WorldWideScience

Sample records for search image details

  1. Factors influencing detail detectability in radiologic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurvich, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The detectability of various details is estimated quantitatively from the essential technical parameters of the imaging system and additional influencing factors including viewing of the image. The analysis implies the formation of the input radiation distribution (contrast formation, influence of kVp). Noise, image contrast (gamma), modulation transfer function and contrast threshold of the observer are of different influence on details of different size. Thus further optimization of imaging systems and their adaption to specific imaging tasks are facilitated

  2. Annotating images by mining image search results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.J.; Zhang, L.; Li, X.; Ma, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Although it has been studied for years by the computer vision and machine learning communities, image annotation is still far from practical. In this paper, we propose a novel attempt at model-free image annotation, which is a data-driven approach that annotates images by mining their search

  3. Annotating images by mining image search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xirong; Ma, Wei-Ying

    2008-11-01

    Although it has been studied for years by the computer vision and machine learning communities, image annotation is still far from practical. In this paper, we propose a novel attempt at model-free image annotation, which is a data-driven approach that annotates images by mining their search results. Some 2.4 million images with their surrounding text are collected from a few photo forums to support this approach. The entire process is formulated in a divide-and-conquer framework where a query keyword is provided along with the uncaptioned image to improve both the effectiveness and efficiency. This is helpful when the collected data set is not dense everywhere. In this sense, our approach contains three steps: 1) the search process to discover visually and semantically similar search results, 2) the mining process to identify salient terms from textual descriptions of the search results, and 3) the annotation rejection process to filter out noisy terms yielded by Step 2. To ensure real-time annotation, two key techniques are leveraged-one is to map the high-dimensional image visual features into hash codes, the other is to implement it as a distributed system, of which the search and mining processes are provided as Web services. As a typical result, the entire process finishes in less than 1 second. Since no training data set is required, our approach enables annotating with unlimited vocabulary and is highly scalable and robust to outliers. Experimental results on both real Web images and a benchmark image data set show the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed algorithm. It is also worth noting that, although the entire approach is illustrated within the divide-and conquer framework, a query keyword is not crucial to our current implementation. We provide experimental results to prove this.

  4. Detail Enhancement for Infrared Images Based on Propagated Image Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishu Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For displaying high-dynamic-range images acquired by thermal camera systems, 14-bit raw infrared data should map into 8-bit gray values. This paper presents a new method for detail enhancement of infrared images to display the image with a relatively satisfied contrast and brightness, rich detail information, and no artifacts caused by the image processing. We first adopt a propagated image filter to smooth the input image and separate the image into the base layer and the detail layer. Then, we refine the base layer by using modified histogram projection for compressing. Meanwhile, the adaptive weights derived from the layer decomposition processing are used as the strict gain control for the detail layer. The final display result is obtained by recombining the two modified layers. Experimental results on both cooled and uncooled infrared data verify that the proposed method outperforms the method based on log-power histogram modification and bilateral filter-based detail enhancement in both detail enhancement and visual effect.

  5. The search image as link between sensation, perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnessen, Morten

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, it is argued that Jakob von Uexküll's "search image" notion, the original version of this notion within ethology, is still of use. A search image, in Uexküll's sense, is an imagined object that an organism has in mind when it searches for something. Uexküll's conception of the search image is useful both for understanding the theoretical context of contemporary notions of search images, and with an eye to envisioning possible future developments of the idea. Uexküll's classical notion differs from contemporary versions in that it has a wider application, and is therefore of greater relevance to theoretical biology and cognitive science. It constituted an integral part of his ground-breaking Umwelt theory, stressing the fundamental plasticity of the Umwelt, the subjective lifeworld of an animal or human subject. In a contemporary development of Umwelt theory, expressed by the tripartite Umwelt model, the search image notion represents a key connection between the directly experienced core Umwelt and the mediated Umwelt. However, the key function that schemata have in cognitive processes is also the starting point for mistakes in perception. This article details both the constructive function search images have in animal and human perception, and the mismatches in perception they can lead to. It also explains how the existence of search images can help explain puzzles concerning subjective and neural time in contemporary cognitive science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Location-based Services using Image Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vertongen, Pieter-Paulus; Hansen, Dan Witzner

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in image search has made them sufficiently efficient to be used in real-time applications. GPS has become a popular navigation tool. While GPS information provide reasonably good accuracy, they are not always present in all hand held devices nor are they accurate in all situat...... of the image search engine and database image location knowledge, the location is determined of the query image and associated data can be presented to the user....

  7. Research on the Hotel Image Based on the Detail Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ban; Shenghua, Zheng; He, Yi

    Detail service management, initially developed as marketing programs to enhance customer loyalty, has now become an important part of customer relation strategy. This paper analyzes the critical factors of detail service and its influence on the hotel image. We establish the theoretical model of influencing factors on hotel image and propose corresponding hypotheses. We use applying statistical method to test and verify the above-mentioned hypotheses. This paper provides a foundation for further study of detail service design and planning issues.

  8. Interactive searching of facial image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

    1995-09-01

    A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

  9. Effective Image Database Search via Dimensionality Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Aanæs, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Image search using the bag-of-words image representation is investigated further in this paper. This approach has shown promising results for large scale image collections making it relevant for Internet applications. The steps involved in the bag-of-words approach are feature extraction, vocabul......Image search using the bag-of-words image representation is investigated further in this paper. This approach has shown promising results for large scale image collections making it relevant for Internet applications. The steps involved in the bag-of-words approach are feature extraction......, vocabulary building, and searching with a query image. It is important to keep the computational cost low through all steps. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the technique. To do that we substantially reduce the dimensionality of the features by the use of PCA and addition of color. Building...... of the visual vocabulary is typically done using k-means. We investigate a clustering algorithm based on the leader follower principle (LF-clustering), in which the number of clusters is not fixed. The adaptive nature of LF-clustering is shown to improve the quality of the visual vocabulary using this...

  10. HDR IMAGING FOR FEATURE DETECTION ON DETAILED ARCHITECTURAL SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kontogianni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D reconstruction relies on accurate detection, extraction, description and matching of image features. This is even truer for complex architectural scenes that pose needs for 3D models of high quality, without any loss of detail in geometry or color. Illumination conditions influence the radiometric quality of images, as standard sensors cannot depict properly a wide range of intensities in the same scene. Indeed, overexposed or underexposed pixels cause irreplaceable information loss and degrade digital representation. Images taken under extreme lighting environments may be thus prohibitive for feature detection/extraction and consequently for matching and 3D reconstruction. High Dynamic Range (HDR images could be helpful for these operators because they broaden the limits of illumination range that Standard or Low Dynamic Range (SDR/LDR images can capture and increase in this way the amount of details contained in the image. Experimental results of this study prove this assumption as they examine state of the art feature detectors applied both on standard dynamic range and HDR images.

  11. Satisfaction of search experiments in advanced imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbaum, Kevin S.

    2012-03-01

    The objective of our research is to understand the perception of multiple abnormalities in an imaging examination and to develop strategies for improved diagnostic. We are one of the few laboratories in the world pursuing the goal of reducing detection errors through a better understanding of the underlying perceptual processes involved. Failure to detect an abnormality is the most common class of error in diagnostic imaging and generally is considered the most serious by the medical community. Many of these errors have been attributed to "satisfaction of search," which occurs when a lesion is not reported because discovery of another abnormality has "satisfied" the goal of the search. We have gained some understanding of the mechanisms of satisfaction of search (SOS) traditional radiographic modalities. Currently, there are few interventions to remedy SOS error. For example, patient history that the prompts specific abnormalities, protects the radiologist from missing them even when other abnormalities are present. The knowledge gained from this programmatic research will lead to reduction of observer error.

  12. Image superresolution of cytology images using wavelet based patch search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Carlos; García-Arteaga, Juan D.; Romero, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Telecytology is a new research area that holds the potential of significantly reducing the number of deaths due to cervical cancer in developing countries. This work presents a novel super-resolution technique that couples high and low frequency information in order to reduce the bandwidth consumption of cervical image transmission. The proposed approach starts by decomposing into wavelets the high resolution images and transmitting only the lower frequency coefficients. The transmitted coefficients are used to reconstruct an image of the original size. Additional details are added by iteratively replacing patches of the wavelet reconstructed image with equivalent high resolution patches from a previously acquired image database. Finally, the original transmitted low frequency coefficients are used to correct the final image. Results show a higher signal to noise ratio in the proposed method over simply discarding high frequency wavelet coefficients or replacing directly down-sampled patches from the image-database.

  13. Featured Image: A Detailed Look at the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Planning on watching fireworks tomorrow? Heres an astronomical firework to help you start the celebrations! A new study has stunningly detailed the Crab Nebula (click for a closer look), a nebula 6,500 light-years away thought to have been formedby a supernova explosion and the subsequent ultrarelativistic wind emitted by the pulsar at its heart. Led by Gloria Dubner (University of Buenos Aires), the authors of this study obtained new observations of the Crab Nebula from five different telescopes. They compiled these observations to compare the details of the nebulas structure across different wavelengths, which allowedthem to learnabout the sources of various features within the nebula. In the images above, thetop left shows the 3 GHz data from the Very Large Array (radio). Moving clockise, the radio data (shown in red) is composited with: infrared data from Spitzer Space Telescope, optical continuum from Hubble Space Telescope, 500-nm optical datafrom Hubble, and ultraviolet data from XMM-Newton. The final two images are of the nebula center, and they are composites of the radio imagewith X-ray data from Chandra and near-infrared data from Hubble. To read more about what Dubner and collaborators learned (and to see more spectacular images!), check out the paper below.CitationG. Dubner et al 2017 ApJ 840 82. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa6983

  14. Featured Image: New Detail in the Toothbrush Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    This spectacular composite (click here for the full image) reveals the galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214, known as the Toothbrush cluster due to the shape of its most prominent radio relic. Featured in a recent publication led by Kamlesh Rajpurohit (Thuringian State Observatory, Germany), this image contains new Very Large Array (VLA) 1.5-GHz observations (red) showing the radio emission within the cluster. This is composited with a Chandra view of the X-ray emitting gas of the cluster (blue) and an optical image of the background from Subaru data. The new deep VLA data totaling 26 hours of observations provides a detailed look at the complex structure within the Toothbrush relic, revealing enigmatic filaments and twists (see below). This new data will help us to explore the possible merger history of this cluster, which is theorized to have caused the unusual shapes we see today. For more information, check out the original article linked below.High resolution VLA 12 GHz image of the Toothbrush showing the complex, often filamentary structures. [Rajpurohit et al. 2018]CitationK. Rajpurohit et al 2018 ApJ 852 65. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9f13

  15. Detailed comparison of LIGO and Virgo inspiral pipelines in preparation for a joint search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauville, F; Buskulic, D; Grosjean, D; Bizouard, M-A; Cavalier, F; Clapson, A-C; Hello, P; Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E; Bosi, L; Brocco, L; Brown, D A; Chatterji, S; Christensen, N; Knight, M; Fairhurst, S; Guidi, G; Heng, S; Hewitson, M; Klimenko, S

    2008-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a detailed and direct comparison of the detection pipelines used by LIGO and Virgo in their attempt to observe gravitational waves from binary neutron star systems. In order to test the search programs, numerous inspiral signals were added to 24 h of simulated detector data. The efficiencies of the different pipelines were tested, and found to be very similar. Parameter estimation routines were also tested. We demonstrate that there are definite benefits if LIGO and Virgo conduct a joint coincident analysis; these advantages include increased detection efficiency and information on source sky location

  16. Detailed comparison of LIGO and Virgo inspiral pipelines in preparation for a joint search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauville, F; Buskulic, D; Grosjean, D [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Bizouard, M-A; Cavalier, F; Clapson, A-C; Hello, P [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3/CNRS-Universite de Paris XI, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E [LIGO-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bosi, L [INFN Sezione di Perugia and/or Universita di Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brocco, L [INFN Sezione di Roma and/or Universita ' La Sapienza' , P.le A Moro 2, I-00185, Roma (Italy); Brown, D A; Chatterji, S [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Christensen, N; Knight, M [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Fairhurst, S [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Guidi, G [INFN Sezione Firenze/Urbino Via G Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy) and/or Universita di Firenze, Largo E.Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze and/or Universita di Urbino, Via S Chiara 27, I-61029 Urbino (Italy); Heng, S; Hewitson, M [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Klimenko, S [University of Florida-Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)] (and others)

    2008-02-21

    Presented in this paper is a detailed and direct comparison of the detection pipelines used by LIGO and Virgo in their attempt to observe gravitational waves from binary neutron star systems. In order to test the search programs, numerous inspiral signals were added to 24 h of simulated detector data. The efficiencies of the different pipelines were tested, and found to be very similar. Parameter estimation routines were also tested. We demonstrate that there are definite benefits if LIGO and Virgo conduct a joint coincident analysis; these advantages include increased detection efficiency and information on source sky location.

  17. Multiview alignment hashing for efficient image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling

    2015-03-01

    Hashing is a popular and efficient method for nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. For most hashing methods, the performance of retrieval heavily depends on the choice of the high-dimensional feature descriptor. Furthermore, a single type of feature cannot be descriptive enough for different images when it is used for hashing. Thus, how to combine multiple representations for learning effective hashing functions is an imminent task. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised multiview alignment hashing approach based on regularized kernel nonnegative matrix factorization, which can find a compact representation uncovering the hidden semantics and simultaneously respecting the joint probability distribution of data. In particular, we aim to seek a matrix factorization to effectively fuse the multiple information sources meanwhile discarding the feature redundancy. Since the raised problem is regarded as nonconvex and discrete, our objective function is then optimized via an alternate way with relaxation and converges to a locally optimal solution. After finding the low-dimensional representation, the hashing functions are finally obtained through multivariable logistic regression. The proposed method is systematically evaluated on three data sets: 1) Caltech-256; 2) CIFAR-10; and 3) CIFAR-20, and the results show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art multiview hashing techniques.

  18. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Brazier, A. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lazarus, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Lynch, R.; Scholz, P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A. [Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [NRAO, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M., E-mail: zhuww@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: berndsen@phas.ubc.ca [Center for Gravitation, Cosmology and Astrophysics. University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ∼9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  19. Searching for pulsars using image pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Flanigan, J.; Rohr, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ∼9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  20. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W. W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E. C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S. M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C. M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L. P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J. G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J. S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Jenet, F. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kaspi, V. M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K. J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L. G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-02-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper, we present a novel artificial intelligence (AI) program that identifies pulsars from recent surveys by using image pattern recognition with deep neural nets—the PICS (Pulsar Image-based Classification System) AI. The AI mimics human experts and distinguishes pulsars from noise and interference by looking for patterns from candidate plots. Different from other pulsar selection programs that search for expected patterns, the PICS AI is taught the salient features of different pulsars from a set of human-labeled candidates through machine learning. The training candidates are collected from the Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) survey. The information from each pulsar candidate is synthesized in four diagnostic plots, which consist of image data with up to thousands of pixels. The AI takes these data from each candidate as its input and uses thousands of such candidates to train its ~9000 neurons. The deep neural networks in this AI system grant it superior ability to recognize various types of pulsars as well as their harmonic signals. The trained AI's performance has been validated with a large set of candidates from a different pulsar survey, the Green Bank North Celestial Cap survey. In this completely independent test, the PICS ranked 264 out of 277 pulsar-related candidates, including all 56 previously known pulsars and 208 of their harmonics, in the top 961 (1%) of 90,008 test candidates, missing only 13 harmonics. The first non-pulsar candidate appears at rank 187, following 45 pulsars and 141 harmonics. In other words, 100% of the pulsars were ranked in the top 1% of all candidates, while 80% were ranked higher than any noise or interference. The

  1. Enhancing Image Retrieval System Using Content Based Search ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The output shows more efficiency in retrieval because instead of performing the search on the entire image database, the image category option directs the retrieval engine to the specified category. Also, there is provision to update or modify the different image categories in the image database as need arise. Keywords: ...

  2. Dermatological image search engines on the Internet: do they work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrone, M; Grimalt, R

    2007-02-01

    Atlases on CD-ROM first substituted the use of paediatric dermatology atlases printed on paper. This permitted a faster search and a practical comparison of differential diagnoses. The third step in the evolution of clinical atlases was the onset of the online atlas. Many doctors now use the Internet image search engines to obtain clinical images directly. The aim of this study was to test the reliability of the image search engines compared to the online atlases. We tested seven Internet image search engines with three paediatric dermatology diseases. In general, the service offered by the search engines is good, and continues to be free of charge. The coincidence between what we searched for and what we found was generally excellent, and contained no advertisements. Most Internet search engines provided similar results but some were more user friendly than others. It is not necessary to repeat the same research with Picsearch, Lycos and MSN, as the response would be the same; there is a possibility that they might share software. Image search engines are a useful, free and precise method to obtain paediatric dermatology images for teaching purposes. There is still the matter of copyright to be resolved. What are the legal uses of these 'free' images? How do we define 'teaching purposes'? New watermark methods and encrypted electronic signatures might solve these problems and answer these questions.

  3. Cloud Imagers Offer New Details on Earth's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A stunning red sunset or purple sunrise is an aesthetic treat with a scientific explanation: The colors are a direct result of the absorption or reflectance of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols, minute particles (either solid or liquid) in the Earth s atmosphere that occur both naturally and because of human activity. At the beginning or end of the day, the Sun s rays travel farther through the atmosphere to reach an observer s eyes and more green and yellow light is scattered, making the Sun appear red. Sunset and sunrise are especially colorful when the concentration of atmospheric particles is high. This ability of aerosols to absorb and reflect sunlight is not just pretty; it also determines the amount of radiation and heat that reaches the Earth s surface, and can profoundly affect climate. In the atmosphere, aerosols are also important as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds with fewer aerosols cannot form as many water droplets (called cloud particles), and consequently, do not scatter light well. In this case, more sunlight reaches the Earth s surface. When aerosol levels in clouds are high, however, more nucleation points can form small liquid water droplets. These smaller cloud particles can reflect up to 90 percent of visible radiation to space, keeping the heat from ever reaching Earth s surface. The tendency for these particles to absorb or reflect the Sun s energy - called extinction by astronomers - depends on a number of factors, including chemical composition and the humidity and temperature in the surrounding air; because cloud particles are so small, they are affected quickly by minute changes in the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity, atmospheric scientists study cloud particles to anticipate patterns and shifts in climate. Until recently, NASA s study of atmospheric aerosols and cloud particles has been focused primarily on satellite images, which, while granting large-scale atmospheric analysis

  4. Scanners and drillers: Characterizing expert visual search through volumetric images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Vo, Melissa Le-Hoa; Olwal, Alex; Jacobson, Francine; Seltzer, Steven E.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2013-01-01

    Modern imaging methods like computed tomography (CT) generate 3-D volumes of image data. How do radiologists search through such images? Are certain strategies more efficient? Although there is a large literature devoted to understanding search in 2-D, relatively little is known about search in volumetric space. In recent years, with the ever-increasing popularity of volumetric medical imaging, this question has taken on increased importance as we try to understand, and ultimately reduce, errors in diagnostic radiology. In the current study, we asked 24 radiologists to search chest CTs for lung nodules that could indicate lung cancer. To search, radiologists scrolled up and down through a “stack” of 2-D chest CT “slices.” At each moment, we tracked eye movements in the 2-D image plane and coregistered eye position with the current slice. We used these data to create a 3-D representation of the eye movements through the image volume. Radiologists tended to follow one of two dominant search strategies: “drilling” and “scanning.” Drillers restrict eye movements to a small region of the lung while quickly scrolling through depth. Scanners move more slowly through depth and search an entire level of the lung before moving on to the next level in depth. Driller performance was superior to the scanners on a variety of metrics, including lung nodule detection rate, percentage of the lung covered, and the percentage of search errors where a nodule was never fixated. PMID:23922445

  5. Comparing image search behaviour in the ARRS GoldMiner search engine and a clinical PACS/RIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Arteaga, Maria; Eggel, Ivan; Do, Bao; Rubin, Daniel; Kahn, Charles E; Müller, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Information search has changed the way we manage knowledge and the ubiquity of information access has made search a frequent activity, whether via Internet search engines or increasingly via mobile devices. Medical information search is in this respect no different and much research has been devoted to analyzing the way in which physicians aim to access information. Medical image search is a much smaller domain but has gained much attention as it has different characteristics than search for text documents. While web search log files have been analysed many times to better understand user behaviour, the log files of hospital internal systems for search in a PACS/RIS (Picture Archival and Communication System, Radiology Information System) have rarely been analysed. Such a comparison between a hospital PACS/RIS search and a web system for searching images of the biomedical literature is the goal of this paper. Objectives are to identify similarities and differences in search behaviour of the two systems, which could then be used to optimize existing systems and build new search engines. Log files of the ARRS GoldMiner medical image search engine (freely accessible on the Internet) containing 222,005 queries, and log files of Stanford's internal PACS/RIS search called radTF containing 18,068 queries were analysed. Each query was preprocessed and all query terms were mapped to the RadLex (Radiology Lexicon) terminology, a comprehensive lexicon of radiology terms created and maintained by the Radiological Society of North America, so the semantic content in the queries and the links between terms could be analysed, and synonyms for the same concept could be detected. RadLex was mainly created for the use in radiology reports, to aid structured reporting and the preparation of educational material (Lanlotz, 2006) [1]. In standard medical vocabularies such as MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and UMLS (Unified Medical Language System) specific terms of radiology are often

  6. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  7. Categorization and Searching of Color Images Using Mean Shift Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash PANDEY

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Now a day’s Image Searching is still a challenging problem in content based image retrieval (CBIR system. Most CBIR system operates on all images without pre-sorting the images. The image search result contains many unrelated image. The aim of this research is to propose a new object based indexing system Based on extracting salient region representative from the image, categorizing the image into different types and search images that are similar to given query images.In our approach, the color features are extracted using the mean shift algorithm, a robust clustering technique, Dominant objects are obtained by performing region grouping of segmented thumbnails. The category for an image is generated automatically by analyzing the image for the presence of a dominant object. The images in the database are clustered based on region feature similarity using Euclidian distance. Placing an image into a category can help the user to navigate retrieval results more effectively. Extensive experimental results illustrate excellent performance.

  8. Harvesting social images for bi-concept search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Searching for the co-occurrence of two visual concepts in unlabeled images is an important step towards answering complex user queries. Traditional visual search methods use combinations of the confidence scores of individual concept detectors to tackle such queries. In this paper we introduce the

  9. Combined semantic and similarity search in medical image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Sascha; Thoma, Marisa; Stegmaier, Florian; Hammon, Matthias; Kramer, Martin; Huber, Martin; Kriegel, Hans-Peter; Cavallaro, Alexander; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2011-03-01

    The current diagnostic process at hospitals is mainly based on reviewing and comparing images coming from multiple time points and modalities in order to monitor disease progression over a period of time. However, for ambiguous cases the radiologist deeply relies on reference literature or second opinion. Although there is a vast amount of acquired images stored in PACS systems which could be reused for decision support, these data sets suffer from weak search capabilities. Thus, we present a search methodology which enables the physician to fulfill intelligent search scenarios on medical image databases combining ontology-based semantic and appearance-based similarity search. It enabled the elimination of 12% of the top ten hits which would arise without taking the semantic context into account.

  10. A World Wide Web Region-Based Image Search Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Triantafyllou, Evangelia; Strintzis, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the development of an intelligent image content-based search engine for the World Wide Web is presented. This system will offer a new form of media representation and access of content available in WWW. Information Web Crawlers continuously traverse the Internet and collect images...

  11. Thumbnail Images:Uncertainties, Infrastructures and Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Thylstrup, Nanna; Teilmann, Stina

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that thumbnail images are infrastructural images that raise issues of uncertainty in two distinct, but interrelated, areas: a legal question of how to define, understand and govern visual information infrastructures, in particular image search systems in epistemological and strategic terms; and a cultural question of how human-computer interaction design works with navigational uncertainty, both as an experience to be managed and a resource to be exploited. This paper cons...

  12. Computational assessment of visual search strategies in volumetric medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Gezheng; Aizenman, Avigael; Drew, Trafton; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Haygood, Tamara Miner; Markey, Mia K

    2016-01-01

    When searching through volumetric images [e.g., computed tomography (CT)], radiologists appear to use two different search strategies: "drilling" (restrict eye movements to a small region of the image while quickly scrolling through slices), or "scanning" (search over large areas at a given depth before moving on to the next slice). To computationally identify the type of image information that is used in these two strategies, 23 naïve observers were instructed with either "drilling" or "scanning" when searching for target T's in 20 volumes of faux lung CTs. We computed saliency maps using both classical two-dimensional (2-D) saliency, and a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic saliency that captures the characteristics of scrolling through slices. Comparing observers' gaze distributions with the saliency maps showed that search strategy alters the type of saliency that attracts fixations. Drillers' fixations aligned better with dynamic saliency and scanners with 2-D saliency. The computed saliency was greater for detected targets than for missed targets. Similar results were observed in data from 19 radiologists who searched five stacks of clinical chest CTs for lung nodules. Dynamic saliency may be superior to the 2-D saliency for detecting targets embedded in volumetric images, and thus "drilling" may be more efficient than "scanning."

  13. An Adaptive Image Enhancement Technique by Combining Cuckoo Search and Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper.

  14. An adaptive image enhancement technique by combining cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhiwei; Wang, Mingwei; Hu, Zhengbing; Liu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Image enhancement is an important procedure of image processing and analysis. This paper presents a new technique using a modified measure and blending of cuckoo search and particle swarm optimization (CS-PSO) for low contrast images to enhance image adaptively. In this way, contrast enhancement is obtained by global transformation of the input intensities; it employs incomplete Beta function as the transformation function and a novel criterion for measuring image quality considering three factors which are threshold, entropy value, and gray-level probability density of the image. The enhancement process is a nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints. CS-PSO is utilized to maximize the objective fitness criterion in order to enhance the contrast and detail in an image by adapting the parameters of a novel extension to a local enhancement technique. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with other existing techniques such as linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and evolutionary computing based image enhancement methods like backtracking search algorithm, differential search algorithm, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm optimization in terms of processing time and image quality. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper.

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Patient-specific estimation of detailed cochlear shape from clinical CT images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjer, H Martin; Fagertun, Jens; Wimmer, Wilhelm

    2018-01-01

    of the detailed patient-specific cochlear shape from CT images. From a collection of temporal bone [Formula: see text]CT images, we build a cochlear statistical deformation model (SDM), which is a description of how a human cochlea deforms to represent the observed anatomical variability. The model is used...... for regularization of a non-rigid image registration procedure between a patient CT scan and a [Formula: see text]CT image, allowing us to estimate the detailed patient-specific cochlear shape. We test the accuracy and precision of the predicted cochlear shape using both [Formula: see text]CT and CT images...

  17. Detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion based on gradient minimization smoothing filter and shearing filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingbin; Mei, Wenbo; Du, Huiqian

    2018-02-13

    In this paper, a detail-enhanced multimodality medical image fusion algorithm is proposed by using proposed multi-scale joint decomposition framework (MJDF) and shearing filter (SF). The MJDF constructed with gradient minimization smoothing filter (GMSF) and Gaussian low-pass filter (GLF) is used to decompose source images into low-pass layers, edge layers, and detail layers at multiple scales. In order to highlight the detail information in the fused image, the edge layer and the detail layer in each scale are weighted combined into a detail-enhanced layer. As directional filter is effective in capturing salient information, so SF is applied to the detail-enhanced layer to extract geometrical features and obtain directional coefficients. Visual saliency map-based fusion rule is designed for fusing low-pass layers, and the sum of standard deviation is used as activity level measurement for directional coefficients fusion. The final fusion result is obtained by synthesizing the fused low-pass layers and directional coefficients. Experimental results show that the proposed method with shift-invariance, directional selectivity, and detail-enhanced property is efficient in preserving and enhancing detail information of multimodality medical images. Graphical abstract The detailed implementation of the proposed medical image fusion algorithm.

  18. Can social tagged images aid concept-based video search?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setz, A.T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to unravel whether commonly available social tagged images can be exploited as a training resource for concept-based video search. Since social tags are known to be ambiguous, overly personalized, and often error prone, we place special emphasis on the role of disambiguation. We

  19. An alternative approach to contrast-detail testing of X-ray image intensifier systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotre, C.J.; Marshall, N.W.; Faulkner, K.

    1992-01-01

    The difficulties of making the results of threshold contrast-detail diameter tests on X-ray image intensifier systems consistent with published performance standards are discussed. The current approach to contrast-detail testing is described and an alternative method intended to give greater consistency for all image intensifier input field diameters proposed. The current and alternative test conditions are compared on two image intensifier systems. The results obtained show that the contrast-detail curves for image intensifier systems with a wide range of input field diameters can be effectively normalized to be directly comparable to a common reference standard by applying the proposed alternative test conditions. The implications of this result on the interpretation of the contrast-detail test are discussed. (author)

  20. Improvement of natural image search engines results by emotional filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Denis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the Internet 2.0 era, managing user emotions is a problem that more and more actors are interested in. Historically, the first notions of emotion sharing were expressed and defined with emoticons. They allowed users to show their emotional status to others in an impersonal and emotionless digital world. Now, in the Internet of social media, every day users share lots of content with each other on Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and so on. Several new popular web sites like FlickR, Picassa, Pinterest, Instagram or DeviantArt are now specifically based on sharing image content as well as personal emotional status. This kind of information is economically very valuable as it can for instance help commercial companies sell more efficiently. In fact, with this king of emotional information, business can made where companies will better target their customers needs, and/or even sell them more products. Research has been and is still interested in the mining of emotional information from user data since then. In this paper, we focus on the impact of emotions from images that have been collected from search image engines. More specifically our proposition is the creation of a filtering layer applied on the results of such image search engines. Our peculiarity relies in the fact that it is the first attempt from our knowledge to filter image search engines results with an emotional filtering approach.

  1. Smart Images Search based on Visual Features Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Image search engines attempt to give fast and accurate access to the wide range of the huge amount images available on the Internet. There have been a number of efforts to build search engines based on the image content to enhance search results. Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems have achieved a great interest since multimedia files, such as images and videos, have dramatically entered our lives throughout the last decade. CBIR allows automatically extracting target images according to objective visual contents of the image itself, for example its shapes, colors and textures to provide more accurate ranking of the results. The recent approaches of CBIR differ in terms of which image features are extracted to be used as image descriptors for matching process. This thesis proposes improvements of the efficiency and accuracy of CBIR systems by integrating different types of image features. This framework addresses efficient retrieval of images in large image collections. A comparative study between recent CBIR techniques is provided. According to this study; image features need to be integrated to provide more accurate description of image content and better image retrieval accuracy. In this context, this thesis presents new image retrieval approaches that provide more accurate retrieval accuracy than previous approaches. The first proposed image retrieval system uses color, texture and shape descriptors to form the global features vector. This approach integrates the yc b c r color histogram as a color descriptor, the modified Fourier descriptor as a shape descriptor and modified Edge Histogram as a texture descriptor in order to enhance the retrieval results. The second proposed approach integrates the global features vector, which is used in the first approach, with the SURF salient point technique as local feature. The nearest neighbor matching algorithm with a proposed similarity measure is applied to determine the final image rank. The second approach

  2. Determination of connected components inthe analysis of homogeneous and detail zonesin color images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pérez-Benito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A model based on local graphs to classify pixels coming from at or detail regions of an image is presented. For each pixel a local graph is dened. Its structure will depend on the similarity between neighbouring pixels. Its features allow us to classify each image pixel as belonging to one type of region or the other. This classication is an essential pre-processing technique for many Computer Vision tools, such as smoothingor sharpening of digital color images.

  3. [Comparison of film-screen combination in a contrast detail diagram and with interactive image analysis. 1: Contrast detail diagram].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, G; Eichbaum, G

    1997-07-01

    The following three film-screen combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and c) a conventional green fluorescing screen film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) were obtained that contained bar patterns of lead and plaster (calcium sulfate) to test high and intermediate contrast resolution and bar patterns of air to test low contrast resolution, respectively. An aluminum step wedge was integrated to evaluate dose-density curves of the radiographs. The dose values for the various step thicknesses were measured as percentage of the dose value in air for 60, 81, and 117 kV. Exposure conditions were the following: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1), and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. The thresholds of visible bars of the various pattern materials were assessed by seven radiologists, one technician, and the authors. The resulting contrast detail diagram could not prove any significant differences between the three tested screen film combinations. The pairwise comparison, however, found 8 of the 18 paired differences to be statistically significant between the conventional and the two new screen-film combinations. The authors concluded that subjective visual assessment of the threshold in a contrast detail study alone is of only limited value to grade image quality if no well-defined criteria are used (BIR report 20 [1989] 137-139). The statistical approach of paired differences of the estimated means appeared to be more appropriate.

  4. Recent advances in intelligent image search and video retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book initially reviews the major feature representation and extraction methods and effective learning and recognition approaches, which have broad applications in the context of intelligent image search and video retrieval. It subsequently presents novel methods, such as improved soft assignment coding, Inheritable Color Space (InCS) and the Generalized InCS framework, the sparse kernel manifold learner method, the efficient Support Vector Machine (eSVM), and the Scale-Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features in multiple color spaces. Lastly, the book presents clothing analysis for subject identification and retrieval, and performance evaluation methods of video analytics for traffic monitoring. Digital images and videos are proliferating at an amazing speed in the fields of science, engineering and technology, media and entertainment. With the huge accumulation of such data, keyword searches and manual annotation schemes may no longer be able to meet the practical demand for retrieving relevant conte...

  5. Detailed high-spin spectroscopy and the search for the wobbling mode in 171Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D J.; Mohr, W.H.; Vanhoy, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    High-spin states in 171 Ta were populated in the 124 Sn( 51 V,4n) reaction at 228 MeV to search for evidence of stable triaxial deformation. Identification of a wobbling sequence based on the previously known πi 13/2 structure would provide a unique signature for this rarely observed shape. No such sequence was identified in these data, which suggests that the island of triaxial strongly deformed bands may be smaller than once thought. However, over 200 new transitions and two new bands were placed in the level scheme and the sequence based on the πi 13/2 orbital could be observed up to spin and parity I π =(101/2 + ). The relative excitations of all the sequences were determined and the ground state of 171 Ta was found to have 5/2 + quantum numbers, contrary to previous reports. All of the previously known structures were extended to much higher spin and their high-frequency band crossings are interpreted within the framework of the cranked shell model

  6. Imaging by Electrochemical Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Deconvolution Resolving More Details of Surfaces Nanomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    observed in high-resolution images of metallic nanocrystallites may be effectively deconvoluted, as to resolve more details of the crystalline morphology (see figure). Images of surface-crystalline metals indicate that more than a single atomic layer is involved in mediating the tunneling current......Upon imaging, electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ESTM), scanning electrochemical micro-scopy (SECM) and in situ STM resolve information on electronic structures and on surface topography. At very high resolution, imaging processing is required, as to obtain information that relates...... to crystallographic-surface structures. Within the wide range of new technologies, those images surface features, the electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ESTM) provides means of atomic resolution where the tip participates actively in the process of imaging. Two metallic surfaces influence ions trapped...

  7. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... An algorithm to retrieve Land Surface Temperature using Landsat-8 Dataset Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2225-8531.

  8. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  9. SEARCHING REMOTELY SENSED IMAGES FOR MEANINGFUL NESTED GESTALTEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Michaelsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even non-expert human observers sometimes still outperform automatic extraction of man-made objects from remotely sensed data. We conjecture that some of this remarkable capability can be explained by Gestalt mechanisms. Gestalt algebra gives a mathematical structure capturing such part-aggregate relations and the laws to form an aggregate called Gestalt. Primitive Gestalten are obtained from an input image and the space of all possible Gestalt algebra terms is searched for well-assessed instances. This can be a very challenging combinatorial effort. The contribution at hand gives some tools and structures unfolding a finite and comparably small subset of the possible combinations. Yet, the intended Gestalten still are contained and found with high probability and moderate efforts. Experiments are made with images obtained from a virtual globe system, and use the SIFT method for extraction of the primitive Gestalten. Comparison is made with manually extracted ground-truth Gestalten salient to human observers.

  10. Searching Remotely Sensed Images for Meaningful Nested Gestalten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, E.; Muench, D.; Arens, M.

    2016-06-01

    Even non-expert human observers sometimes still outperform automatic extraction of man-made objects from remotely sensed data. We conjecture that some of this remarkable capability can be explained by Gestalt mechanisms. Gestalt algebra gives a mathematical structure capturing such part-aggregate relations and the laws to form an aggregate called Gestalt. Primitive Gestalten are obtained from an input image and the space of all possible Gestalt algebra terms is searched for well-assessed instances. This can be a very challenging combinatorial effort. The contribution at hand gives some tools and structures unfolding a finite and comparably small subset of the possible combinations. Yet, the intended Gestalten still are contained and found with high probability and moderate efforts. Experiments are made with images obtained from a virtual globe system, and use the SIFT method for extraction of the primitive Gestalten. Comparison is made with manually extracted ground-truth Gestalten salient to human observers.

  11. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals ΔT image from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For ΔT image =150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380±9 ms for MV and 420±12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms), MLC position

  12. Detailed analysis of latencies in image-based dynamic MLC tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Cho, Byungchul; Sawant, Amit; Ruan, Dan; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Oncology and Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University Hospital, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: Previous measurements of the accuracy of image-based real-time dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) tracking show that the major contributor to errors is latency, i.e., the delay between target motion and MLC response. Therefore the purpose of this work was to develop a method for detailed analysis of latency contributions during image-based DMLC tracking. Methods: A prototype DMLC tracking system integrated with a linear accelerator was used for tracking a phantom with an embedded fiducial marker during treatment delivery. The phantom performed a sinusoidal motion. Real-time target localization was based on x-ray images acquired either with a portal imager or a kV imager mounted orthogonal to the treatment beam. Each image was stored in a file on the imaging workstation. A marker segmentation program opened the image file, determined the marker position in the image, and transferred it to the DMLC tracking program. This program estimated the three-dimensional target position by a single-imager method and adjusted the MLC aperture to the target position. Imaging intervals {Delta}T{sub image} from 150 to 1000 ms were investigated for both kV and MV imaging. After the experiments, the recorded images were synchronized with MLC log files generated by the MLC controller and tracking log files generated by the tracking program. This synchronization allowed temporal analysis of the information flow for each individual image from acquisition to completed MLC adjustment. The synchronization also allowed investigation of the MLC adjustment dynamics on a considerably finer time scale than the 50 ms time resolution of the MLC log files. Results: For {Delta}T{sub image}=150 ms, the total time from image acquisition to completed MLC adjustment was 380{+-}9 ms for MV and 420{+-}12 ms for kV images. The main part of this time was from image acquisition to completed image file writing (272 ms for MV and 309 ms for kV). Image file opening (38 ms), marker segmentation (4 ms

  13. Rapid hyperspectral image classification to enable autonomous search systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Bridgelal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of lightweight full-frame hyperspectral cameras is destined to enable autonomous search vehicles in the air, on the ground and in water. Self-contained and long-endurance systems will yield important new applications, for example, in emergency response and the timely identification of environmental hazards. One missing capability is rapid classification of hyperspectral scenes so that search vehicles can immediately take actions to verify potential targets. Onsite verifications minimise false positives and preclude the expense of repeat missions. Verifications will require enhanced image quality, which is achievable by either moving closer to the potential target or by adjusting the optical system. Such a solution, however, is currently impractical for small mobile platforms with finite energy sources. Rapid classifications with current methods demand large computing capacity that will quickly deplete the on-board battery or fuel. To develop the missing capability, the authors propose a low-complexity hyperspectral image classifier that approaches the performance of prevalent classifiers. This research determines that the new method will require at least 19-fold less computing capacity than the prevalent classifier. To assess relative performances, the authors developed a benchmark that compares a statistic of library endmember separability in their respective feature spaces.

  14. New Details of the Human Corneal Limbus Revealed With Second Harmonic Generation Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Jimmy K; Zhang, Cheng; Chuck, Roy S

    2015-09-01

    To report novel findings of the human corneal limbus by using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging. Corneal limbus was imaged by using an inverted two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope. Laser (Ti:Sapphire) was tuned at 850 nm for two-photon excitation. Backscatter signals of SHG and autofluorescence (AF) were collected through a 425/30-nm emission filter and a 525/45-emission filter, respectively. Multiple, consecutive, and overlapping image stacks (z-stack) were acquired for the corneal limbal area. Two novel collagen structures were revealed by SHG imaging at the limbus: an anterior limbal cribriform layer and presumed anchoring fibers. Anterior limbal cribriform layer is an intertwined reticular collagen architecture just beneath the limbal epithelial niche and is located between the peripheral cornea and Tenon's/scleral tissue. Autofluorescence imaging revealed high vascularity in this structure. Central to the anterior limbal cribriform layer, radial strands of collagen were found to connect the peripheral cornea to the limbus. These presumed anchoring fibers have both collagen and elastin and were found more extensively in the superficial layers than deep layer and were absent in very deep limbus near Schlemm's canal. By using SHG imaging, new details of the collagen architecture of human corneal limbal area were elucidated. High resolution images with volumetric analysis revealed two novel collagen structures.

  15. An Implementation and Detailed Analysis of the K-SVD Image Denoising Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lebrun

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available K-SVD is a signal representation method which, from a set of signals, can derive a dictionary able to approximate each signal with a sparse combination of the atoms. This paper focuses on the K-SVD-based image denoising algorithm. The implementation is described in detail and its parameters are analyzed and varied to come up with a reliable implementation.

  16. A Multimodal Search Engine for Medical Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Eduardo; Godinho, Tiago; Valente, Frederico; Costa, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    The use of digital medical imaging systems in healthcare institutions has increased significantly, and the large amounts of data in these systems have led to the conception of powerful support tools: recent studies on content-based image retrieval (CBIR) and multimodal information retrieval in the field hold great potential in decision support, as well as for addressing multiple challenges in healthcare systems, such as computer-aided diagnosis (CAD). However, the subject is still under heavy research, and very few solutions have become part of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in hospitals and clinics. This paper proposes an extensible platform for multimodal medical image retrieval, integrated in an open-source PACS software with profile-based CBIR capabilities. In this article, we detail a technical approach to the problem by describing its main architecture and each sub-component, as well as the available web interfaces and the multimodal query techniques applied. Finally, we assess our implementation of the engine with computational performance benchmarks.

  17. MIDA: A Multimodal Imaging-Based Detailed Anatomical Model of the Human Head and Neck.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ida Iacono

    Full Text Available Computational modeling and simulations are increasingly being used to complement experimental testing for analysis of safety and efficacy of medical devices. Multiple voxel- and surface-based whole- and partial-body models have been proposed in the literature, typically with spatial resolution in the range of 1-2 mm and with 10-50 different tissue types resolved. We have developed a multimodal imaging-based detailed anatomical model of the human head and neck, named "MIDA". The model was obtained by integrating three different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI modalities, the parameters of which were tailored to enhance the signals of specific tissues: i structural T1- and T2-weighted MRIs; a specific heavily T2-weighted MRI slab with high nerve contrast optimized to enhance the structures of the ear and eye; ii magnetic resonance angiography (MRA data to image the vasculature, and iii diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to obtain information on anisotropy and fiber orientation. The unique multimodal high-resolution approach allowed resolving 153 structures, including several distinct muscles, bones and skull layers, arteries and veins, nerves, as well as salivary glands. The model offers also a detailed characterization of eyes, ears, and deep brain structures. A special automatic atlas-based segmentation procedure was adopted to include a detailed map of the nuclei of the thalamus and midbrain into the head model. The suitability of the model to simulations involving different numerical methods, discretization approaches, as well as DTI-based tensorial electrical conductivity, was examined in a case-study, in which the electric field was generated by transcranial alternating current stimulation. The voxel- and the surface-based versions of the models are freely available to the scientific community.

  18. Imaging the internal structure of fluid upflow zones with detailed digital Parasound echosounder surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiess, V.; Zuehlsdorff, L.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Schwenk, T.

    2001-12-01

    Sites of venting fluids both with continuous and episodic supply often reveal complex surface and internal structures, which are difficult to image and cause problems to transfer results from local sampling towards a structural reconstruction and a quantification of (average) flux rates. Detailed acoustic and seismic surveys would be required to retrieve this information, but also an appropriate environment, where fluid migration can be properly imaged from contrasts to unaffected areas. Hemipelagic sediments are most suitable, since typically reflectors are coherent and of low lateral amplitude variation and structures are continuous over distances much longer than the scale of fluid migration features. During RV Meteor Cruise M473 and RV Sonne Cruise SO 149 detailed studies were carried out in the vicinity of potential fluid upflow zones in the Lower Congo Basin at 5oS in 3000 m water depth and at the Northern Cascadia Margin in 1000 m water depth. Unexpected sampling of massive gas hydrates from the sea floor as well as of carbonate concretions, shell fragments and different liveforms indicated active fluid venting in a typically hemipelagic realm. The acoustic signature of such zones includes columnar blanking, pockmark depressions at the sea floor, association with small offset faults (ParaDigMA System for further processing and display, to image the spatial structure of the upflow zones. Due to the high data density amplitudes and other acoustic properties could be investigated in a 3D volume and time slices as well as reflector surfaces were analyzed. Pronounced lateral variations of reflection amplitudes within a complex pattern indicate potential pathways for fluid/gas migration and occurrences of near-surface gas hydrate deposits, which may be used to trace detailed surface evidence from side scan sonar imaging down to depth and support dedicated sampling.

  19. Controlled searching in reversibly de-identified medical imaging archives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jorge Miguel; Pinho, Eduardo; Monteiro, Eriksson; Silva, João Figueira; Costa, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, digital medical imaging in healthcare has become a fundamental tool for medical diagnosis. This growth has been accompanied by the development of technologies and standards, such as the DICOM standard and PACS. This environment led to the creation of collaborative projects where there is a need to share medical data between different institutions for research and educational purposes. In this context, it is necessary to maintain patient data privacy and provide an easy and secure mechanism for authorized personnel access. This paper presents a solution that fully de-identifies standard medical imaging objects, including metadata and pixel data, providing at the same time a reversible de-identifier mechanism that retains search capabilities from the original data. The last feature is important in some scenarios, for instance, in collaborative platforms where data is anonymized when shared with the community but searchable for data custodians or authorized entities. The solution was integrated into an open source PACS archive and validated in a multidisciplinary collaborative scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register ... (2013) - Articles Technical Note: Development of a Photobioreactor for Microalgae Culture ... Design, Construction and Evaluation of Motorized Okra Slicer Abstract PDF ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to ... No 1 (2014) - Articles Knowledge and Attitudes towards Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) among Community Nurses in Remo Area of Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get ... Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of medium voltage switchgear for data collection and transmission. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112- ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or ... The prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme and infant feeding practices ... Evaluation of a diagnostic algorithm for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in ...

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    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details ... Design and Implementation of an M/M/1 Queuing Model Algorithm and its Applicability in ... Vehicle Identification Technology to Intercept Small Arms and Ammunition on Nigeria Roads

  5. Categorical and Specificity Differences between User-Supplied Tags and Search Query Terms for Images. An Analysis of "Flickr" Tags and Web Image Search Queries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, EunKyung; Yoon, JungWon

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study is to compare characteristics and features of user supplied tags and search query terms for images on the "Flickr" Website in terms of categories of pictorial meanings and level of term specificity. Method: This study focuses on comparisons between tags and search queries using Shatford's categorization…

  6. Complex distal insertions of the tibialis posterior tendon: detailed anatomic and MR imaging investigation in cadavers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastore, Daniel; Cerri, Giovanni G. [University of Sao Paulo, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Dirim, Berna; Wangwinyuvirat, Mani; Belentani, Clarissa L.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haghighi, Parviz [VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Medical Center, University of California, Department of Histology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the normal complex insertional anatomy of the tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) in cadavers using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with anatomic and histologic correlation. Ten cadaveric ankles were used according to institutional guidelines. MR T1-weighted spin echo imaging was performed to demonstrate aspects of the complex anatomic distal insertions of the TPT in cadaveric specimens. Findings on MR imaging were correlated with those derived from anatomic and histologic study. Generally, the TPT revealed a low signal in all MR images, except near the level of the medial malleolus, where the TPT suddenly changed direction and ''magic angle'' artifact could be observed. In five out of ten specimens (50%), a type I accessory navicular bone was found in the TPT. In all cases with a type I accessory navicular bone, the TPT had an altered signal in this area. Axial and coronal planes on MR imaging were the best in identifying the distal insertions of the TPT. A normal division of the TPT was observed just proximal to the insertion into the navicular bone in five specimens (100%) occurring at a maximum proximal distance from its attachment to the navicular bone of approximately 1.5 to 2 cm. In the other five specimens, in which a type I accessory navicular bone was present, the TPT directly inserted into the accessory bone and a slip less than 1.5 mm in thickness could be observed attaching to the medial aspect of the navicular bone (100%). Anatomic inspection confirmed the sites of the distal insertions of the components of the TPT. MR imaging enabled detailed analysis of the complex distal insertions of the TPT as well as a better understanding of those features of its insertion that can simulate a lesion. (orig.)

  7. Pathfinder: multiresolution region-based searching of pathology images using IRM.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    The fast growth of digitized pathology slides has created great challenges in research on image database retrieval. The prevalent retrieval technique involves human-supplied text annotations to describe slide contents. These pathology images typically have very high resolution, making it difficult to search based on image content. In this paper, we present Pathfinder, an efficient multiresolution region-based searching system for high-resolution pathology image libraries. The system uses wave...

  8. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

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    Author Details. Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The use of negative pressure wave treatment in athlete recovery. Abstract PDF · Vol 29, No 1 (2017) - Articles The prevalence, risk factors predicting injury and the severity of injuries sustained during ...

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  1. PROCESSING OF UAV BASED RANGE IMAGING DATA TO GENERATE DETAILED ELEVATION MODELS OF COMPLEX NATURAL STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Kohoutek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are more and more used in civil areas like geomatics. Autonomous navigated platforms have a great flexibility in flying and manoeuvring in complex environments to collect remote sensing data. In contrast to standard technologies such as aerial manned platforms (airplanes and helicopters UAVs are able to fly closer to the object and in small-scale areas of high-risk situations such as landslides, volcano and earthquake areas and floodplains. Thus, UAVs are sometimes the only practical alternative in areas where access is difficult and where no manned aircraft is available or even no flight permission is given. Furthermore, compared to terrestrial platforms, UAVs are not limited to specific view directions and could overcome occlusions from trees, houses and terrain structures. Equipped with image sensors and/or laser scanners they are able to provide elevation models, rectified images, textured 3D-models and maps. In this paper we will describe a UAV platform, which can carry a range imaging (RIM camera including power supply and data storage for the detailed mapping and monitoring of complex structures, such as alpine riverbed areas. The UAV platform NEO from Swiss UAV was equipped with the RIM camera CamCube 2.0 by PMD Technologies GmbH to capture the surface structures. Its navigation system includes an autopilot. To validate the UAV-trajectory a 360° prism was installed and tracked by a total station. Within the paper a workflow for the processing of UAV-RIM data is proposed, which is based on the processing of differential GNSS data in combination with the acquired range images. Subsequently, the obtained results for the trajectory are compared and verified with a track of a UAV (Falcon 8, Ascending Technologies carried out with a total station simultaneously to the GNSS data acquisition. The results showed that the UAV's position using differential GNSS could be determined in the centimetre to the decimetre

  2. Supervised learning of tools for content-based search of image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoy, Richard L.

    1996-03-01

    A computer environment, called the Toolkit for Image Mining (TIM), is being developed with the goal of enabling users with diverse interests and varied computer skills to create search tools for content-based image retrieval and other pattern matching tasks. Search tools are generated using a simple paradigm of supervised learning that is based on the user pointing at mistakes of classification made by the current search tool. As mistakes are identified, a learning algorithm uses the identified mistakes to build up a model of the user's intentions, construct a new search tool, apply the search tool to a test image, display the match results as feedback to the user, and accept new inputs from the user. Search tools are constructed in the form of functional templates, which are generalized matched filters capable of knowledge- based image processing. The ability of this system to learn the user's intentions from experience contrasts with other existing approaches to content-based image retrieval that base searches on the characteristics of a single input example or on a predefined and semantically- constrained textual query. Currently, TIM is capable of learning spectral and textural patterns, but should be adaptable to the learning of shapes, as well. Possible applications of TIM include not only content-based image retrieval, but also quantitative image analysis, the generation of metadata for annotating images, data prioritization or data reduction in bandwidth-limited situations, and the construction of components for larger, more complex computer vision algorithms.

  3. Tuple image multi-scale optical flow for detailed cardiac motion extraction: Application to left ventricle rotation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, van H.C.; Florack, L.M.J.; Westenberg, J.J.M.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Hamarneh, G.; Abugharbieh, R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for detailed tracking of cardiac motion based on MR-tagging imaging, multi-scale optical flow, and HARP-like image filtering.In earlier work, we showed that the results obtained with our method correlate very well with Phase Contrast MRI. In this paper we combine the

  4. Evaluation of a software package for automated quality assessment of contrast detail images-comparison with subjective visual assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoal, A; Lawinski, C P; Honey, I; Blake, P

    2005-01-01

    Contrast detail analysis is commonly used to assess image quality (IQ) associated with diagnostic imaging systems. Applications include routine assessment of equipment performance and optimization studies. Most frequently, the evaluation of contrast detail images involves human observers visually detecting the threshold contrast detail combinations in the image. However, the subjective nature of human perception and the variations in the decision threshold pose limits to the minimum image quality variations detectable with reliability. Objective methods of assessment of image quality such as automated scoring have the potential to overcome the above limitations. A software package (CDRAD analyser) developed for automated scoring of images produced with the CDRAD test object was evaluated. Its performance to assess absolute and relative IQ was compared with that of an average observer. Results show that the software does not mimic the absolute performance of the average observer. The software proved more sensitive and was able to detect smaller low-contrast variations. The observer's performance was superior to the software's in the detection of smaller details. Both scoring methods showed frequent agreement in the detection of image quality variations resulting from changes in kVp and KERMA detector , which indicates the potential to use the software CDRAD analyser for assessment of relative IQ

  5. Detailed imaging of flowing structures at depth using microseismicity: a tool for site investigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharouli, S.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.

    2011-12-01

    Field evidence shows that faults and fractures can act as focused pathways or barriers for fluid migration. This is an important property for modern engineering problems, e.g., CO2 sequestration, geological radioactive waste disposal, geothermal energy exploitation, land reclamation and remediation. For such applications the detailed characterization of the location, orientation and hydraulic properties of existing fractures is necessary. These investigations are expensive, requiring the hire of expensive equipment (excavator or drill rigs), which incur standing charges when not in use. In addition, they only provide information for discrete sample 'windows'. Non-intrusive methods have the ability to gather information across an entire area. Methods including electrical resistivity/conductivity and ground penetrating radar (GRP), have been used as tools for site investigations. Their imaging ability is often restricted due to unfavourable on-site conditions e.g. GRP is not useful in cases where a layer of clay or reinforced concrete is present. Our research has shown that high quality seismic data can be successfully used in the detailed imaging of sub-surface structures at depth; using induced microseismicity data recorded beneath the Açu reservoir in Brazil we identified orientations and values of average permeability of open shear fractures at depths up to 2.5km. Could microseismicity also provide information on the fracture width in terms of stress drops? First results from numerical simulations showed that higher stress drop values correspond to narrower fractures. These results were consistent with geological field observations. This study highlights the great potential of using microseismicity data as a supplementary tool for site investigation. Individual large-scale shear fractures in large rock volumes cannot currently be identified by any other geophysical dataset. The resolution of the method is restricted by the detection threshold of the local

  6. Atomic force microscopic neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography for boron imaging in detailed cellular histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Takahashi, H.; Fujita, K.; Nakazawa, M.; Yanagie, H.; Eriguchi, M.; Nakagawa, Y.; Sakurai, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The information on subcellular microdistribution of 10 B compounds a cell is significant to evaluate the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) because the damage brought by the released alpha/lithium particles is highly localized along their path, and radiation sensitivity is quite different among each cell organelles. In neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography (NIAR) technique, 10 B can be measured as tracks for the energetic charged particles from 10 B(n, alpha) 7 Li reactions in solid state track detectors. To perform the NIAR at intracellular structure level for research of 10 B uptake and/or microdosimetry in BNCT, we have developed high-resolution NIAR method with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM has been used for analyses of biological specimens such as proteins, DNAs and surface of living cells have, however, intracellular detailed histology of cells has been hardly resolved with AFM since flat surface of sectioned tissue has quite less topographical contrast among each organelle. In our new sample preparation method using UV processing, materials that absorb UV in a semi-thin section are selectively eroded and vaporized by UV exposure, and then fine relief for cellular organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, filament structure and so on reveals on flat surface of the section, which can be observed with an AFM. The imaging resolution was comparable to TEM imaging of cells. This new method provides fast and cost-effective observation of histological sections with an AFM. Combining this method with NIAR technique, intracellular boron mapping would be possible. (author)

  7. Integration of Satellite Tracking Data and Satellite Images for Detailed Characteristics of Wildlife Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrynin, D. V.; Rozhnov, V. V.; Saveliev, A. A.; Sukhova, O. V.; Yachmennikova, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methods of analysis of the results got from satellite tracking of large terrestrial mammals differ in the level of their integration with additional geographic data. The reliable fine-scale cartographic basis for assessing specific wildlife habitats can be developed through the interpretation of multispectral remote sensing data and extrapolation of the results to the entire estimated species range. Topographic maps were ordinated according to classified features using self-organizing maps (Kohonen's SOM). The satellite image of the Ussuriiskyi Nature Reserve area was interpreted for the analysis of movement conditions for seven wild Amur tigers ( Panthera tigris altaica) equipped with GPS collars. 225 SOM classes for cartographic visualization are sufficient for the detailed mapping of all natural complexes that were identified as a result of interpretation. During snow-free periods, tigers preferred deciduous and shrub associations at lower elevations, as well as mixed forests in the valleys of streams that are adjacent to sparse forests and shrub watershed in the mountain ranges; during heavy snow periods, the animals preferred the entire range of plant communities in different relief types, except for open sites in meadows and abandoned fields at foothills. The border zones of different biotopes were typically used by the tigers during all seasons. Amur tigers preferred coniferous forests for long-term movements.

  8. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Everse, LA; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M-O.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.D.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. H. Campora; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; CruzTorres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, C.R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J. M.; Paula, L.E.; da-Silva, W.S.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; ElRifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T. M.; Falabella, A.; Faerber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, Mark; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garcia Pardinas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Carvalho-Gaspar, M.; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T. J.; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A.; Giani, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Goebel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.Q.; Gotti, C.; Gandara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Grauges, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Gruenberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, H.M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.M.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.M.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T. E.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J. P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, S.C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Maerki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli-Boneschi, F.; Santos, D. Martinez; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; Mcnab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B. T.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M. N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, Karl; Mueller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, E.A.; Owen, R.P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, D.A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Olloqui, E. Picatoste; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, M. E.; Price, J.D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, C.A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, Y.W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, Jennifer S; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, L.E.T.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, van Hapere; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, R. H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M. H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; de Souza, D.K.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M. N.; Todd, Jim; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, N.T.M.T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, M.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, James F; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.J.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions collected at √s = 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from

  9. VisualRank: applying PageRank to large-scale image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yushi; Baluja, Shumeet

    2008-11-01

    Because of the relative ease in understanding and processing text, commercial image-search systems often rely on techniques that are largely indistinguishable from text-search. Recently, academic studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of employing image-based features to provide alternative or additional signals. However, it remains uncertain whether such techniques will generalize to a large number of popular web queries, and whether the potential improvement to search quality warrants the additional computational cost. In this work, we cast the image-ranking problem into the task of identifying "authority" nodes on an inferred visual similarity graph and propose VisualRank to analyze the visual link structures among images. The images found to be "authorities" are chosen as those that answer the image-queries well. To understand the performance of such an approach in a real system, we conducted a series of large-scale experiments based on the task of retrieving images for 2000 of the most popular products queries. Our experimental results show significant improvement, in terms of user satisfaction and relevancy, in comparison to the most recent Google Image Search results. Maintaining modest computational cost is vital to ensuring that this procedure can be used in practice; we describe the techniques required to make this system practical for large scale deployment in commercial search engines.

  10. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah; Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che

    2015-01-01

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner

  11. Multiparameter double hole contrast detail phantom: Ability to detect image displacement due to off position anode stem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauzi, Nur Farahana; Majid, Zafri Azran Abdul; Sapuan, Abdul Halim; Junet, Laila Kalidah [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiotherapy, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal Che [Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Jalan Istana, 25200, Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Contrast Detail phantom is a quality control tool to analyze the performance of imaging devices. Currently, its function is solely to evaluate the contrast detail characteristic of imaging system. It consists of drilled hole which gives effect to the penetration of x-ray beam divergence to pass through the base of each hole. This effect will lead to false appearance of image from its original location but it does not being visualized in the radiograph. In this study, a new design of Contrast Detail phantom’s hole which consists of double hole construction has been developed. It can detect the image displacement which is due to off position of anode stem from its original location. The double hole differs from previous milled hole, whereby it consists of combination of different hole diameters. Small hole diameter (3 mm) is positioned on top of larger hole diameter (10 mm). The thickness of double hole acrylic blocks is 13 mm. Result revealed that Multiparameter Double Hole Contrast Detail phantom can visualize the shifted flaw image quality produced by x-ray machine due to improper position of the anode stem which is attached to rotor and stator. The effective focal spot of x-ray beam also has been shifted from the center of collimator as a result of off-position anode stem. As a conclusion, the new design of double hole Contrast Detail phantom able to measure those parameters in a well manner.

  12. Probabilistic hypergraph based hash codes for social image search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi XIE; Hui-min YU; Roland HU

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, recent years have seen the explosive growth of social media. This brings great challenges in performing efficient and accurate image retrieval on a large scale. Recent work shows that using hashing methods to embed high-dimensional image features and tag information into Hamming space provides a powerful way to index large collections of social images. By learning hash codes through a spectral graph partitioning algorithm, spectral hashing (SH) has shown promising performance among various hashing approaches. However, it is incomplete to model the relations among images only by pairwise simple graphs which ignore the relationship in a higher order. In this paper, we utilize a probabilistic hypergraph model to learn hash codes for social image retrieval. A probabilistic hypergraph model offers a higher order repre-sentation among social images by connecting more than two images in one hyperedge. Unlike a normal hypergraph model, a probabilistic hypergraph model considers not only the grouping information, but also the similarities between vertices in hy-peredges. Experiments on Flickr image datasets verify the performance of our proposed approach.

  13. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-02-07

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L ₀ gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Super-Resolution Reconstruction of Remote-Sensing Images Based on Adaptive Multi-Scale Detail Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xinming; Xie, Junfeng; Song, Weidong; Mo, Fan; Gao, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    There are many problems in existing reconstruction-based super-resolution algorithms, such as the lack of texture-feature representation and of high-frequency details. Multi-scale detail enhancement can produce more texture information and high-frequency information. Therefore, super-resolution reconstruction of remote-sensing images based on adaptive multi-scale detail enhancement (AMDE-SR) is proposed in this paper. First, the information entropy of each remote-sensing image is calculated, and the image with the maximum entropy value is regarded as the reference image. Subsequently, spatio-temporal remote-sensing images are processed using phase normalization, which is to reduce the time phase difference of image data and enhance the complementarity of information. The multi-scale image information is then decomposed using the L0 gradient minimization model, and the non-redundant information is processed by difference calculation and expanding non-redundant layers and the redundant layer by the iterative back-projection (IBP) technique. The different-scale non-redundant information is adaptive-weighted and fused using cross-entropy. Finally, a nonlinear texture-detail-enhancement function is built to improve the scope of small details, and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is used as an iterative constraint. Ultimately, high-resolution remote-sensing images with abundant texture information are obtained by iterative optimization. Real results show an average gain in entropy of up to 0.42 dB for an up-scaling of 2 and a significant promotion gain in enhancement measure evaluation for an up-scaling of 2. The experimental results show that the performance of the AMED-SR method is better than existing super-resolution reconstruction methods in terms of visual and accuracy improvements. PMID:29414893

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Okeke, EO. Vol 10 (2006) - Articles Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the impact of wave-current on Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336. AJOL African ...

  16. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Obtaining the green's function for electromagnetic waves propagating in layered in-homogeneous thin film media of spherical particles on a substrate. Abstract · Vol 20, No 2 (2008) - Articles solution growth and ...

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text ... Abstract · Vol 17 (2010) - Articles Investigating The Travelling Wave Solution For an SIR Endemic Disease Model With No Disease Related Death (When The Spatial Spread Of The Susceptible Is Not Negligible). Abstract.

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Advanced Search > Author Details. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Vol 8 (2004) - Articles Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves. Abstract · Vol 11 (2007) - Articles On the effects of wave steepness on higher order Stokes waves. Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336.

  19. Parallel content-based sub-image retrieval using hierarchical searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lin; Qi, Xin; Xing, Fuyong; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel; Foran, David J

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to systematically search through large image collections and ensembles and detect regions exhibiting similar morphological characteristics is central to pathology diagnosis. Unfortunately, the primary methods used to search digitized, whole-slide histopathology specimens are slow and prone to inter- and intra-observer variability. The central objective of this research was to design, develop, and evaluate a content-based image retrieval system to assist doctors for quick and reliable content-based comparative search of similar prostate image patches. Given a representative image patch (sub-image), the algorithm will return a ranked ensemble of image patches throughout the entire whole-slide histology section which exhibits the most similar morphologic characteristics. This is accomplished by first performing hierarchical searching based on a newly developed hierarchical annular histogram (HAH). The set of candidates is then further refined in the second stage of processing by computing a color histogram from eight equally divided segments within each square annular bin defined in the original HAH. A demand-driven master-worker parallelization approach is employed to speed up the searching procedure. Using this strategy, the query patch is broadcasted to all worker processes. Each worker process is dynamically assigned an image by the master process to search for and return a ranked list of similar patches in the image. The algorithm was tested using digitized hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained prostate cancer specimens. We have achieved an excellent image retrieval performance. The recall rate within the first 40 rank retrieved image patches is ∼90%. Both the testing data and source code can be downloaded from http://pleiad.umdnj.edu/CBII/Bioinformatics/.

  20. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  1. Morphological features and associated anomalies of schizencephaly in the clinical population: detailed analysis of MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Barkovich, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Although they are well documented in autopsy series, the macroscopic features and associated anomalies of schizencephalies have not been described in detail in a large clinical population. To assess the macroscopic findings of schizencephaly and the prevalence of associated findings, we conducted a retrospective MR analysis of a group of patients with schizencephaly. The MR studies of 35 patients with schizencephaly were retrospectively reviewed. The images were examined for the location and size of the schizencephalic cleft, the presence and location of associated polymicrogyria, and the presence, location, and severity of other brain anomalies. A total of 54 schizencephalic clefts were seen in the 35 patients. These clefts were unilateral in 18 (51%) patients and bilateral in 17 (49%) patients; three clefts were identified in two patients. Nine clefts (17%) had fused lips and 45 had separated-lip clefts (83%). Polymicrogyria was present inside 23 clefts (43%), while subependymal heterotopias were present at the cleft orifice in 27 clefts (50%). Polymicrogyria was identified outside the cleft, both adjacent to and remote from the cleft, in 23 patients (66%). Abnormal cerebral white-matter signal intensity was present in seven patients (20%), while white-matter volume diminution was noted in all patients. Ventricular diverticula with mass effect, roofing membranes, remnant floors, and cord-like remnants were present in 12, 1, 11, and 3 patients, respectively. Our results show that the spectrum of macroscopic findings in schizencephaly includes fused-lip and separated-lip clefts, polymicrogyric and non-polymicrogyric cleft linings, cyst-like diverticula and membranous structures, and subependymal heterotopia at the cleft. Concomitant anomalies are polymicrogyria outside the cleft, white-matter diminution, septal and optic pathway anomalies, callosal anomalies and hippocampal anomalies. Unilateral and bilateral clefts occur in a nearly equal frequency in the clinical

  2. Correlation of contrast-detail analysis and clinical image quality assessment in chest radiography with a human cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crop, An; Bacher, Klaus; Van Hoof, Tom; Smeets, Peter V; Smet, Barbara S; Vergauwen, Merel; Kiendys, Urszula; Duyck, Philippe; Verstraete, Koenraad; D'Herde, Katharina; Thierens, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    To determine the correlation between the clinical and physical image quality of chest images by using cadavers embalmed with the Thiel technique and a contrast-detail phantom. The use of human cadavers fulfilled the requirements of the institutional ethics committee. Clinical image quality was assessed by using three human cadavers embalmed with the Thiel technique, which results in excellent preservation of the flexibility and plasticity of organs and tissues. As a result, lungs can be inflated during image acquisition to simulate the pulmonary anatomy seen on a chest radiograph. Both contrast-detail phantom images and chest images of the Thiel-embalmed bodies were acquired with an amorphous silicon flat-panel detector. Tube voltage (70, 81, 90, 100, 113, 125 kVp), copper filtration (0.1, 0.2, 0.3 mm Cu), and exposure settings (200, 280, 400, 560, 800 speed class) were altered to simulate different quality levels. Four experienced radiologists assessed the image quality by using a visual grading analysis (VGA) technique based on European Quality Criteria for Chest Radiology. The phantom images were scored manually and automatically with use of dedicated software, both resulting in an inverse image quality figure (IQF). Spearman rank correlations between inverse IQFs and VGA scores were calculated. A statistically significant correlation (r = 0.80, P chest radiography. © RSNA, 2011.

  3. The level of detail required in a deformable phantom to accurately perform quality assurance of deformable image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Daniel L.; Kim, Hojin; Chen, Josephine; Stathakis, Sotirios; Kirby, Neil

    2016-09-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to determine how detailed deformable image registration (DIR) phantoms need to adequately simulate human anatomy and accurately assess the quality of DIR algorithms. In particular, how many distinct tissues are required in a phantom to simulate complex human anatomy? Pelvis and head-and-neck patient CT images were used for this study as virtual phantoms. Two data sets from each site were analyzed. The virtual phantoms were warped to create two pairs consisting of undeformed and deformed images. Otsu’s method was employed to create additional segmented image pairs of n distinct soft tissue CT number ranges (fat, muscle, etc). A realistic noise image was added to each image. Deformations were applied in MIM Software (MIM) and Velocity deformable multi-pass (DMP) and compared with the known warping. Images with more simulated tissue levels exhibit more contrast, enabling more accurate results. Deformation error (magnitude of the vector difference between known and predicted deformation) was used as a metric to evaluate how many CT number gray levels are needed for a phantom to serve as a realistic patient proxy. Stabilization of the mean deformation error was reached by three soft tissue levels for Velocity DMP and MIM, though MIM exhibited a persisting difference in accuracy between the discrete images and the unprocessed image pair. A minimum detail of three levels allows a realistic patient proxy for use with Velocity and MIM deformation algorithms.

  4. The JVAS/CLASS search for 6-arcsec to 15-arcsec image separation lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, PM; Browne, IWA; Jackson, NJ; Wilkinson, PN; Mao, S; Rusin, D; Marlow, DR; Snellen, [No Value; Neeser, M

    2001-01-01

    The Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS) and the Cosmic Lens All Sky Survey (CLASS) have been systematically searched for multiple gravitational imaging of sources with image separations between 6 arcsec and 15 arcsec, associated with galaxy group and cluster lensing masses. The radio and

  5. [Migrants' female partners: social image and the search for sexual and reproductive health services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Marín, Sandra C; Cristancho-Marulanda, Sergio; González-López, José Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Analysing the self-image and social image of migrants' female partners (MFP) and their relationship with the search for sexual and reproductive health services (SRHS) in communities having a high US migratory intensity index. 60 MFP were subjected to in-depth interviews between October 2004 and May 2005 and 19 semi-structured interviews were held with members of their families, 14 representatives from social organisations, 10 health service representatives and 31 men and women residing in the community. MFP self-image and social image regards women as being "vulnerable", "alone", "lacking sexual partner" and thus being sexually inactive. Consequently, "they must not contract sexually-transmitted diseases (STD), use contraceptives or become pregnant" when their partners are in the USA. The search for SRHS services was found to be related to self-image, social image and the notion of family or social control predominated in the behaviour expected for these women which, in turn, was related to conditions regarding their coexistence (or not) with their families. MFP living with their family or their partner's family were subject to greater "family" control in their search for SRHS services. On the contrary, MFP living alone were subjected to greater "social" control over such process. Sexuallyinactive women's self-image and social image seems to have a bearing on such women's social behaviour and could become an obstacle to the timely search for SRHS services in communities having high migratory intensity.

  6. Addressing special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem through aspect-based image search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Huiskes (Mark)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we focus on a number of issues regarding special structure in the relevance feedback learning problem, most notably the effects of image selection based on partial relevance on the clustering behavior of examples. We propose a simple scheme, aspect-based image search, which

  7. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  8. Novel response function resolves by image deconvolution more details of surface nanomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2010-01-01

    and to imaging by in situ STM of electrocrystallization of copper on gold in electrolytes containing copper sulfate and sulfuric acid. It is suggested that the observed peaks of the recorded image do not represent atoms, but the atomic structure may be recovered by image deconvolution followed by calibration...

  9. A Fieldable-Prototype Large-Area Gamma-ray Imager for Orphan Source Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, Klaus-Peter [ORNL; Fabris, Lorenzo [ORNL; Carr, Dennis [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Collins, Jeff [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Cunningham, Mark F [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Habte Ghebretatios, Frezghi [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Marchant, William [University of California, Berkeley

    2008-01-01

    We have constructed a unique instrument for use in the search for orphan sources. The system uses gamma-ray imaging to "see through" the natural background variations that effectively limit the search range of normal devices to ~10 m. The imager is mounted in a 4.9- m-long trailer and can be towed by a large personal vehicle. Source locations are determined both in range and along the direction of travel as the vehicle moves. A fully inertial platform coupled to a Global Positioning System receiver is used to map the gamma-ray images onto overhead geospatial imagery. The resulting images provide precise source locations, allowing rapid follow-up work. The instrument simultaneously searches both sides of the street to a distance of 50 m (100-m swath) for milliCurieclass sources with near-perfect performance.

  10. Search for an optimal colloid for sentinel node imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imam, S.K.; Killingsworth, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims at finding a cost-effective and stable colloid of appropriate size to replace antimony sulfide colloid which is now in routine use in Australia for sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging. For this reason we evaluated three colloids; namely phytate, hepatate and stannous fluoride (SnF 2 ). As colloids of particle size of 100-200 nm seem to be appropriate for sentinel node imaging, the three radiolabelled colloid preparations were filtered through 0.1 and 0.22 μm filters and then studied on electron microscope. Electron microscopy showed that unlike phytate, the particle size of the hepatate and SnF 2 colloids did not increase beyond the size limit of 200 nm over a period of as long as 26 hours. Instead, they remained well within the size limits chosen. The stability of particle size is required for intra-operative gamma probe lymphatic mapping that sometimes may be performed on the following day. Hepatate and SnF 2 colloids appeared to be more suited for sentinel lymph node imaging, the latter being an inhouse product is more cost-effective. Further studies based on nodal uptake and the behavior of these two radiopharmaceuticals in animals is suggested in order to evaluate their potential for future wide-spread application in human sentinel node imaging. (author)

  11. Direct Imaging Search for Extrasolar Planets in the Pleiades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamamoto, K.; et al., [Unknown; Thalmann, C.

    2013-01-01

    We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the H and KS bands using HiCIAO combined with adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the H band around 9 stars. Five of these

  12. Improved Seam-Line Searching Algorithm for UAV Image Mosaic with Optical Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilong; Guo, Bingxuan; Li, Ming; Liao, Xuan; Li, Wenzhuo

    2018-04-16

    Ghosting and seams are two major challenges in creating unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image mosaic. In response to these problems, this paper proposes an improved method for UAV image seam-line searching. First, an image matching algorithm is used to extract and match the features of adjacent images, so that they can be transformed into the same coordinate system. Then, the gray scale difference, the gradient minimum, and the optical flow value of pixels in adjacent image overlapped area in a neighborhood are calculated, which can be applied to creating an energy function for seam-line searching. Based on that, an improved dynamic programming algorithm is proposed to search the optimal seam-lines to complete the UAV image mosaic. This algorithm adopts a more adaptive energy aggregation and traversal strategy, which can find a more ideal splicing path for adjacent UAV images and avoid the ground objects better. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively solve the problems of ghosting and seams in the panoramic UAV images.

  13. Parameter Search Algorithms for Microwave Radar-Based Breast Imaging: Focal Quality Metrics as Fitness Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Declan; Oliveira, Bárbara L; Elahi, Muhammad Adnan; Glavin, Martin; Jones, Edward; Popović, Milica; O'Halloran, Martin

    2017-12-06

    Inaccurate estimation of average dielectric properties can have a tangible impact on microwave radar-based breast images. Despite this, recent patient imaging studies have used a fixed estimate although this is known to vary from patient to patient. Parameter search algorithms are a promising technique for estimating the average dielectric properties from the reconstructed microwave images themselves without additional hardware. In this work, qualities of accurately reconstructed images are identified from point spread functions. As the qualities of accurately reconstructed microwave images are similar to the qualities of focused microscopic and photographic images, this work proposes the use of focal quality metrics for average dielectric property estimation. The robustness of the parameter search is evaluated using experimental dielectrically heterogeneous phantoms on the three-dimensional volumetric image. Based on a very broad initial estimate of the average dielectric properties, this paper shows how these metrics can be used as suitable fitness functions in parameter search algorithms to reconstruct clear and focused microwave radar images.

  14. What Can Pictures Tell Us About Web Pages? Improving Document Search Using Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vaamonde, Sergio; Torresani, Lorenzo; Fitzgibbon, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Web search engines do not use the images in the HTML pages to find relevant documents for a given query. Instead, they typically operate by computing a measure of agreement between the keywords provided by the user and only the text portion of each page. In this paper we study whether the content of the pictures appearing in a Web page can be used to enrich the semantic description of an HTML document and consequently boost the performance of a keyword-based search engine. We present a Web-scalable system that exploits a pure text-based search engine to find an initial set of candidate documents for a given query. Then, the candidate set is reranked using visual information extracted from the images contained in the pages. The resulting system retains the computational efficiency of traditional text-based search engines with only a small additional storage cost needed to encode the visual information. We test our approach on one of the TREC Million Query Track benchmarks where we show that the exploitation of visual content yields improvement in accuracies for two distinct text-based search engines, including the system with the best reported performance on this benchmark. We further validate our approach by collecting document relevance judgements on our search results using Amazon Mechanical Turk. The results of this experiment confirm the improvement in accuracy produced by our image-based reranker over a pure text-based system.

  15. Direct Imaging Search for Extrasolar Planets in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kodai; Matsuo, Taro; Shibai, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoichi; Konishi, Mihokko; Sudo, Jun; Tanii, Ryoko; Fukagawa, Misato; Sumi, Takahiro; Kudo, Tomoyuki; hide

    2013-01-01

    We carried out an imaging survey for extrasolar planets around stars in the Pleiades (125 Myr, 135 pc) in the H and K(sub S) bands using HiCIAO combined with adaptive optics, AO188, on the Subaru telescope. We found 13 companion candidates fainter than 14.5 mag in the H band around 9 stars. Five of these 13 were confirmed to be background stars by measurement of their proper motion. One was not found in the second epoch observation, and thus was not a background or companion object. One had multi-epoch images, but the precision of its proper motion was not sufficient to conclude whether it was a background object. Four other candidates are waiting for second-epoch observations to determine their proper motion. Finally, the remaining two were confirmed to be 60 M(sub J) brown dwarf companions orbiting around HD 23514 (G0) and HII 1348 (K5), respectively, as had been reported in previous studies. In our observations, the average detection limit for a point source was 20.3 mag in the H band beyond 1.'' 5 from the central star. On the basis of this detection limit, we calculated the detection efficiency to be 90% for a planet with 6 to 12 Jovian masses and a semi-major axis of 50–1000 AU. For this reason we extrapolated the distribution of the planet mass and the semi-major axis derived from radial velocity observations, and adopted the planet evolution model Baraffe et al. (2003, A&A, 402, 701). Since there was no detection of a planet, we estimated the frequency of such planets to be less than 17.9% (2 sigma) around one star of the Pleiades cluster.

  16. A search for changing look quasars in second epoch imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Joseph; Myers, Adam; McGreer, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Over nearly two decades, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has compiled a catalog of over half a million confirmed quasars. During that period approximately ten percent of these objects have been spectroscopically observed in two or more epochs over baselines of ten or more years. This led recently to the discovery of the largest change in luminosity ever before observed in a quasar. The dimming emission was a reflection of very significant changes in continuum and broad line properties, the source had effectively transitioned from a Type I quasar to a Type II AGN. Since then several more "changing look" quasars have been discovered in multi-epoch SDSS spectroscopy. Among them are objects with rising and falling luminosities, appearing and disappearing broad lines. The origin of this behavior is still very uncertain, currently favored is the scenario in which an accreting black hole is simply starved of fuel. Other plausible scenarios include flaring due to stellar tidal disruption close to the black hole or large changes in accretion flow, which can occur during transitions between radiatively efficient and inefficient accretion regimes. Monitoring of larger numbers of changing look quasars will help to elucidate these ideas.In this poster, we report on the progress of a pilot study in which we hope to learn how to select changing look quasars in multi-epoch imaging. This will allow us to take advantage of the entire SDSS quasar catalog rather than just the ten percent of objects with multi-epoch spectroscopy. Comparing archival SDSS and more recent Legacy Survey imaging over ten-year baselines we select objects whose photometry is consistent with the large changes in luminosity expected in changing look quasars. We aim to build up a catalog of both transitioned and transitioning objects for future monitoring.

  17. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwan M.D, Mona Ahmed. Vol 12, No 1 (2000) - Articles RELAPSING REMITTING MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: CT AND MRI IMAGING VS CLINICAL FINDINGIN THE DIAGNOSIS AND DETERMINATION OF DISEASE ACTIVITY. Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  18. Searching for transits in the Wide Field Camera Transit Survey with difference-imaging light curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendejas, Dominguez J.; Koppenhoefer, J.; Saglia, R.; Birkby, J.L.; Hodgkin, S.; Kovács, G.; Pinfield, D.; Sipocz, B.; Barrado, D.; Bender, R.; Burgo, del C.; Cappetta, M.; Martín, E.; Nefs, B.; Riffeser, A.; Steele, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Wide Field Camera Transit Survey is a pioneer program aiming at for searching extra-solar planets in the near-infrared. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. We produce an alternative set of light

  19. WCSTools 3.0: More Tools for Image Astrometry and Catalog Searching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Douglas J.

    For five years, WCSTools has provided image astrometry for astronomers who need accurate positions for objects they wish to observe. Other functions have been added and improved since the package was first released. Support has been added for new catalogs, such as the GSC-ACT, 2MASS Point Source Catalog, and GSC II, as they have been published. A simple command line interface can search any supported catalog, returning information in several standard formats, whether the catalog is on a local disk or searchable over the World Wide Web. The catalog searching routine can be located on either end (or both ends!) of such a web connection, and the output from one catalog search can be used as the input to another search.

  20. Contextual consistency facilitates long-term memory of perceptual detail in barely seen images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronau, Nurit; Shachar, Meytal

    2015-08-01

    It is long known that contextual information affects memory for an object's identity (e.g., its basic level category), yet it is unclear whether schematic knowledge additionally enhances memory for the precise visual appearance of an item. Here we investigated memory for visual detail of merely glimpsed objects. Participants viewed pairs of contextually related and unrelated stimuli, presented for an extremely brief duration (24 ms, masked). They then performed a forced-choice memory-recognition test for the precise perceptual appearance of 1 of 2 objects within each pair (i.e., the "memory-target" item). In 3 experiments, we show that memory-target stimuli originally appearing within contextually related pairs are remembered better than targets appearing within unrelated pairs. These effects are obtained whether the target is presented at test with its counterpart pair object (i.e., when reiterating the original context at encoding) or whether the target is presented alone, implying that the contextual consistency effects are mediated predominantly by processes occurring during stimulus encoding, rather than during stimulus retrieval. Furthermore, visual detail encoding is improved whether object relations involve implied action or not, suggesting that, contrary to some prior suggestions, action is not a necessary component for object-to-object associative "grouping" processes. Our findings suggest that during a brief glimpse, but not under long viewing conditions, contextual associations may play a critical role in reducing stimulus competition for attention selection and in facilitating rapid encoding of sensory details. Theoretical implications with respect to classic frame theories are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Influence of microscopic mottle on the definition of small image details

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selin, K; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1979-01-01

    By a special technique of enlarging films a microscopic mottle caused by quantum fluctuations was demonstrated. It was found to affect depiction of small details in such a way as to suggest that it would be of importance for determining resolution capacity, especially in high-speed radiography. Thus, the modulation transfer function appears not to be the only factor determining radiographic resolution. The resolution of high-speed screens may be improved if the film speed is reduced, which leads to a diminished microscopic mottle.

  2. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Ja; Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam; Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon

    2009-01-01

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  3. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  4. Supporting Keyword Search for Image Retrieval with Integration of Probabilistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tie Hua Zhou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ever-increasing quantities of digital photo resources are annotated with enriching vocabularies to form semantic annotations. Photo-sharing social networks have boosted the need for efficient and intuitive querying to respond to user requirements in large-scale image collections. In order to help users formulate efficient and effective image retrieval, we present a novel integration of a probabilistic model based on keyword query architecture that models the probability distribution of image annotations: allowing users to obtain satisfactory results from image retrieval via the integration of multiple annotations. We focus on the annotation integration step in order to specify the meaning of each image annotation, thus leading to the most representative annotations of the intent of a keyword search. For this demonstration, we show how a probabilistic model has been integrated to semantic annotations to allow users to intuitively define explicit and precise keyword queries in order to retrieve satisfactory image results distributed in heterogeneous large data sources. Our experiments on SBU (collected by Stony Brook University database show that (i our integrated annotation contains higher quality representatives and semantic matches; and (ii the results indicating annotation integration can indeed improve image search result quality.

  5. PLANE MATCHING WITH OBJECT-SPACE SEARCHING USING INDEPENDENTLY RECTIFIED IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Takeda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the social situation in cities has changed significantly such as redevelopment due to the massive earthquake and large-scale urban development. For example, numerical simulations can be used to study this phenomenon. Such simulations require the construction of high-definition three-dimensional city models that accurately reflect the real world. Progress in sensor technology allows us to easily obtain multi-view images. However, the existing multi-image matching techniques are inadequate. In this paper, we propose a new technique for multi-image matching. Since the existing method of feature searching is complicated, we have developed a rectification method that can be processed independently for each image does not depend on the stereo-pair. The object-space searching method that produces mismatches due to the occlusion or distortion of wall textures on images is the focus of our study. Our proposed technique can also match the building wall surface. The proposed technique has several advantages, and its usefulness is clarified through an experiment using actual images.

  6. Evaluation of diffusion-tensor imaging-based global search and tractography for tumor surgery close to the language system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirco Richter

    Full Text Available Pre-operative planning and intra-operative guidance in neurosurgery require detailed information about the location of functional areas and their anatomo-functional connectivity. In particular, regarding the language system, post-operative deficits such as aphasia can be avoided. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging, the connectivity between functional areas can be reconstructed by tractography techniques that need to cope with limitations such as limited resolution and low anisotropic diffusion close to functional areas. Tumors pose particular challenges because of edema, displacement effects on brain tissue and infiltration of white matter. Under these conditions, standard fiber tracking methods reconstruct pathways of insufficient quality. Therefore, robust global or probabilistic approaches are required. In this study, two commonly used standard fiber tracking algorithms, streamline propagation and tensor deflection, were compared with a previously published global search, Gibbs tracking and a connection-oriented probabilistic tractography approach. All methods were applied to reconstruct neuronal pathways of the language system of patients undergoing brain tumor surgery, and control subjects. Connections between Broca and Wernicke areas via the arcuate fasciculus (AF and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF were validated by a clinical expert to ensure anatomical feasibility, and compared using distance- and diffusion-based similarity metrics to evaluate their agreement on pathway locations. For both patients and controls, a strong agreement between all methods was observed regarding the location of the AF. In case of the IFOF however, standard fiber tracking and Gibbs tracking predominantly identified the inferior longitudinal fasciculus that plays a secondary role in semantic language processing. In contrast, global search resolved connections in almost every case via the IFOF which

  7. Object recognition based on Google's reverse image search and image similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, András.

    2015-12-01

    Image classification is one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision and a general multiclass classifier could solve many different tasks in image processing. Classification is usually done by shallow learning for predefined objects, which is a difficult task and very different from human vision, which is based on continuous learning of object classes and one requires years to learn a large taxonomy of objects which are not disjunct nor independent. In this paper I present a system based on Google image similarity algorithm and Google image database, which can classify a large set of different objects in a human like manner, identifying related classes and taxonomies.

  8. A Detailed Look at the Performance Characteristics of the Lightning Imaging Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daile; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Bitzer, Phillip; Koshak, William J.

    2018-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) effectively reached its end of life on April 15, 2015 after 17+ years of observation. Given the wealth of information in the archived LIS lightning data, and growing use of optical observations of lightning from space throughout the world, it is still of importance to better understand LIS calibration and performance characteristics. In this work, we continue our efforts to quantify the optical characteristics of the LIS pixel array, and to further characterize the detection efficiency and location accuracy of LIS. The LIS pixel array was partitioned into four quadrants, each having its own signal amplifier and digital conversion hardware. In addition, the sensor optics resulted in a decreasing sensitivity with increasing displacement from the center of the array. These engineering limitations resulted in differences in the optical emissions detected across the pixel array. Our work to date has shown a 20% increase in the count of the lightning events detected in one of the LIS quadrants, because of a lower detection threshold. In this study, we will discuss our work in progress on these limitations, and their potential impact on the group- and flash-level parameters.

  9. Quantitative assessment of hyperspectral imaging in detection of plasmonic nanoparticles: a modified contrast-detail analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianting; Chen, Yu; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Hyperspectral reflectance imaging (HRI) is an emerging imaging modality being applied for clinical indications such as tissue oximetry, and cancer detection based on endogenous biological constituents including plasmonic nanoparticles. However, there is currently a lack of standardized test methods for objective, quantitative evaluation of HRI system performance. Contrast-detail analysis (CDA) is a phantom-based test method commonly used to evaluate medical imaging devices (e.g., mammography systems) in terms of their lower detection limit. We investigated a modified CDA (mCDA) method to quantify the detectability of gold nanoparticles by HRI systems. Silicone-based turbid phantoms containing micro-fluidic channels were developed for the mCDA tests. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantom materials were doped with chromophores and scatterers to achieve biologically relevant optical properties (OPs). Molds were used to produce cylindrical channels of diameters 0.3 to 1.65 mm and depths of 0.2 mm inside the phantoms. Channels were filled with a mixture of hemoglobin and concentrations of gold nanorods (GNR) and measured with our HRI system. The contrast of GNRs was solved with a spectral unmixing algorithm from the reflectance spectra. The lowest detectable concentration was determined as a function of inclusion size and depth and plotted as modified contrast detail curve (mCDC). mCDCs were used to compare the detectabilities of the HRI system with different data processing algorithms. It is demonstrated that our mCDA test method involving turbid microchannel phantoms can help to elucidate the combined performance of imaging devices and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast agents. This approach may be useful for performing clinical trial standardization and device re-calibration, thus ensuring quality control and clinical performance.

  10. Detailed Tremor Migration Styles in Guerrero, Mexico Imaged with Cross-station Cross-correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Rubin, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tremor occurred downdip of the area that slipped the most during the 2006 slow slip event (SSE) in Guerrero, Mexico, as opposed to Cascadia, where tremor locations and rupture zones of SSEs largely overlap. Here we obtain high resolution tremor locations by applying cross-station cross-correlations [Armbruster et al., 2014] to seismic data from the Meso-America Subduction Experiment deployment. A few 3-station detectors are adopted to capture detailed deformation styles in the tremor "transient zone" and the downdip "sweet spot" as defined in Frank et al., 2014. Similar to Cascadia, tremor activities in our study region were comprised mostly of short tremor bursts lasting minutes to hours. Many of these bursts show clear migration patterns with propagation velocities of hundreds of km/day, comparable to those in Cascadia. However, the propagation of the main tremor front was often not in a simple unilateral fashion. Before the 2006 SSE, we observe 4 large tremor episodes during which both the transient zone and the sweet spot participated, consistent with previous findings [Frank et al., 2014]. The transient zone usually became active a few days after the sweet spot. We find many along-dip migrations with recurrence intervals of about a half day within a region about 10 km along strike and 35 km along dip in the sweet spot, suggesting possible tidal modulation, after the main front moved beyond this region. These migrations appear not to originate at the main front, in contrast to tremor migrations from a few km to tens of km across observed in Cascadia [Rubin and Armbruster, 2013; Peng et al., 2015; Peng and Rubin, submitted], but possibly similar to Shikoku, Japan [Shelly et al., 2007]. We do not observe obvious half-day periodicity for the migrations farther downdip within the sweet spot. During the SSE, the recurrence interval of tremor episodes decreased significantly in both the transient zone and the sweet spot, with that of the former being much shorter

  11. Detailed Configuration of the Underthrusting Indian Lithosphere Beneath Western Tibet Revealed by Receiver Function Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Pei, Shunping

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the teleseismic waveform data recorded by 42 temporary stations from the Y2 and ANTILOPE-1 arrays using the P and S receiver function techniques to investigate the lithospheric structure beneath western Tibet. The Moho is reliably identified as a prominent feature at depths of 55-82 km in the stacked traces and in depth migrated images. It has a concave shape and reaches the deepest location at about 80 km north of the Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS). An intracrustal discontinuity is observed at 55 km depth below the southern Lhasa terrane, which could represent the upper border of the eclogitized underthrusting Indian lower crust. Underthrusting of the Indian crust has been widely observed beneath the Lhasa terrane and correlates well with the Bouguer gravity low, suggesting that the gravity anomalies in the Lhasa terrane are induced by topography of the Moho. At 20 km depth, a midcrustal low-velocity zone (LVZ) is observed beneath the Tethyan Himalaya and southern Lhasa terrane, suggesting a layer of partial melts that decouples the thrust/fold deformation of the upper crust from the shortening and underthrusting in the lower crust. The Sp conversions at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) can be recognized at depths of 130-200 km, showing that the Indian lithospheric mantle is underthrusting with a ramp-flat shape beneath southern Tibet and probably is detached from the lower crust immediately under the IYS. Our observations reconstruct the configuration of the underthrusting Indian lithosphere and indicate significant along strike variations.

  12. Recent developments in imaging system assessment methodology, FROC analysis and the search model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dev P

    2011-08-21

    A frequent problem in imaging is assessing whether a new imaging system is an improvement over an existing standard. Observer performance methods, in particular the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) paradigm, are widely used in this context. In ROC analysis lesion location information is not used and consequently scoring ambiguities can arise in tasks, such as nodule detection, involving finding localized lesions. This paper reviews progress in the free-response ROC (FROC) paradigm in which the observer marks and rates suspicious regions and the location information is used to determine whether lesions were correctly localized. Reviewed are FROC data analysis, a search-model for simulating FROC data, predictions of the model and a method for estimating the parameters. The search model parameters are physically meaningful quantities that can guide system optimization.

  13. Recent developments in imaging system assessment methodology, FROC analysis and the search model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Dev P.

    2011-01-01

    A frequent problem in imaging is assessing whether a new imaging system is an improvement over an existing standard. Observer performance methods, in particular the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) paradigm, are widely used in this context. In ROC analysis lesion location information is not used and consequently scoring ambiguities can arise in tasks, such as nodule detection, involving finding localized lesions. This paper reviews progress in the free-response ROC (FROC) paradigm in which the observer marks and rates suspicious regions and the location information is used to determine whether lesions were correctly localized. Reviewed are FROC data analysis, a search model for simulating FROC data, predictions of the model and a method for estimating the parameters. The search model parameters are physically meaningful quantities that can guide system optimization.

  14. An image segmentation method based on fuzzy C-means clustering and Cuckoo search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingwei; Wan, Youchuan; Gao, Xianjun; Ye, Zhiwei; Chen, Maolin

    2018-04-01

    Image segmentation is a significant step in image analysis and machine vision. Many approaches have been presented in this topic; among them, fuzzy C-means (FCM) clustering is one of the most widely used methods for its high efficiency and ambiguity of images. However, the success of FCM could not be guaranteed because it easily traps into local optimal solution. Cuckoo search (CS) is a novel evolutionary algorithm, which has been tested on some optimization problems and proved to be high-efficiency. Therefore, a new segmentation technique using FCM and blending of CS algorithm is put forward in the paper. Further, the proposed method has been measured on several images and compared with other existing FCM techniques such as genetic algorithm (GA) based FCM and particle swarm optimization (PSO) based FCM in terms of fitness value. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is robust, adaptive and exhibits the better performance than other methods involved in the paper.

  15. A new automated assessment method for contrast–detail images by applying support vector machine and its robustness to nonlinear image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Imai, Kumiharu; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Isoda, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    The automated contrast–detail (C–D) analysis methods developed so-far cannot be expected to work well on images processed with nonlinear methods, such as noise reduction methods. Therefore, we have devised a new automated C–D analysis method by applying support vector machine (SVM), and tested for its robustness to nonlinear image processing. We acquired the CDRAD (a commercially available C–D test object) images at a tube voltage of 120 kV and a milliampere-second product (mAs) of 0.5–5.0. A partial diffusion equation based technique was used as noise reduction method. Three radiologists and three university students participated in the observer performance study. The training data for our SVM method was the classification data scored by the one radiologist for the CDRAD images acquired at 1.6 and 3.2 mAs and their noise-reduced images. We also compared the performance of our SVM method with the CDRAD Analyser algorithm. The mean C–D diagrams (that is a plot of the mean of the smallest visible hole diameter vs. hole depth) obtained from our devised SVM method agreed well with the ones averaged across the six human observers for both original and noise-reduced CDRAD images, whereas the mean C–D diagrams from the CDRAD Analyser algorithm disagreed with the ones from the human observers for both original and noise-reduced CDRAD images. In conclusion, our proposed SVM method for C–D analysis will work well for the images processed with the non-linear noise reduction method as well as for the original radiographic images.

  16. A new automated assessment method for contrast-detail images by applying support vector machine and its robustness to nonlinear image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Takaaki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Imai, Kuniharu; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Kato, Katsuhiko; Isoda, Haruo

    2013-09-01

    The automated contrast-detail (C-D) analysis methods developed so-far cannot be expected to work well on images processed with nonlinear methods, such as noise reduction methods. Therefore, we have devised a new automated C-D analysis method by applying support vector machine (SVM), and tested for its robustness to nonlinear image processing. We acquired the CDRAD (a commercially available C-D test object) images at a tube voltage of 120 kV and a milliampere-second product (mAs) of 0.5-5.0. A partial diffusion equation based technique was used as noise reduction method. Three radiologists and three university students participated in the observer performance study. The training data for our SVM method was the classification data scored by the one radiologist for the CDRAD images acquired at 1.6 and 3.2 mAs and their noise-reduced images. We also compared the performance of our SVM method with the CDRAD Analyser algorithm. The mean C-D diagrams (that is a plot of the mean of the smallest visible hole diameter vs. hole depth) obtained from our devised SVM method agreed well with the ones averaged across the six human observers for both original and noise-reduced CDRAD images, whereas the mean C-D diagrams from the CDRAD Analyser algorithm disagreed with the ones from the human observers for both original and noise-reduced CDRAD images. In conclusion, our proposed SVM method for C-D analysis will work well for the images processed with the non-linear noise reduction method as well as for the original radiographic images.

  17. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casanova Mohr, R; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Geraci, A; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skillicorn, I; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Sterpka, F; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tekampe, T; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 [Formula: see text] of proton-proton collisions collected at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 and 8  TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, [Formula: see text]. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 [Formula: see text].

  18. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-12-15

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions collected at $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkovdetectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, $1.8 < \\eta < 4.9$. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95\\% CL) for masses between 124 and 309 GeV/c$^2$.

  19. Optimal processing for gel electrophoresis images: Applying Monte Carlo Tree Search in GelApp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phi-Vu; Ghezal, Ali; Hsueh, Ya-Chih; Boudier, Thomas; Gan, Samuel Ken-En; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2016-08-01

    In biomedical research, gel band size estimation in electrophoresis analysis is a routine process. To facilitate and automate this process, numerous software have been released, notably the GelApp mobile app. However, the band detection accuracy is limited due to a band detection algorithm that cannot adapt to the variations in input images. To address this, we used the Monte Carlo Tree Search with Upper Confidence Bound (MCTS-UCB) method to efficiently search for optimal image processing pipelines for the band detection task, thereby improving the segmentation algorithm. Incorporating this into GelApp, we report a significant enhancement of gel band detection accuracy by 55.9 ± 2.0% for protein polyacrylamide gels, and 35.9 ± 2.5% for DNA SYBR green agarose gels. This implementation is a proof-of-concept in demonstrating MCTS-UCB as a strategy to optimize general image segmentation. The improved version of GelApp-GelApp 2.0-is freely available on both Google Play Store (for Android platform), and Apple App Store (for iOS platform). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The evolution of colour polymorphism in British winter-active Lepidoptera in response to search image use by avian predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Jamie Conor

    2018-05-10

    Phenotypic polymorphism in cryptic species is widespread. This may evolve in response to search image use by predators exerting negative frequency-dependent selection on intraspecific colour morphs, "apostatic selection". Evidence exists to indicate search image formation by predators and apostatic selection operating on wild prey populations, though not to demonstrate search image use directly resulting in apostatic selection. The present study attempted to address this deficiency, using British Lepidoptera active in winter as a model system. It has been proposed that the typically polymorphic wing colouration of these species represents an anti-search image adaptation against birds. To test (a) for search image driven apostatic selection, dimorphic populations of artificial moth-like models were established in woodland at varying relative morph frequencies and exposed to predation by natural populations of birds. In addition, to test (b) whether abundance and degree of polymorphism are correlated across British winter-active moths, as predicted where search image use drives apostatic selection, a series of phylogenetic comparative analyses were conducted. There was a positive relationship between artificial morph frequency and probability of predation, consistent with birds utilising search images and exerting apostatic selection. Abundance and degree of polymorphism were found to be positively correlated across British Lepidoptera active in winter, though not across all taxonomic groups analysed. This evidence is consistent with polymorphism in this group having evolved in response to search image driven apostatic selection and supports the viability of this mechanism as a means by which phenotypic and genetic variation may be maintained in natural populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychophysical evaluation of the image quality of a dynamic flat-panel digital x-ray image detector using the threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew G.; Cowen, Arnold R.; Bruijns, Tom J. C.

    1999-05-01

    We are currently in an era of active development of the digital X-ray imaging detectors that will serve the radiological communities in the new millennium. The rigorous comparative physical evaluations of such devices are therefore becoming increasingly important from both the technical and clinical perspectives. The authors have been actively involved in the evaluation of a clinical demonstration version of a flat-panel dynamic digital X-ray image detector (or FDXD). Results of objective physical evaluation of this device have been presented elsewhere at this conference. The imaging performance of FDXD under radiographic exposure conditions have been previously reported, and in this paper a psychophysical evaluation of the FDXD detector operating under continuous fluoroscopic conditions is presented. The evaluation technique employed was the threshold contrast detail detectability (TCDD) technique, which enables image quality to be measured on devices operating in the clinical environment. This approach addresses image quality in the context of both the image acquisition and display processes, and uses human observers to measure performance. The Leeds test objects TO[10] and TO[10+] were used to obtain comparative measurements of performance on the FDXD and two digital spot fluorography (DSF) systems, one utilizing a Plumbicon camera and the other a state of the art CCD camera. Measurements were taken at a range of detector entrance exposure rates, namely 6, 12, 25 and 50 (mu) R/s. In order to facilitate comparisons between the systems, all fluoroscopic image processing such as noise reduction algorithms, were disabled during the experiments. At the highest dose rate FDXD significantly outperformed the DSF comparison systems in the TCDD comparisons. At 25 and 12 (mu) R/s all three-systems performed in an equivalent manner and at the lowest exposure rate FDXD was inferior to the two DSF systems. At standard fluoroscopic exposures, FDXD performed in an equivalent

  2. MRS algorithm: a new method for searching myocardial region in SPECT myocardial perfusion images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan-Lie; Tian, Lian-Fang; Chen, Ping; Li, Bin; Mao, Zhong-Yuan

    2005-10-01

    First, the necessity of automatically segmenting myocardium from myocardial SPECT image is discussed in Section 1. To eliminate the influence of the background, the optimal threshold segmentation method modified for the MRS algorithm is explained in Section 2. Then, the image erosion structure is applied to identify the myocardium region and the liver region. The contour tracing method is introduced to extract the myocardial contour. To locate the centriod of the myocardium, the myocardial centriod searching method is developed. The protocol of the MRS algorithm is summarized in Section 6. The performance of the MRS algorithm is investigated and the conclusion is drawn in Section 7. Finally, the importance of the MRS algorithm and the improvement of the MRS algorithm are discussed.

  3. THE DIFFERENCE IMAGING PIPELINE FOR THE TRANSIENT SEARCH IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, R.; Scolnic, D. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Marriner, J.; Finley, D. A.; Wester, W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Childress, M.; Yuan, F. [ARC Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Canada); Covarrubias, R. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, 1205 West Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); D’Andrea, C. B.; Nichol, R. C.; Papadopoulos, A. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Fischer, J.; Sako, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Foley, R. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Goldstein, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, 501 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gupta, R. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kuehn, K. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia); Marcha, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Smith, M.; Sullivan, M., E-mail: kessler@kicp.uchicago.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2015-12-15

    We describe the operation and performance of the difference imaging pipeline (DiffImg) used to detect transients in deep images from the Dark Energy Survey Supernova program (DES-SN) in its first observing season from 2013 August through 2014 February. DES-SN is a search for transients in which ten 3 deg{sup 2} fields are repeatedly observed in the g, r, i, z passbands with a cadence of about 1 week. The observing strategy has been optimized to measure high-quality light curves and redshifts for thousands of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the goal of measuring dark energy parameters. The essential DiffImg functions are to align each search image to a deep reference image, do a pixel-by-pixel subtraction, and then examine the subtracted image for significant positive detections of point-source objects. The vast majority of detections are subtraction artifacts, but after selection requirements and image filtering with an automated scanning program, there are ∼130 detections per deg{sup 2} per observation in each band, of which only ∼25% are artifacts. Of the ∼7500 transients discovered by DES-SN in its first observing season, each requiring a detection on at least two separate nights, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations predict that 27% are expected to be SNe Ia or core-collapse SNe. Another ∼30% of the transients are artifacts in which a small number of observations satisfy the selection criteria for a single-epoch detection. Spectroscopic analysis shows that most of the remaining transients are AGNs and variable stars. Fake SNe Ia are overlaid onto the images to rigorously evaluate detection efficiencies and to understand the DiffImg performance. The DiffImg efficiency measured with fake SNe agrees well with expectations from a MC simulation that uses analytical calculations of the fluxes and their uncertainties. In our 8 “shallow” fields with single-epoch 50% completeness depth ∼23.5, the SN Ia efficiency falls to 1/2 at redshift z ≈ 0.7; in our 2

  4. An image-based search for pulsars among Fermi unassociated LAT sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frail, D. A.; Ray, P. S.; Mooley, K. P.; Hancock, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Jagannathan, P.; Ferrara, E. C.; Intema, H. T.; de Gasperin, F.; Demorest, P. B.; Stovall, K.; McKinnon, M. M.

    2018-03-01

    We describe an image-based method that uses two radio criteria, compactness, and spectral index, to identify promising pulsar candidates among Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) unassociated sources. These criteria are applied to those radio sources from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope all-sky survey at 150 MHz (TGSS ADR1) found within the error ellipses of unassociated sources from the 3FGL catalogue and a preliminary source list based on 7 yr of LAT data. After follow-up interferometric observations to identify extended or variable sources, a list of 16 compact, steep-spectrum candidates is generated. An ongoing search for pulsations in these candidates, in gamma rays and radio, has found 6 ms pulsars and one normal pulsar. A comparison of this method with existing selection criteria based on gamma-ray spectral and variability properties suggests that the pulsar discovery space using Fermi may be larger than previously thought. Radio imaging is a hitherto underutilized source selection method that can be used, as with other multiwavelength techniques, in the search for Fermi pulsars.

  5. Searching for a traveling feature in Saturn's rings in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Klaus-Michael; Rehnberg, Morgan; Brown, Zarah; Esposito, Larry W.

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: Using Cassini UVIS occultation data, a traveling wave feature has been identified in the Saturn rings that is most likely caused by the radial positions swap of the moons Janus and Epimetheus [1]. The hypothesis is that non-linear interferences between the linear density waves when being relocated by the moon swap create a solitary wave that is traveling outward through the rings. The observations in [1] further lead to the derivation of values for the radial travel speeds of the identified traveling features, from 39.6 km/yr for the Janus 5:4 resonance up to 45.8 for the Janus 4:3 resonance.Previous confirmations in ISS data: Work in [1] also identified the feature in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) data that was taken around the time of the UVIS occultations where the phenomenon was first discovered, so far one ISS image for each Janus resonances 2:1, 4:3, 5:4, and 6:5.Search guided by predicted locations: Using the observation-fitted radial velocities from [1], we can extrapolate these to identify Saturn radii at which the traveling feature should be found at later times. Using this and new image analysis and plotting tools available in [2], we have identified a potential candidate feature in an ISS image that was taken 2.5 years after the feature causing moon swap in January 2006. We intend to expand our search by identifying candidate ISS data by a meta-database search constraining the radius at future times corresponding to the predicted future locations of the hypothesized solitary wave and present our findings at this conference.References: [1] Rehnberg, M.E., Esposito, L.W., Brown, Z.L., Albers, N., Sremčević, M., Stewart, G.R., 2016. A Traveling Feature in Saturn's Rings. Icarus, accepted in June 2016. [2] K.-Michael Aye. (2016). pyciss: v0.5.0. Zenodo. 10.5281/zenodo.53092

  6. Project Blue: Optical Coronagraphic Imaging Search for Terrestrial-class Exoplanets in Alpha Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon; Project Blue team

    2018-01-01

    Project Blue is a coronagraphic imaging space telescope mission designed to search for habitable worlds orbiting the nearest Sun-like stars in the Alpha Centauri system. With a 45-50 cm baseline primary mirror size, Project Blue will perform a reconnaissance of the habitable zones of Alpha Centauri A and B in blue light and one or two longer wavelength bands to determine the hue of any planets discovered. Light passing through the off-axis telescope feeds into a coronagraphic instrument that forms the heart of the mission. Various coronagraph designs are being considered, such as phase induced amplitude apodization (PIAA), vector vortex, etc. Differential orbital image processing techniques will be employed to analyze the data for faint planets embedded in the residual glare of the parent star. Project Blue will advance our knowledge about the presence or absence of terrestrial-class exoplanets in the habitable zones and measure the brightness of zodiacal dust around each star, which will aid future missions in planning their observational surveys of exoplanets. It also provides on-orbit demonstration of high-contrast coronagraphic imaging technologies and techniques that will be useful for planning and implementing future space missions by NASA and other space agencies. We present an overview of the science goals, mission concept and development schedule. As part of our cooperative agreement with NASA, the Project Blue team intends to make the data available in a publicly accessible archive.

  7. Local search for optimal global map generation using mid-decadal landsat images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, L.; Gasch, J.; Morris, Robert; Covington, S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA and the US Geological Survey (USGS) are seeking to generate a map of the entire globe using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensor data from the "mid-decadal" period of 2004 through 2006. The global map is comprised of thousands of scene locations and, for each location, tens of different images of varying quality to chose from. Furthermore, it is desirable for images of adjacent scenes be close together in time of acquisition, to avoid obvious discontinuities due to seasonal changes. These characteristics make it desirable to formulate an automated solution to the problem of generating the complete map. This paper formulates a Global Map Generator problem as a Constraint Optimization Problem (GMG-COP) and describes an approach to solving it using local search. Preliminary results of running the algorithm on image data sets are summarized. The results suggest a significant improvement in map quality using constraint-based solutions. Copyright ?? 2007, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.

  8. Semantic Songket Image Search with Cultural Computing of Symbolic Meaning Extraction and Analytical Aggregation of Color and Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Amirullah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "Songket" comes from the Malay word "Sungkit", which means "to hook" or "to gouge". Every motifs names and variations was derived from plants and animals as source of inspiration to create many patterns of songket. Each of songket patterns have a philosophy in form of rhyme that refers to the nature of the sources of songket patterns and that philosophy reflects to the beliefs and values of Malay culture. In this research, we propose a system to facilitate an understanding of songket and the philosophy as a way to conserve Songket culture. We propose a system which is able to collect information in image songket motif variations based on feature extraction methods. On each image songket motif variations, we extracted philosophy of rhyme into impressions, and extracting color features of songket images using a histogram 3D-Color Vector quantization (3D-CVQ, shape feature extraction songket image using HU Moment invariants. Then, we created an image search based on impressions, and impressions search based on image. We use techniques of search based on color, shape and aggregation (combination of colors and shapes. The experiment using impression as query : 1 Result based on color, the average value of true 7.3, total score 41.9, 2 Result based on shape, the average value of true 3, total score 16.4, 3 Result based on aggregation, the average value of true 3, total score 17.4. While based using Image Query : 1 Result based on color, the average precision 95%, 2 Result based on shape, average precision 43.3%, 3 Based aggregation, the average precision 73.3%. From our experiments, it can be concluded that the best search system using query impression and query image is based on the color. Keyword : Image Search, Philosophy, impression, Songket, cultural computing, Feature Extraction, Analytical aggregation.

  9. Performance evaluation of contrast-detail in full field digital mammography systems using ideal (Hotelling) observer vs. conventional automated analysis of CDMAM images for quality control of contrast-detail characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delakis, Ioannis; Wise, Robert; Morris, Lauren; Kulama, Eugenia

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the contrast-detail performance of full field digital mammography (FFDM) systems using ideal (Hotelling) observer Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) methodology and ascertain whether it can be considered an alternative to the conventional, automated analysis of CDMAM phantom images. Five FFDM units currently used in the national breast screening programme were evaluated, which differed with respect to age, detector, Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) and target/filter combination. Contrast-detail performance was analysed using CDMAM and ideal observer SNR methodology. The ideal observer SNR was calculated for input signal originating from gold discs of varying thicknesses and diameters, and then used to estimate the threshold gold thickness for each diameter as per CDMAM analysis. The variability of both methods and the dependence of CDMAM analysis on phantom manufacturing discrepancies also investigated. Results from both CDMAM and ideal observer methodologies were informative differentiators of FFDM systems' contrast-detail performance, displaying comparable patterns with respect to the FFDM systems' type and age. CDMAM results suggested higher threshold gold thickness values compared with the ideal observer methodology, especially for small-diameter details, which can be attributed to the behaviour of the CDMAM phantom used in this study. In addition, ideal observer methodology results showed lower variability than CDMAM results. The Ideal observer SNR methodology can provide a useful metric of the FFDM systems' contrast detail characteristics and could be considered a surrogate for conventional, automated analysis of CDMAM images. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Direct imaging and new technologies to search for substellar companions around MGs cool dwarfs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe here our project based in a search for sub-stellar companions (brown dwarfs and exo-planets around young ultra-cool dwarfs (UCDs and characterise their properties. We will use current and future technology (high contrast imaging, high-precision Doppler determinations from the ground and space (VLT, ELT and JWST, to find companions to young objects. Members of young moving groups (MGs have clear advantages in this field. We compiled a catalogue of young UCD objects and studied their membership to five known young moving groups: Local Association (Pleiades moving group, 20–150 Myr, Ursa Mayor group (Sirius supercluster, 300 Myr, Hyades supercluster (600 Myr, IC 2391 supercluster (35 Myr and Castor moving group (200 Myr. To assess them as members we used different kinematic and spectroscopic criteria.

  11. Accurate corresponding point search using sphere-attribute-image for statistical bone model generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Toki; Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Hashizume, Hiroyuki; Kuramoto, Kouichi; Nakashima, Yosio

    2011-01-01

    Statistical deformable model based two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2-D/3-D) registration is a promising method for estimating the position and shape of patient bone in the surgical space. Since its accuracy depends on the statistical model capacity, we propose a method for accurately generating a statistical bone model from a CT volume. Our method employs the Sphere-Attribute-Image (SAI) and has improved the accuracy of corresponding point search in statistical model generation. At first, target bone surfaces are extracted as SAIs from the CT volume. Then the textures of SAIs are classified to some regions using Maximally-stable-extremal-regions methods. Next, corresponding regions are determined using Normalized cross-correlation (NCC). Finally, corresponding points in each corresponding region are determined using NCC. The application of our method to femur bone models was performed, and worked well in the experiments. (author)

  12. MUSIC algorithm for location searching of dielectric anomalies from S-parameters using microwave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kwang; Kim, Hwa Pyung; Lee, Kwang-Jae; Son, Seong-Ho

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the biomedical engineering used in early-stage breast cancer detection, we investigated the use of MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for location searching of small anomalies using S-parameters. We considered the application of MUSIC to functional imaging where a small number of dipole antennas are used. Our approach is based on the application of Born approximation or physical factorization. We analyzed cases in which the anomaly is respectively small and large in relation to the wavelength, and the structure of the left-singular vectors is linked to the nonzero singular values of a Multi-Static Response (MSR) matrix whose elements are the S-parameters. Using simulations, we demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of the MUSIC algorithm in detecting both small and extended anomalies.

  13. Automatic analysis of online image data for law enforcement agencies by concept detection and instance search

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Maaike H. T.; Bouma, Henri; Kruithof, Maarten C.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Fischer, Noëlle M.; Hagendoorn, Laurens K.; Joosten, Bart; Raaijmakers, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    The information available on-line and off-line, from open as well as from private sources, is growing at an exponential rate and places an increasing demand on the limited resources of Law Enforcement Agencies (LEAs). The absence of appropriate tools and techniques to collect, process, and analyze the volumes of complex and heterogeneous data has created a severe information overload. If a solution is not found, the impact on law enforcement will be dramatic, e.g. because important evidence is missed or the investigation time is too long. Furthermore, there is an uneven level of capabilities to deal with the large volumes of complex and heterogeneous data that come from multiple open and private sources at national level across the EU, which hinders cooperation and information sharing. Consequently, there is a pertinent need to develop tools, systems and processes which expedite online investigations. In this paper, we describe a suite of analysis tools to identify and localize generic concepts, instances of objects and logos in images, which constitutes a significant portion of everyday law enforcement data. We describe how incremental learning based on only a few examples and large-scale indexing are addressed in both concept detection and instance search. Our search technology allows querying of the database by visual examples and by keywords. Our tools are packaged in a Docker container to guarantee easy deployment on a system and our tools exploit possibilities provided by open source toolboxes, contributing to the technical autonomy of LEAs.

  14. A Method for Estimating View Transformations from Image Correspondences Based on the Harmony Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cuevas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for robustly estimating multiple view relations from point correspondences is presented. The approach combines the popular random sampling consensus (RANSAC algorithm and the evolutionary method harmony search (HS. With this combination, the proposed method adopts a different sampling strategy than RANSAC to generate putative solutions. Under the new mechanism, at each iteration, new candidate solutions are built taking into account the quality of the models generated by previous candidate solutions, rather than purely random as it is the case of RANSAC. The rules for the generation of candidate solutions (samples are motivated by the improvisation process that occurs when a musician searches for a better state of harmony. As a result, the proposed approach can substantially reduce the number of iterations still preserving the robust capabilities of RANSAC. The method is generic and its use is illustrated by the estimation of homographies, considering synthetic and real images. Additionally, in order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach within a real engineering application, it is employed to solve the problem of position estimation in a humanoid robot. Experimental results validate the efficiency of the proposed method in terms of accuracy, speed, and robustness.

  15. Rapid Automatic Lighting Control of a Mixed Light Source for Image Acquisition using Derivative Optimum Search Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic lighting (auto-lighting is a function that maximizes the image quality of a vision inspection system by adjusting the light intensity and color.In most inspection systems, a single color light source is used, and an equal step search is employed to determine the maximum image quality. However, when a mixed light source is used, the number of iterations becomes large, and therefore, a rapid search method must be applied to reduce their number. Derivative optimum search methods follow the tangential direction of a function and are usually faster than other methods. In this study, multi-dimensional forms of derivative optimum search methods are applied to obtain the maximum image quality considering a mixed-light source. The auto-lighting algorithms were derived from the steepest descent and conjugate gradient methods, which have N-size inputs of driving voltage and one output of image quality. Experiments in which the proposed algorithm was applied to semiconductor patterns showed that a reduced number of iterations is required to determine the locally maximized image quality.

  16. Searching for Conservation Laws in Brain Dynamics—BOLD Flux and Source Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U. Voss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD imaging is the most important noninvasive tool to map human brain function. It relies on local blood-flow changes controlled by neurovascular coupling effects, usually in response to some cognitive or perceptual task. In this contribution we ask if the spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD signal can be modeled by a conservation law. In analogy to the description of physical laws, which often can be derived from some underlying conservation law, identification of conservation laws in the brain could lead to new models for the functional organization of the brain. Our model is independent of the nature of the conservation law, but we discuss possible hints and motivations for conservation laws. For example, globally limited blood supply and local competition between brain regions for blood might restrict the large scale BOLD signal in certain ways that could be observable. One proposed selective pressure for the evolution of such conservation laws is the closed volume of the skull limiting the expansion of brain tissue by increases in blood volume. These ideas are demonstrated on a mental motor imagery fMRI experiment, in which functional brain activation was mapped in a group of volunteers imagining themselves swimming. In order to search for local conservation laws during this complex cognitive process, we derived maps of quantities resulting from spatial interaction of the BOLD amplitudes. Specifically, we mapped fluxes and sources of the BOLD signal, terms that would appear in a description by a continuity equation. Whereas we cannot present final answers with the particular analysis of this particular experiment, some results seem to be non-trivial. For example, we found that during task the group BOLD flux covered more widespread regions than identified by conventional BOLD mapping and was always increasing during task. It is our hope that these results motivate more work towards the search for conservation

  17. Searching for transits in the WTS with the difference imaging light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas Dominguez, Jesus

    2013-12-01

    The search for exo-planets is currently one of the most exiting and active topics in astronomy. Small and rocky planets are particularly the subject of intense research, since if they are suitably located from their host star, they may be warm and potentially habitable worlds. On the other hand, the discovery of giant planets in short-period orbits provides important constraints on models that describe planet formation and orbital migration theories. Several projects are dedicated to discover and characterize planets outside of our solar system. Among them, the Wide-Field Camera Transit Survey (WTS) is a pioneer program aimed to search for extra-solar planets, that stands out for its particular aims and methodology. The WTS has been in operation since August 2007 with observations from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and represents the first survey that searches for transiting planets in the near-infrared wavelengths; hence the WTS is designed to discover planets around M-dwarfs. The survey was originally assigned about 200 nights, observing four fields that were selected seasonally (RA = 03, 07, 17 and 19h) during a year. The images from the survey are processed by a data reduction pipeline, which uses aperture photometry to construct the light curves. For the most complete field (19h-1145 epochs) in the survey, we produce an alternative set of light curves by using the method of difference imaging, which is a photometric technique that has shown important advantages when used in crowded fields. A quantitative comparison between the photometric precision achieved with both methods is carried out in this work. We remove systematic effects using the sysrem algorithm, scale the error bars on the light curves, and perform a comparison of the corrected light curves. The results show that the aperture photometry light curves provide slightly better precision for objects with J detect transits in the WTS light curves, we use a modified version of the box

  18. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Vegetation under different tree species in Acacia woodland in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia Details PDF · Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997.

  19. Search and retrieval of medical images for improved diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekin, Ahmet; Jasinschi, Radu; Turan, Erman; Engbers, Rene; van der Grond, Jeroen; van Buchem, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    In the medical world, the accuracy of diagnosis is mainly affected by either lack of sufficient understanding of some diseases or the inter-, and/or intra-observer variability of the diagnoses. The former requires understanding the progress of diseases at much earlier stages, extraction of important information from ever growing amounts of data, and finally finding correlations with certain features and complications that will illuminate the disease progression. The latter (inter-, and intra- observer variability) is caused by the differences in the experience levels of different medical experts (inter-observer variability) or by mental and physical tiredness of one expert (intra-observer variability). We believe that the use of large databases can help improve the current status of disease understanding and decision making. By comparing large number of patients, some of the otherwise hidden relations can be revealed that results in better understanding, patients with similar complications can be found, the diagnosis and treatment can be compared so that the medical expert can make a better diagnosis. To this effect, this paper introduces a search and retrieval system for brain MR databases and shows that brain iron accumulation shape provides additional information to the shape-insensitive features, such as the total brain iron load, that are commonly used in the clinics. We propose to use Kendall's correlation value to automatically compare various returns to a query. We also describe a fully automated and fast brain MR image analysis system to detect degenerative iron accumulation in brain, as it is the case in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. The system is composed of several novel image processing algorithms and has been extensively tested in Leiden University Medical Center over so far more than 600 patients.

  20. Masterpieces unmasked: New high-resolution infrared cameras produce rich, detailed images of artwork, and create new controversies

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, J

    2002-01-01

    Luca Pezzati is a physicist who heads a group called Art Diagnostics, which is a part of the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, an institute devoted to the research and conservation of artworks in Italy. Pezzati and his group use high-resolution infrared scanning device to produce colour images of what lies below the surface of paintings. Their scanner is able to produce the best-known quality of images without harming the painting under examination (1 page).

  1. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrology of the Cenomanian Upper Member of the Mamfe Embayment, southwestern Cameroon Details · Vol 38, No 1 (2002) - Articles Sequence stratigraphy of Iso field, western onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria Details · Vol 39, No 2 (2003) - Articles Preliminary studies on the lithostratigraphy and depositional environment of ...

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    An Overview of Africa's Marine Resources: Their Utilization and Sustainable Management Details · Vol 12, No 3 (2000) - Articles EDITORIAL Ganoderma Lucidum - Paramount among Medicinal Mushrooms. Details · Vol 15, No 3 (2003) - Articles Editorial: Africa's Mushrooms: A neglected bioresource whose time has come

  3. Clinical application of PET/CT imaging in search of the primary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Liu Gang; Li Miao

    2004-01-01

    Full text: To explore the clinical value of PET/CT scanning in search of the primary carcinoma, we selected 4 patients who were subjected to PET/CT examination during Oct. 2002 to Dec. 2002. The primary lesion in all these patients was not detected. One of them had metastasis to liver, one had metastases in both lungs and the other two were having metastases to the bones. 18F-FDG in doses of 5.55MBq / kg body weight was injected to a fasting patient (at least 6 hours). PET/CT whole body examination was done using Discovery LS-PET/CT (GE Medical System, U.S.A.) 40-60 minutes later. In the first patient with metastasis to liver, primary lesion was localized in the transverse colon near the liver. The PET/CT showed multiple high radioactive uptake lesions of different sizes in the liver. No obvious change in position of the colon uptake was seen on the delayed images. After PET/CT, barium examination showed thinned cavity of the colon near the liver with coarse ankylosis of colon wall just like saw tooth. The mucous membrane was destroyed. Of the two patients with metastases in the bone, first - a 31 years old, was diagnosed to have primary lung cancer with multiple metastases to the liver and the bones. PET/CT showed high radioactive uptake in the inferior left lobe near the hilum with irregular shaped uneven distribution. A round high radioactive uptake area of 1.82 x 1.84 x 1.46cm size was also seen in the right lobe of the liver having clear edge and uneven distribution. The destroyed bones (L-10, L-11, L-12, T-1 and ala ossis i lii) showed high radioactive uptake. Second patient, 57-year male was diagnosed to have malignant lymphoma. PET/CT fusion showed high radioactive uptake in the marrow of whole body. Few destroyed parts of bones were also seen on CT images. Several cervical and the thoracic vertebrae as well as the ninth rib showed irregular radioactive accumulation with clear edges and well-distributed tracer raising the possibility of multiple myeloma or

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    ... to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Bernard, A. Vol 7, No 1 (2015) - Articles Investigating mass customization and sustainability compatibilities. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2141-2839.

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    ... to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Olowodunoye, SA. Vol 9, No 2 (2011) - Articles Parenting styles, gender, religiosity and examination malpractices. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-9231.

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    ... access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Lane, A.M.. Vol 23, No 3 (2017) - Articles Self-reported symptoms of eating disorders amongst university dance students. Abstract. ISSN: 1117-4315.

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    Ukwoma, Scholastica Chizoma. Vol 27, No 2 (2017) - Articles Utilisation of institutional repositories for searching information sources, self-archiving and preservation of research publications in selected Nigerian universities. Abstract. ISSN: 0795-4778. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

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    ... to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Sushilkumar, A. Vol 12, No 3 (2008) - Articles Anti termite activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. biochemicals. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1119-8362.

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    Misra, AK. Vol 10, No 1 (2008) - Articles The use of biotechnology in the search of hardy Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench cultivars. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

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    ... in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Okhueleigbe, Andrew O. Vol 30 (2015) - Articles Dynamic Calculation Design of Vertical Wind Turbine Abstract. ISSN: 1116-4336.

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    Onyenania, GO. Vol 7, No 1 (2010) - Articles A Study Of Internet Search Engines Usage By Undergraduate Students In Some Universities In The Niger Delta Region Of Nigeria Abstract. ISSN: 1597-4316. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

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    Azumurana, Solomon Omatsola. Vol 54, No 1 (2017) - Articles Melancholia and the search for the lost object in Farah's Maps Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2309-9070. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    Huang, Yong. Vol 13, No 6 (2016) - Articles Imaging of brain function based on the analysis of functional connectivity - imaging analysis of brain function by fMRI after acupuncture at LR3 in healthy individuals. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Rae, WID. Vol 16, No 2 (2012) - Articles Image quality dependence on image processing software in computed radiography. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-6778. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

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    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wang, Yanjie. Vol 13, No 6 (2016) - Articles Imaging of brain function based on the analysis of functional connectivity - imaging analysis of brain function by fMRI after acupuncture at LR3 in healthy individuals. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  16. Search for Binary Black Hole Candidates from the VLBI Images of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We have searched the core-jet pairs in the VLBI scales (< 1 kpc), from several VLBI catalogues, and found out 5 possible Binary Black Hole (BBH) candidates. We present here the search results and analyse the candidates preliminarily. We plan to study with multi-band VLBI observation. We also plan to ...

  17. Open Availability of Patient Medical Photographs in Google Images Search Results: Cross-Sectional Study of Transgender Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Zack; Brunger, Fern; Welch, Vivian; Asghari, Shabnam; Kaposy, Chris

    2018-02-26

    This paper focuses on the collision of three factors: a growing emphasis on sharing research through open access publication, an increasing awareness of big data and its potential uses, and an engaged public interested in the privacy and confidentiality of their personal health information. One conceptual space where this collision is brought into sharp relief is with the open availability of patient medical photographs from peer-reviewed journal articles in the search results of online image databases such as Google Images. The aim of this study was to assess the availability of patient medical photographs from published journal articles in Google Images search results and the factors impacting this availability. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from an evidence map of research with transgender, gender non-binary, and other gender diverse (trans) participants. For the original evidence map, a comprehensive search of 15 academic databases was developed in collaboration with a health sciences librarian. Initial search results produced 25,230 references after duplicates were removed. Eligibility criteria were established to include empirical research of any design that included trans participants or their personal information and that was published in English in peer-reviewed journals. We identified all articles published between 2008 and 2015 with medical photographs of trans participants. For each reference, images were individually numbered in order to track the total number of medical photographs. We used odds ratios (OR) to assess the association between availability of the clinical photograph on Google Images and the following factors: whether the article was openly available online (open access, Researchgate.net, or Academia.edu), whether the article included genital images, if the photographs were published in color, and whether the photographs were located on the journal article landing page. We identified 94 articles with medical photographs

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    Njubi, Francis. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles New Media, Old Struggles: Pan Africanism, Anti-racism and Information Technology Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Comarof, Jean. Vol 1999, No 3-4 (1999) - Articles Alien-Nation: Zombies, Immigrants and Millennial Capitalism Details. ISSN: 0850-8712. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    NENTY, N. JOHNSON. Vol 7, No 3 (2001) - Articles Common errors and perfomance of students in junior secondary mathematics certificate examinations in Cross River State, Nigeria Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

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    A Preliminary Investigation of Relative Frequency of Undiagnosed and Previously Diagnosed Hypertension Before First Stroke in a Lagos Hospital Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Localised tetanus in Lagos, Nigeria Details · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Stroke with localised infarction of Wernicke's Area misdiagnosed ...

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    SAMA, G. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    QUAKYI, A.I.. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    KOUONTCHOU, Samuel. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles Prevalence of Multiple Concomitant Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Simbok a Malaria Endemic Village in Cameroon. Details PDF · Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial ...

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    ALAKE, J. Vol 2 (2002): Supplement - Articles A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Rakotonirina, Alice. Vol 2, No 2 (2002) - Articles Effect of the decoction of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus on bicuculline-, N-methyl-D-aspartate- and strychnine-induced behavioural excitation and convulsions in mice. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Love, Alison. Vol 29, No 2 (2002) - Articles Policy-makers, the Press and Politics: Reporting a Public Policy Document Details. ISSN: 0379-0622. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    Focho, DA. Vol 2, No 1 (2002) - Articles Observations on the Meiotic Process in the African Pest Grasshopper Taphronota thaelephora Stal. (Orthoptera : Pyrgomorphidae) Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Idowu, OO. Vol 8, No 1 (2003) - Articles Evaluation of Different Substrates and Combinations on the Growth of Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fries) Quelet (Sajor-caju) Details. ISSN: 1118-2733. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Ligthelm, A.A.. Vol 5, No 2 (2001) - Articles Community attitudes towards Casinos and the estimated magnitude of problem gambling The Mpumalanga case. Details PDF. ISSN: 1027-4332. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Kioni, P N. Vol 9, No 1 (2007) - Articles Detailed structure of pipe flow with water hammer oscillations. Abstract. ISSN: 1561-7645. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Development of a trap to contaminate variegated grasshoppers (Zonocerus variegatus L.) (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) with Metarrhyzium flavo-viride Gams & Rozsypal in the field. Details · Vol 40, No 1 (2007) - Articles Yam pests in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions of Ghana: A study of farmers\\' indigenous technical ...

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    Brown, Duncan. Vol 16, No 2 (2002): Continental Africans & the Question of Identity - Articles Environment and Identity: Douglas Livingstone's A Littoral Zone Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Aderinokun, GA. Vol 9, No 1 (1999) - Articles Relative Influence Of Sociodemographic Variables On Oral Health And Habits Of Some Nigerian School Children Abstract · Vol 9, No 4 (1999) - Articles Oral health services in Nigeria Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    EKPA, O. D.. Vol 7, No 2 (2001) - Articles Variental differences AND polymorphism in palm oil: a case study of palm oils blended with coconut oil. Details PDF. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

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    SONUGA, F A. Vol 6, No 1 (2000) - Articles Geophysical investigation of Karkarku earthdam embankment. Details. ISSN: 1118-0579. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Geotechnical properties of lateritic soil developed over quartz schist in Ishara area, south western Nigeria Details · Vol 44, No 1 (2008) - Articles Comparative study of the influence of cement and lime stabilization on geotechnical properties of lateritic soil derived from pegmatite in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria

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    McCarthy, Greg. Vol 15, No 1 (2001): Media Freedom and Human Rights - Articles Caught between Empires: Ambivalence in Australian Films Details. ISSN: 0256-004. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Legwaila, GM. Vol 12 (2003) - Articles Review of sweet sorghum: a potential cash and forage crop in Botswana Details. ISSN: 1021-0873. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

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    Admasu, Assefa. Vol 22, No 2 (1999) - Articles Preliminary evaluation of Phytomyza orobanchia (Diptera: Agromyzidae) as a controller of Orobanche spp in Ethiopia Details PDF. ISSN: 2520–7997. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

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    Akum, ZE. Vol 1, No 3 (2001) - Articles Basic home range characteristics for the conservation of the African grey parrot in the Korup national park, Cameroon Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Bobcokono, Irene Yatabene. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Utilisation du papier filtre dans la gestion de programme de lute contre le SIDA au Cameroun Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

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    Lema, VM. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Fournier's gangrene complicating vasectomy. Details PDF · Vol 86, No 6 (2009) - Articles Therapeutic misconception and clinical trials in sub-saharan Africa: A review. Abstract PDF · Vol 86, No 11 (2009) - Articles HIV/AIDS and pregnancy-related deaths in Blantyre, Malawi

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    Green, J.M.. Vol 10, No 1 (2001) - Articles Information from Radio Telemetry on movements and exploitation of naturalized Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), in Kenya cold water streams. Details. ISSN: 0002-0036. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Erasmus, GJ. Vol 1, No 1 (2001) - Articles Genetic parameter estimates for growth traits in purebred Gudali and two-breed synthetic Wakwa beef cattle in a tropical environment. Details PDF · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Odigie, IP. Vol 10, No 4 (2000) - Articles High dose vitamin E administration attenuates hypertensin in 2-Kidney 1 Clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats. Details. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Motabagani, MA. Vol 80, No 9 (2003): - Articles Anomalies of the renal, phrenic and suprarenal arteries: Case Report Details PDF · Vol 81, No 3 (2004): - Articles Morphological study of the uncommon rectus sterni muscle in German cadavers. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

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    Ibeabuchi, NM. Vol 10, No 3 (2000) - Articles Comparison of the effects of Methylsalicylate Cream with cryotherapy on delayed onset muscle soreness. Details · Vol 22, No 2 (2012) - Articles X-ray Pelvimetry And Labour Outcome In Term Pregnancy In A Rural Nigerian Population Abstract. ISSN: 0189-2657. AJOL African ...

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    Warnorff, DK. Vol 13, No 4 (2001) - Articles Development of a scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis. Details PDF. ISSN: 1995-7262. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions ...

  10. 1980, a revolution in silicon detectors, from energy spectrometer to radiation imager: Some technical and historical details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijne, Erik H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nuclear particle detectors were introduced just 50 years ago, after single crystal manufacturing was mastered. A major change took place around 1980 when the 'planar' Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) technology developed in microelectronics was systematically applied also in detector construction. With the simultaneous introduction of matched readout chips this eventually would lead to pixelized matrix detectors that function as radiation imaging devices. The critical contributions to this revolution by Josef Kemmer and Paul Burger are described. Performance of the segmented planar technology detectors improved significantly in comparison with the earlier spectrometric diodes. With efficient industrial support the use of silicon detectors in many new applications has become possible and detector systems with a sensitive area of several tens to >100m 2 have been constructed recently

  11. Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA): a novel method to quantify individual radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijnissen, A C A; Vincken, K L; Vos, P A J M; Saris, D B F; Viergever, M A; Bijlsma, J W J; Bartels, L W; Lafeber, F P J G

    2008-02-01

    Radiography is still the golden standard for imaging features of osteoarthritis (OA), such as joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Objective assessment, however, remains difficult. The goal of the present study was to evaluate a novel digital method to analyse standard knee radiographs. Standardized radiographs of 20 healthy and 55 OA knees were taken in general practise according to the semi-flexed method by Buckland-Wright. Joint Space Width (JSW), osteophyte area, subchondral bone density, joint angle, and tibial eminence height were measured as continuous variables using newly developed Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA) software on a standard PC. Two observers evaluated the radiographs twice, each on two different occasions. The observers were blinded to the source of the radiographs and to their previous measurements. Statistical analysis to compare measurements within and between observers was performed according to Bland and Altman. Correlations between KIDA data and Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) grade were calculated and data of healthy knees were compared to those of OA knees. Intra- and inter-observer variations for measurement of JSW, subchondral bone density, osteophytes, tibial eminence, and joint angle were small. Significant correlations were found between KIDA parameters and K&L grade. Furthermore, significant differences were found between healthy and OA knees. In addition to JSW measurement, objective evaluation of osteophyte formation and subchondral bone density is possible on standard radiographs. The measured differences between OA and healthy individuals suggest that KIDA allows detection of changes in time, although sensitivity to change has to be demonstrated in long-term follow-up studies.

  12. Berkeley automated supernova search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.; Crawford, F.S.; Burns, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982.

  13. Berkeley automated supernova search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.; Pennypacker, C.R.; Muller, R.A.; Mast, T.S.

    1981-01-01

    The Berkeley automated supernova search employs a computer controlled 36-inch telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to image 2500 galaxies per night. A dedicated minicomputer compares each galaxy image with stored reference data to identify supernovae in real time. The threshold for detection is m/sub v/ = 18.8. We plan to monitor roughly 500 galaxies in Virgo and closer every night, and an additional 6000 galaxies out to 70 Mpc on a three night cycle. This should yield very early detection of several supernovae per year for detailed study, and reliable premaximum detection of roughly 100 supernovae per year for statistical studies. The search should be operational in mid-1982

  14. Author Details

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    Barnardt, P. Vol 15, No 4 (2011) - Articles The radiological appearance of metastatic cystic lesions. Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 1 (2013) - Articles The role of imaging in the evaluation of extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-6778. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Jenkins, LS. Vol 104, No 11 (2014) - Articles Appropriateness of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape Province, South Africa Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Chukwu, VO. Vol 4, No 4 (2010) - Articles Clogs in the Re-Branding Wheel: Images of Leadership in Nigerian Fiction Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2070-0083. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use ...

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    van Heerden, PDR. Vol 47, No 5 (1973) - Articles Digital Data Processing of Images Abstract PDF · Vol 47, No 5 (1973) - Articles A Simple Automated System for the Routine Production of 99mTc by Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone Extraction Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

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    Hoza, Mfusi Cynthia. Vol 32, No 1 (2012) - Articles Patriarchal self-inflated pompous image deflated: A feminist reading of Swartbooi's UMandisa. Abstract · Vol 33, No 1 (2013) - Articles 'The place of a woman is in the kitchen': Individualism versus communalism in Belebesi's UNongxaki nezakhe. Abstract. ISSN: 0257-2117.

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    Ekwonwune, E. Vol 4, No 1 (2012) - Articles A Computational Analysis of the Negative Impact of Cigarette Smoking on Human Population In Imo State Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 1 (2013) - Articles Assessing the Impact of Information Technology (WWW) on the attainment of Positive Corporate Image (PCI) to enhance ...

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    HIV knowledge, risk perception and risk behaviour among male ex-offenders in Mpumalanga, South Africa Abstract · Vol 10, No 1 (2012) - Articles Body Weight and Body Image among a Sample of Female and Male South African University Students Abstract · Vol 11, No 1 (2013) - Articles Intimate Partner Violence among ...

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    Gitau, Tabither M. Vol 26, No 3 (2014) - Articles Eating attitudes, body image satisfaction and self-esteem of South African Black and White male adolescents and their perception of female body silhouettes. Abstract. ISSN: 1728-0591. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Narese, D. Vol 107, No 5 (2017) - Articles Correspondence: Serratia marcescens infection or hypoxic- ischaemic encephalopathy in neonates: Is magnetic resonance imaging a problem-solving tool? Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0256-95749. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

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    Rae, W. Vol 12, No 2 (2008) - Articles Computed Radiography Exposure Indices in Mammography Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 3 (2009) - Articles Mammographic CAD: Correlation of regions in ipsilateral views – a pilot study. Abstract PDF · Vol 13, No 4 (2009) - Articles The relationship between compression force, image ...

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    Odhiambo, AO. Vol 8, No 2 (2014) - Articles Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with arthroscopy in the evaluation of rotator cuff pathology. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1994-1072. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Byakika, TK. Vol 1, No 1 (2007) - Articles Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries and Outcome of Arthroscopic Reconstruction Using Quadrupled Hamstrings: A Kenyan Experience Abstract PDF · Vol 8, No 2 (2014) - Articles Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with arthroscopy in the evaluation of rotator cuff ...

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    Yassin, I.M.. Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Classification of visualization exudates fundus images results using support vector machine. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Agarwood oil quality classifier using machine learning. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 5S (2017): Special Issue - Articles

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    Classification of visualization exudates fundus images results using support vector machine. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Detection of asphyxia in infants using deep learning Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) trained on Mel Frequency Cepstrum Coefficient (MFCC) features extracted from ...

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    Karbasi, M. Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Classification of visualization exudates fundus images results using support vector machine. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 4S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Malaysian sign language dataset for automatic sign language recognition system. Abstract PDF · Vol 9, No 3S ...

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    Bani, EK. Vol 23, No 1 (2003) - Articles Ghanaian university libraries adn their image projection. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0855-0395. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

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    Smal, J. Vol 8, No 1 (2004) - Articles Large fibroadenoma mimicking malignancy. Abstract PDF · Vol 14, No 4 (2010) - Articles Acute pituitary apoplexy complicating a pituitary macroadenoma. Abstract PDF · Vol 17, No 3 (2013) - Articles Imaging of disease progression in a case of idiopathic moyamoya. Abstract PDF.

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    Dongre, SD. Vol 6, No 1 (2011) - Articles The Role of Nanotechnology in Molecular Imaging by using Fluorescent Quantum Dots Abstract PDF · Vol 6, No 2 (2011) - Articles Humeral Metastasis in a case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma - a Case Report Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1694-0423. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

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    Amujiri, BA. Vol 1, No 4 (2012) - Articles Budgeting at Local Government Level: Preparation, Problems and Prospects Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 2 (2009) - Articles Human Trafficking and Child Abuse: Their Effect on Our Nation's Image Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 3 (2010) - Articles Managing Project Team in Local Government

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    Mazlan, S.S.. Vol 9, No 5S (2017): Special Issue - Articles Development of Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) diagnosis system using image processing. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Abdulkadir, S. Vol 12, No 2 (2017) - Articles Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and artificial neural networks. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1597-6343. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...

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    Bhat, A.H.. Vol 10, No 1S (2018): Special Issue - Articles Controlling of green nanocellulose fiber properties produced by chemo-mechanical treatment process via SEM, TEM, AFM and image analyzer characterization. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1112-9867. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

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    Adams, E. Vol 15, No 2 (2011) - Articles An exploratory study of the relationship between store image, trust, satisfaction and loyalty in a franchise setting. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1998-8125. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

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    Candy, S. Vol 10, No 4 (2006) - Articles Hyperparathyroidism with presumed sellar-parasellar brown tumour based on imaging findings. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2078-6778. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  18. Label-free and highly sensitive optical imaging of detailed microcirculation within meninges and cortex in mice with the cranium left intact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yali; An, Lin; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that the detailed blood flow distribution within intracranial dura mater and cortex can be visualized by an ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG). The study uses an UHS-OMAG system operating at 1310 nm with an imaging speed at 150 frames per second that requires ~10 s to complete one 3-D scan of ~2.5×2.5 mm2. The system is sensitive to blood flow with a velocity ranging from ~4 μm/s to ~23 mm/s. We show superior performance of UHS-OMAG in providing functional images of capillary level microcirculation within meninges in mice with the cranium left intact, the results of which correlate well with the standard dural histopathology.

  19. Hough transform search for continuous gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Badri; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Sintes, Alicia M.; Schutz, Bernard F.; Frasca, Sergio; Palomba, Cristiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an incoherent method to search for continuous gravitational waves based on the Hough transform, a well-known technique used for detecting patterns in digital images. We apply the Hough transform to detect patterns in the time-frequency plane of the data produced by an earth-based gravitational wave detector. Two different flavors of searches will be considered, depending on the type of input to the Hough transform: either Fourier transforms of the detector data or the output of a coherent matched-filtering type search. We present the technical details for implementing the Hough transform algorithm for both kinds of searches, their statistical properties, and their sensitivities

  20. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  1. Utilization of a radiology-centric search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Richard E; Sharpe, Megan; Siegel, Eliot; Siddiqui, Khan

    2010-04-01

    Internet-based search engines have become a significant component of medical practice. Physicians increasingly rely on information available from search engines as a means to improve patient care, provide better education, and enhance research. Specialized search engines have emerged to more efficiently meet the needs of physicians. Details about the ways in which radiologists utilize search engines have not been documented. The authors categorized every 25th search query in a radiology-centric vertical search engine by radiologic subspecialty, imaging modality, geographic location of access, time of day, use of abbreviations, misspellings, and search language. Musculoskeletal and neurologic imagings were the most frequently searched subspecialties. The least frequently searched were breast imaging, pediatric imaging, and nuclear medicine. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography were the most frequently searched modalities. A majority of searches were initiated in North America, but all continents were represented. Searches occurred 24 h/day in converted local times, with a majority occurring during the normal business day. Misspellings and abbreviations were common. Almost all searches were performed in English. Search engine utilization trends are likely to mirror trends in diagnostic imaging in the region from which searches originate. Internet searching appears to function as a real-time clinical decision-making tool, a research tool, and an educational resource. A more thorough understanding of search utilization patterns can be obtained by analyzing phrases as actually entered as well as the geographic location and time of origination. This knowledge may contribute to the development of more efficient and personalized search engines.

  2. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging. A clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, F.G.; Koerner, M.; Scherr, M.K.; Geyer, L.L.; Deak, Z.; Linsenmaier, U.; Reiser, M.; Wirth, S. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2012-03-15

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, +1: superior, +2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 {+-} 5.5 to 12.2 {+-} 4.7 mGy (p < 0.001). The ICC was 0.861. The total image quality of the dose-reduced ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p < 0.01). After the system upgrade, the vendor recommendation of ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. (orig.)

  3. Academic detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations.

  4. Facilitating medical information search using Google Glass connected to a content-based medical image retrieval system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Antoine; Schaer, Roger; Markonis, Dimitrios; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Wearable computing devices are starting to change the way users interact with computers and the Internet. Among them, Google Glass includes a small screen located in front of the right eye, a camera filming in front of the user and a small computing unit. Google Glass has the advantage to provide online services while allowing the user to perform tasks with his/her hands. These augmented glasses uncover many useful applications, also in the medical domain. For example, Google Glass can easily provide video conference between medical doctors to discuss a live case. Using these glasses can also facilitate medical information search by allowing the access of a large amount of annotated medical cases during a consultation in a non-disruptive fashion for medical staff. In this paper, we developed a Google Glass application able to take a photo and send it to a medical image retrieval system along with keywords in order to retrieve similar cases. As a preliminary assessment of the usability of the application, we tested the application under three conditions (images of the skin; printed CT scans and MRI images; and CT and MRI images acquired directly from an LCD screen) to explore whether using Google Glass affects the accuracy of the results returned by the medical image retrieval system. The preliminary results show that despite minor problems due to the relative stability of the Google Glass, images can be sent to and processed by the medical image retrieval system and similar images are returned to the user, potentially helping in the decision making process.

  5. Imaging the Alpine Fault: preliminary results from a detailed 3D-VSP experiment at the DFDP-2 drill site in Whataroa, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Vera; Bodenburg, Sascha; Buske, Stefan; Townend, John; Kellett, Richard; Savage, Martha; Schmitt, Douglas; Constantinou, Alexis; Eccles, Jennifer; Lawton, Donald; Hall, Kevin; Bertram, Malcolm; Gorman, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The plate-bounding Alpine Fault in New Zealand is an 850 km long transpressive continental fault zone that is late in its earthquake cycle. The Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) aims to deliver insight into the geological structure of this fault zone and its evolution by drilling and sampling the Alpine Fault at depth. Previously analysed 2D reflection seismic data image the main Alpine Fault reflector at a depth of 1.5-2.2 km with a dip of approximately 48° to the southeast below the DFDP-2 borehole. Additionally, there are indications of a more complex 3D fault structure with several fault branches which have not yet been clearly imaged in detail. For that reason we acquired a 3D-VSP seismic data set at the DFDP-2 drill site in January 2016. A zero-offset VSP and a walk-away VSP survey were conducted using a Vibroseis source. Within the borehole, a permanently installed "Distributed Acoustic Fibre Optic Cable" (down to 893 m) and a 3C Sercel slimwave tool (down to 400 m) were used to record the seismic wavefield. In addition, an array of 160 three-component receivers with a spacing of 10 m perpendicular and 20 m parallel to the main strike of the Alpine Fault was set up and moved successively along the valley to record reflections from the main Alpine Fault zone over a broad depth range and to derive a detailed 3D tomographic velocity model in the hanging wall. We will show a detailed 3D velocity model derived from first-arrival traveltime tomography. Subsets of the whole data set were analysed separately to estimate the corresponding ray coverage and the reliability of the observed features in the obtained velocity model. By testing various inversion parameters and starting models, we derived a detailed near-surface velocity model that reveals the significance of the old glacial valley structures. Hence, this new 3D model improves the velocity model derived previously from a 2D seismic profile line in that area. Furthermore, processing of the dense 3C data

  6. [Comparison of film-screen combinations with contrast detail diagram and interactive image analysis. 2: Linear assessment of grey scale ranges with interactive image analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, G; Eichbaum, G; Hagemann, G

    1997-09-01

    The following three screen-film combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and c) a conventional green fluorescing screen-film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum pre-filter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an IBAS system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an IBAS image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a resolution of 7 lines/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 microns2. Grey scale ranges were measured on a line perpendicular to the grouped bar patterns. The difference between the maximum and minimum density value served as signal. The spatial resolution of the detector system was measured when the signal value was three times higher than the standard deviation of the means of multiple density measurements. The results showed considerable advantages of the two new screen-film combinations as compared to the conventional screen-film combination. The result was contradictory to the findings with pure visual assessment of thresholds (part I) that had found no differences. The authors concluded that (automatic) interactive image analysis algorithms serve as an objective measure and are specifically advantageous when small differences in image quality are to be evaluated.

  7. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain - a link between brain morphology and function, imaging of the functional status of the brain on a detailed anatomic background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenberger, J.; Seidl, Z.; Ruzicka, E.; Jech, R.; Krasensky, J.

    1998-01-01

    The basic principles of functional magnetic resonance imaging are outlined. The current status of knowledge and ideas for a future development are highlighted. The application fields of this technique include neurosurgery, neurology, psychiatry. The method also serves as a research tool, where it may prove helpful in solving problems of sleep disorder and the generation and perception of speech. A brief overview of the requirements and the necessary background is given for those wishing to start their own activity in this field

  8. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in abdominal MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Körner, M; Scherr, M K; Geyer, L L; Deak, Z; Linsenmaier, U; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2012-03-01

    To compare the image quality of dose-reduced 64-row abdominal CT reconstructed at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed with filtered back-projection (FBP) in a clinical setting and upgrade situation. Abdominal baseline examinations (noise index NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with an ASIR option (NI = 43; Discovery HD750, GE), n = 42. Standard-kernel images were calculated with ASIR blendings of 0 - 100 % in slice and volume mode, respectively. Three experienced radiologists compared the image quality of these 567 sets to their corresponding full-dose baseline examination (- 2: diagnostically inferior, - 1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Furthermore, a phantom was scanned. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon - the Mann-Whitney U-test and the intra-class correlation (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased from 19.7 ± 5.5 to 12.2 ± 4.7 mGy (p ASIR studies was comparable to the baseline at ASIR 50 % in slice (p = 0.18) and ASIR 50 - 100 % in volume mode (p > 0.10). Volume mode performed 73 % slower than slice mode (p ASIR 50 % in slice mode allowed for a dose reduction of 38 % in abdominal CT with comparable image quality and time expenditure. However, there is still further dose reduction potential for more complex reconstruction settings. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Crossing the divide between computer vision and data bases in search of image data bases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Ioannidis, Y.; Klas, W.

    1998-01-01

    Image databases call upon the combined effort of computing vision and database technology to advance beyond exemplary systems. In this paper we charter several areas for mutually beneficial research activities and provide an architectural design to accommodate it.

  10. Modeling an Optical and Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Survey with Exoplanet Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vides, Christina; Macintosh, Bruce; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste; Nielsen, Eric; Povich, Matthew Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a direct high contrast imaging instrument coupled to the Gemini South Telescope. Its purpose is to image extrasolar planets around young (~Intelligence), we modeled GPI’s capabilities to detect an extraterrestrial continuous wave (CW) laser broadcasted within the H-band have been modeled. By using sensitivity evaluated for actual GPI observations of young target stars, we produced models of the CW laser power as a function of distance from the star that could be detected if GPI were to observe nearby (~ 3-5 pc) planet-hosting G-type stars. We took a variety of transmitters into consideration in producing these modeled values. GPI is known to be sensitive to both pulsed and CW coherent electromagnetic radiation. The results were compared to similar studies and it was found that these values are competitive to other optical and infrared observations.

  11. Improving performance of content-based image retrieval schemes in searching for similar breast mass regions: an assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Park, Sang Cheol; Zheng Bin

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to assess three methods commonly used in content-based image retrieval (CBIR) schemes and investigate the approaches to improve scheme performance. A reference database involving 3000 regions of interest (ROIs) was established. Among them, 400 ROIs were randomly selected to form a testing dataset. Three methods, namely mutual information, Pearson's correlation and a multi-feature-based k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm, were applied to search for the 15 'the most similar' reference ROIs to each testing ROI. The clinical relevance and visual similarity of searching results were evaluated using the areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (A Z ) and average mean square difference (MSD) of the mass boundary spiculation level ratings between testing and selected ROIs, respectively. The results showed that the A Z values were 0.893 ± 0.009, 0.606 ± 0.021 and 0.699 ± 0.026 for the use of KNN, mutual information and Pearson's correlation, respectively. The A Z values increased to 0.724 ± 0.017 and 0.787 ± 0.016 for mutual information and Pearson's correlation when using ROIs with the size adaptively adjusted based on actual mass size. The corresponding MSD values were 2.107 ± 0.718, 2.301 ± 0.733 and 2.298 ± 0.743. The study demonstrates that due to the diversity of medical images, CBIR schemes using multiple image features and mass size-based ROIs can achieve significantly improved performance.

  12. Science Parametrics for Missions to Search for Earth-like Exoplanets by Direct Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We use Nt , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various "27-vectors" of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate Nt . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ~4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ~1300 unique stars observed in ~2600 observations, of which ~1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ~ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ~ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N.

  13. A Novel Passive Millimeter Imager for Broad-Area Search - Final Report on Project PL09-NPMI-PD07 (PNNL-55180)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Jonathan R.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Kelly, James F.; Sheen, David M.; Harris, Robert V.; Hall, Thomas E.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Knopik, Clint D.; Lechelt, Wayne M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Mendoza, Albert; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2011-12-31

    This report describes research and development efforts toward a novel passive millimeter-wave (mm-wave) electromagnetic imaging device for broad-area search. It addresses the technical challenge of detecting anomalies that occupy a small fraction of a pixel. The purpose of the imager is to pinpoint suspicious locations for cuing subsequent higher-resolution imaging. The technical basis for the approach is to exploit thermal and polarization anomalies that distinguish man-made features from natural features.

  14. A highly detailed FEM volume conductor model based on the ICBM152 average head template for EEG source imaging and TCS targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.

  15. SCIENCE PARAMETRICS FOR MISSIONS TO SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS BY DIRECT IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    We use N t , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various ''27-vectors'' of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate N t . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ∼4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ∼1300 unique stars observed in ∼2600 observations, of which ∼1300 are revisits, and it produces N 1 ∼ 50 exoplanets after one year and N 5 ∼ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z < 50 zodis, end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ < 10 –10 . We find that observational overheads, completeness recovery and revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N

  16. Searching for supernovae in the multiply-imaged galaxies behind the gravitational telescope A370

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushevska, T.; Goobar, A.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Amanullah, R.; Hangard, L.; Fabbro, S.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Kneib, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Strong lensing by massive galaxy clusters can provide magnification of the flux and even multiple images of the galaxies that lie behind them. This phenomenon facilitates observations of high-redshift supernovae (SNe), that would otherwise remain undetected. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) detections are of particular interest because of their standard brightness, since they can be used to improve either cluster lensing models or cosmological parameter measurements. We present a ground-based, nea...

  17. Search for a non-metabolizable PET tracer for heart neuronal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, D.M.; Rosenspire, K.C.; Van Dort, M.E.; Haka, M.S.; Jung, Y.W.; Gildersleeve, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The tracer (1R,2S)-(-)-[ 11 C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (MHED) is used successfully at the authors' institution to study neuronal heart diseases and neuroendocrine tumors. However, MHED is rapidly metabolized in humans, most likely to alpha-methylepinephrine and its 3-O-methyl ether by the initial action of liver microsomal hydroxylase. This presentation will describe efforts to develop a [ 11 C]-labelled neuronal tracer that is completely resistant to metabolism on the PET-imaging time scale

  18. Millimeter wave radar system on a rotating platform for combined search and track functionality with SAR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbacher, Uwe; Rech, Klaus; Sedlmeier, Johannes; Pratisto, Hans; Wellig, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Ground based millimeter wave radar sensors offer the potential for a weather-independent automatic ground surveillance at day and night, e.g. for camp protection applications. The basic principle and the experimental verification of a radar system concept is described, which by means of an extreme off-axis positioning of the antenna(s) combines azimuthal mechanical beam steering with the formation of a circular-arc shaped synthetic aperture (SA). In automatic ground surveillance the function of search and detection of moving ground targets is performed by means of the conventional mechanical scan mode. The rotated antenna structure designed as a small array with two or more RX antenna elements with simultaneous receiver chains allows to instantaneous track multiple moving targets (monopulse principle). The simultaneously operated SAR mode yields areal images of the distribution of stationary scatterers. For ground surveillance application this SAR mode is best suited for identifying possible threats by means of change detection. The feasibility of this concept was tested by means of an experimental radar system comprising of a 94 GHz (W band) FM-CW module with 1 GHz bandwidth and two RX antennas with parallel receiver channels, placed off-axis at a rotating platform. SAR mode and search/track mode were tested during an outdoor measurement campaign. The scenery of two persons walking along a road and partially through forest served as test for the capability to track multiple moving targets. For SAR mode verification an image of the area composed of roads, grassland, woodland and several man-made objects was reconstructed from the measured data.

  19. Technological challenges in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: enhancing sensitivity, moving to quantitative imaging and searching for disease biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retico, A.

    2018-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging based on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance phenomenon has increasingly spread in the recent few decades, mainly owing to its exquisite capability in depicting a contrast between soft tissues, to its generally non-invasive nature, and to the priceless advantage of using non-ionizing radiation. Magnetic Resonance (MR)-based acquisition techniques allow gathering information on the structure (through Magnetic Resonance Imaging— MRI), the metabolic composition (through Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy—MRS), and the functioning (through functional MRI —fMRI) of the human body. MR investigations are the methods of choice for studying the brain in vivo, including anatomy, structural wiring and functional connectivity, in healthy and pathological conditions. Alongside the efforts of the clinical research community in extending the acquisition protocols to allow the exploration of a large variety of pathologies affecting diverse body regions, some relevant technological improvements are on the way to maximize the impact of MR in medical diagnostic. The development of MR scanners operating at ultra-high magnetic field (UHF) strength (>= 7 tesla), is pushing forward the spatial resolution of MRI and the spectral resolution of MRS, and it is increasing the specificity of fMRI to grey matter signal. UHF MR systems are currently in use for research purposes only; nevertheless, UHF technological advances are positively affecting MR investigations at clinical field strengths. To overcome the current major limitation of MRI, which is mostly based on contrast between tissues rather than on absolute measurements of physical quantities, a new acquisition modality is under development, which is referred as Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting technique. Finally, as neuroimaging data acquired worldwide are reaching the typical size of Big Data, dedicated technical solutions are required to mine large amount of information and to identify specific biomarkers of

  20. A Search for Lyman Break Galaxies at z>8 in the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Colbert, James W.; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; McCarthy, Patrick; Yan, Lin

    2007-02-01

    We have selected 14 J-dropout Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates with J110-H160>=2.5 from the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey. This survey consists of 135 arcmin2 of imaging in 228 independent sight lines, reaching average 5 σ sensitivities of J110=25.8 and H160=25.6 (AB). Distinguishing these candidates from dust-reddened star-forming galaxies at z~2-3 is difficult and will require longer wavelength observations. We consider the likelihood that any J-dropout LBGs exist in this survey and find that if L*z=9.5 is significantly brighter than L*z=6 (a factor of 4), then a few J-dropout LBGs are likely. A similar increase in luminosity has been suggested by Eyles et al. and Yan et al., but the magnitude of this increase is uncertain. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposals 9484, 9865, and 10226.

  1. On application of image analysis and natural language processing for music search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwardys, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, I investigate a problem of finding most similar music tracks using, popular in Natural Language Processing, techniques like: TF-IDF and LDA. I de ned document as music track. Each music track is transformed to spectrogram, thanks that, I can use well known techniques to get words from images. I used SURF operation to detect characteristic points and novel approach for their description. The standard kmeans was used for clusterization. Clusterization is here identical with dictionary making, so after that I can transform spectrograms to text documents and perform TF-IDF and LDA. At the final, I can make a query in an obtained vector space. The research was done on 16 music tracks for training and 336 for testing, that are splitted in four categories: Hiphop, Jazz, Metal and Pop. Although used technique is completely unsupervised, results are satisfactory and encouraging to further research.

  2. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, Pue. (Mexico); Universidad de la Sierra Sur, C. P. 70800, Miahuatlan, Oax. (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  3. Brain imaging research in autism spectrum disorders: in search of neuropathology and health across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-03-01

    Advances in brain imaging research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are rapidly occurring, and the amount of neuroimaging research has dramatically increased over the past 5 years. In this review, advances during the past 12 months and longitudinal studies are highlighted. Cross-sectional neuroimaging research provides evidence that the neural underpinnings of the behavioral signs of ASD involve not only dysfunctional integration of information across distributed brain networks but also basic dysfunction in primary cortices.Longitudinal studies of ASD show abnormally enlarged brain volumes and increased rates of brain growth during early childhood in only a small minority of ASD children. There is evidence of disordered development of white matter microstructure and amygdala growth, and at 2 years of age, network inefficiencies in posterior cerebral regions.From older childhood into adulthood, atypical age-variant and age-invariant changes in the trajectories of total and regional brain volumes and cortical thickness are apparent at the group level. There is evidence of abnormalities in posterior lobes and posterior brain networks during the first 2 years of life in ASD and, even in older children and adults, dysfunction in primary cortical areas.

  4. Searching for Hα emitting sources around MWC 758. SPHERE/ZIMPOL high-contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huélamo, N.; Chauvin, G.; Schmid, H. M.; Quanz, S. P.; Whelan, E.; Lillo-Box, J.; Barrado, D.; Montesinos, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Benisty, M.; Gregorio-Monsalvo, I. de; Mendigutía, I.; Bouy, H.; Merín, B.; de Boer, J.; Garufi, A.; Pantin, E.

    2018-05-01

    Context. MWC 758 is a young star surrounded by a transitional disk. The disk shows an inner cavity and spiral arms that could be caused by the presence of protoplanets. Recently, a protoplanet candidate has been detected around MWC 758 through high-resolution L'-band observations. The candidate is located inside the disk cavity at a separation of 111 mas from the central star, and at an average position angle of 165.5°. Aims: We aim at detecting accreting protoplanet candidates within the disk of MWC 758 through angular spectral differential imaging (ASDI) observations in the optical regime. In particular, we explore the emission at the position of the detected planet candidate. Methods: We have performed simultaneous adaptive optics observations in the Hα line and the adjacent continuum using SPHERE/ZIMPOL at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Results: The data analysis does not reveal any Hα signal around the target. The derived contrast curve in the B_Ha filter allows us to derive a 5σ upper limit of 7.6 mag at 111 mas, the separation of the previously detected planet candidate. This contrast translates into a Hα line luminosity of LHα ≲ 5×10-5 L⊙ at 111 mas. Assuming that LHα scales with Lacc as in classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs) as a first approximation, we can estimate an accretion luminosity of Lacc http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/613/L5Based on observations obtained at Paranal Observatory under program 096.C-0267(A) and 96.C-0248(A).

  5. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L. [McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [University of Exeter, Physics Department, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C. [SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 189 Bernardo Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-08-20

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M {sub Jup} bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M {sub Jup} outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  6. SEARCHING FOR SCATTERERS: HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING OF YOUNG STARS HOSTING WIDE-SEPARATION PLANETARY-MASS COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Marta L.; Mawet, Dimitri; Bowler, Brendan P.; Kraus, Adam L.; Knutson, Heather A.; Hinkley, Sasha; Nielsen, Eric L.; Blunt, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    We have conducted an angular differential imaging survey with NIRC2 at Keck in search of close-in substellar companions to a sample of seven systems with confirmed planetary-mass companions (PMCs) on wide orbits (>50 au). These wide-separation PMCs pose significant challenges to all three possible formation mechanisms: core accretion plus scattering, disk instability, and turbulent fragmentation. We explore the possibility that these companions formed closer in and were scattered out to their present-day locations by searching for other massive bodies at smaller separations. The typical sensitivity for this survey is Δ K ∼ 12.5 at 1″. We identify eight candidate companions, whose masses would reach as low as one Jupiter mass if gravitationally bound. From our multi-epoch astrometry we determine that seven of these are conclusively background objects, while the eighth near DH Tau is ambiguous and requires additional monitoring. We rule out the presence of >7 M Jup bodies in these systems down to 15–50 au that could be responsible for scattering. This result combined with the totality of evidence suggests that dynamical scattering is unlikely to have produced this population of PMCs. We detect orbital motion from the companions ROXs 42B b and ROXs 12 b, and from this determine 95% upper limits on the companions’ eccentricities of 0.58 and 0.83 respectively. Finally, we find that the 95% upper limit on the occurrence rate of additional planets with masses between 5 and 15 M Jup outside of 40 au in systems with PMCs is 54%.

  7. Detailing the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach of parametric magnetic resonance imaging and invasive physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Andreas; Arakelyan, Karen; Hentschel, Jan; Cantow, Kathleen; Flemming, Bert; Ladwig, Mechthild; Waiczies, Sonia; Seeliger, Erdmann; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to detail the relation between renal T2* and renal tissue pO2 using an integrated approach that combines parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitative physiological measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Experiments were performed in 21 male Wistar rats. In vivo modulation of renal hemodynamics and oxygenation was achieved by brief periods of aortic occlusion, hypoxia, and hyperoxia. Renal perfusion pressure (RPP), renal blood flow (RBF), local cortical and medullary tissue pO2, and blood flux were simultaneously recorded together with T2*, T2 mapping, and magnetic resonance-based kidney size measurements (MR-PHYSIOL). Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out on a 9.4-T small-animal magnetic resonance system. Relative changes in the invasive quantitative parameters were correlated with relative changes in the parameters derived from MRI using Spearman analysis and Pearson analysis. Changes in T2* qualitatively reflected tissue pO2 changes induced by the interventions. T2* versus pO2 Spearman rank correlations were significant for all interventions, yet quantitative translation of T2*/pO2 correlations obtained for one intervention to another intervention proved not appropriate. The closest T2*/pO2 correlation was found for hypoxia and recovery. The interlayer comparison revealed closest T2*/pO2 correlations for the outer medulla and showed that extrapolation of results obtained for one renal layer to other renal layers must be made with due caution. For T2* to RBF relation, significant Spearman correlations were deduced for all renal layers and for all interventions. T2*/RBF correlations for the cortex and outer medulla were even superior to those between T2* and tissue pO2. The closest T2*/RBF correlation occurred during hypoxia and recovery. Close correlations were observed between T2* and kidney size during hypoxia and recovery and for occlusion and recovery. In both cases, kidney size correlated well with renal vascular conductance

  8. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linn, Jennifer; Peters, Friederike; Lummel, Nina; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Yousry, Indra [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Schankin, Christoph [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Rachinger, Walter [University Hospital Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  9. Detailed imaging of the normal anatomy and pathologic conditions of the cavernous region at 3 Tesla using a contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer; Peters, Friederike; Lummel, Nina; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Yousry, Indra; Schankin, Christoph; Rachinger, Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of a high-resolution contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) at 3 Tesla for the delineation of the cavernous sinus (CS) anatomy both under normal and under pathological conditions. Fifteen patients without pathologies in the CS and ten patients with pituitary adenomas were included. The CE-MRA was performed on a 3-Tesla scanner and analyzed collaboratively by two readers. The cranial nerves (CNs) within the CS, namely CNIII, CNIV, CNV1, CNV2, and CNVI, were identified in both patient groups. In the adenoma patients it was also assessed whether and to which extend the adenoma invaded the CS and the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs was determined. In the patients with normal CS anatomy, CNIII could be identified in 100%, CNIV in 86.7%, and CNV1, CNV2, as well as CNVI in 100% of analyzed sides. Pituitary adenomas invaded the CS unilaterally (right side) in four patients, and bilaterally in six patients. In patients with adenomas, the CN could be identified and differentiated from the tumor in the following percentages: CNIII in 100%, CNIV in 70%, both CNV1 and CNV2 in 90%, and CNVI in 100%. In all these cases, the tumor-nerve spatial relationship could be visualized. 3-Tesla CE-MRA allows detailed imaging of the complex anatomy of the CS and its structures. In adenoma patients, it clearly visualizes the spatial relationship between tumor and CNs, and thus might be helpful to optimize presurgical planning. (orig.)

  10. Upgrade to iterative image reconstruction (IR) in MDCT imaging: a clinical study for detailed parameter optimization beyond vendor recommendations using the adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction environment (ASIR) Part2: The chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueck, F G; Michael, L; Deak, Z; Scherr, M K; Maxien, D; Geyer, L L; Reiser, M; Wirth, S

    2013-07-01

    To compare the image quality in dose-reduced 64-row CT of the chest at different levels of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) to full-dose baseline examinations reconstructed solely with filtered back projection (FBP) in a realistic upgrade scenario. A waiver of consent was granted by the institutional review board (IRB). The noise index (NI) relates to the standard deviation of Hounsfield units in a water phantom. Baseline exams of the chest (NI = 29; LightSpeed VCT XT, GE Healthcare) were intra-individually compared to follow-up studies on a CT with ASIR after system upgrade (NI = 45; Discovery HD750, GE Healthcare), n = 46. Images were calculated in slice and volume mode with ASIR levels of 0 - 100 % in the standard and lung kernel. Three radiologists independently compared the image quality to the corresponding full-dose baseline examinations (-2: diagnostically inferior, -1: inferior, 0: equal, + 1: superior, + 2: diagnostically superior). Statistical analysis used Wilcoxon's test, Mann-Whitney U test and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean CTDIvol decreased by 53 % from the FBP baseline to 8.0 ± 2.3 mGy for ASIR follow-ups; p ASIR 70 % in volume mode (-0.07 ± 0.29, p = 0.29). Concerning the lung kernel, every ASIR level outperformed the baseline image quality (p ASIR 30 % rated best (slice: 0.70 ± 0.6, volume: 0.74 ± 0.61). Vendors' recommendation of 50 % ASIR is fair. In detail, the ASIR 70 % in volume mode for the standard kernel and ASIR 30 % for the lung kernel performed best, allowing for a dose reduction of approximately 50 %. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Main: Clone Detail [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Clone Detail Mapping Pseudomolecule data detail Detail information Mapping to the T...IGR japonica Pseudomolecules kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail.zip kome_mapping_pseudomolecule_data_detail ...

  12. Features Extraction of Flotation Froth Images and BP Neural Network Soft-Sensor Model of Concentrate Grade Optimized by Shuffled Cuckoo Searching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the forecasting target of key technology indicators in the flotation process, a BP neural network soft-sensor model based on features extraction of flotation froth images and optimized by shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is proposed. Based on the digital image processing technique, the color features in HSI color space, the visual features based on the gray level cooccurrence matrix, and the shape characteristics based on the geometric theory of flotation froth images are extracted, respectively, as the input variables of the proposed soft-sensor model. Then the isometric mapping method is used to reduce the input dimension, the network size, and learning time of BP neural network. Finally, a shuffled cuckoo search algorithm is adopted to optimize the BP neural network soft-sensor model. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization results and prediction accuracy.

  13. Cube search, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuetao; Huang, Jie; Yigit-Elliott, Serap; Rosenholtz, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Observers can quickly search among shaded cubes for one lit from a unique direction. However, replace the cubes with similar 2-D patterns that do not appear to have a 3-D shape, and search difficulty increases. These results have challenged models of visual search and attention. We demonstrate that cube search displays differ from those with “equivalent” 2-D search items in terms of the informativeness of fairly low-level image statistics. This informativeness predicts peripheral discriminability of target-present from target-absent patches, which in turn predicts visual search performance, across a wide range of conditions. Comparing model performance on a number of classic search tasks, cube search does not appear unexpectedly easy. Easy cube search, per se, does not provide evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. However, search asymmetries derived from rotating and/or flipping the cube search displays cannot be explained by the information in our current set of image statistics. This may merely suggest a need to modify the model's set of 2-D image statistics. Alternatively, it may be difficult cube search that provides evidence for preattentive computation of 3-D scene properties. By attributing 2-D luminance variations to a shaded 3-D shape, 3-D scene understanding may slow search for 2-D features of the target. PMID:25780063

  14. Deep Imaging Search for Planets Forming in the TW Hya Protoplanetary Disk with the Keck/NIRC2 Vortex Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, G.; Mawet, D.; Kastner, J.; Meshkat, T.; Bottom, M.; Femenía Castellá, B.; Absil, O.; Gomez Gonzalez, C.; Huby, E.; Zhu, Z.; Jenson-Clem, R.; Choquet, É.; Serabyn, E.

    2017-08-01

    Distinct gap features in the nearest protoplanetary disk, TW Hya (distance of 59.5 ± 0.9 pc), may be signposts of ongoing planet formation. We performed long-exposure thermal infrared coronagraphic imaging observations to search for accreting planets, especially within dust gaps previously detected in scattered light and submillimeter-wave thermal emission. Three nights of observations with the Keck/NIRC2 vortex coronagraph in L‧ (3.4-4.1 μm) did not reveal any statistically significant point sources. We thereby set strict upper limits on the masses of non-accreting planets. In the four most prominent disk gaps at 24, 41, 47, and 88 au, we obtain upper mass limits of 1.6-2.3, 1.1-1.6, 1.1-1.5, and 1.0-1.2 Jupiter masses (M J), assuming an age range of 7-10 Myr for TW Hya. These limits correspond to the contrast at 95% completeness (true positive fraction of 0.95) with a 1% chance of a false positive within 1″ of the star. We also approximate an upper limit on the product of the planet mass and planetary accretion rate of {M}{{p}}\\dot{M}≲ {10}-8 {M}{{J}}2 {{yr}}-1 implying that any putative ˜0.1 M J planet, which could be responsible for opening the 24 au gap, is presently accreting at rates insufficient to build up a Jupiter mass within TW Hya’s pre-main-sequence lifetime.

  15. ADAPTIVE DETAIL ENHANCEMENT ALGORITHM OF COLOUR IMAGE BASED ON WAVELET TRANSFORM%基于小波变换的彩色图像自适应细节增强算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐涛; 李冠章

    2011-01-01

    A novel adaptive detail enhancement algorithm aiming at colour image is proposed in this paper based on wavelet transform. The first step is to select appropriate colour space, and then the luminance components of the image are being implemented wavelet transform while the chroma components are hold on. The detail wavelet coefficients are adjusted adaptively considering the contrasts of discomposed approximate images on each level while the approximate coefficients are increased properly to boost the average luminance of colour image, there is no extra adjustment parameters setting in the process of treatment. Experiments confirm that the algorithm preserves the brighter details of the image and improves the darker details in it too. Meanwhile the image colour distortion does not appear.%针对彩色图像,提出了一种基于小波变换的自适应细节增强算法.首先选择了合适的彩色空间,保持图像的彩色分量不变,对其亮度分量进行小波变换,然后按照分解后的各级近似图像对比度自适应地调整小波细节系数,同时适当地增强近似系数以提高彩色图像的平均亮度,在处理过程中不需要设定额外的调整参数.实验证明,算法不但保留了图像较亮的细节,而且增强了较暗的细节,同时达到了图像色彩不失真的目的.

  16. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang; Wonka, Peter; Ghanem, Bernard; Jiang, Caigui

    2015-01-01

    Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed

  17. Multimedia Search Engines : Concept, Performance, and Types

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed Rabeh Sayed

    2005-01-01

    A Research about multimedia search engines, it starts with definition of search engines at general and multimedia search engines, then explains how they work, and divided them into: Video search engines, Images search engines, and Audio search engines. Finally, it reviews a samples to multimedia search engines.

  18. Real time imaging and infrared background scene analysis using the Naval Postgraduate School infrared search and target designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jean D.

    1991-09-01

    The imaging in real time of infrared background scenes with the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) System was achieved through extensive software developments in protected mode assembly language on an Intel 80386 33 MHz computer. The new software processes the 512 by 480 pixel images directly in the extended memory area of the computer where the DT-2861 frame grabber memory buffers are mapped. Direct interfacing, through a JDR-PR10 prototype card, between the frame grabber and the host computer AT bus enables each load of the frame grabber memory buffers to be effected under software control. The protected mode assembly language program can refresh the display of a six degree pseudo-color sector in the scanner rotation within the two second period of the scanner. A study of the imaging properties of the NPS-IRSTD is presented with preliminary work on image analysis and contrast enhancement of infrared background scenes.

  19. Electronic biomedical literature search for budding researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Subhash B; Thakre S, Sushama S; Thakre, Amol D

    2013-09-01

    Search for specific and well defined literature related to subject of interest is the foremost step in research. When we are familiar with topic or subject then we can frame appropriate research question. Appropriate research question is the basis for study objectives and hypothesis. The Internet provides a quick access to an overabundance of the medical literature, in the form of primary, secondary and tertiary literature. It is accessible through journals, databases, dictionaries, textbooks, indexes, and e-journals, thereby allowing access to more varied, individualised, and systematic educational opportunities. Web search engine is a tool designed to search for information on the World Wide Web, which may be in the form of web pages, images, information, and other types of files. Search engines for internet-based search of medical literature include Google, Google scholar, Scirus, Yahoo search engine, etc., and databases include MEDLINE, PubMed, MEDLARS, etc. Several web-libraries (National library Medicine, Cochrane, Web of Science, Medical matrix, Emory libraries) have been developed as meta-sites, providing useful links to health resources globally. A researcher must keep in mind the strengths and limitations of a particular search engine/database while searching for a particular type of data. Knowledge about types of literature, levels of evidence, and detail about features of search engine as available, user interface, ease of access, reputable content, and period of time covered allow their optimal use and maximal utility in the field of medicine. Literature search is a dynamic and interactive process; there is no one way to conduct a search and there are many variables involved. It is suggested that a systematic search of literature that uses available electronic resource effectively, is more likely to produce quality research.

  20. An Investigation of the Use of Real-time Image Mosaicing for Facilitating Global Spatial Awareness in Visual Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung Yee, Anthony

    Three experiments have been completed to investigate whether and how a software technique called real-time image mosaicing applied to a restricted field of view (FOV) might influence target detection and path integration performance in simulated aerial search scenarios, representing local and global spatial awareness tasks respectively. The mosaiced FOV (mFOV) was compared to single FOV (sFOV) and one with double the single size (dFOV). In addition to advancing our understanding of visual information in mosaicing, the present study examines the advantages and limitations of a number of metrics used to evaluate performance in path integration tasks, with particular attention paid to measuring performance in identifying complex routes. The highlights of the results are summarized as follows, according to Experiments 1 through 3 respectively. 1. A novel response method for evaluating route identification performance was developed. The surmised benefits of the mFOV relative to sFOV and dFOV revealed no significant differences in performance for the relatively simple route shapes tested. Compared to the mFOV and dFOV conditions, target detection performance in the local task was found to be superior in the sFOV condition. 2. In order to appropriately quantify the observed differences in complex route selections made by the participants, a novel analysis method was developed using the Thurstonian Paired Comparisons Method. 3. To investigate the effect of display size and elevation angle (EA) in a complex route environment, a 2x3 experiment was conducted for the two spatial tasks, at a height selected from Experiment 2. Although no significant differences were found in the target detection task, contrasts in the Paired Comparisons Method results revealed that route identification performance were as hypothesised: mFOV > dFOV > sFOV for EA = 90°. Results were similar for EA = 45°, but with mFOV being no different than dFOV. As hypothesised, EA was found to have an effect

  1. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  2. Search Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance and search help resource listing examples of common queries that can be used in the Google Search Appliance search request, including examples of special characters, or query term seperators that Google Search Appliance recognizes.

  3. Functional interaction between right parietal and bilateral frontal cortices during visual search tasks revealed using functional magnetic imaging and transcranial direct current stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ellison

    Full Text Available The existence of a network of brain regions which are activated when one undertakes a difficult visual search task is well established. Two primary nodes on this network are right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC and right frontal eye fields. Both have been shown to be involved in the orientation of attention, but the contingency that the activity of one of these areas has on the other is less clear. We sought to investigate this question by using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to selectively decrease activity in rPPC and then asking participants to perform a visual search task whilst undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with a condition in which sham tDCS was applied revealed that cathodal tDCS over rPPC causes a selective bilateral decrease in frontal activity when performing a visual search task. This result demonstrates for the first time that premotor regions within the frontal lobe and rPPC are not only necessary to carry out a visual search task, but that they work together to bring about normal function.

  4. Feature Selection for Object-Based Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Combination of a Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In object-based image analysis of high-resolution images, the number of features can reach hundreds, so it is necessary to perform feature reduction prior to classification. In this paper, a feature selection method based on the combination of a genetic algorithm (GA and tabu search (TS is presented. The proposed GATS method aims to reduce the premature convergence of the GA by the use of TS. A prematurity index is first defined to judge the convergence situation during the search. When premature convergence does take place, an improved mutation operator is executed, in which TS is performed on individuals with higher fitness values. As for the other individuals with lower fitness values, mutation with a higher probability is carried out. Experiments using the proposed GATS feature selection method and three other methods, a standard GA, the multistart TS method, and ReliefF, were conducted on WorldView-2 and QuickBird images. The experimental results showed that the proposed method outperforms the other methods in terms of the final classification accuracy.

  5. Feature Selection for Object-Based Classification of High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on the Combination of a Genetic Algorithm and Tabu Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Wan, Youchuan; Gao, Xianjun

    2018-01-01

    In object-based image analysis of high-resolution images, the number of features can reach hundreds, so it is necessary to perform feature reduction prior to classification. In this paper, a feature selection method based on the combination of a genetic algorithm (GA) and tabu search (TS) is presented. The proposed GATS method aims to reduce the premature convergence of the GA by the use of TS. A prematurity index is first defined to judge the convergence situation during the search. When premature convergence does take place, an improved mutation operator is executed, in which TS is performed on individuals with higher fitness values. As for the other individuals with lower fitness values, mutation with a higher probability is carried out. Experiments using the proposed GATS feature selection method and three other methods, a standard GA, the multistart TS method, and ReliefF, were conducted on WorldView-2 and QuickBird images. The experimental results showed that the proposed method outperforms the other methods in terms of the final classification accuracy. PMID:29581721

  6. Design considerations for a large-scale image-based text search engine in historical manuscript collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schomaker, Lambertus

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of design considerations for a handwriting search engine based on pattern recognition and high-performance computing, “Monk”. In order to satisfy multiple and often conflicting technological requirements, an architecture is used which heavily relies on high-performance

  7. Searching for prostate cancer by fully automated magnetic resonance imaging classification: deep learning versus non-deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinggang; Yang, Wei; Weinreb, Jeffrey; Han, Juan; Li, Qiubai; Kong, Xiangchuang; Yan, Yongluan; Ke, Zan; Luo, Bo; Liu, Tao; Wang, Liang

    2017-11-13

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major cause of death since ancient time documented in Egyptian Ptolemaic mummy imaging. PCa detection is critical to personalized medicine and varies considerably under an MRI scan. 172 patients with 2,602 morphologic images (axial 2D T2-weighted imaging) of the prostate were obtained. A deep learning with deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) and a non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and bag-of-word (BoW), a representative method for image recognition and analysis, were used to distinguish pathologically confirmed PCa patients from prostate benign conditions (BCs) patients with prostatitis or prostate benign hyperplasia (BPH). In fully automated detection of PCa patients, deep learning had a statistically higher area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) than non-deep learning (P = 0.0007 deep learning method and 0.70 (95% CI 0.63-0.77) for non-deep learning method, respectively. Our results suggest that deep learning with DCNN is superior to non-deep learning with SIFT image feature and BoW model for fully automated PCa patients differentiation from prostate BCs patients. Our deep learning method is extensible to image modalities such as MR imaging, CT and PET of other organs.

  8. A Hybrid Technique for De-Noising Multi-Modality Medical Images by Employing Cuckoo’s Search with Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Javaid

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available De-noising of the medical images is very difficult task. To improve the overall visual representation we need to apply a contrast enhancement techniques, this representation provide the physicians and clinicians a good and recovered diagnosis results. Various de-noising and contrast enhancements methods are develops. However, some of the methods are not good in providing the better results with accuracy and efficiency. In our paper we de-noise and enhance the medical images without any loss of information. We uses the curvelet transform in combination with ridglet transform along with CS (Cuckoo Search algorithm. The curvlet transform adapt and represents the sparse pixel informations with all edges. The edges play very important role in understanding of the images. Curvlet transform computes the edges very efficiently where the wavelets are failed. We used the CS to optimize the de-noising coefficients without loss of structural and morphological information. Our designed method would be accurate and efficient in de-noising the medical images. Our method attempts to remove the multiplicative and additive noises. Our proposed method is proved to be an efficient and reliable in removing all kind of noises from the medical images. Result indicates that our proposed approach is better than other approaches in removing impulse, Gaussian, and speckle noises.

  9. A search algorithm to meta-optimize the parameters for an extended Kalman filter to improve classification on hyper-temporal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Salmon1_2012_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1654 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Salmon1_2012_ABSTRACT ONLY.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Munich, Germany, 22-27 July 2012 A search algorithm to meta-optimize the parameters for an extended Kalman filter to improve classification on hyper-temporal images yzB.P. Salmon, yz...

  10. Details of 1π sr wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens for electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution analysis combined with real space imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, László; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Goto, Kentaro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new 1π sr Wide Acceptance Angle Electrostatic Lens (WAAEL), which works as a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM), a highly sensitive display-type electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution analyzer. It can display two-dimensional angular distributions of charged particles within the acceptance angle of ±60° that is much larger than the largest acceptance angle range so far and comparable to the display-type spherical mirror analyzer developed by Daimon et al. . It has good focusing capabilities with 5-times magnification and 27(4) μm lateral-resolution. The relative energy resolution is typically from 2 to 5×10 -3 depending on the diameter of energy aperture and the emission area on the sample. Although, the lateral resolution of the presented lens is far from those are available nowadays, but this is the first working model that can form images using charged particles collected from 1π sr wide acceptance angle. The realization of such lens system is one of the first possible steps towards reaching the field of imaging type atomic resolution electron microscopy Feynman et al. Here some preliminary results are shown.

  11. Wooden houses in detail. Holzhaeuser im Detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruske, W. (ed.)

    1986-01-01

    Under the serial title 'Planning and construction of wooden houses', WEKA will publish a number of books of which this is the first. Details of design and construction are presented, e.g.: Details of modern one-family houses; Fundamentals of design and hints for planning of wooden houses and compact wooden structures; Constructional ecology, wood protection, thermal insulation, sound insulation; Modular systems for domestic buildings; The 'bookshelf-type' house at the Berlin International Construction Exhibition (IBA); Experience with do-it-yourself systems. With 439 figs.

  12. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dye, S.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Auld, R. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Fritz, J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A. [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); De Zotti, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipto di Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, IT 35122, Padova (Italy); Hopwood, R., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies

  13. Comparison between results of detailed tectonic studies on borehole core vs microresistivity images of borehole wall from gas-bearing shale complexes, Baltic Basin, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Kinga; Jarosiński, Marek; Pachytel, Radomir

    2017-04-01

    Structural analysis of borehole core and microresistivity images yield an information about geometry of natural fracture network and their potential importance for reservoir stimulation. Density of natural fractures and their orientation in respect to the maximum horizontal stress has crucial meaning for hydraulic fractures propagation in unconventional reservoirs. We have investigated several hundred meters of continuous borehole core and corresponding microresistivity images (mostly XRMI) from six boreholes in the Pomeranian part of the Early Paleozoic Baltic Basin. In general, our results challenge the question about representatives of statistics based on structural analyses on a small shale volume represented by borehole core or borehole wall images and credibility of different sets of data. Most frequently, fractures observed in both XRMI and cores are steep, small strata-bound fractures and veins with minor mechanical aperture (0,1 mm in average). These veins create an orthogonal joint system, locally disturbed by fractures associated with normal or by gently dipping thrust faults. Mean fractures' height keeps in a range between 30-50 cm. Fracture density differs significantly among boreholes and Consistent Lithological Units (CLUs) but the most frequent means falls in a range 2-4 m-1. We have also payed an attention to bedding planes due to their expected coupling with natural fractures and their role as structural barriers for vertical fracture propagation. We aimed in construction for each CLU the so-called "mean brick", which size is limited by an average distance between two principal joint sets and between bedding fractures. In our study we have found out a discrepancy between structural profiles based on XRMI and core interpretation. For some CLUs joint fractures densities, are higher in cores than in XRMI. In this case, numerous small fractures were not recorded due to the limits of XRMI resolution. However, the most veins with aperture 0,1 mm

  14. The Effect of the Cultural Values on the Destination Image: A Search in Eskisehir 2013 Turkish World Capital of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Köroğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the destination images being dynamic and changeable, continuous researches should be conducted in order to measure and progress the images in the context of tourism marketing. The aim of this study is to analyze the tourists’ characters and behaviors who direct through the cultural destinations and to determine the relationship between the visitors’ perceptions of cultural values and destination image. Based on this purpose, a questionnaire was held on the foreign cullture tourist who visited Eskisehir, chosen as the 2013 Turkish World Capital of Culture. The data obtained were evaluated using analysis methods such as frequency, arithmetic mean, reliability, regression, independent samples t-test, one-way variance analysis (ANOVA. The results obtain from these analysis have shown that many of the participants have used internet as a source of information and travelled to explore new cultures. On the one hand the most affecting cultural values of the destination image was emotional values.

  15. The image of the butcher (13th-20th): In search of respectability between corporate pride and blood concealment.

    OpenAIRE

    Leteux , Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In most images that represent butchers in France since the Middle Ages, the animal’s blood and death are often eclipsed or softened, except for the realistic photographs of slaughterhouses in the 20th century. The will to conceal blood shows the butchers’ will to build an honourable image of themselves. This quest for respectability is obvious if you look at the ceremony clothes worn by butchers during civil and religious celebrations. In the 19th century, as the trade...

  16. It's time for a crisper image of the Face of the Earth: Landsat and climate time series for massive land cover & climate change mapping at detailed resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Xavier; Miquel, Ninyerola; Oscar, González-Guerrero; Cristina, Cea; Pere, Serra; Alaitz, Zabala; Lluís, Pesquer; Ivette, Serral; Joan, Masó; Cristina, Domingo; Maria, Serra Josep; Jordi, Cristóbal; Chris, Hain; Martha, Anderson; Juanjo, Vidal

    2014-05-01

    Combining climate dynamics and land cover at a relative coarse resolution allows a very interesting approach to global studies, because in many cases these studies are based on a quite high temporal resolution, but they may be limited in large areas like the Mediterranean. However, the current availability of long time series of Landsat imagery and spatially detailed surface climate models allow thinking on global databases improving the results of mapping in areas with a complex history of landscape dynamics, characterized by fragmentation, or areas where relief creates intricate climate patterns that can be hardly monitored or modeled at coarse spatial resolutions. DinaCliVe (supported by the Spanish Government and ERDF, and by the Catalan Government, under grants CGL2012-33927 and SGR2009-1511) is the name of the project that aims analyzing land cover and land use dynamics as well as vegetation stress, with a particular emphasis on droughts, and the role that climate variation may have had in such phenomena. To meet this objective is proposed to design a massive database from long time series of Landsat land cover products (grouped in quinquennia) and monthly climate records (in situ climate data) for the Iberian Peninsula (582,000 km2). The whole area encompasses 47 Landsat WRS2 scenes (Landsat 4 to 8 missions, from path 197 to 202 and from rows 30 to 34), and 52 Landsat WRS1 scenes (for the previous Landsat missions, 212 to 221 and 30 to 34). Therefore, a mean of 49.5 Landsat scenes, 8 quinquennia per scene and a about 6 dates per quinquennium , from 1975 to present, produces around 2376 sets resulting in 30 m x 30 m spatial resolution maps. Each set is composed by highly coherent geometric and radiometric multispectral and multitemporal (to account for phenology) imagery as well as vegetation and wetness indexes, and several derived topographic information (about 10 Tbyte of data). Furthermore, on the basis on a previous work: the Digital Climatic Atlas of

  17. Real time imaging of infrared scene data generated by the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (NPS-IRSTD) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baca, Michael J.

    1990-09-01

    A system to display images generated by the Naval Postgraduate School Infrared Search and Target Designation (a modified AN/SAR-8 Advanced Development Model) in near real time was developed using a 33 MHz NIC computer as the central controller. This computer was enhanced with a Data Translation DT2861 Frame Grabber for image processing and an interface board designed and constructed at NPS to provide synchronization between the IRSTD and Frame Grabber. Images are displayed in false color in a video raster format on a 512 by 480 pixel resolution monitor. Using FORTRAN, programs have been written to acquire, unscramble, expand and display a 3 deg sector of data. The time line for acquisition, processing and display has been analyzed and repetition periods of less than four seconds for successive screen displays have been achieved. This represents a marked improvement over previous methods necessitating slower Direct Memory Access transfers of data into the Frame Grabber. Recommendations are made for further improvements to enhance the speed and utility of images produced.

  18. Light activates H{sub 2.}{sup 15}0 flow in rice: Detailed monitoring using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyomiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.; Mori, S. [The Univ. of Tokyo, Dept. of Applied Biological Chemistry, Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, H.; Nishiyama, S.; Tsukada, H.; Tsuji, A. [Central Res. Lab. Hamamatsu Photonics KK, Shizuoka (Japan); Ishioka, N.S.; Watanabe, S.; Osa, A.; Mizuniwa, C.; Ito, T.; Matsuhashi, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Sekine, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Takasaki Radation Chemistry Res. Establishment, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Water (H{sub 2}{sup 15}O) translocation from the roots to the top of rice plants (Oryza saliva L. cv. Nipponbare) was visualized over time by a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). H{sub 2}{sup 15}O flow was activated 8 min after plants were exposed to bright light (1500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}). When the light was subsequently removed, the flow gradually slowed and completely stopped after 12 min. In plants exposed to low light (500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), H{sub 2}{sup 15}O flow was activated more slowly, and a higher translocation rate of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O was observed in the same low light at the end of the next dark period. NaCl (80 mM) and methylmercury (1 mM) directly suppressed absorption of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O by the roots, while methionine sulfoximine (1 mM), abscisic acid (10 {mu}M) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (10 mM) were transported to the leaves and enhanced stomatal closure, reducing H{sub 2}{sup 15}O translocation. (au)

  19. Effective delivery of hydrophobic drugs to breast (MCF-7) and Liver (HepG2) cancer cells: A detailed investigation using Cytotoxicity assays, fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatunga, Danushika C; de Silva, Rohini M; Nalin de Silva, K M; Neelika Malavige, Gathsaurie; Wijeratne, Dulharie T; Williams, Gareth R; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Udagama, Preethi V

    2018-04-03

    This study aimed to develop a drug carrier system consisting of a polymer containing hydroxyapatite (HAp) shell and a magnetic core of iron oxide nanoparticles. Doxorubicin and/or curcumin were loaded into the carrier via a simple diffusion deposition approach, with encapsulation efficiencies (EE) for curcumin and doxorubicin of 93.03 ± 0.3% and 97.37 ± 0.12% respectively. The co-loading of curcumin and doxorubicin led to a total EE of 76.02 ± 0.48%. Release studies were carried out at pH 7.4 and 5.3, and revealed higher release was at pH 5.3 expressing the potential application in tumor microenvironments. Cytotoxicity assays, fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry showed the formulations could effectively inhibit the growth of MCF-7 and HEpG2 cancer cells, being more potent than the free drug molecules both in dose and time dependent manner. Additionally, hemolysis tests and cytotoxicity evaluations determined the drug-loaded carriers to be non-toxic towards non-cancerous cells. These formulations thus have great potential in the development of new cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Calibration and Validation of a Detailed Architectural Canopy Model Reconstruction for the Simulation of Synthetic Hemispherical Images and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bremer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Canopy density measures such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI have become standardized mapping products derived from airborne and terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (aLiDAR and tLiDAR, respectively data. A specific application of LiDAR point clouds is their integration into radiative transfer models (RTM of varying complexity. Using, e.g., ray tracing, this allows flexible simulations of sub-canopy light condition and the simulation of various sensors such as virtual hemispherical images or waveform LiDAR on a virtual forest plot. However, the direct use of LiDAR data in RTMs shows some limitations in the handling of noise, the derivation of surface areas per LiDAR point and the discrimination of solid and porous canopy elements. In order to address these issues, a strategy upgrading tLiDAR and Digital Hemispherical Photographs (DHP into plausible 3D architectural canopy models is suggested. The presented reconstruction workflow creates an almost unbiased virtual 3D representation of branch and leaf surface distributions, minimizing systematic errors due to the object–sensor relationship. The models are calibrated and validated using DHPs. Using the 3D models for simulations, their capabilities for the description of leaf density distributions and the simulation of aLiDAR and DHP signatures are shown. At an experimental test site, the suitability of the models, in order to systematically simulate and evaluate aLiDAR based LAI predictions under various scan settings is proven. This strategy makes it possible to show the importance of laser point sampling density, but also the diversity of scan angles and their quantitative effect onto error margins.

  1. Assessment and treatment planning of lateral intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas in 3 T MRI and DSA: A detailed analysis under consideration of time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) and ce-MRA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl, L.; Brueckmann, H.; Patzig, M.; Brem, C.; Forbrig, R.; Fesl, G. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Grosshadern Campus, Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kunz, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Grosshadern Campus, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The current gold standard in the assessment of lateral intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (LDAVF) is digital subtraction angiography (DSA). However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive emerging tool for the evaluation of such lesions. The aim of our study was to compare the DSA to our 3 T MR-imaging protocol including a highly spatial resolved (ce-MRA) and a temporal resolved (''time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics'', TRICKS) contrast-enhanced MR angiography to evaluate if solely DSA can remain the gold-standard imaging modality for the treatment planning of LDAVF. We retrospectively reviewed matched pairs of DSA and 3 T MRI examinations of 24 patients with LDAVF (03/2008-04/2014) by the same list of relevant criteria for an endovascular LDAVF treatment planning. In particular, we determined intermodality agreement for the Cognard classification, the identifeication of arterial feeders, and the detailed assessment of each venous drainage pattern. Intermodality agreement for the Cognard classification was excellent (k = 1.0). Whereas MRI failed in identifying small arterial feeders, it was superior to the DSA in the assessment of the sinus and the venous drainage pattern. The combination of MRI and DSA is the new gold standard in LDAVF treatment planning. (orig.)

  2. Automated search for supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion

  3. Automated search for supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kare, J.T.

    1984-11-15

    This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of a search system for supernovae, based on the use of current computer and detector technology. This search uses a computer-controlled telescope and charge coupled device (CCD) detector to collect images of hundreds of galaxies per night of observation, and a dedicated minicomputer to process these images in real time. The system is now collecting test images of up to several hundred fields per night, with a sensitivity corresponding to a limiting magnitude (visual) of 17. At full speed and sensitivity, the search will examine some 6000 galaxies every three nights, with a limiting magnitude of 18 or fainter, yielding roughly two supernovae per week (assuming one supernova per galaxy per 50 years) at 5 to 50 percent of maximum light. An additional 500 nearby galaxies will be searched every night, to locate about 10 supernovae per year at one or two percent of maximum light, within hours of the initial explosion.

  4. Random searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    There are a wide variety of searching problems from molecules seeking receptor sites to predators seeking prey. The optimal search strategy can depend on constraints on time, energy, supplies or other variables. We discuss a number of cases and especially remark on the usefulness of Levy walk search patterns when the targets of the search are scarce.

  5. Searching for non-genetic molecular and imaging PTSD risk and resilience markers: Systematic review of literature and design of the German Armed Forces PTSD biomarker study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Willmund, Gerd-Dieter; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kowalski, Jens T; Zimmermann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers allowing the identification of individuals with an above average vulnerability or resilience for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) would especially serve populations at high risk for trauma exposure like firefighters, police officers and combat soldiers. Aiming to identify the most promising putative PTSD vulnerability markers, we conducted the first systematic review on potential imaging and non-genetic molecular markers for PTSD risk and resilience. Following the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically screened the PubMed database for prospective longitudinal clinical studies and twin studies reporting on pre-trauma and post-trauma PTSD risk and resilience biomarkers. Using 25 different combinations of search terms, we retrieved 8151 articles of which we finally included and evaluated 9 imaging and 27 molecular studies. In addition, we briefly illustrate the design of the ongoing prospective German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) PTSD biomarker study (Bw-BioPTSD) which not only aims to validate these previous findings but also to identify novel and clinically applicable molecular, psychological and imaging risk, resilience and disease markers for deployment-related psychopathology in a cohort of German soldiers who served in Afghanistan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Search Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Morville, Peter

    2010-01-01

    What people are saying about Search Patterns "Search Patterns is a delight to read -- very thoughtful and thought provoking. It's the most comprehensive survey of designing effective search experiences I've seen." --Irene Au, Director of User Experience, Google "I love this book! Thanks to Peter and Jeffery, I now know that search (yes, boring old yucky who cares search) is one of the coolest ways around of looking at the world." --Dan Roam, author, The Back of the Napkin (Portfolio Hardcover) "Search Patterns is a playful guide to the practical concerns of search interface design. It cont

  7. In search of Leonardo: computer-based facial image analysis of Renaissance artworks for identifying Leonardo as subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Christopher W.; Smith, William A. P.; Stork, David G.

    2012-03-01

    One of the enduring mysteries in the history of the Renaissance is the adult appearance of the archetypical "Renaissance Man," Leonardo da Vinci. His only acknowledged self-portrait is from an advanced age, and various candidate images of younger men are difficult to assess given the absence of documentary evidence. One clue about Leonardo's appearance comes from the remark of the contemporary historian, Vasari, that the sculpture of David by Leonardo's master, Andrea del Verrocchio, was based on the appearance of Leonardo when he was an apprentice. Taking a cue from this statement, we suggest that the more mature sculpture of St. Thomas, also by Verrocchio, might also have been a portrait of Leonardo. We tested the possibility Leonardo was the subject for Verrocchio's sculpture by a novel computational technique for the comparison of three-dimensional facial configurations. Based on quantitative measures of similarities, we also assess whether another pair of candidate two-dimensional images are plausibly attributable as being portraits of Leonardo as a young adult. Our results are consistent with the claim Leonardo is indeed the subject in these works, but we need comparisons with images in a larger corpora of candidate artworks before our results achieve statistical significance.

  8. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  9. Searching for an alternative oral contrast agent for GI tract MR imaging; in vitro phase, initial report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okla, W.; Szeszkowski, W.; Cieszanowski, A.; Golebiowski, M.

    2002-01-01

    MR has been recently considered to be suitable method for detection GI tract pathologies. A few substances (some of a natural origin) seem to act as an efficient oral MR contrast agents. The aim of this study is to find an alternative substance, which can be administrated orally to patients in order to enhance signal intensity (SI). The ideal agent should have a biphase pattern (high SI in T1 and low in T2), and should be nontoxic and cost effective. Phantom experiments were conducted with 1.5 T MR scanner. T1W and T2W sequences were used for initial estimation. Number of different agents such as: water, Gd-DTPA, barium sulfate, green tea, blueberry juice, cranberry juice, blackcurrant juice, and some more were evaluated. Signal intensity was measured by using elliptical region of interest (ROI). MR imaging in one patient with stomach cancer was also performed. In T1W-FFE sequence cranberry juice reached satisfactorily high signal (SI=1760.14). In T2W-TSE sequence this substance reduced signal intensity (SI=23.10) almost to background level. Blueberry juice appear to be the next substance capable to generate high signal (SI=1558.31) in T1W sequence (T1-TSE). MR examination of a patient with stomach adenocarcinoma (using blueberry juice as an oral contrast agent) satisfactorily depicted and delineated tumor mass on both: T1W and T2W images. Cranberry juice and blueberry juice seemed to act effectively as oral contrast agents for gastrointestinal MR imaging. Thus they need further exploration and trials. (author)

  10. The use of ERTS-1 images in the search for large sulfide deposits in the Chagai District, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Visual examination of color composites was tested under relatively ideal conditions for direct detection of large hydrothermal sulfide deposits at the low-grade porphyry copper deposit at Saindak, western Chagai District, Pakistan. The Saindak deposit is characterized by an elongate zone of easily eroded sulfide-rich rock surrounded by a resistant rim of hornfels and propylitically altered rock. The geomorphic features related to the Saindak deposit are easily distinguished on ERTS-1 images. Attempts to detect a color anomaly using false-color composites were not successful. About 36,000 square km of the western Chagai District were examined on false-color composites for direct evidence of large sulfide deposits. New geologic information acquired from the images was used in conjunction with the known geology to evaluate two previously known proposed areas and to suggest seven additional targets for field checking, one of which is proposed on the basis of tonal anomaly alone. The study also showed that Saindak-type deposits are not likely to be present in some extensive areas of the Chagai District; and also that a rim like that at Saindak does not form if regional metamorphism has increased the resistance of the country rock to erosion.

  11. In search for the original image: Luciano Freire and the theory and practice of painting restoration in Portugal circa 1900

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António João Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available From the fragmentary statements found in several texts, especially from a report written in the 1930's that presents memoir notes, this paper intends to reconstitute, as much as possible, the restoration theory and practice of Luciano Freire (1864-1934. He treated many of the most important paintings belonging to Portuguese museums and, according to his words, those interventions were justified, above all, by the damages caused by past restorers, through repaints, which was frequent, or through cleaning, which originated the worst problems, and by the damages caused by the ambient conditions surrounding the paintings. In general, the interventions aimed at recovering the original image. Although Luciano Freire was, in theory, an adept of the complete cleaning of dirt and varnishes and complete removal of retouches and repaints, as it was done in National Gallery, London, in practice he admitted that when the retouches and repaints were well done and in good condition they were not to be removed. He considered that losses should be reintegrated and his thoughts were divided by the recovering the original image and the respect for the original work. He usually ended up considering that mimetic retouching could only be done when enough clues were present. Therefore, retouching had limits that, however, he recognizes, he crossed at times. Although did not use radiographs, he attributed great importance to treatment documentation through photography or other means.

  12. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  13. Comparison of screen-film combinations: results of a contrast detail study and interactive image quality analysis. Pt. 2. Linear assessment of grey scale ranges with interactive (automatic) image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, G.; Eichbaum, G.; Hagemann, G.

    1997-01-01

    The following three screen-film combinations were compared: (a) A combination of anticross-over film and UV-light emitting screens, (b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film, and (c) a conventional green fluorescing screen-film combination. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2x0.2x0.12 m 3 ) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminium prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an IBAS system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: Display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a Pb0 photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an IBAS image matrix of 512x512 pixels with a resolution of 7 lines/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 μm 2 . Grey scale ranges were measured on a line perpendicular to the grouped bar patterns. The difference between the maximum and minimum density value served as signal. The spatial resolution of the detector system was measured when the signal value was three times higher than the standard deviation of the means of multiple density measurements. The results showed considerable advantages of the two new screen-film combinations as compared to the conventional screen-film combination. The result was contradictory to the findings with pure visual assessment of thresholds (part I) that had found no differences. The authors concluded that (automatic) interactive image analysis algorithms serve as an objective measure and are specifically advantageous when small differences in image quality are to be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  14. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  15. Mapping the Tidal Destruction of the Hercules Dwarf: A Wide-field DECam Imaging Search for RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garling, Christopher; Willman, Beth; Sand, David J.; Hargis, Jonathan; Crnojević, Denija; Bechtol, Keith; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Strader, Jay; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Nie, Jundan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin; Peng, Xiyan

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesized tidal disruption of the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD). Previous tidal disruption studies of the Hercules UFD have been hindered by the high degree of foreground contamination in the direction of the dwarf. We bypass this issue by using RR Lyrae stars, which are standard candles with a very low field-volume density at the distance of Hercules. We use wide-field imaging from the Dark Energy Camera on CTIO to identify candidate RR Lyrae stars, supplemented with observations taken in coordination with the Beijing–Arizona Sky Survey on the Bok Telescope. Combining color, magnitude, and light-curve information, we identify three new RR Lyrae stars associated with Hercules. All three of these new RR Lyrae stars lie outside its published tidal radius. When considered with the nine RR Lyrae stars already known within the tidal radius, these results suggest that a substantial fraction of Hercules’ stellar content has been stripped. With this degree of tidal disruption, Hercules is an interesting case between a visibly disrupted dwarf (such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy) and one in dynamic equilibrium. The degree of disruption also shows that we must be more careful with the ways we determine object membership when estimating dwarf masses in the future. One of the three discovered RR Lyrae stars sits along the minor axis of Hercules, but over two tidal radii away. This type of debris is consistent with recent models that suggest Hercules’ orbit is aligned with its minor axis.

  16. Search for anomalies in the neutrino sector with muon spectrometers and large LArTPC imaging detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, A.; Baibussinov, B.; Bilokon, H.; Boffelli, F.; Bonesini, M.; Calligarich, E.; Canci, N.; Centro, S.; Cesana, A.; Cieslik, K.; Cline, D.B.; Cocco, A.G.; Dequal, D.; Dermenev, A.; Dolfini, R.; De Gerone, M.; Dussoni, S.; Farnese, C.; Fava, A.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Garvey, G.T.; Gatti, F.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Guber, F.; Guglielmi, A.; Haranczyk, M.; Holeczek, J.; Ivashkin, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Kisiel, J.; Kochanek, I.; Kurepin, A.; Lagoda, J.; Lucchini, G.; Louis, W.C.; Mania, S.; Mannocchi, G.; Marchini, S.; Matveev, V.; Menegolli, A.; Meng, G.; Mills, G.B.; Montanari, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Otwinowski, S.; Palczewki, T.J.; Passardi, G.; Perfetto, F.; Picchi, P.; Pietropaolo, F.; Plonski, P.; Rappoldi, A.; Raselli, G.L.; Rossella, M.; Rubbia, C.; Sala, P.; Scaramelli, A.; Segreto, E.; Stefan, D.; Stepaniak, J.; Sulej, R.; Suvorova, O.; Terrani, M.; Tlisov, D.; Van de Water, R.G.; Trinchero, G.; Turcato, M.; Varanini, F.; Ventura, S.; Vignoli, C.; Wang, H.G.; Yang, X.; Zani, A.; Zaremba, K; Benettoni, M.; Bernardini, P.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Calabrese, M.; Cecchetti, A.; Cecchini, S.; Collazuol, G.; Creti, P.; Corso, F.Dal; Del Prete, A.; De Mitri, I.; De Robertis, G.; De Serio, M.; Esposti, L.Degli; Di Ferdinando, D.; Dore, U.; Dusini, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Fanin, C.; Fini, R.A.; Fiore, G.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, R.; Guandalini, C.; Guerzoni, M.; Kose, U.; Laurenti, G.; Laveder, M.; Lippi, I.; Loddo, F.; Longhin, A.; Loverre, P.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Margiotta, A.; Marsella, G.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Mengucci, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Michinelli, R.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Orecchini, D.; Paoloni, A.; Papadia, G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Rosa, G.; Sahnounm, Z.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirri, G.; Spurio, M.; Stanco, L.; Surdo, A.; Tenti, M.; Togo, V.; Ventura, M.; Zago, M.

    2012-01-01

    A new experiment with an intense ~2 GeV neutrino beam at CERN SPS is proposed in order to definitely clarify the possible existence of additional neutrino states, as pointed out by neutrino calibration source experiments, reactor and accelerator experiments and measure the corresponding oscillation parameters. The experiment is based on two identical LAr-TPCs complemented by magnetized spectrometers detecting electron and muon neutrino events at Far and Near positions, 1600 m and 300 m from the proton target, respectively. The ICARUS T600 detector, the largest LAr-TPC ever built with a size of about 600 ton of imaging mass, now running in the LNGS underground laboratory, will be moved at the CERN Far position. An additional 1/4 of the T600 detector (T150) will be constructed and located in the Near position. Two large area spectrometers will be placed downstream of the two LAr-TPC detectors to perform charge identification and muon momentum measurements from sub-GeV to several GeV energy range, greatly comple...

  17. [Comparison of film-screen combinations in contrast-detail diagram and with interactive image analysis. 3: Trimodal histograms of gray scale distribution in bar groups of lead pattern images].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, G; Eichbaum, G; Stamm, G

    1998-05-01

    The following four screen film combinations were compared: a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film and c) two conventional green fluorescing screen film combinations. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m3) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analysis was performed using an Ibas system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an Ibas image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a spatial resolution of ca. 7 cycles/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 micron 2. Maxima in the histograms of a grouped bar pattern were estimated as mean values from the bar and gap regions ("mean value method"). They were used to calculate signal contrast, standard deviations of the means and scatter fraction. Comparing the histograms with respect to spatial resolution and kV setting a clear advantage of the UVR system becomes obvious. The quantitative analysis yielded a maximum spatial resolution of approx. 3 cycles/mm for the UVR system at 60 kV which decreased to half of this value at 117 kV caused by the increasing influence of scattered radiation. A ranking of screen-film systems with respect to image quality and dose requirement is presented. For its evaluation an interactive image analysis using the mean value method was found to be superior to signal/noise ratio measurements and visual analysis in respect to diagnostic relevance and saving of time.

  18. Comparison of screen film combinations: results of a contrast detail study and interactive image quality analysis. Pt. III. Trimodal histograms of grey-value distributions found in the images of grouped lead bar pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, G.; Eichbaum, G.; Stamm, G.

    1998-01-01

    The following four screen film combinations were compared: (a) a combination of anticrossover film and UV-light emitting screens, (b) a combination of blue-light emitting screens and film and (c) two conventional green fluorescing screen film combinations. Radiographs of a specially designed plexiglass phantom (0.2 x 0.2 x 0.12 m 3 ) with bar patterns of lead and plaster and of air, respectively were obtained using the following parameters: 12 pulse generator, 0.6 mm focus size, 4.7 mm aluminum prefilter, a grid with 40 lines/cm (12:1) and a focus-detector distance of 1.15 m. Image analyses was performed using an Ibas system and a Zeiss Kontron computer. Display conditions were the following: display distance 0.12 m, a vario film objective 35/70 (Zeiss), a video camera tube with a PbO photocathode, 625 lines (Siemens Heimann), an Ibas image matrix of 512 x 512 pixels with a spatial resolution of ca. 7 cycles/mm, the projected matrix area was 5000 μm 2 . Maxima in the histograms of a grouped bar pattern were estimated as mean values from the bar and gap regions ('mean value method'). They were used to calculate signal contrast, standard deviations of the means and scatter fraction. Comparing the histograms with respect to spatial resolution and kV setting a clear advantage of the UVR system becomes obvious. The quantitative analysis yielded a maximum spatial resolution of approx. 3 cycles/mm for the UVR system at 60 kV which decreased to half of this value at 117 kV caused by the increasing influence of scattered radiation. A ranking of screen-film systems with respect to image quality and dose requirement is presented. For its evaluation an interactive image analysis using the mean value method was found to be superior to signal/noise ratio measurements and visual analysis in respect to diagnostic relevance and saving of time. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Heuristic Search Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Edelkamp, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Search has been vital to artificial intelligence from the very beginning as a core technique in problem solving. The authors present a thorough overview of heuristic search with a balance of discussion between theoretical analysis and efficient implementation and application to real-world problems. Current developments in search such as pattern databases and search with efficient use of external memory and parallel processing units on main boards and graphics cards are detailed. Heuristic search as a problem solving tool is demonstrated in applications for puzzle solving, game playing, constra

  20. Searches for dark matter self-annihilation signals from dwarf spheroidal galaxies and the Fornax galaxy cluster with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opitz, Bjoern Helmut Bastian

    2014-06-01

    Many astronomical observations indicate that dark matter pervades the universe and dominates the formation and dynamics of cosmic structures. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with masses in the GeV to TeV range form a popular class of dark matter candidates. WIMP self-annihilation may lead to the production of γ-rays in the very high energy regime above 100 GeV, which is observable with imaging air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). For this thesis, observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSph) and the Fornax galaxy cluster with the Cherenkov telescope systems H.E.S.S., MAGIC and VERITAS were used to search for γ-ray signals of dark matter annihilations. The work consists of two parts: First, a likelihood-based statistical technique was introduced to combine published results of dSph observations with the different IACTs. The technique also accounts for uncertainties on the ''J factors'', which quantify the dark matter content of the dwarf galaxies. Secondly, H.E.S.S. observations of the Fornax cluster were analyzed. In this case, a collection of dark matter halo models was used for the J factor computation. In addition, possible signal enhancements from halo substructures were considered. None of the searches yielded a significant γ-ray signal. Therefore, the results were used to place upper limits on the thermally averaged dark matter self-annihilation cross-section left angle σν right angle. Different models for the final state of the annihilation process were considered. The cross-section limits range from left angle σν right angle UL ∝10 -19 cm 3 s -1 to left angle σν right angle UL ∝10 -25 cm 3 s -1 for dark matter particles masses between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. Some of the diverse model uncertainties causing this wide range of left angle σν right angle UL values were analyzed.

  1. Kinetic energy budget details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper presents the detailed turbulent kinetic energy budget and higher order statistics of flow behind a surface-mounted rib with and without superimposed acoustic excitation. Pattern recognition technique is used to determine the large-scale structure magnitude. It is observed that most of the turbulence ...

  2. Three Latin Phonological Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgit Anette

    2006-01-01

    The present paper deals with three minor details of Latin phonology: 1) the development of the initial sequence *u¿l¿-, where it is suggested that an apparent vacillation between ul- and vol-/vul- represents sandhi variants going back to the proto-language, 2) the adjectives ama¯rus ‘bitter' and ...

  3. Combinatorial search from algorithms to systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef

    2013-01-01

    This book details key techniques in constraint networks, dealing in particular with constraint satisfaction, search, satisfiability, and applications in machine learning and constraint programming. Includes case studies.

  4. Laser Induced Fluorescence Imaging: Searching for Organics from the Dry Valleys of Queen Maud Land Antarctica to the Regolith and Ices of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, M. C.; Sattler, B.; Muller, J.-P.; Fisk, M.; Cousins, C.; Dartnell, L.

    2009-04-01

    Laser induced fluorescence imaging using excitation in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths has been proposed as a nondestructive astrobiological rapid survey tool to search for amino and nucleic acids [1], microbial life [2], and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deep in the Mars regolith [3, 4]. However, the technique is easily adapted to search for complex biomolecular targets using longer wavelength sources [5]. Of particular interest is the ability of excitation at 532 nm to detect photosynthetic pigments in cyanobacteria-dominated microbial communities populating the ice of alpine, Arctic, and Antarctic lakes, glaciers, and ice sheets [6-8]. During the months of November and December 2008 we tested the technique as part of an extended international, interdisciplinary field campaign in the Dry Valleys of Schirmacher Oasis and Lake Untersee, Queen Maud Land, Antarctica. In this paper we review our recent laboratory experiments on the use of UV excitation for detection of PAHs doped on Mars analogue soils [9] and chasmo- and epilithic lichen communities within basaltic Iceland lavas. We present for the first time the results of our field experiments conducted during the Tawani 2008 International Antarctic Expedition for in situ detection and quantification of photosynthetic biomass in the ice caps of annual and perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes. We discuss the advantages of using a nondestructive rapid survey photonic tools such as laser induced fluorescence imaging that can be easily implemented from lander, rover, airborne, or orbital platforms. The techniques presented can be utilized to monitor the microbial potential of large, critical ecosystems on Earth, or to facilitate the remote or manned search for organics and photosynthetic life on any terrestrial planet. References 1. Storrie-Lombardi, M.C., Hug, W.F., McDonald, G.D., Tsapin, A.I., and Nealson, K.H. 2001. Hollow cathode ion lasers for deep ultraviolet Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging

  5. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    . Finally, collections of clinical models do require a repository in which they can be stored, searched, and maintained. Governance of Detailed Clinical Models is required at local, national, and international levels.

  6. Search Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Cornière (de), Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Search engines enable advertisers to target consumers based on the query they have entered. In a framework with horizontal product differentiation, imperfect product information and in which consumers incur search costs, I study a game in which advertisers have to choose a price and a set of relevant keywords. The targeting mechanism brings about three kinds of efficiency gains, namely lower search costs, better matching, and more intense product market price-competition. A monopolistic searc...

  7. Faceted Search

    CERN Document Server

    Tunkelang, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We live in an information age that requires us, more than ever, to represent, access, and use information. Over the last several decades, we have developed a modern science and technology for information retrieval, relentlessly pursuing the vision of a "memex" that Vannevar Bush proposed in his seminal article, "As We May Think." Faceted search plays a key role in this program. Faceted search addresses weaknesses of conventional search approaches and has emerged as a foundation for interactive information retrieval. User studies demonstrate that faceted search provides more

  8. ChemSearch Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. Journal Homepage Image. Chemsearch Journal is a peer – reviewed journal that publishes original research work, scientific papers and technical reports in all the field of Chemistry (pure science, agriculture, environmental science, ...

  9. Template Assembly for Detailed Urban Reconstruction

    KAUST Repository

    Nan, Liangliang

    2015-05-04

    We propose a new framework to reconstruct building details by automatically assembling 3D templates on coarse textured building models. In a preprocessing step, we generate an initial coarse model to approximate a point cloud computed using Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo, and we model a set of 3D templates of facade details. Next, we optimize the initial coarse model to enforce consistency between geometry and appearance (texture images). Then, building details are reconstructed by assembling templates on the textured faces of the coarse model. The 3D templates are automatically chosen and located by our optimization-based template assembly algorithm that balances image matching and structural regularity. In the results, we demonstrate how our framework can enrich the details of coarse models using various data sets.

  10. Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  11. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  12. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  13. Evaluating aggregated search using interleaving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.; Schuth, A.; Hofmann, K.; Serdyukov, P.; de Rijke, M.

    2013-01-01

    A result page of a modern web search engine is often much more complicated than a simple list of "ten blue links." In particular, a search engine may combine results from different sources (e.g., Web, News, and Images), and display these as grouped results to provide a better user experience. Such a

  14. A DEEP NARROWBAND IMAGING SEARCH FOR C iv AND He ii EMISSION FROM Lyα BLOBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki, E-mail: arrigoni@mpia.de [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ∼ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1–3.4) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} per 1 arcsec{sup 2} aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1–1.5) × 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2} (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities v{sub s} ≳ 250 km s{sup −1}, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs.

  15. A DEEP NARROWBAND IMAGING SEARCH FOR C iv AND He ii EMISSION FROM Lyα BLOBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ∼ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1–3.4) × 10 −18 erg s −1 cm −2 arcsec −2 per 1 arcsec 2 aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1–1.5) × 10 −18 erg s −1 cm −2 arcsec −2  (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities v s ≳ 250 km s −1 , which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs

  16. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, M.J.

    1964-07-01

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  17. CERN in detail

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Before, you had to go on the TPG website to find a tram-route, use Google Maps to see an aerial photo of CERN, and look for CERN buildings on map.web.cern.ch. Now, that's ancient history, with a new Geographical Information System (GIS) Portal set up by the Design Office and Patrimony Service (GS/SEM/DOP).  It's a one-stop-shop for all this information and much more.   A screenshot of the GIS Portal. Over the past few days, you might have noticed the new interface called MAPSearch that pops up when you make a building search using the Building and Roads field on the CERN homepage. This is a simplified version of the new GIS web Portal, a project on which the GS Department's Design Office and Patrimony Service has been working since January 2010. "In today's informatics age, we need to respond ever more quickly to increasing numbers of specific user requests," explains Project Leader Youri Robert. This is more than just a new release of an old tool, it's a completely n...

  18. Cuckoo search and firefly algorithm theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Nature-inspired algorithms such as cuckoo search and firefly algorithm have become popular and widely used in recent years in many applications. These algorithms are flexible, efficient and easy to implement. New progress has been made in the last few years, and it is timely to summarize the latest developments of cuckoo search and firefly algorithm and their diverse applications. This book will review both theoretical studies and applications with detailed algorithm analysis, implementation and case studies so that readers can benefit most from this book.  Application topics are contributed by many leading experts in the field. Topics include cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, algorithm analysis, feature selection, image processing, travelling salesman problem, neural network, GPU optimization, scheduling, queuing, multi-objective manufacturing optimization, semantic web service, shape optimization, and others.   This book can serve as an ideal reference for both graduates and researchers in computer scienc...

  19. Autonomous search

    CERN Document Server

    Hamadi, Youssef; Saubion, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous combinatorial search (AS) represents a new field in combinatorial problem solving. Its major standpoint and originality is that it considers that problem solvers must be capable of self-improvement operations. This is the first book dedicated to AS.

  20. Multilingual Federated Searching Across Heterogeneous Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Fox, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a scalable system for searching heterogeneous multilingual collections on the World Wide Web. Details Searchable Database Markup Language (SearchDB-ML) for describing the characteristics of a search engine and its interface, and a protocol for requesting word translations between languages. (Author)

  1. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  2. Parieto-occipital areas involved in efficient filtering in search: a time course analysis of visual marking using behavioural and functional imaging procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphreys, Glyn W; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Watson, Derrick G.

    2004-01-01

    (PET). We show that regions of parieto-occipital cortex are selectively activated in a preview search condition relative to a detection baseline. These regions also increase in activation as the preview interval increases (and search then becomes easier), consistent with them modulating the parallel...

  3. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  4. Images of gel electrophoresis - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us RGP caps Images of gel electrophoresis Data detail Data name Images of gel electrophoresis D...OI 10.18908/lsdba.nbdc00318-05-002 Description of data contents Detailed information and images of gel electrophoresis... of each marker. Data file File name: rgp_caps_electrophoresis_image.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosc...iencedbc.jp/archive/rgp-caps/LATEST/rgp_caps_electrophoresis_image.zip File size:... 28.7 MB Simple search URL - Data acquisition method Gel electrophoresis Data analysis method STS markers :

  5. Search strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, B. M.

    Attention is given to the approaches which would provide the greatest chance of success in attempts related to the discovery of extraterrestrial advanced cultures in the Galaxy, taking into account the principle of least energy expenditure. The energetics of interstellar contact are explored, giving attention to the use of manned spacecraft, automatic probes, and beacons. The least expensive approach to a search for other civilizations involves a listening program which attempts to detect signals emitted by such civilizations. The optimum part of the spectrum for the considered search is found to be in the range from 1 to 2 GHz. Antenna and transmission formulas are discussed along with the employment of matched gates and filters, the probable characteristics of the signals to be detected, the filter-signal mismatch loss, surveys of the radio sky, the conduction of targeted searches.

  6. E-detailing: information technology applied to pharmaceutical detailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Isaac D

    2008-11-01

    E-detailing can be best described as the use of information technology in the field of pharmaceutical detailing. It is becoming highly popular among pharmaceutical companies because it maximizes the time of the sales force, cuts down the cost of detailing and increases physician prescribing. Thus, the application of information technology is proving to be beneficial to both physicians and pharmaceutical companies. When e-detailing was introduced in 1996, it was limited to the US; however, numerous other countries soon adopted this novel approach to detailing and now it is popular in many developed nations. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the rapid growth of e-detailing in the field of pharmaceutical marketing. A review of e-detailing literature was conducted in addition to personal conversations with physicians. E-detailing has the potential to reduce marketing costs, increase accessibility to physicians and offer many of the advantages of face-to-face detailing. E-detailing is gaining acceptance among physicians because they can access the information of a pharmaceutical product at their own time and convenience. However, the drug safety aspect of e-detailing has not been examined and e-detailing remains a supplement to traditional detailing and is not yet a replacement to it.

  7. Visual Representation Determines Search Difficulty: Explaining Visual Search Asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eBruce

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In visual search experiments there exist a variety of experimental paradigms in which a symmetric set of experimental conditions yields asymmetric corresponding task performance. There are a variety of examples of this that currently lack a satisfactory explanation. In this paper, we demonstrate that distinct classes of asymmetries may be explained by virtue of a few simple conditions that are consistent with current thinking surrounding computational modeling of visual search and coding in the primate brain. This includes a detailed look at the role that stimulus familiarity plays in the determination of search performance. Overall, we demonstrate that all of these asymmetries have a common origin, namely, they are a consequence of the encoding that appears in the visual cortex. The analysis associated with these cases yields insight into the problem of visual search in general and predictions of novel search asymmetries.

  8. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing.

  9. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  10. On Detailing in Contemporary Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Claus; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Details in architecture have a significant influence on how architecture is experienced. One can touch the materials and analyse the detailing - thus details give valuable information about the architectural scheme as a whole. The absence of perceptual stimulation like details and materiality...... / tactility can blur the meaning of the architecture and turn it into an empty statement. The present paper will outline detailing in contemporary architecture and discuss the issue with respect to architectural quality. Architectural cases considered as sublime piece of architecture will be presented...

  11. A search algorithm to meta-optimize the parameters for an extended Kalman filter to improve classification on hyper-temporal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Salmon2_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 16400 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Salmon2_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A SEARCH ALGORITHM TO META... the spectral bands separately and introduced a meta-optimization method for the EKF that will be called the Bias Variance Equilibrium Point (BVEP) in this paper. The objective of this paper is to introduce an unsuper- vised search algorithm called the Bias...

  12. Detailed Astrometric Analysis of Pluto

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSSI, GUSTAVO B.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Camargo, J. I.; Assafin, M.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Pluto is the main representant of the transneptunian objects (TNO's), presenting some peculiarities such as an atmosphere and a satellite system with 5 known moons: Charon, discovered in 1978, Nix and Hydra, in 2006, P4 in 2011 and P5 in 2012. Until the arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft to this system (july 2015), stellar occultations are the most efficient method, from the ground, to know physical and dinamical properties of this system. In 2010, it was evident a drift in declinations (about 20 mas/year) comparing to the ephemerides. This fact motivated us to remake the reductions and analysis of a great set of our observations at OPD/LNA, in a total of 15 years. The ephemerides and occultations results was then compared with the astrometric and photometric reductions of CCD images of Pluto (around 6500 images). Two corrections were used for a refinement of the data set: diferential chromatic refraction and photocenter. The first is due to the mean color of background stars beeing redder than the color of Pluto, resulting in a slightly different path of light through the atmosphere (that may cause a difference in position of 0.1”). It became more evident because Pluto is crossing the region of the galactic plane. The photocenter correction is based on two gaussians curves overlapped, with different hights and non-coincident centers, corresponding to Pluto and Charon (since they have less than 1” of angular separation). The objective is to separate these two gaussian curves from the observed one and find the right position of Pluto. The method is strongly dependent of the hight of each of the gaussian curves, related to the respective albedos of charon and Pluto. A detailed analysis of the astrometric results, as well a comparison with occultation results was made. Since Pluto has an orbital period of 248,9 years and our interval of observation is about 15 years, we have around 12% of its observed orbit and also, our

  13. Parieto-occipital areas involved in efficient filtering in search: a time course analysis of visual marking using behavioural and functional imaging procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humphreys, Glyn W; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Watson, Derrick G.

    2004-01-01

    Search for a colour-form conjunction target can be facilitated by presenting one set of distractors prior to the second set of distractors and the target: the preview benefit (Watson & Humphreys, 1997). The early presentation of one set of distractors enables them to be efficiently filtered from...

  14. The Dependence of Signal-To-Noise Ratio (S/N) Between Star Brightness and Background on the Filter Used in Images Taken by the Vulcan Photometric Planet Search Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Werth, Jose

    1998-01-01

    The Vulcan Photometric Planet Search is the ground-based counterpart of Kepler Mission Proposal. The Kepler Proposal calls for the launch of telescope to look intently at a small patch of sky for four year. The mission is designed to look for extra-solar planets that transit sun-like stars. The Kepler Mission should be able to detect Earth-size planets. This goal requires an instrument and software capable of detecting photometric changes of several parts per hundred thousand in the flux of a star. The goal also requires the continuous monitoring of about a hundred thousand stars. The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery Class proposal similar in cost to the Lunar Prospector. The Vulcan Search is also a NASA project but based at Lick Observatory. A small wide-field telescope monitors various star fields successively during the year. Dozens of images, each containing tens of thousands of stars, are taken any night that weather permits. The images are then monitored for photometric changes of the order of one part in a thousand. These changes would reveal the transit of an inner-orbit Jupiter-size planet similar to those discovered recently in spectroscopic searches. In order to achieve a one part in one thousand photometric precision even the choice of a filter used in taking an exposure can be critical. The ultimate purpose of an filter is to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of one's observation. Ideally, filters reduce the sky glow cause by street lights and, thereby, make the star images more distinct. The higher the S/N, the higher is the chance to observe a transit signal that indicates the presence of a new planet. It is, therefore, important to select the filter that maximizes the S/N.

  15. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    teju

    2018-05-04

    May 4, 2018 ... ... selected candidate is required to work with Accounts Officer and assist in ... in website of Public Financial Management System etc., and carry out .... Duties also include coordination and liaison with Chief Editors and other ...

  16. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    IASc), an institution under the Department of Science &. Technology, Government of India publishes scholarly journals, thematic books and other publications. The Academy currently publishes 10 journals in various disciplines in science.

  17. Details

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The incumbent should have passed Diploma in Secretarial Practice or Bachelors of Commerce with at least 50% marks. Should be proficient in typing, shorthand and MS office. Age: Not more than. 25 years as on 1 April 2017. Preference will be given to male candidates. Experience: 2 years experience in the administrative ...

  18. A search for temporal changes on Pluto and Charon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Buratti, B. J.; Devins, S. L.; Beyer, R. A.; Schenk, P.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A.; Olkin, C. B.; Cheng, A.; Ennico, K.; Lauer, T. R.; McKinnon, W. B.; Spencer, J.; Young, L. A.; New Horizons Science Team

    2018-03-01

    A search for temporal changes on Pluto and Charon was motivated by (1) the discovery of young surfaces in the Pluto system that imply ongoing or recent geologic activity, (2) the detection of active plumes on Triton during the Voyager 2 flyby, and (3) the abundant and detailed information that observing geologic processes in action provides about the processes. A thorough search for temporal changes using New Horizons images was completed. Images that covered the same region were blinked and manually inspected for any differences in appearance. The search included full-disk images such that all illuminated regions of both bodies were investigated and higher resolution images such that parts of the encounter hemispheres were investigated at finer spatial scales. Changes of appearance between different images were observed but in all cases were attributed to variability of the imaging parameters (especially geometry) or artifacts. No differences of appearance that are strongly indicative of a temporal change were found on the surface or in the atmosphere of either Pluto or Charon. Limits on temporal changes as a function of spatial scale and temporal interval during the New Horizons encounter are determined. The longest time interval constraint is one Pluto/Charon rotation period (∼6.4 Earth days). Contrast reversal and high-phase bright features that change in appearance with solar phase angle are identified. The change of appearance of these features is most likely due to the change in phase angle rather than a temporal change. Had active plumes analogous to the plumes discovered on Triton been present on the encounter hemispheres of either Pluto or Charon, they would have been detected. The absence of active plumes may be due to temporal variability (i.e., plumes do occur but none were active on the encounter hemispheres during the epoch of the New Horizons encounter) or because plumes do not occur. Several dark streak features that may be deposits from past

  19. The detail is dead - long live the detail!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper; Dalgaard, Kim; Kerstens, Vencent

    2018-01-01

    architecture when we look into architectural history. Too classic examples are; Adolf Loos who provoked already in 1908 with his statement; "Ornament and Crime", which contested the unconscious decorations of contemporary architects. Similarly, referring to the little need for superfluous detailing; "Less...... not change the fact that it is more important than ever to bring this 'small' architectural world to attention. Today, the construction industry is dictated by an economic management that does not leave much room for thorough studies of architectural details or visionary experiments. Today's more efficient......_Delft about the Symposium; "The Detail is Dead - Long Live the Detail". For this occasion a number of leading Danish and Northern European architects, researchers and companies were invited to discuss and suggest their 'architectural detail' and the challenges they face in today's construction. This book...

  20. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  1. New generation of the multimedia search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijes Cruz, Mario Humberto; Soto Aldaco, Andrea; Maldonado Cano, Luis Alejandro; López Rodríguez, Mario; Rodríguez Vázqueza, Manuel Antonio; Amaya Reyes, Laura Mariel; Cano Martínez, Elizabeth; Pérez Rosas, Osvaldo Gerardo; Rodríguez Espejo, Luis; Flores Secundino, Jesús Abimelek; Rivera Martínez, José Luis; García Vázquez, Mireya Saraí; Zamudio Fuentes, Luis Miguel; Sánchez Valenzuela, Juan Carlos; Montoya Obeso, Abraham; Ramírez Acosta, Alejandro Álvaro

    2016-09-01

    Current search engines are based upon search methods that involve the combination of words (text-based search); which has been efficient until now. However, the Internet's growing demand indicates that there's more diversity on it with each passing day. Text-based searches are becoming limited, as most of the information on the Internet can be found in different types of content denominated multimedia content (images, audio files, video files). Indeed, what needs to be improved in current search engines is: search content, and precision; as well as an accurate display of expected search results by the user. Any search can be more precise if it uses more text parameters, but it doesn't help improve the content or speed of the search itself. One solution is to improve them through the characterization of the content for the search in multimedia files. In this article, an analysis of the new generation multimedia search engines is presented, focusing the needs according to new technologies. Multimedia content has become a central part of the flow of information in our daily life. This reflects the necessity of having multimedia search engines, as well as knowing the real tasks that it must comply. Through this analysis, it is shown that there are not many search engines that can perform content searches. The area of research of multimedia search engines of new generation is a multidisciplinary area that's in constant growth, generating tools that satisfy the different needs of new generation systems.

  2. Adaptive optics imaging of the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Battu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive optics is a relatively new tool that is available to ophthalmologists for study of cellular level details. In addition to the axial resolution provided by the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, adaptive optics provides an excellent lateral resolution, enabling visualization of the photoreceptors, blood vessels and details of the optic nerve head. We attempt a mini review of the current role of adaptive optics in retinal imaging. PubMed search was performed with key words Adaptive optics OR Retina OR Retinal imaging. Conference abstracts were searched from the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO and American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO meetings. In total, 261 relevant publications and 389 conference abstracts were identified.

  3. Search for new heavy techniparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltay, C.; Gordon, H.

    1982-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider in some detail an experiment to search for the Technieta (/sub eta T/), which is expected to be in the 100 to 300 GeV mass range. For the sake of concreteness they use the predictions of the technicolor models; however, it might be better to think of these considerations as an example of the kind of searches that should be carried out with the next generation of hadron-hadron colliders, without putting too much importance on the details of the theoretical models that happen to be in fashion at this time. The general notion of a -- TeV mass scale and the rough value of the coupling strengths of the new mass scale to the present quarks, leptons and gluons seem more reliable than details of the particular models

  4. Anatomical details of the brainstem and cranial nerves visualized by high resolution readout-segmented multi-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted images using unidirectional MPG at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Isoda, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    We compared diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with readout-segmented multi-shot echo-planar imaging (rs-EPI) and single-shot EPI, both using unidirectional motion-probing gradient, in 10 patients for visualization of the anatomical structures in the brainstem. DWI by rs-EPI was significantly better than DWI by single-shot EPI for visualizing the medial longitudinal fasciculus, lateral lemniscus, corticospinal tract, and seventh/eighth cranial nerves and offered significantly less distortion of the brainstem. (author)

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are clearer and more detailed than other imaging methods. This exam does not use ionizing radiation and ... clearer and more detailed than with other imaging methods. This detail makes MRI an invaluable tool in ...

  6. Visual search of Mooney faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Emeline Goold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect are unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: 1 although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention towards a face. 2 Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. 3 By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces, making faces a special object category for guiding attention.

  7. Meta Search Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    Describes common options and features to consider in evaluating which meta search engine will best meet a searcher's needs. Discusses number and names of engines searched; other sources and specialty engines; search queries; other search options; and results options. (AEF)

  8. The search for decaying Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Herder, J W den; Ruchayskiy, O.; Abazajian, K.; Frenk, C.; Hansen, S.; Jonker, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lesgourgues, J.; Neronov, A.; Ohashi, T.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Piro, L.; Pohl, M.; Shaposhnikov, M.; Silk, J.; Valle, J.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    We propose an X-ray mission called Xenia to search for decaying superweakly interacting Dark Matter particles (super-WIMP) with a mass in the keV range. The mission and its observation plan are capable of providing a major break through in our understanding of the nature of Dark Matter (DM). It will confirm, or reject, predictions of a number of particle physics models by increasing the sensitivity of the search for decaying DM by about two orders of magnitude through a wide-field imaging X-ray spectrometer in combination with a dedicated observation program. The proposed mission will provide unique limits on the mixing angle and mass of neutral leptons, right handed partners of neutrinos, which are important Dark Matter candidates. The existence of these particles is strongly motivated by observed neutrino flavor oscillations and the problem of baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In super-WIMP models, the details of the formation of the cosmic web are different from those of LambdaCDM. The proposed mission wil...

  9. How visual search relates to visual diagnostic performance: a narrative systematic review of eye-tracking research in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gijp, A; Ravesloot, C J; Jarodzka, H; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; van Schaik, J P J; Ten Cate, Th J

    2017-08-01

    Eye tracking research has been conducted for decades to gain understanding of visual diagnosis such as in radiology. For educational purposes, it is important to identify visual search patterns that are related to high perceptual performance and to identify effective teaching strategies. This review of eye-tracking literature in the radiology domain aims to identify visual search patterns associated with high perceptual performance. Databases PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science were searched using 'visual perception' OR 'eye tracking' AND 'radiology' and synonyms. Two authors independently screened search results and included eye tracking studies concerning visual skills in radiology published between January 1, 1994 and July 31, 2015. Two authors independently assessed study quality with the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument, and extracted study data with respect to design, participant and task characteristics, and variables. A thematic analysis was conducted to extract and arrange study results, and a textual narrative synthesis was applied for data integration and interpretation. The search resulted in 22 relevant full-text articles. Thematic analysis resulted in six themes that informed the relation between visual search and level of expertise: (1) time on task, (2) eye movement characteristics of experts, (3) differences in visual attention, (4) visual search patterns, (5) search patterns in cross sectional stack imaging, and (6) teaching visual search strategies. Expert search was found to be characterized by a global-focal search pattern, which represents an initial global impression, followed by a detailed, focal search-to-find mode. Specific task-related search patterns, like drilling through CT scans and systematic search in chest X-rays, were found to be related to high expert levels. One study investigated teaching of visual search strategies, and did not find a significant effect on perceptual performance. Eye

  10. Methodological Details and Full Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset has several components, The first part describes fully our literature review, providing details not included in the text. The second part provides all...

  11. Searching the ASRS Database Using QUORUM Keyword Search, Phrase Search, Phrase Generation, and Phrase Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Michael W.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To support Search Requests and Quick Responses at the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), four new QUORUM methods have been developed: keyword search, phrase search, phrase generation, and phrase discovery. These methods build upon the core QUORUM methods of text analysis, modeling, and relevance-ranking. QUORUM keyword search retrieves ASRS incident narratives that contain one or more user-specified keywords in typical or selected contexts, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the keywords in context. QUORUM phrase search retrieves narratives that contain one or more user-specified phrases, and ranks the narratives on their relevance to the phrases. QUORUM phrase generation produces a list of phrases from the ASRS database that contain a user-specified word or phrase. QUORUM phrase discovery finds phrases that are related to topics of interest. Phrase generation and phrase discovery are particularly useful for finding query phrases for input to QUORUM phrase search. The presentation of the new QUORUM methods includes: a brief review of the underlying core QUORUM methods; an overview of the new methods; numerous, concrete examples of ASRS database searches using the new methods; discussion of related methods; and, in the appendices, detailed descriptions of the new methods.

  12. The Importance of Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) Analysis and Imaging to the Search for Life on the Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Thompson, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    The MapX imaging X-ray spectrometer is described and Monte Carlo modeling is used to show the efficacy of 244-Cm radioisotope sources in detecting and quantifying the biogenic elements in ices on Ocean Worlds such as Europa.

  13. A Development of Hybrid Drug Information System Using Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HwaMin Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent drug abuse or misuse cases and avoid over-prescriptions, it is necessary for medicine taker to be provided with detailed information about the medicine. In this paper, we propose a drug information system and develop an application to provide information through drug image recognition using a smartphone. We designed a contents-based drug image search algorithm using the color, shape and imprint of drug. Our convenient application can provide users with detailed information about drugs and prevent drug misuse.

  14. GTC/CanariCam Mid-IR Imaging of the Fullerene-rich Planetary Nebula IC 418: Searching for the Spatial Distribution of Fullerene-like Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Luis, J. J.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.; García-Lario, P.; Villaver, E.; García-Segura, G.

    2018-03-01

    We present seeing-limited narrow-band mid-IR GTC/CanariCam images of the spatially extended fullerene-containing planetary nebula (PN) IC 418. The narrow-band images cover the C60 fullerene band at 17.4 μm, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon like (PAH-like) feature at 11.3 μm, the broad 9–13 μm feature, and their adjacent continua at 9.8 and 20.5 μm. We study the relative spatial distribution of these complex species, all detected in the Spitzer and Infrared Space Observatory spectra of IC 418, with the aim of getting observational constraints to the formation process of fullerenes in H-rich circumstellar environments. A similar ring-like extended structure is seen in all narrow-band filters, except in the dust continuum emission at 9.8 μm, which peaks closer to the central star. The continuum-subtracted images display a clear ring-like extended structure for the carrier of the broad 9–13 μm emission, while the spatial distribution of the (PAH-like) 11.3 μm emission is not so well defined. Interestingly, a residual C60 17.4 μm emission (at about 4σ from the sky background) is seen when subtracting the dust continuum emission at 20.5 μm. This residual C60 emission, if real, might have several interpretations, the most exciting being perhaps that other fullerene-based species like hydrogenated fullerenes with very low H-content may contribute to the observed 17.4 μm emission. We conclude that higher sensitivity mid-IR images and spatially resolved spectroscopic observations (especially in the Q-band) are necessary to get some clues about fullerene formation in PNe.

  15. Encyclopedia of diagnostic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baert, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    The simple A to Z format provides easy access to relevant information in the field of imaging. Extensive cross references between keywords and related articles enable efficient searches in a user-friendly manner. Fully searchable and hyperlinked electronic online edition. The aim of this comprehensive encyclopedia is to provide detailed information on diagnostic radiology contributing to the broad field of imaging. The wide range of entries are written by leading experts. They will provide basic and clinical scientists in academia, practice and industry with valuable information about the field of diagnostic imaging. Those in related fields, students, teachers, and interested laypeople will also benefit from the important and relevant information on the most recent developments. Please note that this publication is available as print only or online only or print + online set. Save 75% of the online list price when purchasing the bundle. For more information on the online version please type the publication title into the search box above, then click on the eReference version in the results list. (orig.)

  16. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Evans, Karla K.; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Radiologists perform many ‘visual search tasks’ in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human ‘search engine’ works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search? PMID:26656078

  17. How do radiologists use the human search engine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M.; Evans, Karla K.; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search? (authors)

  18. Zooming in on choice : How do consumers search for cameras online?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, Bart; Kim, Jun B.; Mela, Carl

    We describe online consumers' search behavior for differentiated durable goods using a data set that captures a detailed level of consumer search and attribute information for digital cameras. Consumers search extensively, engaging in 14 searches on average prior to purchase. Individual level search

  19. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  20. Change of central cholinergic receptors following lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis in rats: search for an imaging index suitable for the early detection of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Mikako; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nakagawa, Masaki; Kuge, Yugi; Kawashima, Hidekazu; Tominaga, Akiko; Ueda, Masashi; Magata, Yasuhiro; Saji, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Cholinergic system in the central nervous system is involved in the memory function. Thus, because the dysfunction of cholinergic system that project to the cerebral cortex from nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM) would be implicated in the memory function deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD), evaluating cholinergic function may be useful for the early detection of AD. In this study, because the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) in rats is equivalent to nbM in human, we investigated the change in cholinergic receptors in the frontal cortex of rats with unilateral lesion to the NBM to find an appropriate index for the early detection of AD using techniques of nuclear medicine. The right NBM was injected with ibotenic acid. [ 18 F]FDG-PET images were obtained 3 days later. Some rats were sacrificed at 1 week, whereas others were subjected to a second [ 18 F]FDG-PET at 4 weeks then sacrificed for membrane preparation. The prepared membranes were subjected to radioreceptor assays to measure the density of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Glucose metabolism had decreased on the damaged side compared to the control side at 3 days, but at 4 weeks, there was no difference between the sides. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had significantly decreased in density compared to the control side at both 1 and 4 weeks. However, muscarinic receptors were not affected. These results suggested that neuronal dysfunction in AD could be diagnosed at an early stage by imaging nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  1. Ontology modularization to improve semantic medical image annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennerberg, Pinar; Schulz, Klaus; Buitelaar, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Searching for medical images and patient reports is a significant challenge in a clinical setting. The contents of such documents are often not described in sufficient detail thus making it difficult to utilize the inherent wealth of information contained within them. Semantic image annotation addresses this problem by describing the contents of images and reports using medical ontologies. Medical images and patient reports are then linked to each other through common annotations. Subsequently, search algorithms can more effectively find related sets of documents on the basis of these semantic descriptions. A prerequisite to realizing such a semantic search engine is that the data contained within should have been previously annotated with concepts from medical ontologies. One major challenge in this regard is the size and complexity of medical ontologies as annotation sources. Manual annotation is particularly time consuming labor intensive in a clinical environment. In this article we propose an approach to reducing the size of clinical ontologies for more efficient manual image and text annotation. More precisely, our goal is to identify smaller fragments of a large anatomy ontology that are relevant for annotating medical images from patients suffering from lymphoma. Our work is in the area of ontology modularization, which is a recent and active field of research. We describe our approach, methods and data set in detail and we discuss our results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Further investigation on adaptive search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hong Pi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive search is one of the fastest fractal compression algorithms and has gained great success in many industrial applications. By substituting the luminance offset by the range block mean, the authors create a completely new version for both the encoding and decoding algorithms. In this paper, theoretically, they prove that the proposed decoding algorithm converges at least as fast as the existing decoding algorithms using the luminance offset. In addition, they prove that the attractor of the decoding algorithm can be represented by a linear combination of range-averaged images. These theorems are very important contributions to the theory and applications of fractal image compression. As a result, the decoding image can be represented as the sum of the DC and AC component images, which is similar with discrete cosine transform or wavelet transform. To further speed up this algorithm and reduce the complexity of range and domain blocks matching, they propose two improvements in this paper, that is, employing the post-quantisation and geometric neighbouring local search to replace the currently used pre-quantisation and the global search, respectively. The corresponding experimental results show the proposed encoding and decoding algorithms can provide a better performance compared with the existing algorithms.

  3. Stability of cascade search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fomenko, Tatiana N [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-10-22

    We find sufficient conditions on a searching multi-cascade for a modification of the set of limit points of the cascade that satisfy an assessing inequality for the distance from each of these points to the initial point to be small, provided that the modifications of the initial point and the initial set-valued functionals or maps used to construct the multi-cascade are small. Using this result, we prove the stability (in the above sense) of the cascade search for the set of common pre-images of a closed subspace under the action of n set-valued maps, n{>=}1 (in particular, for the set of common roots of these maps and for the set of their coincidences). For n=2 we obtain generalizations of some results of A. V. Arutyunov; the very statement of the problem comes from a recent paper of his devoted to the study of the stability of the subset of coincidences of a Lipschitz map and a covering map.

  4. Acoustic and seismic imaging of the Adra Fault (NE Alboran Sea: in search of the source of the 1910 Adra earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Gràcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently acquired swath-bathymetry data and high-resolution seismic reflection profiles offshore Adra (Almería, Spain reveal the surficial expression of a NW–SE trending 20 km-long fault, which we termed the Adra Fault. Seismic imaging across the structure depicts a sub-vertical fault reaching the seafloor surface and slightly dipping to the NE showing an along-axis structural variability. Our new data suggest normal displacement of the uppermost units with probably a lateral component. Radiocarbon dating of a gravity core located in the area indicates that seafloor sediments are of Holocene age, suggesting present-day tectonic activity. The NE Alboran Sea area is characterized by significant low-magnitude earthquakes and by historical records of moderate magnitude, such as the Mw = 6.1 1910 Adra Earthquake. The location, dimension and kinematics of the Adra Fault agree with the fault solution and magnitude of the 1910 Adra Earthquake, whose moment tensor analysis indicates normal-dextral motion. The fault seismic parameters indicate that the Adra Fault is a potential source of large magnitude (Mw ≤ 6.5 earthquakes, which represents an unreported seismic hazard for the neighbouring coastal areas.

  5. Search Engine : an effective tool for exploring the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Ranasinghe, W.M. Tharanga Dilruk

    2006-01-01

    The Internet has become the largest source of information. Today, millions of Websites exist and this number continuous to grow. Finding the right information at the right time is the challenge in the Internet age. Search engine is searchable database which allows locating the information on the Internet by submitting the keywords. Search engines can be divided into two categories as the Individual and Meta Search engines. This article discusses the features of these search engines in detail.

  6. In Search of Lost Community: The Literary Image between “Proust” and “Baudelaire” in Walter Benjamin’s Modernization Lament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyn Ball

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay takes up the encounter between philosophy and literature through a reconsideration of Walter Benjamin’s remarks from “On Some Motifs in Baudelaire” about Henri Bergson’s Matière et mémoire as an attempt “[t]owering above” other ventures into Lebensphilosophie to “lay hold of the ‘true’ experience, as opposed to the kind that manifests itself in the standardized, denatured life of the civilized masses”. Despite his initial affirmation of Bergson’s understanding of experience as connected with tradition, Benjamin criticizes the philosopher’s account for sidestepping “the alienating, blinding experience of the age of large-scale industrialism” in reaction to which, as Benjamin insists, Bergson’s philosophy of memory developed. Yet even as Bergson shuts out the historical import of modernization, according to Benjamin, he also spotlights a “complementary” visual experience “in the form of its spontaneous afterimage”. Benjamin subsequently defines Bergson’s philosophy as “an attempt to specify this afterimage and fix it as a permanent record”, an endeavor that inadvertently “furnishes a clue to the experience which presented itself undistorted to Baudelaire’s eyes, in the figure of his reader”. If the literary critic might be viewed here as weighing in on a long-running antagonism between philosophy and literature, then his assessment is resolute: by praising the self-conscious historicity of Baudelaire’s lyric, Benjamin declares that poetry succeeds where Lebensphilosophie fails. Notably, Baudelaire is not the only figure to upstage “ahistorical” Bergson, since Marcel Proust and Sigmund Freud facilitate this victory. To contextualize the second section of “Motifs”, where Benjamin discusses the novelist’s “immanent critique of Bergson” this essay offers a reading of “On the Image of Proust” as a propadeutic to Benjamin’s privileging of “Baudelaire” over

  7. From traumatic events and dissociation to body image and depression symptoms - in search of self-destruction syndrome in adolescents who engage in nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwiłłowicz, Wioletta; Lewandowska, Magdalena

    2017-04-30

    The aim of the study was to analyze relationships between the variables: severity of depression symptoms, feelings towards one's own body, dissociation, the number and type of traumatic life events experienced by adolescents who engage in deliberate self-injury and are psychiatrically hospitalized. We examined 60 patients aged 13-17 (M = 15.48, SD = 1.19). More than a half (55%) were diagnosed with a mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct, 23.5% with depressive behavior disorders, 10% were diagnosed a depressive episode. The research tools: a socio-demographic survey; original Feelings Towards the Body Questionnaire created on the basis of Tomkiewicz's description; Kovacs's CDI; Scharfetter's Ego-Psychopathology questionnaire. The examined individuals have negative feelings toward their bodies, more than half of them experience severe depression symptoms. There are links between traumatic events, dissociation, body image and the severity of depression symptoms. The strongest links were found: between dissociation vis-a-vis the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body; and between the severity of depression symptoms and the feelings towards one's body. Two thirds of the examined individuals attempted suicide. Various forms of direct self-destructive behaviors very often occur simultaneously. It also provokes reflection about the conditions under which self-inflicted injury does (or does not) prevent suicide attempts. Self-mutilation along with the interaction between clinical variables may form a self-destruction syndrome in various mental disorders and contribute to clinical pictures of these disorders, this should be taken into account in diagnosing and treatment of adolescents.

  8. Image and information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  9. Phonetic search methods for large speech databases

    CERN Document Server

    Moyal, Ami; Tetariy, Ella; Gishri, Michal

    2013-01-01

    “Phonetic Search Methods for Large Databases” focuses on Keyword Spotting (KWS) within large speech databases. The brief will begin by outlining the challenges associated with Keyword Spotting within large speech databases using dynamic keyword vocabularies. It will then continue by highlighting the various market segments in need of KWS solutions, as well as, the specific requirements of each market segment. The work also includes a detailed description of the complexity of the task and the different methods that are used, including the advantages and disadvantages of each method and an in-depth comparison. The main focus will be on the Phonetic Search method and its efficient implementation. This will include a literature review of the various methods used for the efficient implementation of Phonetic Search Keyword Spotting, with an emphasis on the authors’ own research which entails a comparative analysis of the Phonetic Search method which includes algorithmic details. This brief is useful for resea...

  10. How doctors search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Price, Susan; Delcambre, Lois

    2012-01-01

    Professional, workplace searching is different from general searching, because it is typically limited to specific facets and targeted to a single answer. We have developed the semantic component (SC) model, which is a search feature that allows searchers to structure and specify the search to co...

  11. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  12. Web Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Rajashekar, TB

    1998-01-01

    The World Wide Web is emerging as an all-in-one information source. Tools for searching Web-based information include search engines, subject directories and meta search tools. We take a look at key features of these tools and suggest practical hints for effective Web searching.

  13. submitter Searches at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Kawagoe, Kiyotomo

    2001-01-01

    Searches for new particles and new physics were extensively performed at LEP. Although no evidence for new particle/physics was discovered, the null results set very stringent limits to theories beyond the standard model. In this paper, searches at LEP and anomalies observed in the searches are presented. Future prospect of searches at the new energy frontier machines is also discussed.

  14. Detailed clinical models: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke; van der Zel, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Due to the increasing use of electronic patient records and other health care information technology, we see an increase in requests to utilize these data. A highly level of standardization is required during the gathering of these data in the clinical context in order to use it for analyses. Detailed Clinical Models (DCM) have been created toward this purpose and several initiatives have been implemented in various parts of the world to create standardized models. This paper presents a review of DCM. Two types of analyses are presented; one comparing DCM against health care information architectures and a second bottom up approach from concept analysis to representation. In addition core parts of the draft ISO standard 13972 on DCM are used such as clinician involvement, data element specification, modeling, meta information, and repository and governance. SIX INITIATIVES WERE SELECTED: Intermountain Healthcare, 13606/OpenEHR Archetypes, Clinical Templates, Clinical Contents Models, Health Level 7 templates, and Dutch Detailed Clinical Models. Each model selected was reviewed for their overall development, involvement of clinicians, use of data types, code bindings, expressing semantics, modeling, meta information, use of repository and governance. Using both a top down and bottom up approach to comparison reveals many commonalties and differences between initiatives. Important differences include the use of or lack of a reference model and expressiveness of models. Applying clinical data element standards facilitates the use of conceptual DCM models in different technical representations.

  15. Al Hirschfeld's NINA as a prototype search task for studying perceptual error in radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Calvin F.; Kundel, Harold L.

    1997-04-01

    Artist Al Hirschfeld has been hiding the word NINA (his daughter's name) in line drawings of theatrical scenes that have appeared in the New York Times for over 50 years. This paper shows how Hirschfeld's search task of finding the name NINA in his drawings illustrates basic perceptual principles of detection, discrimination and decision-making commonly encountered in radiology search tasks. Hirschfeld's hiding of NINA is typically accomplished by camouflaging the letters of the name and blending them into scenic background details such as wisps of hair and folds of clothing. In a similar way, pulmonary nodules and breast lesions are camouflaged by anatomic features of the chest or breast image. Hirschfeld's hidden NINAs are sometimes missed because they are integrated into a Gestalt overview rather than differentiated from background features during focal scanning. This may be similar to overlooking an obvious nodule behind the heart in a chest x-ray image. Because it is a search game, Hirschfeld assigns a number to each drawing to indicate how many NINAs he has hidden so as not to frustrate his viewers. In the radiologists' task, the number of targets detected in a medical image is determined by combining perceptual input with probabilities generated from clinical history and viewing experience. Thus, in the absence of truth, searching for abnormalities in x-ray images creates opportunities for recognition and decision errors (e.g. false positives and false negatives). We illustrate how camouflage decreases the conspicuity of both artistic and radiographic targets, compare detection performance of radiologists with lay persons searching for NINAs, and, show similarities and differences between scanning strategies of the two groups based on eye-position data.

  16. Myanmar Language Search Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Pann Yu Mon; Yoshiki Mikami

    2011-01-01

    With the enormous growth of the World Wide Web, search engines play a critical role in retrieving information from the borderless Web. Although many search engines are available for the major languages, but they are not much proficient for the less computerized languages including Myanmar. The main reason is that those search engines are not considering the specific features of those languages. A search engine which capable of searching the Web documents written in those languages is highly n...

  17. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  18. The effective use of search engines on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, P

    This article explains how nurses can get the most out of researching information on the internet using the search engine Google. It also explores some of the other types of search engines that are available. Internet users are shown how to find text, images and reports and search within sites. Copyright issues are also discussed.

  19. Understanding and modeling users of modern search engines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuklin, A.

    2017-01-01

    As search is being used by billions of people, modern search engines are becoming more and more complex. And complexity does not just come from the algorithms. Richer and richer content is being added to search engine result pages: news and sports results, definitions and translations, images and

  20. Devil's in the (diffuse) detail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welberry, R.

    2006-07-01

    X-ray crystallography is an important workhorse in the world of solid-state chemistry. However, while it's a powerful tool in determining the average structure in a crystal lattice, conventional crystallography is very limited when it comes to understanding nano-scale disorder within that crystal structure. And when it comes to understanding the properties of many important materials, the devil is in the detail. X-ray diffraction is still one of the keys to understanding this finer scale structure but using it requires a capacity to read between the lines - to understand the diffuse diffraction that most crystallography ignores. Scientists at the Research School of Chemistry are leading the world in this field. Their work on modelling nano-scaled disorder using diffuse diffraction is opening up new possibilities in understanding and modifying many of our most important materials

  1. An introduction to harmony search optimization method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolei; Zenger, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides a detailed introduction, discussion and bibliographic review of the nature1-inspired optimization algorithm called Harmony Search. It uses a large number of simulation results to demonstrate the advantages of Harmony Search and its variants and also their drawbacks. The authors show how weaknesses can be amended by hybridization with other optimization methods. The Harmony Search Method with Applications will be of value to researchers in computational intelligence in demonstrating the state of the art of research on an algorithm of current interest. It also helps researche

  2. Locality in Generic Instance Search from One Example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, R.; Gavves, E.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims for generic instance search from a single example. Where the state-of-the-art relies on global image representation for the search, we proceed by including locality at all steps of the method. As the first novelty, we consider many boxes per database image as candidate targets to

  3. The Search Performance Evaluation and Prediction in Exploratory Search

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, FEI

    2016-01-01

    The exploratory search for complex search tasks requires an effective search behavior model to evaluate and predict user search performance. Few studies have investigated the relationship between user search behavior and search performance in exploratory search. This research adopts a mixed approach combining search system development, user search experiment, search query log analysis, and multivariate regression analysis to resolve the knowledge gap. Through this study, it is shown that expl...

  4. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...

  5. Search for neutral leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produce detailed pictures of the brain and other cranial structures that are clearer and more detailed than ... cases. MR images of the brain and other cranial structures are clearer and more detailed than with ...

  7. A review of the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Simon

    2018-03-01

    The literature searches that are used to identify studies for inclusion in a systematic review should be comprehensively reported. This ensures that the literature searches are transparent and reproducible, which is important for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of a systematic review and re-running the literature searches when conducting an update review. Web searching using search engines and the websites of topically relevant organisations is sometimes used as a supplementary literature search method. Previous research has shown that the reporting of web searching in systematic reviews often lacks important details and is thus not transparent or reproducible. Useful details to report about web searching include the name of the search engine or website, the URL, the date searched, the search strategy, and the number of results. This study reviews the reporting of web searching to identify studies for Cochrane systematic reviews published in the 6-month period August 2016 to January 2017 (n = 423). Of these reviews, 61 reviews reported using web searching using a search engine or website as a literature search method. In the majority of reviews, the reporting of web searching was found to lack essential detail for ensuring transparency and reproducibility, such as the search terms. Recommendations are made on how to improve the reporting of web searching in Cochrane systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. High energy positron imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengzu

    2003-01-01

    The technique of High Energy Positron Imaging (HEPI) is the new development and extension of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). It consists of High Energy Collimation Imaging (HECI), Dual Head Coincidence Detection Imaging (DHCDI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We describe the history of the development and the basic principle of the imaging methods of HEPI in details in this paper. Finally, the new technique of the imaging fusion, which combined the anatomical image and the functional image together are also introduced briefly

  9. A Line Search Multilevel Truncated Newton Algorithm for Computing the Optical Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the implementation details and give the experimental results of three optimization algorithms for dense optical flow computation. In particular, using a line search strategy, we evaluate the performance of the unilevel truncated Newton method (LSTN, a multiresolution truncated Newton (MR/LSTN and a full multigrid truncated Newton (FMG/LSTN. We use three image sequences and four models of optical flow for performance evaluation. The FMG/LSTN algorithm is shown to lead to better optical flow estimation with less computational work than both the LSTN and MR/LSTN algorithms.

  10. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  11. Contrast detail phantom for SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrejas, M.L. de; Arashiro, J G; Giannone, C. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Camuyrano, M; Nohara, G [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad Ciencias Exactas

    1996-06-01

    A new low variable contrast phantom for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was constructed, tested and compared with other existing phantoms. It contains simulated cylindrical lesions of four different diameters (D{sub i}), embedded in a cylindrical scattering medium and a uniform section to evaluate tomographic uniformity. The concentration of tracer in the simulated lesions and the scattering medium (background) can be varied to simulate hot and cold lesions. Different applications of the phantom were tested, including determination of the minimum object contrast (OCm) necessary to detect lesions as a function of lesion size, lesion type (hot or cold) and acquisition and processing protocols by visual inspection. This parameter allows categorization of instruments comparing an `image quality index` (IQI). Preliminary comparison with the Britten contrast processing method showed that the detectable OCm was of the same order of magnitude, but the presented device seems more suitable for training and intercomparison purposes. The constructed phantom, of simple design, has proved to be useful for acquisition and processing condition evaluation, OCm estimation and external quality control. (author). 11 refs, 4 figs.

  12. Search on Rugged Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billinger, Stephan; Stieglitz, Nils; Schumacher, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a laboratory experiment on human decision-making in a complex combinatorial task. We find strong evidence for a behavioral model of adaptive search. Success narrows down search to the neighborhood of the status quo, while failure promotes gradually more explorative...... for local improvements too early. We derive stylized decision rules that generate the search behavior observed in the experiment and discuss the implications of our findings for individual decision-making and organizational search....

  13. Integrated vs. Federated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschall, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009.......Oplæg om forskelle og ligheder mellem integrated og federated search i bibliotekskontekst. Holdt ved temadag om "Integrated Search - samsøgning i alle kilder" på Danmarks Biblioteksskole den 22. januar 2009....

  14. Spectral filtering for CW searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Antonio, S; Frasca, S; Palomba, C

    2009-01-01

    In the hierarchical all-sky search method for periodic sources developed in the Virgo Collaboration, after the first incoherent step based on the Hough transform we have a number of candidates that must be analyzed using a much longer time baseline periodogram. In this step, we correct the signal power spread due to the Earth rotation, which becomes relevant for observation times greater than ∼1 sidereal day, using a bank of matched filters on the power spectrum. Describing the wave as the combination of a linearly polarized and a circularly polarized component, the spread depends on two parameters: the polarization angle of the linearly polarized wave component and the percentage of linear polarization. Here we discuss in detail the issue of how many filters must be built to properly cover the parameter space and give some implementation details of the procedure.

  15. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  16. The Information Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Uma

    2011-01-01

    This paper in the form of story discusses a college student's information search process. In this story we see Kuhlthau's information search process: initiation, selection, exploration, formulation, collection, and presentation. Katie is a student who goes in search of information for her class research paper. Katie's class readings, her interest…

  17. Searching for Pulsars Using Image Pattern Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, W.W.; Berndsen, A.; Madsen, E.C.; Tan, M.; Stairs, I.H.; Brazier, A.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Scholz, P.; Stovall, K.; Ransom, S.M.; Banaszak, S.; Biwer, C.M.; Cohen, S.; Dartez, L.P.; Flanigan, J.; Lunsford, G.; Martinez, J.G.; Mata, A.; Rohr, M.; Walker, A.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N.D.R.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J.M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.S.; Desvignes, G.; Ferdman, R.D.; Freire, P.C.C.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Jenet, F.A.; Kaplan, D.L.; Kaspi, V.M.; Knispel, B.; Lee, K.J.; van Leeuwen, J.; Lyne, A.G.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Siemens, X.; Spitler, L.G.; Venkataraman, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the modern era of big data, many fields of astronomy are generating huge volumes of data, the analysis of which can sometimes be the limiting factor in research. Fortunately, computer scientists have developed powerful data-mining techniques that can be applied to various fields. In this paper,

  18. Neurophysiological Based Methods of Guided Image Search

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marchak, Frank

    2003-01-01

    .... We developed a model of visual feature detection, the Neuronal Synchrony Model, based on neurophysiological models of temporal neuronal processing, to improve the accuracy of automatic detection...

  19. OPUS - Outer Planets Unified Search with Enhanced Surface Geometry Parameters - Not Just for Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Mitchell; Showalter, Mark Robert; Ballard, Lisa; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Heather, Neil

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, with the massive influx of data into the PDS from a wide array of missions and instruments, finding the precise data you need has been an ongoing challenge. For remote sensing data obtained from Jupiter to Pluto, that challenge is being addressed by the Outer Planets Unified Search, more commonly known as OPUS.OPUS is a powerful search tool available at the PDS Ring-Moon Systems Node (RMS) - formerly the PDS Rings Node. While OPUS was originally designed with ring data in mind, its capabilities have been extended to include all of the targets within an instrument's field of view. OPUS provides preview images of search results, and produces a zip file for easy download of selected products, including a table of user specified metadata. For Cassini ISS and Voyager ISS we have generated and include calibrated versions of every image.Currently OPUS supports data returned by Cassini ISS, UVIS, VIMS, and CIRS (Saturn data through June 2010), New Horizons Jupiter LORRI, Galileo SSI, Voyager ISS and IRIS, and Hubble (ACS, WFC3 and WFPC2).At the RMS Node, we have developed and incorporated into OPUS detailed geometric metadata, based on the most recent SPICE kernels, for all of the bodies in the Cassini Saturn observations. This extensive set of geometric metadata is unique to the RMS Node and enables search constraints such as latitudes and longitudes (Saturn, Titan, and icy satellites), viewing and illumination geometry (phase, incidence and emission angles), and distances and resolution.Our near term plans include adding the full set of Cassini CIRS Saturn data (with enhanced geometry), New Horizons MVIC Jupiter encounter images, New Horizons LORRI and MVIC Pluto data, HST STIS observations, and Cassini and Voyager ring occultations. We also plan to develop enhanced geometric metadata for the New Horizons LORRI and MVIC instruments for both the Jupiter and the Pluto encounters.OPUS: http://pds-rings.seti.org/search/

  20. Keyword Search in Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jeffrey Xu; Chang, Lijun

    2009-01-01

    It has become highly desirable to provide users with flexible ways to query/search information over databases as simple as keyword search like Google search. This book surveys the recent developments on keyword search over databases, and focuses on finding structural information among objects in a database using a set of keywords. Such structural information to be returned can be either trees or subgraphs representing how the objects, that contain the required keywords, are interconnected in a relational database or in an XML database. The structural keyword search is completely different from

  1. Enhanced Visualization of Subtle Outer Retinal Pathology by En Face Optical Coherence Tomography and Correlation with Multi-Modal Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta M Sampson

    Full Text Available To present en face optical coherence tomography (OCT images generated by graph-search theory algorithm-based custom software and examine correlation with other imaging modalities.En face OCT images derived from high density OCT volumetric scans of 3 healthy subjects and 4 patients using a custom algorithm (graph-search theory and commercial software (Heidelberg Eye Explorer software (Heidelberg Engineering were compared and correlated with near infrared reflectance, fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics flood-illumination ophthalmoscopy (AO-FIO and microperimetry.Commercial software was unable to generate accurate en face OCT images in eyes with retinal pigment epithelium (RPE pathology due to segmentation error at the level of Bruch's membrane (BM. Accurate segmentation of the basal RPE and BM was achieved using custom software. The en face OCT images from eyes with isolated interdigitation or ellipsoid zone pathology were of similar quality between custom software and Heidelberg Eye Explorer software in the absence of any other significant outer retinal pathology. En face OCT images demonstrated angioid streaks, lesions of acute macular neuroretinopathy, hydroxychloroquine toxicity and Bietti crystalline deposits that correlated with other imaging modalities.Graph-search theory algorithm helps to overcome the limitations of outer retinal segmentation inaccuracies in commercial software. En face OCT images can provide detailed topography of the reflectivity within a specific layer of the retina which correlates with other forms of fundus imaging. Our results highlight the need for standardization of image reflectivity to facilitate quantification of en face OCT images and longitudinal analysis.

  2. A survey on visual information search behavior and requirements of radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markonis, D; Holzer, M; Dungs, S; Vargas, A; Langs, G; Kriewel, S; Müller, H

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to learn more on the image use and search requirements of radiologists. These requirements will then be taken into account to develop a new search system for images and associated meta data search in the Khresmoi project. Observations of the radiology workflow, case discussions and a literature review were performed to construct a survey form that was given online and in paper form to radiologists. Eye tracking was performed on a radiology viewing station to analyze typical tasks and to complement the survey. In total 34 radiologists answered the survey online or on paper. Image search was mentioned as a frequent and common task, particularly for finding cases of interest for differential diagnosis. Sources of information besides the Internet are books and discussions with colleagues. Search for images is unsuccessful in around 25% of the cases, stopping the search after around 10 minutes. The most common reason for failure is that target images are considered rare. Important additions for search requested in the survey are filtering by pathology and modality, as well as search for visually similar images and cases. Few radiologists are familiar with visual retrieval but they desire the option to upload images for searching similar ones. Image search is common in radiology but few radiologists are fully aware of visual information retrieval. Taking into account the many unsuccessful searches and time spent for this, a good image search could improve the situation and help in clinical practice.

  3. Image retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørnager, Susanne

    1997-01-01

    The paper touches upon indexing and retrieval for effective searches of digitized images. Different conceptions of what subject indexing means are described as a basis for defining an operational subject indexing strategy for images. The methodology is based on the art historian Erwin Panofsky......), special knowledge about image codes, and special knowledge about history of ideas. The semiologist Roland Barthes has established a semiology for pictorial expressions based on advertising photos. Barthes uses the concepts denotation/connotation where denotations can be explained as the sober expression...

  4. Abdominal imaging findings in gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Kristina T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; De Petris, Giovanni D; Johnson, C Daniel

    2015-02-01

    To describe the abdominal imaging findings of patients with gastrointestinal Basidiobolus ranarum infection. A literature search was performed to compile the abdominal imaging findings of all reported worldwide cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). In addition, a retrospective review at our institution was performed to identify GIB cases that had imaging findings. A radiologist aware of the diagnosis reviewed the imaging findings in detail. Additional information was obtained from the medical records. A total of 73 GIB cases have been published in the medical literature. The most common abdominal imaging findings were masses in the colon, the liver, or multiple sites and bowel wall thickening. Initially, many patients were considered to have either a neoplasm or Crohn disease. We identified 7 proven cases of GIB at our institution, of which 4 had imaging studies (4 computed tomography [CT] examinations, 4 abdominal radiographs, and an upper gastrointestinal study). Imaging studies showed abnormalities in all 4 cases. Three-fourths of our study patients had an abdominal mass at CT. Two of 3 masses involved the kidneys and included urinary obstruction. All masses showed an inflammatory component with adjacent soft tissue stranding, with or without abscess formation. Radiologists should consider GIB when a patient from an arid climate presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and an inflammatory abdominal mass on CT. Abdominal masses of the colon or liver, bowel wall thickening, and abscesses are the most common imaging findings.

  5. Positions priming in briefly presented search arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgeirsson, Arni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Repetition priming in visual search has been a topic of extensive research since Maljkovic & Nakayama [1994, Memory & Cognition, 22, 657-672] presented the first detailed studies of such effects. Their results showed large reductions in reaction times when target color was repeated on consecutive...... the targets are oddly colored alphanumeric characters. The effects arise at very low exposure durations and benefit accuracy at all exposure durations towards the subjects’ ceiling. We conclude that temporally constricted experimental conditions can add to our understanding priming in visual search...... pop-out search trials. Such repetition effects have since been generalized to a multitude of target attributes. Priming has primarily been investigated using self-terminating visual search paradigms, comparing differences in response times. Response accuracy has predominantly served as a control...

  6. An FMRI-compatible Symbol Search task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebel, Spencer W; Clark, Uraina S; Xu, Xiaomeng; Riskin-Jones, Hannah H; Hawkshead, Brittany E; Schwarz, Nicolette F; Labbe, Donald; Jerskey, Beth A; Sweet, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    Our objective was to determine whether a Symbol Search paradigm developed for functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is a reliable and valid measure of cognitive processing speed (CPS) in healthy older adults. As all older adults are expected to experience cognitive declines due to aging, and CPS is one of the domains most affected by age, establishing a reliable and valid measure of CPS that can be administered inside an MR scanner may prove invaluable in future clinical and research settings. We evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a newly developed FMRI Symbol Search task by comparing participants' performance in and outside of the scanner and to the widely used and standardized Symbol Search subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). A brief battery of neuropsychological measures was also administered to assess the convergent and discriminant validity of the FMRI Symbol Search task. The FMRI Symbol Search task demonstrated high test-retest reliability when compared to performance on the same task administered out of the scanner (r=.791; pSymbol Search (r=.717; pSymbol Search task were also observed. The FMRI Symbol Search task is a reliable and valid measure of CPS in healthy older adults and exhibits expected sensitivity to the effects of age on CPS performance.

  7. Google searches help with diagnosis in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Montassar; Feroz, Kaliyadan

    2014-01-01

    Several previous studies have tried to assess the usefulness of Google search as a diagnostic aid. The results were discordant and have led to controversies. To investigate how often Google search is helpful to reach correct diagnoses in dermatology. Two fifth-year students (A and B) and one demonstrator (C) have participated as investigators in this paper. Twenty-five diagnostic dermatological cases were selected from all the clinical cases published in the Web only images in clinical medicine from March 2005 to November 2009. The main outcome measure of our paper was to compare the number of correct diagnoses provided by the investigators without, and with Google search. Investigator A gave correct diagnoses in 9/25 (36%) cases without Google search, his diagnostic success after Google search was 18/25 (72%). Investigator B results were 11/25 (44%) correct diagnoses without Google search, and 19/25 (76%) after this search. For investigator C, the results were 12/25 (48%) without Google search, and 18/25 (72%) after the use of this tool. Thus, the total correct diagnoses provided by the three investigators were 32 (42.6%) without Google search, and 55 (73.3%) when using this facility. The difference was statistically significant between the total number of correct diagnoses given by the three investigators without, and with Google search (p = 0.0002). In the light of our paper, Google search appears to be an interesting diagnostic aid in dermatology. However, we emphasize that diagnosis is primarily an art based on clinical skills and experience.

  8. Uma escola (pormenorizada: entre a escolarização, os “proibidão” e a busca pelo “mundão” na internação socioeducativa. A detailed school: between schooling, “forbidden funk” and the search for freedom in the socio-educational internment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Jr, Reinaldo V. da

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a field research that resulted in a master's degree dissertation. An ethnographic case study carried out in an internment unit of the Fundação CASA (Centre of Socio-Educational Service for Adolescents Foundation. Aimed to observe, analyze and interact in pedagogical relationships that involve adolescents, public agents who work in the institution and teachers from public education working in a socio-educational environment involving liberty deprivation for youngsters. From the pedagogical relationships and interactions between different actors, especially those led by interns in its schooling moments, contributing to the detailed understanding of school dynamics and its multiple meanings, symbols and representations inside that socio-educational internship unity. Being one of the unity’s teachers, the researcher used his fieldwork notes along with his active observation and dialogues with different actors as resources for collecting data. The schooling process of these youngsters who committed criminal offenses has shown to be an important moment of oppressive and resistant sociability’s promotion, along with representations and meanings of a young culture highly connected to a language repertoire, performances and symbols related to São Paulo´s urban criminality. It has been concluded that such elements that have driven to the constitution of this web of meanings originate from social practices within the adults’ prison system, and from the contribution of other cultural expressions, such as, for example, a musical movement called “funk”, especially one of its branches called “proibidão” (forbidden, with its appeal to criminality and exacerbated sexuality, and whose influences and configurations conform to different youth territorialities beyond the universe approached here. O presente artigo é parte de uma pesquisa de campo que resultou em dissertação de mestrado. Um estudo de caso etnogr

  9. University Students' Online Information Searching Strategies in Different Search Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Jung; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Hou, Huei-Tse; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the role of search context played in university students' online information searching strategies. A total of 304 university students in Taiwan were surveyed with questionnaires in which two search contexts were defined as searching for learning, and searching for daily life information. Students' online search strategies…

  10. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  11. Negotiating the thumbnail image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde; Teilmann-Lock, Stina

    2017-01-01

    Thumbnail images are discreet, yet central navigational tools in increasingly complex visual information environments. Indeed, without thumbnail images there would be no image search: they are an inherent part of the information architecture of most digital information platforms. Yet, how might w...

  12. Adaptive Large Neighbourhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    Large neighborhood search is a metaheuristic that has gained popularity in recent years. The heuristic repeatedly moves from solution to solution by first partially destroying the solution and then repairing it. The best solution observed during this search is presented as the final solution....... This tutorial introduces the large neighborhood search metaheuristic and the variant adaptive large neighborhood search that dynamically tunes parameters of the heuristic while it is running. Both heuristics belong to a broader class of heuristics that are searching a solution space using very large...... neighborhoods. The tutorial also present applications of the adaptive large neighborhood search, mostly related to vehicle routing problems for which the heuristic has been extremely successful. We discuss how the heuristic can be parallelized and thereby take advantage of modern desktop computers...

  13. Supporting Book Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Petras, Vivien

    2017-01-01

    of information needs. In this paper, we present a large-scale empirical comparison of the effectiveness of book metadata elements for searching complex information needs. Using a test collection of over 2 million book records and over 330 real-world book search requests, we perform a highly controlled and in......-depth analysis of topical metadata, comparing controlled vocabularies with social tags. Tags perform better overall in this setting, but controlled vocabulary terms provide complementary information, which will improve a search. We analyze potential underlying factors that contribute to search performance......, such as the relevance aspect(s) mentioned in a request or the type of book. In addition, we investigate the possible causes of search failure. We conclude that neither tags nor controlled vocabularies are wholly suited to handling the complex information needs in book search, which means that different approaches...

  14. Monte Carlo methods beyond detailed balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Raoul D.; Barkema, Gerard T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101275080

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithms are nearly always based on the concept of detailed balance and ergodicity. In this paper we focus on algorithms that do not satisfy detailed balance. We introduce a general method for designing non-detailed balance algorithms, starting from a conventional algorithm satisfying

  15. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  16. Search engine optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Marolt, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Search engine optimization techniques, often shortened to “SEO,” should lead to first positions in organic search results. Some optimization techniques do not change over time, yet still form the basis for SEO. However, as the Internet and web design evolves dynamically, new optimization techniques flourish and flop. Thus, we looked at the most important factors that can help to improve positioning in search results. It is important to emphasize that none of the techniques can guarantee high ...

  17. Mobile Search and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  18. Search and Disrupt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders

    . However, incumbent sources engaged in capability reconfiguration to accommodate disruption improve search efforts in disruptive technologies. The paper concludes that the value of external sources is contingent on more than their knowledge. Specifically, interdependence of sources in search gives rise...... to influence from individual strategic interests on the outcomes. More generally, this points to the need for understanding the two-way influence of sources, rather than viewing external search as one-way knowledge accessing....

  19. pSort search result - KOME | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ...name: kome_psort_search_result.zip File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/kome/LATEST/kome_psort_searc...abase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us pSort search result - KOME | LSDB Archive ...

  20. Are medical articles highlighting detailed statistics more cited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Thelwall

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When conducting a literature review, it is natural to search for articles and read their abstracts in order to select papers to read fully. Hence, informative abstracts are important to ensure that research is read. The description of a paper's methods may help to give confidence that a study is of high quality. This article assesses whether medical articles that mention three statistical methods, each of which is arguably indicative of a more detailed statistical analysis than average, are more highly cited. The results show that medical articles mentioning Bonferroni corrections, bootstrapping and effect size tend to be 7%, 8% and 15% more highly ranked for citations than average, respectively. Although this is consistent with the hypothesis that mentioning more detailed statistical techniques generate more highly cited research, these techniques may also tend to be used in more highly cited areas of Medicine.

  1. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  2. Google Power Search

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Behind Google's deceptively simple interface is immense power for both market and competitive research-if you know how to use it well. Sure, basic searches are easy, but complex searches require specialized skills. This concise book takes you through the full range of Google's powerful search-refinement features, so you can quickly find the specific information you need. Learn techniques ranging from simple Boolean logic to URL parameters and other advanced tools, and see how they're applied to real-world market research examples. Incorporate advanced search operators such as filetype:, intit

  3. Optimization of partial search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korepin, Vladimir E

    2005-01-01

    A quantum Grover search algorithm can find a target item in a database faster than any classical algorithm. One can trade accuracy for speed and find a part of the database (a block) containing the target item even faster; this is partial search. A partial search algorithm was recently suggested by Grover and Radhakrishnan. Here we optimize it. Efficiency of the search algorithm is measured by the number of queries to the oracle. The author suggests a new version of the Grover-Radhakrishnan algorithm which uses a minimal number of such queries. The algorithm can run on the same hardware that is used for the usual Grover algorithm. (letter to the editor)

  4. Searches over graphs representing geospatial-temporal remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brost, Randolph; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2018-03-06

    Various technologies pertaining to identifying objects of interest in remote sensing images by searching over geospatial-temporal graph representations are described herein. Graphs are constructed by representing objects in remote sensing images as nodes, and connecting nodes with undirected edges representing either distance or adjacency relationships between objects and directed edges representing changes in time. Geospatial-temporal graph searches are made computationally efficient by taking advantage of characteristics of geospatial-temporal data in remote sensing images through the application of various graph search techniques.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging modalities. top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org : Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation ... To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR- ...

  6. Citation Searching: Search Smarter & Find More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Chelsea C.; Brown, Stephanie Willen

    2008-01-01

    The staff at University of Connecticut are participating in Elsevier's Student Ambassador Program (SAmP) in which graduate students train their peers on "citation searching" research using Scopus and Web of Science, two tremendous citation databases. They are in the fourth semester of these training programs, and they are wildly successful: They…

  7. Constructing Effective Search Strategies for Electronic Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Lynn; Parente, Sharon Campbell

    Electronic databases have grown tremendously in both number and popularity since their development during the 1960s. Access to electronic databases in academic libraries was originally offered primarily through mediated search services by trained librarians; however, the advent of CD-ROM and end-user interfaces for online databases has shifted the…

  8. An Image Registration Method for Colposcopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrén Mezura-Montes

    2013-01-01

    sequence and a division of such image into small windows. A search process is then carried out to find the window with the highest affinity in each image of the sequence and replace it with the window in the reference image. The affinity value is based on polynomial approximation of the time series computed and the search is bounded by a search radius which defines the neighborhood of each window. The proposed approach is tested in ten 310-frame real cases in two experiments: the first one to determine the best values for the window size and the search radius and the second one to compare the best obtained results with respect to four registration methods found in the specialized literature. The obtained results show a robust and competitive performance of the proposed approach with a significant lower time with respect to the compared methods.

  9. Detailed Globes Enhance Education and Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Orbis World Globes creates inflatable globes-Earthballs-in many sizes that depict Earth as it is seen from space, complete with atmospheric cloud cover. Orbis designs and produces the most visually authentic replicas of Earth ever created, and NASA took notice of Orbis globes and employed a 16-inch diameter EarthBall for an educational film it made aboard the STS-45 shuttle mission. Orbis later collaborated with NASA to create two 16-foot diameter world globes for display at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City, using more detailed satellite imagery. The satellite image now printed on all Orbis globes displays 1-kilometer resolution and is 21,600 by 43,200 pixels in size, and Orbis globes are otherwise meteorologically accurate, though the cloud cover has been slightly reduced in order for most of the landforms to be visible. Orbis also developed the exclusive NightGlow Cities feature, enabling EarthBalls to display the world's cities as they appear as the Earth revolves from daylight into night. Orbis inflatable globes are available in sizes from 1 to 100 feet in diameter, with the most common being the standard 16-inch and 1-meter diameter EarthBalls. Applications include educational uses from preschools to universities, games, and for a variety of display purposes at conferences, trade shows, festivals, concerts, and parades. A 16-foot diameter Orbis globe was exhibited at the United Nations' World Urban Forum, in Vancouver, Canada; the Space 2006 conference, in San Jose, California; and the X-Prize Cup Personal Spaceflight Exposition in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  10. SUSY searches in early CMS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tricomi, A

    2008-01-01

    In the first year of data taking at LHC, the CMS experiment expects to collect about 1 fb -1 of data, which make possible the first searches for new phenomena. All such searches require however the measurement of the SM background and a detailed understanding of the detector performance, reconstruction algorithms and triggering. The CMS efforts are hence addressed to designing a realistic analysis plan in preparation to the data taking. In this paper, the CMS perspectives and analysis strategies for Supersymmetry (SUSY) discovery with early data are presented

  11. A stochastic model for intermittent search strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benichou, O; Coppey, M; Moreau, M; Suet, P H; Voituriez, R

    2005-01-01

    It is often necessary, in scientific or everyday life problems, to find a randomly hidden target. What is then the optimal strategy to reach it as rapidly as possible? In this article, we develop a stochastic theory for intermittent search behaviours, which are often observed: the searcher alternates phases of intensive search and slow motion with fast displacements. The first results of this theory have already been announced recently. Here we provide a detailed presentation of the theory, as well as the full derivation of the results. Furthermore, we explicitly discuss the minimization of the time needed to find the target

  12. INTERFACING GOOGLE SEARCH ENGINE TO CAPTURE USER WEB SEARCH BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Fadhilah Mat Yamin; T. Ramayah

    2013-01-01

    The behaviour of the searcher when using the search engine especially during the query formulation is crucial. Search engines capture users’ activities in the search log, which is stored at the search engine server. Due to the difficulty of obtaining this search log, this paper proposed and develops an interface framework to interface a Google search engine. This interface will capture users’ queries before redirect them to Google. The analysis of the search log will show that users are utili...

  13. Vertical Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Kevin; Mc Glinchey, Jude

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines the growth in popularity of vertical search engines, their origins, the differences between them and well-known broad based search engines such as Google and Yahoo. We also discuss their use in business-to-business, their marketing and advertising costs, what the revenue streams are and who uses them.

  14. African Environment: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  15. Mathematics Connection: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  16. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  17. Innovation: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  18. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  19. Zede Journal: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  20. Searches for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    New and recent results on Supersymmetry searches are shown for the ATLAS and the CMS experiments. Analyses with about 36 fb$^{-1}$ are considered for searches concerning light squarks and gluinos, direct pair production of 3$^{rd}$ generation squarks, electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, R-parity violating scenarios and long-lived particles.

  1. Searches for Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    New and recents results on Supersymmetry searches are shown for the ATLAS and the CMS experiments. Analyses with about 36 fb^-1 are considered for searches concerning light squarks and gluinos, direct pair production of 3rd generation squarks, electroweak production of charginos, neutralinos, sleptons, R-parity violating scenarios and long-lived particles.

  2. Philosophical Papers: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  3. Kiswahili: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  4. Sciences & Nature: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  5. Vulture News: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  6. Agronomie Africaine: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  7. Distributed Deep Web Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjin-Kam-Jet, Kien

    2013-01-01

    The World Wide Web contains billions of documents (and counting); hence, it is likely that some document will contain the answer or content you are searching for. While major search engines like Bing and Google often manage to return relevant results to your query, there are plenty of situations in

  8. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  9. Africa Insight: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  10. Critical Arts: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  11. Ergonomics SA: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  12. Kenya Veterinarian: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  13. Counsellor (The): Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  14. Search for a planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of search for star planets is discussed in a popular form. Two methods of search for planets are considered: astrometric and spectral. Both methods complement one another. An assumption is made that potential possessors of planets are in the first place yellow and red dwarfs with slow axial rotation. These stars are the most numerous representatives of Galaxy population

  15. Nigerian Libraries: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  16. Search of associative memory.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Shiffrin, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes search of associative memory (SAM), a general theory of retrieval from long-term memory that combines features of associative network models and random search models. It posits cue-dependent probabilistic sampling and recovery from an associative network, but the network is specified as a

  17. African Zoology: Advanced Search

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search tips: Search terms are case-insensitive; Common words are ignored; By default only articles containing all terms in the query are returned (i.e., AND is implied); Combine multiple words with OR to find articles containing either term; e.g., education OR research; Use parentheses to create more complex queries; e.g., ...

  18. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  19. Image, Image, Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert T.

    2004-01-01

    With all the talk today about accountability, budget cuts, and the closing of programs in public education, teachers cannot overlook the importance of image in the field of industrial technology. It is very easy for administrators to cut ITE (industrial technology education) programs to save school money--money they might shift to teaching the…

  20. Medical imaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Haidekker, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical imaging is a relatively young discipline that started with Conrad Wilhelm Roentgen’s discovery of the x-ray in 1885. X-ray imaging was rapidly adopted in hospitals around the world. However, it was the advent of computerized data and image processing that made revolutionary new imaging modalities possible. Today, cross-sections and three-dimensional reconstructions of the organs inside the human body is possible with unprecedented speed, detail and quality. This book provides an introduction into the principles of image formation of key medical imaging modalities: X-ray projection imaging, x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound imaging, and radionuclide imaging. Recent developments in optical imaging are also covered. For each imaging modality, the introduction into the physical principles and sources of contrast is provided, followed by the methods of image formation, engineering aspects of the imaging devices, and a discussion of strengths and limitations of the modal...

  1. Intermittent search strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénichou, O.; Loverdo, C.; Moreau, M.; Voituriez, R.

    2011-01-01

    This review examines intermittent target search strategies, which combine phases of slow motion, allowing the searcher to detect the target, and phases of fast motion during which targets cannot be detected. It is first shown that intermittent search strategies are actually widely observed at various scales. At the macroscopic scale, this is, for example, the case of animals looking for food; at the microscopic scale, intermittent transport patterns are involved in a reaction pathway of DNA-binding proteins as well as in intracellular transport. Second, generic stochastic models are introduced, which show that intermittent strategies are efficient strategies that enable the minimization of search time. This suggests that the intrinsic efficiency of intermittent search strategies could justify their frequent observation in nature. Last, beyond these modeling aspects, it is proposed that intermittent strategies could also be used in a broader context to design and accelerate search processes.

  2. HOW DO RADIOLOGISTS USE THE HUMAN SEARCH ENGINE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jeremy M; Evans, Karla K; Drew, Trafton; Aizenman, Avigael; Josephs, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Radiologists perform many 'visual search tasks' in which they look for one or more instances of one or more types of target item in a medical image (e.g. cancer screening). To understand and improve how radiologists do such tasks, it must be understood how the human 'search engine' works. This article briefly reviews some of the relevant work into this aspect of medical image perception. Questions include how attention and the eyes are guided in radiologic search? How is global (image-wide) information used in search? How might properties of human vision and human cognition lead to errors in radiologic search? © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. General Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radiation oncology provider in your community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs for specific medical imaging tests, treatments ...

  4. Detailed records of many unrecovered meteorites in western Canada for which further searches are recommended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.; Blackwell, A. T.; Griffin, A. A.

    1989-04-01

    Photographic records of the meteoritic fireballs observed between 1971 and 1985 with the Canadian camera network were used to obtain essential data for those events that are believed to have dropped significant meteorites. The mass of the largest surviving fragment for each event was estimated from the dynamic data near the end of the photographic trail. In 28 of these events, the mass of the largest fragment was found to be larger than 0.5 kg; these included the recovered Innisfree meteorite and three events with mass of about 10 kg. Sixteen events had mass estimates from 0.1 to 0.5 kg. Twelve other events were in the smaller mass range. Data are presented on height, velocity, brightness, ground location, and the orbit for each of the 44 events in the mass range 0.1-10 kg. Special attention is given to the probable degree of fragmentation during flight and the effects of flight geometry and the upper atmospheric winds on the expected 'ellipse of fall' distribution on the ground.

  5. Tales from the Field: Search Strategies Applied in Web Searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soohyung Joo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In their web search processes users apply multiple types of search strategies, which consist of different search tactics. This paper identifies eight types of information search strategies with associated cases based on sequences of search tactics during the information search process. Thirty-one participants representing the general public were recruited for this study. Search logs and verbal protocols offered rich data for the identification of different types of search strategies. Based on the findings, the authors further discuss how to enhance web-based information retrieval (IR systems to support each type of search strategy.

  6. Active Path Planning for Drones in Object Search

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zeyangyi

    2017-01-01

    Object searching is one of the most popular applications of unmanned aerial vehicles. Low cost small drones are particularly suited for surveying tasks in difficult conditions. With their limited on-board processing power and battery life, there is a need for more efficient search algorithm. The proposed path planning algorithm utilizes AZ-net, a deep learning network to process images captured on drones for adaptive flight path planning. Search simulation based on videos and actual experimen...

  7. A ?snapshot? of the visual search behaviours of medical sonographers

    OpenAIRE

    Carrigan, Ann J; Brennan, Patrick C; Pietrzyk, Mariusz; Clarke, Jillian; Chekaluk, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Visual search is a task that humans perform in everyday life. Whether it involves looking for a pen on a desk or a mass in a mammogram, the cognitive and perceptual processes that underpin these tasks are identical. Radiologists are experts in visual search of medical images and studies on their visual search behaviours have revealed some interesting findings with regard to diagnostic errors. In Australia, within the modality of ultrasound, sonographers perform the diag...

  8. The Search for Extraterrestrials Intercepting Alien Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Monte

    2009-01-01

    In The Search for Extraterrestrials, Monte Ross explores in detail the key problems in starting a search, the programs that have failed and those that continue. He includes the fundamental considerations and the physics of the necessary laser, UV, IR and RF technologies, as well as coding and information theory considerations. The author explores future possibilities providing the reader with a comprehensive view of the many ways signals from aliens could be sent and explains why the search using RF leaves more than 99% of the electromagnetic spectrum unexamined. He also demonstrates the many parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, considering the next likely steps in this unique enterprise. Given man’s intrinsic nature to explore, the search will continue in one form or many, until success is achieved, which may be tomorrow or a millennium away. In summary, Monte Ross proposes to get around the failure of a fruitless search at radio frequencies by developing, in a precise way, the argument for searching for...

  9. How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, Cory; Sierra, Tito; Boyer, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Academic libraries are turning increasingly to unified search solutions to simplify search and discovery of library resources. Unfortunately, very little research has been published on library user search behavior in single search box environments. This study examines how users search a large public university library using a prominent, single…

  10. In search of stardust amazing micrometeorites and their terrestrial imposters

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    In Search of Stardust is the first comprehensive popular science book about micrometeorites. It's illustrated with 1,500 previously unpublished images from high-resolution color microscopes and scanning electron microscopes.

  11. Composite Differential Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential search algorithm (DS is a relatively new evolutionary algorithm inspired by the Brownian-like random-walk movement which is used by an organism to migrate. It has been verified to be more effective than ABC, JDE, JADE, SADE, EPSDE, GSA, PSO2011, and CMA-ES. In this paper, we propose four improved solution search algorithms, namely “DS/rand/1,” “DS/rand/2,” “DS/current to rand/1,” and “DS/current to rand/2” to search the new space and enhance the convergence rate for the global optimization problem. In order to verify the performance of different solution search methods, 23 benchmark functions are employed. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs better than, or at least comparable to, the original algorithm when considering the quality of the solution obtained. However, these schemes cannot still achieve the best solution for all functions. In order to further enhance the convergence rate and the diversity of the algorithm, a composite differential search algorithm (CDS is proposed in this paper. This new algorithm combines three new proposed search schemes including “DS/rand/1,” “DS/rand/2,” and “DS/current to rand/1” with three control parameters using a random method to generate the offspring. Experiment results show that CDS has a faster convergence rate and better search ability based on the 23 benchmark functions.

  12. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  13. Image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical staining - Plabrain DB | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available List Contact us Plabrain DB Image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical... staining Data detail Data name Image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical...sion patterns by whole-mount in situ hybridication and also protein distribution by immunohistochemical...Images are displayed in A list of image files of planarians analyzed by in situ hybridication and immunohistochemical...le search URL - Data acquisition method Whole-mount in situ hybridication, immunohistochemical staining Data

  14. The Development of a Combined Search for a Heterogeneous Chemistry Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Jiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A combined search, which joins a slow molecule structure search with a fast compound property search, results in more accurate search results and has been applied in several chemistry databases. However, the problems of search speed differences and combining the two separate search results are two major challenges. In this paper, two kinds of search strategies, synchronous search and asynchronous search, are proposed to solve these problems in the heterogeneous structure database and the property database found in ChemDB, a chemistry database owned by the Institute of Process Engineering, CAS. Their advantages and disadvantages under different conditions are discussed in detail. Furthermore, we applied these two searches to ChemDB and used them to screen for potential molecules that can work as CO2 absorbents. The results reveal that this combined search discovers reasonable target molecules within an acceptable time frame.

  15. Magnetic monopole search experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental searches for the elusive magnetic monopole have extended over 50 years -- ever since Dirac showed that the existence of isolated magnetic charges could account for the observation of quantized electric charge. Early searches for Dirac's monopole were hampered since there was no indication of the expected monopole mass, velocity, or origin in the theory. Consequently, numerous experiments searched more or less blindly for relativistic low mass monopoles in the cosmic rays and in particle collisions at high energy accelerators. In this paper, the author reviews briefly the monopole properties which are relevant for their detection and summarize current experimental efforts using induction, ionization/excitation, and catalysis techniques

  16. Exotic searches at lep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seager, P.

    2001-01-01

    The search for exotic processes at LEP is presented. The Standard Model Higgs has as yet not been observed. This provides freedom to search for processes beyond the Standard Model and even beyond the minimal version of the supersymmetric extension to the Standard Model. This paper outlines the searches for charged Higgs bosons, fermiophobic Higgs bosons, invisibly decaying Higgs bosons, technicolor, leptoquarks, unstable heavy leptons and excited leptons. The results presented are those from the LEP collaborations using data taken up to a centre-of-mass energy of √s = 202 GeV. (author)

  17. Searching low and high

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Salter, Ammon

    2003-01-01

    AbstractThis paper examines the factors that influence whether firms draw from universities in theirinnovative activities. The link between the universities and industrial innovation, and the role ofdifferent search strategies in influencing the propensity of firms to use universities is explored.......The results suggest that firms who adopt `open' search strategies and invest in R&D are morelikely than other firms to draw from universities, indicating that managerial choice matters inshaping the propensity of firms to draw from universities.Key words: University-industry links, innovation, external search...

  18. Modified harmony search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Najihah; Lutfi Amri Ramli, Ahmad; Majid, Ahmad Abd; Piah, Abd Rahni Mt

    2017-09-01

    A metaheuristic algorithm, called Harmony Search is quite highly applied in optimizing parameters in many areas. HS is a derivative-free real parameter optimization algorithm, and draws an inspiration from the musical improvisation process of searching for a perfect state of harmony. Propose in this paper Modified Harmony Search for solving optimization problems, which employs a concept from genetic algorithm method and particle swarm optimization for generating new solution vectors that enhances the performance of HS algorithm. The performances of MHS and HS are investigated on ten benchmark optimization problems in order to make a comparison to reflect the efficiency of the MHS in terms of final accuracy, convergence speed and robustness.

  19. Search Analytics: Automated Learning, Analysis, and Search with Open Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundman, K.; Mattmann, C. A.; Hyon, J.; Ramirez, P.

    2016-12-01

    The sheer volume of unstructured scientific data makes comprehensive human analysis impossible, resulting in missed opportunities to identify relationships, trends, gaps, and outliers. As the open source community continues to grow, tools like Apache Tika, Apache Solr, Stanford's DeepDive, and Data-Driven Documents (D3) can help address this challenge. With a focus on journal publications and conference abstracts often in the form of PDF and Microsoft Office documents, we've initiated an exploratory NASA Advanced Concepts project aiming to use the aforementioned open source text analytics tools to build a data-driven justification for the HyspIRI Decadal Survey mission. We call this capability Search Analytics, and it fuses and augments these open source tools to enable the automatic discovery and extraction of salient information. In the case of HyspIRI, a hyperspectral infrared imager mission, key findings resulted from the extractions and visualizations of relationships from thousands of unstructured scientific documents. The relationships include links between satellites (e.g. Landsat 8), domain-specific measurements (e.g. spectral coverage) and subjects (e.g. invasive species). Using the above open source tools, Search Analytics mined and characterized a corpus of information that would be infeasible for a human to process. More broadly, Search Analytics offers insights into various scientific and commercial applications enabled through missions and instrumentation with specific technical capabilities. For example, the following phrases were extracted in close proximity within a publication: "In this study, hyperspectral images…with high spatial resolution (1 m) were analyzed to detect cutleaf teasel in two areas. …Classification of cutleaf teasel reached a users accuracy of 82 to 84%." Without reading a single paper we can use Search Analytics to automatically identify that a 1 m spatial resolution provides a cutleaf teasel detection users accuracy of 82

  20. Probing the Feature Map for Faces in Visual Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.