the higher content of acrylic in its architecture and higher electrical energy consumption during fabrication. The end of life scenario of acrylic is environmentally viable given its recyclability and reuse potential and it does not generate toxic gases that are harmful to humans and the environment during combustion processes due to its stability during exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Despite the adoption of a less optimum laboratory manufacturing route, TENG modules generally have a better environmental profile than commercialized Si based and organic solar cells, but Module B has a slightly higher energy payback period than PV technology based

  4. Assessment of the economic impact of ozone on the agricultural sector in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jallala, A.M.

    1990-05-01

    Ozone is the most damaging secondary pollutant to agricultural production, according to the literature. It is estimated that 90% of crop losses due to air pollution are caused by ozone. The economic impact of ozone on 20 agricultural commodities in Ontario is assessed in two steps. In the first, ozone contour maps are generated for the province. The results suggest an average ozone concentration of 40 ppB, higher than the natural background of 20 ppB. The second step measures the change in consumer and producer surplus that results from reductions in ozone levels in Ontario from 40 ppB to 20 ppB. Consumer plus producer surpluses correspond to the area below the demand curve and above the supply curve to the left of their intersection. A nonlinear programming model that maximizes consumer and producer surpluses, subject to a set of constraints, was run twice. The first run incorporates realized yields and production costs, and the second incorporates biological yield changes owing to ozone and the associated changes in production costs. The difference in value of the objective functions between the two runs shows the net benefits of reduced ozone levels. Results indicate an average net benefit of $64.3 million/y or 5.8% of the total value of all the crops considered. Average annual consumer benefits are $44.1 million and producer benefits $20.2 million. Not all producers benefit from ozone reductions; producers of fresh vegetables lose while producers of grain corn, soybeans, and winter wheat gain. 54 refs., 6 figs., 15 tabs

  5. Materials, system designs and modelling approaches in techno-economic assessment of all-vanadium redox flow batteries - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minke, Christine; Turek, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    The vanadium redox flow battery (VFB) is one of the most promising stationary electrochemical storage systems. The reduction of system costs is a major challenge in the realization of its widespread application. The high complexity of this technology requires a close linking of technologic and economic aspects in system cost assessment. The present review provides an extensive literature analysis with a focus on techno-economic assessment of VFB. Considered materials, system designs and modelling approaches are assessed and compared in order to present and evaluate the current status of system cost assessment in a transparent way. Systems in a range of 2 kW-50 MW providing energy for up to 150 h are covered in literature resulting in an immense range of specific total system costs of 564-12931 € kW-1 or 89-1738 € (kWh)-1. Based on the data from the reviewed studies, guide values of 650 € (kWh)-1 and 550 € (kWh)-1 for installed VFB systems in a power range of 10-1000 kW providing energy for 4 h and 8 h respectively are derived from literature. Moreover, the relevance of precision in the definition of scope and components for meaningful results of techno-economic assessments of VFB systems is pointed out.

  6. Methanol synthesis using captured CO2 as raw material: Techno-economic and environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Fortes, Mar; Schöneberger, Jan C.; Boulamanti, Aikaterini; Tzimas, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A carbon utilisation plant that synthesise methanol is simulated in CHEMCAD. • The total amount of CO 2 demand is 1.46 t/t methanol . • The CO 2 not-produced compared to a conventional plant is 0.54 t/t methanol . • Production costs results too high for a financially attractive project. • There is a net potential for CO 2 emissions reduction of 2.71 MtCO 2 /yr in Europe. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess via techno-economic and environmental metrics the production of methanol (MeOH) using H 2 and captured CO 2 as raw materials. It evaluates the potential of this type of carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) plant on (i) the net reduction of CO 2 emissions and (ii) the cost of production, in comparison with the conventional synthesis process of MeOH Europe. Process flow modelling is used to estimate the operational performance and the total purchased equipment cost; the flowsheet is implemented in CHEMCAD, and the obtained mass and energy flows are utilised as input to calculate the selected key performance indicators (KPIs). CO 2 -based metrics are used to assess the environmental impact. The evaluated MeOH plant produces 440 ktMeOH/yr, and its configuration is the result of a heat integration process. Its specific capital cost is lower than for conventional plants. However, raw materials prices, i.e. H 2 and captured CO 2 , do not allow such a project to be financially viable. In order to make the CCU plant financially attractive, the price of MeOH should increase in a factor of almost 2, or H 2 costs should decrease almost 2.5 times, or CO 2 should have a value of around 222 €/t, under the assumptions of this work. The MeOH CCU-plant studied can utilise about 21.5% of the CO 2 emissions of a pulverised coal (PC) power plant that produces 550 MW net of electricity. The net CO 2 emissions savings represent 8% of the emissions of the PC plant (mainly due to the avoidance of consuming fossil fuels as in the conventional Me

  7. The improvement of approaches to assessment of the financial condition of economic entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senko A.E.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, the lack of unified approaches to the calculation of financial indicators, the multiple interpretations of their meanings ​​and the imperfection of information support of financial analysis hamper the effectiveness of economic entities operating under market principles. The existing approach to determining the financial condition of an enterprise does not always give the required qualitative result of an evaluation of its financial and economic activities. While analyzing the financial status of economic entities, it would be useful to take into account their industry particularities, size and organizational structure, development strategy and competitiveness in the market for goods and services.

  8. Balancing the positives and negatives: the challenge of socio-economic effects assessment of the Port Hope area initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodarczyk, T.L.; Flynn, B.

    2006-01-01

    The Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI) is a community-based program directed at the development and implementation of a safe, long-term management solution for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) that has existed in two communities in the Port Hope area for some seven decades. As part of the environmental assessment of the two projects (i.e., the Port Hope Project and the Port Granby Project) being undertaken as part of the PHAI, two separate socio-economic effects assessments were completed. The assessments were designed to be broad ranging assessments of the effects of the Projects on people and their communities. This paper discusses how the assessments identified and assessed the positive and negative effects of the two Projects, what those effects were, and draws conclusions on whether the positives outweigh the negatives. (author)

  9. Economic filters for evaluating porphyry copper deposit resource assessments using grade-tonnage deposit models, with examples from the U.S. Geological Survey global mineral resource assessment: Chapter H in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gilpin R.; Menzie, W. David

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of the amount and location of undiscovered mineral resources that are likely to be economically recoverable is important for assessing the long-term adequacy and availability of mineral supplies. This requires an economic evaluation of estimates of undiscovered resources generated by traditional resource assessments (Singer and Menzie, 2010). In this study, simplified engineering cost models were used to estimate the economic fraction of resources contained in undiscovered porphyry copper deposits, predicted in a global assessment of copper resources. The cost models of Camm (1991) were updated with a cost index to reflect increases in mining and milling costs since 1989. The updated cost models were used to perform an economic analysis of undiscovered resources estimated in porphyry copper deposits in six tracts located in North America. The assessment estimated undiscovered porphyry copper deposits within 1 kilometer of the land surface in three depth intervals.

  10. Assessing bio-economic impacts and climate adaptation potential in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, A.

    2009-04-01

    According to Global Circulation Model predictions, Belgium is situated on a wedge between a wetter and drier climatic regime. Observed changes show an increase of 1.3°C during the past decade, a higher frequency of warm summer days and a 6% increase in rainfall with a pronounced rise in winter precipitation of about 25% as compared to the normal (1961-1990). Since agriculture is particularly sensitive to climate variability and occupies more than 61% of the land surface in Flanders, the rural landscape will be confronted with profound changes. A combination of climate scenarios, production models and economic evaluation was used to assess climate impacts on agricultural goods & services, adaptation costs due to production losses and adaptation options. Agro-ecosystems offer a wide range of productive, supporting, regulating and cultural services to society. Productive services relate to crop, animal and energy production, but will alter with climate change. Supporting services such as biodiversity, soil and water quality will be negatively affected by a higher climate variability, increasing erosion and sediment transport, enhancing the breakdown of soil organic matter, lowering soil quality and increasing runoff or leaching of agri-chemicals. The effect of a warmer climate on regulating services is an intensification of most nutrient cycles with increased emissions, which may be compensated for by carbon storage in faster and longer growing crops. The need for flooding areas may result in a net-reduction of the agricultural area. A higher probability of dry weather during summer time and a longer growing season may enlarge the attraction of recreating in rural areas. Knowledge on the interaction of agro-ecosystem services and climate change is required to formulate sustainable adaptation measures. Heat stress and water shortages lead to reduced crop growth, whereas increased CO2-concentrations and a prolonged growing season have a positive effect on crop yields

  11. An environmental-economic assessment of genetic modification of agricultural crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Holley, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of genetic modification of organisms in agriculture are reviewed. These relate to the environment, human health, socio-economic effects, population growth, and differential consequences for developed and developing countries. An overall evaluation requires that

  12. Econometric Assessment of the Degree of Economic Convergence between Member States of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mădălina OPRIȚESCU

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important objectives of the European Union is to support economic growth based on economic, social and territorial cohesion between Member States. Due to the accession of relatively poor countries to the European Union, maintaining cohesion is and will remain a major challenge, with cohesion policy having to support the reduction of imbalances between the old Member States and also support the development of less developed regions. One of the main measures adopted by the European authorities emphasizes the importance of increasing the degree of economic convergence between Member States by promoting a common market along with an economic and monetary union. In addition, increasing productivity and convergence within the EU are the foundations of the Lisbon Strategy and remain an important pillar of the Europe 2020 Growth Strategy.

  13. Environmental life cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis of triboelectric nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Ibn-Mohammed, Taofeeq; Mostafa, Hassan; Reaney, Ian M.; Koh, Lenny S. C.; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    along with low material and manufacturing costs as well as a favorable environmental profile in comparison with other energy harvesting technologies, can the true potential of TENGs be established. This paper presents a detailed techno-economic lifecycle

  14. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes, a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, N.; Van Asselt, A.; Baker, P.; Postma, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English

  15. Economic assessment of preeclampsia : Screening, diagnosis, treatment options, and long term outcomes - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakiyah, Neily; Van Asselt, Antoinette D.; Baker, Philip N.; Postma, Maarten J.

    OBJECTIVES: Provide a comprehensive overview of the existing evidence on the health economics of screening, diagnosis, and treatment options in preeclampsia. METHODS: A systematic literature search was undertaken using three electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane) to identify all English

  16. An engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood devices are being selected increasingly for residential space heating by households in New York State. Motivations for their use include energy independence, mitigating climate change, stimulating local economic development, and reducing exposure to high and variable fuel c...

  17. Technology assessment HTR. Part 3. Economics of new concept of the modular High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.

    1996-06-01

    In this study the economic feasibility of new concepts of the High Temperature Reactor were investigated. These new concepts are characterized as inherently safe. The different concepts were used as industrial heat/power reactors and compared with a gas fired Steam and Gas turbine installation. The best economic advantages are offered by a HTR with a Thorium/Uranium cycle as compared with a gas fired steam- and gas turbine. 6 figs, 9 tabs, 21 refs

  18. Techno-economic and environmental assessment of biogas production from banana peel (Musa paradisiaca) in a biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ruano, Jimmy Anderson; Caballero-Galván, Ashley Sthefanía; Restrepo-Serna, Daissy Lorena; Cardona, Carlos Ariel

    2018-04-07

    Two scenarios for the biogas production using Banana Peel as raw material were evaluated. The first scenario involves the stand-alone production of biogas and the second scenario includes the biogas production together with other products under biorefinery concept. In both scenarios, the influence of the production scale on the process economy was assessed and feasibility limits were defined. For this purpose, the mass and energy balances were established using the software Aspen Plus along with kinetic models reported in the literature. The economic and environmental analysis of the process was performed considering Colombian economic conditions. As a result, it was found that different process scales showed great potential for biogas production. Thus, plants with greater capacity have a greater economic benefit than those with lower capacity. However, this benefit leads to high-energy consumption and greater environmental impact.

  19. Uncertainty & sensitivity analysis of economic assessment of lactic acid production from crude glycerol - impact of price correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Gernaey, Krist V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the impact of the expected price volatility and correlations on the overall economic assessment of lactic acid production from crude glycerol. In particular, the goals of this study are three-fold: (i) to understand how uncertainty in the inputs propagates to the model...... outputs; (ii) to understand the effect of the degree of pairwise correlation between input uncertainties on each other and on the outputs from the economic model (Net Present Value); and lastly, (iii) to estimate the first-order as well as independent sensitivity indices so as to identify which...... of the input uncertainties in the economic analysis affect the estimated NPV the most. To this end, we implemented algorithms in Matlab (R2015a) based on Monte Carlo sampling with permutation using Latin Hypercube Sampling with Iman Conover correlation control (Sin et al., 2009).The results have shown...

  20. Assessment of TEES{reg_sign} applications for Wet Industrial Wastes: Energy benefit and economic analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Scheer, T.H.

    1992-02-01

    Fundamental work is catalyzed biomass pyrolysis/gasification led to the Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg_sign}) concept, a means of converting moist biomass feedstocks to high-value fuel gases such as methane. A low-temperature (350{degrees}C), pressurized (3100 psig) reaction environment and a nickel catalyst are used to reduce volumes of very high-moisture wastes such as food processing byproducts while producing useful quantities of energy. A study was conducted to assess the economic viability of a range of potential applications of the process. Cases examined included feedstocks of cheese whey, grape pomace, spent grain, and an organic chemical waste stream. The analysis indicated that only the organic chemical waste process is economically attractive in the existing energy/economic environment. However, food processing cases will become attractive as alternative disposal practices are curtailed and energy prices rise.

  1. Assessment of the Value, Impact, and Validity of the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) Suite of Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billman, L.; Keyser, D.

    2013-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), use input-output methodology to estimate gross (not net) jobs and economic impacts of building and operating selected types of renewable electricity generation and fuel plants. This analysis provides the DOE with an assessment of the value, impact, and validity of the JEDI suite of models. While the models produce estimates of jobs, earnings, and economic output, this analysis focuses only on jobs estimates. This validation report includes an introduction to JEDI models, an analysis of the value and impact of the JEDI models, and an analysis of the validity of job estimates generated by JEDI model through comparison to other modeled estimates and comparison to empirical, observed jobs data as reported or estimated for a commercial project, a state, or a region.

  2. Integration of life cycle assessment software with tools for economic and sustainability analyses and process simulation for sustainable process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Malakul, Pomthong; Siemanond, Kitipat

    2014-01-01

    The sustainable future of the world challenges engineers to develop chemical process designs that are not only technically and economically feasible but also environmental friendly. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for identifying and quantifying environmental impacts of the chemical product...... with other process design tools such as sustainable design (SustainPro), economic analysis (ECON) and process simulation. The software framework contains four main tools: Tool-I is for life cycle inventory (LCI) knowledge management that enables easy maintenance and future expansion of the LCI database; Tool...... and/or the process that makes it. It can be used in conjunction with process simulation and economic analysis tools to evaluate the design of any existing and/or new chemical-biochemical process and to propose improvement options in order to arrive at the best design among various alternatives...

  3. [Adaptability assessment of economic and environmental development of Tangshan, Hebei, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui-Ling; Zhu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Qiu-Luan

    2014-10-01

    It is vital to explore whether the economic system adapts to the environmental system as the relationship between economy and environment becomes a gradually concerned problem. Tangshan, a typical resource-based city, was chosen to study the adaptabilities and performances of economic developments in response to environmental changes from 1992 to 2011. It was found that the economic-environmental adaptation curve of Tangshan City had an overall fluctuating and increasing tendency. The systematic adaptability kept advancing, reflecting Tangshan paid much attention to environmental development in addition to economic performances, and the two aspects became more and more coordinated. Filtering analysis of the adaptive curve with Eviews software revealed that the potential systematic coordinating index was rising continuously, however, the sum of resilience gap for 20 years was still negative, which implied that fundamental contradictions between high economic development and high energy consumption and high pollutant emission still existed. Carrying out adaptive researches not only helps people to adapt to climate changes better, but also has significances for economic and environmental coordination and sustainability research.

  4. The Comprehensive Approach to Assessing the Economic Security of the Industry Sector in Conditions of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denysov Oleg Ye.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out an empirical study of the level of economic security of the chemical industry sector of Ukraine in the direction of «production of polyvinyl chlorides». For this purpose the integral index of economic security has been calculated according to the model of functional-component blocks of economic security of sector, developed by the author. Application of this model allowed to research the algorithm of action of the model on the factual basis and to analyze the obtained indicators. This, in turn, made possible to draw a conclusion about the constructiveness and expediency of application of the model of basic functional-component blocks for calculating the level of economic security of the industry sector. With the help of this approach, with application of the complex, system-structural, dynamic and functional approaches, the level of economic security has been defined and the process of monitoring the status and level of economic security of the industry sector has been ensured.

  5. Assessing links between energy consumption, freight transport, and economic growth: evidence from dynamic simultaneous equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasreen, Samia; Saidi, Samir; Ozturk, Ilhan

    2018-06-01

    We investigate this study to examine the relationship between economic growth, freight transport, and energy consumption for 63 developing countries over the period of 1990-2016. In order to make the panel data analysis more homogeneous, we apply the income level of countries to divide the global panel into three sub-panels, namely, lower-middle income countries (LMIC), upper-middle income countries (UMIC), and high-income countries (HIC). Using the generalized method of moments (GMM), the results prove evidence of bidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and freight transport for all selected panels and between economic growth and energy consumption for the high- and upper-middle income panels. For the lower-middle income panel, the causality is unidirectional running from energy consumption to economic growth. Also, the results indicate that the relationship between freight transport and energy use is bidirectional for the high-income countries and unidirectional from freight transport to energy consumption for the upper-middle and lower-middle income countries. Empirical evidence demonstrates the importance of energy for economic activity and rejects the neo-classical assumption that energy is neutral for growth. An important policy recommendation is that there is need of advancements in vehicle technology which can reduce energy intensity from transport sector and improve the energy efficiency in transport activity which in turn allows a greater positive role of transport in global economic activity.

  6. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    tools to assess the economic effect of selection and flock management programs because biological, allocative, and economic factors can be independently analyzed.

  7. Development of a decision model for the techno-economic assessment of municipal solid waste utilization pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Mohib-Ul-Haque; Jain, Siddharth; Vaezi, Mahdi; Kumar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    Economic competitiveness is one of the key factors in making decisions towards the development of waste conversion facilities and devising a sustainable waste management strategy. The goal of this study is to develop a framework, as well as to develop and demonstrate a comprehensive techno-economic model to help county and municipal decision makers in establishing waste conversion facilities. The user-friendly data-intensive model, called the FUNdamental ENgineering PrinciplEs-based ModeL for Estimation of Cost of Energy and Fuels from MSW (FUNNEL-Cost-MSW), compares nine different waste management scenarios, including landfilling and composting, in terms of economic parameters such as gate fees and return on investment. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) model was developed to determine suitable locations for waste conversion facilities and landfill sites based on integration of environmental, social, and economic factors. Finally, a case study on Parkland County and its surrounding counties in the province of Alberta, Canada, was conducted and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of the key technical and economic parameters on the calculated results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A 3-stage model for assessing the probable economic effects of direct-to-consumer advertising of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ronald J; Ramachandran, Sulabha; Zachry, Woodie M

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry employs a variety of marketing strategies that have previously been directed primarily toward physicians. However, mass media direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of prescription drugs has emerged as a ubiquitous promotional strategy. This article explores the economics of DTC advertising in greater depth than has been done in the past by using a 3-stage economic model to assess the pertinent literature and to show the probable effects of DTC advertising in the United States. Economics literature on the subject was searched using the Journal of Economic Literature. Health services literature was searched using computer callback devices. Spending on DTC advertising in the United States increased from $17 million in 1985 to $2.5 billion in 2000. Proponents of DTC advertising claim that it provides valuable product-related information to health care professionals and patients, may contribute to better use of medications, and helps patients take charge of their own health care. Opponents argue that DTC advertising provides misleading messages rather than well-balanced, evidence-based information. The literature is replete with opinions about the effects of prescription drug advertising on pharmaceutical drug prices and physician-prescribing patterns, but few studies have addressed the issues beyond opinion surveys. The economic literature on advertising effects in other markets, however, may provide insight. DTC advertising indirectly affects the price and the quantity of production of pharmaceuticals via its effect on changes in consumer demand.

  9. Economic assessment at farm level of the implementation of deficit irrigation for quinoa production in the Southern Bolivian Altiplano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cusicanqui

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Bolivian Altiplano recent research has suggested to introduce deficit irrigation as a strategy to boost quinoa yields and to stabilize it at 2.0 ton ha-1. In this study we carried out an economic assessment of the implementation of deficit irrigation at farm level using a hydro-economic model for simulating profit for quinoa production. As input of the model we worked with previously developed farms typology (livestock, quinoa and subsistence farms, simulated quinoa production with and without irrigation using AquaCrop model, and calculated yield response functions for four different climate scenarios (wet, normal, dry and very dry years. Results from the hydro-economic model demonstrate that maximum profit is achieved with less applied irrigated water than for maximum yield, and irrigated quinoa earned more profit than rainfed production for all farms types and climate scenarios. As expected, the benefits of irrigation under dry and very dry climate conditions were higher than those under normal and wet years, and benefits among farms types were higher for quinoa farms. In fact, profit of irrigated quinoa might be stabilized at around BOB 6500 ha-1 (about USD 920 compared with the huge differences found for rainfed conditions for all climate scenarios. Interestingly, the economic water productivity, expressed in terms of economic return for amount of applied irrigated water (BOB mm-1, reached the highest values with intermediate and low level of water availability schemes of deficit irrigation for all climate scenarios.

  10. Economic feasibility assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory waste-heat polyculture concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszewski, M.

    1979-02-01

    An economic feasibility analysis was performed for a proposed waste-heat aquaculture system that uses a tilapia polyculture concept. The system is designed to use waste water nutrients to grow plankton which is fed to the fish. The system was judged to be economically viable if fish production costs of $1.32/kg (60 cents/lb) or lower were achieved for production rates that have been experimentally verified. The results of the analysis indicate that the system is economically viable if capital costs are annualized using a 15% fixed charge rate (FCR). Feasibility of the system at a 25% FCR depends upon aeration turnover time and system food conversion efficiency. Eliminating cages from the system design decreases the capital costs and improves the economic potential of the system. Additional capital cost reductions are possible if the aerators are removed from the system. However, expected fish production rates are also decreased and the system does not appear economically viable for a 25% FCR. System design modifications due to biological considerations included lining the algal pond with a plastic liner and using commercial fertilizers in place of organic waste streams. Lining the algal ponds did not affect the feasibility of the system at a 15% FCR but did result in the system becoming economically unattractive at a 25% FCR. The use of commercial fertilizers added 15 cents/kg (7 cents/lb) to the production but did not have serious adverse effects on the feasibility of the system. The system appears to have economic promise and should be examined further. Operation of a small expermental system to verify the estimated performance parameters is needed

  11. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, Thomas A.; Hathaway, Brandon J.; Smith, Timothy M.; Davidson, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  12. Malaria burden and control in Bangladesh and prospects for elimination: an epidemiological and economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ubydul; Overgaard, Hans J; Clements, Archie C A; Norris, Douglas E; Islam, Nazrul; Karim, Jahirul; Roy, Shyamal; Haque, Waziul; Kabir, Moktadir; Smith, David L; Glass, Gregory E

    2014-02-01

    Malaria is endemic in 13 of 64 districts in Bangladesh. About 14 million people are at risk. Some evidence suggests that the prevalence of malaria in Bangladesh has decreased since the the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria started to support the National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) in 2007. We did an epidemiological and economic assessment of malaria control in Bangladesh. We obtained annually reported, district-level aggregated malaria case data and information about disbursed funds from the NMCP. We used a Poisson regression model to examine the associations between total malaria, severe malaria, malaria-attributable mortality, and insecticide-treated net coverage. We identified and mapped malaria hotspots using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of the NMCP by estimating the cost per confirmed case, cost per treated case, and cost per person of insecticide-treated net coverage. During the study period (from Jan 1, 2008, to Dec 31, 2012) there were 285,731 confirmed malaria cases. Malaria decreased from 6.2 cases per 1000 population in 2008, to 2.1 cases per 1000 population in 2012. Prevalence of all malaria decreased by 65% (95% CI 65-66), severe malaria decreased by 79% (78-80), and malaria-associated mortality decreased by 91% (83-95). By 2012, there was one insecticide-treated net for every 2.6 individuals (SD 0.20). Districts with more than 0.5 insecticide-treated nets per person had a decrease in prevalence of 21% (95% CI 19-23) for all malaria, 25% (17-32) for severe malaria, and 76% (35-91) for malaria-associated mortality among all age groups. Malaria hotspots remained in the highly endemic districts in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. The cost per diagnosed case was US$0.39 (SD 0.02) and per treated case was $0.51 (0.27); $0.05 (0.04) was invested per person per year for health education and $0.68 (0.30) was spent per person per year for insecticide-treated net coverage. Malaria elimination is an achievable

  13. Economical and environmental assessments of compressed natural gas for diesel vehicle in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prateep Chouykerd

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The economic assessments for the use of compressed natural gas as fuel for several types of diesel vehicles, rarely pick up, non-fixed route truck and private truck, were studied. It is noted that two main technologies of diesel natural gas vehicle (NGV, i.e. dedicated retrofit and diesel dual fuel (DDF, were considered in this work. It was found that the dedicated retrofit needs higher investment costs than dual fuel, but can achieve higher diesel saving than dual fuel. In detail, the payback period of dual fuel non-fixed route truck was found to be identical to dual fuel private truck both in the cases of6 wheel and 10 wheel, while dedicated retrofit non-fixed route truck and private truck are also identical and have longerpay back period than dual fuel due to its higher conversion costs.This work also presents the emissions released from all types of engines especially green house gas CO2. It was found that, in the case of light duty diesel i.e. pickup truck, dedicated retrofit emitted high level of CO2 than both dual fuel and conventional diesel engines. For heavy duty i.e. non-fixed route truck and private truck vehicles, dedicated retrofit emitted a lower level of CO2 than normal diesel engine. Other pollutants from engine emission, i.e. hydrocarbon (HC,nitric oxide (NOx, carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter, (PM were also observed. The results indicated that, inthe case of light duty diesel, dedicated retrofit engine emits higher levels of HC and CO than diesel engine; in contrast, it emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel and dual fuel. Dual fuel emits HC and CO higher than diesel and dedicated retrofit but emits lower level of NOx and PM than diesel. Lastly, for heavy duty diesel, it was demonstrated that non-fixed route truck and private truck heavy duty dedicated retrofit have potential to reduce emissions of HC, NOx, CO and PM when compared to normal heavy duty diesel. Engine efficiencies under dual fuel and dedicated

  14. Productive, economic and risk assessment of grazing dairy systems with supplemented cows milked once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarini, B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Lyons, N; Hendrikse, L; Baudracco, J

    2018-05-01

    Milking cows once a day (OAD) is a herd management practice that may help to reduce working effort and labour demand in dairy farms. However, a decrease in milk yield per cow occurs in OAD systems compared with twice a day (TAD) systems and this may affect profitability of dairy systems. The objective of this study was to assess productive and economic impact and risk of reducing milking frequency from TAD to OAD for grazing dairy systems, using a whole-farm model. Five scenarios were evaluated by deterministic and stochastic simulations: one scenario under TAD milking (TADAR) and four scenarios under OAD milking. The OAD scenarios assumed that milk yield per cow decreased by 30% (OAD30), 24% (OAD24), 19% (OAD19) and 10% (OAD10), compared with TADAR scenario, based on experimental and commercial farms data. Stocking rate (SR) was increased in all OAD scenarios compared to TADAR and two levels of reduction in labour cost were tested, namely 15% and 30%. Milk and concentrate feeds prices, and pasture and crop yields, were allowed to behave stochastically to account for market and climate variations, respectively, to perform risk analyses. Scenario OAD10 showed similar milk yield per ha compared with TADAR, as the increased SR compensated for the reduction in milk yield per cow. For scenarios OAD30, OAD24 and OAD19 the greater number of cows per ha partially compensated for the reduction of milk yield per cow and milk yield per ha decreased 21%, 15% and 10%, respectively, compared with TADAR. Farm operating profit per ha per year also decreased in all OAD scenarios compared with TADAR, and were US$684, US$161, US$ 303, US$424 and US$598 for TADAR, OAD30, OAD24, OAD19, OAD10, respectively, when labour cost was reduced 15% in OAD scenarios. When labour cost was reduced 30% in OAD scenarios, only OAD10 showed higher profit (US$706) than TADAR. Stochastic simulations showed that exposure to risk would be higher in OAD scenarios compared with TADAR. Results showed that OAD

  15. Comparative analysis of oral and computer based types of assessment in teaching English for students of economics, business and finance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorieva Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language skill is one of the components highly demanded by employers in the sphere of economics, business and finance. Adequate level of foreign language proficiency can be achieved with a thoroughly selected type of assessment which shows the progresses made by graduates and help to adapt teaching techniques and learning standards to changing requirements. Computer based testing and oral type of assessment are common ways to estimate graduates’ foreign language proficiency level. The aim of the present study is to determine the type of assessment which best suits the purpose of higher educational establishment and can be used within graduates’ possibilities. Authors came to the conclusion that both CBT and oral type of assessment should constitute the framework of the assessment procedure and be used in their combination because in that way they respond to the needs of higher educational establishment and comply with graduates’ differences respectively.

  16. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  17. Quantitative assessment of social and economic impact of African swine fever outbreaks in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenais, Erika; Boqvist, Sofia; Emanuelson, Ulf; von Brömssen, Claudia; Ouma, Emily; Aliro, Tonny; Masembe, Charles; Ståhl, Karl; Sternberg-Lewerin, Susanna

    2017-09-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important pig diseases, causing high case fatality rate and trade restrictions upon reported outbreaks. In Uganda, a low-income country with the largest pig population in East Africa, ASF is endemic. Animal disease impact is multidimensional and include social and economic impact along the value chain. In low-income settings, this impact keep people poor and push those that have managed to escape poverty back again. If the diseases can be controlled, their negative consequences can be mitigated. However, to successfully argue for investment in disease control, its cost-benefits need to be demonstrated. One part in the cost-benefit equations is disease impact quantification. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the socio-economic impact of ASF outbreaks at household level in northern Uganda. In a longitudinal study, structured interviews with two hundred, randomly selected, pig-keeping households were undertaken three times with a six month interval. Questions related to family and pig herd demographics, pig trade and pig business. Associations between ASF outbreaks and economic and social impact variables were evaluated using linear regression models. The study showed that pigs were kept in extreme low-input-low-output farming systems involving only small monetary investments. Yearly incidence of ASF on household level was 19%. Increasing herd size was positively associated with higher economic output. The interaction between ASF outbreaks and the herd size showed that ASF outbreaks were negatively associated with economic output at the second interview occasion and with one out of two economic impact variables at the third interview occasion. No significant associations between the social impact variables included in the study and ASF outbreaks could be established. Trade and consumption of sick and dead pigs were coping strategies used to minimize losses of capital and animal protein. The results

  18. Exploratory assessment of the economic gains of a pre-salt oil field in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Rodrigues, Larissa; Luís Sauer, Ildo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, Brazil has made public several oil discoveries located in deep waters, below the salt layer. Discoveries are steadily enhancing national reserves and have brought the country into a new role in the global oil industry. This paper aims at investigating the economic gains that could be expected from a Brazilian oil field in the pre-salt region. Analyses were conducted based on the Libra field, the largest oil discovery in Brazil until now, with approximately 10 billion barrels. The results were calculated for different scenarios of oil prices, companies' arrangements and regulatory regimes. The findings suggest that economic gains could be higher for the Brazilian Government if the oil production were conducted under a service contract scheme. However, considering the current production-sharing regime in force for pre-salt areas, economic gains could be higher if a bidding process was conducted, ensuring for the Brazilian Government a higher participation in the oil to be produced. Additionally, the results demonstrate that under the current rules applied for the production-sharing regime, the government quota of oil has decreased over time, putting at risk economic results. - Highlights: • The paper investigates the economic gains of a pre-salt oil field in Brazil. • Government earnings could be higher under a service contract scheme. • The first production-sharing regime bid did not encourage competition. • Under the production-sharing rules government quota of oil decreases over time.

  19. Bioterrorism in Canada: An Economic Assessment of Prevention and Postattack Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald St John

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper calculates the human and economic consequences of a bioterrorist attack on Canadian soil using aerosolized Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum. The study assumed that 100,000 people in a Canadian suburban neighbourhood were exposed over a 2 h period to an infectious dose of one of the agents. Using an epidemic curve based on the epidemiology and management of anthrax and botulinum poisoning, the costs of intervention and treatment after an attack were compared with the costs of preparedness before a bioterrorist attack. The results show that an investment in planning and preparedness to manage the consequences of an attack can reduce morbidity, mortality and economic costs. The sooner that an intervention program is instituted, the more significant are the health and economic benefits. The greatest benefits were realized when postattack intervention was initiated before day 3 after the event. The economic impact of a bioterrorist attack in Canada could range from $6.4 billion/100,000 exposed to B anthracis to $8.6 billion/100,000 exposed in an attack using C botulinum. Without the benefit of an effective consequence management program, predicted deaths totalled 32,875 from anthrax and 30,000 from botulinum toxin. Rapid implementation of a postattack prophylaxis program that includes the stockpiling of antibiotics, vaccines and antitoxins; training of first responders in the diagnosis, handling and treatment of pathogens; and the general enhancement of Canada's response capability would reduce both human and economic losses.

  20. Economic assessment of different mulches in conventional and water-saving rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Hussain, Mubshar; Fahad, Shah; Farooq, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharrby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid

    2016-05-01

    Water-saving rice production systems including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice (AR) are being increasingly adopted by growers due to global water crises. Application of natural and artificial mulches may further improve water economy of water-saving rice production systems. Conventionally flooded rice (CFR) system has been rarely compared with AWD and AR in terms of economic returns. In this 2-year field study, we compared CFR with AWD and AR (with and without straw and plastic mulches) for the cost of production and economic benefits. Results indicated that CFR had a higher production cost than AWD and AR. However, application of mulches increased the cost of production of AWD and AR production systems where plastic mulch was expensive than straw mulch. Although the mulching increased the cost of production for AWD and AR, the gross income of these systems was also improved significantly. The gross income from mulched plots of AWD and AR was higher than non-mulched plots of the same systems. In conclusion, AWD and AR effectively reduce cost of production by economizing the water use. However, the use of natural and artificial mulches in such water-saving environments further increased the economic returns. The maximized economic returns by using straw mulch in water-saving rice production systems definitely have pragmatic implications for sustainable agriculture.

  1. Assessment of a novel alder biorefinery concept to meet demands of economic feasibility, energy production and long term environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Tobias; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2013-01-01

    A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through a literat......A biorefinery concept based on alder tree plantations on degenerated soil is developed to comply with indicators of economic feasibility, fossil fuel depletion concerns, and long term sustainability issues. The potential performance of feedstock and biorefinery has been assessed through...... degenerated soils. Integrating a biomass handling system, an LTCFB gasifier, a diarylheptanoids production chain, an anaerobic digestion facility, a slow pyrolysis unit, gas upgrading and various system integration units, the biorefinery could obtain the following production characteristics accounted...

  2. Economic assessments of small-scale drinking-water interventions in pursuit of MDG target 7C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, John; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R; Pedley, Steve; Pond, Katherine

    2011-12-01

    This paper uses an applied rural case study of a safer water intervention in South Africa to illustrate how three levels of economic assessment can be used to understand the impact of the intervention on people's well-being. It is set in the context of Millennium Development Goal 7 which sets a target (7C) for safe drinking-water provision and the challenges of reaching people in remote rural areas with relatively small-scale schemes. The assessment moves from cost efficiency to cost effectiveness to a full social cost-benefit analysis (SCBA) with an associated sensitivity test. In addition to demonstrating techniques of analysis, the paper brings out many of the challenges in understanding how safer drinking-water impacts on people's livelihoods. The SCBA shows the case study intervention is justified economically, though the sensitivity test suggests 'downside' vulnerability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. MONITORING AND ASSESSING THE RESEARCH ON CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PUBLISHED IN ROMANIAN ECONOMIC JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana-Cristina GĂNESCU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to evaluate the interest of Romanian economic journals towards issues related to corporate social responsibility. The research began with drafting a list of Romanian economic journals, according to official classifications. We used content analysis to determine the characteristics of articles that address the issue of corporate social responsibility, based on the following criteria: number of articles whose titles include the term „corporate social responsibility”, ratio of pages devoted to CSR issues in the total number of pages, type of research, geographical area of research, authors’ affiliation, CSR issues being addressed. The research results helped create an indicator that measures the interest of Romanian economic journals towards issues related to CSR. According to the values of this indicator, we ranked the analysed publications.

  4. Comparative techno-economic assessment and LCA of selected integrated sugarcane-based biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnansounou, Edgard; Vaskan, Pavel; Pachón, Elia Ruiz

    2015-11-01

    This work addresses the economic and environmental performance of integrated biorefineries based on sugarcane juice and residues. Four multiproduct scenarios were considered; two from sugar mills and the others from ethanol distilleries. They are integrated biorefineries producing first (1G) and second (2G) generation ethanol, sugar, molasses (for animal feed) and electricity in the context of Brazil. The scenarios were analysed and compared using techno-economic value-based approach and LCA methodology. The results show that the best economic configuration is provided by a scenario with largest ethanol production while the best environmental performance is presented by a scenario with full integration sugar - 1G2G ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 5a planta. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Gabaldon Marin, Antonio [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus de la Muralla al Mar. 30202 Cartagena (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  6. Value Added Tax Impacton Economic Activity: Importance, Implication and Assessment –The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana MUREȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of VAT upon the economic activity in Romania. By developing a new mathematical model we offer several dy-namic and effcient possibilities for observing the modifcations caused by the temporary reduc-tion of taxes upon the personal incomes which suggest that the resulting additional incomes are often saved and less consumed. Analyzing several temporary reductions in incomes, the model describes also a scheme regarding the developments of economic growth. Based on this scheme, are revealed the different arrangements in which a present economic activity infuences a future one. According to the proposed model, it is highlighted that the national income increases as a response to the aggregated demand.

  7. The Innovative Socio-economic Interventions Against Tuberculosis (ISIAT) project: an operational assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C; Montoya, R; Zevallos, K; Curatola, A; Ynga, W; Franco, J; Fernandez, F; Becerra, N; Sabaduche, M; Tovar, M A; Ramos, E; Tapley, A; Allen, N R; Onifade, D A; Acosta, C D; Maritz, M; Concha, D F; Schumacher, S G; Evans, C A

    2011-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) affected households in impoverished shantytowns, Lima, Peru. To evaluate socio-economic interventions for strengthening TB control by improving uptake of TB care and prevention services. Barriers to TB control were characterised by interviews with TB-affected families. To reduce these barriers, a multidisciplinary team offered integrated community and household socio-economic interventions aiming to: 1) enhance uptake of TB care by education, community mobilisation and psychosocial support; and 2) reduce poverty through food and cash transfers, microcredit, microenterprise and vocational training. An interim analysis was performed after the socio-economic interventions had been provided for 2078 people in 311 households of newly diagnosed TB patients for up to 34 months. Poverty (46% earned microcredit; poverty;social determinants.

  8. Technical and economical tools to assess customer demand response in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Bel, Carlos; Ortega, Manuel Alcazar; Escriva, Guillermo Escriva; Gabaldon Marin, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a methodology to evaluate and quantify the economic parameters (costs and benefits) attached to customer electricity consumption by analyzing the service provided by the different ''pieces'' of absorbed electricity. The first step of this methodology is to perform a process oriented market segmentation to identify segments according to their flexibility potential. After that, a procedure based on comprehensive simulations to identify and quantify the actual demand that can be managed in the short term is presented and, finally, the required economic analysis is performed. The methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, not only helps the customers to integrate in flexible distribution systems but also offers the necessary economical parameters for them to integrate in electricity markets. (author)

  9. Moving beyond the cost-loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-06-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost-loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA) utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s). In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple statistically dressed

  10. Economic assessment of climate adaptation options for urban drainage design in Odense, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    framework is used to give detailed insights of the physical and economic feasibilities of each option. Estimation of marginal benefits of adaptation options are carried out through a step-by-step cost-benefit analysis. The results are aimed at providing important information for decision making on how best......Climate change is likely to influence the water cycle by changing the precipitation patterns, in some cases leading to increased occurrences of precipitation extremes. Urban landscapes are vulnerable to such changes due to the concentrated population and socio-economic values in cities. Feasible...

  11. A methodology for the economic assessment of material damage caused by SO2 and NOx emissions in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayerhofer, P.; Weltschev, M.; Trukenmueller, A.; Friedrich, R.

    1995-01-01

    Damage to materials causes high economic losses in Europe. A large part of this damage can be attributed to the emissions caused by the energy and the transport sector. In the paper, the procedure for the economic assessment of material damages caused by SO 2 and NO x emissions in Europe is described. Model and data requirements are outlined, and gaps and uncertainties of the quantification are discussed. Two types of results are presented. First, the marginal (additional) costs of damage to material caused by an additional power plant are assessed. The analysis covers plants with different technologies. Results for the fossil power plants are in the range of 0.0062 to 0.12 mECU/kWh. In addition, the total economic material damage due to the present air pollution was assessed. It is in the range of 2.9 to 5.3 x 10 9 ECU/year. However, the analysis has many uncertainties. Most noteworthy are the material inventories and partially the damage functions and input data. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  12. Economic assessment of coal-fired and nuclear power generation in the year 2000 -Equal health hazard risk basis-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ki Bong; Lee, Byong Whi

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of equal health hazard risk, economic assessment of nuclear was compared with that of coal for the expansion planning of electric power generation in the year 2000. In comparing health risks, the risk of coal was roughly ten times higher than that of nuclear according to various previous risk assessments of energy system. The zero risk condition can never be achievable. Therefore, only excess relative health risk of coal over nuclear was considered as social cost. The social cost of health risk was estimated by calculation of mortality and morbidity costs. Mortality cost was $250,000 and morbidity cost was $90,000 in the year 2000.(1986US$) Through Cost/Benefit Analysis, the optimal emission standards of coal-fired power generation were predicted. These were obtained at the point of least social cost for power generation. In the year 2000, the optimal emission standard of SO x was analyzed as 165ppm for coal-fired power plants in Korea. From this assessment, economic comparison of nuclear and coal in the year 2000 showed that nuclear would be more economical than coal, whereas uncertainty of future power generation cost of nuclear would be larger than that of coal. (Author)

  13. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed augmented compressed air energy storage system. Volume III. Preconceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giramonti, A.J.; Lessard, R.D.; Merrick, D.; Hobson, M.J.

    1981-09-01

    A technical and economic assessment of fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage systems is presented. The results of this assessment effort are presented in three volumes. Volume III - Preconceptual Design contains the system analysis which led to the identification of a preferred component configuration for a fluidized bed combustion augmented compressed air energy storage system, the results of the effort which transformed the preferred configuration into preconceptual power plant design, and an introductory evaluation of the performance of the power plant system during part-load operation and while load following.

  14. Assessing the economic impact of Rx-to-OTC switches: systematic review and guidelines for future development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Millier, A; Karray, S; Toumi, M

    2013-01-01

    Switching drugs from prescription to non-prescription status (Rx-to-OTC) presents a unique set of challenges and opportunities to policy-makers and the industry in terms of managing health outcomes, pharmaceutical spending, and steering of consumer choices of therapy. Decision-analytic models are used to address uncertainty and produce reasonable estimates of the economic impact of switches for payers. This article presents a critical literature review of existing models which assess the economic impact of Rx-to-OTC switches, and provides guidelines in which future economic evaluations of Rx-to-OTC switches could be improved. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in Medline and Embase, to retrieve published economic evaluations on Rx-to-OTC switches from 1995-2010. The research digest of the International Society of Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) was reviewed for potentially relevant abstracts for the past 3 years. Each model used was critically evaluated in terms of structure, relevance of inputs, methodology used, and robustness of results. Worldwide, the economic impact of Rx-to-OTC switches has only been evaluated in a total of 12 peer-reviewed publications. Ten out of 12 studies were US-based, and two European-based. The models covered various disease categories, including allergy, hypercholesterolemia, gastroenterology, contraception, pulmonology, and virology. Seventy-five per cent of the models predicted cost savings for payers and patients. Limitations of the models mainly included use of strong assumptions and non-inclusion of specific populations due to lack of data. Guidelines were developed to help future model development. They cover structural issues on decision context, health states, and clinical outcomes, and other considerations for model specifications. Although reviewed studies lacked quality, this review of economic evidence of Rx-to-OTC switches suggests that switches may produce cost savings to public and private

  15. 75 FR 62762 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Socio-Economic Assessment of Snapper Grouper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... strengthen and improve fishery management decision-making, satisfy legal mandates under Executive Order 12866... statutes. II. Method of Collection The socio-economic information sought will be collected via in- person... Hours: 1,200. Estimated Total Annual Cost to Public: $0. IV. Request for Comments Comments are invited...

  16. Assessing the impact of road transport infrastructure investment on economic development in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anathi Hlotywa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been considerable decline in the investment on road transport infrastructure in recent times, as a result of the dwindling economic investment owing to lowering gross domestic product (GDP since 2009. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between road transport investment (ROTI and economic development (ED in South Africa. This article adopts the Harrod–Domar (HD model of economic growth and development theory, endogenous growth theory and Solow–Swan neoclassical growth model. Method: Data were derived from the South African Reserve Bank, Quantec database and Statistics South Africa (StatsSA between 1990 and 2014. It used time series, econometric models cointegration and vector error correction model (VECM to analyse. Result: The results of the estimation demonstrate that the explanatory variables account for approximately 86.7% variation in ED in South Africa. Therefore, there exists a positive relationship between ROTI and ED. Conclusion: This study established a long-run relationship between phenomena and demonstrates the role of road transport investment on economic development in South Africa.

  17. Economic Evaluation and Overall Assessment of Water Harvesting Ponds based on Scorecard System: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabral, P. P.; Kumar, Santosh; Kiku, Karmchand

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out an economic analysis of three (03) water harvesting ponds situated in the district of Lakhimpur (Assam), India. Economic analysis was carried out using three important economic criteria, namely Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), Net Present Worth (NPW) and the Internal Rate of Returns (IRR). Ponds of the study area were compared with adopting score card system. All the water harvesting ponds were found economically viable as the BCR was more than unity at 12% discount rate. Net present worth was the highest for the water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Assam, Narayanpur and the least for water harvesting pond of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti. The IRR was found to be the highest (60%) for water harvesting ponds of St. Xavier's School, Harmoti followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (48%) and water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm (19.2%).Water harvesting pond of Radhapukheri Fish Seed Farm, Narayanpur scored the highest score (84 marks) followed by water harvesting pond of a farmer of Narayanpur (80 marks) and St. Xavier's school, Harmoti (61 marks).

  18. Integrating environmental and economic performance to assess modern silvoarable agroforestry in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palma, J.; Graves, A.R.; Burgess, P.J.; Werf, van der W.; Herzog, F.

    2007-01-01

    The environmental and economic performance of silvoarable agroforestry in Europe is highly variable. Multi-criteria analysis, using the PROMETHEE outranking approach, was used to evaluate the integrated performance of silvoarable agroforestry on hypothetical farms in nineteen landscape test sites in

  19. Comment on 'The Global Impacts of Extreme Sea-Level Rise: A Comprehensive Economic Assessment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.; Nicholls, R.J.; Brown, S.; Hinkel, J.; Vafeidis, A.T.; Spencer, T.

    2016-01-01

    Pycroft et al. (Environ Resour Econ 1–29, 2015) used incorrect and outdated data to study the economic impact of sea level rise. They misinterpret some of their input data, and fail to exploit the strengths of their computable general equilibrium model and previously developed methods to study

  20. Assessing the Economic Viability of Bio-based Products for Missouri Value-added Crop Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes

    2005-11-30

    While research and development on biobased products has continued strong over the years, parallel attention on the economics and management of such product innovation has been lacking. With the financial support of the Department of Energy, the Economics and Management of Agrobiotechnology Center at the University of Missouri-Columbia has launched a pilot graduate education program that seeks to fill the gap. Within this context, a multi-disciplinary research and teaching program has been structured with an emphasis on new product and innovation economics and management. More specifically, this pilot graduate education program has the following major objectives: (1) To provide students with a strong background in innovation economics, management, and strategy. (2) To diversify the students academic background with coursework in science and technology. (3) To familiarize the student with biobased policy initiatives through interaction with state and national level organizations and policymakers. (4) To facilitate active collaboration with industry involved in the development and production of biobased products. The pilot education program seeks to develop human capital and research output. Although the research is, initially, focused on issues related to the State of Missouri, the results are expected to have national implications for the economy, producers, consumers and environment.

  1. Assessing the economic feasibility of flexible integrated gasification Co-generation facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerman, J.C.; Ramírez Ramírez, C.A.; Turkenburg, W.C.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluated the economic effects of introducing flexibility to state-of-the-art integrated gasification co-generation (IGCG) facilities equipped with CO2 capture. In a previous paper the technical and energetic performances of these flexible IG-CG facilities were evaluated. This paper

  2. Environmental and economic assessment of protected crops in four European scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrellas, M.; Antón, A.; Ruijs, M.N.A.; Garcia Victoria, N.; Stanghellini, C.; Montero, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analysed the environmental and economic profile of current agricultural practices for greenhouse crops, in cold and warm climates in Europe, using four scenarios as reference systems: tomato crop in a plastic greenhouse in Spain, and in glasshouses in Hungary and the Netherlands,

  3. Assessing the Economics of Dengue: Results from a Systematic Review of the Literature and Expert Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna; Garcia, Cristina; Lefcourt, Noah

    2015-11-01

    The economics of dengue is complex and multifaceted. We performed a systematic review of the literature to provide a critical overview of the issues related to dengue economics research and to form a background with which to address the question of cost. Three literature databases were searched [PubMed, Embase and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS)], covering a period from 1980 to 2013, to identify papers meeting preset inclusion criteria. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality on the basis of a quality checklist developed for this purpose. An expert survey was designed to identify priority areas in dengue economics research and to identify gaps between the methodology and actual practice. Survey responses were combined with the literature review findings to determine stakeholder priorities in dengue economics research. The review identified over 700 papers. Forty-two of these papers met the selection criteria. The studies that were reviewed presented results from 32 dengue-endemic countries, underscoring the importance of dengue as a global public health problem. Cost analyses were the most common, with 21 papers, followed by nine cost-effectiveness analyses and seven cost-of-illness studies, indicating a relatively strong mix of methodologies. Dengue annual overall costs (in 2010 values) ranged from US$13.5 million (in Nicaragua) to $56 million (in Malaysia), showing cost variations across countries. Little consistency exists in the way costs were estimated and dengue interventions evaluated, making generalizations around costs difficult. The current evidence suggests that dengue costs are substantial because of the cost of hospital care and lost earnings. Further research in this area will broaden our understanding of the true economic impact of dengue.

  4. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-01-01

    strategic planning, decisions about larger investments and education in universities and within organisations. Systems analysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. A potential is a more general application (Technology Assessment) in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, but also for assessment of new technical components in a systems perspective. The methodology and systems approach developed within the systems analysis has here been transformed to an assessment of environmental, economic and technical performance of technical systems in a broad sense

  5. Environmental and Economic Assessment of Swedish Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Systems Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Ola

    2003-04-01

    strategic planning, decisions about larger investments and education in universities and within organisations. Systems analysis and models may be used in pre-planning procedures. A potential is a more general application (Technology Assessment) in predominantly waste- and biofuel based energy processes, but also for assessment of new technical components in a systems perspective. The methodology and systems approach developed within the systems analysis has here been transformed to an assessment of environmental, economic and technical performance of technical systems in a broad sense.

  6. Assessing and optimizing the economic and environmental impacts of cogeneration/district energy systems using an energy equilibrium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.J.; Rosen, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    Energy equilibrium models can be valuable aids in energy planning and decision-making. In such models, supply is represented by a cost-minimizing linear submodel and demand by a smooth vector-valued function of prices. In this paper, we use the energy equilibrium model to study conventional systems and cogeneration-based district energy (DE) systems for providing heating, cooling and electrical services, not only to assess the potential economic and environmental benefits of cogeneration-based DE systems, but also to develop optimal configurations while accounting for such factors as economics and environmental impact. The energy equilibrium model is formulated and solved with software called WATEMS, which uses sequential non-linear programming to calculate the intertemporal equilibrium of energy supplies and demands. The methods of analysis and evaluation for the economic and environmental impacts are carefully explored. An illustrative energy equilibrium model of conventional and cogeneration-based DE systems is developed within WATEMS to compare quantitatively the economic and environmental impacts of those systems for various scenarios. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Validating a behavioral economic approach to assess food demand: effects of body mass index, dietary restraint, and impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reslan, Summar; Saules, Karen K; Greenwald, Mark K

    2012-10-01

    Behavioral economic theory is a useful framework for analyzing factors influencing choice, but the majority of human behavioral economic research has focused on drug choice. The behavioral economic choice paradigm may also be valuable for understanding food-maintained behavior. Our primary objective was two-fold: (1) Validate a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior, and (2) Assess the contribution of individual level factors that may differentially impact food choice behavior. Two studies were conducted. In Study 1, female subjects (N=17) participated in two consecutive food choice experimental sessions, whereas in Study 2, female subjects (N=21) participated in one concurrent food choice experimental session. During consecutive choice sessions (Study 1), demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic than the less palatable (i.e., low-sugar/low-fat) option. During concurrent choice sessions, demand for the more palatable food (i.e., high-sugar/high-fat) was more inelastic for restrained vs. unrestrained eaters, and for those who were overweight vs. normal weight. Demand for both palatable and less palatable choices was more elastic for high-impulsive vs. low-impulsive subjects. These findings suggest that the behavioral economic framework can be used successfully to develop a human laboratory model of food-appetitive behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astley Hastings

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg. The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes. The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha-1. Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM]-1, respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha-1 y-1, which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha-1 in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg-1 km-1 and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is

  9. Economic and Environmental Assessment of a 1 MW Grid Connected Rooftop Solar PV System for Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sanjib; Hosain, Rubayet; Rahman, Toufiqur; Rabbi, Ahmead Fazle

    This paper evaluates the potentiality of a 1 MW grid connected rooftop solar PV system for an Energy Efficient Building in Bangladesh, which was estimated by utilizing NASA SSE solar radiation data, PVsyst simulation software and RETScreen simulation software. Economic and environmental viability for a ten-storied building with roof area of 6,500 m2 in the Capital City of Bangladesh, Dhaka was assessed by using the RETScreen simulation software. The yearly electricity production of the proposed system was 1,581 MWh estimated by PVsyst where the technical prospective of gird-connected solar PV in Bangladesh was calculated as about 50,174 MW. The economic assessments were determined the simple payback in such a way that the generated electricity first fulfills the demand of the building, and then the rest of the energy is supplied to the grid. The result indicates that the roof top solar PV system for an Energy efficient building in Dhaka city has a favorable condition for development both in economic and environmental point of view.

  10. Assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of utility scaled PV electricity production in the state of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruthie; Critttenden, John

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology, an increasingly popular source for renewable energy, is being deployed in places with solar insolation that is comparable to that in state of Georgia. This study assesses the feasibility and environmental impact of utility scale photovoltaic (PV) electricity production in Georgia by assessing the economic costs, avoided costs, health benefits, and environmental benefits. The cost of PV used in this study is 3.52 $/kW. The RETScreen model was employed to analyze the impact of incentives on the economic viability of the plants that produce 93 GWh, 371 GWh, and 1,484 GWh, respectively. 57% of the capital cost is required in the form of incentives or subsidies to make the projects economically feasible. The high estimated cost of cleaning the equivalent amount of emissions from a coal-fired power plant is $14.5 million, $58 million, and $232 million for a 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plant, respectively Avoided costs in health damages are estimated to be $28 million, $112 million, and $449 million and the numbers of jobs to be created are 2,500, 10,000, and 40,000 for 50 MW, 200 MW, and 800 MW plants, respectively. And, the cumulative value of renewable energy credits from a 50 MW, 200 MW, and a 800 MW plant are $59 million, $237 million, and $789 million, respectively.

  11. An Environmental and Economic Assessment for Selecting the Optimal Ground Heat Exchanger by Considering the Entering Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimin Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve environmental problems such as global warming and resource depletion in the construction industry, interest in new renewable energy (NRE systems has increased. The ground source heat pump (GSHP system is the most efficient system among NRE systems. However, since the initial investment cost of the GSHP is quite expensive, a feasibility study needs to be conducted from the life-cycle perspective. Meanwhile, the efficiency of GSHP depends most significantly on the entering water temperature (EWT of the ground heat exchanger (GHE. Therefore, this study aims to assess the environmental and economic effects of the use of GHE for selecting the optimal GHE. This study was conducted in three steps: (i establishing the basic information and selecting key factors affecting GHE performances; (ii making possible alternatives of the GHE installation by considering EWT; and (iii using life-cycle assessment and life-cycle cost, as well as comprehensive evaluation of the environmental and economic effects on the GHE. These techniques allow for easy and accurate determination of the optimal design of the GHE from the environmental and economic effects in the early design phase. In future research, a multi-objective decision support model for the GSHP will be developed.

  12. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  13. Techno-economic Assessment of Integrated Hydrothermal Liquefaction and Combined Heat and Power Production from Lignocellulose Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Magdeldin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste biomass as a mean for global carbon dioxide emissions mitigation remains under-utilized. This is mainly due to the low calorific value of virgin feedstock, characterized generally with high moisture content. Aqueous processing, namely hydrothermal liquefaction in subcritical water conditions, has been demonstrated experimentally to thermally densify solid lignocellulose into liquid fuels without the pre-requisite and energy consuming drying step. This study presents a techno-economic evaluation of an integrated hydrothermal liquefaction system with downstream combined heat and power production from forest residues. The utilization of the liquefaction by-products and waste heat from the elevated processing conditions, coupled with the chemical upgrading of the feedstock enables the poly-generation of biocrude, electricity and district heat. The plant thermal efficiency increases by 3.5 to 4.6% compared to the conventional direct combustion case. The economic assessment showed that the minimum selling price of biocrude, based on present co-products market prices, hinders commercialization and ranges between 138 EUR to 178 EUR per MWh. A sensitivity analysis and detailed discussion on the techno-economic assessment results are presented for the different process integration and market case scenarios.

  14. A life cycle assessment and economic analysis of the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Dongyan; Addy, Min; Anderson, Erik; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study used life cycle assessment and technical economic analysis tools in evaluating a novel Scum-to-Biodiesel technology and compares the technology with scum digestion and combustion processes. The key variables that control environmental and economic performance are identified and discussed. The results show that all impacts examined for the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology are below zero indicating significant environmental benefits could be drawn from it. Of the three technologies examined, the Scum-to-Biodiesel technology has the best environmental performance in fossil fuel depletion, GHG emissions, and eutrophication, whereas combustion has the best performance on acidification. Of all process inputs assessed, process heat, glycerol, and methanol uses had the highest impacts, much more than any other inputs considered. The Scum-to-Biodiesel technology also makes higher revenue than other technologies. The diesel price is a key variable for its economic performance. The research demonstrates the feasibility and benefits in developing Scum-to-Biodiesel technology in wastewater treatment facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic assessment of use values of near-natural forestry compared with rotational forestry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsalu, Dareskedar Workie; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Lundhede, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cost-benefit analysis of converting the current rotational forestry (RF) of Norway spruce stand into near-natural forestry (NNF) of beech, based on two representative soil conditions and visitors popular case areas in Denmark, considering welfare economic values of timber......, recreation provision, and groundwater recharge. The study answers the major research question of how large the welfare economic values of recreation and groundwater benefits of the conversion are as compared with timber benefits. The net present values (NPV) of the benefits were calculated for an infinite...... time horizon at a 3 % discount rate. The results reveal that converting into NNF would result in a NPV of at least 6,832 € ha−1 from use values of recreation and water benefit on a site with good soil and a high visitor frequency, as is typical in the eastern part of Denmark. On a site in the west...

  16. Economic Risk Assessment of Early Stage Designs for Glycerol2Valorization in Biorefinery Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Cheali, Peam; Posada, John A.

    2016-01-01

    , and discount rate, among others, have high impact on the project’s profitability analysis. Therefore, the profitability was tested under uncertainties by using NPV and MSP as economic metrics. The robust ranking of solutions is presented with respect to minimum economic risk of the project being nonprofitable...... (failure to achieve a positive NPV times the consequential profit loss). It was found that the best potential options for glycerol valorization is through the production of either (i) lactic acid (9 MM$ with 63% probability of failure to achieve a positive NPV); (ii) succinic acid (14 MM$ with 76......%); or finally, (iii) 1,2-propanediol (16 MM$ with 68%). As a risk reduction strategy, a multiproduct biorefinery is suggested which is capable of switching between the production of lactic acid and succinic acid. This solution comes with increased capital investment; however, it leads to more robust NPV...

  17. National Economic Value Assessment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles: Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stright, Dana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can reduce household fuel expenditures by substituting electricity for gasoline while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and petroleum imports. A scenario approach is employed to provide insights into the long-term economic value of increased PEV market growth across the United States. The analytic methods estimate fundamental costs and benefits associated with an economic allocation of PEVs across households based upon household driving patterns, projected vehicle cost and performance attributes, and simulations of a future electricity grid. To explore the full technological potential of PEVs and resulting demands on the electricity grid, very high PEV market growth projections from previous studies are relied upon to develop multiple future scenarios.

  18. Capturing Budget Impact Considerations Within Economic Evaluations: A Systematic Review of Economic Evaluations of Rotavirus Vaccine in Low- and Middle-Income Countries and a Proposed Assessment Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natalie; Jit, Mark; Cox, Sarah; Yoong, Joanne; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2018-01-01

    In low- and middle-income countries, budget impact is an important criterion for funding new interventions, particularly for large public health investments such as new vaccines. However, budget impact analyses remain less frequently conducted and less well researched than cost-effectiveness analyses. The objective of this study was to fill the gap in research on budget impact analyses by assessing (1) the quality of stand-alone budget impact analyses, and (2) the feasibility of extending cost-effectiveness analyses to capture budget impact. We developed a budget impact analysis checklist and scoring system for budget impact analyses, which we then adapted for cost-effectiveness analyses, based on current International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Task Force recommendations. We applied both budget impact analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis checklists and scoring systems to examine the extent to which existing economic evaluations provide sufficient evidence about budget impact to enable decision making. We used rotavirus vaccination as an illustrative case in which low- and middle-income countries uptake has been limited despite demonstrated cost effectiveness. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccine in low- and middle-income countries published between January 2000 and February 2017. We critically appraised the quality of budget impact analyses, and assessed the extension of cost-effectiveness analyses to provide useful budget impact information. Six budget impact analyses and 60 cost-effectiveness analyses were identified. Budget impact analyses adhered to most International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research recommendations, with key exceptions being provision of undiscounted financial streams for each budget period and model validation. Most cost-effectiveness analyses could not be extended to provide useful budget impact information; cost

  19. Economic impact assessment of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akın Olçum, Gökçe; Yeldan, Erinç

    2013-01-01

    For the post-Kyoto period, Turkey strongly emphasizes the establishment of national emission trading system by 2015 and its integration with the EU ETS along its accession process to the EU. In this paper, we study the mechanisms of adjustment and economic welfare consequences of various ETS regimes that Turkey considers to apply by 2020, i.e. regional ETS and international trading within the EU ETS. We conduct our analysis under the current EU 20–20–20 emission target, 20%, and also under its revised version, 30%. We find that Turkey has economic gains from linking with the EU ETS under the 20% cap, in comparison to the domestic ETSs. Despite the EU's welfare loss under linkage in comparison to the case where Turkey has domestic abatement efforts, it still prefers linking as it increases economic well being compared to the case where Turkey does not abate. Under 30% cutback, Turkey has critical output loss under linkage due to high abatement burden on the EU, while the EU is better off as it passes some of its abatement burden to Turkey. Therefore, emission quotas and their allocation across the ETS and non ETS sectors become highly critical in distributing the overall economic gains from bilateral trading. - Highlights: • We conduct welfare analysis of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading. • Welfare impacts of having Turkey in the EU ETS via EU accession are analyzed. • Analysis is done with the current EU target of 20%, and the revised target of 30%. • Welfare impacts of linkage on both regions highly depend on the emission targets. • The EU has welfare gains when Turkey engages in abatement actions

  20. Economic assessment of possible electron accelerator applications in curing silicon rubber based electric installation material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rmot, L.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the conventional technology of production of conductors with silicon rubber insulation and of the radiation vulcanization method, i.e., the radiation cross-linking of silicon rubber. An economic comparison is shown for both technologies. The analysis shows that the indices for the radiation cross-linking technology are favourable and that the introduction thereof would be advantageous. (J.P.)