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Sample records for search ethanol site

  1. Comprehensive mechanism and structure-sensitivity of ethanol oxidation on platinum: new transition-state searching method for resolving the complex reaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-Fang; Liu, Zhi-Pan

    2008-08-20

    Ethanol oxidation on Pt is a typical multistep and multiselectivity heterogeneous catalytic process. A comprehensive understanding of this fundamental reaction would greatly benefit design of catalysts for use in direct ethanol fuel cells and the degradation of biomass-derived oxygenates. In this work, the reaction network of ethanol oxidation on different Pt surfaces, including close-packed Pt{111}, stepped Pt{211}, and open Pt{100}, is explored thoroughly with an efficient reaction path searching method, which integrates our new transition-state searching technique with periodic density functional theory calculations. Our new technique enables the location of the transition state and saddle points for most surface reactions simply and efficiently by optimization of local minima. We show that the selectivity of ethanol oxidation on Pt depends markedly on the surface structure, which can be attributed to the structure-sensitivity of two key reaction steps: (i) the initial dehydrogenation of ethanol and (ii) the oxidation of acetyl (CH3CO). On open surface sites, ethanol prefers C-C bond cleavage via strongly adsorbed intermediates (CH2CO or CHCO), which leads to complete oxidation to CO2. However, only partial oxidizations to CH3CHO and CH3COOH occur on Pt{111}. Our mechanism points out that the open surface Pt{100} is the best facet to fully oxidize ethanol at low coverages, which sheds light on the origin of the remarkable catalytic performance of Pt tetrahexahedra nanocrystals found recently. The physical origin of the structure-selectivity is rationalized in terms of both thermodynamics and kinetics. Two fundamental quantities that dictate the selectivity of ethanol oxidation are identified: (i) the ability of surface metal atoms to bond with unsaturated C-containing fragments and (ii) the relative stability of hydroxyl at surface atop sites with respect to other sites.

  2. Mutation of the inhibitory ethanol site in GABAA ρ1 receptors promotes tolerance to ethanol-induced motor incoordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Borghese, Cecilia M; Ruiz, Carlos I; Cullins, Madeline A; Da Costa, Adriana; Osterndorff-Kahanek, Elizabeth A; Homanics, Gregg E; Harris, R Adron

    2017-09-01

    Genes encoding the ρ1/2 subunits of GABA A receptors have been associated with alcohol (ethanol) dependence in humans, and ρ1 was also shown to regulate some of the behavioral effects of ethanol in animal models. Ethanol inhibits GABA-mediated responses in wild-type (WT) ρ1, but not ρ1(T6'Y) mutant receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, indicating the presence of an inhibitory site for ethanol in the second transmembrane helix. In this study, we found that ρ1(T6'Y) receptors expressed in oocytes display overall normal responses to GABA, the endogenous GABA modulator (zinc), and partial agonists (β-alanine and taurine). We generated ρ1 (T6'Y) knockin (KI) mice using CRISPR/Cas9 to test the behavioral importance of the inhibitory actions of ethanol on this receptor. Both ρ1 KI and knockout (KO) mice showed faster recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination compared to WT mice. Both KI and KO mutant strains also showed increased tolerance to motor impairment produced by ethanol. The KI mice did not differ from WT mice in other behavioral actions, including ethanol intake and preference, conditioned taste aversion to ethanol, and duration of ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex. WT and KI mice did not differ in levels of ρ1 or ρ2 mRNA in cerebellum or in ethanol clearance. Our findings indicate that the inhibitory site for ethanol in GABA A ρ1 receptors regulates acute functional tolerance to moderate ethanol intoxication. We note that low sensitivity to alcohol intoxication has been linked to risk for development of alcohol dependence in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modulation of ethanol-intake by morphine: Evidence for a central site of action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, K.D.; Reid, L.D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that subcutaneous administration of low doses of morphine increase, while subcutaneous naloxone decreases, ethanol-intake in rats. However, the site of action of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake remains unclear. In an attempt to elucidate this issue, seven graded doses of morphine were given intracerebroventricularly to rats 15 min prior to an opportunity to consume water and sweetened alcoholic beverage for 2 hr. Two lower doses of intracerebroventricular morphine reliably increased ethanol-intake, while higher doses decreased intake of water. Preference ratios were reliably increased by morphine doses of 1 {mu}g and higher. The present data provide support for a central site of morphine modulation of ethanol-intake.

  4. Siting Evaluation for Biomass-Ethanol Production in Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, C.M.; Zhou, J.

    2000-10-15

    This report examines four Hawaiian islands, Oahu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai, to identify three best combinations of potential sites and crops for producing dedicated supplies of biomass for conversion to ethanol. Key technical and economic factors considered in the siting evaluation include land availability (zoning and use), land suitability (agronomic conditions), potential quantities and costs of producing biomass feedstocks, infrastructure (including water and power supplies), transportation, and potential bioresidues to supplement dedicated energy crops.

  5. Search Our Site With Google

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Search Our Site With Google. Journal Home > Search Our Site With Google. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  6. Lignocellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: The impact of facility siting on competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, James D.; Mabee, Warren E.; Saddler, Jack N.

    2013-01-01

    Just as temperate region pulp and paper companies need to compete with Brazilian eucalyptus pulp producers, lignocellulosic biofuel producers in North America and Europe, in the absence of protectionist trade policies, will need to be competitive with tropical and sub-tropical biofuel producers. This work sought to determine the impact of lignocellulosic ethanol biorefinery siting on economic performance and minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) for both east and west coast North American fuel markets. Facility sites included the pine-dominated Pacific Northwest Interior, the mixed deciduous forest of Ontario and New York, and the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Feedstock scenarios included both plantation (poplar, willow, and eucalyptus, respectively) and managed forest harvest. Site specific variables in the techno-economic model included delivered feedstock cost, ethanol delivery cost, cost of capital, construction cost, labour cost, electricity revenues (and co-product credits), and taxes, insurance, and permits. Despite the long shipping distance from Brazil to North American east and west coast markets, the MESP for Brazilian-produced eucalyptus lignocellulosic ethanol, modelled at $0.74 L −1 , was notably lower than that of all North American-produced cases at $0.83–1.02 L −1 . - Highlights: • Lignocellulosic ethanol production costs vary notably by region. • Feedstock cost is the primary site-specific production cost variable. • Woody feedstocks in North America have a higher cost than those in Brazil. • Use of Brazilian eucalyptus resulted in the lowest MESP for considered feedstocks. • MESP ranged from −1 to >$1.00 L −1

  7. Mastering Search Analytics Measuring SEO, SEM and Site Search

    CERN Document Server

    Chaters, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Many companies still approach Search Engine Optimization (SEO) and paid search as separate initiatives. This in-depth guide shows you how to use these programs as part of a comprehensive strategy-not just to improve your site's search rankings, but to attract the right people and increase your conversion rate. Learn how to measure, test, analyze, and interpret all of your search data with a wide array of analytic tools. Gain the knowledge you need to determine the strategy's return on investment. Ideal for search specialists, webmasters, and search marketing managers, Mastering Search Analyt

  8. Search Analytics for Your Site

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Any organization that has a searchable web site or intranet is sitting on top of hugely valuable and usually under-exploited data: logs that capture what users are searching for, how often each query was searched, and how many results each query retrieved. Search queries are gold: they are real data that show us exactly what users are searching for in their own words. This book shows you how to use search analytics to carry on a conversation with your customers: listen to and understand their needs, and improve your content, navigation and search performance to meet those needs.

  9. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  10. Getting to Yes or Bailing on No: The Site Selection Process of Ethanol Plants in Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigges, Leann M.; Noble, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of ethanol location rest on the assumption that ethanol producers are economic free agents--evaluating sites as if all counties are contenders for their business, weighing the availability of feedstocks along with their infrastructure needs, operating without ties to localities, and being subject to enticement from policy incentives.…

  11. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  12. Hydrogen production by ethanol steam reforming over co-hydrotalcites having basic sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico City (Mexico); Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Inst. Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico); Contreras, J.L.; Salmones, J.; Garcia, L.A.; Ponce, A.; Zeifert, B.; Fuentes, G.A. [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The catalytic steam reforming process can be used to produce hydrogen from ethanol for use in fuel cells. In comparison to methanol or gasoline, ethanol offers many advantages, notably, it is a renewable resource and neutral with respect to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}); it is less toxic; it can be readily stored without handling risk; and it can be obtained in large quantities from biomass. The reaction of ethanol with steam is strongly endothermic and can form undesirable products during the reaction. This article presented a study that combined, for the first time, the catalytic properties of cobalt (Co) with a new family of supports that are the hydrotalcites of high surface area and with basic sites. Co/Hydrotalcite catalysts were prepared, characterized and evaluated during the steam reforming of ethanol from 500 to 650 degrees Celsius. The article discussed the experiment, including the preparation of catalysts; characterization of solids; and catalytic evaluation. Scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies were also described. Results were described in terms of area and pore volume distribution; thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis; temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO{sub 2}; scanning electron microscopy; x-ray diffraction; the crystalline nature of cobalt; and ethanol steam-reforming reaction. It was concluded that the Co concentration was enriched on the hydrotalcite surface. In addition, a direct relationship between the Co concentration and the total basicity was found. A direct relationship between basicity and the conversion was also found. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. Modification site localization scoring integrated into a search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Peter R; Trinidad, Jonathan C; Chalkley, Robert J

    2011-07-01

    Large proteomic data sets identifying hundreds or thousands of modified peptides are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Several methods for assessing the reliability of peptide identifications both at the individual peptide or data set level have become established. However, tools for measuring the confidence of modification site assignments are sparse and are not often employed. A few tools for estimating phosphorylation site assignment reliabilities have been developed, but these are not integral to a search engine, so require a particular search engine output for a second step of processing. They may also require use of a particular fragmentation method and are mostly only applicable for phosphorylation analysis, rather than post-translational modifications analysis in general. In this study, we present the performance of site assignment scoring that is directly integrated into the search engine Protein Prospector, which allows site assignment reliability to be automatically reported for all modifications present in an identified peptide. It clearly indicates when a site assignment is ambiguous (and if so, between which residues), and reports an assignment score that can be translated into a reliability measure for individual site assignments.

  14. Unravelling Site-Specific Photo-Reactions of Ethanol on Rutile TiO2(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jonas Ø.; Bebensee, Regine; Martinez, Umberto; Porsgaard, Soeren; Lira, Estephania; Wei, Yinying; Lammich, Lutz; Li, Zheshen; Idriss, Hicham; Besenbacher, Flemming; Hammer, Bjørk; Wendt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Finding the active sites of catalysts and photo-catalysts is crucial for an improved fundamental understanding and the development of efficient catalytic systems. Here we have studied the photo-activated dehydrogenation of ethanol on reduced and oxidized rutile TiO2(110) in ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Utilizing scanning tunnelling microscopy, various spectroscopic techniques and theoretical calculations we found that the photo-reaction proceeds most efficiently when the reactants are adsorbed on regular Ti surface sites, whereas species that are strongly adsorbed at surface defects such as O vacancies and step edges show little reaction under reducing conditions. We propose that regular Ti surface sites are the most active sites in photo-reactions on TiO2. PMID:26915303

  15. High field 27Al MAS NMR and TPD studies of active sites in ethanol dehydration using thermally treated transitional aluminas as catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Xu, Suochang; Kwak, Ja Hun; Hu, Mary Y.; Wan, Chuan; Zhao, Zhenchao; Szanyi, Janos; Bao, Xinhe; Han, Xiuwen; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles H. F.

    2016-04-01

    High field quantitative 27Al MAS NMR and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ethanol are used to study the surface and phase transformation of gamma-Al2O3 during calcination in the temperature range of 500 to 1300 degrees C. Following ethanol adsorption, ethylene is generated during TPD with a desorption temperature > 200 degrees C. With increasing calcination temperature prior to TPD, the amount of ethylene produced decreases monotonically. Significantly, 27Al MAS NMR reveals that the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions (Lewis acid sites) also decreases with increasing calcination temperature. In fact, a strong correlation between the amount of penta-coordinate Al3+ ions and the amount of strongly adsorbed ethanol molecules (i.e., the ones that convert to ethylene during TPD) is obtained. This result indicates that the penta-coordinate aluminum sites are the catalytic active sites on alumina surfaces during ethanol dehydration reaction across the entire course of gamma- to alpha-Al2O3 phase transformations.

  16. Process design and economics of on-site cellulase production on various carbon sources in a softwood-based ethanol plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Kovacs, Krisztina; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-06-28

    On-site cellulase enzyme fermentation in a softwood-to-ethanol process, based on SO(2)-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, was investigated from a techno-economic aspect using Aspen Plus© and Aspen Icarus Process Evaluator© softwares. The effect of varying the carbon source of enzyme fermentation, at constant protein and mycelium yields, was monitored through the whole process. Enzyme production step decreased the overall ethanol yield (270 L/dry tonne of raw material in the case of purchased enzymes) by 5-16 L/tonne. Capital cost was found to be the main cost contributor to enzyme fermentation, constituting to 60-78% of the enzyme production cost, which was in the range of 0.42-0.53 SEK/L ethanol. The lowest minimum ethanol selling prices (4.71 and 4.82 SEK/L) were obtained in those scenarios, where pretreated liquid fraction supplemented with molasses was used as carbon source. In some scenarios, on-site enzyme fermentation was found to be a feasible alternative.

  17. Discovering How Students Search a Library Web Site: A Usability Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Susan; Greene, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    Discusses results of a usability study at the University of Illinois Chicago that investigated whether Internet search engines have influenced the way students search library Web sites. Results show students use the Web site's internal search engine rather than navigating through the pages; have difficulty interpreting library terminology; and…

  18. Dynamics of a macroscopic model characterizing mutualism of search engines and web sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanshi; Wu, Hong

    2006-05-01

    We present a model to describe the mutualism relationship between search engines and web sites. In the model, search engines and web sites benefit from each other while the search engines are derived products of the web sites and cannot survive independently. Our goal is to show strategies for the search engines to survive in the internet market. From mathematical analysis of the model, we show that mutualism does not always result in survival. We show various conditions under which the search engines would tend to extinction, persist or grow explosively. Then by the conditions, we deduce a series of strategies for the search engines to survive in the internet market. We present conditions under which the initial number of consumers of the search engines has little contribution to their persistence, which is in agreement with the results in previous works. Furthermore, we show novel conditions under which the initial value plays an important role in the persistence of the search engines and deduce new strategies. We also give suggestions for the web sites to cooperate with the search engines in order to form a win-win situation.

  19. Site study plan for borehole search and characterization, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This site study plan describes the Borehole Search and Characterization field activities to be conducted during the early stages of Site Characterization at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. The field program has been designed to provide data useful in addressing information/data needs resulting from Federal/State/Local regulatory requirements and repository program requirements. Air and ground surveys, an extensive literature search, and landowner interviews will be conducted to locate wells within and adjacent to the proposed nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County. Initially, the study will center around the planned Exploratory Shaft Facilities location and will expand outward from that location. Findings from this study may lead to preparation of a new site study plan to search suspected borehole locations, and excavate or reenter known boreholes for additional characterization or remedial action. The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Networks specify the schedule under which the program will operate. The Technical Field Services Contractor (TFSC) is responsible for conducting the field program. Data will be handled and reported in accordance with established SRP procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that appropriate documentation is maintained. 13 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  20. The Effectiveness of Web Search Engines to Index New Sites from Different Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkola, Ari

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Investigates how effectively Web search engines index new sites from different countries. The primary interest is whether new sites are indexed equally or whether search engines are biased towards certain countries. If major search engines show biased coverage it can be considered a significant economic and political problem because…

  1. Oxidative and Non-Oxidative Metabolomics of Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Jorge Dinis Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is well known that ethanol can cause significant morbidity and mortality, and much of the related toxic effects can be explained by its metabolic profile. Objective: This work performs a complete review of the metabolism of ethanol focusing on both major and minor metabolites. Method: An exhaustive literature search was carried out using textual and structural queries for ethanol and related known metabolizing enzymes and metabolites. Results: The main pathway of metabolism is ...

  2. Manually Classifying User Search Queries on an Academic Library Web Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Suzanne; Desai, Shevon; Hagedorn, Kat; Varnum, Ken; Mishra, Sonali; Piacentine, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The University of Michigan Library wanted to learn more about the kinds of searches its users were conducting through the "one search" search box on the Library Web site. Library staff conducted two investigations. A preliminary investigation in 2011 involved the manual review of the 100 most frequently occurring queries conducted…

  3. Federated Search and the Library Web Site: A Study of Association of Research Libraries Member Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sarah C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how federated search engines are incorporated into the Web sites of libraries in the Association of Research Libraries. In 2009, information was gathered for each library in the Association of Research Libraries with a federated search engine. This included the name of the federated search service and…

  4. Influence and role of ethanol minor constituents of fuel grade ethanol on corrosion behavior of carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samusawa, Itaru; Shiotani, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The pitting factors of the minor contents of ethanol are acetic acid, Cl and H 2 O. • Formic acid in ethanol promotes general corrosion. • The H 2 O content in fuel-grade-ethanol (FGE) affects the corrosion morphology. • Acetic acid generates iron acetate, which has high solubility in FGE environments. • A pitting mechanism based on the rupture of passive film is proposed. - Abstract: The influences of organic acids, chloride and water on the corrosion behavior of carbon steel in fuel grade ethanol (FGE) environments were investigated by immersion testing in simulated FGE. The roles of acetic acid, chloride and water in pitting corrosion were studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and electrochemical experiments. The results indicated that iron acetate is generated on oxide film. Iron(II) acetate shows high solubility in FGE environments. The sites where iron(II) acetate is existed become preferential anodic sites, and chloride promotes anodic dissolution at such sites

  5. Financing of the site search by a public corporation (organization model)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmer, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper is focussed on the development of a concept concerning the final deposit of radioactive waste in Germany in connection with the search of an appropriate site for the repository. The main features of the so called organization model are described, the financing of the site search under constitutional law and the principles of tax law is discussed in this context. Other topics are the legitimacy of a final disposal organization in the form of a public corporation with compulsory membership including unconstitutional contributions, and aspects of basic rights and constitutional legality

  6. Electron transport in ethanol & methanol absorbed defected graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandeliya, Sushmita; Srivastava, Anurag

    2018-05-01

    In the present paper, the sensitivity of ethanol and methanol molecules on surface of single vacancy defected graphene has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The changes in structural and electronic properties before and after adsorption of ethanol and methanol were analyzed and the obtained results show high adsorption energy and charge transfer. High adsorption happens at the active site with monovacancy defect on graphene surface. Present work confirms that the defected graphene increases the surface reactivity towards ethanol and methanol molecules. The presence of molecules near the active site affects the electronic and transport properties of defected graphene which makes it a promising choice for designing methanol and ethanol sensor.

  7. Study of ethanol-lysozyme interactions using neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, M.S.; Mason, S.A.; McIntyre, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Single-crystal neutron diffraction has been used to observe the interactions between deuterated ethanol (CD3CD2OH) and lysozyme in triclinic crystals of hen egg white lysozyme soaked in 25% (v/v) ethanol solutions. A total of 6047 observed reflections to a resolution of 2 A were used, and 13 possible ethanol sites were identified. The three highest occupied sites are close to locations for bromoethanol found in an earlier study by Yonath et al. [Yonath, A., Podjarny, A., Honig, B., Traub, W., Sielecki, A., Herzberg, O., and Moult, J. (1978) Biophys. Struct. Mech. 4, 27-36]. Structure refinements including a model for the flat solvent lead to a final crystallographic agreement factor of 0.097. Comparison with earlier neutron studies on triclinic lysozyme showed that neither the molecular structure nor the thermal motions were affected significantly by the ethanol. A detailed analysis of the ethanol-lysozyme contacts showed 61% of these to be with hydrophobic sites, in agreement with the dominant hydrophobic nature of ethanol. This, together with the fact that the molecular structure of lysozyme is not perturbed, suggests a model for denaturation of lysozyme by alcohol, which proceeds via a dehydration of the protein at high alcohol concentration

  8. Strategic design and investment capacity planning of the ethanol supply chain under price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dal-Mas, Matteo; Giarola, Sara; Zamboni, Andrea; Bezzo, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuel depletion and the increase of greenhouse gases emissions has been pushing the search for alternative fuels for automotive transport. The European Union has identified biofuel technology as one option for reducing its dependence on imported energy. Ethanol is a promising biofuel, but great uncertainty on the business profitability has recently determined a slowdown in the industry expansion. In particular, geographical plant location, biomass price fluctuation and fuel demand variability severely constrain the economic viability of new ethanol facilities. In this work a dynamic, spatially explicit and multi-echelon Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) modeling framework is presented to help decision-makers and potential investors assessing economic performances and risk on investment of the entire biomass-based ethanol supply chain. A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production supply chain in Northern Italy is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach. The mathematical pattern addresses the issue of optimizing the ethanol supply network over a ten years' time period under uncertainty on biomass production cost and product selling price. The model allows optimizing economic performances and minimize financial risk on investment by identifying the best network topology in terms of biomass cultivation site locations, ethanol production plant capacities, location and transport logistics. -- Highlights: →A dynamic spatially explicit Mixed Integer Linear Program (MILP) of the entire corn-based ethanol supply chain is proposed. →Uncertainty on corn price and ethanol selling price is taken into account. →The model allows assessing and optimizing the supply chain economic performance and risk on investment. →A case study concerning the corn-to-ethanol production in Northern Italy demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. Oxidative and Non-Oxidative Metabolomics of Ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that ethanol can cause significant morbidity and mortality, and much of the related toxic effects can be explained by its metabolic profile. This work performs a complete review of the metabolism of ethanol focusing on both major and minor metabolites. An exhaustive literature search was carried out using textual and structural queries for ethanol and related known metabolizing enzymes and metabolites. The main pathway of metabolism is catalyzed by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, which exhibits multiple isoenzymes and genetic polymorphisms with clinical and forensic implications. Another two oxidative routes, the highly inducible CYP2E1 system and peroxisomal catalase may acquire relevance under specific circumstances. In addition to oxidative metabolism, ethanol also originates minor metabolites such as ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, ethyl phosphate, ethyl nitrite, phosphatidylethanol and fatty acid ethyl esters. These metabolites represent alternative biomarkers since they can be detected several hours or days after ethanol exposure. It is expected that knowing the metabolomics of ethanol may provide additional insights to better understand the toxicological effects and the variability of dose response.

  10. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd-Ni active site distance in Pd-Ni-P nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (~5 nm) Pd-Ni-P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni-P heterodimers into Pd-Ni-P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites.

  11. Human Detection and Classification of Landing Sites for Search and Rescue Drones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Martins, Felipe; de Groot, Marc; Stokkel, Xeryus; Wiering, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Search and rescue is often time and labour intensive. We present a system to be used in drones to make search and rescue operations more effective. The system uses a drone downward facing camera to detect people and to evaluate potential sites as being safe or not for the drone to land. Histogram of

  12. Simulating multi-component liquid phase adsorption systems: ethanol and residual sugar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.; Tezel, F.H.; Thibault, J. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa (Canada)], email: Jules.Thibault@uottawa.ca

    2011-07-01

    A series of multi-component adsorption studies was performed to determine the relative advantages of producing ethanol which is to be blended with gasoline. These studies developed a model to describe the competition for adsorption sites between ethanol and sugar molecules on the surface of the adsorbent. Three competitive adsorption models established by batch systems were examined to evaluate the suitability of the experiment data across different ethanol and sugar concentrations and determine their isotherm parameters. Multi-component packed bed adsorption experiments were then performed. The results show that ethanol capacity was decreased only slightly from that obtained in single component adsorption studies. There is significant evidence to indicate that sugar displacement from adsorption sites occurs because adsorption of ethanol is preferred. So the capacity of sugars will be greatly reduced if there are appreciable ethanol concentrations.

  13. Establishing an ethanol production business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Many Saskatchewan communities are interested in the potential benefits of establishing an ethanol production facility. A guide is presented to outline areas that communities should consider when contemplating the development of an ethanol production facility. Political issues affecting the ethanol industry are discussed including environmental impacts, United States legislation, Canadian legislation, and government incentives. Key success factors in starting a business, project management, marketing, financing, production, physical requirements, and licensing and regulation are considered. Factors which must be taken into consideration by the project manager and team include markets for ethanol and co-products, competent business management staff, equity partners for financing, production and co-product utilization technologies, integration with another facility such as a feedlot or gluten plant, use of outside consultants, and feedstock, water, energy, labour, environmental and site size requirements. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Ethanol Production from Enzymatically Treated Dried Food Waste Using Enzymes Produced On-Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Matsakas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental crisis and the need to find renewable fuel alternatives have made production of biofuels an important priority. At the same time, the increasing production of food waste is an important environmental issue. For this reason, production of ethanol from food waste is an interesting approach. Volumes of food waste are reduced and ethanol production does not compete with food production. In this work, we evaluated the possibility of using source-separated household food waste for the production of ethanol. To minimize the cost of ethanol production, the hydrolytic enzymes that are necessary for cellulose hydrolysis were produced in-house using the thermophillic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila. At the initial stage of the study, production of these thermophilic enzymes was studied and optimized, resulting in an activity of 0.28 FPU/mL in the extracellular broth. These enzymes were used to saccharify household food waste at a high dry material consistency of 30% w/w, followed by fermentation. Ethanol production reached 19.27 g/L with a volumetric productivity of 0.92 g/L·h, whereas only 5.98 g/L of ethanol was produced with a volumetric productivity of 0.28 g/L·h when no enzymatic saccharification was used.

  15. Internal energy selection in vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of ethanol and ethanol dimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Andras

    2013-10-01

    Internal energy selected ethanol monomer and ethanol dimer ions were prepared by threshold photoionization of a supersonic molecular beam seeded with ethanol. The dissociative photoionization processes of the monomer, the lowest-energy CH3-loss channel of the dimer, and the fragmentation of larger clusters were found to be disjunct from the ionization onset to about 12 eV, which made it possible to determine the 0 K appearance energy of C-C bond breaking in the H-donor unit of the ethanol dimer cation as 9.719 ± 0.004 eV. This reaction energy is used together with ab initio calculations in a thermochemical cycle to determine the binding energy change from the neutral ethanol dimer to a protonated ethanol-formaldehyde adduct. The cycle also shows general agreement between experiment, theory, and previously published enthalpies of formation. The role of the initial ionization site, or rather the initial photoion state, is also discussed based on the dimer breakdown diagram and excited state calculations. There is no evidence for isolated state behavior, and the ethanol dimer dissociative photoionization processes appear to be governed by statistical theory and the ground electronic state of the ion. In the monomer breakdown diagram, the smoothly changing branching ratio between H and CH3 loss is at odds with rate theory predictions, and shows that none of the currently employed few-parameter rate models, appropriate for experimental rate curve fitting, yields a correct description for this process in the experimental energy range.

  16. TPO characterization of ethanol reduced Pd nanoparticles supported on SiO$_{2}$

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, A; Sarkany, A; Guczi, L

    2002-01-01

    Silica-supported Pd catalysts were prepared at 298-353 K from Pd(II) chloride or Pd(II) acetate in suspension of SiO/sub 2/ and ethanol- water or ethanol-toluene mixtures, respectively. Reduction of Pd ions diffusing from liquid phase was ensured in an ethanol-rich adsorption layer covering the SiO/sub 2/ particles. Temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) measurements were performed to characterize the organic impurities retained by solid phase. Vapour phase reduction /adsorption experiments with ethanol confirmed that under the reported reduction conditions, the Pd nanoparticles decompose ethanol and the CO formed remains chemisorbed on the Pd sites. Upon contacting the samples with air during the drying process to eliminate the solvent, the CO molecules are immediately removed from Pd sites by O/sub 2/, and thereby, a significant fraction (22-34%) of Pd sites becomes accessible for catalytic reactions. (33 refs).

  17. Effects of Ethanol on the Cerebellum: Advances and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol abuse causes cerebellar dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia is a common feature in alcoholics. Alcohol exposure during development also impacts the cerebellum. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) show many symptoms associated specifically with cerebellar deficits. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear. This special issue discusses the most recent advances in the study of mechanisms underlying alcoholinduced cerebellar deficits. The alteration in GABAA receptor-dependent neurotransmission is a potential mechanism for ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction. Recent advances indicate ethanol-induced increases in GABA release are not only in Purkinje cells (PCs), but also in molecular layer interneurons and granule cells. Ethanol is shown to disrupt the molecular events at the mossy fiber - granule cell - Golgi cell (MGG) synaptic site and granule cell parallel fibers - PCs (GPP) synaptic site, which may be responsible for ethanol-induced cerebellar ataxia. Aging and ethanol may affect the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) of PC dendrites and cause dendritic regression. Ethanol withdrawal causes mitochondrial damage and aberrant gene modifications in the cerebellum. The interaction between these events may result in neuronal degeneration, thereby contributing to motoric deficit. Ethanol activates doublestranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and PKR activation is involved ethanolinduced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity in the developing cerebellum. Ethanol alters the development of cerebellar circuitry following the loss of PCs, which could result in modifications of the structure and function of other brain regions that receive cerebellar inputs. Lastly, choline, an essential nutrient is evaluated for its potential protection against ethanol-induced cerebellar damages. Choline is shown to ameliorate ethanol-induced cerebellar dysfunction when given before ethanol exposure.

  18. Improved ethanol electrooxidation performance by shortening Pd–Ni active site distance in Pd–Ni–P nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Lu, Lilin; Zhu, Hengli; Chen, Yueguang; Huang, Yu; Li, Yadong; Wang, Leyu

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating oxophilic metals into noble metal-based catalysts represents an emerging strategy to improve the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts in fuel cells. However, effects of the distance between the noble metal and oxophilic metal active sites on the catalytic performance have rarely been investigated. Herein, we report on ultrasmall (∼5 nm) Pd–Ni–P ternary nanoparticles for ethanol electrooxidation. The activity is improved up to 4.95 A per mgPd, which is 6.88 times higher than commercial Pd/C (0.72 A per mgPd), by shortening the distance between Pd and Ni active sites, achieved through shape transformation from Pd/Ni–P heterodimers into Pd–Ni–P nanoparticles and tuning the Ni/Pd atomic ratio to 1:1. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the improved activity and stability stems from the promoted production of free OH radicals (on Ni active sites) which facilitate the oxidative removal of carbonaceous poison and combination with CH3CO radicals on adjacent Pd active sites. PMID:28071650

  19. Internet Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Fatmaa El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2004-01-01

    A general study about the internet search engines, the study deals main 7 points; the differance between search engines and search directories, components of search engines, the percentage of sites covered by search engines, cataloging of sites, the needed time for sites appearance in search engines, search capabilities, and types of search engines.

  20. Reduced step edges on rutile TiO (110) as competing defects to oxygen vacancies on the terraces and reactive sites for ethanol dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, U.; Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira

    2012-01-01

    microscopy studies, we here present experimental evidence for the existence of O vacancies along the ⟨11̅ 1⟩R step edges (OS vac.’s) on rutile TiO2(110). Both the distribution of bridging O vacancies on the terraces and temperature-programed reaction experiments of ethanol-covered TiO2(110) point...... to the existence of the OS vac.’s. Based on experiments and density functional theory calculations, we show that OS vac.’s are reactive sites for ethanol dissociation via O-H bond scission. Implications of these findings are discussed...

  1. The Effect of Surface Site Ensembles on the Activity and Selectivity of Ethanol Electrooxidation by Octahedral PtNiRh Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erini, Nina; Beermann, Vera; Gocyla, Martin; Gliech, Manuel; Heggen, Marc; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Strasser, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Direct ethanol fuel cells are attractive power sources based on a biorenewable, high energy-density fuel. Their efficiency is limited by the lack of active anode materials which catalyze the breaking of the C-C bond coupled to the 12-electron oxidation to CO 2 . We report shape-controlled PtNiRh octahedral ethanol oxidation electrocatalysts with excellent activity and previously unachieved low onset potentials as low as 0.1 V vs. RHE, while being highly selective to complete oxidation to CO 2 . Our comprehensive characterization and in situ electrochemical ATR studies suggest that the formation of a ternary surface site ensemble around the octahedral Pt 3 Ni 1 Rh x nanoparticles plays a crucial mechanistic role for this behavior. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. BSSF: a fingerprint based ultrafast binding site similarity search and function analysis server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hualiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing and post-genomics projects such as structural genomics are extending the frontier of the study of sequence-structure-function relationship of genes and their products. Although many sequence/structure-based methods have been devised with the aim of deciphering this delicate relationship, there still remain large gaps in this fundamental problem, which continuously drives researchers to develop novel methods to extract relevant information from sequences and structures and to infer the functions of newly identified genes by genomics technology. Results Here we present an ultrafast method, named BSSF(Binding Site Similarity & Function, which enables researchers to conduct similarity searches in a comprehensive three-dimensional binding site database extracted from PDB structures. This method utilizes a fingerprint representation of the binding site and a validated statistical Z-score function scheme to judge the similarity between the query and database items, even if their similarities are only constrained in a sub-pocket. This fingerprint based similarity measurement was also validated on a known binding site dataset by comparing with geometric hashing, which is a standard 3D similarity method. The comparison clearly demonstrated the utility of this ultrafast method. After conducting the database searching, the hit list is further analyzed to provide basic statistical information about the occurrences of Gene Ontology terms and Enzyme Commission numbers, which may benefit researchers by helping them to design further experiments to study the query proteins. Conclusions This ultrafast web-based system will not only help researchers interested in drug design and structural genomics to identify similar binding sites, but also assist them by providing further analysis of hit list from database searching.

  3. Integrating enzyme fermentation in lignocellulosic ethanol production: life-cycle assessment and techno-economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Johanna; Barta, Zsolt; Börjesson, Pål; Wallberg, Ola

    2017-01-01

    Cellulase enzymes have been reported to contribute with a significant share of the total costs and greenhouse gas emissions of lignocellulosic ethanol production today. A potential future alternative to purchasing enzymes from an off-site manufacturer is to integrate enzyme and ethanol production, using microorganisms and part of the lignocellulosic material as feedstock for enzymes. This study modelled two such integrated process designs for ethanol from logging residues from spruce production, and compared it to an off-site case based on existing data regarding purchased enzymes. Greenhouse gas emissions and primary energy balances were studied in a life-cycle assessment, and cost performance in a techno-economic analysis. The base case scenario suggests that greenhouse gas emissions per MJ of ethanol could be significantly lower in the integrated cases than in the off-site case. However, the difference between the integrated and off-site cases is reduced with alternative assumptions regarding enzyme dosage and the environmental impact of the purchased enzymes. The comparison of primary energy balances did not show any significant difference between the cases. The minimum ethanol selling price, to reach break-even costs, was from 0.568 to 0.622 EUR L -1 for the integrated cases, as compared to 0.581 EUR L -1 for the off-site case. An integrated process design could reduce greenhouse gas emissions from lignocellulose-based ethanol production, and the cost of an integrated process could be comparable to purchasing enzymes produced off-site. This study focused on the environmental and economic assessment of an integrated process, and in order to strengthen the comparison to the off-site case, more detailed and updated data regarding industrial off-site enzyme production are especially important.

  4. Phytoremediation potential of willow tress for aquifers contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corseuil, H.X. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental; Moreno, F.N. [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, Palhoca (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e das Engenharias

    2001-07-01

    Ethanol-blended gasoline has been used in Brazil for 20 years and, probably, is going to be more widely used in North America due to the MtBE environmental effects on groundwater. The potential impacts caused by the presence of ethanol in UST spills are related to the co-solvency effect and the preferential degradation of ethanol over the BTEX compounds. These interactions may increase the length of dissolved hydrocarbon plumes and the costs associated with site remediation. This study investigates the advantages of phytoremediation to overcome the problems associated with the presence of ethanol in groundwater contaminated with gasoline-ethanol mixtures. Experiments were performed under lab conditions with cuttings of Willow tree (Salix babylonica) cultivated hydroponically. Results showed that the cuttings were able to reduce ethanol and benzene concentrations by more than 99% in less than a week. The uptake of both contaminants was confirmed by blank controls and was significantly related to cuttings transpiration capacity. Sorption onto roots biomass also markedly affected the behavior of contaminants in solution. Experiments to evaluate plants' toxicity to ethanol indicated that plants were only affected when aqueous ethanol concentration reached 2000mgl{sup -1}. Results suggest that phytoremediation can be a good complement to intrinsic remediation in shallow aquifer sites contaminated with ethanol-blended gasoline spills. (Author)

  5. Effect of adaptation to ethanol on cytoplasmic and membrane protein profiles of Oenococcus oeni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Baumgärtner, M.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    The practical application of commercial malolactic starter cultures of Oenococcus oeni surviving direct inoculation in wine requires insight into mechanisms of ethanol toxicity and of acquired ethanol tolerance in this organism. Therefore, the site-specific location of proteins involved in ethanol

  6. Tolerance to and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, A C; Burch, J B; de Fiebre, C M; Marks, M J

    1988-02-01

    Female DBA mice were subjected to one of four treatments: ethanol-containing or control diets, nicotine (0.2, 1.0, 5.0 mg/kg/hr) infusion or saline infusion. After removal from the liquid diets or cessation of infusion, the animals were challenged with an acute dose of ethanol or nicotine. Chronic ethanol-fed mice were tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature and open field activity and were cross tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and heart rate. Nicotine infused animals were tolerant to the effects of nicotine on body temperature and rotarod performance and were cross tolerant to the effects of ethanol on body temperature. Ethanol-induced sleep time was decreased in chronic ethanol- but not chronic nicotine-treated mice. Chronic drug treatment did not alter the elimination rate of either drug. Chronic ethanol treatment did not alter the number or affinity of brain nicotinic receptors whereas chronic nicotine treatment elicited an increase in the number of [3H]-nicotine binding sites. Tolerance and cross tolerance between ethanol and nicotine is discussed in terms of potential effects on desensitization of brain nicotinic receptors.

  7. Ethanol-Induced Changes in PKCε: From Cell to Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakri Mohamed, Rashidi M; Mokhtar, Mohd H; Yap, Ernie; Hanim, Athirah; Abdul Wahab, Norhazlina; Jaffar, Farah H F; Kumar, Jaya

    2018-01-01

    The long-term binge intake of ethanol causes neuroadaptive changes that lead to drinkers requiring higher amounts of ethanol to experience its effects. This neuroadaptation can be partly attributed to the modulation of numerous neurotransmitter receptors by the various protein kinases C (PKCs). PKCs are enzymes that control cellular activities by regulating other proteins via phosphorylation. Among the various isoforms of PKC, PKCε is the most implicated in ethanol-induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Ethanol exposure causes changes to PKCε expression and localization in various brain regions that mediate addiction-favoring plasticity. Ethanol works in conjunction with numerous upstream kinases and second messenger activators to affect cellular PKCε expression. Chauffeur proteins, such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs), cause the translocation of PKCε to aberrant sites and mediate ethanol-induced changes. In this article, we aim to review the following: the general structure and function of PKCε, ethanol-induced changes in PKCε expression, the regulation of ethanol-induced PKCε activities in DAG-dependent and DAG-independent environments, the mechanisms underlying PKCε-RACKε translocation in the presence of ethanol, and the existing literature on the role of PKCε in ethanol-induced neurobehavioral changes, with the goal of creating a working model upon which further research can build.

  8. Ethanol-Induced Changes in PKCε: From Cell to Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidi M. Pakri Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term binge intake of ethanol causes neuroadaptive changes that lead to drinkers requiring higher amounts of ethanol to experience its effects. This neuroadaptation can be partly attributed to the modulation of numerous neurotransmitter receptors by the various protein kinases C (PKCs. PKCs are enzymes that control cellular activities by regulating other proteins via phosphorylation. Among the various isoforms of PKC, PKCε is the most implicated in ethanol-induced biochemical and behavioral changes. Ethanol exposure causes changes to PKCε expression and localization in various brain regions that mediate addiction-favoring plasticity. Ethanol works in conjunction with numerous upstream kinases and second messenger activators to affect cellular PKCε expression. Chauffeur proteins, such as receptors for activated C kinase (RACKs, cause the translocation of PKCε to aberrant sites and mediate ethanol-induced changes. In this article, we aim to review the following: the general structure and function of PKCε, ethanol-induced changes in PKCε expression, the regulation of ethanol-induced PKCε activities in DAG-dependent and DAG-independent environments, the mechanisms underlying PKCε-RACKε translocation in the presence of ethanol, and the existing literature on the role of PKCε in ethanol-induced neurobehavioral changes, with the goal of creating a working model upon which further research can build.

  9. Rapid broad area search and detection of Chinese surface-to-air missile sites using deep convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcum, Richard A.; Davis, Curt H.; Scott, Grant J.; Nivin, Tyler W.

    2017-10-01

    We evaluated how deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN) could assist in the labor-intensive process of human visual searches for objects of interest in high-resolution imagery over large areas of the Earth's surface. Various DCNN were trained and tested using fewer than 100 positive training examples (China only) from a worldwide surface-to-air-missile (SAM) site dataset. A ResNet-101 DCNN achieved a 98.2% average accuracy for the China SAM site data. The ResNet-101 DCNN was used to process ˜19.6 M image chips over a large study area in southeastern China. DCNN chip detections (˜9300) were postprocessed with a spatial clustering algorithm to produce a ranked list of ˜2100 candidate SAM site locations. The combination of DCNN processing and spatial clustering effectively reduced the search area by ˜660X (0.15% of the DCNN-processed land area). An efficient web interface was used to facilitate a rapid serial human review of the candidate SAM sites in the China study area. Four novice imagery analysts with no prior imagery analysis experience were able to complete a DCNN-assisted SAM site search in an average time of ˜42 min. This search was ˜81X faster than a traditional visual search over an equivalent land area of ˜88,640 km2 while achieving nearly identical statistical accuracy (˜90% F1).

  10. Preliminary study of ethanol electrooxidation in the presence of sulfate on polycrystalline platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, R.S. Jr.; Oliveira, V.R.; Reis, R.G.C.S.; Maia, G.; Camara, G.A. [Departamento de Quimica/UFMS, C.P. 549, 79070-900, Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2008-12-01

    The electrooxidation of ethanol and its inhibition by the presence of adsorbed sulfate have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry using several concentrations of sulfuric acid on smooth polycrystalline platinum. The results show that the concentration of sulfuric acid influences the current in both potentiostatic and potentiodynamic experiments. The results are interpreted in terms of the competitive adsorption of sulfate and ethanol on the same Pt sites and suggest that, when the sulfuric acid concentration is increased, there is a reduction of Pt free sites able to adsorb and oxidize ethanol. The voltammetric data reveal that the peak currents observed during ethanol oxidation are not affected in the same way by the presence of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, which, based on previously obtained FTIR results, suggests that the sulfate adsorption is able to inhibit the oxidation of ethanol in a selective way. (author)

  11. Glycyl-glutamine in nucleus accumbens reduces ethanol intake in alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Garth E; Shridharani, Shyam; Millington, William R; Garris, David R; Simpson, C Wayne

    2005-10-05

    Opioid peptides and glycyl-glutamine (Gly-Gln) have been implicated in the control of ethanol consumption. A recognized beta-endorphin cleavage product, Gly-Gln, inhibits voluntary alcohol consumption when microinjected into the nucleus accumbens (AcbSh) of P rats. To evaluate the site-specific efficacy of Gly-Gln on ethanol consumption following AcbSh application, ethanol preferring (P) rats were allowed to establish individual baseline ethanol/water consumption utilizing a voluntary self-administration paradigm. Subsequent to baseline ethanol consumption being established, bilateral guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted +1 mm dorsal to the AcbSh for subsequent Gly-Gln (100 nmol/microl) or saline vehicle (1 microl) injections. Alcohol intake, body weight, and water intake were measured at 24 h post-injection intervals. Unilateral Gly-Gln injections reduced ethanol consumption 35.6% (P < 0.05) from pre-established baseline consumption (6.24 +/- 0.64 g/kg to 4.06 +/- 0.28 g/kg). Bilateral Gly-Gln injections further reduced consumption to 51.9% (6.4 +/- 1.0 g/kg to 3.08 +/- 0.65 g/kg at 24 h (P < 0.01) below established baseline values within 24 h without significant changes in body weight or water consumption. Also, the amino acid constituents of the dipeptide had no influence on ethanol consumption behavior; however, Gly-Gln efficacy was shown to be comparable to central beta-endorphin-(1-27) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) naltrexone-induced suppression of ethanol intake. These data indicate that the AcbSh exhibits a site-specific sensitivity to the suppressive actions of Gly-Gln or beta-endorphin-(1-27) injections that modulate voluntary ethanol consumption in P rats. These findings support the broader concept that select forebrain opioid-responsive neural sites may influence the development or expression of alcohol abuse syndromes in animal models or humans.

  12. Adsorption of ethanol on V2O5 (010) surface for gas-sensing applications: Ab initio investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yuxiang; Cui, Mengyang; Ye, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol adsorbed on V 2 O 5 (010) surface was investigated by ab initio calculations. • Ethanol prefers to adsorb on “Hill”-like surface, rather than“Valley”-like region. • Surface O 1(H) site plays a key role to dominate the ethanol adsorption process. • Sensing mechanism is related with electronic structure and electron redistribution. • Gas sensitivity is reflected by quantitative electron population analysis. - Abstract: The adsorption of ethanol on V 2 O 5 (010) surface was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) with a combined generalized gradient approximation (GGA) plus Hubbard U approach to exploit the potential sensing applications. The adsorption configurations were first constructed by considering different orientations of ethanol molecule to V and O sites on the “Hill”- and “Valley”-like regions of corrugated (010) surface. It is found that ethanol molecule can adsorb on whole surface in multiple stable configurations. Nevertheless the molecular adsorption on the “Hill”-like surface is calculated to occur preferentially, and the single coordinated oxygen on “Hill”-like surface (O 1(H) ) acting as the most energetically favorable adsorption site shows the strongest adsorption ability to ethanol molecule. Surface adsorption of ethanol tunes the electronic structure of V 2 O 5 and cause an n-doping effect. As a consequence, the Fermi levels shift toward the conductive bond increasing the charge carrier concentration of electrons in adsorbed V 2 O 5 . The sensitive electronic structure and the multiple stable configurations to ethanol adsorption highlight the high adsorption activity and then the potential of V 2 O 5 (010) surface applied to high sensitive sensor for ethanol vapor detection. Further Mulliken population and Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations quantify the electron transfer from the adsorbed ethanol to the surface, and correlates the adsorption ability of surface sites

  13. Attraction of some scolytids and associated beetles to the host volatiles α-pinene and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leif Martin Schroeder

    1991-01-01

    Several scolytid species are known to use host volatiles such as monoterpenes and the degradation product, ethanol, when searching for suitable host material. The release rates of terpenes and ethanol and the proportions in which they are released can be expected to differ depending on the breeding substrate preferences of the various scolytid species. The aim of this...

  14. Fluxes of Ethanol Between the Atmosphere and Oceanic Surface Waters; Implications for the Fate of Biofuel Ethanol Released into the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, G. B., Jr.; Shimizu, M. S.; Willey, J. D.; Mead, R. N.; Skrabal, S. A.; Kieber, R. J.; Lathrop, T. E.; Felix, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The use of ethanol as a transportation fuel has increased significantly during the past decade in the US. Some ethanol escapes the combustion process in internal combustion engines resulting in its release to the atmosphere. Ethanol can be oxidized photochemically to acetaldehyde and then converted to peroxyacetyl nitrate contributing to air pollution. Therefore it is important to determine the fate ethanol released to the atmosphere. Because of its high water solubility the oceans may act as a sink for ethanol depending on its state of saturation with respect to the gas phase. The purpose of the current study was to determine the relative saturation of oceanic surface waters by making simultaneous measurements of gas phase and surface water concentrations. Data were obtained from four separate cruises ranging from estuarine to open ocean locations in the coast of North Carolina, USA. The majority of estuarine sites were under saturated in ethanol with respect to the gas phase (11-50% saturated) representing a potential sink. Coastal surface waters tended to be supersaturated (135 - 317%) representing a net flux of ethanol to the atmosphere. Open ocean samples were generally at saturation or slightly below saturation (76-99%) indicating equilibrium between the gas and aqueous phases. The results of this study underscore to variable role the oceans play in mitigating the increases in atmospheric ethanol from increased biofuel usage and their impact on air quality.

  15. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M.; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30–45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance. PMID:22698870

  16. Tracking changes in search behaviour at a health web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Ann-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the internet is used as a means to provide the public with official information on many different topics, including health related matters and care providers. In this work we have studied a search log from the official Swedish health web site 1177.se for patterns of search behaviour over time. To improve the analysis, we mapped the queries to UMLS semantic types and MeSH categories. Our analysis shows that, as expected, diseases and health care activities are the ones of most interest, but also a clear increased interest in geographical locations in the setting of health care providers. We also note a change over time in which kinds of diseases are of interest. Finally, we conclude that this type of analysis may be useful in studies of what health related topics matter to the public, but also for design and follow-up of public information campaigns.

  17. The role of the anionic and cationic pt sites in the adsorption site preference of water and ethanol on defected Pt4/Pt(111) substrates: A density functional theory investigation within the D3 van der waals corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminovski, Yohanna; Amaral, Rafael C.; Tereshchuk, Polina; Da Silva, Juarez L. F.

    2018-01-01

    Platinum (Pt) atoms in the bulk face-centered cubic structure have neutral charge because they are equivalent by symmetry, however, in clean Pt surfaces, the effective charge on Pt atoms can turn slightly negative (anionic) or positive (cationic) while increasing substantially in magnitude for defected (low-coordinated) Pt sites. The effective charge affect the adsorption properties of molecular species on Pt surfaces and it can compete in importance with the coupling of the substrate-molecule electronic states. Although several studies have been reported due to the importance of Pt for catalysis, our understanding of the role played by low-coordinated sites is still limited. Here, we employ density functional theory within the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof exchange-correlation functional and the D3 van der Waals (vdW) correction to investigate the role of the cationic and anionic Pt sites on the adsorption properties of ethanol and water on defected Pt4/Pt(111) substrates. Four substrates were carefully selected, namely, two two-dimensional (2D) Pt4 configurations (2D-strand and 2D-island) and two tri-dimensional (3D) Pt4 (3D-fcc and 3D-hcp), to understand the role of coordination, effective charge, and coupling of the electronic states in the adsorption properties. From the Bader charge analysis, we identified the cationic and anionic sites among the Pt atoms exposed to the vacuum region in the Pt4/Pt(111) substrates. We found that ethanol and water bind via the anionic O atoms to the low-coordinated defected Pt sites of the substrates, where the angle PtOH is nearly 100° for most configurations. In the 3D-fcc or 3D-hcp defected configurations, the lowest-coordinated Pt atoms are anionic, hence, those Pt sites are not preferable for the adsorption of O atoms. The charge transfer from water and ethanol to the Pt substrates has similar magnitude for all cases, which implies similar Coulomb contribution to the adsorption energy. Moreover, we found a correlation of the

  18. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  19. First Results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment at the Deep Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandic, Vuk [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment is designed to search for dark matter in the form of the Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs). For this purpose, CDMS uses detectors based on crystals of Ge and Si, operated at the temperature of 20 mK, and providing a two-fold signature of an interaction: the ionization and the athermal phonon signals. The two signals, along with the passive and active shielding of the experimental setup, and with the underground experimental sites, allow very effective suppression and rejection of different types of backgrounds. This dissertation presents the commissioning and the results of the first WIMP-search run performed by the CDMS collaboration at the deep underground site at the Soudan mine in Minnesota. We develop different methods of suppressing the dominant background due to the electron-recoil events taking place at the detector surface and we apply these algorithms to the data set. These results place the world's most sensitive limits on the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent elastic-scattering cross-section. Finally, they examine the compatibility of the supersymmetric WIMP-models with the direct-detection experiments (such as CDMS) and discuss the implications of the new CDMS result on these models.

  20. Intrinsic Activity of MnOx-CeO2 Catalysts in Ethanol Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Delimaris

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available MnOx-CeO2 mixed oxides are considered efficient oxidation catalysts superior to the corresponding single oxides. Although these oxides have been the subject of numerous studies, their fundamental performance indicators, such as turnover frequency (TOF or specific activity, are scarcely reported. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the effect of catalyst composition on the concentration of active sites and intrinsic activity in ethanol oxidation by the employment of temperature-programmed desorption and oxidation of isotopically-labelled ethanol, 12CH313CH2OH. The transformation pathways of preadsorbed ethanol in the absence of gaseous oxygen refer to dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde followed by its dissociation combined with oxidation by lattice oxygen. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, lattice oxygen is rapidly restored and the main products are acetaldehyde, CO2, and water. CO2 forms less easily on mixed oxides than on pure MnOx. The TOF of ethanol oxidation has been calculated assuming that the amount of adsorbed ethanol and CO2 produced during temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO is a reliable indicator of the concentration of the active sites.

  1. Search behavior of arboreal insectivorous migrants at gulf coast stopover sites in spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-Chieh; Barrow, W.C.; Ouchley, K.; Hamilton, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Search behavior of arboreal insectivorous migrants was studied at three stopover sites along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico during spring migrations, 1993–1995. We examined if search behavior was affected by phylogeny, or by environmental factors. A sequence of search movements (hop, flutter, or flight) in a foraging bout was recorded for each migrant encountered. Search rate, frequency, and distance of movements were calculated for each species. Search rate was positively correlated with proportion of hop, but negatively correlated to flight distance. Hop distance was positively correlated to tarsus length, as was flight distance to wing length for the 31 species of migrants. Cluster analysis indicated closely related species generally have similar foraging modes, which range from “sit-and-wait” of flycatchers to “widely foraging” of warblers. Migrants tended to use more hops in dense vegetation, but more flights in areas with sparse vegetation. Migrants also used more flights when foraging in mixed-species flocks and during periods of high migrant density. Logistic models indicated warblers were more influenced by environmental factors than vireos, possibly because warblers are near-perch searchers and more affected by these factors.

  2. Operant ethanol self-administration in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2014-05-01

    While rats have been predominantly used to study operant ethanol self-administration behavior in the context of dependence, several studies have employed operant conditioning procedures to examine changes in ethanol self-administration behavior as a function of chronic ethanol exposure and withdrawal experience in mice. This review highlights some of the advantages of using operant conditioning procedures for examining the motivational effects of ethanol in animals with a history of dependence. As reported in rats, studies using various operant conditioning procedures in mice have demonstrated significant escalation of ethanol self-administration behavior in mice rendered dependent via forced chronic ethanol exposure in comparison to nondependent mice. This paper also presents a summary of these findings, as well as suggestions for future studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the Potential for the Production of Lignocellulosic Based Ethanol at Existing Corn Ethanol Facilities: Final Subcontract Report, 2 March 2000 - 30 March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-07-01

    Subcontract report on opportunities to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. The goals of this study were: (1) To provide the opportunity to explore the business potential provided by converting biomass to products such as ethanol. (2) To take advantage of the grain-processing infrastructure by investigating the co-location of additional biomass conversion facilities at an existing plant site.

  4. Computational prediction of muon stopping sites using ab initio random structure searching (AIRSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liborio, Leandro; Sturniolo, Simone; Jochym, Dominik

    2018-04-01

    The stopping site of the muon in a muon-spin relaxation experiment is in general unknown. There are some techniques that can be used to guess the muon stopping site, but they often rely on approximations and are not generally applicable to all cases. In this work, we propose a purely theoretical method to predict muon stopping sites in crystalline materials from first principles. The method is based on a combination of ab initio calculations, random structure searching, and machine learning, and it has successfully predicted the MuT and MuBC stopping sites of muonium in Si, diamond, and Ge, as well as the muonium stopping site in LiF, without any recourse to experimental results. The method makes use of Soprano, a Python library developed to aid ab initio computational crystallography, that was publicly released and contains all the software tools necessary to reproduce our analysis.

  5. Interactions on External MOF Surfaces: Desorption of Water and Ethanol from CuBDC Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Alexander C; Aleksandrov, Alexandr B; Nair, Sankar; Orlando, Thomas M

    2017-10-03

    The external surfaces of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials are difficult to experimentally isolate due to the high porosities of these materials. MOF surface surrogates in the form of copper benzenedicarboxylate (CuBDC) nanosheets were synthesized using a bottom-up approach, and the surface interactions of water and ethanol were investigated by temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). A method of analysis of diffusion-influenced TPD was developed to measure the desorption properties of these porous materials. This approach also allows the extraction of diffusion coefficients from TPD data. The transmission Fourier transform infrared spectra, powder X-ray diffraction patterns, and TPD data indicate that water desorbs from CuBDC nanosheets with activation energies of 44 ± 2 kJ/mol at edge sites and 58 ± 1 kJ/mol at external surface and internal and pore sites. Ethanol desorbs with activation energies of 58 ± 1 kJ/mol at internal pore sites and 66 ± 0.4 kJ/mol at external surface sites. Co-adsorption of water and ethanol was also investigated. The presence of ethanol was found to inhibit the desorption of water, resulting in a water desorption process with an activation energy of 68 ± 0.7 kJ/mol.

  6. Ethanol attracts scolytid beetles to Phytophthora ramorum cankers on coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; Maia M. Beh; David C. Shaw; Daniel K. Manter

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 times higher ethanol level than trees with spot cankers...

  7. The effect of blood injection for the prevention of Ethanol reflux after intrahepatic Ethanol injection in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Choon Yul; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1998-01-01

    To reduce ethanol reflux from the needle channel by injecting rat blood immediately after the injection of ethanol into rat liver. The first experiment involved 33 rat livers which were divided into four groups (three livers in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and 0.1ml saline was injected into the liver; in group 2, ethanol-Tc-99m-O 4 - mixed solution (0.1ml, 0.2mCi) was injected into the liver;in groups 3 and 4, the needle channel was blocked with 0.02ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After removing the needle, a 3cm round filter paper was laid on each injection site to absorb refluxed ethanol-T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution from the liver, and each paper was then counted by a gamma camera unit. In the second experiment, 33rats were divided into four groups (three rats in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and after exposing the left lateral lobe of the liver, 0.05 ml of saline was injected;in group 2, 0.05 ml of ethanol was injected into the livder;in groups 3 and 4 the needle channel was blocked with 0.02 ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After ten days, peritoneal adhesions were scored macroscopically and microscopically. In the first experiment using ethanol- T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution, groups blocked with blood after the injection of mixed solution showed lower gamma counts than the group injected with mixed solution only (p-value=3D0.0002). The group blocked with old blood showed the lowest count. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of peritoneal adhesions indicated that the grade of adhesion was lower in groups blocked with blood than in the group injected with ethanol onluy (p-value=3D0.0261 and 0.0163, respectively). The above results suggest that an injection of blood after an injection of ethanol is a very effective way of preventing reflux from the liver.=20

  8. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeswari Koyyada

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol use disorder (AUD is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD.

  9. Naltrexone Reverses Ethanol Preference and Protein Kinase C Activation in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyyada, Rajeswari; Latchooman, Nilesh; Jonaitis, Julius; Ayoub, Samir S.; Corcoran, Olivia; Casalotti, Stefano O.

    2018-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a major health, social and economic problem for which there are few effective treatments. The opiate antagonist naltrexone is currently prescribed clinically with mixed success. We have used naltrexone in an established behavioral assay (CAFE) in Drosophila melanogaster that measures the flies' preference for ethanol-containing food. We have confirmed that Drosophila exposed to ethanol develop a preference toward this drug and we demonstrate that naltrexone, in a dose dependant manner, reverses the ethanol-induced ethanol preference. This effect is not permanent, as preference for alcohol returns after discontinuing naltrexone. Additionally, naltrexone reduced the alcohol-induced increase in protein kinase C activity. These findings are of interest because they confirm that Drosophila is a useful model for studying human responses to addictive drugs. Additionally because of the lack of a closely conserved opiate system in insects, our results could either indicate that a functionally related system does exist in insects or that in insects, and potentially also in mammals, naltrexone binds to alternative sites. Identifying such sites could lead to improved treatment strategies for AUD. PMID:29593550

  10. Homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli differently affect sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Thiago Olitta; Gomes, Fernanda Sgarbosa; Lopes, Mario Lucio; de Amorim, Henrique Vianna; Eggleston, Gillian; Basso, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial contamination during industrial yeast fermentation has serious economic consequences for fuel ethanol producers. In addition to deviating carbon away from ethanol formation, bacterial cells and their metabolites often have a detrimental effect on yeast fermentative performance. The bacterial contaminants are commonly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), comprising both homo- and heterofermentative strains. We have studied the effects of these two different types of bacteria upon yeast fermentative performance, particularly in connection with sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation process. Homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be more detrimental to an industrial yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1), when compared with heterofermentative Lactobacillus fermentum, in terms of reduced yeast viability and ethanol formation, presumably due to the higher titres of lactic acid in the growth medium. These effects were only noticed when bacteria and yeast were inoculated in equal cell numbers. However, when simulating industrial fuel ethanol conditions, as conducted in Brazil where high yeast cell densities and short fermentation time prevail, the heterofermentative strain was more deleterious than the homofermentative type, causing lower ethanol yield and out competing yeast cells during cell recycle. Yeast overproduction of glycerol was noticed only in the presence of the heterofermentative bacterium. Since the heterofermentative bacterium was shown to be more deleterious to yeast cells than the homofermentative strain, we believe our findings could stimulate the search for more strain-specific antimicrobial agents to treat bacterial contaminations during industrial ethanol fermentation.

  11. Adverse effects associated with ethanol catheter lock solutions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermel, Leonard A; Alang, Neha

    2014-10-01

    Antimicrobial lock therapy has been widely utilized internationally for the prevention and management of intravascular catheter-related bloodstream infections. One of the agents commonly utilized for lock therapy is ethanol. However, a systematic review of adverse events associated with ethanol locks has not been published. PubMed was searched to collect articles published from May 2003 through March 2014. The bibliographies of relevant articles were also reviewed. In vitro studies of the mechanical properties of catheters after ethanol immersion have revealed changes predominantly in polyurethane catheters and to a lesser extent in silicone and Carbothane catheters. An elution of polymers from polyurethane and Carbothane catheters has been observed at the ethanol concentrations used in ethanol lock therapy. Ethanol above a concentration of 28% leads to plasma protein precipitation. Ethanol locks were associated with catheter occlusion in 11 studies and independently increased the risk of thrombosis compared with heparin lock in a randomized trial. Six studies noted abnormalities in catheter integrity, including one case leading to catheter embolization. Of note, five of these studies involved silicone catheters. Ethanol lock use was associated with systemic side effects in 10 studies and possible side effects in one additional study. Four studies noted liver function test abnormalities, predominantly transaminase elevation, related to ethanol lock use. However, a prospective study did not find any difference in the risk of doubling the transaminase level above the normal range during use of ethanol locks compared with not using an ethanol lock. The use of ethanol locks has been associated with structural changes in catheters, as well as the elution of molecules from the catheter polymers. Clinical studies have revealed systemic toxicity, increased catheter occlusion and breaches in catheter integrity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on

  12. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  13. Motor stimulant effects of ethanol injected into the substantia nigra pars reticulata: importance of catalase-mediated metabolism and the role of acetaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizzi-LaFrance, Maria N; Correa, Mercè; Aragon, Carlos M G; Salamone, John D

    2006-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the locomotor effects of local injections of ethanol and the ethanol metabolite, acetaldehyde, into substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Infusions of ethanol into SNr resulted in a dose-related increase in locomotor activity, with maximal effects at a dose of 1.4 micromol. Ethanol injected into a control site dorsal to substantia nigra failed to stimulate locomotion, and another inactive site was identified in brainstem areas posterior to substantia nigra. The locomotor effects of intranigral ethanol (1.4 micromol) were reduced by coadministration of 10 mg/kg sodium azide, a catalase inhibitor that acts to reduce the metabolism of ethanol into acetaldehyde in the brain. SNr infusions of acetaldehyde, which is the first metabolite of ethanol, also increased locomotion. Taken together, these results indicate that SNr is one of the sites at which ethanol and acetaldehyde may be acting to induce locomotor activity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that acetaldehyde is a centrally active metabolite of ethanol, and provide further support for the idea that catalase activity is a critical step in the regulation of ethanol-induced motor activity. These studies have implications for understanding the brain mechanisms involved in mediating the ascending limb of the biphasic dose-response curve for the effect of ethanol on locomotor activity.

  14. Adsorption of ethanol on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (010) surface for gas-sensing applications: Ab initio investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yuxiang, E-mail: qinyuxiang@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Key Laboratory for Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Cui, Mengyang; Ye, Zhenhua [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Ethanol adsorbed on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (010) surface was investigated by ab initio calculations. • Ethanol prefers to adsorb on “Hill”-like surface, rather than“Valley”-like region. • Surface O{sub 1(H)} site plays a key role to dominate the ethanol adsorption process. • Sensing mechanism is related with electronic structure and electron redistribution. • Gas sensitivity is reflected by quantitative electron population analysis. - Abstract: The adsorption of ethanol on V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (010) surface was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) with a combined generalized gradient approximation (GGA) plus Hubbard U approach to exploit the potential sensing applications. The adsorption configurations were first constructed by considering different orientations of ethanol molecule to V and O sites on the “Hill”- and “Valley”-like regions of corrugated (010) surface. It is found that ethanol molecule can adsorb on whole surface in multiple stable configurations. Nevertheless the molecular adsorption on the “Hill”-like surface is calculated to occur preferentially, and the single coordinated oxygen on “Hill”-like surface (O{sub 1(H)}) acting as the most energetically favorable adsorption site shows the strongest adsorption ability to ethanol molecule. Surface adsorption of ethanol tunes the electronic structure of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and cause an n-doping effect. As a consequence, the Fermi levels shift toward the conductive bond increasing the charge carrier concentration of electrons in adsorbed V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The sensitive electronic structure and the multiple stable configurations to ethanol adsorption highlight the high adsorption activity and then the potential of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (010) surface applied to high sensitive sensor for ethanol vapor detection. Further Mulliken population and Natural bond orbital (NBO) calculations quantify the electron transfer from the adsorbed ethanol to the surface, and

  15. Impacts of facility size and location decisions on ethanol production cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocoloski, Matt; Michael Griffin, W.; Scott Matthews, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol has been identified as a promising alternative to fossil fuels to provide energy for the transportation sector. One of the obstacles cellulosic ethanol must overcome in order to contribute to transportation energy demand is the infrastructure required to produce and distribute the fuel. Given a nascent cellulosic ethanol industry, locating cellulosic ethanol refineries and creating the accompanying infrastructure is essentially a greenfield problem that may benefit greatly from quantitative analysis. This study models cellulosic ethanol infrastructure investment using a mixed integer program (MIP) that locates ethanol refineries and connects these refineries to the biomass supplies and ethanol demands in a way that minimizes the total cost. For the single- and multi-state regions examined in this study, larger facilities can decrease ethanol costs by $0.20-0.30 per gallon, and placing these facilities in locations that minimize feedstock and product transportation costs can decrease ethanol costs by up to $0.25 per gallon compared to uninformed placement that could result from influences such as local subsidies to encourage economic development. To best benefit society, policies should allow for incentives that encourage these low-cost production scenarios and avoid politically motivated siting of plants. - Research highlights: → Mixed-integer programming can be used to model ethanol infrastructure investment. → Large cellulosic ethanol facilities can decrease production cost by $0.20/gallon. → Optimized facility placement can save $0.25/gallon.

  16. Effect of Water on Ethanol Conversion over ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Muhammad Mahfuzur; Davidson, Stephen D.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2015-10-01

    This work focuses on understanding the role of water on ethanol conversion over zinc oxide (ZnO). It was found that a competitive adsorption between ethanol and water occurs on ZnO, which leads to the blockage of the strong Lewis acid site by water on ZnO. As a result, both dehydration and dehydrogenation reactions are inhibited. However, the extent of inhibition for dehydration is orders of magnitude higher than that for dehydrogenation, leading to the shift of reaction pathway from ethanol dehydration to dehydrogenation. In the secondary reactions for acetaldehyde conversion, water inhibits the acetaldehyde aldol-condensation to crotonaldehyde, favoring the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid, and then to acetone via ketonization at high temperature (i.e., 400 °C).

  17. A comparison of the development of tolerance to ethanol and cross-tolerance to nicotine after chronic ethanol treatment in long- and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1993-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in the development of tolerance to both nicotine and ethanol, indicating that genetic factors regulate tolerance development. Those mouse strains that are most sensitive to an acute challenge dose of either drug develop the most tolerance to that drug. The ethanol-sensitive long-sleep (LS) mice are more sensitive to several behavioral and physiological effects of nicotine than are the ethanol-resistant short-sleep (SS) mice. The experiments reported here assessed whether the LS and SS mice develop tolerance to ethanol after chronic treatment with ethanol-containing liquid diets and whether cross-tolerance to nicotine also developed. Tolerance and cross-tolerance were measured by assessing the effects of acute challenge doses of drug on Y-maze crossing and rearing activities, heart rate and body temperature. The LS mice developed tolerance to ethanol's effects on three of the four measures and were cross-tolerant to nicotine on all of the measures. In contrast, the SS mice developed tolerance to ethanol for only two of the measures, but failed to develop cross-tolerance to any action of nicotine. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol and nicotine share sites of action and that common genes regulate responses to these two drugs. Evidence suggests that tolerance to nicotine may be related to an up-regulation of brain nicotinic receptors, at least in some inbred mouse strains, but chronic ethanol treatment did not reproducibly change either [3H]nicotine or alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin binding. Therefore, other mechanisms must underlie the tolerance and cross-tolerance that was seen.

  18. Study on the micro direct ethanol fuel cell (Micro-DEFC) performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saisirirat, Penyarat; Joommanee, Bordindech

    2018-01-01

    The direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is selected for this research. DEFC uses ethanol in the fuel cell instead of the more toxic methanol. Ethanol is more attractive than methanol by many reasons. Ethanol is a hydrogen-rich liquid and it has a higher specific energy (8.0 kWh/kg) compared to that of methanol (6.1 kWh/kg). Ethanol can be obtained in great quantity from biomass through a fermentation process from renewable resources such as sugar cane, wheat, corn, and even straw. The use of ethanol would also overcome both the storage and infrastructure challenge of hydrogen for fuel cell applications. The experimental apparatus on the micro direct ethanol fuel cell for measuring the cell performance has been set for this research. The objective is to study the micro direct ethanol fuel cell performance for applying with the portable electronic devices. The cell performance is specified in the terms of cell voltage, cell current and power of the cell at room operating temperature and 1 atm for the pressure and also includes the ethanol fuel consumption. The effect of operating temperature change on the electrical production performance is also studied. The steady-state time for collecting each data value is about 5-10 minutes. The results show that with the increase of concentrations of ethanol by volume, the reactant concentration at the reaction sites increases so the electrochemical rate also increases but when it reaches the saturated point the performance gradually drops.

  19. The benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, R.; Braestrup, C.; Nielsen, M.; Barry, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on 3 H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for 3 H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence. (author)

  20. Modifications in adrenal hormones response to ethanol by prior ethanol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaza, C; Borrell, S

    1985-03-01

    Ethanol was administered to rats by means of a liquid diet for 16 days; after an ethanol-free interval of four weeks, animals received a test (IP) dose of ethanol (2 g/kg), and the adrenocortical and adrenomedullary responses were evaluated. Chronically ethanol-exposed animals showed tolerance to the stimulatory effect of ethanol in the pituitary-adrenal axis. Likewise, previously dependent rats showed tolerance to the increase in the activity of the adrenomedullary function induced by acute administration of the drug. Our results indicate that chronic ethanol ingestion can induce persistent changes after complete alcohol abstinence.

  1. Ethanol Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. Ligno-ethanol in competition with food-based ethanol in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poganietz, Witold-Roger

    2012-01-01

    First-generation biofuels are often challenged over their potentially adverse impact on food prices. Biofuels that use nonfood biomass such as lignocellulose are being promoted to ease the conflict between fuels and food. However, their complex processes mean that the total costs of lignocellulosic ethanol may be high in comparison. This might undermine the economic soundness of plans for its use. Another potential advantage of lignocellulosic ethanol is seen in an enhanced contribution to a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Yet the increasing attractiveness of lignocellulosic biofuels may also lead to changes in land use that induce additional carbon emissions. For this reason, the environmental impacts of such plans are not straightforward and depend on the affected category of land. The objective of this paper is to compare the economic perspectives and environmental impact of lignocellulosic ethanol with food-based ethanol taking into account market constraints and policy measures. The analysis of the environmental impact focuses on carbon dioxide emissions. In the medium run, i.e., by 2020, lignocellulosic ethanol could enter the gasoline market, crowding out inter alia food-based ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, lignocellulosic ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable in each of the analyzed cases. The findings depend crucially on the market conditions, which are influenced inter alia by crude oil, the exchange rate, and technology conditions. -- Highlights: ► Competition of ligno-ethanol with competing energy carriers is analyzed. ► In medium-term ligno-ethanol could crowd out food-based ethanol. ► In terms of CO 2 ligno-ethanol seems to be environmentally desirable. ► The environmental impacts include by land use change induced CO 2 emissions. ► The findings depend crucially on market conditions.

  3. Ethanol: the promise and the peril : Should Manitoba expand ethanol subsidies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopuck, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Ethanol is produced through the fermentation of wheat. Blending ethanol with gasoline results in an ethanol-blended gasoline (EBG). Manitoba has already established an ethanol industry in the province and the government of the province is studying the feasibility of expansion. Every year in Manitoba, approximately 90 million litres of EBG are consumed, and the province's ethanol facility also produces a high protein cattle feed called distillers dry grain. Controversies surround the ethanol industry over both the economics and the environmental benefits and impacts. At issue is the economic efficiency of the production of ethanol, where opponents claim that the final product contains less energy than that required to produce it. A small gain is obtained, as revealed by a recent study. It is difficult to quantify the environmental effects of the ethanol industry, whether they be negative or positive. The author indicates that no matter what happens, the gasoline market in Manitoba is so small when compared to the rest of the world that the effect will not be significant. The three methods for the production of ethanol are: (1) the most risky and expensive method is the stand alone ethanol production facility, (2) integrated facilities where other products are produced, such as wet mash or nutraceuticals, and (3) integrated facilities where dry mash can be exported as a high protein feed. The production of a wide range of products is clearly the best option to be considered during the design of an ethanol facility. Price collapse and the capitalizing of subsidies into prices are the main risks facing the expansion of ethanol production in Manitoba. The author states that direct subsidies and price supports should be avoided, since subsidies would encourage the conversion of more feed grain into ethanol. The feed shortage would worsen especially as Manitoba does not currently produce enough feed to support its growing livestock industry. The author concludes that

  4. The technical-economic problems concerning the search for sites for nuclear electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    An outline of technical-physical fundamentals, of the design and the mode of operation of LWR reactors is followed by a brief description of the licensing procedure. It is pointed out that safety cannot be a criterion for a site because nuclear power plants have to be safe on every site. The problem of nuclear power plants in the vicinity of towns or densely populated areas is dealt with briefly, too. A method is proposed which allows to find a possible site while investing little time on search and evaluation and which stores this site in a site provision plan. The choice of possible sites is made on three levels which are independent of each other. Possible nuclear power plant sites, on the first level, are considered on the basis of the dominating influence of waste heat discharge and network integration. On the second level, macro-sites are determined by examining the realizability of these possible sites by looking at negative criteria, and, on the third level, the 'fine points' planning stage, a pool of potential micro-sites is determined by applying the 'measure of value' analysis. This is followed by citing an analytical method with which the order of priority amongst 8 possible sites in the USA was determined. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Searching with IC Site Search Engine

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Martine Lefebvre

    How to get an IDRC Connect Account. Project Leaders ... Team list, the system sends a request to IDRC to create an account. You will re- ... menu itself contains links to set site language (English and French) and sign out. What is IDRC ...

  6. One-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production using the whole solid-state fermentation medium of mixed filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Larissa; Pereira, Sandra C; Silva, Adilson J; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2018-02-01

    The efficient use of renewable lignocellulosic feedstocks to obtain biofuels and other bioproducts is a key requirement for a sustainable biobased economy. This requires novel and effective strategies to reduce the cost contribution of the cellulolytic enzymatic cocktails needed to convert the carbohydrates into simple sugars, in order to make large-scale commercial processes economically competitive. Here, we propose the use of the whole solid-state fermentation (SSF) medium of mixed filamentous fungi as an integrated one-pot strategy for on-site enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. Ten different individual and mixed cultivations of commonly used industrial filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, and Trichoderma reesei) were performed under SSF and the whole media (without the extraction step) were used in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The cocultivation of T. reesei with A. oryzae increased the amount of glucose released by around 50%, compared with individual cultivations. The release of glucose and reducing sugars achieved using the whole SSF medium was around 3-fold higher than obtained with the enzyme extract. The addition of soybean protein (0.5% w/w) during the hydrolysis reaction further significantly improved the saccharification performance by blocking the lignin and avoiding unproductive adsorption of enzymes. The results of the alcoholic fermentation validated the overall integrated process, with a volumetric ethanol productivity of 4.77 g/L.h, representing 83.5% of the theoretical yield. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed one-pot integrated strategy using the whole SSF medium of mixed filamentous fungi for on-site enzymes production, biomass hydrolysis, and ethanol production. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Delta receptor antagonism, ethanol taste reactivity, and ethanol consumption in outbred male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higley, Amanda E; Kiefer, Stephen W

    2006-11-01

    Naltrexone, a nonspecific opioid antagonist, produces significant changes in ethanol responsivity in rats by rendering the taste of ethanol aversive as well as producing a decrease in voluntary ethanol consumption. The present study investigated the effect of naltrindole, a specific antagonist of delta opioid receptors, on ethanol taste reactivity and ethanol consumption in outbred rats. In the first experiment, rats received acute treatment of naltrexone, naltrindole, or saline followed by the measurement of ethanol consumption in a short-term access period. The second experiment involved the same treatments and investigated ethanol palatability (using the taste-reactivity test) as well as ethanol consumption. Results indicated that treatment with 3 mg/kg naltrexone significantly affected palatability (rendered ethanol more aversive, Experiment 2) and decreased voluntary ethanol consumption (Experiments 1 and 2). The effects of naltrindole were inconsistent. In Experiment 1, 8 mg/kg naltrindole significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption but this was not replicated in Experiment 2. The 8 mg/kg dose produced a significant increase in aversive responding (Experiment 2) but did not affect ingestive responding. Lower doses of naltrindole (2 and 4 mg/kg) were ineffective in altering rats' taste-reactivity response to and consumption of ethanol. While these data suggest that delta receptors are involved in rats' taste-reactivity response to ethanol and rats' ethanol consumption, it is likely that multiple opioid receptors mediate both behavioral responses.

  8. From Ethanol to Salsolinol: Role of Ethanol Metabolites in the Effects of Ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra T. Peana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the global reputation of ethanol as the psychopharmacologically active ingredient of alcoholic drinks, the neurobiological basis of the central effects of ethanol still presents some dark sides due to a number of unanswered questions related to both its precise mechanism of action and its metabolism. Accordingly, ethanol represents the interesting example of a compound whose actions cannot be explained as simply due to the involvement of a single receptor/neurotransmitter, a scenario further complicated by the robust evidence that two main metabolites, acetaldehyde and salsolinol, exert many effects similar to those of their parent compound. The present review recapitulates, in a perspective manner, the major and most recent advances that in the last decades boosted a significant growth in the understanding on the role of ethanol metabolism, in particular, in the neurobiological basis of its central effects.

  9. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  10. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats: effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Wong, Karlvin; Apor, Khristine; Patterson-Buckendahl, Patricia; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2003-11-01

    In two studies, we evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration and trial spacing on Pavlovian autoshaping of ethanol drinking in rats. In these studies, the brief insertion of an ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) was followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US), inducing sipper CS-directed drinking conditioned responses (CRs) in all rats. In Experiment 1, the ethanol concentration in the sipper CS [0%-16% volume/volume (vol./vol.), in increments of 1%] was systematically increased within subjects across autoshaping sessions. Groups of rats received sipper CS-food US pairings (Paired/Ethanol), a CS-US random procedure (Random/Ethanol), or water sipper CS paired with food US (Paired/Water). In Experiment 2, saccharin-fading procedures were used to initiate, in the Ethanol group, drinking of 6% (vol./vol.) ethanol in 0.1% saccharin or, in the Water group, drinking of tap water in 0.1% saccharin. After elimination of saccharin, and across days, the duration of access to the sipper CS during each autoshaping trial was increased (5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5, and 20 s), and subsequently, across days, the duration of the mean intertrial interval (ITI) was increased (60, 90, 120, and 150 s). In Experiment 1, Paired/Ethanol and Random/Ethanol groups showed higher intake of ethanol, in terms of grams per kilogram of body weight, at higher ethanol concentrations, with more ethanol intake recorded in the Paired/Ethanol group. In Experiment 2, the Ethanol group drank more than was consumed by the Water group, and, for both groups, fluid intake increased with longer ITIs. Results support the suggestion that autoshaping contributes to sipper CS-directed ethanol drinking.

  11. A genetically optimized kinetic model for ethanol electro-oxidation on Pt-based binary catalysts used in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monreal, Juan; García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos

    2017-09-01

    A one-dimensional model is proposed for the anode of a liquid-feed direct ethanol fuel cell. The complex kinetics of the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction is described using a multi-step reaction mechanism that considers free and adsorbed intermediate species on Pt-based binary catalysts. The adsorbed species are modeled using coverage factors to account for the blockage of the active reaction sites on the catalyst surface. The reaction rates are described by Butler-Volmer equations that are coupled to a one-dimensional mass transport model, which incorporates the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde crossover. The proposed kinetic model circumvents the acetaldehyde bottleneck effect observed in previous studies by incorporating CH3CHOHads among the adsorbed intermediates. A multi-objetive genetic algorithm is used to determine the reaction constants using anode polarization and product selectivity data obtained from the literature. By adjusting the reaction constants using the methodology developed here, different catalyst layers could be modeled and their selectivities could be successfully reproduced.

  12. Environmental aspects of eucalyptus based ethanol production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Moreira, Ma. Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2012-01-01

    A renewable biofuel economy is projected as a pathway to decrease dependence on fossil fuels as well as to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Ethanol produced on large-scale from lignocellulosic materials is considered the automotive fuel with the highest potential. In this paper, a life cycle assessment (LCA) study was developed to evaluate the environmental implications of the production of ethanol from a fast-growing short rotation crop (SRC): eucalyptus as well as its use in a flexi-fuel vehicle (FFV). The aim of the analysis was to assess the environmental performance of three ethanol based formulations: E10, E85 and E100, in comparison with conventional gasoline. The standard framework of LCA from International Standards Organization was followed and the system boundaries included the cultivation of the eucalyptus biomass, the processing to ethanol conversion, the blending with gasoline (when required) and the final use of fuels. The environmental results show reductions in all impact categories under assessment when shifting to ethanol based fuels, excluding photochemical oxidant formation, eutrophication as well as terrestrial and marine ecotoxicity which were considerably influenced by upstream activities related to ethanol manufacture. The LCA study remarked those stages where the researchers and technicians need to work to improve the environmental performance. Special attention must be paid on ethanol production related activities, such as on-site energy generation and distillation, as well as forest activities oriented to the biomass production. The use of forest machinery with higher efficiency levels, reduction of fertilizers dose and the control of diffuse emissions from the conversion plant would improve the environmental profile. -- Highlights: ► The identification of the environmental implications of the production and use of eucalyptus based ethanol was carried out. ► Eucalyptus is a Spanish common and abundant fast-growing short

  13. The search for a storage site for low-level and long-life wastes. December 2008 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    After having recalled the methodology and approach implemented for the search and selection of radioactive waste storage sites, this report proposes a brief synthesis of contacts taken during the call for candidates. It comments the results of this call, describes the project technical constraints (waste inventory, studied solutions, graphite and radiferous wastes, programmed investigations on preselected sites), gives the results of the geological analysis (methodology, geological context, site ranking), of the environmental analysis (context and principles, collected information), and of the socio-economic analysis of the candidate sites. The last chapter discusses the identification of possible preselected sites. Some more detailed information are available in appendix: candidate list, geological sheets and maps, environmental and socio-economic analysis of candidate towns or districts

  14. Random searching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlesinger, Michael F

    2009-01-01

    There are a wide variety of searching problems from molecules seeking receptor sites to predators seeking prey. The optimal search strategy can depend on constraints on time, energy, supplies or other variables. We discuss a number of cases and especially remark on the usefulness of Levy walk search patterns when the targets of the search are scarce.

  15. Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-25

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels.

  16. Quantifying MTBE biodegradation in the Vandenberg Air Force Base ethanol release study using stable carbon isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Mackay, Douglas M.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2007-12-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) was used to assess biodegradation of MTBE and TBA during an ethanol release study at Vandenberg Air Force Base. Two continuous side-by-side field releases were conducted within a preexisting MTBE plume to form two lanes. The first involved the continuous injection of site groundwater amended with benzene, toluene and o-xylene ("No ethanol lane"), while the other involved the continuous injection of site groundwater amended with benzene, toluene and o-xylene and ethanol ("With ethanol lane"). The δ 13C of MTBE for all wells in the "No ethanol lane" remained constant during the experiment with a mean value of - 31.3 ± 0.5‰ ( n = 40), suggesting the absence of any substantial MTBE biodegradation in this lane. In contrast, substantial enrichment in 13C of MTBE by 40.6‰, was measured in the "With ethanol lane", consistent with the effects of biodegradation. A substantial amount of TBA (up to 1200 μg/L) was produced by the biodegradation of MTBE in the "With ethanol lane". The mean value of δ 13C for TBA in groundwater samples in the "With ethanol lane" was - 26.0 ± 1.0‰ ( n = 32). Uniform δ 13C TBA values through space and time in this lane suggest that substantial anaerobic biodegradation of TBA did not occur during the experiment. Using the reported range in isotopic enrichment factors for MTBE of - 9.2‰ to - 15.6‰, and values of δ 13C of MTBE in groundwater samples, MTBE first-order biodegradation rates in the "With ethanol lane" were 12.0 to 20.3 year - 1 ( n = 18). The isotope-derived rate constants are in good agreement with the previously published rate constant of 16.8 year - 1 calculated using contaminant mass-discharge for the "With ethanol lane".

  17. Searching your site`s management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, W.; Rollin, C. [S.M. Stoller Corp., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s guidelines for the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR) encourage the use of existing data when compiling information. Specific systems mentioned include the Progress Tracking System, the Mixed-Waste Inventory Report, the Waste Management Information System, DOE 4700.1-related systems, Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) data, and existing Work Breakdown Structures. In addition to these DOE-Headquarters tracking and reporting systems, there are a number of site systems that will be relied upon to produce the BEMR, including: (1) site management control and cost tracking systems; (2) commitment/issues tracking systems; (3) program-specific internal tracking systems; (4) Site material/equipment inventory systems. New requirements have often prompted the creation of new, customized tracking systems. This is a very time and money consuming process. As the BEMR Management Plan emphasizes, an effort should be made to use the information in existing tracking systems. Because of the wealth of information currently available from in-place systems, development of a new tracking system should be a last resort.

  18. Pavlovian conditioning with ethanol: sign-tracking (autoshaping), conditioned incentive, and ethanol self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krank, Marvin D

    2003-10-01

    Conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior propose that cues signaling a drug's reinforcing effects activate a central motivational state. Incentive motivation enhances drug-taking and drug-seeking behavior. We investigated the behavioral response to cues associated with ethanol and their interaction with operant self-administration of ethanol. In two experiments, rats received operant training to press a lever for a sweetened ethanol solution. After operant training, the animals were given Pavlovian pairings of a brief and localized cue light with the sweetened ethanol solution (no lever present). Lever pressing for ethanol was then re-established, and the behavioral effects of the cue light were tested during an ethanol self-administration session. The conditioned responses resulting from pairing cue lights with the opportunity to ingest ethanol had three main effects: (1) induction of operant behavior reinforced by ethanol, (2) stimulation of ethanol-seeking behavior (magazine entries), and (3) signal-directed behavior (i.e., autoshaping, or sign-tracking). Signal-directed behavior interacted with the other two effects in a manner predicted by the location of the cue light. These conditioned responses interact with operant responding for ethanol reinforcement. These findings demonstrate the importance of Pavlovian conditioning effects on ethanol self-administration and are consistent with conditioned incentive theories of addictive behavior.

  19. Chronic ethanol consumption impairs learning and memory after cessation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Susan A; Scherrer, Jeffrey F; Banks, William A; Flood, James F; Morley, John E

    2005-06-01

    Acute consumption of ethanol results in reversible changes in learning and memory whereas chronic ethanol consumption of six or more months produces permanent deficits and neural damage in rodents. The goal of the current paper was determine whether shorter durations of chronic ethanol ingestion in mice would produce long-term deficits in learning and memory after the cessation of ethanol. We first examined the effects of four and eight weeks of 20% ethanol followed by a three week withdrawal period on learning and memory in mice. We determined that three weeks after eight, but not four, weeks of 20% ethanol consumption resulted in deficits in learning and long-term memory (seven days) in T-maze footshock avoidance and Greek Cross brightness discrimination, step-down passive avoidance and shuttlebox active avoidance. Short-term memory (1 hr) was not affected. The deficit was not related to changes in thiamine status, caloric intake, or nonmnemonic factors, such as, activity or footshock sensitivity. Lastly, we examined if the mice recovered after longer durations of withdrawal. After eight weeks of ethanol, we compared mice after three and 12 weeks of withdrawal. Mice that had been off ethanol for both three and 12 weeks were impaired in T-maze footshock avoidance compared to the controls. The current results indicate that a duration of ethanol consumption as short as eight weeks produces deficits in learning and memory that are present 12 weeks after withdrawal.

  20. Chronic ethanol administration increases the binding of 3H Ro-15-4513 in primary cultured spinal cord neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlatre, M.; Ticku, M.K.

    1989-01-01

    Ro 15-4513 (ethyl-8-azido-5, 6-dihydro-5-methyl-6-oxo-4H-imidazo [1,5α], [1,4] benzodiazepine-3-carboxylate) is reported to be a selective ethanol antagonist in biochemical and behavioral studies. The effect of chronic ethanol treatment on the binding of [ 3 H]Ro 15-4513 was investigated in cultured spinal cord neurons, which are shown to possess all the elements of GABA benzodiazepine receptor complex. Chronic ethanol treatment (50 mM for 6 hr, 12 hr, 18 hr, 3 days, and 5 3 days) produced an increase in the specific binding of [ 3 H]Ro 15-4513. The increase in binding in these neurons was due to an increase in the number (B max ) of receptor sites. This effect was specific for Ro 15-4513, since identical ethanol treatment did not alter the binding of benzodiazepine antagonist [ 3 H]Ro 15-1788 or agonist [ 3 H]flunitrazepam or inverse agonist [ 3 H]methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate. Similar results have been reported following chronic ethanol treatment to rats. These results suggest that the Ro 15-4513 binding sites on the oligomeric GABA receptor complex are altered following chronic ethanol administration, and support the notion of a unique role of Ro 15-4513 as an ethanol antagonist

  1. Biofilm formation and ethanol inhibition by bacterial contaminants of biofuel fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Joseph O; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Anderson, Amber M; Nunnally, Melinda S

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial contaminants can inhibit ethanol production in biofuel fermentations, and even result in stuck fermentations. Contaminants may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted of bacterial contaminants from a Midwestern dry grind corn fuel ethanol facility. Among eight sites sampled in the facility, the combined liquefaction stream and yeast propagation tank were consistently contaminated, leading to contamination of early fermentation tanks. Among 768 contaminants isolated, 92% were identified as Lactobacillus sp., with the most abundant species being Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus mucosae, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Seven percent of total isolates showed the ability to form biofilms in pure cultures, and 22% showed the capacity to significantly inhibit ethanol production. However, these traits were not correlated. Ethanol inhibition appeared to be related to acetic acid production by contaminants, particularly by obligately heterofermentative species such as L. fermentum and L. mucosae. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Ethanol Transportation Backgrounder

    OpenAIRE

    Denicoff, Marina R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first 6 months of 2007, U.S. ethanol production totaled nearly 3 billion gallons—32 percent higher than the same period last year. As of August 29, there were 128 ethanol plants with annual production capacity totaling 6.78 billion gallons, and an additional 85 plants were under construction. U.S. ethanol production capacity is expanding rapidly and is currently expected to exceed 13 billion gallons per year by early 2009, if not sooner. Ethanol demand has increased corn prices and le...

  3. The ethanol pathway from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum improves ethanol production in Clostridium thermocellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Shuen; Olson, Daniel G; Holwerda, Evert K; Lanahan, Anthony A; Murphy, Sean J L; Maloney, Marybeth I; Zheng, Tianyong; Papanek, Beth; Guss, Adam M; Lynd, Lee R

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium thermocellum ferments cellulose, is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, and has been the focus of studies aimed at improving ethanol yield. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum ferments hemicellulose, but not cellulose, and has been engineered to produce ethanol at high yield and titer. Recent research has led to the identification of four genes in T. saccharolyticum involved in ethanol production: adhE, nfnA, nfnB and adhA. We introduced these genes into C. thermocellum and observed significant improvements to ethanol yield, titer, and productivity. The four genes alone, however, were insufficient to achieve in C. thermocellum the ethanol yields and titers observed in engineered T. saccharolyticum strains, even when combined with gene deletions targeting hydrogen production. This suggests that other parts of T. saccharolyticum metabolism may also be necessary to reproduce the high ethanol yield and titer phenotype in C. thermocellum. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalytic Ethanol Dehydration over Different Acid-activated Montmorillonite Clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the catalytic dehydration of ethanol to obtain ethylene over montmorillonite clays (MMT) with mineral acid activation including H2SO4 (SA-MMT), HCl (HA-MMT) and HNO3 (NA-MMT) was investigated at temperature range of 200 to 400°C. It revealed that HA-MMT exhibited the highest catalytic activity. Ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity were found to increase with increased reaction temperature. At 400°C, the HA-MMT yielded 82% of ethanol conversion having 78% of ethylene yield. At lower temperature (i.e. 200 to 300°C), diethyl ether (DEE) was a major product. The highest activity obtained from HA-MMT can be attributed to an increase of weak acid sites and acid density by the activation of MMT with HCl. It can be also proven by various characterization techniques that in most case, the main structure of MMT did not alter by acid activation (excepted for NA-MMT). Upon the stability test for 72 h during the reaction, the MMT and HA-MMT showed only slight deactivation due to carbon deposition. Hence, the acid activation of MMT by HCl is promising to enhance the catalytic dehydration of ethanol.

  5. 2D PdAg Alloy Nanodendrites for Enhanced Ethanol Electroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenjing; Kang, Xiaolin; Xu, Cheng; Zhou, Junhua; Deng, Jun; Li, Yanguang; Cheng, Si

    2018-03-01

    The development of highly active and stable electrocatalysts for ethanol electroxidation is of decisive importance to the successful commercialization of direct ethanol fuel cells. Despite great efforts invested over the past decade, their progress has been notably slower than expected. In this work, the facile solution synthesis of 2D PdAg alloy nanodendrites as a high-performance electrocatalyst is reported for ethanol electroxidation. The reaction is carried out via the coreduction of Pd and Ag precursors in aqueous solution with the presence of octadecyltrimethylammonium chloride as the structural directing agent. Final products feature small thickness (5-7 nm) and random in-plane branching with enlarged surface areas and abundant undercoordinated sites. They exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activity (large specific current ≈2600 mA mgPd-1) and excellent operation stability (as revealed from both the cycling and chronoamperometric tests) for ethanol electroxidation. Control experiments show that the improvement comes from the combined electronic and structural effects. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. SYNTHESIS OF PROPYLENE FROM ETHANOL USING PHOSPHORUS-MODIFIED HZSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Effects of phosphorus addition to HZSM-5 on ethanol conversion to propylene were evaluated. Catalysts were characterized by XRF, XRD, nitrogen adsorption, 27Al and 31P MAS NMR, n-propylamine and ammonia TPD. Increasing P content decreased the strength and density of acid total sites. Ethanol dehydration was carried out in a fixed bed reactor operating at atmospheric pressure. Conversion was around 100% for all catalysts. 1.2 wt% of P catalyst showed the highest propylene yield, and was used to evaluate temperature and ethanol partial pressure effects on the product distribution. The highest propylene accumulated productivity was obtained for an ethanol partial pressure of 0.4 atm. Propylene formation was favored in the temperature range 475-500 °C. Significant changes in the product distribution as a function of time on stream were observed at higher temperatures, suggesting stronger catalyst deactivation. The ethylene yield decreased up to 500 °C, rising significantly at 550 °C, possibly due to heavier product cracking reactions.

  7. High ethanol tolerance of the thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producer Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Mikkelsen, Marie Just; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The low ethanol tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria, generally less than 2% (v/v) ethanol, is one of the main limiting factors for their potential use for second generation fuel ethanol production. In this work, the tolerance of thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG 1L1...... to exogenously added ethanol was studied in a continuous immobilized reactor system at a growth temperature of 70 degrees C. Ethanol tolerance was evaluated based on inhibition of fermentative performance e.g.. inhibition of substrate conversion. At the highest ethanol concentration tested (8.3% v/v), the strain...... was able to convert 42% of the xylose initially present, indicating that this ethanol concentration is not the upper limit tolerated by the strain. Long-term strain adaptation to high ethanol concentrations (6 - 8.3%) resulted in an improvement of xylose conversion by 25% at an ethanol concentration of 5...

  8. Structure stability of HKUST-1 towards water and ethanol and their effect on its CO2 capture properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, J Raziel; Sánchez-González, Elí; Pérez, Eric; Schneider-Revueltas, Emilia; Martínez, Ana; Tejeda-Cruz, Adriana; Islas-Jácome, Alejandro; González-Zamora, Eduardo; Ibarra, Ilich A

    2017-07-18

    Water and ethanol stabilities of the crystal structure of the Cu-based metal-organic framework (MOF) HKUST-1 have been investigated. Vapour (water and ethanol) sorption isotherms and cyclability were measured by a dynamic strategy. The ethanol sorption capacity of HKUST-1 at 303 K remained unchanged contrasting water sorption (which decreased along with the sorption experiment time). Considering the binding energy of each sorbate with the open Cu(ii) sites, obtained by the use of diffusion coefficients, we showed the superior crystal stability of the HKUST-1 framework towards ethanol. Finally, a small quantity of ethanol (pre-adsorbed) slightly enhanced CO 2 capture without crystal structure degradation.

  9. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  10. Report of the PRI biofuel-ethanol; Rapport du PRI biocarburant-ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This evaluation report presents three research programs in the framework of the physiological behavior of the yeast ''Saccharomyces cerevisiae'', with high ethanol content. These studies should allowed to select an efficient yeast for the ethanol production. The first study concerns the development of an enzymatic process for the hydrolysis and the fermentation. The second study deals with the molecular and dynamical bases for the yeast metabolic engineering for the ethanol fuel production. The third research concerns the optimization of performance of microbial production processes of ethanol. (A.L.B.)

  11. Ethanol research with representatives of provincial/territorial governments and ethanol retailers : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This paper provided the results of a survey conducted to obtain feedback from retailers and provincial and territorial governments concerning the promotion of ethanol use. A key objective of the research was to determine whether local and provincial governments and retailers are interested in cooperating with the federal government in promoting ethanol use. Thirteen government representatives were interviewed as well as 11 retailers. Results of the study suggested that approaches to collaboration with the diverse stakeholders involved in the promotion of ethanol will require a tailored approach. The needs and interests of jurisdictions and provinces varied widely. Outlets selling ethanol-blended gasoline were concentrated in Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Retailers who embraced the alternative fuel tended to be well-established in the ethanol market, and did not require assistance from the Government of Canada. Retailers who were reluctant to embrace ethanol stated that they were only likely to enter the market when required to do so by law. Many stakeholders felt that consumers entertained common misperceptions concerning ethanol, and that consumers were unsure of the effect of ethanol on their vehicles. Many retailers had taken steps to communicate with consumers about the relative benefits of ethanol-blended gasoline. Results indicated that the federal government can assist provinces and retailers by providing promotional tools such as flyers, pamphlets and brochures. Interest among retailers in collaborating with the government was only moderate. It was recommended that retailers be provided with accurate information on ethanol. It was concluded that strategies should be developed by the federal government to increase public awareness of ethanol use.

  12. Biochemical Disincentives to Fertilizing Cellulosic Ethanol Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.; Snapp, S.; McSwiney, C.; Baldock, J.

    2010-12-01

    Corn grain biofuel crops produce the highest yields when the cropping ecosystem is not nitrogen (N)-limited, achieved by application of fertilizer. There are environmental consequences for excessive fertilizer application to crops, including greenhouse gas emissions, hypoxic “dead zones,” and health problems from N runoff into groundwater. The increase in corn acreage in response to demand for alternative fuels (i.e. ethanol) could exacerbate these problems, and divert food supplies to fuel production. A potential substitute for grain ethanol that could reduce some of these impacts is cellulosic ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol feedstocks include grasses (switchgrass), hardwoods, and crop residues (e.g. corn stover, wheat straw). It has been assumed that these feedstocks will require similar N fertilization rates to grain biofuel crops to maximize yields, but carbohydrate yield versus N application has not previously been monitored. We report the biochemical stocks (carbohydrate, protein, and lignin in Mg ha-1) of a corn ecosystem grown under varying N levels. We measured biochemical yield in Mg ha-1 within the grain, leaf and stem, and reproductive parts of corn plants grown at seven N fertilization rates (0-202 kg N ha-1), to evaluate the quantity and quality of these feedstocks across a N fertilization gradient. The N fertilization rate study was performed at the Kellogg Biological Station-Long Term Ecological Research Site (KBS-LTER) in Michigan. Biochemical stocks were measured using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), combined with a molecular mixing model (Baldock et al. 2004). Carbohydrate and lignin are the main biochemicals of interest in ethanol production since carbohydrate is the ethanol feedstock, and lignin hinders the carbohydrate to ethanol conversion process. We show that corn residue carbohydrate yields respond only weakly to N fertilization compared to grain. Grain carbohydrate yields plateau in response to fertilization at

  13. Ethanol for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Morgan, Amanda M; Deans, Samantha J; Schubert, Frank P

    2015-11-05

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of death and disability in newborns worldwide. A wide variety of tocolytic agents have been utilized to delay birth for women in preterm labor. One of the earliest tocolytics utilized for this purpose was ethanol infusion, although this is not generally used in current practice due to safety concerns for both the mother and her baby. To determine the efficacy of ethanol in stopping preterm labor, preventing preterm birth, and the impact of ethanol on neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomized and quasi-randomized studies. Cluster-randomized trials and cross-over design trials were not eligible for inclusion. We only included studies published in abstract form if there was enough information on methods and relevant outcomes. Trials were included if they compared ethanol infusion to stop preterm labor versus placebo/control or versus other tocolytic drugs. At least two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and risk of bias. At least two review authors independently extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. Twelve trials involving 1586 women met inclusion criteria for this review. One trial did not report on the outcomes of interest in this review.Risk of bias of included studies: The included studies generally were of low quality based on inadequate reporting of methodology. Only three trials had low risk of bias for random sequence generation and one had low risk of bias for allocation concealment and participant blinding. Most studies were either high risk of bias or uncertain in these key areas. Comparison 1: Ethanol versus placebo/control (two trials, 77 women) Compared to controls receiving pain medications and dextrose solution, ethanol did not improve any of the primary outcomes: birth labour. However, it would be useful for long-term follow-up studies on the babies born

  14. Water-insoluble fractions of botanical foods lower blood ethanol levels in rats by physically maintaining the ethanol solution after ethanol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunji Oshima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have analyzed the functions of foods and dietary constituents in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. However, few studies have reported the function of dietary fibers in the dynamics of alcohol metabolism. Objective: We assessed the effects of botanical foods that contain dietary fibers on alcohol metabolism. Methods: The ability of the water-insoluble fraction (WIF of 18 kinds of botanical foods to maintain 15% (v/v ethanol solution was examined using easily handled filtration. A simple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC in F344 rats 4 h after the ingestion of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol following dosage of 2.5% (w/v WIF of the experimental botanical foods. Furthermore, the supernatant (6.3 Brix; water-soluble fraction and precipitate (WIF of tomato, with a strong ethanol-maintaining ability, were obtained and BEC and the residual gastric ethanol in rats were determined 2 h after the administration of 4.0 g/kg of ethanol and the individuals fractions. Results: The filtered volumes of dropped ethanol solutions containing all the botanical foods tested except green peas were decreased compared with the ethanol solution without WIF (control. There was a significant correlation between the filtered volumes and blood ethanol concentration (BEC. There was no significant difference in the residual gastric ethanol between controls and the supernatant group; however, it was increased significantly in the WIF group than in controls or the supernatant group. Consistent with this, BEC reached a similar level in controls and the supernatant group but significantly decreased in the WIF group compared with controls or the supernatant group. Conclusions: These findings suggest that WIFs of botanical foods, which are mostly water-insoluble dietary fibers, possess the ability to absorb ethanol-containing solutions, and this ability correlates

  15. Sustainably produced ethanol. A premium fuel component; Nachhaltig produziertes Ethanol. Eine Premium Kraftstoffkomponente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Joerg [Suedzucker AG, Obrigheim/Pfalz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ethanol is the most used biofuel in the world. It is part of the European biofuel strategy, which is intended to preserve finite fossil resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and strengthen European agriculture. In addition to its traditional use in E5 fuel, ethanol most recently features in new fuels for petrol engines in Europe: as E10 as an expansion of the already existing concept of ethanol blends, such as in E5, or as ethanol fuel E85, a blend made up primarily of ethanol. There is already extensive international experience for both types of fuel for example in the USA or Brazil. The use of ethanol as a biofuel is linked to sustainability criteria in Europe which must be proven through a certification scheme. In addition to ethanol, the integrated production process also provides vegetable protein which is used in food as well as in animal feed and therefore provides the quality products of processed plants used for sustainable energy and in animal and human food. Ethanol has an effect on the vapour pressure, boiling behaviour and octane number of the fuel blend. Adjusting the blend stock petrol to fulfil the quality requirements of the final fuel is therefore necessary. Increasing the antiknock properties, increasing the heat of evaporation of the fuel using ethanol and the positive effects this has on the combustion efficiency of the petrol engine are particularly important. Investigations on cars or engines that were specifically designed for fuel with a higher ethanol content show significant improvements in using the energy from the fuel and the potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions if fuels containing ethanol are used. The perspective based purely on an energy equivalent replacement of fossil fuels with ethanol is therefore misleading. Ethanol can also contribute to increasing the energy efficiency of petrol engines as well as being a replacement source of energy. (orig.)

  16. Selecting ethanol as an ideal organic solvent probe in radiation chemistry γ-radiolysis of acetone-ethanol system and acetophenone-ethanol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Haofang; Wu Jilan; Fang Xingwang; Zhang Xujia

    1995-01-01

    Radiolysis of acetone-ethanol solution and acetophenone-ethanol solution has been studied in this work. The dependences of G values of the final γ radiolysis products such as H 2 . 2,3-butanediol and acetaldehyde on additive concentration in liquid ethanol have been obtained. There are two kinds of new final products, isopropanol and 2-methyl-2,3-butanediol are detected in irradiated acetone-ethanol solution. As for acetophenone-ethanol system, more new final products are found. In addition, experiments of pulse radiolysis upon acetophenone-ethanol solution have also been performed. The absorption spectrum with λ max at 315nm and 440nm is observed, which is assigned to ketyl radical ion C 6 H 5 (CH 3 )CO - . And the reaction mechanism of the two systems is proposed respectively with a moderate success. (author)

  17. Biological Conversion of Glycerol to Ethanol by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Raymond E. S.

    In a search to turn the economically and environmentally non-valuable "waste" streams of biodiesel production into a profitable byproduct, a mutant strain of Enterobacter aerogenes ATCC 13048 was developed by six-tube subculturing technique. This technique is based on the principle of adaptive evolution, and involved subculturing the bacterium in a tryptic soy broth without dextrose (TSB) containing specific glycerol and ethanol concentration for six consecutive times. Then, the six consecutive subculturing was repeated in a fresh TSB of higher glycerol and ethanol concentrations. A new mutant strain, E. aerogenes S012, which could withstand a combination of 200 g/l glycerol and 30 g/l ethanol concentrations, was developed. The wild and mutant strains were used for the fermentation of pure (P-) and recovered (R-) glycerol. Taguchi and full factorial methods of design of experiments were used to screen and optimize the important process factors that influence the microbial production of ethanol. A statistically sound regression model was used to establish the mathematical relationship between the process variables and ethanol production. Temperature of 38°C, agitation speed of 200 rpm, pH of 6.3-6.6, and microaerobic condition were the optimum process conditions. Different pretreatment methods to recover glycerol from the crude glycerol and the subsequent fermentation method showed that direct acidification using 85% H3PO4 was the best. The R-glycerol contained 51% pure glycerol and 21% methanol. The wild strain, E. aerogenes ATCC 13048, produced only 12 g/l and 12.8 g/l ethanol from 20 g/l P- and R-glycerol respectively, and could not utilize higher glycerol concentrations. The mutant, E. aerogenes S012, produced ethanol amount and yield of 43 g/l and 1.12 mol/mol-glycerol from P-glycerol, respectively within 96 h. It also produced ethanol amount and yield of 26.8 g/l and 1.07 mol/mol-glycerol, respectively, from R-glycerol within the same duration. In a

  18. Adsorption of Water and Ethanol in MFI-Type Zeolites

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ke

    2012-06-12

    Water and ethanol vapor adsorption phenomena are investigated systematically on a series of MFI-type zeolites: silicalite-1 samples synthesized via both alkaline (OH -) and fluoride (F -) routes, and ZSM-5 samples with different Si/Al ratios as well as different charge-balancing cations. Full isotherms (0.05-0.95 activity) over the range 25-55 °C are presented, and the lowest total water uptake ever reported in the literature is shown for silicalite-1 made via a fluoride-mediated route wherein internal silanol defects are significantly reduced. At a water activity level of 0.95 (35 °C), the total water uptake by silicalite-1 (F -) was found to be 0.263 mmol/g, which was only 12.6%, 9.8%, and 3.3% of the capacity for silicalite-1 (OH -), H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al:140), and H-ZSM-5 (Si/Al:15), respectively, under the same conditions. While water adsorption shows distinct isotherms for different MFI-type zeolites due to the difference in the concentration, distribution, and types of hydrophilic sites, the ethanol adsorption isotherms present relatively comparable results because of the overall organophilic nature of the zeolite framework. Due to the dramatic differences in the sorption behavior with the different sorbate-sorbent pairs, different models are applied to correlate and analyze the sorption isotherms. An adsorption potential theory was used to fit the water adsorption isotherms on all MFI-type zeolite adsorbents studied. The Langmuir model and Sircar\\'s model are applied to describe ethanol adsorption on silicalite-1 and ZSM-5 samples, respectively. An ideal ethanol/water adsorption selectivity (α) was estimated for the fluoride-mediated silicalite-1. At 35 °C, α was estimated to be 36 for a 5 mol % ethanol solution in water increasing to 53 at an ethanol concentration of 1 mol %. The adsorption data demonstrate that silicalite-1 made via the fluoride-mediated route is a promising candidate for ethanol extraction from dilute ethanol-water solutions. © 2012

  19. A novel approach for the improvement of ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, L.; Cao, X.; Wang, C. [Tianjin Univ. of Science and Technology, Tianjin (China). Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety

    2010-06-15

    The partial substitution of fossil fuels with bioethanol has become an important strategy for the use of renewable energy. Ethanol production is generally achieved through fermentation of starch or sugar-based feedstock by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to meet the growing demand for ethanol, there is a need for new yeast strains that can produce ethanol more efficiently and cost effectively. This paper presented a new genome engineering approach that was developed to improve ethanol production by S. cerevisiae. In this study, the aneuploid strain constructed on the base of tetraploid cells was shown to have favourable metabolic traits in very high gravity (VHG) fermentation with 300 g/L glucose as the carbon source. The tetraploid strain was constructed using the plasmid YCplac33-GHK, which comprised the HO gene encoding the site-specific HO endonucleases. The aneuploid strain, WT4-M, was chosen and screened once the tetraploid cells were treated with methyl benzimidazole-2-yl-carbamate to induce loss of mitotic chromosomes. The aneuploid strain WT4-M increased ethanol production as well as osmotic and thermal tolerance. The sugar to ethanol conversion rate also improved. It was concluded that this new approach is valuable for creating yeast strains with better fermentation characteristics. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Market penetration of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth R.; McCarl, Bruce A.; Cornforth, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    This research examines in detail the technology and economics of substituting ethanol for gasoline. This endeavor examines three issues. First, the benefits of ethanol/gasoline blends are examined, and then the technical problems of large-scale implementation of ethanol. Second, ethanol production possibilities are examined in detail from a variety of feedstocks and technologies. The feedstocks are the starch/sugar crops and crop residues, while the technologies are corn wet mill, dry grind, and lignocellulosic fermentation. Examining in detail the production possibilities allows the researchers to identity the extent of technological change, production costs, byproducts, and GHG emissions. Finally, a U.S. agricultural model, FASOMGHG, is updated which predicts the market penetration of ethanol given technological progress, variety of technologies and feedstocks, market interactions, energy prices, and GHG prices. FASOMGHG has several interesting results. First, gasoline prices have a small expansionary impact on the U.S. ethanol industry. Both agricultural producers' income and cost both increase with higher energy prices. If wholesale gasoline is $4 per gallon, the predicted ethanol market penetration attains 53% of U.S. gasoline consumption in 2030. Second, the corn wet mill remains an important industry for ethanol production, because this industry also produces corn oil, which could be converted to biodiesel. Third, GHG prices expand the ethanol industry. However, the GHG price expands the corn wet mill, but has an ambiguous impact on lignocellulosic ethanol. Feedstocks for lignocellulosic fermentation can also be burned with coal to generate electricity. Both industries are quite GHG efficient. Finally, U.S. government subsidies on biofuels have an expansionary impact on ethanol production, but may only increase market penetration by an additional 1% in 2030, which is approximately 6 billion gallons. (author)

  1. Electrocatalytic activity of Pt nanoparticles on bamboo shaped carbon nanotubes for ethanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zanzan; Wang Jianlong; Munir, Ahsan; Zhou, H. Susan

    2010-01-01

    Recently, bamboo shaped carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) have received increased attention for its bamboo shaped structure associated properties and its application in direct methanol/ethanol fuel cell. In this work, the potential to use BCNTs as the support material of high loaded Pt nanoparticles for improving the efficiency of ethanol/methanol fuel cell is explored. The structure and nature of the resulting Pt-BCNTS composite were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) spectrum, it was found that Pt nanoparticles were homogeneously dispersed on the BCNTs surfaces with 23.5% by weight. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) indicated that the Pt-BCNTs catalyst displayed excellent electrocatalytic activity and long-term stability toward ethanol oxidation. The excellent performance may be attributed to the high dispersion of nanoscale Pt catalysts and the unique nature of BCNTs. The results imply that doping N atom introduces some defective sites and active sites onto the surface of CNTs. In general, this paper demonstrates that BCNTs are promising support material for Pt-nanoparticles catalyst and can be used to enhance the efficiency of fuel cell.

  2. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  3. Bio-ethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , there is not enough biomass for 'everyone', not physically and not in terms of money to promote its use. This leads to the conclusion that any use of biomass for energy purposes will have to compare to the lost opportunity of using it for something else. In this perspective, the choice to use biomass for bio......-ethanol production will not lead to reduction but to increase in CO2 emission and fossil fuel dependency. Both first and second generation bio-ethanol suffer from a biomass-to-ethanol energy conversion efficiency as low as 30-40 %, and moreover external fossil fuels are used to run the conversion. There is only......, but they do not improve the energy balance enough for bio-ethanol to compete with alternative uses of the biomass. When using biomass to substitute fossil fuels in heat & power production, a close to 100% substitution efficiency is achieved. The best alternative for CO2 reduction and oil saving is, therefore...

  4. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Haack

    Full Text Available The lateral habenula (LHb plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  5. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Silva, G; Fernandes-Santos, J; Moreira-Silva, D; Marin, M T

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30-35 g, 8-10 per group) were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a "three-bottle choice" paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  6. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morais-Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol, but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex interaction. We investigated the effects of concomitant, chronic administration of ethanol and stress exposure on the withdrawal and consumption of, as well as the preference for, ethanol in mice. Male Swiss mice (30–35 g, 8-10 per group were exposed to an ethanol liquid diet as the only source of food for 15 days. In the final 5 days, they were exposed to forced swimming stress. Twelve hours after removal of the ethanol liquid diet, animals were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal by measuring anxiety-related behaviors and locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours after evaluation of ethanol withdrawal, they were evaluated for voluntary consumption of ethanol in a “three-bottle choice” paradigm. Mice exposed to chronic consumption of ethanol had decreased locomotor activity during withdrawal. Contrary to our expectations, a concomitant forced swimming stress did not aggravate ethanol withdrawal. Nevertheless, simultaneous ethanol administration and stress exposure increased voluntary consumption of ethanol, mainly solutions containing high concentrations of ethanol. These results showed that stressful situations during ethanol intake may aggravate specific addiction-related behaviors.

  7. Fact sheet: Ethanol from corn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-31

    This fact sheet is intended to provide an overview of the advantages of ethanol from corn, emphasizing ethanol`s contribution to environmental protection and sustainable agriculture. Ethanol, an alternative fuel used as an octane enhancer is produced through the conversion of starch to sugars by enzymes, and fermentation of these sugars to ethanol by yeast. The production process may involve wet milling or dry milling. Both these processes produce valuable by-products, in addition to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Ethanol contains about 32,000 BTU per litre. It is commonly believed that using state-of-the-art corn farming and corn processing processes, the amount of energy contained in ethanol and its by-products would be more than twice the energy required to grow and process corn into ethanol. Ethanol represents the third largest market for Ontario corn, after direct use as animal feed and wet milling for starch, corn sweetener and corn oil. The environmental consequences of using ethanol are very significant. It is estimated that a 10 per cent ethanol blend in gasoline would result in a 25 to 30 per cent decrease in carbon monoxide emissions, a 6 to 10 per cent decrease in net carbon dioxide, a slight increase in nitrous oxide emissions which, however, would still result in an overall decrease in ozone formation, since the significant reduction in carbon monoxide emissions would compensate for any slight increase in nitrous oxide. Volatile organic compounds emission would also decrease by about 7 per cent with a 10 per cent ethanol blend. High level blends could reduce VOCs production by as much as 30 per cent. 7 refs.

  8. Ethanol-Induced Upregulation of 10-Formyltetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase Helps Relieve Ethanol-Induced Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Tsun-Hsien; Lin, Chia-Jen; Chung, Yi-Shao; Lee, Gang-Hui; Kao, Tseng-Ting; Chang, Wen-Ni; Chen, Bing-Hung; Hung, Jan-Jong; Fu, Tzu-Fun

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism induces folate deficiency and increases the risk for embryonic anomalies. However, the interplay between ethanol exposure and embryonic folate status remains unclear. To investigate how ethanol exposure affects embryonic folate status and one-carbon homeostasis, we incubated zebrafish embryos in ethanol and analyzed embryonic folate content and folate enzyme expression. Exposure to 2% ethanol did not change embryonic total folate content but increased the tetrahydrofolate level app...

  9. Effects of Vigabatrin, an Irreversible GABA Transaminase Inhibitor, on Ethanol Reinforcement and Ethanol Discriminative Stimuli in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William C.; Nguyen, Shaun A.; Deleon, Christopher P.; Middaugh, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the irreversible gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) transaminase inhibitor, γ-vinyl GABA (Vigabatrin; VGB) would reduce ethanol reinforcement and enhance the discriminative stimulus effect of ethanol, effectively reducing ethanol intake. The present studies used adult C57BL/6J (B6) mice in well-established operant, two-bottle choice consumption, locomotor activity and ethanol discrimination procedures, to examine comprehensively the effects of VGB on ethanol-supported behaviors. VGB dose-dependently reduced operant responding for ethanol as well as ethanol consumption for long periods of time. Importantly, a low dose (200 mg/kg) of VGB was selective for reducing ethanol responding without altering intake of food or water reinforcement. Higher VGB doses (>200 mg/kg) still reduced ethanol intake, but also significantly increased water consumption and, more modestly, increased food consumption. While not affecting locomotor activity on its own, VGB interacted with ethanol to reduce the stimulatory effects of ethanol on locomotion. Finally, VGB (200 mg/kg) significantly enhanced the discriminative stimulus effects of ethanol as evidenced by significant left-ward and up-ward shifts in ethanol generalization curves. Interestingly, VGB treatment was associated with slight increases in blood ethanol concentrations. The reduction in ethanol intake by VGB appears to be related to the ability of VGB to potentiate the pharmacological effects of ethanol. PMID:22336593

  10. Mechanism of Oxidation of Ethane to Ethanol at Iron(IV)-Oxo Sites in Magnesium-Diluted Fe2(dobdc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pragya; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Xiao, Dianne J; Long, Jeffrey R; Gagliardi, Laura; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-05-06

    The catalytic properties of the metal-organic framework Fe2(dobdc), containing open Fe(II) sites, include hydroxylation of phenol by pure Fe2(dobdc) and hydroxylation of ethane by its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc). In earlier work, the latter reaction was proposed to occur through a redox mechanism involving the generation of an iron(IV)-oxo species, which is an intermediate that is also observed or postulated (depending on the case) in some heme and nonheme enzymes and their model complexes. In the present work, we present a detailed mechanism by which the catalytic material, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), activates the strong C-H bonds of ethane. Kohn-Sham density functional and multireference wave function calculations have been performed to characterize the electronic structure of key species. We show that the catalytic nonheme-Fe hydroxylation of the strong C-H bond of ethane proceeds by a quintet single-state σ-attack pathway after the formation of highly reactive iron-oxo intermediate. The mechanistic pathway involves three key transition states, with the highest activation barrier for the transfer of oxygen from N2O to the Fe(II) center. The uncatalyzed reaction, where nitrous oxide directly oxidizes ethane to ethanol is found to have an activation barrier of 280 kJ/mol, in contrast to 82 kJ/mol for the slowest step in the iron(IV)-oxo catalytic mechanism. The energetics of the C-H bond activation steps of ethane and methane are also compared. Dehydrogenation and dissociation pathways that can compete with the formation of ethanol were shown to involve higher barriers than the hydroxylation pathway.

  11. Alcohol-Binding Sites in Distinct Brain Proteins: The Quest for Atomic Level Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Slesinger, Paul A.; Davies, Daryl L.; Das, Joydip; Trudell, James R.; Harris, R. Adron

    2011-01-01

    Defining the sites of action of ethanol on brain proteins is a major prerequisite to understanding the molecular pharmacology of this drug. The main barrier to reaching an atomic-level understanding of alcohol action is the low potency of alcohols, ethanol in particular, which is a reflection of transient, low-affinity interactions with their targets. These mechanisms are difficult or impossible to study with traditional techniques such as radioligand binding or spectroscopy. However, there has been considerable recent progress in combining X-ray crystallography, structural modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis to define the sites and mechanisms of action of ethanol and related alcohols on key brain proteins. We review such insights for several diverse classes of proteins including inwardly rectifying potassium, transient receptor potential, and neurotransmit-ter-gated ion channels, as well as protein kinase C epsilon. Some common themes are beginning to emerge from these proteins, including hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl group and van der Waals interactions of the methylene groups of ethanol with specific amino acid residues. The resulting binding energy is proposed to facilitate or stabilize low-energy state transitions in the bound proteins, allowing ethanol to act as a “molecular lubricant” for protein function. We discuss evidence for characteristic, discrete alcohol-binding sites on protein targets, as well as evidence that binding to some proteins is better characterized by an interaction region that can accommodate multiple molecules of ethanol. PMID:21676006

  12. Conversion of paper sludge to ethanol, II: process design and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhiliang; Lynd, Lee R

    2007-01-01

    Process design and economics are considered for conversion of paper sludge to ethanol. A particular site, a bleached kraft mill operated in Gorham, NH by Fraser Papers (15 tons dry sludge processed per day), is considered. In addition, profitability is examined for a larger plant (50 dry tons per day) and sensitivity analysis is carried out with respect to capacity, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Conversion based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation with intermittent feeding is examined, with ethanol recovery provided by distillation and molecular sieve adsorption. It was found that the Fraser plant achieves positive cash flow with or without xylose conversion and mineral recovery. Sensitivity analysis indicates economics are very sensitive to ethanol selling price and scale; significant but less sensitive to the tipping fee, and rather insensitive to the prices of cellulase and power. Internal rates of return exceeding 15% are projected for larger plants at most combinations of scale, tipping fee, and ethanol price. Our analysis lends support to the proposition that paper sludge is a leading point-of-entry and proving ground for emergent industrial processes featuring enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.

  13. Isolation and characterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-anaerobic thermophilic bacteria strains from waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Svenson, Charles J; Nakasugi, Kenlee; Leong, Caine T C; Bowman, John P; Chen, Betty; Glenn, Dianne R; Neilan, Brett A; Rogers, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    In a search for potential ethanologens, waste compost was screened for ethanol-tolerant thermophilic microorganisms. Two thermophilic bacterial strains, M5EXG and M10EXG, with tolerance of 5 and 10% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, were isolated. Both isolates are facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods that are capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources including arabinose, galactose, mannose, glucose and xylose and produce low amounts of ethanol, acetate and lactate. Growth of both isolates was observed in fully defined minimal media within the temperature range 50-80 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that both isolates clustered with members of subgroup 5 of the genus Bacillus. G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness of M5EXG and M10EXG revealed that they are strains belonging to Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. However, physiological and biochemical differences were evident when isolates M5EXG and M10EXG were compared with G. thermoglucosidasius type strain (DSM 2542(T)). The new thermophilic, ethanol-tolerant strains of G. thermoglucosidasius may be candidates for ethanol production at elevated temperatures.

  14. alpha7 Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout selectively enhances ethanol-, but not beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2005-01-03

    The alpha7 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated as a potential site of action for two neurotoxins, ethanol and the Alzheimer's disease related peptide, beta-amyloid. Here, we utilized primary neuronal cultures of cerebral cortex from alpha7 nAChR null mutant mice to examine the role of this receptor in modulating the neurotoxic properties of subchronic, "binge" ethanol and beta-amyloid. Knockout of the alpha7 nAChR gene selectively enhanced ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in a gene dosage-related fashion. Susceptibility of cultures to beta-amyloid induced toxicity, however, was unaffected by alpha7 nAChR gene null mutation. Further, beta-amyloid did not inhibit the binding of the highly alpha7-selective radioligand, [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin. On the other hand, in studies in Xenopus oocytes ethanol efficaciously inhibited alpha7 nAChR function. These data suggest that alpha7 nAChRs modulate the neurotoxic effects of binge ethanol, but not the neurotoxicity produced by beta-amyloid. It is hypothesized that inhibition of alpha7 nAChRs by ethanol provides partial protection against the neurotoxic properties of subchronic ethanol.

  15. Autoshaping induces ethanol drinking in nondeprived rats: evidence of long-term retention but no induction of ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Kuo, Teresa; Apor, Khristine R; Salomon, Kimberly E; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of autoshaping procedures (paired vs. random) and sipper fluid (ethanol vs. water) on sipper-directed drinking were evaluated in male Long-Evans rats maintained with free access to food and water. For the paired/ethanol group (n=16), autoshaping procedures consisted of presenting the ethanol sipper (containing 0% to 28% unsweetened ethanol) conditioned stimulus (CS) followed by the response-independent presentation of food unconditioned stimulus (US). The random/ethanol group (n=8) received the sipper CS and food US randomly with respect to one another. The paired/water group (n=8) received only water in the sipper CS. The paired/ethanol group showed higher grams per kilogram ethanol intake than the random/ethanol group did at ethanol concentrations of 8% to 28%. The paired/ethanol group showed higher sipper CS-directed milliliter fluid consumption than the paired/water group did at ethanol concentrations of 1% to 6%, and 15%, 16%, 18%, and 20%. Following a 42-day retention interval, the paired/ethanol group showed superior retention of CS-directed drinking of 18% ethanol, relative to the random/ethanol group, and superior retention of CS-directed milliliter fluid drinking relative to the paired/water group. When tested for home cage ethanol preference using limited access two-bottle (28% ethanol vs. water) procedures, the paired/ethanol and random/ethanol groups did not differ on any drinking measures.

  16. Water-induced ethanol dewetting transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiuping; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Chunlei

    2012-07-14

    The dewetting transitions of two hydrophobic plates immersed in pure water, aqueous ethanol solutions with concentrations from 25% to 90%, and pure ethanol were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations, where the dewetting transition was analogous to a first-order phase transition from liquid to vapor. It was found that the dewetting transitions occurred except that in the pure ethanol system. Although the ethanol molecules prefer to locate in the vicinity of the two plates, the inter-plate region is unfavorable for water molecules, due to losing more than one hydrogen bond. Moreover, each inter-plate water molecule forms hydrogen bonds on average with about two ethanol molecules. These intermolecular hydrogen bonds cause water and ethanol to cooperatively fill or exit the inter-plate region. Thus, water molecules play a more important role in the inter-plate filling/empty process, and induce the ethanol dewetting transition. Our results provide insight into the effect of water on the ethanol dewetting phenomena.

  17. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  18. Maximizing cellulosic ethanol potentials by minimizing wastewater generation and energy consumption: Competing with corn ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Bao, Jie

    2017-12-01

    Energy consumption and wastewater generation in cellulosic ethanol production are among the determinant factors on overall cost and technology penetration into fuel ethanol industry. This study analyzed the energy consumption and wastewater generation by the new biorefining process technology, dry acid pretreatment and biodetoxification (DryPB), as well as by the current mainstream technologies. DryPB minimizes the steam consumption to 8.63GJ and wastewater generation to 7.71tons in the core steps of biorefining process for production of one metric ton of ethanol, close to 7.83GJ and 8.33tons in corn ethanol production, respectively. The relatively higher electricity consumption is compensated by large electricity surplus from lignin residue combustion. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) by DryPB is below $2/gal and falls into the range of corn ethanol production cost. The work indicates that the technical and economical gap between cellulosic ethanol and corn ethanol has been almost filled up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From the Cover: Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jason; Nelson, Erik; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Tiffany, Douglas

    2006-07-01

    Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation biofuels. To be a viable alternative, a biofuel should provide a net energy gain, have environmental benefits, be economically competitive, and be producible in large quantities without reducing food supplies. We use these criteria to evaluate, through life-cycle accounting, ethanol from corn grain and biodiesel from soybeans. Ethanol yields 25% more energy than the energy invested in its production, whereas biodiesel yields 93% more. Compared with ethanol, biodiesel releases just 1.0%, 8.3%, and 13% of the agricultural nitrogen, phosphorus, and pesticide pollutants, respectively, per net energy gain. Relative to the fossil fuels they displace, greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel. Biodiesel also releases less air pollutants per net energy gain than ethanol. These advantages of biodiesel over ethanol come from lower agricultural inputs and more efficient conversion of feedstocks to fuel. Neither biofuel can replace much petroleum without impacting food supplies. Even dedicating all U.S. corn and soybean production to biofuels would meet only 12% of gasoline demand and 6% of diesel demand. Until recent increases in petroleum prices, high production costs made biofuels unprofitable without subsidies. Biodiesel provides sufficient environmental advantages to merit subsidy. Transportation biofuels such as synfuel hydrocarbons or cellulosic ethanol, if produced from low-input biomass grown on agriculturally marginal land or from waste biomass, could provide much greater supplies and environmental benefits than food-based biofuels. corn | soybean | life-cycle accounting | agriculture | fossil fuel

  20. Microbial Community Changes in Response to Ethanol or Methanol Amendments for U(VI) Reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Brandt, Craig C.; Madden, Andrew; Drake, Meghan M.; Kostka, Joel; Akob, Denise M.; Kusel, Kirsten; Palumbo, Anthony Vito

    2010-01-01

    Microbial community responses to ethanol, methanol and methanol + humics amendments in relationship to uranium bioremediation were studied in laboratory microcosm experiments using sediments and ground water from a uranium-contaminated site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Ethanol addition always resulted in uranium reduction at rate of 0.8-1.0 mol l -1 d -1 while methanol addition did so occasionally at rate 0.95 mol l -1 d -1 . The type of carbon source added, the duration of incubation, and the sampling site influenced the bacterial community structure upon incubation. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated (1) bacterial communities found in ethanol- and methanol-amended samples with U(VI) reduction were similar due to presence of -Proteobacteria, and -Proteobacteria (members of the families Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, and Rhodocyclaceae); (2) methanol-amended samples without U(VI) reduction exhibited the lowest diversity and the bacterial community contained 69.2-92.8% of the family Methylophilaceae; and (3) the addition of humics resulted in an increase of phylogenetic diversity of -Proteobacteria (Rodoferax, Polaromonas, Janthinobacterium, Methylophilales, unclassified) and Firmicutes (Desulfosporosinus, Clostridium).

  1. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  2. KCNQ channels show conserved ethanol block and function in ethanol behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Cavaliere

    Full Text Available In humans, KCNQ2/3 channels form an M-current that regulates neuronal excitability, with mutations in these channels causing benign neonatal familial convulsions. The M-current is important in mechanisms of neural plasticity underlying associative memory and in the response to ethanol, with KCNQ controlling the release of dopamine after ethanol exposure. We show that dKCNQ is broadly expressed in the nervous system, with targeted reduction in neuronal KCNQ increasing neural excitability and KCNQ overexpression decreasing excitability and calcium signalling, consistent with KCNQ regulating the resting membrane potential and neural release as in mammalian neurons. We show that the single KCNQ channel in Drosophila (dKCNQ has similar electrophysiological properties to neuronal KCNQ2/3, including conserved acute sensitivity to ethanol block, with the fly channel (IC(50 = 19.8 mM being more sensitive than its mammalian ortholog (IC(50 = 42.1 mM. This suggests that the role of KCNQ in alcohol behaviour can be determined for the first time by using Drosophila. We present evidence that loss of KCNQ function in Drosophila increased sensitivity and tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol. Acute activation of dopaminergic neurons by heat-activated TRP channel or KCNQ-RNAi expression produced ethanol hypersensitivity, suggesting that both act via a common mechanism involving membrane depolarisation and increased dopamine signalling leading to ethanol sedation.

  3. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  4. Final report (September, 1999--February, 2002) [Public outreach and information dissemination - cellulosic and corn-based ethanol outreach project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Jeremy; Werner, Carol

    2002-08-01

    EESI's ''Ethanol, Climate Protection, Oil Reduction'' (ECO) electr[on]ic newsletter reaches out to the environmental and agricultural communities, state/local government officials and other interested parties, and provides a forum for dialogue about ''the potential benefits of ethanol--and particularly the expanded opportunities provided by cellulosic ethanol--with a special focus on climate protection.'' Each issue features expert commentary, excerpts from recent studies about ethanol, a summary of current government activity on ethanol, and ''notable quotables.'' The newsletter is distributed primarily via email and is also posted on EESI's web site. EESI also conducts outreach on the benefits of ethanol and other biofuels by attending and speaking at conferences, meetings and workshops around the country. The 16 issues of the newsletter published through December 2001 are included as attachments.

  5. Acute effects of ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, J A; Cooper-Vastola, S A; Meirelles, R F; Bagchi, S; Caboclo, J L; Holm, C; Eisenberg, M M

    1993-07-01

    The effects of intravenous ethanol and ethanol plus furosemide on pancreatic capillary blood flow (PCBF) were investigated using a laser-Doppler flowmeter. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 4 groups: (1) control, (2) 80% ethanol, (3) 80% ethanol plus furosemide, and (4) furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored. Levels of serum amylase, calcium, electrolytes, ethanol, and furosemide (groups 3 and 4) were measured, and samples of pancreatic tissue were obtained. The ethanol and furosemide levels were statistically different (p 0.05) between groups 1 and 4. Histopathologic analysis revealed swollen acini in group 2 and sparse focal necrosis without acinar swelling in group 3. The depressant effect of ethanol on PCBF may be the result of its direct action on pancreatic cells causing edema and capillary compression rather than on primary vascular control mechanisms that adjust blood flow. Furosemide counters this effect.

  6. Hydrophobic hydration and the anomalous partial molar volumes in ethanol-water mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Te, Jerez; Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Miller, Benjamin T.; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2015-01-01

    The anomalous behavior in the partial molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures at low concentrations of ethanol is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Previous work indicates that the striking minimum in the partial molar volume of ethanol V E as a function of ethanol mole fraction X E is determined mainly by water-water interactions. These results were based on simulations that used one water model for the solute-water interactions but two different water models for the water-water interactions. This is confirmed here by using two more water models for the water-water interactions. Furthermore, the previous work indicates that the initial decrease is caused by association of the hydration shells of the hydrocarbon tails, and the minimum occurs at the concentration where all of the hydration shells are touching each other. Thus, the characteristics of the hydration of the tail that cause the decrease and the features of the water models that reproduce this type of hydration are also examined here. The results show that a single-site multipole water model with a charge distribution that mimics the large quadrupole and the p-orbital type electron density out of the molecular plane has “brittle” hydration with hydrogen bonds that break as the tails touch, which reproduces the deep minimum. However, water models with more typical site representations with partial charges lead to flexible hydration that tends to stay intact, which produces a shallow minimum. Thus, brittle hydration may play an essential role in hydrophobic association in water

  7. Development of Ethanol Withdrawal-Related Sensitization and Relapse Drinking in Mice Selected for High or Low Ethanol Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Becker, Howard C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that high alcohol consumption is associated with low withdrawal susceptiblility, while at the same time, other studies have shown that exposure to ethanol vapor increases alcohol drinking in rats and mice. In the present studies, we sought to shed light on this seeming contradiction by using mice selectively bred for High- (HAP) and Low- (LAP) Alcohol Preference, first, assessing these lines for differences in signs of ethanol withdrawal and second, for differences in the efficacy of intermittent alcohol vapor exposure on elevating subsequent ethanol intake. Methods Experiment 1 examined whether these lines of mice differed in ethanol withdrawal-induced CNS hyperexcitability and the development of sensitization to this effect following intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. Adult HAP and LAP lines (replicates 1 and 2), and the C3H/HeNcr inbred strain (included as a control genotype for comparison purposes) received intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor and were evaluated for ethanol withdrawal-induced seizures assessed by scoring handling-induced convulsions (HIC). Experiment 2 examined the influence of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on voluntary ethanol drinking. Adult male and female HAP-2 and LAP-2 mice, along with male C57BL/6J (included as comparative controls) were trained to drink 10% ethanol using a limited access (2 hr/day) 2-bottle choice paradigm. After stable baseline daily intake was established, mice received chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure in inhalation chambers. Ethanol intake sessions resumed 72 hr after final ethanol (or air) exposure for 5 consecutive days. Results Following chronic ethanol treatment, LAP mice exhibited overall greater withdrawal seizure activity compared to HAP mice. In Experiment 2, chronic ethanol exposure/withdrawal resulted in a significant increase in ethanol intake in male C57BL/6J, and modestly elevated intake in HAP-2 male mice. Ethanol intake for male control mice

  8. Performance of non-conventional yeasts in co-culture with brewers’ yeast for steering ethanol and aroma production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijck, van Irma M.H.; Wolkers - Rooijackers, Judith C.M.; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing interest in new beer types has stimulated the search for approaches to extend the metabolic variation of brewers’ yeast. Therefore, we tested two approaches using non-conventional yeast to create a beer with lower ethanol content and a complex aroma bouquet. First, the mono-culture

  9. Processing cereal grains, thin stillage, and cheese whey to fuel ethanol in a farm-scale plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, W R; Westby, C A

    1988-01-01

    Hydrous fuel ethanol (95%) and distiller's wet grain (DWG) were produced in a farm-scale plant from corn, wheat, and grain sorghum particles of various sizes, from corn combined with thin stillage-whey, and from various other cereal grains. These variations were made in a search to find the best set of conditions for maximizing the energy balance and minimizing the cost of ethanol production. We found that the optimum hammermill screen size for corn, wheat, and grain sorghum was 1.59 - 2.38 mm. In tests with thin stillage and whey a higher energy balance (2.91) occurred when one part whey was mixed with three parts stillage, rather than the reverse (2.69). However, the reverse (three parts whey and one part stillage) gave a lower ethanol cost ($0.45 liter/sup -1/) than the original ($0.47 liter/sup -1/). Tests with various cereal grains (corn, oats, wheat, barley, rye, and grain sorghum) gave identical energy balance values (2.26) when 10% (v/v) ethanol beers were produced. However, rye ($0.50 liter/sup -1/), grain sorghum ($0.46 liter/sup -1/), and corn ($0.51 liter/sup -1/) yielded ethanol at the lowest net cost. Recommendations for farm-scale plants are also provided.

  10. 125I-luteinizing hormone (LH) binding to soluble receptors from the primate (Macaca mulatta) corpus luteum: effects of ethanol exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danforth, D.R.; Stouffer, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the current study, we compared the effects of ethanol on gonadotropin receptors solubilized from macaque luteal membranes to those on receptors associated with the lipid bilayer. Treatment with 1% Triton X-100 for 30 min at 4C, followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol, resulted in recovery of 50% more binding sites for 125 I-human luteinizing hormone (hLH) than were available in particulate preparations. However, the soluble receptors displayed a 3-fold lower affinity for 125 I-hLH. Conditions which enhanced LH binding to particulates, i.e., 1-8% ethanol at 25C, decreased specific 125 I-hLH binding to soluble receptors. Steady-state LH binding to soluble receptors during incubation at 4C was half of that observed at 25C. The presence of 8% ethanol at 4C restored LH binding to levels observed in the absence of ethanol at 25C. Thus, LH binding sites in the primate corpus luteum can be effectively solubilized with Triton X-100. The different binding characteristics of particulate and soluble receptors, including the response to ethanol exposure, suggest that the lipid environment in the luteal membrane modulates the availability and affinity of gonadotropin receptors

  11. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, C.; Sampson, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of [3H] saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites

  12. The NILE Project - Advances in the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Materials into Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monot, F.; Margeot, A.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B.; Lindstedt, J.; Slade, R.

    2013-01-01

    NILE ('New Improvements for Lignocellulosic Ethanol') was an integrated European project (2005-2010) devoted to the conversion of lignocellulosic raw materials to ethanol. The main objectives were to design novel enzymes suitable for the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and new yeast strains able to efficiently converting all the sugars present in lignocellulose into ethanol. The project also included testing these new developments in an integrated pilot plant and evaluating the environmental and socio-economic impacts of implementing lignocellulosic ethanol on a large scale. Two model raw materials - spruce and wheat straw - both preconditioned with similar pretreatments, were used. Several approaches were explored to improve the saccharification of these pretreated raw materials such as searching for new efficient enzymes and enzyme engineering. Various genetic engineering methods were applied to obtain stable xylose- and arabinose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that tolerate the toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. The pilot plant was able to treat 2 tons of dry matter per day, and hydrolysis and fermentation could be run successively or simultaneously. A global model integrating the supply chain was used to assess the performance of lignocellulosic ethanol from an economical and environmental perspective. It was found that directed evolution of a specific enzyme of the cellulolytic cocktail produced by the industrial fungus, Trichoderma reesei, and modification of the composition of this cocktail led to improvements of the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated raw material. These results, however, were difficult to reproduce at a large scale. A substantial increase in the ethanol conversion yield and in specific ethanol productivity was obtained through a combination of metabolic engineering of yeast strains and fermentation process development. Pilot trials confirmed the good behaviour of the yeast strains in industrial

  13. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Petäjä

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulphur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  14. Pt based anode catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Weijiang; Zhou, Zhenhua; Song, Shuqin; Li, Wenzhen; Sun, Gongquan; Xin, Qin [Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, P.O. Box 110, Dalian 116023 (China); Tsiakaras, Panagiotis [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Thessalia, Pedion Areos, GR 38334 Volos (Greece) 7

    2003-11-10

    In the present work several Pt-based anode catalysts supported on carbon XC-72R were prepared with a novel method and characterized by means of XRD, TEM and XPS analysis. It was found that all these catalysts are consisted of uniform nanosized particles with sharp distribution and Pt lattice parameter decreases with the addition of Ru or Pd and increases with the addition of Sn or W. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and single direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) tests jointly showed that the presence of Sn, Ru and W enhances the activity of Pt towards ethanol electro-oxidation in the following order: Pt{sub 1}Sn{sub 1}/C>Pt{sub 1}Ru{sub 1}/C>Pt{sub 1}W{sub 1}/C>Pt{sub 1}Pd{sub 1}/C>Pt/C. Moreover, Pt{sub 1}Ru{sub 1}/C further modified by W and Mo showed improved ethanol electro-oxidation activity, but its DEFC performance was found to be inferior to that measured for Pt{sub 1}Sn{sub 1}/C. Under this respect, several PtSn/C catalysts with different Pt/Sn atomic ratio were also identically prepared and characterized and their direct ethanol fuel cell performances were evaluated. It was found that the single direct ethanol fuel cell having Pt{sub 1}Sn{sub 1}/C or Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}/C or Pt{sub 2}Sn{sub 1}/C as anode catalyst showed better performances than those with Pt{sub 3}Sn{sub 1}/C or Pt{sub 4}Sn{sub 1}/C. It was also found that the latter two cells exhibited higher performances than the single cell using Pt{sub 1}Ru{sub 1}/C, which is exclusively used in PEMFC as anode catalyst for both methanol electro-oxidation and CO-tolerance. This distinct difference in DEFC performance between the catalysts examined here would be attributed to the so-called bifunctional mechanism and to the electronic interaction between Pt and additives. It is thought that an amount of -OH{sub ads}, an amount of surface Pt active sites and the conductivity effect of PtSn/C catalysts would determine the activity of PtSn/C with different Pt/Sn ratios. At lower temperature values or at low

  15. Cellulosic ethanol. Potential, technology and development status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rarbach, M. [Sued-Chemie AG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In times of rising oil prices and a growing energy demand, sustainable alternative energy sources are needed. Cellulosic ethanol is a sustainable biofuel, made from lignocellulosic feedstock such as agricultural residues (corn stover, cereal straw, bagasse) or dedicated energy crops. Its production is almost carbon neutral, doesn't compete with food or feed production and induces no land use changes. It constitutes a new energy source using an already existing renewable feedstock without needing any further production capacity and can thus play a major role on the way to more sustainability in transport and the chemical industry and reducing the dependence on the import of fossil resources. The potential for cellulosic ethanol is huge: In the US, the annual production of agricultural residues (cereal straw and corn stover) reached almost 384 million tons in 2009 and Brazil alone produced more than 670 million tons of sugar cane in 2009 yielding more than 100 million tons of bagasse (dry basis). And alone in the European Union, almost 300 million tons of crop straw are produced annually. The last years have seen success in the development and deployment in the field of cellulosic ethanol production. The main challenge thereby remains to demonstrate that the technology is economically feasible for the up-scaling to industrial scale. Clariant has developed the sunliquid {sup registered} process, a proprietary cellulosic ethanol technology that reaches highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings while cutting production costs to a minimum. The sunliquid {sup registered} process for cellulosic ethanol matches the ambitious targets for economically and ecologically sustainable production and greenhouse gas reduction. It was developed using an integrated design concept. Highly optimized, feedstock and process specific biocatalysts and microorganisms ensure a highly efficient process with improved yields and feedstock-driven production costs. Integrated, on-site

  16. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence: effects on social behavior and ethanol sensitivity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric; Spear, Linda P

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed long-lasting consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during two different periods of adolescence on 1) baseline levels of social investigation, play fighting, and social preference and 2) sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge. Adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were tested 25 days after repeated exposure to ethanol (3.5 g/kg intragastrically [i.g.], every other day for a total of 11 exposures) in a modified social interaction test. Early-mid adolescent intermittent exposure (e-AIE) occurred between postnatal days (P) 25 and 45, whereas late adolescent intermittent exposure (l-AIE) was conducted between P45 and P65. Significant decreases in social investigation and social preference were evident in adult male rats, but not their female counterparts following e-AIE, whereas neither males nor females demonstrated these alterations following l-AIE. In contrast, both e-AIE and l-AIE produced alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge in males tested 25 days after adolescent exposure. Ethanol-induced facilitation of social investigation and play fighting, reminiscent of that normally seen during adolescence, was evident in adult males after e-AIE, whereas control males showed an age-typical inhibition of social behavior. Males after l-AIE were found to be insensitive to the socially suppressing effects of acute ethanol challenge, suggesting the development of chronic tolerance in these animals. In contrast, females showed little evidence for alterations in sensitivity to acute ethanol challenge following either early or late AIE. The results of the present study demonstrate a particular vulnerability of young adolescent males to long-lasting detrimental effects of repeated ethanol. Retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to the socially facilitating effects of ethanol could potentially make ethanol especially appealing to these males, therefore promoting relatively high levels of ethanol intake later

  17. Thermodynamics of R-(+)-2-(4-Hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic Acid Dissolution in Methanol, Ethanol, and Methanol-Ethanol Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Ma, Jinju; Yao, Xinding; Fang, Ruina; Cheng, Liang

    2018-05-01

    The solubilities of R-(+)-2-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (D-HPPA) in methanol, ethanol and various methanol-ethanol mixtures are determined in the temperature range from 273.15 to 323.15 K at atmospheric pressure using a laser detecting system. The solubilities of D-HPPA increase with increasing mole fraction of ethanol in the methanol-ethanol mixtures. Experimental data were correlated with Buchowski-Ksiazczak λ h equation and modified Apelblat equation; the first one gives better approximation for the experimental results. The enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of D-HPPA dissolution in methanol, ethanol and methanol-ethanol mixtures were also calculated from the solubility data.

  18. Mutation of a zinc-binding residue in the glycine receptor α1 subunit changes ethanol sensitivity in vitro and alcohol consumption in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Lindsay M; Blednov, Yuri A; Trudell, James R; Benavidez, Jillian M; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron

    2013-02-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant α1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs.

  19. Predictors of ethanol consumption in adult Sprague-Dawley rats: relation to hypothalamic peptides that stimulate ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatayev, Olga; Barson, Jessica R; Carr, Ambrose J; Baylan, Jessica; Chen, Yu-Wei; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2010-06-01

    To investigate mechanisms in outbred animals that increase the propensity to consume ethanol, it is important to identify and characterize these animals before or at early stages in their exposure to ethanol. In the present study, different measures were examined in adult Sprague-Dawley rats to determine whether they can predict long-term propensity to overconsume ethanol. Before consuming 9% ethanol with a two-bottle choice paradigm, rats were examined with the commonly used behavioral measures of novelty-induced locomotor activity and anxiety, as assessed during 15 min in an open-field activity chamber. Two additional measures, intake of a low 2% ethanol concentration or circulating triglyceride (TG) levels after a meal, were also examined with respect to their ability to predict chronic 9% ethanol consumption. The results revealed significant positive correlations across individual rats between the amount of 9% ethanol ultimately consumed and three of these different measures, with high scores for activity, 2% ethanol intake, and TGs identifying rats that consume 150% more ethanol than rats with low scores. Measurements of hypothalamic peptides that stimulate ethanol intake suggest that they contribute early to the greater ethanol consumption predicted by these high scores. Rats with high 2% ethanol intake or high TGs, two measures found to be closely related, had significantly elevated expression of enkephalin (ENK) and galanin (GAL) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) but no change in neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). This is in contrast to rats with high activity scores, which in addition to elevated PVN ENK expression showed enhanced NPY in the ARC but no change in GAL. Elevated ENK is a common characteristic related to all three predictors of chronic ethanol intake, whereas the other peptides differentiate these predictors, with GAL enhanced with high 2% ethanol intake and TG measures but NPY related to activity. 2010 Elsevier

  20. What's the Deal with Methane at LUST Spill Sites? Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is specifically intended to discuss methane produced from releases of ethanol and gasoline-ethanol mixtures. There may be other sources of methane at a site, including leaks of natural gas or methane produced from the natural decay of buried plant tissues or from th...

  1. The effects of continuous and intermittent ethanol exposure in adolesence on the aversive properties of ethanol during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Graham, Danielle L

    2007-12-01

    Alcohol abuse among adolescents is prevalent. Epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol abuse during the adolescent developmental period may result in long-term changes such as an increased susceptibility to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. Laboratory findings suggest that alcohol exposure during the adolescent developmental period, as compared with adulthood, may differentially impact subsequent neurobehavioral responses to alcohol. The present study was designed to examine whether ethanol exposure, continuous versus intermittent, during the adolescent developmental period would alter the aversive properties of ethanol in adult C3H mice. Periadolescent (PD28) male C3H mice were exposed to 64 hours of continuous or intermittent ethanol vapor. As a comparison, adult (PD70) C3H mice were also exposed to 64 hours of continuous or intermittent ethanol vapor. Six weeks after ethanol exposure, taste aversion conditioning was carried out on both ethanol pre-exposed and ethanol-naive animals using a 1-trial, 1-flavor taste-conditioning procedure. Ethanol exposure during the periadolescent period significantly attenuated a subsequent ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion, as compared with control animals. Adult animals exposed to chronic ethanol vapor during adolescence showed less of an aversion to an ethanol-paired flavor than ethanol-naive adults. Intermittent exposure to ethanol vapor during periadolescence produced a greater attenuation. It is suggested that ethanol exposure during the periadolescent period results in long-term neurobehavioral changes, which lessen a conditioned aversion to ethanol in adulthood. It is suggested that this age-related effect may underlie the increased susceptibility to alcohol-related problems which is negatively correlated with the age of onset for alcohol abuse.

  2. Cholesterol tuning of BK ethanol response is enantioselective, and is a function of accompanying lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunbo Yuan

    Full Text Available In the search to uncover ethanol's molecular mechanisms, the calcium and voltage activated, large conductance potassium channel (BK has emerged as an important molecule. We examine how cholesterol content in bilayers of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE/sphingomyelin (SPM and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (POPS affect the function and ethanol sensitivity of BK. In addition, we examine how manipulation of cholesterol in biological membranes modulates ethanol's actions on BK. We report that cholesterol levels regulate the change in BK channel open probability elicited by 50 mM ethanol. Low levels of cholesterol (<20%, molar ratio supports ethanol activation, while high levels of cholesterol leads to ethanol inhibition of BK. To determine if cholesterol affects BK and its sensitivity to ethanol through a direct cholesterol-protein interaction or via an indirect action on the lipid bilayer, we used the synthetic enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-CHS. We found that 20% and 40% ent-CHS had little effect on the ethanol sensitivity of BK, when compared with the same concentration of nat-CHS. We accessed the effects of ent-CHS and nat-CHS on the molecular organization of DOPE/SPM monolayers at the air/water interface. The isotherm data showed that ent-CHS condensed DOPE/SPM monolayer equivalently to nat-CHS at a 20% concentration, but slightly less at a 40% concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM images of DOPE/SPM membranes in the presence of ent-CHS or nat-CHS prepared with LB technique or vesicle deposition showed no significant difference in topographies, supporting the interpretation that the differences in actions of nat-CHS and ent-CHS on BK channel are not likely from a generalized action on bilayers. We conclude that membrane cholesterol influences ethanol's modulation of BK in a complex manner, including an interaction with the channel protein

  3. Social opportunity and ethanol drinking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Burger, Kelly M; Di Poce, Jason; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2004-11-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of pairings of ethanol sipper conditioned stimulus (CS) with social opportunity unconditioned stimulus (US) on ethanol sipper CS-directed drinking in rats. In both experiments, rats were deprived of neither food nor water, and initiation of drinking of unsweetened 3% ethanol was evaluated, as were the effects of increasing the concentration of unsweetened ethanol (3-10%) across sessions. In Experiment 1, Group Paired (n=8) received 35 trials per session wherein the ethanol sipper CS was presented for 10 s immediately prior to 15 s of social opportunity US. All rats initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol. Increasing the concentration of ethanol in the sipper CS [(3%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% (vol./vol.)] across sessions induced escalation of daily g/kg ethanol intake. To evaluate the hypothesis that the drinking in Group Paired was due to autoshaping, Experiment 2 included a pseudoconditioning control that received sipper CS and social opportunity US randomly with respect to one another. All rats in Group Paired (n=6) and in Group Random (n=6) initiated sipper CS-directed drinking of 3% ethanol and daily mean g/kg ethanol intake in the two groups was comparable. Also comparable was daily g/kg ethanol intake, which increased for both groups with the availability of higher concentrations of ethanol in the sipper CS, up to a maximum of approximately 0.8 g/kg ethanol intake of 10% ethanol. Results indicate that random presentations of ethanol sipper CS and social opportunity US induced reliable initiation and escalation of ethanol intake, and close temporally contiguous presentations of CS and US did not induce still additional ethanol intake. This may indicate that autoshaping CR performance is not induced by these procedures, or that high levels of ethanol intake induced by factors related to pseudoconditioning produces a ceiling effect. Implications for ethanol drinking in humans are discussed.

  4. Custom Search Engines: Tools & Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notess, Greg R.

    2008-01-01

    Few have the resources to build a Google or Yahoo! from scratch. Yet anyone can build a search engine based on a subset of the large search engines' databases. Use Google Custom Search Engine or Yahoo! Search Builder or any of the other similar programs to create a vertical search engine targeting sites of interest to users. The basic steps to…

  5. Incubation of ethanol reinstatement depends on test conditions and how ethanol consumption is reduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Brett C.; Lamb, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    In reinstatement studies (a common preclinical procedure for studying relapse), incubation occurs (longer abstinence periods result in more responding). This finding is discordant with the clinical literature. Identifying determinants of incubation could aid in interpreting reinstatement and identifying processes involved in relapse. Reinstated responding was examined in rats trained to respond for ethanol and food under a multiple concurrent schedule (Component 1: ethanol FR5, food FR150; Component 2: ethanol FR5, food FR5–alternating across the 30-min session). Ethanol consumption was then reduced for 1 or 16 sessions either by suspending training (rats remained in home cage) or by providing alternative reinforcement (only Component 2 stimuli and contingencies were presented throughout the session). In the next session, stimuli associated with Component 1 were presented and responses recorded but ethanol and food were never delivered. Two test conditions were studied: fixed-ratio completion either produced ethanol- or food-associated stimuli (signaled) or had no programmed consequence (unsignaled). Incubation of ethanol responding was observed only after suspended training during signaled test sessions. Incubation of food responding was also observed after suspended training. These results are most consistent with incubation resulting from a degradation of feedback functions limiting extinction responding, rather than an increased motivation. PMID:25595114

  6. Repeated episodes of chronic intermittent ethanol promote insensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing effect of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Chandler, L J

    2014-11-01

    Studies in animal models have shown that repeated episodes of alcohol dependence and withdrawal promote escalation of drinking that is presumably associated with alterations in the addiction neurocircuitry. Using a lithium chloride-ethanol pairing procedure to devalue the reinforcing properties of ethanol, the present study determined whether multiple cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure by vapor inhalation also alters the sensitivity of drinking behavior to the devaluation of ethanol's reinforcing effects. The effect of devaluation on operant ethanol self-administration and extinction was examined in mice prior to initiation of CIE (short drinking history) and after repeated cycles of CIE or air control exposure (long drinking history). Devaluation significantly attenuated the recovery of baseline ethanol self-administration when tested either prior to CIE or in the air-exposed controls that had experienced repeated bouts of drinking but no CIE. In contrast, in mice that had undergone repeated cycles of CIE exposure that promoted escalation of ethanol drinking, self-administration was completely resistant to the effect of devaluation. Devaluation had no effect on the time course of extinction training in either pre-CIE or post-CIE mice. Taken together, these results are consistent with the suggestion that repeated cycles of ethanol dependence and withdrawal produce escalation of ethanol self-administration that is associated with a change in sensitivity to devaluation of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterisation of thermotolerant, ethanol tolerant fermentative Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiransree, N.; Sridhar, M.; Venkateswar Rao, L. [Department of Microbiology, Osmania University, Hyderabad (India)

    2000-03-01

    Of the four thermotolerant, osmotolerant, flocculating yeasts (VS{sub 1}, VS{sub 2}, VS{sub 3} and VS{sub 4}) isolated from the soil samples collected within the hot regions of Kothagudem Thermal Power Plant, located in Khammam Dt., Andhra Pradesh, India, VS{sub 1} and VS{sub 3} were observed as better performers. They were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. VS{sub 1} and VS{sub 3} were tested for their growth characteristics and fermentation abilities on various carbon sources including molasses at 30 C and 40 C respectively. More biomass and fermentation was observed in sucrose, fructose and glucose. Maximum amount of ethanol produced by VS{sub 3} containing 150 (g/l) of these substrates were 74, 73, and 72 (g/l) at 30 C and 64, 61 and 63 (g/l) at 40 C respectively. With molasses containing 14% sugar, the amount of ethanol produced by VS{sub 3} was 53.2 and 45 (g/l) at 30 C and 40 C respectively. VS{sub 3} strain showed 12% W/V ethanol tolerance. VS{sub 3} strain was also characterised for its ethanol producing ability using various starchy substrates in solid state and submerged fermentation. More ethanol was produced in submerged than solid state fermentation. (orig.)

  8. Potentiation of gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR by Ethanol: How are inhibitory receptors affected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eFörstera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increase in the understanding of ethanol actions on the type A -aminobutyric acid chloride channel (GABAAR, a member of the pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs. However, the mechanism by which ethanol potentiates the complex is still not fully understood and a number of publications have shown contradictory results. Thus many questions still remain unresolved requiring further studies for a better comprehension of this effect. The present review concentrates on the involvement of GABAAR in the acute actions of ethanol and specifically focuses on the immediate, direct or indirect, synaptic and extra-synaptic modulatory effects. To elaborate on the immediate, direct modulation of GABAAR by acute ethanol exposure, electrophysiological studies investigating the importance of different subunits, and data from receptor mutants will be examined. We will also discuss the nature of the putative binding sites for ethanol based on structural data obtained from other members of the pLGICs family. Finally, we will briefly highlight the glycine gated chloride channel (GlyR, another member of the pLGIC family, as a suitable target for the development of new pharmacological tools.

  9. Cytisine modulates chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced striatal up-regulation of ΔFosB in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Ravi Kiran; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2013-06-01

    Chronic administration of ethanol induces persistent accumulation of ΔFosB, an important transcription factor, in the midbrain dopamine system. This process underlies the progression to addiction. Previously, we have shown that cytisine, a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) partial agonist, reduces various ethanol-drinking behaviors and ethanol-induced striatal dopamine function. However, the effects of cytisine on chronic ethanol drinking and ethanol-induced up-regulation of striatal ΔFosB are not known. Therefore, we examined the effects of cytisine on chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and associated striatal ΔFosB up-regulation in C57BL/6J mice using behavioral and biochemical methods. Following the chronic voluntary consumption of 15% (v/v) ethanol under a 24-h two-bottle choice intermittent access (IA; 3 sessions/week) or continuous access (CA; 24 h/d and 7 d/week) paradigm, mice received repeated intraperitoneal injections of saline or cytisine (0.5 or 3.0 mg/kg). Ethanol and water intake were monitored for 24 h post-treatment. Pretreatment with cytisine (0.5 or 1.5 mg/kg) significantly reduced ethanol consumption and preference in both paradigms at 2 h and 24 h post-treatment. The ΔFosB levels in the ventral and dorsal striatum were determined by Western blotting 18-24 h after the last point of ethanol access. In addition, cytisine (0.5 mg/kg) significantly attenuated up-regulation of ΔFosB in the ventral and dorsal striatum following chronic ethanol consumption in IA and CA paradigms. The results indicate that cytisine modulates chronic voluntary ethanol consumption and reduces ethanol-induced up-regulation of striatal ΔFosB. Further, the data suggest a critical role of nAChRs in chronic ethanol-induced neurochemical adaptations associated with ethanol addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Site-dependent effects of tDCS uncover dissociations in the communication network underlying the processing of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Keira; Lane, Alison R; Smith, Daniel T; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    The right posterior parietal cortex (rPPC) and the right frontal eye field (rFEF) form part of a network of brain areas involved in orienting spatial attention. Previous studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have demonstrated that both areas are critically involved in the processing of conjunction visual search tasks, since stimulation of these sites disrupts performance. This study investigated the effects of long term neuronal modulation to rPPC and rFEF using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with the aim of uncovering sharing of these resources in the processing of conjunction visual search tasks. Participants completed four blocks of conjunction search trials over the course of 45 min. Following the first block they received 15 min of either cathodal or anodal stimulation to rPPC or rFEF, or sham stimulation. A significant interaction between block and stimulation condition was found, indicating that tDCS caused different effects according to the site (rPPC or rFEF) and type of stimulation (cathodal, anodal, or sham). Practice resulted in a significant reduction in reaction time across the four blocks in all conditions except when cathodal tDCS was applied to rPPC. The effects of cathodal tDCS over rPPC are subtler than those seen with TMS, and no effect of tDCS was evident at rFEF. This suggests that rFEF has a more transient role than rPPC in the processing of conjunction visual search and is robust to longer-term methods of neuro-disruption. Our results may be explained within the framework of functional connectivity between these, and other, areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of the presence of initial ethanol on ethanol production in sugar cane juice fermented by Zymomonas mobilis

    OpenAIRE

    Tano,Marcia Sadae; Buzato,João Batista

    2003-01-01

    Ethanol production in sugar cane juice in high initial sugar concentration, fermented by Z. mobilis in the presence and absence of ethanol, was evaluated. Ethanol production was low in both media. The presence of initial ethanol in the sugar cane juice reduced ethanol production by 48.8%, biomass production by 25.0% and the total sugar consumption by 28.3%. The presence of initial ethanol in the medium did not affect significantly levan production and biomass yield coefficient (g biomass/g su...

  12. Production of ethanol from cellulose (sawdust)

    OpenAIRE

    Otulugbu, Kingsley

    2012-01-01

    The production of ethanol from food such as corn, cassava etc. is the most predominate way of producing ethanol. This has led to a shortage in food, inbalance in food chain, increased food price and indirect land use. This thesis thus explores using another feed for the production of ethanol- hence ethanol from cellulose. Sawdust was used to carry out the experiment from the production of ethanol and two methods were considered: SHF (Separate Hydrolysis and Fermentation) and SSF (Simultaneous...

  13. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Veronika; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2015-01-01

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

  14. Efficient production of ethanol from waste paper and the biochemical methane potential of stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji; Morimura, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    Waste paper can serve as a feedstock for ethanol production due to being rich in cellulose and not requiring energy-intensive thermophysical pretreatment. In this study, an efficient process was developed to convert waste paper to ethanol. To accelerate enzymatic saccharification, pH of waste paper slurry was adjusted to 4.5-5.0 with H2SO4. Presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) with enzyme loading of 40 FPU/g waste paper achieved an ethanol yield of 91.8% and productivity of 0.53g/(Lh) with an ethanol concentration of 32g/L. Fed-batch PSSF was used to decrease enzyme loading to 13 FPU/g waste paper by feeding two separate batches of waste paper slurry. Feeding with 20% w/w waste paper slurry increased ethanol concentration to 41.8g/L while ethanol yield decreased to 83.8%. To improve the ethanol yield, presaccharification was done prior to feeding and resulted in a higher ethanol concentration of 45.3g/L, a yield of 90.8%, and productivity of 0.54g/(Lh). Ethanol fermentation recovered 33.2% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol. The biochemical methane potential of the stillage eluted from ethanol fermentation was 270.5mL/g VTS and 73.0% of the energy in the stillage was recovered as methane. Integrating ethanol fermentation with methane fermentation, recovered a total of 80.4% of the energy in waste paper as ethanol and methane. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Metastability and Nucleation Thresholds of Ibuprofen in Ethanol and Water-Ethanol Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdur Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the crystallization of ibuprofen [((RS-2-(4-(2-methylpropyl phenyl propanoic acid] from ethanol and water-ethanol mixtures it is necessary to know the nucleation limits of its solutions. In the absence of crystals, nucleation will seldom occur below the PNT (primary nucleation threshold. If crystals are present, nucleation will seldom occur until below the lower SNT (secondary nucleation threshold. Below the SNT, crystals will still grow with negligible nucleation. PNT and SNT values (expressed as relative supersaturation σ have been measured at 10, 25, and 40°C for ibuprofen in ethanol and in a range of mixtures of different ethanol (E/water (W ratios. The induction times were determined from observing the times to nucleate for a range of different supersaturated solutions at a given temperature and E/W ratio. As expected, lowering the supersaturation leads to longer induction times. In ethanol, the SNT values are small and thus the secondary metastable zone width (MSZW is relatively narrow with a 1 h SNT relative supersaturation typically about σ ~ 0.05. The 1 h PNT values are much larger with values for σ around 0.3. In aqueous ethanolic mixtures at 25°C, both the PNT and SNT decrease as the water content increases.

  16. Concomitant stress potentiates the preference for, and consumption of, ethanol induced by chronic pre-exposure to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    G. Morais-Silva; J. Fernandes-Santos; D. Moreira-Silva; M.T. Marin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol abuse is linked to several acute and chronic injuries that can lead to health problems. Ethanol addiction is one of the most severe diseases linked to the abuse of this drug. Symptoms of ethanol addiction include compulsive substance intake and withdrawal syndrome. Stress exposure has an important role in addictive behavior for many drugs of abuse (including ethanol), but the consequences of stress and ethanol in the organism when these factors are concomitant results in a complex int...

  17. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  18. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  19. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  20. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  1. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This project describes a new approach to coal liquefaction, the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas into a liquid fuel, ethanol. A new bacterium, Clostridium Ijungdahlii, strain PETC, has been discovered and developed for this conversion, which also produces acetate as a by-product. Based upon the results of an exhaustive literature search and experimental data collected in the ERI laboratories, secondary and/or branched alcohols have been selected for ethanol extraction from the fermentation broth. 2,6 Methyl 4-heptanol has a measured distribution coefficient of 0.44 and a separation factor of 47. Methods to improve the results from extraction by removing water prior to distillation are under consideration. Several runs were performed in the two-stage CSTR system with Clostridium Ijungdahlii, strain PETC, with and without cell recycle between stages. Reduced gas flow rate, trypticase limitation and ammonia limitation as methods of maximizing ethanol production were the focus of the studies. With ammonia limitation, the ethanol:acetate product ratio reached 4.0.

  2. Ethanol fuels in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trindade, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    The largest alternative transportation fuels program in the world today is Brazil's Proalcool Program. About 6.0 million metric tons of oil equivalent (MTOE) of ethanol, derived mainly from sugar cane, were consumed as transportation fuels in 1991 (equivalent to 127,000 barrels of crude oil per day). Total primary energy consumed by the Brazilian economy in 1991 was 184.1 million MTOE, and approximately 4.3 million vehicles -- about one third of the total vehicle fleet or about 40 percent of the total car population -- run on hydrous or open-quotes neatclose quotes ethanol at the azeotropic composition (96 percent ethanol, 4 percent water, by volume). Additional transportation fuels available in the country are diesel and gasoline, the latter of which is defined by three grades. Gasoline A (regular, leaded gas)d has virtually been replaced by gasoline C, a blend of gasoline and up to 22 percent anhydrous ethanol by volume, and gasoline B (premium gasoline) has been discontinued as a result of neat ethanol market penetration

  3. Renewable corn-ethanol and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaves, James

    2007-01-01

    Though corn-ethanol is promoted as renewable, models of the production process assume fossil fuel inputs. Moreover, ethanol is promoted as a means of increasing energy security, but there is little discussion of the dependability of its supply. This study investigates the sensibility of promoting corn-ethanol as an automobile fuel, assuming a fully renewable production process. We then use historical data to estimate the supply risk of ethanol relative to imported petroleum. We find that devoting 100% of US corn to ethanol would displace 3.5% of gasoline consumption and the annual supply of the ethanol would be inherently more risky than that of imported oil. Finally, because large temperature increases can simultaneously increase fuel demand and the cost of growing corn, the supply responses of ethanol producers to temperature-induced demand shocks would likely be weaker than those of gasoline producers. (author)

  4. Ethanol Demand in United States Gasoline Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1998-11-24

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (OWL) Refinery Yield Model (RYM) has been used to estimate the demand for ethanol in U.S. gasoline production in year 2010. Study cases examine ethanol demand with variations in world oil price, cost of competing oxygenate, ethanol value, and gasoline specifications. For combined-regions outside California summer ethanol demand is dominated by conventional gasoline (CG) because the premised share of reformulated gasoline (RFG) production is relatively low and because CG offers greater flexibility for blending high vapor pressure components like ethanol. Vapor pressure advantages disappear for winter CG, but total ethanol used in winter RFG remains low because of the low RFG production share. In California, relatively less ethanol is used in CG because the RFG production share is very high. During the winter in California, there is a significant increase in use of ethanol in RFG, as ethanol displaces lower-vapor-pressure ethers. Estimated U.S. ethanol demand is a function of the refiner value of ethanol. For example, ethanol demand for reference conditions in year 2010 is 2 billion gallons per year (BGY) at a refiner value of $1.00 per gallon (1996 dollars), and 9 BGY at a refiner value of $0.60 per gallon. Ethanol demand could be increased with higher oil prices, or by changes in gasoline specifications for oxygen content, sulfur content, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCS), and octane numbers.

  5. Environmental benefits of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    The environmental benefits of ethanol blended fuels in helping to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere are discussed. The use of oxygenated fuels such as ethanol is one way of addressing air pollution concerns such as ozone formation. The state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Several Canadian cities also record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, particularly in fall and winter. Using oxygenated fuels such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution. The net effect of ethanol use is an overall decrease in ozone formation. For example, use of a 10 per cent ethanol blend results in a 25-30 per cent reduction in carbon monoxide emissions by promoting a more complete combustion of the fuel. It also results in a 6-10 per cent reduction of carbon dioxide, and a seven per cent overall decrease in exhaust VOCs (volatile organic compounds). The environmental implications of feedstock production associated with the production of ethanol for fuel was also discussed. One of the Canadian government's initiatives to address the climate change challenge is its FleetWise initiative, in which it has agreed to a phased-in acquisition of alternative fuel vehicles by the year 2005. 9 refs

  6. Differential neural representation of oral ethanol by central taste-sensitive neurons in ethanol-preferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Christian H; Wilson, David M; Brasser, Susan M

    2011-12-01

    In randomly bred rats, orally applied ethanol stimulates neural substrates for appetitive sweet taste. To study associations between ethanol's oral sensory characteristics and genetically mediated ethanol preference, we made electrophysiological recordings of oral responses (spike density) by taste-sensitive nucleus tractus solitarii neurons in anesthetized selectively bred ethanol-preferring (P) rats and their genetically heterogeneous Wistar (W) control strain. Stimuli (25 total) included ethanol [3%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25%, and 40% (vol/vol)], a sucrose series (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1 M), and other sweet, salt, acidic, and bitter stimuli; 50 P and 39 W neurons were sampled. k-means clustering applied to the sucrose response series identified cells showing high (S(1)) or relatively low (S(0)) sensitivity to sucrose. A three-way factorial analysis revealed that activity to ethanol was influenced by a neuron's sensitivity to sucrose, ethanol concentration, and rat line (P = 0.01). Ethanol produced concentration-dependent responses in S(1) neurons that were larger than those in S(0) cells. Although responses to ethanol by S(1) cells did not differ between lines, neuronal firing rates to ethanol in S(0) cells increased across concentration only in P rats. Correlation and multivariate analyses revealed that ethanol evoked responses in W neurons that were strongly and selectively associated with activity to sweet stimuli, whereas responses to ethanol by P neurons were not easily associated with activity to representative sweet, sodium salt, acidic, or bitter stimuli. These findings show differential central neural representation of oral ethanol between genetically heterogeneous rats and P rats genetically selected to prefer alcohol.

  7. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  8. Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Bátori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m3 of ethanol (22% improvement, around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  9. Derived thermodynamic properties for the (ethanol + decane) and (carbon dioxide + ethanol + decane) systems at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamora-López, Héctor S.; Galicia-Luna, Luis A.; Elizalde-Solis, Octavio; Hernández-Rosales, Irma P.; Méndez-Lango, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental density data are reported for (ethanol + decane) and (ethanol + decane + CO 2 ) mixtures. ► Compressed liquid densities were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter from (313 to 363) K. ► Excess molar volumes for (ethanol + decane) mixtures are positive. ► The presence of carbon dioxide in the (ethanol + decane) mixture causes negative excess molar volumes. - Abstract: Volumetric properties for the binary (ethanol + decane) and ternary (ethanol + decane + carbon dioxide) systems are reported from (313 to 363) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. Compressed liquid densities of both systems were measured in a vibrating tube densimeter at different compositions. Binary mixtures {x 1 ethanol + (1-x 1 ) decane} were prepared at x 1 = 0.0937, 0.1011, 0.2507, 0.4963, 0.7526, 0.9014. Compositions for the ternary system were prepared by varying the ethanol/decane relation and trying to keep constant the presence of carbon dioxide at about 0.2 mole fraction. These were {x 1 ethanol + x 2 decane + (1-x 1 -x 2 ) carbon dioxide} x 1 = 0.0657, 0.1986, 0.4087, 0.6042, 0.7109. Density results were correlated using an empirical model with five parameters. Deviations between experimental and calculated values agree and are within the experimental uncertainty. Isobaric expansivity, isothermal compressibility, thermal pressure coefficient, and internal pressure have been calculated for both binary and ternary systems using the empirical model.

  10. Improvement of ethanol yield from glycerol via conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung Ok; Jung, Ju; Ramzi, Ahmad Bazli; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2012-02-01

    The conversion of low-priced glycerol to higher value products has been proposed as a way to improve the economic viability of the biofuels industry. In a previous study, the conversion of glycerol to ethanol in a metabolically engineered strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accomplished by minimizing the synthesis of glycerol, the main by-product in ethanol fermentation processing. To further improve ethanol production, overexpression of the native genes involved in conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in S. cerevisiae was successfully accomplished. The overexpression of an alcohol dehydrogenase (adh1) and a pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc1) caused an increase in growth rate and glycerol consumption under fermentative conditions, which led to a slight increase of the final ethanol yield. The overall expression of the adh1 and pdc1 genes in the modified strains, combined with the lack of the fps1 and gpd2 genes, resulted in a 1.4-fold increase (about 5.4 g/L ethanol produced) in fps1Δgpd2Δ (pGcyaDak, pGupCas) (about 4.0 g/L ethanol produced). In summary, it is possible to improve the ethanol yield by overexpression of the genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol in engineered S. cerevisiae using glycerol as substrate.

  11. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in early adolescent and adult male rats: effects on tolerance, social behavior, and ethanol intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2011-08-01

    Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of this study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Juvenile/adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10-day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), nonmanipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), or nonmanipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) upon regaining of righting reflex (RORR) were tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and nonmanipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hours after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and nonmanipulated animals using an 8-day 2 bottle choice, limited-access ethanol intake procedure. In general, adolescent animals showed shorter durations of LORR and higher BECs upon RORR than adults on the first and last ethanol exposure days, regardless of chronic exposure condition. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults

  12. Carbon nanotube-based ethanol sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahim, Sean; Colbern, Steve; Gump, Robert; Moser, Alex; Grigorian, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    Sensors containing metal-carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid materials as the active sensing layer were demonstrated for ethanol vapor detection at room temperature. The metal-CNT hybrid materials were synthesized by infiltrating single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with the transition metals Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Pd or Pt. Each sensor was prepared by drop-casting dilute dispersions of a metal-CNT hybrid onto quartz substrate electrodes and the impedimetric responses to varying ethanol concentration were recorded. Upon exposure to ethanol vapor, the ac impedance (Z') of the sensors was found to decrease to different extents. The sensor containing pristine CNT material was virtually non-responsive at low ethanol concentrations (<50 ppm). In contrast, all metal-CNT hybrid sensors showed extremely high sensitivity to trace ethanol levels with 100-fold or more gains in sensitivity relative to the starting SWNT sensor. All hybrid sensors, with the exception of Ni filled CNT, exhibited significantly larger sensor responses to ethanol vapor up to 250 ppm compared to the starting SWNT sensor.

  13. Desolvation of L-histidine and {alpha}-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals under humidified conditions and influence of crystallinity on its desolvation; Histidine Ketoisocapron san ensan ethanol wamono kessho no koshitsudo jokenka deno datsu ethanol to datsu ethanol sei ni oyobosu kesshosei no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, S.; Tanabe, T.; Maruyama, S.; Kishishita, A.; Nagashima, N. [Ajinomoto Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    Desolvation of L-histidine and a-ketoisocaproic acid complex from ethanolate crystals was investigated. The ethanolate crystals were obtained from ethanol aqueous solutions of above 60 wt% of ethanol. It was difficult to remove ethanol molecules from the crystals lay vacuum drying. However, it was found that ethanol molecules in the crystal lattice could be released under humidified conditions, for example, 313 K and 60% relative humidity, accompanied by transformation to non-solvated crystals. When the peak of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}(CuK{alpha} radiation) in powder X-ray diffraction pattern of the ethanolate crystals was weak, ethanol molecules (about 1wt.%) remained in the crystals at the end of transformations and then the residual ethanol decreased slowly. A controlled moderate cooling process, where the supersaturation is released slowly, is the key point to obtain ethanolate crystals having high `crystallinity` (defined as peak height of 2{theta}=9.0{degree}) which shows quick desolation rather than adding ethanol for a rapid increase of supersaturation in crystallization. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Lithium protects ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Yang Xianlin; Yao Weiguo; Lee Weihua

    2006-01-01

    Lithium is widely used for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Recent studies have demonstrated its neuroprotective effect. Ethanol is a potent neurotoxin that is particularly harmful to the developing nervous system. In this study, we evaluated lithium's neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis. Transient exposure of infant mice to ethanol caused apoptotic cell death in brain, which was prevented significantly by administering a low dose of lithium 15 min later. In cultured cerebellar granule neurons, ethanol-induced apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/9, both of which were prevented by lithium. However, lithium's protection is not mediated by its commonly known inhibition of glycogen synthase3β, because neither ethanol nor lithium has significant effects on the phosphorylation of Akt (ser473) or GSK3β (ser9). In addition, the selective GSK-3β inhibitor SB-415286 was unable to prevent ethanol-induced apoptosis. These data suggest lithium may be used as a potential preventive measure for ethanol-induced neurological deficits

  15. Identification of novel genes responsible for ethanol and/or thermotolerance by transposon mutagenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Life Sciences; Kim, Na-Rae [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Yang, Jungwoo [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Microbial Resources Research Center; Choi, Wonja [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Life Sciences; Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Life and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Microbial Resources Research Center

    2011-08-15

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains tolerant to ethanol and heat stresses are important for industrial ethanol production. In this study, five strains (Tn 1-5) tolerant to up to 15% ethanol were isolated by screening a transposon-mediated mutant library. Two of them displayed tolerance to heat (42 C). The determination of transposon insertion sites and Northern blot analysis identified seven putative genes (CMP2, IMD4, SSK2, PPG1, DLD3, PAM1, and MSN2) and revealed simultaneous down-regulations of CMP2 and IMD4, and SSK2 and PPG1, down-regulation of DLD3, and disruptions of the open reading frame of PAM1 and MSN2, indicating that ethanol and/or heat tolerance can be conferred. Knockout mutants of these seven individual genes were ethanol tolerant and three of them (SSK2, PPG1, and PAM1) were tolerant to heat. Such tolerant phenotypes reverted to sensitive phenotypes by the autologous or overexpression of each gene. Five transposon mutants showed higher ethanol production and grew faster than the control strain when cultured in rich media containing 30% glucose and initial 6% ethanol at 30 C. Of those, two thermotolerant transposon mutants (Tn 2 and Tn 3) exhibited significantly enhanced growth and ethanol production compared to the control at 42 C. The genes identified in this study may provide a basis for the application in developing industrial yeast strains. (orig.)

  16. Thermodynamic study of the effects of ethanol on the interaction of ochratoxin A with human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yin [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pécs, Ifjúság 6, H-7624 Pécs (Hungary); János Szentágothai Research Center, Ifjúság 20, H-7624 Pécs (Hungary); Czibulya, Zsuzsanna [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pécs, Ifjúság 6, H-7624 Pécs (Hungary); János Szentágothai Research Center, Ifjúság 20, H-7624 Pécs (Hungary); Chimie et Biologie des Membranes et Nanoobjets, CNRS-Université de Bordeaux, UMR 52478, ENITAB, Pessac (France); Poór, Miklós [Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Pécs, Ifjúság 13, H-7624, Pécs (Hungary); Lecomte, Sophie [Chimie et Biologie des Membranes et Nanoobjets, CNRS-Université de Bordeaux, UMR 52478, ENITAB, Pessac (France); Kiss, László [Department of General and Physical Chemistry, University of Pécs, Ifjúság 6, H-7624 Pécs (Hungary); János Szentágothai Research Center, Ifjúság 20, H-7624 Pécs (Hungary); and others

    2014-04-15

    Ethanol effect on the interaction of ochratoxin A (OTA) with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The Raman results showed that after the binding of OTA, the microenvironment of tryptophan residue on HSA became less hydrophobic. The fluorescence quenching observations revealed that the binding constant for the binding of OTA to HSA decreased as ethanol concentration increased. The thermodynamic studies showed that the binding process of OTA to HSA switched from being entropy-driven to enthalpy-driven in the presence of increasing concentrations (0.7–24.7%, vol/vol) of ethanol. Enthalpy–entropy compensation effect for the binding of OTA to HSA in the presence of different ethanol concentrations had been found. Based on the thermodynamic analyses, we concluded that the ethanol-induced variation of the shape of binding site of OTA on HSA and the solvent reorganization surrounding the OTA–HSA complex are the two dominant effects. -- Highlights: • The presence of ethanol can prohibit the binding of OTA to HSA. • Microenvironment of Trp214 on HSA becomes less hydrophobic after the binding of OTA. • Ethanol induces the interaction from being entropy-driven to enthalpy-driven. • Enthalpy–entropy compensation for the interaction was found.

  17. Electro-catalytic conversion of ethanol in solid electrolyte cells for distributed hydrogen generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, HyungKuk; Giddey, Sarbjit; Badwal, Sukhvinder P.S.; Mulder, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol assisted water electrolysis reduces electric energy input by more than 50%. • Partial oxidation of ethanol leads to formation of undesired chemicals. • Degradation occurs due to formation of by-products and poisoning of catalyst. • Better catalyst has the potential to increase ethanol to H_2 conversion efficiency. • A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed - Abstract: The global interest in hydrogen/fuel cell systems for distributed power generation and transport applications is rapidly increasing. Many automotive companies are now bringing their pre-commercial fuel cell vehicles in the market, which will need extensive hydrogen generation, distribution and storage infrastructure for fueling of these vehicles. Electrolytic water splitting coupled to renewable sources offers clean on-site hydrogen generation option. However, the process is energy intensive requiring electric energy >4.2 kWh for the electrolysis stack and >6 kWh for the complete system per m"3 of hydrogen produced. This paper investigates using ethanol as a renewable fuel to assist with water electrolysis process to substantially reduce the energy input. A zero-gap cell consisting of polymer electrolyte membrane electrolytic cells with Pt/C and PtSn/C as anode catalysts were employed. Current densities up to 200 mA cm"−"2 at 70 °C were achieved at less than 0.75 V corresponding to an energy consumption of about 1.62 kWh m"−"3 compared with >4.2 kWh m"−"3 required for conventional water electrolysis. Thus, this approach for hydrogen generation has the potential to substantially reduce the electric energy input to less than 40% with the remaining energy provided by ethanol. However, due to performance degradation over time, the energy consumption increased and partial oxidation of ethanol led to lower conversion efficiency. A plausible ethanol electro-oxidation mechanism has been proposed based on the Faradaic conversion of ethanol and

  18. Bridging the logistics gap for sustainable ethanol production: the CentroSul ethanol pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megiolaro, Moacir; Daud, Rodrigo; Pittelli, Fernanda [CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria, SP (Brazil); Singer, Eugenio [EMS Consultant, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The continuous increase of ethanol production and growth in consumption in Brazil is a reality that poses significant logistics challenges both for producers and consumers. The Brazilian local market absorbs a great portion of the country's production of ethanol, but the export market is also experiencing significant expansion so that both local and external market consumption will require more adequate transportation solutions. The alternative routes for Brazilian ethanol exports within the South and Southeast regions of Brazil range from the port of Paranagua, in the state of Parana, to the port of Vitoria, in the state of Espirito Santo. Each of these routes is about 1,000 km distance from the main production areas in the Central South states of Brazil. Brazilian highways and railways systems are overly congested and do not present efficient logistics alternatives for the transportation of large ethanol flows over long distances (cross-country) from the central Midwest regions of the country to the consumer and export markets in the Southeast. In response to the challenge to overcome such logistic gaps, CentroSul Transportadora Dutoviaria 'CentroSul', a company recently founded by a Brazilian ethanol producer group, the Brenco Group, is developing a project for the first fully-dedicated ethanol pipeline to be constructed in Brazil. The ethanol pipeline will transport 3,3 million m{sup 3} of Brenco - Brazilian Renewable Energy Company's ethanol production and an additional 4,7 million cubic meters from other Brazilian producers. The pipeline, as currently projected, will, at its full capacity, displace a daily vehicle fleet equivalent to 500 trucks which would be required to transport the 8,0 million cubic meters from their production origins to the delivery regions. In addition, the project will reduce GHG (trucking) emissions minimizing the project's overall ecological footprint. Key steps including conceptual engineering, environmental

  19. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-05-06

    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  20. Canada's directory of ethanol retailers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This document is a directory listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer by province from west to east. Appendices providing a list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels was also included, as well as a list of ethanol-blended gasoline retailers

  1. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  2. Elimination Kinetics of Ethanol in a 5-Week-Old Infant and a Literature Review of Infant Ethanol Pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B. Ford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary ethanol metabolism occurs through alcohol dehydrogenase, but minor metabolic pathways such as the P450 enzymes CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 and the enzyme catalase exist. These enzymes have distinct developmental stages. Elimination kinetics of ethanol in the infant is limited. We report the elimination kinetics of ethanol in a 5-week-old African-American male who had a serum ethanol level of 270 mg/dL on admission. A previously healthy 5-week-old African-American male was brought to the ED with a decreased level of consciousness. His initial blood ethanol level was 270 mg/dL. Serial blood ethanol levels were obtained. The elimination rate of ethanol was calculated to be in a range from 17.1 to 21.2 mg/dL/hr and appeared to follow zero-order elimination kinetics with a R2=0.9787. Elimination kinetics for ethanol in the young infant has been reported in only four previously published reports. After reviewing these reports, there appears to be variability in the elimination rates of ethanol in infants. Very young infants may not eliminate ethanol as quickly as previously described. Given that there are different stages of enzyme development in children, caution should be used when generalizing the elimination kinetics in young infants and children.

  3. Cerium-containing catalysts for obtaining ethylene from ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusman Dossumov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The catalysts Се/γ-Al2O3 и Се-La/γ-Al2O3 were studied by methods of electron microscopy (EM and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD of ammonia. Their activity was studied in reaction of ethanol dehydration with formation of ethylene. Modification of Се/γ-Al2O3 catalyst by Lanthanum promotes dispersion of the catalyst and increases the amount of acidic sites. This modification positively affects the catalyst activity.

  4. Evaluating fuel ethanol feedstocks from energy policy perspectives: A comparative energy assessment of corn and corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavigne, Amanda; Powers, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Concerns surrounding the continued, un-checked use of petroleum-based fuels in the transportation sector, the search for more sustainable, renewable alternatives, and the constraints of the existing supply infrastructure in the United States have placed a spotlight on biomass-derived fuels. The central question of the ethanol debate has changed from 'Should we make ethanol?' to 'From what should we make ethanol?' emphasizing the importance of understanding the differences between specific biomass supply systems for fuel ethanol. When presented with numerous options, the priorities of an individual decision maker will define which feedstock alternative is the most appropriate choice for development from their perspective. This paper demonstrates how energy data can be successfully used to quantify assessment metrics beyond a standard net energy value calculation, thus quantifying the relative 'value' of ethanol supply systems. This value is defined based on decision-maker priorities that were adopted from national energy policy priorities: increased national energy security and increased conservation of energy resources. Nine energy assessment metrics that quantify detailed system energy data are calculated and a straightforward comparative assessment is performed between corn and corn stover feedstocks produced under the same farm scenario. Corn stover is shown to be more compatible with the national energy policy priorities and it is recommended that additional research be performed on utilizing this feedstock from the corn farm

  5. Bio-Ethanol Production from Poultry Manure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    john

    ethanol. Fuel ethanol is known as bio-ethanol, since it is produced from plant materials by biological processes. Bioethanol is mainly produced by fermentation of sugar containing crops like corn, maize, wheat, sugar cane, sugar beet, potatoes, ...

  6. What's the Deal with Methane at LUST Spill Sites? Part 2: Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is specifically intended to discuss methane produced from releases of ethanol and gasoline-ethanol mixtures. There may be other sources of methane at a site, including leaks of natural gas or methane produced from the natural decay of buried plant tissues or from the...

  7. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  8. Wheel running, voluntary ethanol consumption, and hedonic substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A

    2008-08-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between naturally rewarding behaviors and ethanol drinking behaviors in mice. Although natural and drug reinforcers activate similar brain circuitry, there is behavioral evidence suggesting food and drug rewards differ in perceived value. The primary goal of the present study was to investigate the relationships between naturally reinforcing stimuli and consumption of ethanol in ethanol preferring C57BL/6J mice. Mouse behaviors were observed after the following environmental manipulations: standard or enhanced environment, accessible or inaccessible wheel, and presence or absence of ethanol. Using a high-resolution volumetric drinking monitor and wheel running monitor, we evaluated whether alternating access to wheel running modified ethanol-related behaviors and whether alternating access to ethanol modified wheel running or subsequent ethanol-related behaviors. We found that ethanol consumption remains stable with alternating periods of wheel running. Wheel running increases in the absence of ethanol and decreases upon reintroduction of ethanol. Upon reintroduction of ethanol, an alcohol deprivation effect was seen. Collectively, the results support theories of hedonic substitution and suggest that female C57BL/6J mice express ethanol seeking and craving under these specific conditions.

  9. Behavioral Sensitization to the Disinhibition Effect of Ethanol Requires the Dopamine/Ecdysone Receptor in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissel P. Aranda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Male flies under the influence of ethanol display disinhibited courtship, which is augmented with repeated ethanol exposures. We have previously shown that dopamine is important for this type of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we report that DopEcR, an insect G-protein coupled receptor that binds to dopamine and steroid hormone ecdysone, is a major receptor mediating courtship sensitization. Upon daily ethanol administration, dumb and damb mutant males defective in D1 (dDA1/DopR1 and D5 (DAMB/DopR2 dopamine receptors, respectively, showed normal courtship sensitization; however, the DopEcR-deficient der males exhibited greatly diminished sensitization. der mutant males nevertheless developed normal tolerance to the sedative effect of ethanol, indicating a selective function of DopEcR in chronic ethanol-associated behavioral plasticity. DopEcR plays a physiological role in behavioral sensitization since courtship sensitization in der males was reinstated when DopEcR expression was induced during adulthood but not during development. When examined for the DopEcR’s functional site, the der mutant’s sensitization phenotype was fully rescued by restored DopEcR expression in the mushroom body (MB αβ and γ neurons. Consistently, we observed DopEcR immunoreactivity in the MB calyx and lobes in the wild-type Canton-S brain, which was barely detectable in the der brain. Behavioral sensitization to the locomotor-stimulant effect has been serving as a model for ethanol abuse and addiction. This is the first report elucidating the mechanism underlying behavioral sensitization to another stimulant effect of ethanol.

  10. On the Use of Potential Denaturing Agents for Ethanol in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Domnik Bayer; Florina Jung; Birgit Kintzel; Martin Joos; Carsten Cremers; Dierk Martin; Jörg Bernard; Jens Tübke

    2011-01-01

    Acidic or alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) can be a sustainable alternative for power generation if they are fuelled with bio-ethanol. However, in order to keep the fuel cheap, ethanol has to be exempted from tax on spirits by denaturing. In this investigation the potential denaturing agents fusel oil, tert-butyl ethyl ether, and Bitrex were tested with regard to their compatibility with fuel cells. Experiments were carried out both in sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide solution...

  11. Examination of Ethanol Marketing and Input Procurement Practices of the U.S. Ethanol Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Aslihan D.; Schmidgall, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Growing concerns about the dependence on foreign oil and high prices of gasoline have led to rapid growth in ethanol production in the past decade. Unlike earlier development of the ethanol industry which was highly concentrated in a few large corporations, recent ownership of the ethanol plants has been by farmer-owned cooperatives. Not much is known about the marketing and purchasing practices and plants’ flexibility with respect to adapting new technologies. The purpose of this research is...

  12. Ethanol wet-bonding technique sensitivity assessed by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, E; Toledano, M; Aguilera, F S; Tay, F R; Osorio, R

    2010-11-01

    In ethanol wet bonding, water is replaced by ethanol to maintain dehydrated collagen matrices in an extended state to facilitate resin infiltration. Since short ethanol dehydration protocols may be ineffective, this study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in ethanol dehydration protocols for maintaining the surface roughness, fibril diameter, and interfibrillar spaces of acid-etched dentin. Polished human dentin surfaces were etched with phosphoric acid and water-rinsed. Tested protocols were: (1) water-rinse (control); (2) 100% ethanol-rinse (1-min); (3) 100% ethanol-rinse (5-min); and (4) progressive ethanol replacement (50-100%). Surface roughness, fibril diameter, and interfibrillar spaces were determined with atomic force microscopy and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (α = 0.05). Dentin roughness and fibril diameter significantly decreased when 100% ethanol (1-5 min) was used for rinsing (p ethanol produced collapse and shrinkage of collagen fibrils. Ascending ethanol concentrations did not collapse the matrix and shrank the fibrils less than absolute ethanol-rinses.

  13. Process for producing ethanol from syngas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Theodore R; Rathke, Jerome W; Chen, Michael J

    2013-05-14

    The invention provides a method for producing ethanol, the method comprising establishing an atmosphere containing methanol forming catalyst and ethanol forming catalyst; injecting syngas into the atmosphere at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce methanol; and contacting the produced methanol with additional syngas at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce ethanol. The invention also provides an integrated system for producing methanol and ethanol from syngas, the system comprising an atmosphere isolated from the ambient environment; a first catalyst to produce methanol from syngas wherein the first catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a second catalyst to product ethanol from methanol and syngas, wherein the second catalyst resides in the atmosphere; a conduit for introducing syngas to the atmosphere; and a device for removing ethanol from the atmosphere. The exothermicity of the method and system obviates the need for input of additional heat from outside the atmosphere.

  14. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  15. Greenprint on ethanol production in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Investment in Saskatchewan's ethanol industry is being actively promoted by the provincial government. This document represents the provincial strategy in support of the ethanol industry, which will result in significant environmental benefits for the province and the residents through the increased use of ethanol as an additive to conventional gasoline. The big advantage offered by ethanol is a more complete fuel combustion, thereby reducing emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 30 per cent. The production costs of ethanol have decreased in the last twenty years by 50 per cent. The competitiveness of ethanol should increase due to ongoing research and development progress being made. The agricultural sector should benefit through the creation of meaningful jobs in the sector, as well as offering new marketing opportunities to the grain producers of the province and the wood-product companies. A renewable resource, ethanol reduces carbon dioxide exhaust emissions bu up to 20 per cent, reduces the smog-creating compounds up to 15 per cent, and achieves a net reduction of up to 10 per cent in carbon dioxide emissions. The abundance of raw materials and resources required for the production of ethanol, Saskatchewan possesses an obvious advantage for becoming a world leader in the field. The government of Saskatchewan has developed its strategy, outlined in this document. It calls for tax incentives, the mandating of ethanol blend, opening up markets, working with communities. The industry size, economic impact, export potential, and future opportunities were briefly discussed in the last section of the document. 1 tab., 3 figs

  16. Canada's ethanol retail directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A directory was published listing all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listings include the name and address of the retailer. A list of bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels is also included

  17. Melatonin in concentrated ethanol and ethanol alone attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Cherng, C-F G; Chen, C

    2002-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin, ethanol and temperature changes on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in both sexes of mice. Mice exhibited a similar degree of striatal dopamine depletion when methamphetamine was administered during the light and dark cycles. Moreover, 10 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, of methamphetamine, significantly increased body temperature even though dopamine depletions were observed following both doses. Melatonin (80 mg/kg) dissolved in 30% (v/v) ethanol and 30% ethanol alone exerted a moderate to full protection against methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions in both sexes of mice, whereas the same dose of melatonin in 3% ethanol exerted no protective effect. Furthermore, ethanol attenuated methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletions in a dose-dependent manner with the exception of high efficacy of ethanol at low doses. Finally, the protective effects of ethanol were not blocked by bicuculline. Together, we conclude that ethanol may protect mice against methamphetamine-induced dopamine depletion probably via non-GABAA receptor activation.

  18. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  19. Ethanol Fuels Reference Guide: A Decision-Makers Guide to Ethanol Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-10-01

    This guide is a compendium of information on alcohol fuel production and use. Chapter titles are: facts about ethanol; gasohol-answers to the basic questions; feedstocks and their coproducts; ethanol production processes; and vehicle fuel use and performance. In addition, there are 8 appendices which include fermentation guides for common grains and potatoes, component and enzyme manufacturers, and information on regulations and permits. (DMC)

  20. Anhydrous ethanol: A renewable source of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Neetu; Prasad, Ram [Department of Chemical Engineering, H. B. Technological Institute, Kanpur 208002 (India)

    2010-09-15

    Anhydrous ethanol is one of the biofuels produced today and it is a subset of renewable energy. It is considered to be an excellent alternative clean-burning fuel to gasoline. Anhydrous ethanol is commercially produced by either catalytic hydration of ethylene or fermentation of biomass. Any biological material that has sugar, starch or cellulose can be used as biomass for producing anhydrous ethanol. Since ethanol-water solution forms a minimum-boiling azeotrope of composition of 89.4 mol% ethanol and 10.6 mol% water at 78.2 C and standard atmospheric pressure, the dilute ethanol-water solutions produced by fermentation process can be continuously rectified to give at best solutions containing 89.4 mol% ethanol at standard atmospheric pressure. Therefore, special process for removal of the remaining water is required for manufacture of anhydrous ethanol. Various processes for producing anhydrous ethanol have been used/suggested. These include: (i) chemical dehydration process, (ii) dehydration by vacuum distillation process, (iii) azeotropic distillation process, (iv) extractive distillation processes, (v) membrane processes, (vi) adsorption processes and (vii) diffusion distillation process. These processes of manufacturing anhydrous ethanol have been improved continuously due to the increasingly strict requirements for quantity and quality of this product. The literature available on these processes is reviewed. These processes are also compared on the basis of energy requirements. (author)

  1. Metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant Clostridium thermocellum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinshu Zhu

    Full Text Available Clostridium thermocellum is a major candidate for bioethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing. However, the low ethanol tolerance of the organism dramatically impedes its usage in industry. To explore the mechanism of ethanol tolerance in this microorganism, systematic metabolomics was adopted to analyse the metabolic phenotypes of a C. thermocellum wild-type (WT strain and an ethanol-tolerant strain cultivated without (ET0 or with (ET3 3% (v/v exogenous ethanol. Metabolomics analysis elucidated that the levels of numerous metabolites in different pathways were changed for the metabolic adaption of ethanol-tolerant C. thermocellum. The most interesting phenomenon was that cellodextrin was significantly more accumulated in the ethanol-tolerant strain compared with the WT strain, although cellobiose was completely consumed in both the ethanol-tolerant and wild-type strains. These results suggest that the cellodextrin synthesis was active, which might be a potential mechanism for stress resistance. Moreover, the overflow of many intermediate metabolites, which indicates the metabolic imbalance, in the ET0 cultivation was more significant than in the WT and ET3 cultivations. This indicates that the metabolic balance of the ethanol-tolerant strain was adapted better to the condition of ethanol stress. This study provides additional insight into the mechanism of ethanol tolerance and is valuable for further metabolic engineering aimed at higher bioethanol production.

  2. Chronic intermittent ethanol inhalation increases ethanol self-administration in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Brian A; Chappell, Ann M

    2015-03-01

    Inbred mouse strains provide significant opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms controlling ethanol-directed behaviors and neurobiology. They have been specifically employed to understand cellular mechanisms contributing to ethanol consumption, acute intoxication, and sensitivities to chronic effects. However, limited ethanol consumption by some strains has restricted our understanding of clinically relevant endpoints such as dependence-related ethanol intake. Previous work with a novel tastant-substitution procedure using monosodium glutamate (MSG or umami flavor) has shown that the procedure greatly enhances ethanol consumption by mouse strains that express limited drinking phenotypes using other methods. In the current study, we employ this MSG-substitution procedure to examine how ethanol dependence, induced with passive vapor inhalation, modifies ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. These strains represent 'high' and 'low' drinking phenotypes, respectively. We found that the MSG substitution greatly facilitates ethanol drinking in both strains, and likewise, ethanol dependence increased ethanol consumption regardless of strain. However, DBA/2J mice exhibited greater sensitivity dependence-enhanced drinking, as represented by consumption behaviors directed at lower ethanol concentrations and relative to baseline intake levels. DBA/2J mice also exhibited significant withdrawal-associated anxiety-like behavior while C57BL/6J mice did not. These findings suggest that the MSG-substitution procedure can be employed to examine dependence-enhanced ethanol consumption across a range of drinking phenotypes, and that C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice may represent unique neurobehavioral pathways for developing dependence-enhanced ethanol consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcriptome profiling of Zymomonas mobilis under ethanol stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ming-xiong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High tolerance to ethanol is a desirable characteristics for ethanologenic strains used in industrial ethanol fermentation. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying ethanologenic strains tolerance of ethanol stress may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic production. Many extensive studies have been performed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. However, the physiological basis and genetic mechanisms involved in ethanol tolerance for Zymomonas mobilis are poorly understood on genomic level. To identify the genes required for tolerance to ethanol, microarray technology was used to investigate the transcriptome profiling of the ethanologenic Z. mobilis in response to ethanol stress. Results We successfully identified 127 genes which were differentially expressed in response to ethanol. Ethanol up- or down-regulated genes related to cell wall/membrane biogenesis, metabolism, and transcription. These genes were classified as being involved in a wide range of cellular processes including carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall/membrane biogenesis, respiratory chain, terpenoid biosynthesis, DNA replication, DNA recombination, DNA repair, transport, transcriptional regulation, some universal stress response, etc. Conclusion In this study, genome-wide transcriptional responses to ethanol were investigated for the first time in Z. mobilis using microarray analysis.Our results revealed that ethanol had effects on multiple aspects of cellular metabolism at the transcriptional level and that membrane might play important roles in response to ethanol. Although the molecular mechanism involved in tolerance and adaptation of ethanologenic strains to ethanol is still unclear, this research has provided insights into molecular response to ethanol in Z. mobilis. These data will also be helpful to construct more ethanol resistant strains for cellulosic

  4. Compound list: ethanol [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ethanol ETN 00137 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_v...itro/ethanol.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/et...hanol.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single.../ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/ethanol.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  5. Canadian ethanol retailers' directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    This listing is a directory of all ethanol-blended gasoline retailers in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, and the Yukon. The listing includes the name and address of the retailer. Bulk purchase facilities of ethanol-blended fuels are also included, but in a separate listing

  6. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barta Zsolt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%, based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%. Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L, including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  7. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Zsolt; Reczey, Kati; Zacchi, Guido

    2010-09-15

    Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%), based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%). Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L), including the reference case. Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  8. Social Media Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Media Sites Site Registration Contact Us Search AF.mil: Home > AF Sites > Social Media Sites Social Media Welcome to the Air Force social media directory! The directory is a one-stop shop of official Air Force social media pages across various social media sites. Social media is all about

  9. The North Carolina State University Libraries Search Experience: Usability Testing Tabbed Search Interfaces for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague-Rector, Susan; Ballard, Angela; Pauley, Susan K.

    2011-01-01

    Creating a learnable, effective, and user-friendly library Web site hinges on providing easy access to search. Designing a search interface for academic libraries can be particularly challenging given the complexity and range of searchable library collections, such as bibliographic databases, electronic journals, and article search silos. Library…

  10. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A. [Univ. of California, Parlier, CA (United States). Kearney Research and Extension Center; Wolfrum, Edward J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Process and Analytical Engineering Group

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  11. Searching your site's management information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, W.; Rollin, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy's guidelines for the Baseline Environmental Management Report (BEMR) encourage the use of existing data when compiling information. Specific systems mentioned include the Progress Tracking System, the Mixed-Waste Inventory Report, the Waste Management Information System, DOE 4700.1-related systems, Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) data, and existing Work Breakdown Structures. In addition to these DOE-Headquarters tracking and reporting systems, there are a number of site systems that will be relied upon to produce the BEMR, including: (1) site management control and cost tracking systems; (2) commitment/issues tracking systems; (3) program-specific internal tracking systems; (4) Site material/equipment inventory systems. New requirements have often prompted the creation of new, customized tracking systems. This is a very time and money consuming process. As the BEMR Management Plan emphasizes, an effort should be made to use the information in existing tracking systems. Because of the wealth of information currently available from in-place systems, development of a new tracking system should be a last resort

  12. Nucleus Accumbens MC4-R Stimulation Reduces Food and Ethanol Intake in Adult Rats Regardless of Binge-Like Ethanol Exposure during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Carvajal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The melanocortin (MC system regulates feeding and ethanol consumption. Recent evidence shows that melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4-R stimulation within the nucleus accumbens (NAc elicits anorectic responses and reduces ethanol consumption and ethanol palatability in adult rats. Ethanol exposure during adolescence causes long-lasting changes in neural pathways critically involved in neurobehavioral responses to ethanol. In this regard, binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence reduces basal alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH and alters the levels of agouti-related peptide (AgRP in hypothalamic and limbic areas. Given the protective role of MC against excessive ethanol consumption, disturbances in the MC system induced by binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence might contribute to excessive ethanol consumption during adulthood. In the present study, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence leads to elevated ethanol intake and/or eating disturbance during adulthood. Toward that aim, Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ethanol (3 g/kg i.p.; BEP group or saline (SP group for 14 days (PND 25 to PND 38. On PND73, all the groups were given access to 20% ethanol on an intermittent schedule. Our results showed that adult rats given intermittent access (IAE to 20% ethanol achieved high spontaneous ethanol intake that was not significantly enhanced by binge-like ethanol pretreatment during adolescence. However, BEP group exhibited an increase in food intake without a parallel increase in body weight (BW relative to SP group suggesting caloric efficiency disturbance. Additionally, we evaluated whether binge-like ethanol exposure during adolescence alters the expected reduction in feeding and ethanol consumption following NAc shell administration of a selective MC4-R agonist in adult rats showing high rates of ethanol consumption. For that, animals in each pretreatment condition (SP and BEP were divided into

  13. Spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production: An Australian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderton, Nikki; Kingwell, Ross

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol production is increasingly commonplace in many grain-producing regions. This paper uses the grain-producing region of south-western Australia to illustrate spatial and temporal aspects of grain accumulation costs for ethanol production. Specifically, this study examines how price variability of various wheat grades, combined with spatial and temporal variability in production of those grades, affects the costs of grain accumulation. These costs are the main components of an ethanol plant's operating costs so lessening these costs can offer a comparative advantage for a plant owner. Logistics models based on mathematical programming are constructed for a range of plant sizes and locations for ethanol production. Modelling results identify low-cost sites that generate cost savings, in present value terms, of between 5 and 7.5 per cent, depending on plant size, over the 9-year study period. At all locations, small to medium-sized plants offer advantages of lower and less variable costs of grain accumulation. Yet, all locations and all plant sizes are characterised by marked volatility in the cost of grain accumulation. The profitability of ethanol production based on wheat in this region of Australia is particularly exposed to any prolonged period of high grain prices relative to petroleum prices, given current biofuel-policy settings in Australia. (author)

  14. Monodispersed porous flowerlike PtAu nanocrystals as effective electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shumin; Xu, Hui; Xiong, Zhiping; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Caiqin; Yan, Bo; Guo, Jun; Du, Yukou

    2017-11-01

    Designing and tuning the bimetallic nanoparticles with desirable morphology and structure can embody them with greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and stability towards liquid fuel oxidation. We herein reported a facile one-pot method for the controlled synthesis of monodispersed binary PtAu nanoflowers with abundant exposed surface area. Owing to its fantastic structure, synergistic and electronic effect, such as-prepared PtAu nanoflowers exhibited outstandingly high electrocatalytic activity with the mass activity of 6482 mA mg-1 towards ethanol oxidation, which is 28.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C (227 mA mg-1). More interesting, the present PtAu nanoflower catalysts are more stable for the ethanol oxidation reaction in the alkaline with lower current density decay and retained a much higher current density after successive CVs of 500 cycles than that of commercial Pt/C. This work may open a new way for maximizing the catalytic performance of electrocatalysts towards ethanol oxidation by synthesizing shape-controlled alloy nanoparticles with more surface active sites to enhance the performances of direct fuel cells reaction, chemical conversion, and beyond.

  15. Effect of prenatal methadone and ethanol on opioid receptor development in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, M.A.; Braun, R.L. (Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The current literature shows that the offspring of female rats exposed to methadone or ethanol display similar neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and suggests that these drugs may be operating through a common mechanism. If this hypothesis is true, their effect on the endogenous opioid systems should be qualitatively similar. In this study virgin females were treated with methadone or 10% ethanol oral solution starting prior to conception and continued throughout gestation. When the offspring had reached 15 or 30 days of age they were sacrificed, the brain was removed and prepared for opioid receptor binding studies. ({sup 3}H)DAGO and ({sup 3}H)DADLE were used as ligands for the mu and delta receptors, respectively. These studies show significant treatment-related differences in both the number of mu and delta binding sites as well as in apparent receptor affinity. Significant sex- and age-related differences between treatments were also observed. These data show that methadone and ethanol, while manifesting some similar neurochemical and behavioral effects, have unique effects on opioid receptor binding, suggesting that they may be acting by different mechanisms.

  16. Comparative polygenic analysis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and tolerance to high ethanol levels of cell proliferation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M Pais

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to accumulate ≥17% ethanol (v/v by fermentation in the absence of cell proliferation. The genetic basis of this unique capacity is unknown. Up to now, all research has focused on tolerance of yeast cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. Comparison of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity and ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation in 68 yeast strains showed a poor correlation, but higher ethanol tolerance of cell proliferation clearly increased the likelihood of superior maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify the polygenic basis of these two complex traits using segregants from a cross of a haploid derivative of the sake strain CBS1585 and the lab strain BY. From a total of 301 segregants, 22 superior segregants accumulating ≥17% ethanol in small-scale fermentations and 32 superior segregants growing in the presence of 18% ethanol, were separately pooled and sequenced. Plotting SNP variant frequency against chromosomal position revealed eleven and eight Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs for the two traits, respectively, and showed that the genetic basis of the two traits is partially different. Fine-mapping and Reciprocal Hemizygosity Analysis identified ADE1, URA3, and KIN3, encoding a protein kinase involved in DNA damage repair, as specific causative genes for maximal ethanol accumulation capacity. These genes, as well as the previously identified MKT1 gene, were not linked in this genetic background to tolerance of cell proliferation to high ethanol levels. The superior KIN3 allele contained two SNPs, which are absent in all yeast strains sequenced up to now. This work provides the first insight in the genetic basis of maximal ethanol accumulation capacity in yeast and reveals for the first time the importance of DNA damage repair in yeast ethanol tolerance.

  17. Nonrenewable energy cost of corn-ethanol in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Q.; Chen, G.Q.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrenewable energy cost is accounted for the believed renewable biofuel of corn-ethanol in China. By a process-based energy analysis, nonrenewable energy cost in the corn-ethanol production process incorporating agricultural crop production, industrial conversion and wastewater treatment is conservatively estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced, corresponding to a negative energy return in contrast to the positive ones previously reported. Nonrenewable energy cost associated with wastewater treatment usually ignored in previous researches is shown important in the energy balance. Denoting the heavy nonrenewability of the produced corn-ethanol, the calculated nonrenewable energy cost would rise to 3.64 folds when part of the nonrenewable energy cost associated with water consumption, transportation and environmental remediation is included. Due to the coal dominated nonrenewable energy structure in China, corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol. Validations and discussions are also presented to reveal policy implications against corn based ethanol as an alternative energy in long term energy security planning. - Highlights: ► Nonrenewable energy (NE) cost is conservatively accounted for corn-ethanol in China. ► Corn cultivation, ethanol conversion and wastewater treatment are included. ► NE cost is estimated as 1.70 times that of the ethanol energy produced. ► Corn-ethanol processes in China are mostly a conversion of coal to ethanol.

  18. Radio-opaque ethylcellulose-ethanol is a safe and efficient sclerosing agent for venous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dompmartin, Anne; Barrellier, Marie-Therese; Blaizot, Xavier; Chene, Yannick; Gaillard, Cathy; Theron, Jacques; Hammer, Frank; Labbe, Daniel; Leroyer, Robert; Chedru, Valerie; Ollivier, Catherine; Vikkula, Miikka; Boon, Laurence M.

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of gelified ethanol, a newly developed sclerosing agent for slow-flow vascular malformations. Seventy-nine sclerotherapy procedures were performed on 44 patients with 37 venous malformations, 2 glomuvenous malformations, 2 lymphatic malformations, 2 lymphatico-venous malformations, and 1 Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. The median injected volume was 1.00 mL/site of injection. Effects of sclerotherapy on pain, functional and cosmetic disturbance were statistically evaluated with a final result score. Local and systemic complications were recorded. The mean Visual Analogue Scores were 5.20 ± 2.81 before and 1.52 ± 1.25 after treatment (p < 0.001). Functional and aesthetic improvement was achieved in 31/35 patients (89%) and in 33/41 (80%), respectively. Minor local side effects included necrosis with or without issue of ethylcellulose, palpable residue, and hematoma. No systemic side-effects occurred. Per mL used, radio-opaque gelified ethanol is at least as effective as absolute ethanol. No systemic complication was observed, as only a low dose of ethanol was injected. Indications for sclerotherapy can be widened to areas with higher risk for local side effects (hands and periocular region), as ethanol is trapped in the lesion. Careful injection procedure is though necessary, because only a limited amount of ethylcellulose can be used per puncture. (orig.)

  19. Elementary steps and reaction pathways in the aqueous phase alkylation of phenol with ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Sebastian; Hintermeier, Peter H.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Liu, Yue; Baráth, Eszter; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2017-08-01

    The hydronium ion normalized reaction rate in aqueous phase alkylation of phenol with ethanol on H-MFI zeolites increases with decreasing concentration of acid sites. Higher rates are caused by higher concentrations of phenol in the zeolite pores, as the concentration of hydronium ions generated by zeolite Brønsted acid sites decreases. Considering the different concentrations of reacting species it is shown that the intrinsic rate constant for alkylation is independent of the concentration of hydronium ions in the zeolite pores. Alkylation at the aromatic ring of phenol and of toluene as well as O-alkylation of phenol have the same activation energy, 104 ± 5 kJ/mol. This is energetic barrier to form the ethyl carbenium ion from ethanol associated to the hydronium ion. Thus, in both the reaction pathways the catalyst involves a carbenium ion, which forms a bond to a nucleophilic oxygen (ether formation) or carbon (alkylation).

  20. Searching for a New Way to Reach Patrons: A Search Engine Optimization Pilot Project at Binghamton University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Erin E.; Kelehan, Martha Daisy; Strong, Marcy A.

    2008-01-01

    Search engine use is one of the most popular online activities. According to a recent OCLC report, nearly all students start their electronic research using a search engine instead of the library Web site. Instead of viewing search engines as competition, however, librarians at Binghamton University Libraries decided to employ search engine…

  1. The consequence of fetal ethanol exposure and adolescent odor re-exposure on the response to ethanol odor in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molina Juan C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An epidemiologic predictive relationship exists between fetal ethanol exposure and the likelihood for adolescent use. Further, an inverse relationship exists between the age of first experience and the probability of adult abuse. Whether and how the combined effects of prenatal and adolescent ethanol experiences contribute to this progressive pattern remains unknown. Fetal ethanol exposure directly changes the odor attributes of ethanol important for both ethanol odor preference behavior and ethanol flavor perception. These effects persist only to adolescence. Here we tested whether adolescent ethanol odor re-exposure: (Experiment 1 augments the fetal effect on the adolescent behavioral response to ethanol odor; and/or (Experiment 2 perpetuates previously observed adolescent behavioral and neurophysiological responses into adulthood. Methods Pregnant rats received either an ethanol or control liquid diet. Progeny (observers experienced ethanol odor in adolescence via social interaction with a peer (demonstrators that received an intragastric infusion of either 1.5 g/kg ethanol or water. Social interactions were scored for the frequency that observers followed their demonstrator. Whole-body plethysmography evaluated the unconditioned behavioral response of observers to ethanol odor in adolescence (P37 or adulthood (P90. The olfactory epithelium of adults was also examined for its neural response to five odorants, including ethanol. Results Experiment 1: Relative to fetal or adolescent exposure alone, adolescent re-exposure enhanced the behavioral response to ethanol odor in P37 animals. Compared to animals with no ethanol experience, rats receiving a single experience (fetal or adolescent show an enhanced, yet equivalent, ethanol odor response. Fetal ethanol experience also increased olfactory-guided following of an intoxicated peer. Experiment 2: Combined exposure yielded persistence of the behavioral effects only in adult

  2. Ethanol tolerant precious metal free cathode catalyst for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmer, Ilena; Zorn, Paul; Weinberger, Stephan; Grimmer, Christoph; Pichler, Birgit; Cermenek, Bernd; Gebetsroither, Florian; Schenk, Alexander; Mautner, Franz-Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Selective ORR catalysts are presented for alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells. • Perovskite based cathode catalysts show high tolerance toward ethanol. • A membrane-free alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell is presented. - Abstract: La 0.7 Sr 0.3 (Fe 0.2 Co 0.8 )O 3 and La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 −based cathode catalysts are synthesized by the sol-gel method. These perovskite cathode catalysts are tested in half cell configuration and compared to MnO 2 as reference material in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs). The best performing cathode is tested in single cell setup using a standard carbon supported Pt 0.4 Ru 0.2 based anode. A backside Luggin capillary is used in order to register the anode potential during all measurements. Characteristic processes of the electrodes are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Physical characterizations of the perovskite based cathode catalysts are performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and by X-ray diffraction showing phase pure materials. In half cell setup, La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 shows the highest tolerance toward ethanol with a performance of 614 mA cm −2 at 0.65 V vs. RHE in 6 M KOH and 1 M EtOH at RT. This catalyst outperforms the state-of-the-art precious metal-free MnO 2 catalyst in presence of ethanol. In fuel cell setup, the peak power density is 27.6 mW cm −2 at a cell voltage of 0.345 V and a cathode potential of 0.873 V vs. RHE.

  3. Environmental aspects of ethanol-based fuels from Brassica carinata. A case study of second generation ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara; Moreira, M'a Teresa; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Gasol, Carles M.; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall, Joan

    2009-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by mankind in the 21st century is to meet the increasing demand for energy requirements by means of a more sustainable energy supply. In countries that are net fossil fuel importers, expectation about the benefit of using alternative fuels on reducing oil imports is the primary driving force behind efforts to promote its production and use. Spain is scarce in domestic energy sources and more than 50% of the energy used is fossil fuel based. The promotion of renewable energies use is one of the principal vectors in the Spanish energy policy. Selected herbaceous crops such as Brassica carinata are currently under study as potential energy sources. Its biomass can be considered as potential feedstock to ethanol conversion by an enzymatic process due to the characteristics of its composition, rich in cellulose and hemicellulose. This paper aims to analyse the environmental performance of two ethanol-based fuel applications (E10 and E85) in a passenger car (E10 fuel: a mixture of 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline by volume; E85 fuel: a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline by volume) as well as their comparison with conventional gasoline as transport fuel. Two types of functional units are applied in this study: ethanol production oriented and travelling distance oriented functional units in order to reflect the availability or not of ethanol supply. E85 seems to be the best alternative when ethanol production based functional unit is considered in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and E10 in terms of non-renewable energy resources use. Nevertheless, E85 offers the best environmental performance when travelling distance oriented functional unit is assumed in both impacts. In both functional unit perspectives, the use of ethanol-based fuels reduces the global warming and fossil fuels consumption. However, the contributions to other impact indicators (e.g. acidification, eutrophication and photochemical oxidants formation) were lower

  4. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  5. African perspective on cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bensah, Edem Cudjoe; Kemausuor, Francis; Miezah, Kodwo

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge to commercial production of cellulosic ethanol pertains to the cost-effective breakdown of the complex and recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose into its components via pretreatment, the cost of enzymes for hydrolysis and fermentation, and the conversion rate of C5 sugars...... to ethanol, among others. While the industrialized and some emerging countries are gradually breaking grounds in cellulosic ethanol, most African countries have made little effort in research and development even though the continent is rich in lignocellulosic biomass. The paper estimates residues from...... widely available crops and municipal waste and determines their respective theoretical ethanol potential (around 22 billion litres annually). It further reviews stages involved in the production of cellulosic ethanol, focussing on processing methods that can be adapted to current situation in most...

  6. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase: ethanol, gasoline and ethanol - gasoline predicted by DFT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.

  8. Molecular pathways underpinning ethanol-induced neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eGoldowitz*

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While genetics impacts the type and severity of damage following developmental ethanol exposure, little is currently known about the molecular pathways that mediate these effects. Traditionally, research in this area has used a candidate gene approach and evaluated effects on a gene-by-gene basis. Recent studies, however, have begun to use unbiased approaches and genetic reference populations to evaluate the roles of genotype and epigenetic modifications in phenotypic changes following developmental ethanol exposure, similar to studies that evaluated numerous alcohol-related phenotypes in adults. Here, we present work assessing the role of genetics and chromatin-based alterations in mediating ethanol-induced apoptosis in the developing nervous system. Utilizing the expanded family of BXD recombinant inbred mice, animals were exposed to ethanol at postnatal day 7 via subcutaneous injection (5.0 g/kg in 2 doses. Tissue was collected 7 hours after the initial ethanol treatment and analyzed by activated caspase-3 immunostaining to visualize dying cells in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In parallel, the levels of two histone modifications relevant to apoptosis, γH2AX and H3K14 acetylation, were examined in the cerebral cortex using protein blot analysis. Activated caspase-3 staining identified marked differences in cell death across brain regions between different mouse strains. Genetic analysis of ethanol susceptibility in the hippocampus led to the identification of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 12, which mediates, at least in part, strain-specific differential vulnerability to ethanol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, analysis of chromatin modifications in the cerebral cortex revealed a global increase in γH2AX levels following ethanol exposure, but did not show any change in H3K14 acetylation levels. Together, these findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms and genetic contributions underlying ethanol

  9. Recent Breakthroughs in the Conversion of Ethanol to Butadiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Pomalaza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available 1,3-Butadiene is traditionally produced as a byproduct of ethylene production from steam crackers. What is unusual is that the alternative production route for this important commodity chemical via ethanol was developed a long time ago, before World War II. Currently, there is a renewed interest in the production of butadiene from biomass due to the general trend to replace oil in the chemical industry. This review describes the recent progress in the production of butadiene from ethanol (ETB by one or two-step process through intermediate production of acetaldehyde with an emphasis on the new catalytic systems. The different catalysts for butadiene production are compared in terms of structure-catalytic performance relationship, highlighting the key issues and requirements for future developments. The main difficulty in this process is that basic, acid and redox properties have to be combined in one single catalyst for the reactions of condensation, dehydration and hydrogenation. Magnesium and zirconium-based catalysts in the form of oxides or recently proposed silicates and zeolites promoted by metals are prevailing for butadiene synthesis with the highest selectivity of 70% at high ethanol conversion. The major challenge for further application of the process is to increase the butadiene productivity and to enhance the catalyst lifetime by suppression of coke deposition with preservation of active sites.

  10. The Canadian Petroleum Products Institute : position on ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A brief overview of the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI), an industry association which represents Canadian Petroleum Refiners and Marketers is provided. It is not against nor for the use of ethanol as a fuel. Ethanol blends are marketed by some CPPI members. It is mentioned that consumers accept ethanol fuels when the price is competitive with the price of non-ethanol fuel. Mandating the use of ethanol in fuels is not an issue supported by the CPPI. A subsidy is required in order for ethanol to be an economically attractive option, and the consumers would be forced to bear subsidy costs if the use of ethanol in fuels were to be mandated. The technology is still some years away for ethanol from cellulose to be an attractive option. It is difficult to finance new plants, and 50 million of the 240 million litres of ethanol blended has to be imported. The advantages of ethanol as a fuel are marginal and not cost effective. Some changes to the gasoline distribution system would be required, as ethanol must be added near the consumer, and it may not be appropriate for some older vehicles and some off-road equipment. The gasoline industry's flexibility would be reduced by provincial mandates. Several questions have not yet been answered, such as what is the real purpose of mandating ethanol in motor fuels? when will new technology be available? The CPPI makes four recommendations: (1) the development of a clear understanding of and the articulation of the objectives of a new ethanol policy, (2) support the development of new cellulose based technology, (3) take a prudent and gradual approach to development of a new policy, and (4) CPPI does not believe that an ethanol mandate is in the best interests of all Canadians

  11. [Insights into engineering of cellulosic ethanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guojun; Wu, Guoqing; Lin, Xin

    2014-06-01

    For energy security, air pollution concerns, coupled with the desire to sustain the agricultural sector and revitalize the rural economy, many countries have applied ethanol as oxygenate or fuel to supplement or replace gasoline in transportation sector. Because of abundant feedstock resources and effective reduction of green-house-gas emissions, the cellulosic ethanol has attracted great attention. With a couple of pioneers beginning to produce this biofuel from biomass in commercial quantities around the world, it is necessary to solve engineering problems and complete the economic assessment in 2015-2016, gradually enter the commercialization stage. To avoid "competing for food with humans and competing for land with food", the 1st generation fuel ethanol will gradually transit to the 2nd generation cellulosic ethanol. Based on the overview of cellulosic ethanol industrialization from domestic and abroad in recent years, the main engineering application problems encountered in pretreatment, enzymes and enzymatic hydrolysis, pentose/hexose co-fermentation strains and processes, equipment were discussed from chemical engineering and biotechnology perspective. The development direction of cellulosic ethanol technology in China was addressed.

  12. Next-Gen Search Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amardeep

    2005-01-01

    Current search engines--even the constantly surprising Google--seem unable to leap the next big barrier in search: the trillions of bytes of dynamically generated data created by individual web sites around the world, or what some researchers call the "deep web." The challenge now is not information overload, but information overlook.…

  13. Self-Administered Ethanol Enema Causing Accidental Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive ethanol consumption is a leading preventable cause of death in the United States. Much of the harm from ethanol comes from those who engage in excessive or hazardous drinking. Rectal absorption of ethanol bypasses the first pass metabolic effect, allowing for a higher concentration of blood ethanol to occur for a given volume of solution and, consequently, greater potential for central nervous system depression. However, accidental death is extremely rare with rectal administration. This case report describes an individual with klismaphilia whose death resulted from acute ethanol intoxication by rectal absorption of a wine enema.

  14. The Role of Cellulosic Ethanol in Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson, Jr.

    2007-10-01

    Petroleum provides essentially all of the energy used today in the transportation sector. To reduce this dependence on fossil energy, other fuels are beginning to be used, notably ethanol and biodiesel. Almost all fuel ethanol is produced by the conversion of corn grain to starch with subsequent fermentation to ethanol. In 2006, almost 5 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced, which used 17% of domestic corn production. The DOE has a goal to displace 30% of motor gasoline demand or 60 billion gallons per year by 2030. To achieve this goal, production of ethanol from lignocellulosic sources (e.g., agricultural residues, forest residues, and dedicated energy crops) is needed. This paper will describe the production of cellulosic ethanol as well as the issues and benefits associated with its production.

  15. The highly selective orexin/hypocretin 1 receptor antagonist GSK1059865 potently reduces ethanol drinking in ethanol dependent mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Moorman, David E; Aston-Jones, Gary; Becker, Howard C

    2016-04-01

    The orexin/hypocretin (ORX) system plays a major role in motivation for natural and drug rewards. In particular, a number of studies have shown that ORX signaling through the orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) regulates alcohol seeking and consumption. Despite the association between ORX signaling and motivation for alcohol, no study to date has investigated what role the ORX system plays in alcohol dependence, an understanding of which would have significant clinical relevance. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the highly selective OX1R antagonist GSK1059865 on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and control non-dependent mice. Mice were subjected to a protocol in which they were evaluated for baseline ethanol intake and then exposed to intermittent ethanol or air exposure in inhalation chambers. Each cycle of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE), or air, exposure was followed by a test of ethanol intake. Once the expected effect of increased voluntary ethanol intake was obtained in ethanol dependent mice, mice were tested for the effect of GSK1059865 on ethanol and sucrose intake. Treatment with GSK1059865 significantly decreased ethanol drinking in a dose-dependent manner in CIE-exposed mice. In contrast GSK1059865 decreased drinking in air-exposed mice only at the highest dose used. There was no effect of GSK1059865 on sucrose intake. Thus, ORX signaling through the OX1R, using a highly-selective antagonist, has a profound influence on high levels of alcohol drinking induced in a dependence paradigm, but limited or no influence on moderate alcohol drinking or sucrose drinking. These results indicate that the ORX system may be an important target system for treating disorders of compulsive reward seeking such as alcoholism and other addictions in which motivation is strongly elevated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recurring ethanol exposure induces disinhibited courtship in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Gwan Lee

    Full Text Available Alcohol has a strong causal relationship with sexual arousal and disinhibited sexual behavior in humans; however, the physiological support for this notion is largely lacking and thus a suitable animal model to address this issue is instrumental. We investigated the effect of ethanol on sexual behavior in Drosophila. Wild-type males typically court females but not males; however, upon daily administration of ethanol, they exhibited active intermale courtship, which represents a novel type of behavioral disinhibition. The ethanol-treated males also developed behavioral sensitization, a form of plasticity associated with addiction, since their intermale courtship activity was progressively increased with additional ethanol experience. We identified three components crucial for the ethanol-induced courtship disinhibition: the transcription factor regulating male sex behavior Fruitless, the ABC guanine/tryptophan transporter White and the neuromodulator dopamine. fruitless mutant males normally display conspicuous intermale courtship; however, their courtship activity was not enhanced under ethanol. Likewise, white males showed negligible ethanol-induced intermale courtship, which was not only reinstated but also augmented by transgenic White expression. Moreover, inhibition of dopamine neurotransmission during ethanol exposure dramatically decreased ethanol-induced intermale courtship. Chronic ethanol exposure also affected a male's sexual behavior toward females: it enhanced sexual arousal but reduced sexual performance. These findings provide novel insights into the physiological effects of ethanol on sexual behavior and behavioral plasticity.

  17. T1r3 taste receptor involvement in gustatory neural responses to ethanol and oral ethanol preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Susan M; Norman, Meghan B; Lemon, Christian H

    2010-05-01

    Elevated alcohol consumption is associated with enhanced preference for sweet substances across species and may be mediated by oral alcohol-induced activation of neurobiological substrates for sweet taste. Here, we directly examined the contribution of the T1r3 receptor protein, important for sweet taste detection in mammals, to ethanol intake and preference and the neural processing of ethanol taste by measuring behavioral and central neurophysiological responses to oral alcohol in T1r3 receptor-deficient mice and their C57BL/6J background strain. T1r3 knockout and wild-type mice were tested in behavioral preference assays for long-term voluntary intake of a broad concentration range of ethanol, sucrose, and quinine. For neurophysiological experiments, separate groups of mice of each genotype were anesthetized, and taste responses to ethanol and stimuli of different taste qualities were electrophysiologically recorded from gustatory neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract. Mice lacking the T1r3 receptor were behaviorally indifferent to alcohol (i.e., ∼50% preference values) at concentrations typically preferred by wild-type mice (5-15%). Central neural taste responses to ethanol in T1r3-deficient mice were significantly lower compared with C57BL/6J controls, a strain for which oral ethanol stimulation produced a concentration-dependent activation of sweet-responsive NTS gustatory neurons. An attenuated difference in ethanol preference between knockouts and controls at concentrations >15% indicated that other sensory and/or postingestive effects of ethanol compete with sweet taste input at high concentrations. As expected, T1r3 knockouts exhibited strongly suppressed behavioral and neural taste responses to sweeteners but did not differ from wild-type mice in responses to prototypic salt, acid, or bitter stimuli. These data implicate the T1r3 receptor in the sensory detection and transduction of ethanol taste.

  18. Preliminary results on the search for new Late Glacial rock shelter-sites in the Federal State of Hesse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Florian Rudolf

    The multidisciplinary project “Apocalypse Then? The Laacher See volcanic eruption, Deep Environmental History and Europe’s Geo-cultural Heritage” at Aarhus University aims to investigate the influence of the catastrophic Late Glacial volcanic eruption on the lifeways of foragers 13.000 years ago....... One of the major work packages is the discovery of new sites which can provide Late Palaeolithic strata in the context of volcanic ash deposits. Previous tephrochronological research has demonstrated that neither open-air nor deep cave sites harbour great potential for discovering in situ volcanic ash...... of Bettenroder Berg in Lower Saxony which provide rich ABP (Arch-backed point-technocomplex) finds covered by Laacher-See Tephra (see Grote 1994). For the state of Hesse in Central Germany a database of ca. 800 potential rock shelters is forming the basis for the search for new sites in the medial zone...

  19. Mixed waste paper to ethanol fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the use of mixed waste paper for the production of ethanol fuels and to review the available conversion technologies, and assess developmental status, current and future cost of production and economics, and the market potential. This report is based on the results of literature reviews, telephone conversations, and interviews. Mixed waste paper samples from residential and commercial recycling programs and pulp mill sludge provided by Weyerhauser were analyzed to determine the potential ethanol yields. The markets for ethanol fuel and the economics of converting paper into ethanol were investigated.

  20. Cost evaluation of cellulase enzyme for industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol production based on rigorous Aspen Plus modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Cost reduction on cellulase enzyme usage has been the central effort in the commercialization of fuel ethanol production from lignocellulose biomass. Therefore, establishing an accurate evaluation method on cellulase enzyme cost is crucially important to support the health development of the future biorefinery industry. Currently, the cellulase cost evaluation methods were complicated and various controversial or even conflict results were presented. To give a reliable evaluation on this important topic, a rigorous analysis based on the Aspen Plus flowsheet simulation in the commercial scale ethanol plant was proposed in this study. The minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) was used as the indicator to show the impacts of varying enzyme supply modes, enzyme prices, process parameters, as well as enzyme loading on the enzyme cost. The results reveal that the enzyme cost drives the cellulosic ethanol price below the minimum profit point when the enzyme is purchased from the current industrial enzyme market. An innovative production of cellulase enzyme such as on-site enzyme production should be explored and tested in the industrial scale to yield an economically sound enzyme supply for the future cellulosic ethanol production.

  1. Rewiring Lactococcus lactis for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Dehli, Tore Ibsen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2013-01-01

    to redirect the metabolism of LAB model organism Lactococcus lactis toward ethanol production. Codon-optimized Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) was introduced and expressed from synthetic promoters in different strain backgrounds. In the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 growing on glucose, only...... small amounts of ethanol were obtained after introducing PDC, probably due to a low native alcohol dehydrogenase activity. When the same strains were grown on maltose, ethanol was the major product and lesser amounts of lactate, formate, and acetate were formed. Inactivating the lactate dehydrogenase...... genes ldhX, ldhB, and ldh and introducing codon-optimized Z. mobilis alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHB) in addition to PDC resulted in high-yield ethanol formation when strains were grown on glucose, with only minor amounts of by-products formed. Finally, a strain with ethanol as the sole observed...

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of dissolved ethanol in a pilot-scale sand aquifer: Variability in plume (redox) biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Heather C.; Roy, James W.; Slater, Gregory F.; Smith, James E.

    2018-01-01

    The use of ethanol in alternative fuels has led to contamination of groundwater with high concentrations of this easily biodegradable organic compound. Previous laboratory and field studies have shown vigorous biodegradation of ethanol plumes, with prevalence of reducing conditions and methanogenesis. The objective of this study was to further our understanding of the dynamic biogeochemistry processes, especially dissolved gas production, that may occur in developing and aging plume cores at sites with ethanol or other organic contamination of groundwater. The experiment performed involved highly-detailed spatial and temporal monitoring of ethanol biodegradation in a 2-dimensional (175 cm high × 525 cm long) sand aquifer tank for 330 days, with a vertical shift in plume position and increased nutrient inputs occurring at Day 100. Rapid onset of fermentation, denitrification, sulphate-reduction and iron(III)-reduction occurred following dissolved ethanol addition, with the eventual widespread development of methanogenesis. The detailed observations also demonstrate a redox zonation that supports the plume fringe concept, secondary reactions resulting from a changing/moving plume, and time lags for the various biodegradation processes. Additional highlights include: i) the highest dissolved H2 concentrations yet reported for groundwater, possibly linked to vigorous fermentation in the absence of common terminal electron-acceptors (i.e., dissolved oxygen, nitrate, and sulphate, and iron(III)-minerals) and methanogenesis; ii) evidence of phosphorus nutrient limitation, which stalled ethanol biodegradation and perhaps delayed the onset of methanogenesis; and iii) the occurrence of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, which has not been reported for ethanol biodegradation to date.

  3. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Luo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  4. Loss of Ethanol Conditioned Taste Aversion and Motor Stimulation in Knockin Mice with Ethanol-Insensitive α2-Containing GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, C. M.; McCracken, M. L.; Benavidez, J. M.; Geil, C. R.; Osterndorff-Kahanek, E.; Werner, D. F.; Iyer, S.; Swihart, A.; Harrison, N. L.; Homanics, G. E.; Harris, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABAA-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABAA-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705–714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95–104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184–191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action. We designed an α2 subunit with serine 270 to histidine and leucine 277 to alanine mutations that was insensitive to potentiation by ethanol yet retained normal GABA sensitivity in a recombinant expression system. Knockin mice containing this mutant subunit were tested in a range of ethanol behavioral tests. These mutant mice did not develop the typical conditioned taste aversion in response to ethanol and showed complete loss of the motor stimulant effects of ethanol. Conversely, they also demonstrated changes in ethanol intake and preference in multiple tests. The knockin mice showed increased ethanol-induced hypnosis but no difference in anxiolytic effects or recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing the α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol that may be relevant to the genetic linkage of this subunit with human alcoholism. PMID:20876231

  5. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga, E-mail: leticiamoraes@usp.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre (Brazil); Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  6. Palladium-based electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis de; Amico, Sandro Campos; Malfatti, Celia de Fraga; Matos, Bruno R.; Santiago, Elisabete Inacio; Fonseca, Fabio Coral

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Direct ethanol fuel cells require adequate electrocatalysts to promote the carbon carbon cleavage of ethanol molecule. Typical electrocatalysts are based on platinum, which have shown improved activity in acidic media. However, Pt-based catalysts have high cost and are easily deactivated by CO poisoning. Therefore, novel catalysts have been developed, and among then, palladium-based materials have shown promising results for the oxidation of ethanol in alkaline media. The present study reports on the performance of alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell (ADEFC) by using carbon-supported Pd, PdSn, PdNi, and PdNiSn produced by impregnation-reduction of the metallic precursors. The effect of chemical functionalization by acid treatment of the carbon support (Vulcan) was investigated. The electrocatalysts were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-rays diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and ADEFC tests. TGA measurements of functionalized Vulcan evidenced the characteristic weight losses attributed to the presence of surface functional groups due to the acid treatment. A high degree of alloying between Pd and Sn was inferred from XRD data, whereas in both PdNi and PdNiSn, Ni occurs mostly segregated in the oxide form. TEM analyses indicated agglomeration of Pd and PdSn particles, whereas a more uniform particle distribution was observed for PdNi and PdNiSn samples. CV curves showed that the peak potential for the oxidation of ethanol shifts towards negative values for all samples supported on functionalized Vulcan indicating that ethanol oxidation is facilitated. Microstructural and electrochemical features were confirmed by ADEFC tests, which revealed that the highest open circuit voltage and maximum power density were achieved for PdNiSn electrocatalysts supported on functionalized Vulcan with uniform particle distribution and improved triple phase boundaries. (author)

  7. Emissions from ethanol- and LPG-fueled vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitstick, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the environmental concerns of using neat ethanol and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as transportation fuels in the United States. Low-level blends of ethanol (10%) with gasoline have been used as fuels in the United States for more than a decade, but neat ethanol (85% or more) has only been used extensively in Brazil. LPG, which consists mostly of propane, is already used extensively as a vehicle fuel in the United States, but its use has been limited primarily to converted fleet vehicles. Increasing U.S. interest in alternative fuels has raised the possibility of introducing neat-ethanol vehicles into the market and expanding the number of LPG vehicles. Use of such vehicles, and increased production and consumption of fuel ethanol and LPG, will undoubtedly have environmental impacts. If the impacts are determined to be severe, they could act as barriers to the introduction of neat-ethanol and LPG vehicles. Environmental concerns include exhaust and evaporative emissions and their impact on ozone formation and global warming, toxic emissions from fuel combustion and evaporation, and agricultural impacts from production of ethanol. The paper is not intended to be judgmental regarding the overall attractiveness of ethanol or LPG as compared with other transportation fuels. The environmental concerns are reviewed and summarized, but only conclusion reached is that there is no single concern that is likely to prevent the introduction of neat-ethanol-fueled vehicles or the increase in LPG-fueled vehicles

  8. Fuel cycle evaluations of biomass-ethanol and reformulated gasoline. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S.

    1993-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is using the total fuel cycle analysis (TFCA) methodology to evaluate energy choices. The National Energy Strategy (NES) identifies TFCA as a tool to describe and quantify the environmental, social, and economic costs and benefits associated with energy alternatives. A TFCA should quantify inputs and outputs, their impacts on society, and the value of those impacts that occur from each activity involved in producing and using fuels, cradle-to-grave. New fuels and energy technologies can be consistently evaluated and compared using TFCA, providing a sound basis for ranking policy options that expand the fuel choices available to consumers. This study is limited to creating an inventory of inputs and outputs for three transportation fuels: (1) reformulated gasoline (RFG) that meets the standards of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) using methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE); (2) gasohol (E10), a mixture of 10% ethanol made from municipal solid waste (MSW) and 90% gasoline; and (3) E95, a mixture of 5% gasoline and 95% ethanol made from energy crops such as grasses and trees. The ethanol referred to in this study is produced from lignocellulosic material-trees, grass, and organic wastes -- called biomass. The biomass is converted to ethanol using an experimental technology described in more detail later. Corn-ethanol is not discussed in this report. This study is limited to estimating an inventory of inputs and outputs for each fuel cycle, similar to a mass balance study, for several reasons: (1) to manage the size of the project; (2) to provide the data required for others to conduct site-specific impact analysis on a case-by-case basis; (3) to reduce data requirements associated with projecting future environmental baselines and other variables that require an internally consistent scenario.

  9. An overview of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children based on three illustrated cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Lun Hon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol addiction and intoxication are major health problems worldwide. Acute alcohol intoxication is well reported in adults and adolescents but less frequently reported in children of younger ages. We report three anonymized cases of pediatric ethanol exposure and illustrate the different mechanisms of intoxication. In all cases, a focused history is the key to prompt diagnosis and timely management. Physicians should be aware of this potential poison in children presented with acute confusional or encephalopathic state. In contrast, neonates with ethanol intoxication may present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptomatology. Urgent exclusion of sepsis, electrolyte imbalance, drug intoxication, and surgical abdominal condition is critical. Using these illustrated cases, we performed a narrative literature review on issues of exposure to ethanol-containing substances and ethanol intoxication in children. In conclusion, a high level of suspicion and interrogation on ethanol or substance use are essential particularly in the lactating mother for an accurate and timely diagnosis of ethanol intoxication to be made.

  10. How does petroleum price and corn yield volatility affect ethanol markets with and without an ethanol use mandate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Wyatt; Meyer, Seth; Westhoff, Pat

    2009-01-01

    The recent increase in ethanol use in the US strengthens and changes the nature of links between agricultural and energy markets. Here, we explore the interaction of market volatility and the scope for policy to affect this interaction, with a focus on how corn yields and petroleum prices affect ethanol prices. Mandates associated with new US energy legislation may intervene in these links in the medium-term future. We simulate stochastically a structural model that represents these markets, and that includes mandates, in order to assess how shocks to corn or oil markets can affect ethanol price and use. We estimate that the mandate makes ethanol producer prices more sensitive to corn yields and less sensitive to changes in petroleum prices overall. We note a discontinuity in these links that is caused by the mandate. Ethanol use can exceed the mandate if petroleum prices and corn yields are high enough, but the mandate limits downside adjustments in ethanol use to low petroleum prices or corn yields

  11. Characterization of an alcoholic hepatic steatosis model induced by ethanol and high-fat diet in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Alves de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholic liver disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of liver damage, which increases when ethanol is associated with high-fat diets (HFD. This work aimed to establish a model of alcoholic hepatic steatosis (AHS by using a combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as the source of HFD. Male rats received water or 10% ethanol and regular chow diet and/or HFD, which consisted of sunflower seeds. The food consumption, liquid intake and body weight of the rats were monitored for 30 days. After this period, blood was collected for biochemical evaluation, and liver samples were collected for histological, mitochondrial enzyme activity and oxidative stress analyses. Our results indicated that the combination of 10% ethanol and HFD induced micro- and macrosteatosis and hepatocyte tumefaction, decreased the levels of reduced glutathione and glutathione S-transferase activity and increased the level of lipoperoxidation and superoxide dismutase activity. The mitochondrial oxidation of NADH and succinate were partially inhibited. Complexes I and II were the main inhibition sites. Hepatic steatosis was successfully induced after 4 weeks of the diet, and the liver function was modified. The combination of 10% ethanol and sunflower seeds as an HFD produced an inexpensive model to study AHS in rats.

  12. Potential feedstock sources for ethanol production in Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmani, Mohammad [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hodges, Alan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study presents information on the potential feedstock sources that may be used for ethanol production in Florida. Several potential feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in Florida are discussed, such as, sugarcane, corn, citrus byproducts and sweet sorghum. Other probable impacts need to be analyzed for sugarcane to ethanol production as alternative uses of sugarcane may affect the quantity of sugar production in Florida. While citrus molasses is converted to ethanol as an established process, the cost of ethanol is higher, and the total amount of citrus molasses per year is insignificant. Sorghum cultivars have the potential for ethanol production. However, the agricultural practices for growing sweet sorghum for ethanol have not been established, and the conversion process must be tested and developed at a more expanded level. So far, only corn shipped from other states to Florida has been considered for ethanol production on a commercial scale. The economic feasibility of each of these crops requires further data and technical analysis.

  13. SiteGuide: An example-based approach to web site development assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present ‘SiteGuide’, a tool that helps web designers to decide which information will be included in a new web site and how the information will be organized. SiteGuide takes as input URLs of web sites from the same domain as the site the user wants to create. It automatically searches the pages

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  15. Sorption equilibria of ethanol on cork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequin, Sonia; Chassagne, David; Karbowiak, Thomas; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2013-06-05

    We report here for the first time a thermodynamic study of gaseous ethanol sorption on raw cork powder and plate. Our study aims at a better understanding of the reactivity of this material when used as a stopper under enological conditions, thus in close contact with a hydroethanolic solution, wine. Sorption−desorption isotherms were accurately measured by thermogravimetry at 298 K in a large range of relative pressures. Sorption enthalpies were determined by calorimetry as a function of loading. Sorption−desorption isotherms exhibit a hysteresis loop probably due to the swelling of the material and the absorption of ethanol. Surprisingly, the sorption enthalpy of ethanol becomes lower than the liquefaction enthalpy as the filling increases. This result could be attributed to the swelling of the material, which would generate endothermic effects. Sorption of SO₂ on cork containing ethanol was also studied. When the ethanol content in cork is 2 wt %, the amount of SO₂ sorbed is divided by 2. Thus, ethanol does not enhance the sorption rate for SO₂ but, on the contrary, decreases the SO₂ sorption activity onto cork, probably because of competitive sorption mechanisms.

  16. On the Use of Potential Denaturing Agents for Ethanol in Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domnik Bayer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidic or alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs can be a sustainable alternative for power generation if they are fuelled with bio-ethanol. However, in order to keep the fuel cheap, ethanol has to be exempted from tax on spirits by denaturing. In this investigation the potential denaturing agents fusel oil, tert-butyl ethyl ether, and Bitrex were tested with regard to their compatibility with fuel cells. Experiments were carried out both in sulphuric acid and potassium hydroxide solution. Beside, basic electrochemical tests, differential electrochemical mass spectrometry (DEMS and fuel cell tests were conducted. It was found that fusel oil is not suitable as denaturing agent for DEFC. However, tert-butyl ethyl ether does not seem to hinder the ethanol conversion as much. Finally, a mixture of tert-butyl ethyl ether and Bitrex can be proposed as promising candidate as denaturing agent for use in acidic and alkaline DEFC.

  17. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  18. High activity of cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene towards ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lu; Jiang, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Bin-Wei; Cai, Yuan-Rong; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2014-07-21

    Cubic PtRh alloys supported on graphene (PtxRhy/GN) with different atomic ratio of Pt and Rh were directly synthesized for the first time using the modified polyol method with Br(-) for the shape-directing agents. The process didn't use surface-capping agents such as PVP that easily occupy the active sites of electrocatalysts and are difficult to remove. Graphene is the key factor for cubic shape besides Br(-) and keeping catalysts high-dispersed. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of these electrocatalysts. The results showed that they were composed of homogeneous cubic PtRh alloys. Traditional electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry, were used to investigate the electrocatalytic properties of PtxRhy/GN towards ethanol electrooxidation. It can be seen that PtxRhy/GN with all atomic ratios exhibited high catalytic activity, and the most active one has a composition with Pt : Rh = 9 : 1 atomic ratio. Electrochemical in situ FTIR spectroscopy was used to evaluate the cleavage of C-C bond in ethanol at room temperature in acidic solutions, the results illustrated that Rh in an alloy can promote the split of C-C bond in ethanol, and the alloy catalyst with atomic ratio Pt : Rh = 1 : 1 showed obviously better performance for the C-C bond breaking in ethanol and higher selectivity for the enhanced activity of ethanol complete oxidation to CO2 than alloys with other ratios of Pt and Rh. The investigation indicates that high activity of PtxRhy/GN electrocatalyst towards ethanol oxidation is due to the specific shape of alloys and the synergistic effect of two metal elements as well as graphene support.

  19. Loss of ethanol conditioned taste aversion and motor stimulation in knockin mice with ethanol-insensitive α2-containing GABA(A) receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y A; Borghese, C M; McCracken, M L; Benavidez, J M; Geil, C R; Osterndorff-Kahanek, E; Werner, D F; Iyer, S; Swihart, A; Harrison, N L; Homanics, G E; Harris, R A

    2011-01-01

    GABA type A receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are potential targets of ethanol. However, there are multiple subtypes of this receptor, and, thus far, individual subunits have not been definitively linked with specific ethanol behavioral actions. Interestingly, though, a chromosomal cluster of four GABA(A)-R subunit genes, including α2 (Gabra2), was associated with human alcoholism (Am J Hum Genet 74:705-714, 2004; Pharmacol Biochem Behav 90:95-104, 2008; J Psychiatr Res 42:184-191, 2008). The goal of our study was to determine the role of receptors containing this subunit in alcohol action. We designed an α2 subunit with serine 270 to histidine and leucine 277 to alanine mutations that was insensitive to potentiation by ethanol yet retained normal GABA sensitivity in a recombinant expression system. Knockin mice containing this mutant subunit were tested in a range of ethanol behavioral tests. These mutant mice did not develop the typical conditioned taste aversion in response to ethanol and showed complete loss of the motor stimulant effects of ethanol. Conversely, they also demonstrated changes in ethanol intake and preference in multiple tests. The knockin mice showed increased ethanol-induced hypnosis but no difference in anxiolytic effects or recovery from acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the effects of ethanol at GABAergic synapses containing the α2 subunit are important for specific behavioral effects of ethanol that may be relevant to the genetic linkage of this subunit with human alcoholism.

  20. Study of ethanol and gasoline fuel sprays using mie-scatter and schlieren imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Lauren; Bittle, Joshua; Puzinauskas, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Many cars today are capable of running on both gasoline and ethanol, however it is not clear how well optimized the engines are for the multiple fuels. This experiment looks specifically at the fuel spray in a direct injection system. The length and angle of direct injection sprays were characterized and a comparison between ethanol and gasoline sprays was made. Fuels were tested using a modified diesel injector in a test chamber at variable ambient pressures and temperatures in order to simulate both high and low load combustion chamber conditions. Rainbow schlieren and mie-scatter imaging were both used to investigate the liquid and vapor portions of the sprays. The sprays behaved as expected with temperature and pressure changes. There was no noticeable fuel effect on the liquid portion of the spray (mie-scatter), though the gasoline vapor spray angles were wider than ethanol spray angles (possible a result of the distillation curves of the two fuels). Funding from NSF REU site Grant EEC 1358991 is greatly appreciated.

  1. Perspectives on fuel ethanol consumption and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, Arnaldo; Dolzan, Paulo; Piacente, Erik; Borges da Cunha, Kamyla; Rosillo-Calle, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Since the year 2000 or so there has been a rapid growth on fuel ethanol production and consumption, particularly in US and Brazil. Ethanol trade represented about 10% of world consumption in 2005, Brazil being the main exporter. The most important consumer markets - US and European Union (EU) - have trade regimes that constrained the comparative advantages of the most efficient producers, such as Brazil. This paper evaluates the fuel ethanol market up to 2030 together with the potential for international biotrade. Based on forecasts of gasoline consumption and on targets and mandates of fuel ethanol use, it is estimated that demand could reach 272 Gl in 2030, displacing 10% of the estimated demand of gasoline (Scenario 1), or even 566 Gl in the same year, displacing about 20% of the gasoline demand (Scenario 2). The analysis considers fuel ethanol consumption and production in US, EU-25, Japan, China, Brazil and the rest of the world (ROW-BR). Without significant production of ethanol from cellulosic materials in this period, displacing 10% of the gasoline demand in 2030, at reasonable cost, can only be accomplished by fostering fuel ethanol production in developing countries and enhancing ethanol trade. If the US and EU-25 reach their full production potential (based on conventional routes), the minimum amount that could be traded in 2030 would be about 34 Gl. Displacing 20% of the gasoline demand by 2030 will require the combined development of second-generation technologies and large-scale international trade in ethanol fuel. Without second-generation technologies, Scenario 2 could become a reality only with large-scale production of ethanol from sugarcane in developing countries, e.g., Brazil and ROW-BR could be able to export at least 14.5 Gl in 2010, 73.9 Gl in 2020 and 71.8 Gl in 2030. (author)

  2. Efficient Synthesis of Ethanol from CH4 and Syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 Catalyst Using a Stepwise Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhi-Jun; Peng, Fen; Huang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 catalyst is studied using experiments, density functional theory (DFT) and microkinetic modelling. The experimental results indicate that the active sites of ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas are Cu and CoO, over which the ethanol selectivity is approximately 98.30% in a continuous stepwise reactor. DFT and microkinetic modelling results show that *CH3 is the most abundant species and can be formed from *CH4 dehydrogenation or through the process of *CO hydrogenation. Next, the insertion of *CO into *CH3 forms *CH3CO. Finally, ethanol is formed through *CH3CO and *CH3COH hydrogenation. According to our results, small particles of metallic Cu and CoO as well as a strongly synergistic effect between metallic Cu and CoO are beneficial for ethanol synthesis from CH4 and syngas on a Cu-Co/TiO2 catalyst.

  3. Variable effects of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure on ethanol drinking in a genetically diverse mouse cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Becker, Howard C

    2017-02-01

    The BXD family of mice were generated by crossing and inbreeding ethanol-preferring C57BL/6J and ethanol-avoiding DBA/2J strains that differ greatly in genome sequence and other behaviors. This study evaluated variations in the level of voluntary ethanol intake in a cohort of 42 BXD strains and both progenitor strains using a model of alcohol dependence and relapse drinking. A total of 119 BXDs (85 males, 34 females) (n ∼ 4 per genotype; 1/genotype/sex/group) were evaluated along with males from both progenitor strains (n = 14-15/genotype). Mice were evaluated for intake using limited access (2 h/day) 2-bottle (15% v/v ethanol vs. water) model for 6 weeks (baseline intake). Each animal received 4 weekly cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure (CIE group) or air control exposure (CTL group) (16 h/day × 4 days) interleaved by 5-day drinking test cycles. Blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) ranged from 150 to 300 mg/dl across genotypes. Baseline intake varied greatly among cases-from ∼0.8 to ∼2.9 g/kg. As expected, CIE exposure induced a significant increase in ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J relative to baseline as well as air controls that remained relatively stable over the four test cycles. In contrast, DBA/2J cases did not show a significant increase in consumption. Heritability of variation in baseline consumption, calculated from C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains is about 54% but this increases following treatment to 60-80%. As expected from the marked difference between progenitors, ethanol intake and level of escalation varied greatly among BXDs after exposure (∼-1.3 to 2.6 g/kg). Interestingly, the magnitude and direction of changes in ethanol intake did not relate to BEC values of the preceding CIE exposure cycle. Overall, these data indicate significant variation in consumption and even escalation, much of it under genetic control, following repeated CIE treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An experimental study on renal infarction with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Man Chung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Jae Hyung; Ha, Sung Whan; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1982-01-01

    Renal infarction with ethanol was induced experimentally in rabbits and selective renal angiography was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of ethanol as embolic material. The results were as follows: 1. Complete obstruction of renal artery was produced in all cases within 1 week after injection of absolute ethanol (0.5 ml/Kg). 2. Incomplete obstruction of renal artery was produced in majority after injection of absolute ethanol (0.2 ml/Kg) and changed to complete obstruction above half cases with time. 3. Incomplete obstructive of renal artery was produced in minority after injection of 60% ethanol (0.2 ml/Kg) and complete obstruction of renal artery was not produced. It was consider that ethanol is an effective agent for complete renal infarction and 0.2 to 0.5 ml/Kg of absolute ethanol is effective dose for complete renal infarction

  5. Ethanol addition enhances acid treatment to eliminate Lactobacillus fermentum from the fermentation process for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A S; Cerri, B C; Ceccato-Antonini, S R

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the most critical steps of the fuel ethanol production and it is directly influenced by the fermentation system, selected yeast, and bacterial contamination, especially from the genus Lactobacillus. To control the contamination, the industry applies antibiotics and biocides; however, these substances can result in an increased cost and environmental problems. The use of the acid treatment of cells (water-diluted sulphuric acid, adjusted to pH 2·0-2·5) between the fermentation cycles is not always effective to combat the bacterial contamination. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol addition to the acid treatment to control the bacterial growth in a fed-batch system with cell recycling, using the industrial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. When only the acid treatment was used, the population of Lactobacillus fermentum had a 3-log reduction at the end of the sixth fermentation cycle; however, when 5% of ethanol was added to the acid solution, the viability of the bacterium was completely lost even after the first round of cell treatment. The acid treatment +5% ethanol was able to kill L. fermentum cells without affecting the ethanol yield and with a low residual sugar concentration in the fermented must. In Brazilian ethanol-producing industry, water-diluted sulphuric acid is used to treat the cell mass at low pH (2·0) between the fermentative cycles. This procedure reduces the number of Lactobacillus fermentum from 10 7 to 10 4  CFU per ml. However, the addition of 5% ethanol to the acid treatment causes the complete loss of bacterial cell viability in fed-batch fermentation with six cell recycles. The ethanol yield and yeast cell viability are not affected. These data indicate the feasibility of adding ethanol to the acid solution replacing the antibiotic use, offering a low cost and a low amount of residue in the biomass. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasevich, M. R.; Korchagin, O. V.; Kuzov, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references.

  7. Electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, M R; Korchagin, O V; Kuzov, A V

    2013-01-01

    The results of fundamental and applied studies in the field of electrocatalysis of anodic oxidation of ethanol in fuel cells are considered. Features of the mechanism of ethanol electrooxidation are discussed as well as the structure and electrochemical properties of the most widely used catalysts of this process. The prospects of further studies of direct ethanol fuel cells with alkaline and acidic electrolytes are outlined. The bibliography includes 166 references

  8. Sustainability of grape-ethanol energy chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Foppa Pedretti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the sustainability, in terms of greenhouse gases emission saving, of a new potential bio-ethanol production chain in comparison with the most common ones. The innovation consists of producing bio-ethanol from different types of no-food grapes, while usually bio-ethanol is obtained from matrices taken away from crop for food destination: sugar cane, corn, wheat, sugar beet. In the past, breeding programs were conducted with the aim of improving grapevine characteristics, a large number of hybrid vine varieties were produced and are nowadays present in the Viticulture Research Centre (CRA-VIT Germplasm Collection. Some of them are potentially interesting for bio-energy production because of their high production of sugar, good resistance to diseases, and ability to grow in marginal lands. Life cycle assessment (LCA of grape ethanol energy chain was performed following two different methods: i using the spreadsheet BioGrace, developed within the Intelligent Energy Europe program to support and to ease the Renewable Energy Directive 2009/28/EC implementation; ii using a dedicated LCA software. Emissions were expressed in CO2 equivalent (CO2eq. These two tools gave very similar results. The overall emissions impact of ethanol production from grapes on average is about 33 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if prunings are used for steam production and 53 g CO2eq MJ–1 of ethanol if methane is used. The comparison with other bio-energy chains points out that the production of ethanol using grapes represents an intermediate situation in terms of general emissions among the different production chains. The results showed that the sustainability limits provided by the normative are respected to this day. On the contrary, from 2017 this production will be sustainable only if the transformation processes will be performed using renewable sources of energy.

  9. Reactions of ethanol on Ru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Liu, Feng; Lee, Christopher James; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption and reactions of ethanol on Ru(0001) were studied with temperatureprogrammed desorption (TPD) and reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). Ethanol was found to adsorb intact onto Ru(0001) below 100 K. Heating to 250 K resulted in formation of ethoxy groups, which undergo

  10. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaphalia, Lata [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Boroumand, Nahal [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Hyunsu, Ju [Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu [Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States); Calhoun, William J. [Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 775555 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  11. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  12. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  13. Solubility of the Proteinogenic α-Amino Acids in Water, Ethanol, and Ethanol-Water Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowden, Nathan A.; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2018-01-01

    The addition of organic solvents to α-amino acids in aqueous solution could be an effective method in crystallization. We reviewed the available data on the solubility of α-amino acids in water, water-ethanol mixtures, and ethanol at 298.15 K and 0.1 MPa. The solubility of l-alanine, l-proline,

  14. Carbon dioxide effects of ethanol. A state-of-the-art review; Etanolens koldioxideffekter. En oeversikt av forskningslaeget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wibe, Soeren

    2010-01-15

    The main result of the study is that the programs for increased ethanol use in place, especially in the US and EU, have a significant effect on carbon emissions. In broad terms, the result is that ethanol leads to an increase in emissions (compared with the corresponding transport work performed with gasoline) during the first 50-60 years. Only then will ethanol programs lead to emission reductions. The effects on the food (and feed) prices from the programs are not clear with regard to quantity, but a large majority of the reports indicate that the increasing use of ethanol has increased commodity prices significantly. An overall assessment is that increased alcohol use explains 20-40% of the price rises that has occurred during the years 2005-2008 for goods such as rice, maize, soya and feed wheat. The report is based primarily on a series of large survey studies. These studies contain a wealth of empirical material and an abundance of source references. The most important studies for this presentation are, however, two scientific reports published in the spring of 2008 in the journal Science: Fargione et al and Search Inger et al. After this report was completed, two new reports were published in Science, both of which support the conclusions drawn in this report. A main impression is that research shows an increasingly negative image of ethanol (and for the part even biodiesel) programs. They are expensive, have a negative impact on the environment for a long time and leads to increased food costs. Should we judge by the past years of research reports, particularly the large overview reports, ethanol does not appear to be a solution to the world's environmental problems

  15. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary fructose augments ethanol-induced liver pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, Paul G; Benbow, Jennifer H; Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Thompson, Kyle J; Jacobs, Carl; Donohue, Terrence M; Schrum, Laura W

    2017-05-01

    Certain dietary components when combined with alcohol exacerbate alcohol-induced liver injury (ALI). Here, we tested whether fructose, a major ingredient of the western diet, enhances the severity of ALI. We fed mice ethanol for 8 weeks in the following Lieber-DeCarli diets: (a) Regular (contains olive oil); (b) corn oil (contains corn oil); (c) fructose (contains fructose and olive oil) and (d) corn+fructose (contains fructose and corn oil). We compared indices of metabolic function and liver pathology among the different groups. Mice fed fructose-free and fructose-containing ethanol diets exhibited similar levels of blood alcohol, blood glucose and signs of disrupted hepatic insulin signaling. However, only mice given fructose-ethanol diets showed lower insulin levels than their respective controls. Compared with their respective pair-fed controls, all ethanol-fed mice exhibited elevated levels of serum ALT; the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP-2; hepatic lipid peroxides and triglycerides. All the latter parameters were significantly higher in mice given fructose-ethanol diets than those fed fructose-free ethanol diets. Mice given fructose-free or fructose-containing ethanol diets each had higher levels of hepatic lipogenic enzymes than controls. However, the level of the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) was significantly higher in livers of mice given fructose control and fructose-ethanol diets than in all other groups. Our findings indicate that dietary fructose exacerbates ethanol-induced steatosis, oxidant stress, inflammation and liver injury, irrespective of the dietary fat source, to suggest that inclusion of fructose in or along with alcoholic beverages increases the risk of more severe ALI in heavy drinkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of ethanol in heroin deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B; Green, D; Smialek, J E

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of ethanol in deaths due to heroin intoxication. Over a 12 month period, all cases investigated by the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, State of Maryland where a blood screen by Roche Abuscreen radioimmunoassay (RIA) was positive at a cutoff of 100 ng/mL were included in the study. Free morphine was quantitated using the Coat-A-Count RIA and ethanol was quantitated by head space gas chromatography. All presumptive morphine positive cases were confirmed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Seventy of the 119 cases where death was attributed to narcotic or alcohol and narcotic intoxication had blood ethanol concentrations (BAC) greater than or equal to 0.02 g/dL; 48 had BAC > or = 0.10 g/dL. Only 3 of 45 cases where morphine was identified but was unrelated to death had BAC > or = 0.02 g/dL. At all ranges of free morphine concentrations, there was a greater percentage of narcotic deaths when ethanol was present. From the data, we conclude that 1) the use of even small amounts of ethanol with heroin is clearly a risk factor in deaths due to heroin, 2) there are some heroin deaths where no free morphine is identified in the blood. In these deaths, ethanol is unlikely to be present, 3) at blood ethanol concentrations between 0.20 and 0.29 g/dL, the morphine concentrations in heroin deaths increased significantly, 4) at blood ethanol concentrations greater than 0.30 g/dL, morphine became less of a factor than the ethanol in causing death.

  18. Kinetics of ethanol electrooxidation at Pd electrodeposited on Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jianping; Ye, Jianqing; Tong, Yexiang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Xu, Changwei [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Jiang, San Ping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-09-15

    Pd nanoparticles dispersed well on Ti were successfully prepared by the electrodeposition method used in this study. The results show that Pd has no activity for ethanol oxidation in acid media and is a good electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media when the OH{sup -} concentration is greater than 0.001 M. The pH and ethanol concentration affects the ethanol oxidation. The reaction orders for OH{sup -} and ethanol are 0.2 and 1. The anodic transfer coefficient ({alpha}) is 0.1. The diffusion coefficient (D) of ethanol is calculated as 9.3 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} (298 K) when the concentration of KOH and ethanol is both 1.0 M. The overall rate equation for ethanol oxidation on Pd/Ti electrode in alkaline media is given as j=1.4 x 10{sup -4}C{sub KOH}{sup 0.2}C{sub ethanol} exp ((0.28F)/(RT){eta}). (author)

  19. The Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol are Quantitatively Enhanced in Adulthood by Peri-Adolescent Ethanol, but not Saccharin, Consumption in Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30–60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:26074425

  20. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated 32 P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. 32 P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice

  1. Temporal Profiles Dissociate Regional Extracellular Ethanol versus Dopamine Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In vivo monitoring of dopamine via microdialysis has demonstrated that acute, systemic ethanol increases extracellular dopamine in regions innervated by dopaminergic neurons originating in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Simultaneous measurement of dialysate dopamine and ethanol allows comparison of the time courses of their extracellular concentrations. Early studies demonstrated dissociations between the time courses of brain ethanol concentrations and dopaminergic responses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) elicited by acute ethanol administration. Both brain ethanol and extracellular dopamine levels peak during the first 5 min following systemic ethanol administration, but the dopamine response returns to baseline while brain ethanol concentrations remain elevated. Post hoc analyses examined ratios of the dopamine response (represented as a percent above baseline) to tissue concentrations of ethanol at different time points within the first 25–30 min in the prefrontal cortex, NAc core and shell, and dorsomedial striatum following a single intravenous infusion of ethanol (1 g/kg). The temporal patterns of these “response ratios” differed across brain regions, possibly due to regional differences in the mechanisms underlying the decline of the dopamine signal associated with acute intravenous ethanol administration and/or to the differential effects of acute ethanol on the properties of subpopulations of midbrain dopamine neurons. This Review draws on neurochemical, physiological, and molecular studies to summarize the effects of acute ethanol administration on dopamine activity in the prefrontal cortex and striatal regions, to explore the potential reasons for the regional differences observed in the decline of ethanol-induced dopamine signals, and to suggest directions for future research. PMID:25537116

  2. Fabrication of Te@Au core-shell hybrids for efficient ethanol oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huile; Wang, Demeng; Zhao, Yuewu; Zhou, Huan; Wang, Shun; Wang, Jichang

    2012-10-01

    Using Au nanoparticles to catalyze the oxidation of alcohols has garnered increasing attention due to its potential application in direct alcohol fuel cells. In this research Te@Au core-shell hybrids were fabricated for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol, where the preparation procedure involved the initial production of Te crystals with different microstructures and the subsequent utilization of the Te crystal as a template and reducing agent for the production of Te@Au hybrids. The as-prepared core-shell hybrids were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. Electrochemical measurements illustrate that the hybrids have great electrocatalytic activity and stability toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. The enhanced electrocatalytic property may be attributed to the cooperative effects between the metal and semiconductor and the presence of a large number of active sites on the hybrids surface.

  3. A combined experimental and theoretical study on ethanol conversion to propylene over Y/ZrO2 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Xia, Wei; Mu, Xichuan; Chen, Kun; Si, Huimin; Li, Zhihao

    2018-05-01

    ZrO2-based catalysts doped with Y were prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of yttrium modification on the selective conversion of bio-ethanol to propylene over ZrO2 catalysts was investigated. The physical and chemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption method, temperature programmed desorption and X-ray diffraction. The maximum yield of propylene reached 44.0% over 0.03Y/ZrO2 catalyst. A coordination of acid-base properties accounts for the remarkable improvement of reaction activities over Y-doped ZrO2 catalysts in this investigation. On the basis of calculation results, it can be concluded that significant charge transfer occurs as a result of introduction of Y or O-vacancy. The adsorption of ethanol and propylene on perfect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1), defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) and Y/ZrO2 (1 0 1) surfaces were investigated with density functional theory (DFT). The adsorption for ethanol on Y/ZrO2 (1 0 1) and defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) surfaces are more stable than that on perfect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1). On the defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) surface, ethanol dominantly absorbs at the O-vacancy site, indicating that O-vacancy becomes the favorable adsorption site. On the Y/ZrO2 (1 0 1) and defect t-ZrO2 (1 0 1) surfaces, the adsorption energy of propylene decreases, which makes propylene desorb quickly after formation.

  4. Synthesis of ethanol {sup 14}C-1; Synthese d'ethanol {sup 14}C-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, R E; Pichat, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The direct reduction by LiAlH{sub 4}, of a suspension of anhydrous sodium acetate in tetra-hydro-furfuryl-oxy-tetra-hydro-pyran is described. This study has shown that the ethanol thus obtained is impure and that the yields are erratic. On the contrary the reduction of acetyl chloride 1-{sup 14}C by LiAlH{sub 4}, in 'diethyl carbitol' leads to ethanol 1-{sup 14}C of satisfactory purity with a yield of about 71 percent. (author) [French] Une etude de la reduction directe par LiAlH{sub 4}, de l'acetate de soude anhydre en suspension dans le tetrahydrofurfuryloxytetrahydropyrane est decrite. Cette etude a montre que l'on obtient de l'ethanol souille d'impuretes, avec un rendement variable. Par contre, la reduction du chlorure d'acetyle {sup 14}C-1 par LiAlH{sub 4}, dans le 'diethyl carbitol' conduit a l'ethanol {sup 14}C-1 de purete convenable avec un rendement de l'ordre de 71 pour cent. (auteur)

  5. Experimental investigation and modeling of adsorption of water and ethanol on cornmeal in an ethanol-water binary vapor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.; Yuan, X.G.; Tian, H.; Zeng, A.W. [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2006-04-15

    The adsorption capacity of water and ethanol on cornmeal in an ethanol-water binary vapor system was investigated in a fixed-bed apparatus for ethanol dehydration. Experiments were performed at temperatures of 82-100 C for different relative humidities of ethanol-water vapor. Adsorption equilibrium models, including those based on the adsorption potential theory of Polanyi and Sircar's model, have been used to fit the experimental data for water adsorption on cornmeal, and all gave good fits. For ethanol adsorption, pseudo-equilibrium was defined as the mass adsorbed on the cornmeal within the time needed for the equilibrium for water on the same adsorbent. Based on this limiting condition, adsorption behaviors and mechanisms were analyzed. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Chemical and biological characterization of exhaust emissions from ethanol and ethanol blended diesel fuels in comparison with neat diesel fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerholm, R.; Christensen, Anders [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; Toernqvist, M. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Ehrenberg, L. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiobiology; Haupt, D. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    This report presents results from a project with the aim of investigating the potential environmental and health impact of emissions from ethanol, ethanol blended diesel fuels and to compare these with neat diesel fuels. The exhaust emissions were characterized regarding regulated exhaust components, particulate and semivolatile Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and with bioassays. The bioassays were mutagenicity and TCDD receptor affinity tests. Results: Neat ethanol fuels are `low emission` fuels, while European diesel fuel quality (EDF) and an ethanol blended EDF are `high emission` fuels. Other fuels, such as Swedish Environmental Class one (MK1) and an ethanol blended MK1, are `intermediate` fuels regarding emissions. When using an oxidizing catalyst exhaust after-treatment device a reduction of harmful substances in the exhaust emissions with respect to determined exhaust parameters was found. The relatively low emission of PAH from ethanol fuelled engines would indicate a lower cancer risk from ethanol than from diesel fuels due to this class of compounds. However, the data presented emphasize the importance of considering the PAH profile 27 refs, 3 figs, 19 tabs

  7. High ethanol producing derivatives of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.; Carriera, L.H.

    1983-05-24

    Derivatives of the newly discovered microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus which under anaerobic and thermophilic conditions continuously ferment substrates such as starch, cellobiose, glucose, xylose and other sugars to produce recoverable amounts of ethanol solving the problem of fermentations yielding low concentrations of ethanol using the parent strain of the microorganism Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus are disclosed. These new derivatives are ethanol tolerant up to 10% (v/v) ethanol during fermentation. The process includes the use of an aqueous fermentation medium, containing the substrate at a substrate concentration greater than 1% (w/v).

  8. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad; AlRamadan, Abdullah S.; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  9. Optimization of the octane response of gasoline/ethanol blends

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad

    2017-07-04

    The octane responses of gasoline/ethanol mixtures are not well understood because of the unidentified intermolecular interactions in such blends. In general, when ethanol is blended with gasoline, the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON) non-linearly increase or decrease, and the non-linearity is determined by the composition of the base gasoline and the amount of added ethanol. The complexity of commercial gasolines, comprising of hundreds of different components, makes it challenging to understand ethanol-gasoline synergistic/antagonistic blending effects. Understanding ethanol blending effects with simpler gasoline surrogates is critical to acquire knowledge about ethanol blending with complex multi-component gasoline fuels. In this study, the octane numbers (ON) of ethanol blends with five relevant gasoline surrogate molecules were measured. The molecules investigated in this study include: n-pentane, iso-pentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, cyclopentane and 1-hexene. These new measurements along with the available data of n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, various primary reference fuels (PRF) and toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF) with ethanol are used to develop a blending rule for the octane response (RON and MON) of multi-component blends with ethanol. In addition, new ON data are collected for six Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engine (FACE) with ethanol. The relatively simple volume based model successfully predicts the octane numbers (ON) of the various ethanol/PRF and ethanol/TPRF blends with the majority of predictions being within the ASTM D2699 (RON) and D2700 (MON) reproducibility limits. The model is also successfully validated against the ON of the FACE gasolines blended with ethanol with the majority of predictions being within the reproducibility limits. Finally, insights into the possible causes of the synergistic and antagonistic effects of different molecules with ethanol are provided.

  10. Ethanol-drug absorption interaction: potential for a significant effect on the plasma pharmacokinetics of ethanol vulnerable formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennernäs, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Generally, gastric emptying of a drug to the small intestine is controlled by gastric motor activity and is the main factor affecting the onset of absorption. Accordingly, the emptying rate from the stomach is mainly affected by the digestive state, the properties of the pharmaceutical formulation and the effect of drugs, posture and circadian rhythm. Variability in the gastric emptying of drugs is reflected in variability in the absorption rate and the shape of the plasma pharmacokinetic profile. When ethanol interacts with an oral controlled release product, such that the mechanism controlling drug release is impaired, the delivery of the dissolved dose into the small intestine and the consequent absorption may result in dangerously high plasma concentrations. For example, the maximal plasma concentration of hydromorphone has individually been shown to be increased as much as 16 times through in vivo testing as a result of this specific pharmacokinetic ethanol-drug formulation interaction. Thus, a pharmacokinetic ethanol-drug interaction is a very serious safety concern when substantially the entire dose from a controlled release product is rapidly emptied into the small intestine (dose dumping), having been largely dissolved in a strong alcoholic beverage in the stomach during a sufficient lag-time in gastric emptying. Based on the literature, a two hour time frame for screening the in vitro dissolution profile of a controlled release product in ethanol concentrations of up to 40% is strongly supported and may be considered as the absolute minimum standard. It is also evident that the dilution, absorption and metabolism of ethanol in the stomach are processes with a minor effect on the local ethanol concentration and that ethanol exposure will be highly dependent on the volume and ethanol concentration of the fluid ingested, together with the rate of intake and gastric emptying. When and in which patients a clinically significant dose dumping will happen is

  11. Sugar-Based Ethanol Biorefinery: Ethanol, Succinic Acid and By-Product Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donal F. Day

    2009-03-31

    The work conducted in this project is an extension of the developments itemized in DE-FG-36-04GO14236. This program is designed to help the development of a biorefinery based around a raw sugar mill, which in Louisiana is an underutilized asset. Some technical questions were answered regarding the addition of a biomass to ethanol facility to existing sugar mills. The focus of this work is on developing technology to produce ethanol and valuable by-products from bagasse. Three major areas are addressed, feedstock storage, potential by-products and the technology for producing ethanol from dilute ammonia pre-treated bagasse. Sugar mills normally store bagasse in a simple pile. During the off season there is a natural degradation of the bagasse, due to the composting action of microorganisms in the pile. This has serious implications if bagasse must be stored to operate a bagasse/biorefinery for a 300+ day operating cycle. Deterioration of the fermentables in bagasse was found to be 6.5% per month, on pile storage. This indicates that long term storage of adequate amounts of bagasse for year-round operation is probably not feasible. Lignin from pretreatment seemed to offer a potential source of valuable by-products. Although a wide range of phenolic compounds were present in the effluent from dilute ammonia pretreatment, the concentrations of each (except for benzoic acid) were too low to consider for extraction. The cellulosic hydrolysis system was modified to produce commercially recoverable quantities of cellobiose, which has a small but growing market in the food process industries. A spin-off of this led to the production of a specific oligosaccharide which appears to have both medical and commercial implications as a fungal growth inhibitor. An alternate use of sugars produced from biomass hydrolysis would be to produce succinic acid as a chemical feedstock for other conversions. An organism was developed which can do this bioconversion, but the economics of

  12. Interaction of biogenic amines with ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A A

    1975-01-01

    Ethanol through its primary catabolite, acetaldehyde, competitively inhibits oxidation of aldehyde dehydrogenase substrates. As a consequence biogenic amines form increased quantities of alcohols rather than the corresponding acids. During this biotransformation, condensation reactions between deaminated and intact amines may occur which can yield tetrahydropapaverolines. These compounds are closely related to precursors of opioids which is cause to link ethanol abuse to morphine addiction. There is, however, no pharmacological or clinical evidence suggesting similarities between ethanol dependence or opiod addiction. Acetaldehyde plays an additional role in alkaloidal formation in vitro. Biogenic amines may react with acetaldehyde to form isoquinoline or carboline compounds. Some of these substances have significant pharmacological activity. Furthermore, they may enter neural stores and displace the natural neurotransmitter. Thus, they can act as false neurotransmitters. Some investigators believe that chronic ethanol ingestion leads to significant formation of such aberrant compounds which may then upset autonomic nervous system balance. This disturbance may explain the abnormal sympathetic activity seen in withdrawal. While these ideas about the etiology of alcohol abuse have a definite appeal, they are naturally based on in vitro preliminary work. Much study of the quantitative pharmacology of these compounds in animals is required before judgement can be made as to the merits of the proposed hypotheses. In the meantime, pharmacological studies on the ability of ethanol to depress respiration in the mouse has revealed that unlike opioids or barbituates, respiratory depression induced by ethanol requires the presence in brain of serotonin. This neurotransmitter also mediates the respiratory effects of several other alcohols but curiously, not chloral hydrate, yet this compound is purported to alter biogenic amine metabolism much like ethanol. Thus, the response

  13. Promoting Your Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Aggi

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of ways to promote sites on the World Wide Web focuses on how search engines work and how they retrieve and identify sites. Appropriate Web links for submitting new sites and for Internet marketing are included. (LRW)

  14. Ethanol cellular defense induce unfolded protein response in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet eNavarro-Tapia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol is a valuable industrial product and a common metabolite used by many cell types. However, this molecule produces high levels of cytotoxicity affecting cellular performance at several levels. In the presence of ethanol, cells must adjust some of their components, such as the membrane lipids to maintain homeostasis. In the case of microorganism as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ethanol is one of the principal products of their metabolism and is the main stress factor during fermentation. Although many efforts have been made, mechanisms of ethanol tolerance are not fully understood and very little evidence is available to date for specific signaling by ethanol in the cell. This work studied two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, CECT10094 and Temohaya-MI26, isolated from flor wine and agave fermentation (a traditional fermentation from Mexico respectively, which differ in ethanol tolerance, in order to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the ethanol stress response and the reasons for different ethanol tolerance. The transcriptome was analyzed after ethanol stress and, among others, an increased activation of genes related with the unfolded protein response (UPR and its transcription factor, Hac1p, was observed in the tolerant strain CECT10094. We observed that this strain also resist more UPR agents than Temohaya-MI26 and the UPR-ethanol stress correlation was corroborated observing growth of 15 more strains and discarding UPR correlation with other stresses as thermal or oxidative stress. Furthermore, higher activation of UPR pathway in the tolerant strain CECT10094 was observed using a UPR mCherry reporter. Finally, we observed UPR activation in response to ethanol stress in other S. cerevisiae ethanol tolerant strains as the wine strains T73 and EC1118. This work demonstrates that the UPR pathway is activated under ethanol stress occurring in a standard fermentation and links this response to an enhanced ethanol tolerance. Thus

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shaohui; Yan, Wei; Sun, Peiqin; Chen, Junwu

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the simulated equilibrium compositions of ethanol steam reforming (SR), partial oxidation (POX) and auto-thermal reforming (ATR) at a large temperature range, steam-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol molar ratios. The simulation work shows that the moles of hydrogen yield per mole ethanol are of this order: SR > ATR > POX. The results are compared with other simulation works and fitted models, which show that all the simulation results obtained with different methods agree well with each other. And the fitted models are in highly consistency with very small deviations. Moreover, the thermal-neutral point in corresponding to temperature, steam-to-ethanol and oxygen-to-ethanol mole ratios of ethanol ATR is estimated. The result shows that with the increasing of oxygen-to-ethanol mole ratio, the T-N point moves to higher temperatures; with the increasing of steam-to-ethanol mole ratio, the T-N point moves to lower temperatures. Furthermore, the energy exchanges of the reforming process and the whole process and the thermal efficiencies are also analyzed in the present work and that the energy demands and generated in the whole process are greater than the reforming process can be obtained. Finally, the optimum reaction conditions are selected. -- Highlights: ► The equilibrium compositions simulated by different researchers with different methods are compared. ► The simulation results are fitted with polynomials for convenient reference. ► The energy balance and thermal efficiencies are analyzed. ► The optimum reaction conditions of ethanol POX, SR and ATR for hydrogen production are selected.

  16. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  17. Ethanol production using nuclear petite yeast mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutter, A.; Oliver, S.G. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Two respiratory-deficient nuclear petites, FY23{Delta}pet191 and FY23{Delta}cox5a, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were generated using polymerase-chain-reaction-mediated gene disruption, and their respective ethanol tolerance and productivity assessed and compared to those of the parental grande, FY23WT, and a mitochondrial petite, FY23{rho}{sup 0}. Batch culture studies demonstrated that the parental strain was the most tolerant to exogenously added ethanol with an inhibition constant. K{sub i}, of 2.3% (w/v) and a specific rate of ethanol production, q{sub p}, of 0.90 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. FY23{rho}{sup 0} was the most sensitive to ethanol, exhibiting a K{sub i} of 1.71% (w/v) and q{sub p} of 0.87 g ethanol g dry cells{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Analyses of the ethanol tolerance of the nuclear petites demonstrate that functional mitochondria are essential for maintaining tolerance to the toxin with the 100% respiratory-deficient nuclear petite, FY23{Delta}pet191, having a K{sub i} of 2.14% (w/v) and the 85% respiratory-deficient FY23{Delta}cox5a, having a K{sub i} of 1.94% (w/v). The retention of ethanol tolerance in the nuclear petites as compared to that of FY23{rho}{sup 0} is mirrored by the ethanol productivities of these nuclear mutants, being respectively 43% and 30% higher than that of the respiratory-sufficient parent strain. This demonstrates that, because of their respiratory deficiency, the nuclear petites are not subject of the Pasteur effect and so exhibit higher rates of fermentation. (orig.)

  18. Updates to the Corn Ethanol Pathway and Development of an Integrated Corn and Corn Stover Ethanol Pathway in the GREET™ Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhichao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Wang, Michael Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division

    2014-09-01

    Corn ethanol, a first-generation biofuel, is the predominant biofuel in the United States. In 2013, the total U.S. ethanol fuel production was 13.3 billion gallons, over 95% of which was produced from corn (RFA, 2014). The 2013 total renewable fuel mandate was 16.6 billion gallons according to the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) (U.S. Congress, 2007). Furthermore, until 2020, corn ethanol will make up a large portion of the renewable fuel volume mandated by Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2). For the GREET1_2014 release, the corn ethanol pathway was subject to updates reflecting changes in corn agriculture and at corn ethanol plants. In the latter case, we especially focused on the incorporation of corn oil as a corn ethanol plant co-product. Section 2 covers these updates. In addition, GREET now includes options to integrate corn grain and corn stover ethanol production on the field and at the biorefinery. These changes are the focus of Section 3.

  19. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-08

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Crude oil–corn–ethanol – nexus: A contextual approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natanelov, Valeri; McKenzie, Andrew M.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers a holistic study on the complex relationships between crude oil, corn and ethanol during a turbulent period between 2006 and end of 2011. Through a holistic mapping of the current market situation and a contextual analytical design we show that there exists a strong relationship between crude oil and corn markets on one side, and crude oil and ethanol on the other. However, the price relationship between corn and ethanol was revealed to be less straightforward, and is driven by the US government fuel policy. Furthermore the study indicates that corn markets have became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production, especially when the demand for corn is high and/or the crude oil prices are high enough to create a competitive market for ethanol. - Highlights: • Strong relationship between crude oil–corn and crude oil–ethanol. • Corn–ethanol connected through a by-pass of crude oil markets. • Ethanol market has no direct impact on the price levels of corn. • Corn markets became more prone to volatility due to ethanol production

  1. Ethanol production from paper sludge using Kluyveromyces marxianus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Lina Maria; Quintero Diaz, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Recycled paper sludge is a promising raw material for ethanol production. In this study, we first evaluated the effects of ethanol concentration, solids load, and cellulose crystallinity on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to produce reducing sugars. We then evaluated the production of ethanol by either saccharification and simultaneous fermentation (SSF) or separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) using the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907. We found that cellulose hydrolysis decreased as ethanol concentrations increased; at 40 g/L ethanol, the reducing sugar production was decreased by 79 %. Hydrolysis also decreased as solids load increased; at 9 % of solids, the cellulose conversion was 76 % of the stoichiometric production. The ethanol yield and cellulose conversion rate were higher with SSF as opposed to SHF processes at 72 h of treatment.

  2. Brazilian third world ethanol pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P

    1981-01-01

    A financial cost model has been developed in Brazil, under contract from th United Nations Industrial Development Organization, for fermentation ethanol production based on sugar cane molasses, sugar cane juice and cassava. The model is designed to help in analysing the feasibility and implementation of ethanol programs in developing countries.

  3. TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE ON PHASE STABILITY OF ETHANOL-GASOLINE MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerian Cerempei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates phase stability of ethanol-gasoline mixtures depending on their composition, water concentration in ethanol and ethanol-gasoline mixture and temperature. There have been determined the perfect functioning conditions of spark ignition engines fueled with ethanol-gasoline mixtures.

  4. Effect of different stressors on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and nondependent C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Anderson, Rachel I; Becker, Howard C

    2016-03-01

    Several animal models have evaluated the effect of stress on voluntary ethanol intake with mixed results. The experiments reported here examined the effects of different stressors on voluntary ethanol consumption in dependent and nondependent adult male C57BL/6J mice. In Experiment 1, restraint, forced swim, and social defeat stress procedures all tended to reduce ethanol intake in nondependent mice regardless of whether the stress experience occurred 1 h or 4 h prior to ethanol access. The reduction in ethanol consumption was most robust following restraint stress. Experiment 2 examined the effects of forced swim stress and social defeat stress on drinking in a dependence model that involved repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Repeated exposure to forced swim stress prior to intervening test drinking periods that followed repeated cycles of CIE exposure further increased ethanol consumption in CIE-exposed mice while not altering intake in nondependent mice. In contrast, repeated exposure to the social defeat stressor in a similar manner reduced ethanol consumption in CIE-exposed mice while not altering drinking in nondependent mice. Results from Experiment 3 confirmed this selective effect of forced swim stress increasing ethanol consumption in mice with a history of CIE exposure, and also demonstrated that enhanced drinking is only observed when the forced swim stressor is administered during each test drinking week, but not if it is applied only during the final test week. Collectively, these studies point to a unique interaction between repeated stress experience and CIE exposure, and also suggest that such an effect depends on the nature of the stressor. Future studies will need to further explore the generalizability of these results, as well as mechanisms underlying the ability of forced swim stress to selectively further enhance ethanol consumption in dependent (CIE-exposed) mice but not alter intake in nondependent animals

  5. Control of Biofilm Formation in Fungi Using Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sebaey, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of fungi in biotechnology requires that no cell loss takes place; a maximal level of cell-nutrient interaction is required to achieve efficient performance and avoid cell loss. The main aim of the present study is to use ethanol to control cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion through manipulating cell surface properties. A Fungal isolate with a phenol oxidase activity (43.2 U/ml) was chosen out of twelve isolates belonging to two main genera: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The fungus isolate, assigned as the highest phenol oxidase producer, was morphologically identified as Penicillium purpurogenum. Penicillium purpurogenum formed a ring around the bottle in static and shaking conditions, therefore, a number of different stress conditions, such as ph, temperature, different nitrogen sources, gamma radiation and ethanol, were employed separately to control biofilm formation in the fungus under study. The fungus was tested for its morphology, mycelia weight, stress response (catalase, lipid peroxidation and red pigment synthesis) and extracellular and surface bound protein and exo polysaccharides. The obtained results correlate the biofilm formation to stress response and surface bound protein. Combining all types of stress did not result in more biofilm formation control; on the contrary, it posed more stress on the fungus and affected the biomass. Ethanol on its own was successively used to control biofilm, which was inhibited in the presence of 2.5% v/v ethanol without affecting the growth. The addition of ethanol also increased the intracellular phenol oxidase activity from 43.2 to 228.43 U/ml. scanning electron microscopy showed that the addition of ethanol resulted in the formation of loose mycelia network as compared to a tight mycelia network in ethanol free cultures. The presence of Yap1p gene, the detection of an oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG) and catalase after ethanol addition all suggest that a stress response might be involved in the

  6. The expanding U. S. ethanol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B

    1991-01-01

    American experience in the ethanol industry is discussed. Archer Daniel Midlands Co. (ADM) is a large agri-processing company that is the largest processor of grains and oilseeds, and processes ca 400,000 bushels of corn per day at its Decateur facility. Waste water and heat from the plant is used to grow vegetables hydroponically, with carbon dioxide from distillation used to speed growing at night. About 40,000 heads of lettuce per day are harvested, with cucumbers and tomatoes grown as premium crops. The plant includes a state-of-the-art fluidized bed power plant that burns high sulfur coal without sulfur emission. Approval has recently been granted by the Environmental Protection Agency to burn used tires, and payback for the process is expected to take 3-4 years. Ethanol is produced by steeping corn and separating germ and starch, with the starch used to make corn sweeteners. As well as ethanol, byproducts include animal feed, hydroponics, oils and margarines. ADM is the largest barging company in the U.S., with 14,000 rail cars, 1,200 dedicated to fuel ethanol. The Clean Air Act will mandate a 2.7% oxygen gasoline, and 10% ethanol additive gives 3.3% oxygen. The high octane rating of ethanol-blend gasoline is a strong selling point, and is a good deal for refiners, especially at octane-poor refineries.

  7. Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Barbara Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels policies and projects may lead to environmental, economic and social impacts. A number of studies point out the need to deliver comprehensive sustainability assessments regarding biofuels, with some presenting analytical frameworks that claim to be exhaustive. However, what is often found in the literature is an overexploitation of environmental and economic concerns, by contrast to a limited appraisal of the social aspects of biofuels. Building on a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature, this paper discusses the social constraints and strengths of ethanol, with regard to the product's lifecycle stages and the actors involved. Its objective is to contribute to the development of social frameworks to be used in assessing the impact of ethanol. Main findings indicate that ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability, although there is little evidence in the literature regarding the positive and negative social impacts of 1st-generation ethanol and potential impacts of cellulosic ethanol. Further work is needed on the formulation of social criteria and indicators for a comprehensive sustainability assessment of this biofuel. Policy makers need to internalise the social dimension of ethanol in decision-making to prevent public opposition and irreversible social costs in the future. - Highlights: ► The literature lacks evidence on the social impacts of ethanol. ► Further work is needed on social criteria and indicators for assessment. ► Ethanol developments can increase the levels of social vulnerability. ► Decision-making should internalise the social dimension of biofuels sustainability

  8. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2010-01-01

    /PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm

  9. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  10. Use of ethanol in public urban transport: BEST (BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport) Project; Uso de etanol no transporte publico urbano: projeto BEST (Bio Ethanol para o Transporte Sustentavel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Jose Roberto; Apolinario, Sandra; Pecora, Vanessa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (CENBIO/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa; Velazquez, Silvia [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper present the BEST project - Bio Ethanol for Sustainable Transport, that aims to promote the ethanol usage, replacing diesel, in the urban public transport in Brazil and worldwide. Apart from Sao Paulo, leading city in the Americas, another eight cities located in Europe and Asia takes part in the project. One of the Brazilian project's goals is to evaluate ethanol usage as diesel fuel replacement in public transport buses by comparatively following the operational output of the experimental fleet, taking as reference an equivalent diesel bus. The utilized test vehicles will be evaluated and monitored to demonstrate ethanol energetic efficiency and, after the results the BEST project and the European Union will set a blue print for public policies to incentive ethanol usage in the urban public transport. The results will allow identifying technical and economical barriers that will eventually overlap the viability process of this technology in the Brazilian public transport. (author)

  11. Ethanol Wet-bonding Technique Sensitivity Assessed by AFM

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, E.; Toledano, M.; Aguilera, F.S.; Tay, F.R.; Osorio, R.

    2010-01-01

    In ethanol wet bonding, water is replaced by ethanol to maintain dehydrated collagen matrices in an extended state to facilitate resin infiltration. Since short ethanol dehydration protocols may be ineffective, this study tested the null hypothesis that there are no differences in ethanol dehydration protocols for maintaining the surface roughness, fibril diameter, and interfibrillar spaces of acid-etched dentin. Polished human dentin surfaces were etched with phosphoric acid and water-rinsed...

  12. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is robustly induced by ethanol and has a protective role in ethanol associated liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna N. Desai

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: Acute or binge ethanol consumption significantly increases circulating FGF21 levels in both humans and mice. However, FGF21 does not play a role in acute ethanol clearance. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in the absence of FGF21 is associated with significant liver pathology alone or in combination with excess mortality, depending on the type of diet consumed with ethanol. This suggests that FGF21 protects against long term ethanol induced hepatic damage and may attenuate progression of alcoholic liver disease. Further study is required to assess the therapeutic potential of FGF21 in the treatment of alcoholic liver disease.

  13. Environmental sustainability assessment of bio-ethanol production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2009-01-01

    Bio-ethanol is playing an important role in renewable energy for transport according to Thai government policy. This study aims to evaluate the energy efficiency and renewability of bio-ethanol system and identify the current significant environmental risks and availability of feedstocks in Thailand. Four of the seven existing ethanol plants contributing 53% of the total ethanol fuel production in Thailand have been assessed by the net energy balance method and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). A renewability and net energy ratio portfolio has been used to indicate whether existing bio-ethanol production systems have net energy gain and could help reduce dependency on fossil energy. In addition, LCA has been conducted to identify and evaluate the environmental hotspots of 'cradle to gate' bio-ethanol production. The results show that there are significant differences of energy and environmental performance among the four existing production systems even for the same feedstock. The differences are dependent on many factors such as farming practices, feedstock transportion, fuel used in ethanol plants, operation practices and technology of ethanol conversion and waste management practices. Recommendations for improving the overall energy and environmental performance of the bio-ethanol system are suggested in order to direct the bio-ethanol industry in Thailand towards environmental sustainability.

  14. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sex differences in the effects of ethanol pre-exposure during adolescence on ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Luke K; Berthold, Claire; Koss, Wendy A; Juraska, Janice M; Gulley, Joshua M

    2011-11-20

    Alcohol use, which typically begins during adolescence and differs between males and females, is influenced by both the rewarding and aversive properties of the drug. One way adolescent alcohol use may modulate later consumption is by reducing alcohol's aversive properties. Here, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to determine if pre-exposure to alcohol (ethanol) during adolescence would attenuate ethanol-induced CTA assessed in adulthood in a sex-dependent manner. Male and female Long-Evans rats were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of saline or 3.0g/kg ethanol in a binge-like pattern during postnatal days (PD) 35-45. In adulthood (>PD 100), rats were given access to 0.1% saccharin, followed by saline or ethanol (1.0 or 1.5g/kg, i.p.), over four conditioning sessions. We found sex differences in ethanol-induced CTA, with males developing a more robust aversion earlier in conditioning. Sex differences in the effects of pre-exposure were also evident: males, but not females, showed an attenuated CTA in adulthood following ethanol pre-exposure, which occurred approximately nine weeks earlier. Taken together, these findings indicate that males are more sensitive to the aversive properties of ethanol than females. In addition, the ability of pre-exposure to the ethanol US to attenuate CTA is enhanced in males compared to females. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of wine yeasts for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, J.; Benitez, T.

    1986-11-01

    Selected wine yeasts were tested for their ethanol and sugar tolerance, and for their fermentative capacity. Growth (..mu..) and fermentation rates (..nu..) were increasingly inhibited by increasing ethanol and glucose concentrations, ''flor'' yeasts being the least inhibited. Except in the latter strains, the ethanol production rate was accelerated by adding the glucose stepwise. The best fermenting strains selected in laboratory medium were also the best at fermenting molasses. Invertase activity was not a limiting step in ethanol production, ..nu.. being accelerated by supplementing molasses with ammonia and biotine, and by cell recycle.

  17. New bacteria suitable for production of ethanol from maltose. Marutosu kara no etanoru seizo ni tekishita shinki saikin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, T.; Taguchi, H.; Nakamura, K. (Kirin Brewery Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-07

    Bacteria such as Zymomonas atracts attention in production of ethanol from carbohydrates in addition to yeast used for a long time, however, Zymomonas ferments only glucose, fructose and sucrose. After searching microbes in the nature with excellent properties in fermentation ability and salt resistance, a new Gram-negative bacterium has been isolated from a certain tree sap which is suitable for production of ethanol from maltose and starch hydrolyzate. The features of cell morphology of the new bacterium are: bacillus, peritrichous, no sport forming, Q-9 in quinone system, and an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium. It utilizes maltose, sorbitol and maltose and produces [alpha]-glucosidas but no [beta]-galactosidase nor arginine dihydrase. The strain T109 is deposited as FERM BP-3292 to the Industrial Research Institute of Microbiology. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Ethanol from mixed waste paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerstetter, J.D.; Lyons, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    The technology, markets, and economics for converting mixed waste paper to ethanol in Washington were assessed. The status of enzymatic and acid hydrolysis projects were reviewed. The market for ethanol blended fuels in Washington shows room for expansion. The economics for a hypothetical plant using enzymatic hydrolysis were shown to be profitable

  19. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Radiolytic decomposition of water-ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquey, Charles

    1968-07-01

    This research thesis addresses the study of the behaviour of binary mixtures submitted to ionizing radiations, and notably aims, by studying the case of water-ethanol mixtures, at verifying solutions proposed by previously published works on the origin of hydrogen atoms and of molecular hydrogen, on the intervention of excited atoms, and on the origin of products appearing under radiolysis. The experimental part of this work consists in the dosing of products formed in water-ethanol mixtures irradiated in presence or absence of nitrate, hydrogen, hydrocarbon, acetaldehyde, 2-3 butanediol and nitrite. Results are discussed and interpreted in terms of acetaldehyde efficiency, 2-3 butanediol efficiencies, and hydrocarbon efficiencies in pure ethanol, and in water-ethanol mixtures. The influence of the presence of nitrate ions in mixtures is also discussed

  1. Oxidation of ethane to ethanol by N2O in a metal-organic framework with coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dianne J; Bloch, Eric D; Mason, Jarad A; Queen, Wendy L; Hudson, Matthew R; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Dzubak, Allison L; Verma, Pragya; Lee, Kyuho; Bonino, Francesca; Crocellà, Valentina; Yano, Junko; Bordiga, Silvia; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura; Brown, Craig M; Long, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-01

    Enzymatic haem and non-haem high-valent iron-oxo species are known to activate strong C-H bonds, yet duplicating this reactivity in a synthetic system remains a formidable challenge. Although instability of the terminal iron-oxo moiety is perhaps the foremost obstacle, steric and electronic factors also limit the activity of previously reported mononuclear iron(IV)-oxo compounds. In particular, although nature's non-haem iron(IV)-oxo compounds possess high-spin S = 2 ground states, this electronic configuration has proved difficult to achieve in a molecular species. These challenges may be mitigated within metal-organic frameworks that feature site-isolated iron centres in a constrained, weak-field ligand environment. Here, we show that the metal-organic framework Fe2(dobdc) (dobdc(4-) = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) and its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), are able to activate the C-H bonds of ethane and convert it into ethanol and acetaldehyde using nitrous oxide as the terminal oxidant. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the active oxidant is likely to be a high-spin S = 2 iron(IV)-oxo species.

  2. Membrane fluidity adjustments in ethanol-stressed Oenococcus oeni cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, da M.G.; Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on the cytoplasmic membrane of Oenococcus oeni cells and the role of membrane changes in the acquired tolerance to ethanol were investigated. Membrane tolerance to ethanol was defined as the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of preloaded carboxyfluorescein (cF) from cells.

  3. Second Generation Ethanol Production from Brewers’ Spent Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Liguori

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomasses raises a global interest because it represents a good alternative to petroleum-derived energies and reduces the food versus fuel conflict generated by first generation ethanol. In this study, alkaline-acid pretreated brewers’ spent grain (BSG was evaluated for ethanol production after enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial enzymes. The obtained hydrolysate containing a glucose concentration of 75 g/L was adopted, after dilution up to 50 g/L, for fermentation by the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 selected as the best producer among five ethanologenic microorganims. When the hydrolysate was supplemented with yeast extract, 12.79 g/L of ethanol, corresponding to 0.28 g of ethanol per grams of glucose consumed (55% efficiency, was obtained within 24 h, while in the non-supplemented hydrolysate, a similar concentration was reached within 48 h. The volumetric productivity increased from 0.25 g/L·h in the un-supplemented hydrolysate to 0.53 g/L h in the yeast extract supplemented hydrolysate. In conclusion, the strain S. cerevisiae NRRL YB 2293 was shown able to produce ethanol from BSG. Although an equal amount of ethanol was reached in both BSG hydrolysate media, the nitrogen source supplementation reduced the ethanol fermentation time and promoted glucose uptake and cell growth.

  4. Optimization of fermentation conditions for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, F J; Izaguirre, M F; Michelena, V; Moreno, B

    1982-01-01

    Optimal conditions for ethanol production in 7% whey solutions by the yeast Candida pseudotropicalis ATCC 8619 included an initial pH of 4.57 and 30 degrees. Complete fermentation of the available lactose took place without supplementary nutrients; additions of N and P salts, yeast extract, or corn steep liquor resulted in increased yeast production and lower ethanol yields. A possible correlation was observed between increases in yeast inocula and lactose utilization and ethanol production rates; 8.35 g ethanol/L was obtained within 22 hours by using a yeast inoculum of 13.9 g/L. No differences in fermentation rates or ethanol yields were observed when whole or deproteinized whey solutions were used. Concentrated whey permeates, obtained after removal of the valuable proteins from whey, can be effectively fermented for ethanol production.

  5. Fermentation of hexoses to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Lena [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology]|[Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Chemical Reaction Engineering

    2000-06-01

    The Goals of the project has been: to increase the ethanol yield by reducing the by-product formation, primarily biomass and glycerol, and to prevent stuck fermentations, i.e. to maintain a high ethanol production rate simultaneously with a high ethanol yield. The studies have been performed both in defined laboratory media and in a mixture of wood- and wheat hydrolysates. The yeast strains used have been both industrial strains of bakers yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and haploid laboratory strains. The Relevance of these studies with respect to production of ethanol to be used as fuel is explained by: With the traditional process design used today, it is very difficult to reach a yield of more than 90 % of the theoretical maximal value of ethanol based on fermented hexose. During 'normal' growth and fermentation conditions in either anaerobic batch or chemostat cultures, substrate is lost as biomass and glycerol in the range of 8 to 11 % and 6 to 11 % of the substrate consumed (kg/kg). It is essential to reduce these by-products. Traditional processes are mostly batch processes, in which there is a risk that the biocatalyst, i.e. the yeast, may become inactivated. If for example yeast biomass production is avoided by use of non-growing systems, the ethanol production rate is instantaneously reduced by at least 50%. Unfortunately, even if yeast biomass production is not avoided on purpose, it is well known that stuck fermentations caused by cell death is a problem in large scale yeast processes. The main reason for stuck fermentations is nutrient imbalances. For a good process economy, it is necessary to ensure process accessibility, i.e. to maintain a high and reproducible production rate. This will both considerably reduce the necessary total volume of the fermentors (and thereby the investment costs), and moreover minimize undesirable product fall-out.

  6. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  7. Age-related effects of chronic restraint stress on ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced sedation, and on basal and stress-induced anxiety response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Macarena Soledad; Fabio, María Carolina; Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Virgolini, Miriam B; De Giovanni, Laura N; Hansen, Cristian; Wille-Bille, Aranza; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Linda P; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents are sensitive to the anxiolytic effect of ethanol, and evidence suggests that they may be more sensitive to stress than adults. Relatively little is known, however, about age-related differences in stress modulation of ethanol drinking or stress modulation of ethanol-induced sedation and hypnosis. We observed that chronic restraint stress transiently exacerbated free-choice ethanol drinking in adolescent, but not in adult, rats. Restraint stress altered exploration patterns of a light-dark box apparatus in adolescents and adults. Stressed animals spent significantly more time in the white area of the maze and made significantly more transfers between compartments than their non-stressed peers. Behavioral response to acute stress, on the other hand, was modulated by prior restraint stress only in adults. Adolescents, unlike adults, exhibited ethanol-induced motor stimulation in an open field. Stress increased the duration of loss of the righting reflex after a high ethanol dose, yet this effect was similar at both ages. Ethanol-induced sleep time was much higher in adult than in adolescent rats, yet stress diminished ethanol-induced sleep time only in adults. The study indicates age-related differences that may increase the risk for initiation and escalation in alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. In situ FTIRS study of ethanol electro-oxidation on anode catalysts in direct ethanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Sun, G.; Jiang, L.; Zhu, M.; Yan, S.; Wang, G.; Xin, Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China). Dalian Inst. of Chemical Physics; Chen, Q.; Li, J.; Jiang, Y.; Sun, S. [Xiamen Univ., Xiamen (China). State Key Lab. for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces

    2006-07-01

    The low activation of ethanol oxidation at lower temperatures is an obstacle to the development of cost-effective direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). This study used a modified polyol method to prepare carbon-supported platinum (Pt) based catalysts. Carbon supported Pt-based catalysts were fabricated by a modified polyol method and characterized through transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results of the study showed that the particles in the Pt/C and PtRu/C and PtSn/C catalysts were distributed on the carbon support uniformly. Diffraction peaks of the Pt shifted positively in the PtRu/C catalysts and negatively in the PtSn/C catalysts. In situ Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to investigate the adsorption and oxidation process of ethanol on the catalysts. Results showed that the electrocatalytic activity of ethanol oxidation on the materials was enhanced. Linear bonded carbon monoxide (CO) was the most strongly absorbed species, and the main products produced by the catalysts were carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), acetaldehyde, and acetic acid. Results showed that the PtRu/C catalyst broke the C-C bond more easily than the Pt/C and PtSn/C compounds. However, the results of a linear sweep voltammogram analysis showed that ethanol oxidation of the PtSn/C was enhanced. Bands observed on the compound indicated the formation of acetic acid and acetaldehyde. It was concluded that the enhancement of PtSn/C for ethanol oxidation was due to the formation of acetic acid and acetaldehyde at lower potentials. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  9. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  10. Guide to commercial-scale ethanol production and financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    This document is designed to lead the potential investor through all the steps necessary to develop a business plan and prepare a feasibility analysis for a site-specific project. Emphasis is placed on marketing, financing, management, and incentives rather than primarily technical matters. The introduction provides an overview of the perspectives and issues in the alcohol fuels industry. Chapter II seeks to surface factors which affect the decisionmaking process. The chapter attempts to lead the investor step-by-step through the series of decisions and choices to be made before reaching the final decision to enter the business. Chapter III describes the types of feedstocks available and relates them to areas within the United States. Trends and fluctuations in the price of the major grain feedstocks are also discussed in terms of their potential use and value compared to other feeds. Chapter IV discusses the market potential of ethanol and its coproducts, and examines how the location of the ethanol markets in relation to those of the feedstock supplies may influence selection of a plant site. Various aspects of plant design are discussed. A 50 million gallon per year plant is analyzed to provide the general technical background and costing data required in analyzing plants of various sizes and designs. Safety aspects and environmental concerns are treated in Chapters VI and VII. The regulations are reviewed and their impact on plant design and operation is discussed. The basic elements of a business plan are described which lead to an approach for development of the feasibility study. Other information on financial assistance, regulations, current legislation, and reference material is given in the Appendices.

  11. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-30

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs.

  12. Wood ethanol and synthetic natural gas pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report provided details of updates to the wood ethanol pathway recently added to the GHGenius model, an analytical tool used to analyze emissions from conventional and alternative fuel combustion processes. The pathway contains data developed by the United States Department of Energy. A number of co-products were added to the wood and agricultural residue pathways, including furfural, xylitol, lignin, and glycerol. New chemical inputs included nitrogen gas, ammonia, enzymes and yeast. Biological ethanol pathways were reviewed, and separate inputs for wood, agricultural residues, corn ethanol, and wheat ethanol were added. The model was updated to reflect current research conducted on the gasification of wood and the upgrading of the gas to produce pipeline quality natural gas. New process developments in producing pipeline quality gas from coal were also added. The ability to model enzyme consumption was added to all ethanol pathways. 25 refs., 41 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Electrooxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu surfaces investigated by ATR surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcio F.; Camara, Giuseppe A., E-mail: giuseppe.silva@ufms.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande-MS (Brazil); Batista, Bruno C.; Boscheto, Emerson [Instituto de Quimica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos-SP, (Brazil); Varela, Hamilton, E-mail: varela@iqsc.usp.br [Ertl Center for Electrochemistry and Catalysis, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Herein, it was investigated for the first time the electro-oxidation of ethanol on Pt and PtRu electrodeposits in acidic media by using in situ surface enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy with attenuated total reflection (ATR-SEIRAS). The experimental setup circumvents the weak absorbance signals related to adsorbed species, usually observed for rough, electrodeposited surfaces, and allows a full description of the CO coverage with the potential for both catalysts. The dynamics of adsorption-oxidation of CO was accessed by ATR-SEIRAS experiments (involving four ethanol concentrations) and correlated with expressions derived from a simple kinetic model. Kinetic analysis suggests that the growing of the CO adsorbed layer is nor influenced by the presence of Ru neither by the concentration of ethanol. The results suggest that the C-C scission is not related to the presence of Ru and probably happens at Pt sites. (author)

  14. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Miguel C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to

  15. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  16. Ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil: analysis and discussion; O etanol de cana-de-acucar no Brasil: analise e discussoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Albemerc Moura de; Polasse, Belisa Athayde; Simao, Nathalia Machado [Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao Stricto Sensu em Energia

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays, the intense investment in renewable energy reflects the search for alternative solutions to politician-economic and socio-environment originated by energy' source predominance of fossil origin in the global energy matrix. In this case, the ethanol from Brazil's sugar cane is more and more writing your history on the International bio fuels market. That's mainly due to Brazil's commercial maturity, agricultural, technological achieved in last decades. However, some negatives socio environments, such as deforestation, fires and precarious job conditions, among others are a discredit for a probable future hegemony of Brazilian ethanol. In this way, it is important to set guide-line discussions about this topic, analyzing and overcoming problems that avoid a better sustainable posture. (author)

  17. Sweet future? Brazil's ethanol fuel programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, F.R.

    1999-01-01

    This article traces the history of Brazil's ethanol fuel programme from 1975 to the present, and considers Brazil's energy policy, and the implications of price liberalisation and privatisation aimed at reducing prices to control inflation. The achievements of ProAlcool which was established in 1975 with the aim of replacing petrol with ethanol, costs and investment in ProAlcool, environmental implications, and policy initiatives to boost ProAlcool are examined. Details of typical emissions from a 6-year old car in Brazil are tabulated illustrating the reduced emissions due to ethanol fuels

  18. Ethanol dehydration on doped cadmium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Salaam, K.M.

    1975-01-01

    The vapour phase catalytic dehydration of ethanol over Fe impregnated cadmium oxide was investigated between 200-450 0 C in atmospheric pressure. Electron transfer mechanisms involved in adsorption and catalytic dehydration reaction were investigated. The change in electrical conductivity of the catalyst resulting from calcination, adsorption and surface reaction processes were studied. Adsorption conductivity at low temperature ( 0 C) indicates that ethanol adsorbs as an electron donor. A mechanism of creation of interstitial Cd atoms responsible for the catalytic dehydration of ethanol on the catalyst surface was suggested. (orig.) [de

  19. A Quantitative Gas Chromatographic Ethanol Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, James J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a gas chromatographic experiment for the quantitative determination of volume percent ethanol in water ethanol solutions. Background information, procedures, and typical results are included. Accuracy and precision of results are both on the order of two percent. (JN)

  20. Improvement of ethanol-tolerance of haploid Saccharomyces diastaticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.H.; Kim, K.; Lee, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    Several mutation procedures have been compared to obtain an ethanol-tolerant Saccharomyces diastaticus strain secreting glucoamylase. These procedures include spontaneous mutation, EMS treatment, UV irradiation, and combination of EMS treatment and UV irradiation. All these methods were followed by adaptation of the yeast cells to gradually higher ethanol concentration. Among these procedures, the combined method of EMS treatment and UV irradiation gave the promising result, i.e. the ethanol tolerance of the yeast increased from 11.5%(v/v) to 14.0%(v/v). Respiratory deficient petite mutants of industrial and ethanol-tolerant yeast strains have been isolated and hybridized with haploid S. diastaticus strains. The resulting hybrids showed increased ethanol tolerance and starch-fermentability

  1. Variability of patient spine education by Internet search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobrial, George M; Mehdi, Angud; Maltenfort, Mitchell; Sharan, Ashwini D; Harrop, James S

    2014-03-01

    Patients are increasingly reliant upon the Internet as a primary source of medical information. The educational experience varies by search engine, search term, and changes daily. There are no tools for critical evaluation of spinal surgery websites. To highlight the variability between common search engines for the same search terms. To detect bias, by prevalence of specific kinds of websites for certain spinal disorders. Demonstrate a simple scoring system of spinal disorder website for patient use, to maximize the quality of information exposed to the patient. Ten common search terms were used to query three of the most common search engines. The top fifty results of each query were tabulated. A negative binomial regression was performed to highlight the variation across each search engine. Google was more likely than Bing and Yahoo search engines to return hospital ads (P=0.002) and more likely to return scholarly sites of peer-reviewed lite (P=0.003). Educational web sites, surgical group sites, and online web communities had a significantly higher likelihood of returning on any search, regardless of search engine, or search string (P=0.007). Likewise, professional websites, including hospital run, industry sponsored, legal, and peer-reviewed web pages were less likely to be found on a search overall, regardless of engine and search string (P=0.078). The Internet is a rapidly growing body of medical information which can serve as a useful tool for patient education. High quality information is readily available, provided that the patient uses a consistent, focused metric for evaluating online spine surgery information, as there is a clear variability in the way search engines present information to the patient. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pd supported on carbon containing nickel, nitrogen and sulfur for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Rui; Wang, Shang-Qing; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Ai-Ju; Xu, Chang-Wei

    2017-11-13

    Carbon material containing nickel, nitrogen and sulfur (Ni-NSC) has been synthesized using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as precursor by annealing treatment with a size from 200 to 300 nm. Pd nanoparticles supported on the Ni-NSC (Pd/Ni-NSC) are used as electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline media. Due to the synergistic effect between Pd and Ni, S, N, free OH radicals can form on the surface of Ni, N and S atoms at lower potentials, which react with CH 3 CO intermediate species on the Pd surface to produce CH 3 COO - and release the active sites. On the other hand, the stronger binding force between Pd and co-doped N and S is responsible for enhancing dispersion and preventing agglomeration of the Pd nanoparticles. The Pd(20 wt%)/Ni-NSC shows better electrochemical performance of ethanol oxidation than the traditional commercial Pd(20 wt%)/C catalyst. Onset potential on the Pd(20 wt%)/Ni-NSC electrode is 36 mV more negative compared with that on the commercial Pd(20 wt%)/C electrode. The Pd(20 wt%)/Ni-NSC in this paper demonstrates to have excellent electrocatalytic properties and is considered as a promising catalyst in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells.

  3. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  4. Promotion effect of H2 on ethanol oxidation and NOx reduction with ethanol over Ag/Al2O3 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunbo; Li, Yi; Zhang, Xiuli; Deng, Hua; He, Hong; Li, Yuyang

    2015-01-06

    The catalytic partial oxidation of ethanol and selective catalytic reduction of NOx with ethanol (ethanol-SCR) over Ag/Al2O3 were studied using synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS). The intermediates were identified by PIMS and their photoionization efficiency (PIE) spectra. The results indicate that H2 promotes the partial oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde over Ag/Al2O3, while the simultaneously occurring processes of dehydration and dehydrogenation were inhibited. H2 addition favors the formation of ammonia during ethanol-SCR over Ag/Al2O3, the occurrence of which creates an effective pathway for NOx reduction by direct reaction with NH3. Simultaneously, the enhancement of the formation of ammonia benefits its reaction with surface enolic species, resulting in producing -NCO species again, leading to enhancement of ethanol-SCR over Ag/Al2O3 by H2. Using VUV-PIMS, the reactive vinyloxy radical was observed in the gas phase during the NOx reduction by ethanol for the first time, particularly in the presence of H2. Identification of such a reaction occurring in the gas phase may be crucial for understanding the reaction pathway of HC-SCR over Ag/Al2O3.

  5. Ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled water by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jianhua; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    An process of integrated ethanol-methane fermentation with improved economics has been studied extensively in recent years, where the process water used for a subsequent fermentation of carbohydrate biomass is recycled. This paper presents a systematic study of the ethanol fermentation characteristics of recycled process water. Compared with tap water, fermentation time was shortened by 40% when mixed water was employed. However, while the maximal ethanol production rate increased from 1.07g/L/h to 2.01g/L/h, ethanol production was not enhanced. Cell number rose from 0.6×10(8) per mL in tap water to 1.6×10(8) per mL in mixed water but although biomass increased, cell morphology was not affected. Furthermore, the use of mixed water increased the glycerol yield but decreased that of acetic acid, and the final pH with mixed water was higher than when using tap water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, and ethanol in urine after sustained exposure to an ethanol-based hand sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisfield, Gary M; Goldberger, Bruce A; Crews, Bridgit O; Pesce, Amadeo J; Wilson, George R; Teitelbaum, Scott A; Bertholf, Roger L

    2011-03-01

    To assess the degree of ethanol absorption and subsequent formation of urinary ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) following sustained application of hand sanitizer, 11 volunteers cleansed their hands with Purell(™) hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) every 5 min for 10 h on three consecutive days. Urine specimens were obtained at the beginning and end of each day of the study, and on the morning of the fourth day. Urinary creatinine, ethanol, EtG, and EtS concentrations were measured. EtG was undetectable in all pre-study urine specimens, but two pre-study specimens had detectable EtS (73 and 37 ng/mL). None of the pre-study specimens had detectable ethanol. The maximum EtG and EtS concentrations over the course of the study were 2001 and 84 ng/mL, respectively, and nearly all EtG- and EtS-positive urine specimens were collected at the conclusion of the individual study days. Only two specimens had detectable EtG at the beginning of any study day (96 and 139 ng/mL), and only one specimen had detectable EtS at the beginning of a study day (64 ng/mL), in addition to the two with detectable EtS prior to the study. Creatinine-adjusted maximum EtG and EtS concentrations were 1998 and 94 μg/g creatinine, respectively. In patients being monitored for ethanol use by urinary EtG concentrations, currently accepted EtG cutoffs do not distinguish between ethanol consumption and incidental exposures, particularly when urine specimens are obtained shortly after sustained use of ethanolcontaining hand sanitizer. Our data suggest that EtS may be an important complementary biomarker in distinguishing ethanol consumption from dermal exposure.

  7. Ethanol activation of protein kinase A regulates GABA-A receptor subunit expression in the cerebral cortex and contributes to ethanol-induced hypnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep eKumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases are implicated in neuronal cell functions such as modulation of ion channel function, trafficking and synaptic excitability. Both protein kinase C (PKC and A (PKA are involved in regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA-A receptors through phosphorylation. However, the role of PKA in regulating GABA-A receptors following acute ethanol exposure is not known. The present study investigated the role of PKA in ethanol effects on GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression in the P2 synaptosomal fraction of the rat cerebral cortex. Additionally, GABA-related behaviors were also examined. Rats were administered ethanol (2.0 – 3.5 g/kg or saline and PKC, PKA and GABA-A receptor α1 subunit levels were measured by Western blot analysis. Ethanol (3.5 g/kg transiently increased GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression and PKA RIIβ subunit expression at similar time points whereas PKA RIIα was increased at later time points. In contrast, PKC isoform expression remained unchanged. Notably, the moderate ethanol dose (2.0g/kg had no effect on GABA-A α1 subunit levels although PKA RIIα and RIIβ were increased at 10 and 60 minutes, when PKC isozymes are also known to be elevated. To determine if PKA activation was responsible for the ethanol-induced elevation of GABA-A α1 subunits, the PKA antagonist H89 was administered to rats prior to ethanol exposure. H89 administration prevented ethanol-induced increases in GABA-A receptor α1 subunit expression. Moreover, increasing PKA activity intracerebroventricularly with Sp-cAMP prior to a hypnotic dose of ethanol increased ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex duration. This effect appears to be mediated in part by GABA-A receptors as increasing PKA activity also increased the duration of muscimol-induced loss of righting reflex. Overall these data suggest that PKA mediates ethanol-induced GABA-A receptor expression and contributes to ethanol behavioral effects involving GABA-A receptors.

  8. Forced swim stress increases ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice with a history of chronic intermittent ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rachel I; Lopez, Marcelo F; Becker, Howard C

    2016-06-01

    Stress exposure has been identified as one risk factor for alcohol abuse that may facilitate the transition from social or regulated alcohol use to the development of alcohol dependence. Additionally, stress is a common trigger for relapse and subsequent loss of control of drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. The present study was designed to characterize effects of repeated forced swim stress (FSS) on ethanol consumption in three rodent drinking models that engender high levels of ethanol consumption. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 10-min FSS 4 h prior to each drinking session in three different models of high ethanol consumption: chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) drinking (a model of dependence-like drinking), drinking-in-the-dark (DID; a model of binge-like drinking), and intermittent vs. continuous access (a model of escalated drinking). In the CIE drinking paradigm, daily FSS facilitated the escalation of ethanol intake that is typically seen in CIE-exposed mice without altering ethanol consumption in control mice exposed to FSS. FSS prior to drinking sessions did not alter ethanol consumption in the DID or intermittent access paradigms, whereas stressed mice in the continuous access procedure consumed less ethanol than their nonstressed counterparts. The CIE drinking paradigm may provide a helpful preclinical model of stress-induced transition to ethanol dependence that can be used to (1) identify underlying neural mechanisms that facilitate this transition and (2) evaluate the therapeutic potential of various pharmacological agents hypothesized to alleviate stress-induced drinking.

  9. Modelling and simulation of a direct ethanol fuel cell considering multistep electrochemical reactions, transport processes and mixed potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Marco; Melke, Julia; Gerteisen, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A DEFC model considering the mixed potential formation at cathode and anode. → The low cell voltage at open circuit is due to the parasitic reaction of ethanol and oxygen. → Under load, only the parasitic oxidation of ethanol is significant. → Inhibiting the parasitic reactions can approximately double the current density. - Abstract: In this work a one-dimensional mathematical model of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) is presented. The electrochemical oxidation of ethanol in the catalyst layers is described by several reaction steps leading to surface coverage with adsorbed intermediates (CH 3 CO, CO, CH 3 and OH) and to the final products acetaldehyde, acetic acid and CO 2 . A bifunctional reaction mechanism is assumed for the activation of water on a binary catalyst favouring the further oxidation of adsorbates blocking active catalyst sites. The chemical reactions are highly coupled with the charge and reactant transport. The model accounts for crossover of the reactants through the membrane leading to the phenomenon of cathode and anode mixed potentials due to the parasitic oxidation and reduction of ethanol and oxygen, respectively. Polarisation curves of a DEFC were recorded for various ethanol feed concentrations and were used as reference data for the simulation. Based on one set of model parameters the characteristic of electronic and protonic potential, the relative surface coverage and the parasitic current densities in the catalyst layers were studied.

  10. Mosquito Larvicidal Constituents from the Ethanol Extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. Roots against Aedes albopictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine larvicidal activity of the ethanol extract of Inula racemosa Hook. f. (Compositae roots against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus and to isolate any larvicidal constituents from the extract. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, 11,13-dihydroisoalantolactone (1, macrophyllilactone E (2, 5α-epoxyalantolactone (3, and epoxyisoalantolactone (4 were isolated and identified as the active constituents. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited strong larvicidal activity against the early fourth-instar larvae of A. albopictus with LC50 values of 21.86 μg/mL and 18.65 μg/mL, respectively, while the ethanol extract had a LC50 value of 25.23 μg/mL. Compounds 3 and 4 also possessed larvicidal activity against the Asian tiger mosquitoes with LC50 values of 29.37 μg/mL and 35.13 μg/mL, respectively. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of I. racemosa and the four isolated constituents have potential for use in the control of A. albopictus larvae and could be useful in the search of newer, safer, and more effective natural compounds as larvicides.

  11. Policy Uncertainty and the US Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. H. Jones

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2, as implemented, has introduced uncertainty into US ethanol producers and the supporting commodity market. First, the fixed mandate for what is mainly cornstarch-based ethanol has increased feedstock price volatility and exerts a general effect across the agricultural sector. Second, the large discrepancy between the original Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA intentions and the actual RFS2 implementation for some fuel classes has increased the investment uncertainty facing investors in biofuel production, distribution, and consumption. Here we discuss and analyze the sources of uncertainty and evaluate the effect of potential RFS2 adjustments as they influence these uncertainties. This includes the use of a flexible, production dependent mandate on corn starch ethanol. We find that a flexible mandate on cornstarch ethanol relaxed during drought could significantly reduce commodity price spikes and alleviate the decline of livestock production in cases of feedstock production shortfalls, but it would increase the risk for ethanol investors.

  12. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  13. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, B. W.; O' Connor, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary.

  14. Wood ethanol: a BC value-added opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloy, B. W.; O'Connor, D. V.

    1998-12-01

    The environmental, economic and social benefits to be derived from the conversion of woodwaste to ethanol are reviewed as part of the justification by the Greenhouse Gas Forum, a multi-stakeholder environmental advisory group, to recommend to the BC government to support the development and commercialization of technologies to produce ethanol fuel using waste from British Columbia's sawmills. The Greenhouse Gas Forum also recommended government support for the construction of a demonstration ethanol plant by the private sector. The principal arguments underlying the Greenhouse Gas Forum's recommendations are: (1) reduction in BC's greenhouse gas emissions by one mega tonne, or two per cent of BC's 1990 emissions, (2) reducing carbon monoxide , nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and other toxic emissions that contribute to urban smog, and (3) accelerating the elimination of sawmill waste burners and providing a substitute for MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl, a fuel additive) and MTBE ( methyl tertiary butyl ether, a component used in gasoline), thus helping to reduce health hazards from fine particulate inhalation. Economic and social benefits envisaged include creation of leading edge technology at the University of British Columbia, a substantial number of new jobs, and the potential for the development of various co-products from wood ethanol conversion. The report examines five different technologies to produce ethanol (the processes developed by Iogen, BC International, and Arkenol Inc., the Paszner ACOS process and a gasification-fermentation process), the market demand for ethanol blended gasoline and concludes that there are strong environmental, health and economic reasons for BC to increase the use of wood-ethanol as a transportation fuel and to support the establishment of an ethanol plant using wood residue. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs., 1 glossary

  15. Metabolic engineering of ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Yao

    2010-11-15

    Strain BG1 is a xylanolytic, thermophilic, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium originally isolated from an Icelandic hot spring. The strain belongs to the species Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. The strain ferments glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose and mannose simultaneously and produces ethanol, acetate, lactate, CO{sub 2}, and H2 as fermentation end-products. As a potential ethanol producer from lignocellulosic biomass, tailor-made BG1 strain with the metabolism redirected to produce ethanol is needed. Metabolic engineering of T. mathranii BG1 is therefore necessary to improve ethanol production. Strain BG1 contains four alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) encoding genes. They are adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE encoding primary alcohol dehydrogenase, secondary alcohol dehydrogenase, butanol dehydrogenase and bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, respectively. The presence in an organism of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases with overlapping specificities makes the determination of the specific role of each ADH difficult. Deletion of each individual adh gene in the strain revealed that the adhE deficient mutant strain fails to produce ethanol as the fermentation product. The bifunctional alcohol/acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, AdhE, is therefore proposed responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii BG1, by catalyzing sequential NADH-dependent reductions of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde and then to ethanol under fermentative conditions. Moreover, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Over-expression of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitates the production of ethanol at an increased yield. With a cofactor-dependent ethanol production pathway in T. mathranii BG1, it may become crucial to regenerate cofactor to increase the ethanol yield. Feeding the cells with a more reduced carbon source, such as mannitol, was shown to increase ethanol

  16. Presynaptic CRF1 Receptors Mediate the Ethanol Enhancement of GABAergic Transmission in the Mouse Central Amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Nie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is a 41-amino-acid neuropeptide involved in stress responses initiated from several brain areas, including the amygdala formation. Research shows a strong relationship between stress, brain CRF, and excessive alcohol consumption. Behavioral studies suggest that the central amygdala (CeA is significantly involved in alcohol reward and dependence. We recently reported that the ethanol augmentation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in rat CeA involves CRF1 receptors, because both CRF and ethanol significantly enhanced the amplitude of evoked GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs in CeA neurons from wild-type (WT and CRF2 knockout (KO mice, but not in neurons of CRF1 KO mice. The present study extends these findings using selective CRF receptor ligands, gene KO models, and miniature IPSC (mIPSC analysis to assess further a presynaptic role for the CRF receptors in mediating ethanol effects in the CeA. In whole-cell patch recordings of pharmacologically isolated GABAAergic IPSCs from slices of mouse CeA, both CRF and ethanol augmented evoked IPSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, with low EC50s. A CRF1 (but not CRF2 KO construct and the CRF1-selective nonpeptide antagonist NIH-3 (LWH-63 blocked the augmenting effect of both CRF and ethanol on evoked IPSCs. Furthermore, the new selective CRF1 agonist stressin1, but not the CRF2 agonist urocortin 3, also increased evoked IPSC amplitudes. Both CRF and ethanol decreased paired-pulse facilitation (PPF of evoked IPSCs and significantly enhanced the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneous miniature GABAergic mIPSCs in CeA neurons of WT mice, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. The PPF effect of ethanol was abolished in CeA neurons of CRF1 KO mice. The CRF1 antagonist NIH-3 blocked the CRF- and ethanol-induced enhancement of mIPSC frequency in CeA neurons. These data indicate that presynaptic CRF1 receptors play a critical role in permitting

  17. Increased preference for ethanol in the infant rat after prenatal ethanol exposure, expressed on intake and taste reactivity tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Carlos; Chotro, M Gabriela

    2005-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that prenatal exposure during gestational days 17 to 20 to low or moderate doses of ethanol (1 or 2 g/kg) increases alcohol intake in infant rats. Taking into account that higher consumption does not necessarily suggest a preference for alcohol, in the present study, the hedonic nature of the prenatal experience was analyzed further with the use of a taste reactivity test. General activity, wall climbing, passive drips, paw licking, and mouthing in response to intraoral infusions of alcohol, water, and a sucrose-quinine solution (which resembles alcohol taste in rats) were tested in 161 preweanling 14-day-old rat pups that were prenatally exposed to 0, 1, or 2 g/kg of alcohol during gestational days 17 to 20. Consumption of those substances was measured during the taste reactivity test and on postnatal day 15. Pups that were prenatally exposed to both doses of ethanol displayed lower levels of general activity and wall climbing than controls in response to ethanol. Infant rats that were treated prenatally with both doses of ethanol showed higher intake of the drug and also more mouthing and paw licking in response to ethanol taste. Only pups that were exposed to the higher ethanol dose in utero generalized those responses to the sucrose-quinine compound. These results seem to indicate that for the infant rat, the palatability of ethanol is enhanced after exposure to the drug during the last days of gestation.

  18. Design and construction of a 7,500 liter immobilized cell reactor-separator for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1992-12-31

    A 7,500 liter reactor/separator has been constructed for the production of ethanol from concentrated whey permeate. This unit is sited in Hopkinton IA, across the street from a whey generating cheese plant A two phase construction project consisting of (1) building and testing a reactor/separator with a solvent absorber in a single unified housing, and (2) building and testing an extractive distillation/product stripper for the recovery of anhydrous ethanol is under way. The design capacity of this unit is 250,000 gal/yr of anhydrous product. Design and construction details of the reactor/absorber separator are given, and design parameters for the extractive distillation system are described.

  19. Postoperative Biliary Leak Treated with Chemical Bile Duct Ablation Using Absolute Ethanol: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Maho; Hori, Tomohide; Furuyama, Hiroaki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Hata, Toshiyuki; Kadokawa, Yoshio; Ito, Tatsuo; Kato, Shigeru; Yasukawa, Daiki; Aisu, Yuki; Kimura, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Yuichi; Kitano, Taku; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2017-08-08

    BACKGROUND Postoperative bile duct leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery can be intractable, and the postoperative course can be prolonged. However, if the site of the leak is in the distal bile duct in the main biliary tract, the therapeutic options may be limited. Injection of absolute ethanol into the bile duct requires correct identification of the bile duct, and balloon occlusion is useful to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak. CASE REPORT Two cases of non-communicating biliary fistula and bile leak are presented; one case following pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple's procedure), and one case following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Both cases were successfully managed by chemical bile duct ablation with absolute ethanol. In the first case, the biliary leak occurred from a fistula of the right posterior biliary tract following pancreaticoduodenectomy. Cannulation of the leaking bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a percutaneous route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. In the second case, perforation of the bile duct branch draining hepatic segment V occurred following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cannulation of the bile duct and balloon occlusion were achieved via a transhepatic route, and seven ablation sessions using absolute ethanol were required. CONCLUSIONS Chemical ablation of the bile duct using absolute ethanol is an effective treatment for biliary leak following hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery, even in cases with non-communicating biliary fistula. Identification of the bile duct leak is required before ethanol injection to avoid damage to the surrounding tissues.

  20. Taste-aversion-prone (TAP) rats and taste-aversion-resistant (TAR) rats differ in ethanol self-administration, but not in ethanol clearance or general consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, T Edward; Whitford-Stoddard, Jennifer L; Elkins, Ralph L

    2004-05-01

    Taste-aversion (TA)-prone (TAP) rats and TA-resistant (TAR) rats have been developed by means of bidirectional selective breeding on the basis of their behavioral responses to a TA conditioning paradigm. The TA conditioning involved the pairing of an emetic-class agent (cyclophosphamide) with a novel saccharin solution as the conditioned stimulus. Despite the absence of ethanol in the selective breeding process, these rat lines differ widely in ethanol self-administration. In the current study, blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined after 9 days of limited (2 h per day) access to a simultaneous, two-bottle choice of a 10% ethanol in water solution [volume/volume (vol./vol.)] or plain water. The BACs correlated highly with ethanol intake among TAR rats, but an insufficient number of TAP rats yielded measurable BACs to make the same comparison within this rat line. The same rats were subsequently exposed to 24-h access of a two-bottle choice (10% ethanol or plain water) for 8 days. Ethanol consumption during the 24-h access period correlated highly with that seen during limited access. Subsequent TA conditioning with these rats yielded line-typical differences in saccharin preferences. In a separate group of rats, ethanol clearance was determined by measuring BACs at 1, 4, and 7 h after injection of a 2.5-g/kg dose of ethanol. Ethanol clearance was not different between the two lines. Furthermore, the lines did not differ with respect to food and water consumption. Therefore, the TAP rat-TAR rat differences in ethanol consumption cannot be attributed to line differences in ethanol metabolism or in general consummatory behavior. The findings support our contention that the line differences in ethanol consumption are mediated by differences in TA-related mechanisms. The findings are discussed with respect to genetically based differences in the subjective experience of ethanol.

  1. Reducing life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol by integrating biomass to produce heat and power at ethanol plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliyan, Nalladurai; Morey, R. Vance; Tiffany, Douglas G.

    2011-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of corn ethanol was conducted to determine the reduction in the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for corn ethanol compared to gasoline by integrating biomass fuels to replace fossil fuels (natural gas and grid electricity) in a U.S. Midwest dry-grind corn ethanol plant producing 0.19 hm 3 y -1 of denatured ethanol. The biomass fuels studied are corn stover and ethanol co-products [dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and syrup (solubles portion of DDGS)]. The biomass conversion technologies/systems considered are process heat (PH) only systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, and biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BIGCC) systems. The life-cycle GHG emission reduction for corn ethanol compared to gasoline is 38.9% for PH with natural gas, 57.7% for PH with corn stover, 79.1% for CHP with corn stover, 78.2% for IGCC with natural gas, 119.0% for BIGCC with corn stover, and 111.4% for BIGCC with syrup and stover. These GHG emission estimates do not include indirect land use change effects. GHG emission reductions for CHP, IGCC, and BIGCC include power sent to the grid which replaces electricity from coal. BIGCC results in greater reductions in GHG emissions than IGCC with natural gas because biomass is substituted for fossil fuels. In addition, underground sequestration of CO 2 gas from the ethanol plant's fermentation tank could further reduce the life-cycle GHG emission for corn ethanol by 32% compared to gasoline.

  2. Ethanol and air quality: influence of fuel ethanol content on emissions and fuel economy of flexible fuel vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Carolyn P; Anderson, James E; Wallington, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    Engine-out and tailpipe emissions of NOx, CO, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nonmethane organic gases (NMOG), total hydrocarbons (THC), methane, ethene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, ethanol, N2O, and NH3 from a 2006 model year Mercury Grand Marquis flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) operating on E0, E10, E20, E30, E40, E55, and E80 on a chassis dynamometer are reported. With increasing ethanol content in the fuel, the tailpipe emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, methane, and ammonia increased; NOx and NMHC decreased; while CO, ethene, and N2O emissions were not discernibly affected. NMOG and THC emissions displayed a pronounced minimum with midlevel (E20-E40) ethanol blends; 25-35% lower than for E0 or E80. Emissions of NOx decreased by approximately 50% as the ethanol content increased from E0 to E30-E40, with no further decrease seen with E55 or E80. We demonstrate that emission trends from FFVs are explained by fuel chemistry and engine calibration effects. Fuel chemistry effects are fundamental in nature; the same trend of increased ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, and CH4 emissions and decreased NMHC and benzene emissions are expected for all FFVs. Engine calibration effects are manufacturer and model specific; emission trends for NOx, THC, and NMOG will not be the same for all FFVs. Implications for air quality are discussed.

  3. Expression of TPS1 gene from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 in Saccharomyces sp. W0 enhances trehalose accumulation, ethanol tolerance, and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tian-Shu; Chi, Zhe; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that trehalose plays an important role in stress tolerance in yeasts. Therefore, in order to construct a stably recombinant Saccharomyces sp. W0 with higher ethanol tolerance, the TPS1 gene encoding 6-phosphate-trehalose synthase cloned from Saccharomycopsis fibuligera A11 was ligated into the 18S rDNA integration vector pMIRSC11 and integrated into chromosomal DNA of Saccharomyces sp. W0. The transformant Z8 obtained had the content of 6.23 g of trehalose/100 g of cell dry weight, while Saccharomyces sp. W0 only contained 4.05 g of trehalose/100 g of cell dry weight. The transformant Z8 also had higher ethanol tolerance (cell survival was 25.1 % at 18 ml of ethanol/100 ml of solution) and trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (Tps1) activity (1.3 U/mg) and produced more ethanol (16.4 ml of ethanol/100 ml of medium) than Saccharomyces sp. W0 (cell survival was 12.1 % at 18 ml of ethanol/100 ml of solution, Tps1 activity was 0.8 U/mg and the produced ethanol concentration was 14.2 ml of ethanol/100 ml of medium) under the same conditions. The results show that trehalose indeed can play an important role in ethanol tolerance and ethanol production by Saccharomyces sp. W0.

  4. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Effects of Ethanol and Acetic Acid on Carcinogenic NDMA Formation in Simulated Gastric Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ou; Zou, Xuan; Li, Qi-Hong; Sun, Zhi; Liu, Yong Dong; Zhong, Ru Gang

    2016-07-07

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), as a representative of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOCs), has become the focus of considerable research interest due to its unusually high carcinogenicity. In this study, effects of ethanol and acetic acid on the formation of NDMA from dimethylamine (DMA) and nitrite in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) were investigated. Experimental results showed that ethanol in the concentrations of 1-8% (v/v) and acetic acid in the concentrations of 0.01-8% (v/v) exhibit inhibitory and promotion effects on the formation of NDMA, respectively. Moreover, they are both in a dose-dependent manner with the largest inhibition/promotion rate reaching ∼70%. Further experimental investigations indicate that ethanol and acetic acid are both able to scavenge nitrite in SGF. It implies that there are interactions of ethanol and acetic acid with nitrite or nitrite-related nitrosating agents rather than DMA. Theoretical calculations confirm the above experimental results and demonstrate that ethanol and acetic acid can both react with nitrite-related nitrosating agents to produce ethyl nitrite (EtONO) and acetyl nitrite (AcONO), respectively. Furthermore, the reactivities of ethyl nitrite, acetyl nitrite, and dinitrogen trioxide reacting with DMA were found in the order of AcONO > N2O3 ≫ EtONO. This is probably the main reason why there are completely different effects of ethanol and acetic acid on NDMA formation. On the basis of the above results, two requirements for a potential inhibitor of NOCs formation in SGF were provided. The results obtained in this study will be helpful in better understanding the inhibition/promotion mechanisms of compounds on NDMA formation in SGF and searching for protective substances to prevent carcinogenic NOCs formation.

  5. Administration of memantine during ethanol withdrawal in neonatal rats: effects on long-term ethanol-induced motor incoordination and cerebellar Purkinje cell loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrus, Nirelia M; McGough, Nancy N H; Riley, Edward P; Thomas, Jennifer D

    2011-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can damage the developing fetus, illustrated by central nervous system dysfunction and deficits in motor and cognitive abilities. Binge drinking has been associated with an increased risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, likely due to increased episodes of ethanol withdrawal. We hypothesized that overactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor during ethanol withdrawal leads to excitotoxic cell death in the developing brain. Consistent with this, administration of NMDA receptor antagonists (e.g., MK-801) during withdrawal can attenuate ethanol's teratogenic effects. The aim of this study was to determine whether administration of memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, during ethanol withdrawal could effectively attenuate ethanol-related deficits, without the adverse side effects associated with other NMDA receptor antagonists. Sprague-Dawley pups were exposed to 6.0 g/kg ethanol or isocaloric maltose solution via intubation on postnatal day 6, a period of brain development equivalent to a portion of the 3rd trimester. Twenty-four and 36 hours after ethanol, subjects were injected with 0, 10, or 15 mg/kg memantine, totaling doses of 0, 20, or 30 mg/kg. Motor coordination was tested on a parallel bar task and the total number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using unbiased stereology. Alcohol exposure induced significant parallel bar motor incoordination and reduced Purkinje cell number. Memantine administration significantly attenuated both ethanol-associated motor deficits and cerebellar cell loss in a dose-dependent manner. Memantine was neuroprotective when administered during ethanol withdrawal. These data provide further support that ethanol withdrawal contributes to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption.

  7. The turmeric protective properties at ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldina I.A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mechanically modified turmeric extract on the parameters of orienting-exploratory behavior in mice with chronic ethanol consumption. Material and methods. Mice behavior was assessed in the "open field" test. In the both control groups the animals received water or 10% ethanol solution; in the test group — turmeric extract in 10% ethanol solution. Amount of blood mononuclear cells, thymocytes, and splenocytes were estimated. Results. Analysis of the behavioral parameters in animals after chronic exposure to ethanol showed suppression of motor and exploratory components of the behavior. In mice that received both ethanol and turmeric extract recorded behavior parameters were significantly higher than in the group of animals who received ethanol only. It was shown that the turmeric extract enhances the amount of blood immune cells. Conclusion. Mechanically modified turmeric extract possesses protective properties against ethanol-induced behavioral disorders.

  8. Ethanol embolization of auricular arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Xindong; Zheng Lianzhou; Yi Hongying; Su Lixin; Zheng Jiawei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To present the authors' initial experience of treating auricular arteriovenous malformations(AVMs) with ethanol embolization and to assess the clinical effectiveness of this therapeutic method. Methods: Twenty-two patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Through local puncturing or super-selective catheterization the absolute ethanol,or diluted alcohol (based on the pattern of the AVMs), was manually injected into the abnormal vascular plexus of the auricular lesion. The clinical results were estimated with physical examination or angiography at intervals of 3-4 month, and telephone questionnaire was made at monthly intervals for all patients. Results: Thirty-eight ethanol embolization procedures were performed, the amount of ethanol used during the procedure ranged from 4 ml to 65 ml. After the treatment the clinical symptoms were improved, which were manifested as healing of the ulceration, stop of bleeding, disappearing or alleviation of tinnitus. Angiographic examination showed that the abnormal vascular lesion was completely vanished in 9 cases, decreased by 50%-75% in 8 cases and decreased less than 50% in remaining 5 cases. The common complications included irreversible local necrosis and vesiculation. Conclusion: For the treatment of auricular AVMs ethanol embolization is an effective and safe method,which might become the therapy of first choice. (authors)

  9. Ethanol embolization of auricular arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xindong, Fan; Lianzhou, Zheng [Department of Interventional Radiology, the Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., Shanghai (China); Hongying, Yi; Lixin, Su; Jiawei, Zheng

    2009-11-15

    Objective: To present the authors' initial experience of treating auricular arteriovenous malformations(AVMs) with ethanol embolization and to assess the clinical effectiveness of this therapeutic method. Methods: Twenty-two patients with AVMs were enrolled in this study. Through local puncturing or super-selective catheterization the absolute ethanol,or diluted alcohol (based on the pattern of the AVMs), was manually injected into the abnormal vascular plexus of the auricular lesion. The clinical results were estimated with physical examination or angiography at intervals of 3-4 month, and telephone questionnaire was made at monthly intervals for all patients. Results: Thirty-eight ethanol embolization procedures were performed, the amount of ethanol used during the procedure ranged from 4 ml to 65 ml. After the treatment the clinical symptoms were improved, which were manifested as healing of the ulceration, stop of bleeding, disappearing or alleviation of tinnitus. Angiographic examination showed that the abnormal vascular lesion was completely vanished in 9 cases, decreased by 50%-75% in 8 cases and decreased less than 50% in remaining 5 cases. The common complications included irreversible local necrosis and vesiculation. Conclusion: For the treatment of auricular AVMs ethanol embolization is an effective and safe method,which might become the therapy of first choice. (authors)

  10. Prospects for ethanol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, K R

    1978-05-01

    Whey is a by-product of the manufacture of cheese and casein. Casein whey is not as fully utilized as cheese whey although in the last five years commercial processes have been developed to recover the whey proteins, either in denatured form as lactalbumin or in their soluble form as Solac. The removal of the whey proteins makes little difference to the polluting strength or volume of the whey and a crude lactose solution - serum or permeate - remains to be processed. Many processes have been evaluated for the use of this crude lactose solution; one is microbial transformation to produce products such as methane, ethanol, acetone and butanol and etc. The technologies for these processes are well known and it is the economic evaluation which ultimately determines the feasibility of the process being considered. For the purposes of this paper, the prospects for ethanol production have been evaluated. Unless there is a significant reduction in capital costs, it is concluded that ethanol production from whey is not a viable proposition as an energy source for New Zealand. Industrial ethanol (annual imports; 3.5 x 10/sup 6/ 1 CIF value 32 c/1) and potable ethanol production may be worth contemplating.

  11. Adenylyl cylases 1 and 8 mediate select striatal-dependent behaviors and sensitivity to ethanol stimulation in the adolescent period following acute neonatal ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susick, Laura L; Lowing, Jennifer L; Bosse, Kelly E; Hildebrandt, Clara C; Chrumka, Alexandria C; Conti, Alana C

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure in rodents causes dramatic neurodegenerative effects throughout the developing nervous system, particularly in the striatum, acutely after exposure. These acute neurodegenerative effects are augmented in mice lacking adenylyl cyclases 1 and 8 (AC1/8) as neonatal mice with a genetic deletion of both AC isoforms (DKO) have increased vulnerability to ethanol-induced striatal neurotoxicity compared to wild type (WT) controls. While neonatal ethanol exposure is known to negatively impact cognitive behaviors, such as executive functioning and working memory in adolescent and adult animals, the threshold of ethanol exposure required to impinge upon developmental behaviors in mice has not been extensively examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the behavioral effects of neonatal ethanol exposure using various striatal-dependent developmental benchmarks and to assess the impact of AC1/8 deletion on this developmental progression. WT and DKO mice were treated with 2.5 g/kg ethanol or saline on postnatal day (P)6 and later subjected to the wire suspension, negative geotaxis, postural reflex, grid hang, tail suspension and accelerating rotarod tests at various time points. At P30, mice were evaluated for their hypnotic responses to 4.0 g/kg ethanol by using the loss of righting reflex assay and ethanol-induced stimulation of locomotor activity after 2.0 g/kg ethanol. Ethanol exposure significantly impaired DKO performance in the negative geotaxis test while genetic deletion of AC1/8 alone increased grid hang time and decreased immobility time in the tail suspension test with a concomitant increase in hindlimb clasping behavior. Locomotor stimulation was significantly increased in animals that received ethanol as neonates, peaking significantly in ethanol-treated DKO mice compared to ethanol-treated WT controls, while sedation duration following high-dose ethanol challenge was unaffected. These data indicate that the

  12. [Development of domain specific search engines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, T; Tokunaga, M; Maeda, K; Kaminuma, T

    2000-01-01

    As cyber space exploding in a pace that nobody has ever imagined, it becomes very important to search cyber space efficiently and effectively. One solution to this problem is search engines. Already a lot of commercial search engines have been put on the market. However these search engines respond with such cumbersome results that domain specific experts can not tolerate. Using a dedicate hardware and a commercial software called OpenText, we have tried to develop several domain specific search engines. These engines are for our institute's Web contents, drugs, chemical safety, endocrine disruptors, and emergent response for chemical hazard. These engines have been on our Web site for testing.

  13. Presentation to the Manitoba ethanol advisory panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce, representing the entire spectrum of businesses from all regions of Manitoba, has long advocated for alternative fuels based on agricultural products. Some of the major questions that must be answered in this debate on the ethanol industry in Manitoba are: (1) What are the benefits of a vibrant ethanol industry? (2) What are the facts about ethanol, and are those facts getting out to the public? (3) and How do we foster a vibrant ethanol industry in Manitoba? This document places the emphasis on the third issue raised. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce endorses the idea of a mandated blend of ethanol. It also believes that Manitoba should maintain its gasoline tax-gasohol preference. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce recommends against the government controlling the size and number of ethanol facilities in the province. It also recommends that funding not be afforded to the creation of new programs designed for the specific purpose of providing financial assistance to the ethanol industry. Government awareness campaigns should be limited to issues within the public interest, dealing with environmental and consumer issues and benefits. The government should commit to the enhancement of the vitality of new generation cooperatives (NGCs) in Manitoba. Emphasis by the government should be placed on ensuring that the required infrastructure and partnerships are in place to foster the development and commercialization of innovations in this field. The Manitoba Chambers of Commerce recommended that the provincial government facilitate partnerships through the sponsoring of provincial conferences, while pursuing its partnership efforts with the federal and other provincial governments

  14. Temperature dependence of heat sensitization and thermotolerance induction with ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henle, K.J.; Nagle, W.A.; Moss, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Cytoxicity of 1 M ethanol was strongly temperature dependent; survival curves between 34 0 and 39 0 C were similar to heat survival curves between 40 and 45 0 without ethanol. Ethanol was non-toxic at 22 0 ; at 34.5 0 and 35.5 0 ethanol survival curves were biphasic. The major effect of 1 M ethanol was an effective temperature shift of 6.4 Celsius degrees, although temperatures between 34 0 and 36 0 caused additional sensitization reminiscent of the stepdown heating phenomenon. Induction of thermotolerance with equitoxic ethanol exposures at 35.5 0 and 37 0 or with heat alone (10 min, 45 0 ) resulted in tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance development with similar kinetics; in contrast, ethanol exposures at 22 0 did not induce any tolerance to hyperthermia. These data provide a rationale for conflicting reports in the literature regarding thermotolerance induction by ethanol and suggest that ethanol causes ''heat'' stress at temperatures that are generally considered to be physiological. This interpretation predicts that the use of ethanol and other organic solvents in high concentrations will cause effects at 37 0 that normally occur only at hyperthermic temperatures, including membrane perturbations and HSP synthesis, and that ''physiological'' temperatures must be precisely controlled under those conditions

  15. Hydrogen yield from low temperature steam reforming of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, N.K.; Dalai, A.K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Catalysis and Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratories; Ranganathan, R. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Interest in the use of ethanol for fuel cell hydrogen production was discussed with particular reference to a study in which the production of hydrogen was maximized through low temperature steam reforming of ethanol in the temperature range of 200 to 360 degrees C. The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of Mn concentration on a Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst for steam reforming of ethanol to produce hydrogen. The purpose was to maximize ethanol conversion and hydrogen selectivity in the lowest possible reaction temperature for the ideal catalyst activity. The optimum reaction conditions in the presence of a suitable catalyst can produce the desired products of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Cu/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with six different concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 weight per cent Mn, were prepared, characterized and studied for the ethanol-steam reforming reaction. The effects of different process variables were studied, including water-to-ethanol feed ratio, space time and catalyst reduction temperatures on ethanol conversion and hydrogen yield. Maximum ethanol conversion of 60.7 per cent and hydrogen yield of 3.74 (mol of hydrogen per mol of ethanol converted) were observed at 360 degrees C for a catalyst with 2.5 weight per cent Mn loading. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  16. Effects of production and market factors on ethanol profitability for an integrated first and second generation ethanol plant using the whole sugarcane as feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrelli, Stefano; Galbe, Mats; Wallberg, Ola

    2014-02-21

    Sugarcane is an attractive feedstock for ethanol production, especially if the lignocellulosic fraction can also be treated in second generation (2G) ethanol plants. However, the profitability of 2G ethanol is affected by the processing conditions, operating costs and market prices. This study focuses on the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) and maximum profitability of ethanol production in an integrated first and second generation (1G + 2G) sugarcane-to-ethanol plant. The feedstock used was sugarcane juice, bagasse and leaves. The lignocellulosic fraction was hydrolysed with enzymes. Yields were assumed to be 95% of the theoretical for each of the critical steps in the process (steam pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis (EH), fermentation, solid/liquid separation, anaerobic digestion) in order to obtain the best conditions possible for ethanol production, to assess the lowest production costs. Techno-economic analysis was performed for various combinations of process options (for example use of pentoses, addition of leaves), EH conditions (water-insoluble solids (WIS) and residence time), operating cost (enzymes) and market factors (wholesale prices of electricity and ethanol, cost of the feedstock). The greatest reduction in 2G MESP was achieved when using the pentoses for the production of ethanol rather than biogas. This was followed, in decreasing order, by higher enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency (EHE), by increasing the WIS to 30% and by a short residence time (48 hours) in the EH. The addition of leaves was found to have a slightly negative impact on 1G + 2G MESP, but the effect on 2G MESP was negligible. Sugarcane price significantly affected 1G + 2G MESP, while the price of leaves had a much lower impact. Net present value (NPV) analysis of the most interesting case showed that integrated 1G + 2G ethanol production including leaves could be more profitable than 1G ethanol, despite the fact that the MESP was higher than in 1G ethanol

  17. Performance of a passive direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. P.; Falcão, D. S.; Oliveira, V. B.; Pinto, A. M. F. R.

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol emerges as an attractive fuel since it is less toxic and has higher energy density than methanol and can be produced from biomass. Direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) appear as a good choice for producing sustainable energy for portable applications. However, they are still far from attaining acceptable levels of power output, since their performance is affected by the slow electrochemical ethanol oxidation and water and ethanol crossover. In the present work, an experimental study on the performance of a passive DEFC is described. Tailored MEAs (membrane electrode assembly) with different catalyst loadings, anode diffusion layers and membranes were tested in order to select optimal working conditions at high ethanol concentrations and low ethanol crossover. The performance increased with an increase of membrane and anode diffusion layer thicknesses and anode catalyst loading. A maximum power density of 1.33 mW cm-2, was obtained using a Nafion 117 membrane, 4 mg cm-2 of Pt-Ru and 2 mg cm-2 of Pt on the anode and cathode catalyst layers, ELAT as anode diffusion layer, carbon cloth as cathode diffusion layer and an ethanol concentration of 2 M. As far as the authors are aware this is the first work reporting an experimental optimization of passive DEFCs.

  18. Observational constraints on the global atmospheric budget of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naik

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy security and climate change concerns have led to the promotion of biomass-derived ethanol, an oxygenated volatile organic compound (OVOC, as a substitute for fossil fuels. Although ethanol is ubiquitous in the troposphere, our knowledge of its current atmospheric budget and distribution is limited. Here, for the first time we use a global chemical transport model in conjunction with atmospheric observations to place constraints on the ethanol budget, noting that additional measurements of ethanol (and its precursors are still needed to enhance confidence in our estimated budget. Global sources of ethanol in the model include 5.0 Tg yr−1 from industrial sources and biofuels, 9.2 Tg yr−1 from terrestrial plants, ~0.5 Tg yr−1 from biomass burning, and 0.05 Tg yr−1 from atmospheric reactions of the ethyl peroxy radical (C2H5O2 with itself and with the methyl peroxy radical (CH3O2. The resulting atmospheric lifetime of ethanol in the model is 2.8 days. Gas-phase oxidation by the hydroxyl radical (OH is the primary global sink of ethanol in the model (65%, followed by dry deposition (25%, and wet deposition (10%. Over continental areas, ethanol concentrations predominantly reflect direct anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources. Uncertainty in the biogenic ethanol emissions, estimated at a factor of three, may contribute to the 50% model underestimate of observations in the North American boundary layer. Current levels of ethanol measured in remote regions are an order of magnitude larger than those in the model, suggesting a major gap in understanding. Stronger constraints on the budget and distribution of ethanol and OVOCs are a critical step towards assessing the impacts of increasing the use of ethanol as a fuel.

  19. Pd nanowire arrays as electrocatalysts for ethanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong; Cheng, Faliang [Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan 523106 (China); Xu, Changwei; Jiang, Sanping [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2007-05-15

    Highly ordered Pd nanowire arrays were prepared by template-electrodeposition method using anodic aluminum oxide template. The Pd nanowire arrays, in this paper, have high electrochemical active surface and show excellent catalytic properties for ethanol electrooxidation in alkaline media. The activity of Pd nanowire arrays for ethanol oxidation is not only higher that of Pd film, but also higher than that of commercial E-TEK PtRu(2:1 by weight)/C. The micrometer sized pores and channels in nanowire arrays act as structure units. They make liquid fuel diffuse into and products diffuse out of the catalysts layer much easier, therefore, the utilization efficiency of catalysts gets higher. Pd nanowire arrays are stable catalysts for ethanol oxidation. The nanowire arrays may be a great potential in direct ethanol fuel cells and ethanol sensors. (author)

  20. Production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-10-10

    Ethanol is produced by fermentation with a photohardening resin-immobilized yeast preparation. The ethanol producing yeast may be selected from Saccharomyces, Zygosaccharomyces, or Schizosaccharomyces. The photohardening resin for yeast immobilization is a hydrophilic unsaturated compound, especially polyurethane acrylate, with an average molecular weight of 300-80,000 and containing at least 2 photopolymerizable ethylene groups. The immobilized yeast preparation is prepared by irradiating an aqueous suspension of yeast and a photohardening resin with UV light; the average size of the immobilized yeast is 0.1-3.0 mm and with various shapes. Thus, an aqueous suspension containing Saccharomyces formosensis cells (5 parts), a poly(ethylene glycol)isopharone diisocyanate-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate copolymer (50 parts), and benzoin ethyl ether (0.5 parts) was homogenized, spread on a polypropylene tray (1.0 mm depth), and irradiated with a 3600 A Hg lamp for 5-10 minutes to form a yeast-containing polyurethane acrylate sheet (1.0 mm thickness), which was then sliced into bits of approximately 1.0 mm. When a molasses substrate solution (pH 4.5-5.0) was passed through a column (200 x 20 mm) packed with the polyurethane acrylate-immobilized yeast preparation, eluates containing 7% (weight/volume) ethanol were produced for >3000 hours.

  1. Effect of HCl Loading and Ethanol Concentration over HCl-Activated Clay Catalysts for Ethanol Dehydration to Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutpijit, Chadaporn; Jongsomjit, Bunjerd

    2017-01-01

    Montmorillonite clay (MMT) is one of materials that can be "green material" due to its environmental safety. In this work, acid-activated MMT catalysts were prepared for the dehydration reaction of ethanol. To be the green process, the reaction with bioethanol was also studied. Ethanol concentrations in feed were varied in the range of 10-99.95 wt%. Moreover, the concentrations of hydrochloric acid activated MMT were investigated in range of 0.05-4 M. From the experiment, it reveals that different acid concentrations to activate MMT affect the catalytic activity of catalysts. The 0.3 M of HCl activated MMT exhibits the highest activity (under the best condition of 30 ml HCl aging for 1 h) with the Si/Al ratio of 7.4. It can reach the ethanol conversion and ethylene selectivity up to 95% and 98% at reaction temperature of 400°C, respectively. For the several ethanol feed concentrations, it does not remarkably affect in ethanol conversion. However, it has some different effect on ethylene selectivity between lower and higher reaction temperatures. It was found that at lower temperature reaction, ethylene selectivity is high due to the behavior of water in feed. In addition, the 0.3 M-MMT can be carried out under the hydrothermal effect.

  2. Remetabolism of transpired ethanol by Populus deltoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, R.C.; Kimmerer, T.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ethanol is present in the transpiration stream of flooded and unflooded trees in concentrations up to 0.5mM. Transpired ethanol does not evaporate but is remetabolized by foliage and upper stems in Populus deltoides. 14 C-ethanol was supplied in the transpiration stream to excised leaves and shoots; more than 98% was incorporated. Less than 1% was respired as CO 2 . Organic and amino acids were labelled initially, with eventual accumulations in water- and chloroform-soluble fractions and into protein. Much of the label was incorporated into stem tissue, with little reaching the lamina. These experiments suggest that ethanol is not lost transpirationally through the leaves, but is efficiently recycled in a manner resembling lactate recycling in mammals

  3. Screening study for waste biomass to ethanol production facility using the Amoco process in New York State. Appendices to the final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The final report evaluates the economic feasibility of locating biomass-to-ethanol waste conversion facilities in New York State. Part 1 of the study evaluates 74 potential sites in New York City and identifies two preferred sites on Staten Island, the Proctor and Gamble and the Arthur Kill sites for further consideration. Part 2 evaluates upstate New York and determines that four regions surrounding the urban centers of Albany, Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse provide suitable areas from which to select specific sites for further consideration. A conceptual design and economic viability evaluation were developed for a minimum-size facility capable of processing 500 tons per day (tpd) of biomass consisting of wood or paper, or a combination of the two for upstate regions. The facility would use Amoco`s biomass conversion technology and produce 49,000 gallons per day of ethanol and approximately 300 tpd of lignin solid by-product. For New York City, a 1,000-tpd processing facility was also evaluated to examine effects of economies of scale. The reports evaluate the feasibility of building a biomass conversion facility in terms of city and state economic, environmental, and community factors. Given the data obtained to date, including changing costs for feedstock and ethanol, the project is marginally attractive. A facility should be as large as possible and located in a New York State Economic Development Zone to take advantage of economic incentives. The facility should have on-site oxidation capabilities, which will make it more financially viable given the high cost of energy. This appendix to the final report provides supplemental material supporting the evaluations.

  4. Lifecycle optimized ethanol-gasoline blends for turbocharged engines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Bo

    2016-08-16

    This study presents a lifecycle (well-to-wheel) analysis to determine the CO2 emissions associated with ethanol blended gasoline in optimized turbocharged engines. This study provides a more accurate assessment on the best-achievable CO2 emission of ethanol blended gasoline mixtures in future engines. The optimal fuel blend (lowest CO2 emitting fuel) is identified. A range of gasoline fuels is studied, containing different ethanol volume percentages (E0–E40), research octane numbers (RON, 92–105), and octane sensitivities (8.5–15.5). Sugarcane-based and cellulosic ethanol-blended gasolines are shown to be effective in reducing lifecycle CO2 emission, while corn-based ethanol is not as effective. A refinery simulation of production emission was utilized, and combined with vehicle fuel consumption modeling to determine the lifecycle CO2 emissions associated with ethanol-blended gasoline in turbocharged engines. The critical parameters studied, and related to blended fuel lifecycle CO2 emissions, are ethanol content, research octane number, and octane sensitivity. The lowest-emitting blended fuel had an ethanol content of 32 vol%, RON of 105, and octane sensitivity of 15.5; resulting in a CO2 reduction of 7.1%, compared to the reference gasoline fuel and engine technology. The advantage of ethanol addition is greatest on a per unit basis at low concentrations. Finally, this study shows that engine-downsizing technology can yield an additional CO2 reduction of up to 25.5% in a two-stage downsized turbocharged engine burning the optimum sugarcane-based fuel blend. The social cost savings in the USA, from the CO2 reduction, is estimated to be as much as $187 billion/year. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  5. Market penetration of biodiesel and ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyk, Kenneth Ray

    This dissertation examines the influence that economic and technological factors have on the penetration of biodiesel and ethanol into the transportation fuels market. This dissertation focuses on four aspects. The first involves the influence of fossil fuel prices, because biofuels are substitutes and have to compete in price. The second involves biofuel manufacturing technology, principally the feedstock-to-biofuel conversion rates, and the biofuel manufacturing costs. The third involves prices for greenhouse gas offsets. The fourth involves the agricultural commodity markets for feedstocks, and biofuel byproducts. This dissertation uses the Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model-Greenhouse Gas (FASOM-GHG) to quantitatively examine these issues and calculates equilibrium prices and quantities, given market interactions, fossil fuel prices, carbon dioxide equivalent prices, government biofuel subsidies, technological improvement, and crop yield gains. The results indicate that for the ranges studied, gasoline prices have a major impact on aggregate ethanol production but only at low prices. At higher prices, one runs into a capacity constraint that limits expansion on the capacity of ethanol production. Aggregate biodiesel production is highly responsive to gasoline prices and increases over time. (Diesel fuel price is proportional to the gasoline price). Carbon dioxide equivalent prices expand the biodiesel industry, but have no impact on ethanol aggregate production when gasoline prices are high again because of refinery capacity expansion. Improvement of crop yields shows a similar pattern, expanding ethanol production when the gasoline price is low and expanding biodiesel. Technological improvement, where biorefinery production costs decrease over time, had minimal impact on aggregate ethanol and biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government subsidies have a large expansionary impact on aggregate biodiesel production. Finally, U.S. government

  6. Searching for the IRA "disappeared": ground-penetrating radar investigation of a churchyard burial site, Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2005-11-01

    A search for the body of a victim of terrorist abduction and murder was made in a graveyard on the periphery of a major conurbation in Northern Ireland. The area is politically sensitive and the case of high profile. This required non-invasive, completely non-destructive and rapid assessment of the scene. A MALA RAMAC ground-penetrating radar system was used to achieve these objectives. Unprocessed and processed 400 MHz data show the presence of a collapse feature above and around a known 1970s burial with no similar collapse above the suspect location. In the saturated, clay-rich sediments of the site, 200 MHz data offered no advantage over 400 MHz data. Unprocessed 100 MHz data shows a series of multiples in the known burial with no similar features in the suspect location. Processed 100 MHz lines defined the shape of the collapse around the known burial to 2 m depth, together with the geometry of the platform (1 m depth) the gravedigger used in the 1970s to construct the site. In addition, processed 100 MHz data showed both the dielectric contrast in and internal reflection geometry of the soil imported above the known grave. Thus the sequence, geometry, difference in infill and infill direction of the grave was reconstructed 30 years after burial. The suspect site showed no evidence of shallow or deep inhumation. Subsequently, the missing person's body was found some distance from this site, vindicating the results and interpretation from ground-penetrating radar. The acquisition, processing, collapse feature and sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the known burial and empty (suspect) burial site may be useful proxies for other, similar investigations. GPR was used to evaluate this site within 3 h of the survey commencing, using unprocessed data. An additional day of processing established that the suspect body did not reside here, which was counter to police and community intelligence.

  7. The influence of calcination temperatures on the acid-based properties and catalytic activity for the 1,3-butadiene synthesis from ethanol/acetaldehyde mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meixiang; Jiang, Haoxi; Zhang, Minhua

    2018-05-01

    The influences of the calcination temperature on the catalysts' acid-based properties and catalytic activity for the 1,3-butadiene synthesis from ethanol are investigated. The results show that the 2 wt% ZrO2/Nano-SiO2 calcined at 773 K shows the best performance with the selectivity of 93.18% and conversion of 58.52% when reacted at 593 K, a WHSV of 1.8 h-1 and 3.5:1 volume ratio ethanol-to-acetaldehyde in an atmospheric fixed-bed reactor. Prepared catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, temperature-programmed desorption of NH3 and CO2, FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed pyridine and CO2. Based on the relationship between the catalyst activity and its properties, the fact can be presumed that the formation and strength of Zrsbnd Osbnd Si bond determines the acid-based properties of the catalyst. In addition, moderate-intensity weak acid-basic sites are more suitable for ethanol conversion to BD with the amount of acid and basic sites as close as possible.

  8. Penerapan Teknik Seo (Search Engine Optimization pada Website dalam Strategi Pemasaran melalui Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rony Baskoro Lukito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is how to optimize a web design that can increase the number of visitors. The number of Internet users in the world continues to grow in line with advances in information technology. Products and services marketing media do not just use the printed and electronic media. Moreover, the cost of using the Internet as a medium of marketing is relatively inexpensive when compared to the use of television as a marketing medium. The penetration of the internet as a marketing medium lasted for 24 hours in different parts of the world. But to make an internet site into a site that is visited by many internet users, the site is not only good from the outside view only. Web sites that serve as a medium for marketing must be built with the correct rules, so that the Web site be optimal marketing media. One of the good rules in building the internet site as a marketing medium is how the content of such web sites indexed well in search engines like google. Search engine optimization in the index will be focused on the search engine Google for 83% of internet users across the world using Google as a search engine. Search engine optimization commonly known as SEO (Search Engine Optimization is an important rule that the internet site is easier to find a user with the desired keywords.

  9. A Probabilistic Analysis of the Switchgrass Ethanol Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz W. Patzek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The switchgrass-driven process for producing ethanol has received much popular attention. However, a realistic analysis of this process indicates three serious limitations: (a If switchgrass planted on 140 million hectares (the entire area of active U.S. cropland were used as feedstock and energy source for ethanol production, the net ethanol yield would replace on average about 20% of today’s gasoline consumption in the U.S. (b Because nonrenewable resources are required to produce ethanol from switchgrass, the incremental gas emissions would be on average 55 million tons of equivalent carbon dioxide per year to replace just 10% of U.S. automotive gasoline. (c In terms of delivering electrical or mechanical power, ethanol from 1 hectare (10,000 m2 of switchgrass is equivalent, on average, to 30 m2 of low-efficiency photovoltaic cells. This analysis suggests that investing toward more efficient and durable solar cells, and batteries, may be more promising than investing in a process to convert switchgrass to ethanol.

  10. Effect of the menstrual cycle in ethanol pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, L; Milke, P; Zapata, L; de la Fuente, J R; Vargas-Vorácková, F; Lorenzana-Jiménez, M; Corte, G; Tamayo, J; Kaplan, M; Márquez, M; Kershenobich, D

    1998-01-01

    Differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics within the menstrual cycle have previously been reported and attributed to variations in body composition, hormonal influences and gastric emptying. To establish the role of the menstrual cycle in ethanol pharmacokinetics associated with changes in body composition, ethanol blood concentrations were measured in nine healthy women during the midfollicular (P1, days 8-10) and midluteal (P2, days 22-24) phases of the menstrual cycle after a postprandial oral ethanol dose (0.3 g kg(-1)). Total body water was assessed by dual-energy x-ray densitometry (DEXA) on both occasions. Median total body water did not vary during either phase of the menstrual cycle (P1 = 54.54%, P2 = 54.66%; P = 0.9296). Median area under the ethanol concentration-time curve (AUC) was lower during P1 (215.33 mg.h dl(-1)) than during P2 (231.33 mg.h dl(-1))(P = 0.8253). No significant differences were found on ethanol pharmacokinetics in either phase of the menstrual cycle.

  11. Role of cannabinoidergic mechanisms in ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking in rat adult offspring following perinatal exposure to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economidou, Daina; Mattioli, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Soverchia, Laura; Hardiman, Gary; Campolongo, Patrizia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the consequences of perinatal Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC) treatment (5 mg/kg/day by gavage), either alone or combined with ethanol (3% v/v as the only fluid available), on ethanol self-administration and alcohol-seeking behavior in rat adult offspring. Furthermore, the effect of the selective cannabinoid CB 1 receptor antagonist, SR-141716A, on ethanol self-administration and on reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior induced either by stress or conditioned drug-paired cues was evaluated in adult offspring of rats exposed to the same perinatal treatment. Lastly, microarray experiments were conducted to evaluate if perinatal treatment with Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol, ethanol or their combination causes long-term changes in brain gene expression profile in rats. The results of microarray data analysis showed that 139, 112 and 170 genes were differentially expressed in the EtOH, Δ 9 -THC, or EtOH + Δ 9 -THC group, respectively. No differences in alcohol self-administration and alcohol seeking were observed between rat groups. Intraperitoneal (IP) administration of SR-141716A (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) significantly reduced lever pressing for ethanol and blocked conditioned reinstatement of alcohol seeking. At the same doses SR-141716A failed to block foot-shock stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking. The results reveal that perinatal exposure to Δ 9 -THC ethanol or their combination results in evident changes in gene expression patterns. However, these treatments do not significantly affect vulnerability to ethanol abuse in adult offspring. On the other hand, the results obtained with SR-141716A emphasize that endocannabinoid mechanisms play a major role in ethanol self-administration, as well as in the reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behavior induced by conditioned cues, supporting the idea that cannabinoid CB 1 receptor antagonists may represent interesting agents for the pharmacotherapy of alcoholism

  12. Impact of zinc supplementation on the improvement of ethanol tolerance and yield of self-flocculating yeast in continuous ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X Q; Xue, C; Ge, X M; Yuan, W J; Wang, J Y; Bai, F W

    2009-01-01

    The effects of zinc supplementation were investigated in the continuous ethanol fermentation using self-flocculating yeast. Zinc sulfate was added at the concentrations of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g l(-1), respectively. Reduced average floc sizes were observed in all the zinc-supplemented cultures. Both the ethanol tolerance and thermal tolerance were significantly improved by zinc supplements, which correlated well with the increased ergosterol and trehalose contents in the yeast flocs. The highest ethanol concentration by 0.05 g l(-1) zinc sulfate supplementation attained 114.5 g l(-1), in contrast to 104.1 g l(-1) in the control culture. Glycerol production was decreased by zinc supplementations, with the lowest level 3.21 g l(-1), about 58% of the control. Zinc content in yeast cells was about 1.4 microMol g(-1) dry cell weight, about sixfold higher than that of control in all the zinc-supplemented cultures, and close correlation of zinc content in yeast cells with the cell viability against ethanol and heat shock treatment was observed. These studies suggest that exogenous zinc addition led to a reprogramming of cellular metabolic network, resulting in enhanced ethanol tolerance and ethanol production.

  13. Treatment of benign cold thyroid nodule: efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Kon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myung Joon; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul; Ahn, Il Min

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatent of benign cold thyroid nodules. Twenty-five patients with benign cold thyroid nodules (volume of each at least 2ml proven by PCNA to be adenomatous hyperplasia, and cold nodule by thyroid scan) underwent a total of one to three percutaneous ethanol injections (PEI) at intervals of one or two months. The mean amount of ethanol used was 6.2(range, 1.5-8)ml, depending on the volume of the nodule. Follow up ultrasonography was performed one to four months after the final session. The initial volume of nodules was 11.4±4.1(range, 2.5-41.4)ml, and in all cases this fell by 56.1±22.3%(range, 10.9-92.1%);in all cases, follow-up ultrasonography showed that echogeneity was lower and its pattern was heterogeneous. There were no important longstanding complications;the most common side effect was acute pain at the injection site(n=3D9), and in one case, transient vocal cord palsy occurred. Our results show that US-guided percutaneous injection of ethanol is an effective and a safe procedure for the treatment of benign cold thyroid nodules, and is thus an alternative to surgery or hormone therapy.=20

  14. Energy, carbon dioxide and water use implications of hydrous ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffy, Howard A.; Northrop, William F.; Kittelson, David B.; Boies, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a chemical refinery model and exergy analysis to determine the impact of hydrous ethanol. • The process is 70% efficient with 86% of the losses from fermentation, steam generation and drying. • We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal for thermal energy consumption. • Hydrous ethanol production can reduce energy costs and emissions by ∼8%. • Hydrous ethanol reduces water use by decreasing evaporation in cooling towers. - Abstract: Sub-azeotropic hydrous ethanol has been demonstrated as an effective diesel fuel replacement when used in dual-fuel compression ignition engines. Previous studies have also suggested that hydrous ethanol may be more efficient to produce from corn than anhydrous ethanol. In this study, we investigate corn ethanol production from a dry-mill, natural gas-fired corn ethanol refinery, producing ethanol with a range of ethanol concentrations from 58 wt% to 100 wt% to determine the effect on energy use, water consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the refining stage of the corn ethanol lifecycle. A second law (exergy) analysis of anhydrous ethanol refining revealed the overall process to be 70% efficient, whereby 86% of the exergy losses could be accounted for by three processes: fermentation (34%), steam generation (29%) and distiller’s grains and solubles drying (23%). We found that producing 86 wt% ethanol is optimal as thermal energy consumption decreases by a maximum of 10% (from 7.7 MJ/L to 6.9 MJ/L). These savings have the potential to reduce energy costs by approximately 8% ($0.34/L) and reduce refinery emissions by 8% (2 g CO 2 e/MJ). Production of hydrous ethanol reduced refinery water use due to decreased evaporative losses in the cooling towers, leading to water savings of between 3% and 6% at 86 wt% ethanol.

  15. Experimental investigation of performance, exhaust emission and combustion parameters of stationary compression ignition engine using ethanol fumigation in dual fuel mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamuwa, D.K.; Sharma, D.; Soni, S.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential of renewable fuels as diesel replacement is being emphasized. • Effect of ethanol fumigation on the performance of diesel engine is investigated. • NOx, CO_2 and smoke decreases with simultaneous increase in HC and CO. • Increase in ignition delay with decrease in combustion duration for ethanol substitution observed. - Abstract: Dwindling reserves and steeply increasing prices of the fossil-fuels, concern over climatic change due to release of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and the strict environmental regulations have motivated the researchers for the search for renewable alternative fuel that has clean burning characteristics and may be produced indigenously. Alcohols, being oxygenated fuel improve the combustion and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, thus enhancing agrarian economies and encouraging national economy as a whole. The objective of this paper is to investigate the thermal performance, exhaust emissions and combustion behaviour of small capacity compression ignition engine using fumigated ethanol. Fumigated ethanol at different flow rates is supplied to the cylinder during suction with the help of a simplified low cost ethanol fuelling system. With ethanol fumigation, brake thermal efficiency decreased upto 11.2% at low loads due to deteriorated combustion, whereas improved combustion increased efficiency up to 6% at higher loads, as compared to pure diesel. Maximum reduction of 22%, 41% and 27% respectively in nitrogen oxide, smoke and carbon-di-oxide emissions with simultaneous increase in hydrocarbon and carbon-mono-oxide emissions upto maximum of 144% and 139% respectively for different rates of ethanol fumigation have been observed, when compared to pure diesel operation. This is due to the changes in physico-chemical properties of air fuel mixture, viz combustion temperature, oxygen concentration, latent heat of vaporisation, fuel distribution, cetane number and ignition delay, that occurred with addition of

  16. Environemtnal benefits of the Brazilian Ethanol Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rovere, E.L.; Audinet, P.

    1993-01-01

    After nearly twenty years since it was first launched, the Brazilian Ethanol Programme to data remains the largest commercial application of biomass for energy production and use in the world. It succeeded in demonstrating the technical feasibility of large scale ethanol production from sugar cane and its use to fuel car engines. On social and economic grounds, however, its evaluation is less positive. The purpose of this study is to provide an updated overview of the perspectives for the Ethanol Programme under the light of increasingly important local and global environmental concerns. Major results show that after oil prices supported upon the basis of its contribution to curb the increase of air pollution in Brazilian cities and of the greenhouse effect. It is concluded that the very survival of the Ethanol Programme, depends upon adequate economic compensation considering its global environmental benefits. These are appraised with two scenarios based on the use of a Markal-like model to define the range and costs of curbing greenhouse gases with a policy aiming at extending the Ethanol Programme

  17. Cooperative effects in (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, Sol; Espinal, Juan F; Mondragon, Fanor

    2009-01-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT: B3LYP/6-31 + G(d)) was used for the optimization of clusters on the potential energy surface of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers. The tetramerization energies can reach values up to -21.00 kcal/ mol. This energy can not be obtained by just considering the contributions from interactions between two cluster molecules, which suggests of the presence of global cooperative effects (positive). These effects are reflected in smaller hydrogen bond distances and smaller oxygen-oxygen distances, as well as in greater elongations of the O-H proton donor bond with a stronger red-shift in the heterotetramers compared to the ethanol-water heterodimers and the ethanol dimer. The largest cooperativity effect was observed in the four hydrogen bonds arranged in the largest possible cyclic geometric pattern, where all the molecules act as proton acceptor and donor simultaneously. A similar analysis to the characterization of (ethanol)3-water heterotetramers was carried out on (methanol)3-water heterotetramers, and ethanol and methanol tetramers, whose comparison showed a great similarity between all evaluated parameters for the clusters with equal geometric pattern.

  18. The impacts of ethanol-enhanced fuels on monitored natural attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.; Mocanu, M.; Augustine, D.; Molson, J.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the impact of ethanol fuels on the fate and transport of gasoline hydrocarbons in groundwater. Past laboratory and field studies have shown that ethanol degrades rapidly in the subsurface and can decrease the biodegradation of other gasoline hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) through substrate competition and depletion of nutrients, oxygen and other electron receptors. In this study, 3 gasoline residuals were placed in the Borden Research Aquifer. One fuel contained 90 per cent gasoline and 10 per cent ethanol, the second contained 95 per cent ethanol and 5 per cent gasoline and the third did not have any ethanol. Ethanol from the first 2 samples dissolved rapidly. More than 60 per cent of the ethanol was biotransformed over a 150 day period of transport. Benzene and toluene were more persistent in the plume with 95 per cent ethanol, confirming that ethanol reduced their biotransformation. A 3-D numerical simulation using the BIONAPL model for gasoline dissolution, fate and transport demonstrated that benzene plumes derived from ethanol fuels may be twice as long as plumes from non-ethanol gasoline, although the benzene mass is small. It was suggested that in order to ensure effective remediation, studies should address the design and use of monitored natural attenuation. Plumes should be evaluated early in their evolution when the risk of benzene migration is highest. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  19. Bioavailability of ethanol is reduced in several commonly used liquid diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, N C; de Fiebre, C M; Booker, T K; Nelson, S; Collins, A C

    1994-01-01

    Liquid diets are often used as a vehicle for chronically treating laboratory animals with ethanol. However, a recent report suggested that one or more components of these diets may bind ethanol which could result in a decrease in the bioavailability of ethanol. Consequently, we compared the blood ethanol concentration vs. time curves obtained following the intragastric (i.g.) administration of ethanol dissolved in water or in one of three liquid diets (Bioserv AIN-76, Sustacal, or Carnation Slender) using the long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mouse lines. The initial rates of absorption were generally the same for the water-ethanol and diet-ethanol groups, but the diets generally produced lower peak levels and the areas under the ethanol concentration-time curves were less for all of the liquid diets than for the control, ethanol-water solution. In vitro dialysis experiments indicated that the Bioserv diet binds ethanol in a saturable manner. Therefore, it may be that the slower release of ethanol, which should occur as a result of binding, serves to increase the role of first pass metabolism in regulating ethanol concentrations following oral administration. Because the effects of the diets were seen even after pyrazole treatment, it may be that the lower blood ethanol levels arise because metabolism by gastric ADH, rather than hepatic ADH, is responsible for a major portion of ethanol metabolism as ethanol is slowly released by the diets. If so, the observation that the diet/water differences were uniformly greater in the LS mice may indicate that LS-SS differences in gastric ADH exist.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan; Pavasant, Prasert

    2013-01-01

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510–1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300–2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs

  1. Water Footprints of Cassava- and Molasses-Based Ethanol Production in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangmeechai, Aweewan, E-mail: aweewan.m@nida.ac.th [National Institute of Development Administration, International College (Major in Public Policy and Management) (Thailand); Pavasant, Prasert [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    The Thai government has been promoting renewable energy as well as stimulating the consumption of its products. Replacing transport fuels with bioethanol will require substantial amounts of water and enhance water competition locally. This study shows that the water footprint (WF) of molasses-based ethanol is less than that of cassava-based ethanol. The WF of molasses-based ethanol is estimated to be in the range of 1,510-1,990 L water/L ethanol, while that of cassava-based ethanol is estimated at 2,300-2,820 L water/L ethanol. Approximately 99% of the water in each of these WFs is used to cultivate crops. Ethanol production requires not only substantial amounts of water but also government interventions because it is not cost competitive. In Thailand, the government has exploited several strategies to lower ethanol prices such as oil tax exemptions for consumers, cost compensation for ethanol producers, and crop price assurances for farmers. For the renewable energy policy to succeed in the long run, the government may want to consider promoting molasses-based ethanol production as well as irrigation system improvements and sugarcane yield-enhancing practices, since molasses-based ethanol is more favorable than cassava-based ethanol in terms of its water consumption, chemical fertilizer use, and production costs.

  2. Secondary liquefaction in ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase.......The invention relates to a method of producing ethanol by fermentation, said method comprising a secondary liquefaction step in the presence of a themostable acid alpha-amylase or, a themostable maltogenic acid alpha-amylase....

  3. Modeling bacterial contamination of fuel ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Kenneth M; Liu, Siqing; Leathers, Timothy D; Worthington, Ronald E; Rich, Joseph O

    2009-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria may limit the effectiveness of antibiotics to treat bacterial contamination in fuel ethanol plants, and therefore, new antibacterial intervention methods and tools to test their application are needed. Using shake-flask cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown on saccharified corn mash and strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from a dry-grind ethanol facility, a simple model to simulate bacterial contamination and infection was developed. Challenging the model with 10(8) CFU/mL Lactobacillus fermentum decreased ethanol yield by 27% and increased residual glucose from 6.2 to 45.5 g/L. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the initial bacterial load, with 10(5) CFU/mL L. fermentum still producing an 8% decrease in ethanol and a 3.2-fold increase in residual glucose. Infection was also dependent on the bacterial species used to challenge the fermentation, as neither L. delbrueckii ATCC 4797 nor L. amylovorus 0315-7B produced a significant decrease in ethanol when inoculated at a density of 10(8) CFU/mL. In the shake-flask model, treatment with 2 microg/mL virginiamycin mitigated the infection when challenged with a susceptible strain of L. fermentum (MIC for virginiamycin model may find application in developing new antibacterial agents and management practices for use in controlling contamination in the fuel ethanol industry. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Production of 16% ethanol from 35% sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breisha, Gaber Z.

    2010-01-01

    A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which showed marked fermentation activity, ethanol and temperature tolerance and good flocculation ability, was selected for ethanol production. A stuck fermentation occurred at sucrose concentration of 25%. Increasing the yeast inoculum volume from 3% to 6% showed positive effects on fermentation from 25% sucrose. The ratio of added nitrogen to sucrose, which gave the best results (for the selected yeast strain), was determined. It was concluded that this ratio (nitrogen as ammonium sulphate at a rate of 5 mg g -1 of consumed sucrose) is constant at various sugar concentrations. Addition of nitrogen at this ratio produced 11.55% ethanol with complete consumption of 25% sucrose after 48 h of fermentation. However fermentation of 30% sucrose at the above optimum conditions was not complete. Addition of yeast extract at a level of 6 g l -1 together with thiamine at a level of 0.2 g l -1 led to complete utilization of 30% sucrose with resultant 14% ethanol production. However the selected yeast strain was not able to ferment 35% sucrose at the same optimum conditions. Addition of air at a rate of 150 dm 3 min -1 m 3 of reactor volume during the first 12 h of fermentation led to complete consumption of 35% sucrose and 16% ethanol was produced. This was approximately the theoretical maximum for ethanol production.

  5. State-Level Workshops on Ethanol for Transportation: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, A.

    2004-01-01

    Final report on subcontract for holding four state-level workshops (Hawaii, Kentucky, Nevada, California) to facilitate development of ethanol production facilities in those states. In 2002/2003, under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, BBI International conducted state-level workshops ethanol in Hawaii, Nevada, Kentucky and California. These four workshops followed over 30 other workshops previous held under the Ethanol Workshop Series program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. Two other workshops were conducted by BBI International during 2003, Oklahoma and Kansas, under contract to the Western Regional Biomass Energy Program. The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources. In addition, the EWS was to provide a promotional and educational forum for policy makers, community leaders, media and potential stakeholders. It was recognized that to eventually achieve biomass-ethanol production, it was necessary to support grain-ethanol production as a bridge. The long-term goal of the Workshops was to facilitate the development of biomass ethanol plants at a state-level. The near-term goal was to provide correct and positive information for education, promotion, production and use of fuel ethanol. The EWS drew from 65 to over 200 attendees and were deemed by the local organizers to have served the objectives set out by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Grain and cellulosic ethanol: History, economics, and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Barry D.; Barnes, Justin R.; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.

    2007-01-01

    The United States (US) and Brazil have been the two leading producers of fuel ethanol since the 1970s. National policies have supported the production and use of ethanol from corn and sugarcane. US support in particular has included exemption from federal gasoline excise taxes, whole or partial exemption from road use (sales) taxes in nine states, a federal production tax credit, and a federal blender's credit. In the last decade the subsidization of grain-based ethanol has been increasingly criticized as economically inefficient and of questionable social benefit. In addition, much greater production of ethanol from corn may conflict with food production needs. A promising development is the acceleration of the technical readiness of cellulosic alcohol fuels, which can be produced from the woody parts of trees and plants, perennial grasses, or residues. This technology is now being commercialized and has greater long-term potential than grain ethanol. Cellulosic ethanol is projected to be much more cost-effective, environmentally beneficial, and have a greater energy output to input ratio than grain ethanol. The technology is being developed in North America, Brazil, Japan and Europe. In this paper, we will review the historical evolution of US federal and state energy policy support for and the currently attractive economics of the production and use of ethanol from biomass. The various energy and economic policies will be reviewed and assessed for their potential effects on cellulosic ethanol development relative to gasoline in the US. (author)

  7. The effectiveness of search dogs compared with humans in searching difficult terrain at turbine sites for bat fatalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, Fiona

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Many wind farms in the UK and elsewhere in northern Europe are situated in habitat with dense tall vegetation such as arable fields and upland heaths. This makes surveying for bat fatalities extremely difficult. To facilitate a multi-centre study of the effects of wind turbines on British bats, we have therefore conducted controlled trials of the relative success of trained search dogs and ecologists in retrieving bat carcasses. Although dogs have been used previously in ecological surveys for bats, this is the first time they have been specifically trained for use in 'difficult to survey' habitats. Two ecologists and two Labrador dogs with handlers were each given the opportunity to retrieve up to 45 bat carcasses in a range of habitat types. Their efficiency in terms of overall search time, costs, and retrieval abilities were evaluated. Our results indicate that high rates of retrieval can be achieved by dogs, even in dense vegetation up to 75cm high. Further, a typical 100m2 search area can be surveyed in less than half the time taken by humans. The limitations of using search dogs, and their ability to detect the presence of bats that have been scavenged are also presented (presentation supported with video footage). (Author)

  8. Search Engine Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harold

    2006-01-01

    SEO--short for Search Engine Optimization--is the art, craft, and science of driving web traffic to web sites. Web traffic is food, drink, and oxygen--in short, life itself--to any web-based business. Whether your web site depends on broad, general traffic, or high-quality, targeted traffic, this PDF has the tools and information you need to draw more traffic to your site. You'll learn how to effectively use PageRank (and Google itself); how to get listed, get links, and get syndicated; and much more. The field of SEO is expanding into all the possible ways of promoting web traffic. This

  9. Chronic ethanol feeding modulates the synthesis of digestive enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponnappa, B.C.; Hoek, J.B.; Rubin, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on pancreatic protein synthesis were investigated. Protein synthesis was assessed by studying the rate of incorporation of 3 H-leucine into TCA-precipitable proteins in isolated pancreatic acini from rats. Chronic ethanol ingestion increased the rate of pancreatic protein synthesis by 2-4 fold. The onset of the increase in protein synthesis was detectable two days after ethanol feeding, reached a maximum after 7 days and remained unchanged after 4 months on the ethanol-containing diet. The rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes was studied by SDS-PAGE on extracts obtained from purified zymogen granules. Ethanol feeding induced an increase in the rate of synthesis of most of the digestive enzymes; chymotrypsinogen, trypsinogen and an unidentified protein were increased to a greater extent than other digestive enzymes. By contrast, the synthesis of amylase was selectively decreased after ethanol feeding. These results suggest that chronic ethanol ingestion has specific effects on the rate of synthesis of individual digestive enzymes in the exocrine pancreas

  10. Growth, ethanol production, and inulinase activity on various inulin substrates by mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus strains NRRL Y-50798 and NRRL Y-50799.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Erickson, Adam; Lindquist, Mitchell R; Cox, Elby J; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hoecker, Eric C; Liu, Siqing; Qureshi, Nasib; Jones, Marjorie A

    2016-07-01

    Economically important plants contain large amounts of inulin. Disposal of waste resulting from their processing presents environmental issues. Finding microorganisms capable of converting inulin waste to biofuel and valuable co-products at the processing site would have significant economic and environmental impact. We evaluated the ability of two mutant strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus (Km7 and Km8) to utilize inulin for ethanol production. In glucose medium, both strains consumed all glucose and produced 0.40 g ethanol/g glucose at 24 h. In inulin medium, Km7 exhibited maximum colony forming units (CFU)/mL and produced 0.35 g ethanol/g inulin at 24 h, while Km8 showed maximum CFU/mL and produced 0.02 g ethanol/g inulin at 96 h. At 24 h in inulin + glucose medium, Km7 produced 0.40 g ethanol/g (inulin + glucose) and Km8 produced 0.20 g ethanol/g (inulin + glucose) with maximum CFU/mL for Km8 at 72 h, 40 % of that for Km7 at 36 h. Extracellular inulinase activity at 6 h for both Km7 and Km8 was 3.7 International Units (IU)/mL.

  11. State-level workshops on ethanol for transportaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Angela [BBI International, Cotopaxi, CO (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Ethanol Workshop Series (EWS) was intended to provide a forum for interest groups to gather and discuss what needs to be accomplished to facilitate ethanol production in-state using local biomass resources.

  12. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of Zr6O8 Metal-Organic Framework Node Surfaces Probed with Ethanol Dehydration as a Catalytic Test Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Ortuño, Manuel A; Bernales, Varinia; Cramer, Christopher J; Gagliardi, Laura; Gates, Bruce C

    2018-03-14

    Some metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) incorporate nodes that are metal oxide clusters such as Zr 6 O 8 . Vacancies on the node surfaces, accidental or by design, act as catalytic sites. Here, we report elucidation of the chemistry of Zr 6 O 8 nodes in the MOFs UiO-66 and UiO-67 having used infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies to determine the ligands on the node surfaces originating from the solvents and modifiers used in the syntheses and having elucidated the catalytic properties of the nodes for ethanol dehydration, which takes place selectively to make diethyl ether but not ethylene at 473-523 K. Density functional theory calculations show that the key to the selective catalysis is the breaking of node-linker bonds (or the accidental adjacency of open/defect sites) that allows catalytically fruitful bonding of the reactant ethanol to neighboring sites on the nodes, facilitating the bimolecular ether formation through an S N 2 mechanism.

  14. Microbial physiology-based model of ethanol metabolism in subsurface sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qusheng; Roden, Eric E.

    2011-07-01

    A biogeochemical reaction model was developed based on microbial physiology to simulate ethanol metabolism and its influence on the chemistry of anoxic subsurface environments. The model accounts for potential microbial metabolisms that degrade ethanol, including those that oxidize ethanol directly or syntrophically by reducing different electron acceptors. Out of the potential metabolisms, those that are active in the environment can be inferred by fitting the model to experimental observations. This approach was applied to a batch sediment slurry experiment that examined ethanol metabolism in uranium-contaminated aquifer sediments from Area 2 at the U.S. Department of Energy Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN. According to the simulation results, complete ethanol oxidation by denitrification, incomplete ethanol oxidation by ferric iron reduction, ethanol fermentation to acetate and H 2, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction, and acetoclastic methanogenesis: all contributed significantly to the degradation of ethanol in the aquifer sediments. The assemblage of the active metabolisms provides a frame work to explore how ethanol amendment impacts the chemistry of the environment, including the occurrence and levels of uranium. The results can also be applied to explore how diverse microbial metabolisms impact the progress and efficacy of bioremediation strategies.

  15. Ethanol production from alfalfa fiber fractions by saccharification and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenath, H.K. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering; USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Koegel, R.G. [US Department of Agriculture, Madison, WI (United States). Dairy Forage Research Center; Moldes, A.B. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Universidade de Vigo, Ourense (Spain); Jeffries, T.W. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States). Forest Products Lab.; Straub, R.J. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    2001-07-01

    This work describes ethanol production from alfalfa fiber using separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with and without liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment. Candida shehatae FPL-702 produced 5 and 6.4 g/l ethanol with a yield of 0.25 and 0.16 g ethanol/g sugar respectively by SHF and SSF from alfalfa fiber without pretreatment. With LHW pretreatment using SSF, C. shehatae FPL-702 produced 18.0 g/l ethanol, a yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g sugar from cellulosic solids or 'raffinate'. Using SHF, it produced 9.6 g/l ethanol, a yield of 0.47 g ethanol/g sugar from raffinate. However, the soluble extract fraction containing hemicelluloses was poorly fermented in both SHF and SSF due to the presence of inhibitors. Addition of dilute acid during LHW pretreatment of alfalfa fiber resulted in fractions that were poorly saccharified and fermented. These results show that unpretreated alfalfa fiber produced a lower ethanol yield. Although LHW pretreatment can increase ethanol production from raffinate fiber fractions, it does not increase production from the hemicellulosic and pectin fractions. (author)

  16. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E.; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  17. Recognition of functional sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2004-06-04

    Recognition of regions on the surface of one protein, that are similar to a binding site of another is crucial for the prediction of molecular interactions and for functional classifications. We first describe a novel method, SiteEngine, that assumes no sequence or fold similarities and is able to recognize proteins that have similar binding sites and may perform similar functions. We achieve high efficiency and speed by introducing a low-resolution surface representation via chemically important surface points, by hashing triangles of physico-chemical properties and by application of hierarchical scoring schemes for a thorough exploration of global and local similarities. We proceed to rigorously apply this method to functional site recognition in three possible ways: first, we search a given functional site on a large set of complete protein structures. Second, a potential functional site on a protein of interest is compared with known binding sites, to recognize similar features. Third, a complete protein structure is searched for the presence of an a priori unknown functional site, similar to known sites. Our method is robust and efficient enough to allow computationally demanding applications such as the first and the third. From the biological standpoint, the first application may identify secondary binding sites of drugs that may lead to side-effects. The third application finds new potential sites on the protein that may provide targets for drug design. Each of the three applications may aid in assigning a function and in classification of binding patterns. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each type of search, provide examples of large-scale searches of the entire Protein Data Base and make functional predictions.

  18. Search for Best Astronomical Observatory Sites in the MENA Region using Satellite Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelaziz, G; Guebsi, R; Flamant, C; Guessoum, N

    2017-01-01

    We perform a systematic search for astronomical observatory sites in the MENA (Middle-East and North Africa) region using space-based data for all the relevant factors, i.e. altitude (DEM), cloud fraction (CF), light pollution (NTL), precipitable water vapor (PWV), aerosol optical depth (AOD), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS), Richardson Number (RN), and diurnal temperature range (DTR). We look for the best locations overall even where altitudes are low (the threshold that we normally consider being 1,500 m) or where the combination of the afore-mentioned determining factors had previously excluded all locations in a given country. In this aim, we use the rich data that Earth-observing satellites provide, e.g. the Terra and Aqua multi-national NASA research satellites, with their MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instruments, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), and other products from climate diagnostics archives (e.g. MERRA). We present preliminary results on the best locations for the region. (paper)

  19. Search for Best Astronomical Observatory Sites in the MENA Region using Satellite Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, G.; Guebsi, R.; Guessoum, N.; Flamant, C.

    2017-06-01

    We perform a systematic search for astronomical observatory sites in the MENA (Middle-East and North Africa) region using space-based data for all the relevant factors, i.e. altitude (DEM), cloud fraction (CF), light pollution (NTL), precipitable water vapor (PWV), aerosol optical depth (AOD), relative humidity (RH), wind speed (WS), Richardson Number (RN), and diurnal temperature range (DTR). We look for the best locations overall even where altitudes are low (the threshold that we normally consider being 1,500 m) or where the combination of the afore-mentioned determining factors had previously excluded all locations in a given country. In this aim, we use the rich data that Earth-observing satellites provide, e.g. the Terra and Aqua multi-national NASA research satellites, with their MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) instruments, the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), and other products from climate diagnostics archives (e.g. MERRA). We present preliminary results on the best locations for the region.

  20. Ethanol production from Dekkera bruxellensis in synthetic media with pentose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina B. Codato

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is obtained in Brazil from the fermentation of sugarcane, molasses or a mixture of these. Alternatively, it can also be obtained from products composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, called “second generation ethanol - 2G”. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, commonly applied in industrial ethanol production, is not efficient in the conversion of pentoses, which is present in high amounts in lignocellulosic materials. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of a yeast strain of Dekkera bruxellensis in producing ethanol from synthetic media, containing xylose or arabinose, xylose and glucose as the sole carbon sources. The results indicated that D. bruxellensis was capable of producing ethanol from xylose and arabinose, with ethanol concentration similar for both carbon sources, 1.9 g L-1. For the fermentations performed with xylose and glucose, there was an increase in the concentration of ethanol to 5.9 g L-1, lower than the standard yeast Pichia stipitis (9.3 g L-1, but with similar maximum yield in ethanol (0.9 g g TOC-1. This proves that the yeast D. bruxellensis produced lower amounts of ethanol when compared with P. stipitis, but showed that is capable of fermenting xylose and can be a promising alternative for ethanol conversion from hydrolysates containing glucose and xylose as carbon source.

  1. CT-guided percutaneous ethanol nerve block therapy of celiac plexus embedded in metastatic lymph nodes for the treatment of intractable carcinomatous abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Qian; Wang Peijun; Shang Mingyi; Ma Jun; Lu Ying; Huang Zongliang; Tang Junjun; Gao Xiaolong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT-guided percutaneous ethanol nerve block therapy of celiac plexus embedded in metastatic lymph nodes in treating intractable carcinomatous abdominal pain. Methods: A total of 104 patients with late stage cancers were enrolled in this study. All patients suffered from serious carcinomatous pain at upper abdomen and their retroperitoneal lymph nodes were extensively enlarged and fused, together with the involved celiac plexus, into a hard crumb. As the patients failed to respond to narcotic analgesics CT-guided ethanol nerve block therapy of celiac plexus was carried out by pushing the puncture needle through the fused lymphatic mass to celiac plexus site. The analgesic effects and complications were observed and the therapeutic results were evaluated. Results: The analgesic effective rate of ethanol nerve block therapy immediately after the procedure was 100%, and at 2 weeks, 1, 2, 3 and 4 months after the treatment it was 100%, 100%, 98.0%, 96.9% and 92.6%, respectively. No serious complications occurred during perioperative period. The living quality was markedly improved in all patients. Conclusion: For the treatment of intractable carcinomatous abdominal pain in patients with their celiac plexus being embedded in mass-like metastatic retroperitoneal lymph nodes CT-guided percutaneous ethanol nerve block therapy by pushing the puncture needle through the fused lymphatic mass to celiac plexus site is of great clinical value in relieving carcinomatous abdominal pain. (authors)

  2. Searching while loaded: Visual working memory does not interfere with hybrid search efficiency but hybrid search uses working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-02-01

    In "hybrid search" tasks, such as finding items on a grocery list, one must search the scene for targets while also searching the list in memory. How is the representation of a visual item compared with the representations of items in the memory set? Predominant theories would propose a role for visual working memory (VWM) either as the site of the comparison or as a conduit between visual and memory systems. In seven experiments, we loaded VWM in different ways and found little or no effect on hybrid search performance. However, the presence of a hybrid search task did reduce the measured capacity of VWM by a constant amount regardless of the size of the memory or visual sets. These data are broadly consistent with an account in which VWM must dedicate a fixed amount of its capacity to passing visual representations to long-term memory for comparison to the items in the memory set. The data cast doubt on models in which the search template resides in VWM or where memory set item representations are moved from LTM through VWM to earlier areas for comparison to visual items.

  3. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2015-01-01

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome

  4. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B., E-mail: tolya@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  5. Cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Paola; Orrú, Alessandro; Korkosz, Agnieszka; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Carai, Mauro A M; Colombo, Giancarlo; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats trained to lever press for ethanol in 30-min self-administration sessions. Four responses on an "active" lever led to presentation of 0.1 ml of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol by a liquid dipper and concurrent activation of a set of discrete light and auditory cues. In a 70-min extinction/reinstatement session, responding was first extinguished for 60 min. Subsequently, different stimuli were delivered in a noncontingent manner and reinstatement of nonreinforced responding was assessed. Fifteen presentations of the ethanol-predictive stimulus complex, including the dipper cup containing 5 or 15% ethanol, potently reinstated responding on the previously active lever. The magnitude of reinstatement increased with the number of stimulus presentations and concentration of ethanol presented by the dipper cup. Fifteen presentations of the ethanol-predictive stimulus complex, including the dipper cup filled with water (0% ethanol), did not produce any reinstatement. These results indicate that (1) noncontingent presentations of the ethanol-predictive stimulus complex may reinstate ethanol seeking in sP rats and (2) the orosensory properties of ethanol may play an important role in reinstatement of ethanol seeking in sP rats. The latter finding concurs with clinical observations that odor and taste of alcoholic beverages elicit immediate craving responses in abstinent alcoholics.

  6. Spectroscopic investigation into the design of solid-acid catalysts for the low temperature dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Matthew E; Aswegen, Sivan V; Gibson, Emma K; Silverwood, Ian P; Raja, Robert

    2016-07-14

    The increased demand for bulk hydrocarbons necessitates research into increasingly sustainable, energy-efficient catalytic processes. Owing to intricately designed structure-property correlations, SAPO-34 has become established as a promising material for the low temperature ethanol dehydration to produce ethylene. However, further optimization of this process requires a precise knowledge of the reaction mechanism at a molecular level. In order to achieve this a range of spectroscopic characterization techniques are required to probe both the interaction with the active site, and also the wider role of the framework. To this end we employ a combination of in situ infra-red and neutron scattering techniques to elucidate the influence of the surface ethoxy species in the activation of both diethyl ether and ethanol, towards the improved formation of ethylene at low temperatures. The combined conclusions of these studies is that the formation of ethylene is the rate determining step, which is of fundamental importance towards the development of this process and the introduction of bio-ethanol as a viable feedstock for ethylene production.

  7. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  8. High-Octane Mid-Level Ethanol Blend Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Caley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, Emily [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brooker, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Steve [Lexidyne, LLC, Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Leiby, Paul [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez, Rocio Uria [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Maxwell L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The United States government has been promoting increased use of biofuels, including ethanol from non-food feedstocks, through policies contained in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The objective is to enhance energy security, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and provide economic benefits. However, the United States has reached the ethanol blend wall, where more ethanol is produced domestically than can be blended into standard gasoline. Nearly all ethanol is blended at 10 volume percent (vol%) in gasoline. At the same time, the introduction of more stringent standards for fuel economy and GHG tailpipe emissions is driving research to increase the efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. Advanced strategies for increasing SI engine efficiency are enabled by higher octane number (more highly knock-resistant) fuels. Ethanol has a research octane number (RON) of 109, compared to typical U.S. regular gasoline at 91-93. Accordingly, high RON ethanol blends containing 20 vol% to 40 vol% ethanol are being extensively studied as fuels that enable design of more efficient engines. These blends are referred to as high-octane fuel (HOF) in this report. HOF could enable dramatic growth in the U.S. ethanol industry, with consequent energy security and GHG emission benefits, while also supporting introduction of more efficient vehicles. HOF could provide the additional ethanol demand necessary for more widespread deployment of cellulosic ethanol. However, the potential of HOF can be realized only if it is adopted by the motor fuel marketplace. This study assesses the feasibility, economics, and logistics of this adoption by the four required participants--drivers, vehicle manufacturers, fuel retailers, and fuel producers. It first assesses the benefits that could motivate these participants to adopt HOF. Then it focuses on the drawbacks and barriers that these participants could face when adopting HOF and proposes strategies--including incentives and

  9. Relationship between ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Lidia; Gómez, Ma José; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Cañete, Antoni; Blázquez, Gloria; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen

    2014-06-22

    High- and low-avoidance Roman inbred rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I) were selected for extreme differences in two-way active avoidance. RHA-I rats also express less anxiety than RLA-I rats. This study compared male Roman rats in ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. Rats were first exposed in counterbalanced order to the hole-board test (forced exposure to novelty) and the Y-maze and emergence tests (free choice between novel and familiar locations). Then, rats were tested in 24-h, two-bottle preference tests with water in one bottle and ethanol (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% in successive days). Compared to RLA-I rats, RHA-I rats showed (1) higher frequency and time in head dipping, (2) higher activity, and (3) lower frequency of rearing and grooming in the hole-board test, and (4) remained in the novel arm longer in the Y-maze test. No strain differences were observed in the emergence test. RHA-I rats exhibited higher preference for and consumed more ethanol than RLA-I rats at all concentrations. However, both strains preferred ethanol over water for 2-4% concentrations, but water over ethanol for 6-10% concentrations. Factorial analysis with all the rats pooled identified a two-factor solution, one grouping preferred ethanol concentrations (2-4%) with head dipping and grooming in the hole board, and another factor grouping the nonpreferred ethanol concentrations (6-10%) with activity in the hole board and novel-arm time in the Y-maze test. These results show that preference for ethanol is associated with different aspects of behavior measured in sensation/novelty-seeking tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Texaco/CPC to produce ethanol for gasohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-25

    It is reported that Texaco and CPC international have formed a joint venture to produce ethanol for gasohol. CPC's corn wet milling plant in Pekin, Ill, will be converted to produce 60 million gal/year of ethanol, which will be mixed with gasoline in the proportion of 10% ethanol to 90% gasoline. Meanwhile, a report by Frost and Sullivan describes as''realistic'' the DOE goals to generate 920 million gallons of alcohol fuel by 1982 and 10% of all automotive fuel by the end of the decade.

  11. Facile synthesis of a platinum-lead oxide nanocomposite catalyst with high activity and durability for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hong-Hui; Chen, De-Hao; Zhou, Zhi-You; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2012-12-21

    Aimed at searching for highly active and stable nano-scale Pt-based catalysts that can improve significantly the energy conversion efficiency of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs), a novel Pt-PbO(x) nanocomposite (Pt-PbO(x) NC) catalyst with a mean size of 3.23 nm was synthesized through a simple wet chemistry method without using a surfactant, organometallic precursors and high temperature. Electrocatalytic tests demonstrated that the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst possesses a much higher catalytic activity and a longer durability than Pt nanoparticles (nm-Pt) and commercial Pt black catalysts for ethanol electrooxidation. For instance, Pt-PbO(x) NC showed an onset potential that was 30 mV and 44 mV less positive, together with a peak current density 1.7 and 2.6 times higher than those observed for nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts in the cyclic voltammogram tests. The ratio of current densities per unit Pt mass on Pt-PbO(x) NC, nm-Pt and Pt black catalysts is 27.3 : 3.4 : 1 for the long-term (2 hours) chronoamperometric experiments measured at -0.4 V (vs. SCE). In situ FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed that the activity of breaking C-C bonds of ethanol of the Pt-PbO(x) NC is as high as 5.17 times that of the nm-Pt, which illustrates a high efficiency of ethanol oxidation to CO(2) on the as-prepared Pt-PbO(x) NC catalyst.

  12. Removal of Atmospheric Ethanol by Wet Deposition: A Global Flux Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, J. D. D.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, B.; Thomas, R.; Mullaugh, K.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.; Helms, J. R.; Campos, L.; Shimizu, M. S.; Guibbina, F.

    2017-12-01

    Global ethanol fuel consumption has increased exponentially over the last two decades and the US plans to double annual renewable fuel production in the next five years as required by the renewable fuel standard. Regardless of the technology or feedstock used to produce the renewable fuel, the primary end product will be ethanol. Increasing ethanol fuel consumption will have an impact on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere and increase atmospheric concentrations of the secondary pollutant peroxyacetyl nitrate as well a variety of VOCs with relatively high ozone reactivities (e.g. ethanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde). Despite these documented effects of ethanol emissions on atmospheric chemistry, current global atmospheric ethanol budget models have large uncertainties in the magnitude of ethanol sources and sinks. The presented work investigates the global wet deposition sink by providing the first estimate of the global wet deposition flux of ethanol (2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr) based on empirical wet deposition data (219 samples collected at 12 locations). This suggests the wet deposition sink removes between 6 and 17% of atmospheric ethanol annually. Concentrations of ethanol in marine wet deposition (25 ± 6 nM) were an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial deposition (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial deposition collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to deposition collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources and ethanol emission impacts on air quality may be more significant in highly populated areas. As established and developing countries continue to rapidly increase ethanol fuel consumption and subsequent emissions, understanding the magnitude of all ethanol sources and

  13. Effect of ethanol on galactose tolerance in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, C.T.; Rudnick, J.; McInteer, B.B.; Whaley, T.W.; Shreeve, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Galactose-/sup 13/C was given to 18 subjects; /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ excretion in respiratory air was followed for 3 hours. Each subject was given galactose-/sup 13/C/sub 6/ (10 g/m/sup 2/), then retested some days later with the same amount of labeled sugar and a low level (3.5 g/m/sup 2/) of ethanol. On the basis of the /sup 13/CO/sub 2/ excretion curves in the presence and absence of ethanol, the subjects were divided into four groups (i.e., subjects considered as normal, probably normal, probable liver damage, and liver damage). Ethanol strongly inhibited galactose metabolism in normal subjects. This effect of ethanol progressively declined in the four groups until, in the last group (liver damage), ethanol had no further effect on the already severely depressed oxidation of galactose. Comparison of the galactose tolerance data with other clinical tests and with the results of a drinking history suggests that the ethanol-primed galactose tolerance test may give good discrimination between groups of people with varying degrees of liver damage short of frank cirrhosis, although alcohol-priming is not necessary to distinguish between normal and cirrhotic subjects.

  14. Autoshaping of ethanol drinking: an animal model of binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; di Poce, Jason; Derenzo, Christopher C; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Pavlovian autoshaping provides an animal learning model of drug abuse, two studies evaluated the induction of ethanol drinking by autoshaping procedures. In Experiment 1, the sipper tube conditioned stimulus (CS) contained saccharin/ethanol solution and was repeatedly paired with food as an unconditioned stimulus (US). The CS-US paired group consumed more of the 0.1% saccharin-6% ethanol solution than did the CS-US random group, revealing that autoshaping conditioned responses (CR) induce ethanol drinking not attributable to pseudo-conditioning. Experiment 2 employed saccharin-fading procedures and showed that the paired vs random group differences in ethanol drinking were maintained, even as the saccharin was eliminated from the solution. The results show that Pavlovian autoshaping procedures induce high volumes of ethanol drinking when the presentation of a sipper tube containing an ethanol solution precedes the response-independent delivery of food. The high volume of ethanol consumed in a brief period of time suggests that Pavlovian autoshaping may be a model of binge drinking.

  15. Reduction of salt content of fish sauce by ethanol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Xu, Ying; He, Xiaoxia; Wang, Dongfeng; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Jiang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Fish sauce is a traditional condiment in Southeast Asia, normally containing high concentration of salt. The solubility of salt is lower in ethanol than in water. In the present study, fish sauce was desalted by ethanol treatment (including the processes of ethanol addition, mixing, standing and rotary evaporation). The salt concentration of fish sauce decreased significantly from 29.72 to 19.72 g/100 mL when the treated ethanol concentration was 21% (v/v). The addition of more than 12% (v/v) of ethanol significantly reduced dry weight, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acids nitrogen content. Besides, the quality of fish sauce remained first grade if no more than 21% (v/v) of ethanol was used. Furthermore, sensory analyses showed that ethanol treatment significantly reduced the taste of salty and the odor of ammonia. This study demonstrates that ethanol treatment is a potential way to decrease salt content in fish sauce, which meanwhile limits the losses of nutritional and sensorial values within an acceptable range.

  16. Computational study of ethanol adsorption and reaction over rutile TiO2 (110) surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Muir, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the modes of adsorption and the associated changes in electronic structures of renewable organic compounds are needed in order to understand the fundamentals behind surface reactions of catalysts for future energies. Using planewave density functional theory (DFT) calculations, the adsorption of ethanol on perfect and O-defected TiO 2 rutile (110) surfaces was examined. On both surfaces the dissociative adsorption mode on five-fold coordinated Ti cations (Ti 4+ 5c) was found to be more favourable than the molecular adsorption mode. On the stoichiometric surface E ads was found to be equal to 0.85 eV for the ethoxide mode and equal to 0.76 eV for the molecular mode. These energies slightly increased when adsorption occurred on the Ti 4+ 5c closest to the O-defected site. However, both considerably increased when adsorption occurred at the removed bridging surface O; interacting with Ti 3+ cations. In this case the dissociative adsorption becomes strongly favoured (E ads = 1.28 eV for molecular adsorption and 2.27 eV for dissociative adsorption). Geometry and electronic structures of adsorbed ethanol were analysed in detail on the stoichiometric surface. Ethanol does not undergo major changes in its structure upon adsorption with its C-O bond rotating nearly freely on the surface. Bonding to surface Ti atoms is a σ type transfer from the O2p of the ethanol-ethoxide species. Both ethanol and ethoxide present potential hole traps on O lone pairs. Charge density and work function analyses also suggest charge transfer from the adsorbate to the surface, in which the dissociative adsorptions show a larger charge transfer than the molecular adsorption mode. This journal is © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  17. Radioisotope tracer study of co-reactions of methanol with ethanol using 11C-labelled methanol over alumina and H-ZSM-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkadi-Priboczki, E.; Kovacs, Z.; Kumar, N.; Salmi, T.; Murzin, D.Yu

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The transformation of methanol has been investigated over alumina and H-ZSM-5 in our previous experiments by 11 C-radioisotope tracing. The main product in methanol conversion over alumina was dimethyl ether due to Lewis acid sites while over H-ZSM-5 mostly hydrocarbons were formed due to both Lewis and Brrnsted acid sites. With increasing temperature first the ethanol was dehydrated to diethyl ether followed by ethene formation over alumina and H-ZSM-5. In this work, 11 C-labelled methanol as radioisotope tracer was added to non-radioactive methanol for investigation of co-reaction with non-radioactive ethanol over alumina and H- ZSM-5. The 11 C-methanol tracer was used to distinguish the methanol derivates and co-reaction derivates of methanol with ethanol against non-radioactive ethanol derivates. The yield of methyl ethyl ether as mixed ether and the influence of ethanol for the yields of C 1 -C 5 hydrocarbons were studied as a function of reaction temperature and contact time. The 11 C-methanol was formed by a radiochemical process from 11 CO 2 produced at cyclotron. The mixture of methanol and ethanol was added to 11 C-methanol and injected to the catalyst. The catalysis was carried out in a glass tube fixed-bed reactor after its pretreatment. The derivates were analyzed by radio-gas chromatography (gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector coupled on-line with a radioactivity detector). The comparative analysis of yields of radioactive and non-radioactive products as a function of reaction temperature gives information about the reaction pathways. Over alumina the yields of dimethyl ether and methyl ethyl ether (co-product) as radioactive and diethyl ether with ethene as non-radioactive main products were monitored as a function of reaction temperature and reaction time in the range of 513-593 K. Alongside ethanol derivates the ethene turns into main product in contrast with methyl ethyl ether and diethyl

  18. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of agricultural residues to ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mes-Hartree, M.; Hogan, C.M.; Saddler, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process was used to convert steam-treated wheat and barley straw to ethanol. Maximum conversion efficiencies were obtained when the substrates were steamed for 90 s. These substrates could yield over 0.4 g ethanol/g cellulose following a combined enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process procedure using culture filtrates derived from Trichoderma harzianum E58. When culture filtrates from Trichoderma reesei C30 and T. reesei QM9414 were used, the ethanol yields obtained were 0.32 and 0.12 g ethanol/g cellulose utilized, respectively. The lower ethanol yields obtained with these strains were attributed to the lower amounts of ..beta..-glucosidase detected in the T. reesei culture filtrates.

  19. Stereospecificity (ST) of the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, J.; Kato, S.; Lasker, J.; Lieber, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The ST of MEOS for the ethanol 1R hydrogen has been variously reported as absolute, partial or absent, with free radical involvement postulated in the latter case. To determine both the ST of MEOS and the participation of free radicals in the reaction, they investigated MEOS ST using 1R[1- 3 H] ethanol as substrate. ST is expressed as the fraction of 3 H labeling in acetaldehyde formed, relative to that in ethanol, and ranges from 0.5 to 0. Partial ST was observed using liver microsomes from both rats and hamsters; it significantly decreased after ethanol feeding. 0.1 mM desferrioxamine (dfx) did not increase ST in any of these microsomal preparations while ferric EDTA decreased it, suggesting that ethanol treatment induces a cytochrome P-450 with lower ST rather than increasing free radical involvement. This is supported by a virtual absence of ST observed in a reconstituted system containing purified hamster P-450/sub ALC/, a liver cytochrome P-450 isozyme induced in hamsters by ethanol treatment. Their results indicate that, unlike other enzymes that oxidize