WorldWideScience

Sample records for search assessing stars

  1. Optimal Target Stars in the Search for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-04-01

    The selection of optimal targets in the search for life represents a highly important strategic issue. In this Letter, we evaluate the benefits of searching for life around a potentially habitable planet orbiting a star of arbitrary mass relative to a similar planet around a Sun-like star. If recent physical arguments implying that the habitability of planets orbiting low-mass stars is selectively suppressed are correct, we find that planets around solar-type stars may represent the optimal targets.

  2. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. II. The NGC 6357 star-forming region

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    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Kroupa, P.; Oh, S.

    2011-11-01

    Dynamical few-body encounters in the dense cores of young massive star clusters are responsible for the loss of a significant fraction of their massive stellar content. Some of the escaping (runaway) stars move through the ambient medium supersonically and can be revealed via detection of their bow shocks (visible in the infrared, optical or radio). In this paper, which is the second of a series of papers devoted to the search for OB stars running away from young ( ≲ several Myr) Galactic clusters and OB associations, we present the results of the search for bow shocks around the star-forming region NGC 6357. Using the archival data of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite and the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the preliminary data release of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered seven bow shocks, whose geometry is consistent with the possibility that they are generated by stars expelled from the young (~1-2 Myr) star clusters, Pismis 24 and AH03 J1725-34.4, associated with NGC 6357. Two of the seven bow shocks are driven by the already known OB stars, HD 319881 and [N78] 34. Follow-up spectroscopy of three other bow-shock-producing stars showed that they are massive (O-type) stars as well, while the 2MASS photometry of the remaining two stars suggests that they could be B0 V stars, provided that both are located at the same distance as NGC 6357. Detection of numerous massive stars ejected from the very young clusters is consistent with the theoretical expectation that star clusters can effectively lose massive stars at the very beginning of their dynamical evolution (long before the second mechanism for production of runaway stars, based on a supernova explosion in a massive tight binary system, begins to operate) and lends strong support to the idea that probably all field OB stars have been dynamically ejected from their birth clusters. A by-product of our search for bow shocks around NGC 6357 is the detection of three circular

  3. Searching for X-ray Pulsations from Neutron Stars Using NICER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Bogdanov, Slavko; Bult, Peter; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Guillot, Sebastien; Harding, Alice; Ho, Wynn C. G.; Lamb, Frederick; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Miller, Cole; Strohmayer, Tod; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Wolff, Michael T.; NICER Science Team Working Group on Pulsation Searches and Multiwavelength Coordination

    2018-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) presents an exciting new capability for discovering new modulation properties of X-ray emitting neutron stars, including large area, low background, extremely precise absolute time stamps, superb low-energy response and flexible scheduling. The Pulsation Searches and Multiwavelength Coordination working group has designed a 2.5 Ms observing program to search for pulsations and characterize the modulation properties of about 30 known or suspected neutron star sources across a number of source categories. A key early goal will be to search for pulsations from millisecond pulsars that might exhibit thermal pulsations from the surface suitable for pulse profile modeling to constrain the neutron star equation of state. In addition, we will search for pulsations from transitional millisecond pulsars, isolated neutron stars, LMXBs, accretion-powered millisecond pulsars, central compact objects and other sources. We present our science plan and initial results from the first months of the NICER mission.

  4. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

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    Raharto, Moedji, E-mail: moedji@as.itb.ac.id [Astronomy Research Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  5. A search for OH emission from symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, R.P.; Haynes, R.F.; Wright, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for OH maser emission from a sample of 16 symbiotic stars. This sample was selected on the basis of infrared optical depth and variability, so that the stars within it have circumstellar shells similar to those seen in OH/IR and OH/Mira stars. There were no significant detections, except for one unassociated background source, and it is concluded that the presence of a hot binary companion inhibits any possible OH maser action

  6. Searching for New Double Stars with a Computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, T. V.

    2015-04-01

    The advent of computers with large amounts of RAM memory and fast processors, as well as easy internet access to large online astronomical databases, has made computer searches based on astrometric data practicable for most researchers. This paper describes one such search that has uncovered hitherto unrecognized double stars.

  7. A search for magnetic fields in Lambda Bootis stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlender, D.A.; Landstreet, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    We have searched a sample of λ Boo stars for magnetic fields similar to those observed in the magnetic Ap and Bp stars, using a Balmer-line Zeeman analyser. Apart from one dubious measurement, no fields are detected in our sample. It appears that magnetic fields of the λ Boo stars, if they exist, are significantly smaller than those found in magnetic upper main-sequence stars of similar spectral type; this conclusion is supported at about the 90 or 95 per cent confidence level by the present data. (author)

  8. A new search for R Coronae Borealis stars in the SMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikzat Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available R Coronae Borealis (RCB stars are rare, and their evolutionary origin is not well understood. Since they are obscured due to formation of carbon dust around the star during their mass loss events, RCB stars can be classified as self-eclipsing variable stars. The purpose of this work is to present a new search for RCB stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC, by analysing VI data from the OGLE project.

  9. Search for OB stars running away from young star clusters. I. NGC 6611

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Bomans, D. J.

    2008-11-01

    N-body simulations have shown that the dynamical decay of the young (~1 Myr) Orion Nebula cluster could be responsible for the loss of at least half of its initial content of OB stars. This result suggests that other young stellar systems could also lose a significant fraction of their massive stars at the very beginning of their evolution. To confirm this expectation, we used the Mid-Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (completed by the Midcourse Space Experiment satellite) to search for bow shocks around a number of young (⪉several Myr) clusters and OB associations. We discovered dozens of bow shocks generated by OB stars running away from these stellar systems, supporting the idea of significant dynamical loss of OB stars. In this paper, we report the discovery of three bow shocks produced by O-type stars ejected from the open cluster NGC 6611 (M16). One of the bow shocks is associated with the O9.5Iab star HD165319, which was suggested to be one of “the best examples for isolated Galactic high-mass star formation” (de Wit et al. 2005, A&A, 437, 247). Possible implications of our results for the origin of field OB stars are discussed.

  10. A Search for Pulsar Companions to OB Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, V. M.

    1995-01-01

    We have searched for radio pulsar companions to 40 nearby OB runaway stars. Observations were made at 474 and 770 MHz with the NRAO 140 ft telescope. The survey was sensitive to long- period pulsars with flux densities of 1 mJy or more. One previously unknown pulsar was discovered, PSRJ2044+4614, while observing towards target O star BD+45,3260. Follow-up timing observations of the pulsar measured its position to high precision, revealing a 9' separation between the pulsar and the target star, unequivocally indicating they are not associated.

  11. The Nainital Cape Survey Project : A Search for Pulsation in Chemically Peculiar Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhari, Nand Kumar; Joshi, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    The Nainital-Cape Survey is a dedicated search programme initiated in 1999 in the coordination of astronomers from SAAO South Africa, ARIES Nainital and ISRO Bangalore. Over the last 17 years a total of 345 chemically peculiar stars were monitored for photometric variability, making it one of the longest ground-based survey to search for pulsation in chemically peculiar stars in terms of both time span and sample size. Under this survey, we discovered rapid pulsation in the Ap star HD12098 while δ Scuti-type pulsations were detected in seven Am stars. Those stars in which pulsations were not detected have also been tabulated along with their detailed astrophysical parameters for further investigation.

  12. A Search for Exoplanets in Short-Period Binary Star Systems

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    Ronald Kaitchuck

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the progress of a search for exoplanets with S-type orbits in short-period binary star systems. The selected targets have stellar orbital periods of just a few days. These systems are eclipsing binaries so that exoplanet transits, if planets exist, will be highly likely. We report the results for seven binary star systems.

  13. A SEARCH FOR UNRECOGNIZED CARBON-ENHANCED METAL-POOR STARS IN THE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia; Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun; Christlieb, Norbert; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Reimers, Dieter; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a new procedure to search for carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars from the Hamburg/ESO (HES) prism-survey plates. This method employs an extended line index for the CH G band, which we demonstrate to have superior performance when compared to the narrower G-band index formerly employed to estimate G-band strengths for these spectra. Although CEMP stars have been found previously among candidate metal-poor stars selected from the HES, the selection on metallicity undersamples the population of intermediate-metallicity CEMP stars (-2.5 ≤ [Fe/H] ≤ -1.0); such stars are of importance for constraining the onset of the s-process in metal-deficient asymptotic giant branch stars (thought to be associated with the origin of carbon for roughly 80% of CEMP stars). The new candidates also include substantial numbers of warmer carbon-enhanced stars, which were missed in previous HES searches for carbon stars due to selection criteria that emphasized cooler stars. A first subsample, biased toward brighter stars (B< 15.5), has been extracted from the scanned HES plates. After visual inspection (to eliminate spectra compromised by plate defects, overlapping spectra, etc., and to carry out rough spectral classifications), a list of 669 previously unidentified candidate CEMP stars was compiled. Follow-up spectroscopy for a pilot sample of 132 candidates was obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the SOAR 4.1 m telescope. Our results show that most of the observed stars lie in the targeted metallicity range, and possess prominent carbon absorption features at 4300 A. The success rate for the identification of new CEMP stars is 43% (13 out of 30) for [Fe/H] < -2.0. For stars with [Fe/H] < -2.5, the ratio increases to 80% (four out of five objects), including one star with [Fe/H] < -3.0.

  14. The Search for Symbiotic Stars in the IPHAS Survey

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    Corradi R. L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have started a project to search for symbiotic stars using the data from IPHAS, the Hα survey of the Northern Galactic plane. Candidates are selected from the IPHAS photometric catalogue based on their colors, combined with the information in the near-infrared from 2MASS. So far, follow-up spectroscopy allowed us to discover 14 new symbiotic stars, compared to the 10 systems previously known in the IPHAS survey area. Their general characteristics and the most notable cases are briefly presented. the spectroscopic campaign also allowed us to refine the selection criteria for symbiotic stars in IPHAS. Perspectives, which include the extension of the survey in the Southern Galactic plane and a portion of the bulge (VPHAS+, are discussed.

  15. An IRAS-Based Search for New Dusty Late-Type WC Wolf-Rayet Stars

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    Cohen, Martin

    1995-01-01

    I have examined all Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data relevant to the 173 Galactic Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars in an updated catalog, including the 13 stars newly discovered by Shara and coworkers. Using the W-R coordinates in these lists, I have examined the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC), the Faint Source Catalog, and the Faint Source Reject Catalog, and have generated one-dimensional spatial profiles, 'ADDSCANs', and two-dimensional full-resolution images, 'FRESCOS'. The goal was to assemble the best set of observed IRAS color indices for different W-R types, in particular for known dusty late-type WC Wolf-Rayet (WCL) objects. I have also unsuccessfully sought differences in IRAS colors and absolute magnitudes between single and binary W-R stars. The color indices for the entire ensemble of W-R stars define zones in the IRAS color-color ([12] - [25], [25] - [60])-plane. By searching the PSC for otherwise unassociated sources that satisfy these colors, I have identified potential new W-R candidates, perhaps too faint to have been recognized in previous optical searches. I have extracted these candidates' IRAS low-resolution spectrometer (LRS) data and compared the spectra with the highly characteristic LRS shape for known dusty WCL stars. The 13 surviving candidates must now be ex amined by optical spectroscopy. This work represents a much more rigorous and exhaustive version of the LRS study that identified IRAS 17380 - 3031 (WR98a) as the first new W-R (WC9) star discovered by IPAS. This search should have detected dusty WCL stars to a distance of 7.0 kpc from the Sun, for l is greater than 30 degrees, and to 2.9 kpc even in the innermost galaxy. For free-free-dominated W-R stars the corresponding distances are 2.5 and 1.0 kpc, respectively.

  16. A search for radio emission from exoplanets around evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, E.; Coughlan, C. P.; Vlemmings, W.; Varenius, E.; Sirothia, S.; Ray, T. P.; Olofsson, H.

    2018-04-01

    The majority of searches for radio emission from exoplanets have to date focused on short period planets, i.e., the so-called hot Jupiter type planets. However, these planets are likely to be tidally locked to their host stars and may not generate sufficiently strong magnetic fields to emit electron cyclotron maser emission at the low frequencies used in observations (typically ≥150 MHz). In comparison, the large mass-loss rates of evolved stars could enable exoplanets at larger orbital distances to emit detectable radio emission. Here, we first show that the large ionized mass-loss rates of certain evolved stars relative to the solar value could make them detectable with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) at 150 MHz (λ = 2 m), provided they have surface magnetic field strengths >50 G. We then report radio observations of three long period (>1 au) planets that orbit the evolved stars β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi using LOFAR at 150 MHz. We do not detect radio emission from any system but place tight 3σ upper limits of 0.98, 0.87, and 0.57 mJy on the flux density at 150 MHz for β Gem, ι Dra, and β UMi, respectively. Despite our non-detections these stringent upper limits highlight the potential of LOFAR as a tool to search for exoplanetary radio emission at meter wavelengths.

  17. In search of planets and life around other stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunine, J I

    1999-05-11

    The discovery of over a dozen low-mass companions to nearby stars has intensified scientific and public interest in a longer term search for habitable planets like our own. However, the nature of the detected companions, and in particular whether they resemble Jupiter in properties and origin, remains undetermined.

  18. Searching for gravitational waves from neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrisy, Ashikuzzaman

    In this dissertation we discuss gravitational waves (GWs) and their neutron star (NS) sources. We begin with a general discussion of the motivation for searching for GWs and the indirect experimental evidence of their existence. Then we discuss the various mechanisms through which NS can emit GWs, paying special attention the r-mode oscillations. Finally we end with discussion of GW detection. In Chapter 2 we describe research into the frequencies of r-mode oscillations. Knowing these frequencies can be useful for guiding and interpreting gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations. The frequencies of slowly rotating, barotropic, and non-magnetic Newtonian stars are well known, but subject to various corrections. After making simple estimates of the relative strengths of these corrections we conclude that relativistic corrections are the most important. For this reason we extend the formalism of K. H. Lockitch, J. L. Friedman, and N. Andersson [Phys. Rev. D 68, 124010 (2003)], who consider relativistic polytropes, to the case of realistic equations of state. This formulation results in perturbation equations which are solved using a spectral method. We find that for realistic equations of state the r-mode frequency ranges from 1.39--1.57 times the spin frequency of the star when the relativistic compactness parameter (M/R) is varied over the astrophysically motivated interval 0.110--0.310. Following a successful r-mode detection our results can help constrain the high density equation of state. In Chapter 3 we present a technical introduction to the data analysis tools used in GW searches. Starting from the plane-wave solutions derived in Chapter 1 we develop the F-statistic used in the matched filtering technique. This technique relies on coherently integrating the GW detector's data stream with a theoretically modeled wave signal. The statistic is used to test the null hypothesis that the data contains no signal. In this chapter we also discuss how to

  19. Search for white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1984-01-01

    A search for a white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances was undertaken. One additional star the xi Cet, was found with a white dwarf companion. It was found that HR 1016, 56Uma, 16 Ser, have high excitation emission lines which indicate a high temperature object in the system. It is suggested that since these indications for high temperature companions were seen for all nearby Ba stars, it is highly probable that all Ba stars have white dwarf companions, and that the peculiar element abundances seen in the Ba stars are due to mass transfer. Observations, arguments and conclusions are presented. White dwarf companions were not found. Together with the Li and Be abundances and the chromospheric emission line spectra in these stars were studied. No white dwarf companions were seen for subgiant CH stars.

  20. Search for white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1984-01-01

    A search for a white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances was undertaken. One additional star the xi Cet, was found with a white dwarf companion. It was found that HR 1016, 56Uma, 16 Ser, have high excitation emission lines which indicate a high temperature object in the system. It is suggested that since these indications for high temperature companions were seen for all nearby Ba stars, it is highly probable that all Ba stars have white dwarf companions, and that the peculiar element abundances seen in the Ba stars are due to mass transfer. Observations, arguments and conclusions are presented. White dwarf companions were not found. Together with the Li and Be abundances and the chromospheric emission line spectra in these stars were studied. No white dwarf companions were seen for subgiant CH stars

  1. Search method for long-duration gravitational-wave transients from neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prix, R.; Giampanis, S.; Messenger, C.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a search method for a new class of gravitational-wave signals, namely, long-duration O(hours-weeks) transients from spinning neutron stars. We discuss the astrophysical motivation from glitch relaxation models and we derive a rough estimate for the maximal expected signal strength based on the superfluid excess rotational energy. The transient signal model considered here extends the traditional class of infinite-duration continuous-wave signals by a finite start-time and duration. We derive a multidetector Bayes factor for these signals in Gaussian noise using F-statistic amplitude priors, which simplifies the detection statistic and allows for an efficient implementation. We consider both a fully coherent statistic, which is computationally limited to directed searches for known pulsars, and a cheaper semicoherent variant, suitable for wide parameter-space searches for transients from unknown neutron stars. We have tested our method by Monte-Carlo simulation, and we find that it outperforms orthodox maximum-likelihood approaches both in sensitivity and in parameter-estimation quality.

  2. Search for molecular outflows associated with peculiar nebulosities and regions of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles, J M; Rodriguez, L F; Canto, J; Marcaide, J; Gyulbudaghian, A L

    1983-01-01

    We surveyed an extensive list of peculiar nebulosities and regions of star formation searching for conspicuous cases of high-velocity carbon monoxide emission. We detected an apparently isotropic outflow associated with the star-forming region GL 2591. Among the other sources surveyed, the cometary nebula GM 24 is of interest since it is located in a very hot molecular spot where formation of massive stars took place recently.

  3. A Search for Laser Emission with Megawatt Thresholds from 5600 FGKM Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Nathaniel K.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2017-06-01

    We searched high-resolution spectra of 5600 nearby stars for emission lines that are both inconsistent with a natural origin and unresolved spatially, as would be expected from extraterrestrial optical lasers. The spectra were obtained with the Keck 10 m telescope, including light coming from within 0.5 arcsec of the star, corresponding typically to within a few to tens of astronomical units of the star, and covering nearly the entire visible wavelength range from 3640 to 7890 Å. We establish detection thresholds by injecting synthetic laser emission lines into our spectra and blindly analyzing them for detections. We compute flux density detection thresholds for all wavelengths and spectral types sampled. Our detection thresholds for the power of the lasers themselves range from 3 kW to 13 MW, independent of distance to the star but dependent on the competing “glare” of the spectral energy distribution of the star and on the wavelength of the laser light, launched from a benchmark, diffraction-limited 10 m class telescope. We found no such laser emission coming from the planetary region around any of the 5600 stars. Because they contain roughly 2000 lukewarm, Earth-size planets, we rule out models of the Milky Way in which over 0.1% of warm, Earth-size planets harbor technological civilizations that, intentionally or not, are beaming optical lasers toward us. A next-generation spectroscopic laser search will be done by the Breakthrough Listen initiative, targeting more stars, especially stellar types overlooked here including spectral types O, B, A, early F, late M, and brown dwarfs, and astrophysical exotica.

  4. Joint LIGO and TAMA300 search for gravitational waves from inspiralling neutron star binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.

    2006-01-01

    We search for coincident gravitational wave signals from inspiralling neutron star binaries using LIGO and TAMA300 data taken during early 2003. Using a simple trigger exchange method, we perform an intercollaboration coincidence search during times when TAMA300 and only one of the LIGO sites were operational. We find no evidence of any gravitational wave signals. We place an observational upper limit on the rate of binary neutron star coalescence with component masses between 1 and 3M · of 49 per year per Milky Way equivalent galaxy at a 90% confidence level. The methods developed during this search will find application in future network inspiral analyses

  5. Search for variable stars in the young open cluster Stock 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Tirthendu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have carried out multi-epoch deep I band photometry of the open cluster Stock 18 to search for variable stars in star forming regions. In the present study, we report identification of 28 periodic and 165 non-periodic variables stars. The periods of most of the periodic variables are in between 2 to 20 hours and their magnitude varies between 0.05 to 0.6 mag. We have derived spectral energy distributions for 48 probable pre-main sequence variables and the average age and mass is found to be 2.7 ± 0.3 Myrs and 2.7 ± 0.2 M⊙, respectively.

  6. A Search for Laser Emission with Megawatt Thresholds from 5600 FGKM Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellis, Nathaniel K.; Marcy, Geoffrey W., E-mail: Nate.tellis@gmail.com [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    We searched high-resolution spectra of 5600 nearby stars for emission lines that are both inconsistent with a natural origin and unresolved spatially, as would be expected from extraterrestrial optical lasers. The spectra were obtained with the Keck 10 m telescope, including light coming from within 0.5 arcsec of the star, corresponding typically to within a few to tens of astronomical units of the star, and covering nearly the entire visible wavelength range from 3640 to 7890 Å. We establish detection thresholds by injecting synthetic laser emission lines into our spectra and blindly analyzing them for detections. We compute flux density detection thresholds for all wavelengths and spectral types sampled. Our detection thresholds for the power of the lasers themselves range from 3 kW to 13 MW, independent of distance to the star but dependent on the competing “glare” of the spectral energy distribution of the star and on the wavelength of the laser light, launched from a benchmark, diffraction-limited 10 m class telescope. We found no such laser emission coming from the planetary region around any of the 5600 stars. Because they contain roughly 2000 lukewarm, Earth-size planets, we rule out models of the Milky Way in which over 0.1% of warm, Earth-size planets harbor technological civilizations that, intentionally or not, are beaming optical lasers toward us. A next-generation spectroscopic laser search will be done by the Breakthrough Listen initiative, targeting more stars, especially stellar types overlooked here including spectral types O, B, A, early F, late M, and brown dwarfs, and astrophysical exotica.

  7. A search for radio emission from flare stars in the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, T. S.; Dulk, G. A.; Slee, O. B.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for radio emission from flare stars in the Pleiades. Two observational strategies were employed. First, about 1/2 sq deg of cluster, containing about 40 known flare stars, was mapped at 1.4 GHz at two epochs. More than 120 sources with flux densities greater than 0.3 mJy exist on the maps. Detailed analysis shows that all but two of these sources are probably extragalactic. The two sources identified as stellar are probably not Pleiades members as judged by their proper motions; rather, based on their colors and magnitudes, they seem to be foreground G stars. One is a known X-ray source. The second observational strategy, where five rapidly rotating flare stars were observed at three frequencies, yielded no detections. The 0.3 mJy flux-density limit of this survey is such that only the most intense outbursts of flare stars in the solar neighborhood could have been detected if those stars were at the distance of the Pleiades.

  8. Zodiacal Exoplanets in Time: Searching for Young Stars in K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Nathan Ryan; Mann, Andrew; Rizzuto, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Observations of planetary systems around young stars provide insight into the early stages of planetary system formation. Nearby young open clusters such as the Hyades, Pleiades, and Praesepe provide important benchmarks for the properties of stellar systems in general. These clusters are all known to be less than 1 Gyr old, making them ideal targets for a survey of young planetary systems. Few transiting planets have been detected around clusters stars, however, so this alone is too small of a sample. K2, the revived Kepler mission, has provided a vast number of light curves for young stars in clusters and elsewhere in the K2 field. This provides us with the opportunity to extend the sample of young systems to field stars while calibrating with cluster stars. We compute rotational periods from starspot patterns for ~36,000 K2 targets and use gyrochronological relationships derived from cluster stars to determine their ages. From there, we have begun searching for planets around young stars outside the clusters with the ultimate goal of shedding light on how planets and planetary systems evolve in their early, most formative years.

  9. TRAPPIST-UCDTS: A prototype search for habitable planets transiting ultra-cool stars

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    Magain P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ∼1000 nearest ultra-cool stars (spectral type M6 and latter represent a unique opportunity for the search for life outside solar system. Due to their small luminosity, their habitable zone is 30–100 times closer than for the Sun, the corresponding orbital periods ranging from one to a few days. Thanks to this proximity, the transits of a habitable planet are much more probable and frequent than for an Earth-Sun analog, while their tiny size (∼1 Jupiter radius leads to transits deep enough for a ground-based detection, even for sub-Earth size planets. Furthermore, a habitable planet transiting one of these nearby ultra-cool star would be amenable for a thorough atmospheric characterization, including the detection of possible biosignatures, notably with the near-to-come JWST. Motivated by these reasons, we have set up the concept of a ground-based survey optimized for detecting planets of Earth-size and below transiting the nearest Southern ultra-cool stars. To assess thoroughly the actual potential of this future survey, we are currently conducting a prototype mini-survey using the TRAPPIST robotic 60cm telescope located at La Silla ESO Observatory (Chile. We summarize here the preliminary results of this mini-survey that fully validate our concept.

  10. The Search for Wolf-Rayet Stars in IC10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Katie; Crowther, Paul; Archer, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    We present a deep imaging and spectroscopic survey of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC10 using Gemini North/GMOS to unveil the global Wolf-Rayet population. It has previously been suggested that for IC10 to follow the WC/WN versus metallicity dependence seen in other Local Group galaxies, a large WN population must remain undiscovered. Our search revealed 3 new WN stars, and 5 candidates awaiting confirmation, providing little evidence to support this claim. We also compute an updated nebular derived metallicity of log(O/H)+12=8.40 +/- 0.04 for the galaxy using the direct method. Inspection of IC10 WR average line luminosities show these stars are more similar to their LMC, rather than SMC counterparts.

  11. A UKIDSS-based search for low-mass stars and small stellar clumps in off-cloud parts of young star-forming regions* **

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrado y Navascués D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The form and universality of the mass function of young and nearby star-forming regions is still under debate. Its relation to the stellar density, its mass peak and the dependency on most recent models shows significant differencies for the various regions and remains unclear up to date. We aim to get a more complete census of two of such regions. We investigate yet unexplored areas of Orion and Taurus-Auriga, observed by the UKIDSS survey. In the latter, we search for low-mass stars via photometric and proper motion criteria and signs for variability. In Orion, we search for small stellar clumps via nearest-neighbor methods. Highlights in Taurus would be the finding of the missing low-mass stars and the detection of a young cluster T dwarf. In Orion, we discovered small stellar associations of its OB1b and OB1c populations. Combined with what is known in literature, we will provide by this investigations a general picture of the results of the star-forming processes in large areas of Taurus and Orion and probe the most recent models.

  12. Cosmic dawn the search for the first stars and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Rhee, George

    2013-01-01

    The visible universe consists of stars and galaxies. One of the challenges of astronomy is to understand how galaxies and stars first came into existence over thirteen billion years ago. This book tells the story of our quest to solve this problem. Four hundred years after Galileo used his telescope to discover the  moons of Jupiter, we are using new telescopes and instruments to search for the first galaxies to form after the Big Bang. This book brings the reader to the current frontier of this subject and lays out some of the exciting developments we can expect in the years to come.

  13. Stochastic Template Bank for Gravitational Wave Searches for Precessing Neutron Star-Black Hole Coalescence Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Nathaniel; Haris, K.; Dal Canton, Tito; Fehrmann, Henning; Krishnan, Badri; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pai, Archana

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational wave searches to date have largely focused on non-precessing systems. Including precession effects greatly increases the number of templates to be searched over. This leads to a corresponding increase in the computational cost and can increase the false alarm rate of a realistic search. On the other hand, there might be astrophysical systems that are entirely missed by non-precessing searches. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing a template bank using stochastic methods for neutron star-black hole binaries allowing for precession, but with the restrictions that the total angular momentum of the binary is pointing toward the detector and that the neutron star spin is negligible relative to that of the black hole. We quantify the number of templates required for the search, and we explicitly construct the template bank. We show that despite the large number of templates, stochastic methods can be adapted to solve the problem. We quantify the parameter space region over which the non-precessing search might miss signals.

  14. A Search for Host Stars of Free-Floating Planetary Mass Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristan, Isaiah; Bowler, Brendan P.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of free-floating planetary-mass objects (FFPMOs) and imaged planets in widely-bound orbits (from hundreds to thousand of AU) have increased steadily, but the origin of these objects and the relationship between them is unclear. To test if known free-floating objects could actually be distant companions to stars, we searched for wide co-moving companions around a sample of 77 young brown dwarfs and FFPMOs using the PPMXL proper motion catalog. Contamination rates (the probability of field stars co-moving by chance) were then calculated using nearby but unrelated fields, and host star candidates were further vetted using their positions in color magnitude diagrams. Using this method, we recovered all previously known widely-bound host stars within our sample and identified several promising widely separated systems, with separations ranging from 10^4-10^5 AU. Follow up radial velocities are currently being obtained to validate the shared space motion of the most promising candidates; if confirmed, these will be the widest planetary systems known.

  15. Searching for Young Stars in Cepheus C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sam; Rebull, Luisa; Rutherford, Thomas; Stalnaker, Olivia; Taylor, John; Efsits, Gabriel; Harl, Linda; Keil, Shayna; Learman, Duncan; Leonard, Liam; Russell, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    We used archival Herschel Space Observatory data to search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Cepheus C region of the molecular cloud Cepheus OB3. Previous work by Gutermuth et al. (2009) identified 114 YSO candidates in this region based on Spitzer/IRAC data. Work by Orr et al. (2016) refined a list of approximately 300 young star candidates to 245 likely YSOs. Our initial search focused on longer infrared wavelength data – Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) archival data and SCUBA (450, 850 μm) data from the literature (DiFrancesco et al. 2008). Through image inspection and catalog matching, we assembled a list of 54 candidate YSOs detected at wavelengths longer than 22 μm. For each source, we constructed a spectral energy distribution (SED) by aggregating available shorter wavelength data from the literature and assembling photometry from released PACS catalogs, preliminary SPIRE catalogs, and our own photometric measurements. We also created color-color and color-magnitude diagrams to see how these sources compared to each other, other populations of YSOs, and objects in extragalactic regions. Each source was then classified based on its SED shape and its locations on color-color and color-magnitude diagrams. From the initial list of 54 candidates, we suspect all are likely YSOs, some of which are very embedded; ~40% are likely SED Class I or 0. Approximately 20% of the 54 sources have not been previously identified. By beginning the investigation of YSOs in this region, we are adding to the body of YSO knowledge which can be used to understand the process of star formation. This research was made possible through the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) and was funded by NASA Astrophysics Data Program.

  16. A Search for Black Holes and Neutron Stars in the Kepler Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Jerome; Short, Donald; Welsh, William; Windmiller, Gur; Dabney, David

    2018-01-01

    Black holes and neutron stars represent the final evolutionary stages of the most massive stars. In addition to their use as probes into the evolution of massive stars, black holes and neutron stars are ideal laboratories to test General Relativity in the strong field limit. The number of neutron stars and black holes in the Milky Way is not precisely known, but there are an estimated one billion neutron stars in the galaxy based on the observed numbers of radio pulsars. The number of black holes is about 100 million, based on the behavior of the Initial Mass Function at high stellar masses.All of the known steller-mass black holes (and a fair number of neutron stars) are in ``X-ray binaries'' that were discovered because of their luminous X-ray emission. The requirement to be in an X-ray-emitting binary places a strong observational bias on the discovery of stellar-mass black holes. Thus the 21 known black hole binaries represent only the very uppermost tip of the population iceberg.We have conducted an optical survey using Kepler data designed to uncover black holes and neutron stars in both ``quiescent'' X-ray binaries and ``pre-contact'' X-ray binaries. We discuss how the search was conducted, including how potentially interesting light curves were classified and the how variability types were identified. Although we did not find any convincing candidate neutron star or black hole systems, we did find a few noteworthy binary systems, including two binaries that contain low-mass stars with unusually low albedos.

  17. Search for gravitational waves from galactic and extra-galactic binary neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Brown, D.A.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.

    2005-01-01

    We use 373 hours (≅15 days) of data from the second science run of the LIGO gravitational-wave detectors to search for signals from binary neutron star coalescences within a maximum distance of about 1.5 Mpc, a volume of space which includes the Andromeda Galaxy and other galaxies of the Local Group of galaxies. This analysis requires a signal to be found in data from detectors at the two LIGO sites, according to a set of coincidence criteria. The background (accidental coincidence rate) is determined from the data and is used to judge the significance of event candidates. No inspiral gravitational-wave events were identified in our search. Using a population model which includes the Local Group, we establish an upper limit of less than 47 inspiral events per year per Milky Way equivalent galaxy with 90% confidence for nonspinning binary neutron star systems with component masses between 1 and 3M ·

  18. Searching for axion stars and Q-balls with a terrestrial magnetometer network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Kimball, D. F. [Cal State, East Bay; Budker, D. [UC, Berkeley; Eby, J. [Fermilab; Pospelov, M. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Pustelny, S. [Jagiellonian U.; Scholtes, T. [Fribourg U.; Stadnik, Y. V. [Helmholtz Inst., Mainz; Weis, A. [Fribourg U.; Wickenbrock, A. [Mainz U.

    2017-10-11

    Light (pseudo-)scalar fields are promising candidates to be the dark matter in the Universe. Under certain initial conditions in the early Universe and/or with certain types of self-interactions, they can form compact dark-matter objects such as axion stars or Q-balls. Direct encounters with such objects can be searched for by using a global network of atomic magnetometers. It is shown that for a range of masses and radii not ruled out by existing observations, the terrestrial encounter rate with axion stars or Q-balls can be sufficiently high (at least once per year) for a detection. Furthermore, it is shown that a global network of atomic magnetometers is sufficiently sensitive to pseudoscalar couplings to atomic spins so that a transit through an axion star or Q-ball could be detected over a broad range of unexplored parameter space.

  19. Results of a search for γ Dor and δ SCT stars with the Kepler spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, P. A.; Miles, L. F. [XCP-6, MS F-699 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guzik, J. A. [XTD-NTA, MS T-086 Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uytterhoeven, K. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38200 La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain and Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Jackiewicz, J. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kinemuchi, K., E-mail: pbradley@lanl.gov [Apache Point Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The light curves of 2768 stars with effective temperatures and surface gravities placing them near the gamma Doradus (γ Dor)/delta Scuti (δ Sct) instability region were observed as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program from Cycles 1 through 5. The light curves were analyzed in a uniform manner to search for γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star pulsations. The γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star pulsations extend asteroseismology to stars slightly more massive (1.4–2.5 M{sub ⊙}) than our Sun. We find 207 γ Dor, 84 δ Sct, and 32 hybrid candidate stars. Many of these stars are cooler than the red edge of the γ Dor instability strip as determined from ground-based observations made before Kepler. A few of our γ Dor candidate stars lie on the hot side of the ground-based γ Dor instability strip. The hybrid candidate stars cover the entire region between 6200 K and the blue edge of the ground-based δ Sct instability strip. None of our candidate stars are hotter than the hot edge of the ground-based δ Sct instability strip. Our discoveries, coupled with the work of others, show that Kepler has discovered over 2000 γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star candidates in the 116 square degree Kepler field of view. We found relatively few variable stars fainter than magnitude 15, which may be because they are far enough away to lie between spiral arms in our Galaxy, where there would be fewer stars.

  20. Results of a search for γ Dor and δ SCT stars with the Kepler spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P. A.; Miles, L. F.; Guzik, J. A.; Uytterhoeven, K.; Jackiewicz, J.; Kinemuchi, K.

    2015-01-01

    The light curves of 2768 stars with effective temperatures and surface gravities placing them near the gamma Doradus (γ Dor)/delta Scuti (δ Sct) instability region were observed as part of the Kepler Guest Observer program from Cycles 1 through 5. The light curves were analyzed in a uniform manner to search for γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star pulsations. The γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star pulsations extend asteroseismology to stars slightly more massive (1.4–2.5 M ⊙ ) than our Sun. We find 207 γ Dor, 84 δ Sct, and 32 hybrid candidate stars. Many of these stars are cooler than the red edge of the γ Dor instability strip as determined from ground-based observations made before Kepler. A few of our γ Dor candidate stars lie on the hot side of the ground-based γ Dor instability strip. The hybrid candidate stars cover the entire region between 6200 K and the blue edge of the ground-based δ Sct instability strip. None of our candidate stars are hotter than the hot edge of the ground-based δ Sct instability strip. Our discoveries, coupled with the work of others, show that Kepler has discovered over 2000 γ Dor, δ Sct, and hybrid star candidates in the 116 square degree Kepler field of view. We found relatively few variable stars fainter than magnitude 15, which may be because they are far enough away to lie between spiral arms in our Galaxy, where there would be fewer stars.

  1. Searching for magnetic fields in 11 Wolf-Rayet stars: Analysis of circular polarization measurements from ESPaDOnS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J. [Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Québec (CRAQ), Département de physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec H3C 3J7 (Canada); Collaboration: MiMeS Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    With recent detections of magnetic fields in some of their progenitor O stars, combined with known strong fields in their possible descendant neutron stars, it is natural to search for magnetic fields in Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars, despite the problems associated with the presence of winds enhanced by an order of magnitude over those of O stars. We continue our search among a sample of 11 bright WR stars following our introductory study in a previous paper of WR6 = EZ CMa using the spectropolarimeter ESPaDOnS at Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, most of them in all four Stokes parameters. This sample includes six WN stars and five WC stars encompassing a range of spectral subclasses. Six are medium/long-period binaries and three show corotating interaction regions. We report no definite detections of a magnetic field in the winds in which the lines form (which is about the same distance from the center of the star as it is from the surface of the progenitor O star) for any of the eleven stars. Possible reasons and their implications are discussed. Nonetheless, the data show evidence supporting marginal detections for WR134, WR137, and WR138. According to the Bayesian analysis, the most probable field intensities are B {sub wind} ∼ 200, 130, and 80 G, respectively, with a 95.4% probability that the magnetic fields present in the observable parts of their stellar wind, if stronger, does not exceed B{sub wind}{sup max}∼1900 G, ∼1500 G, and ∼1500 G, respectively. In the case of non-detections, we report an average field strength upper limit of B{sub wind}{sup max}∼500 G.

  2. A search for hot post-AGE stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudmaijer, RD

    In this paper a first step is made to search for hot post-AGB stars in the IRAS Point Source Catalog. In order to find objects that evolved off the AGE a longer time ago than post-AGB objects discussed in the literature, objects that were not detected at 12 mu m by IRAS were selected. The selection

  3. The Einstein@Home search for gravitational waves and neutron stars

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Einstein@Home is a volunteer distributed computing project with more than 300,000 participants. Like other volunteer computing projects, Einstein@Home harvests idle computer cycles from the the laptop and desktop computers of the general public. This provides enormous computing power, on the scale of some of the world's fastest supercomputers, but at very low cost. I describe the current status of the Einstein@Home search for new neutron stars, using data from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), from the Arecibo and Parkes radio telescopes, and from the Fermi gamma-ray satellite. The sensitivity of these searches is limited by computing power, so the Einstein@Home approach allows the detection of weaker signals than more conventional approaches. In the past 18 months, Einstein@Home has discovered more than 20 new radio and gamma-ray pulsars, including a number of particularly interesting and exotic systems.

  4. A search for strong, ordered magnetic fields in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, G. A.; Bagnulo, S.; Drouin, D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Monin, D.

    2007-04-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in intermediate- and high-mass stars is fundamentally a mystery. Clues towards solving this basic astrophysical problem can likely be found at the pre-main-sequence (PMS) evolutionary stage. With this work, we perform the largest and most sensitive search for magnetic fields in PMS Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars. We seek to determine whether strong, ordered magnetic fields, similar to those of main-sequence Ap/Bp stars, can be detected in these objects, and if so, to determine the intensities, geometrical characteristics, and statistical incidence of such fields. 68 observations of 50 HAeBe stars have been obtained in circularly polarized light using the FORS1 spectropolarimeter at the ESO VLT. An analysis of both Balmer and metallic lines reveals the possible presence of weak longitudinal magnetic fields in photospheric lines of two HAeBe stars, HD 101412 and BF Ori. Results for two additional stars, CPD-53 295 and HD 36112, are suggestive of the presence of magnetic fields, but no firm conclusions can be drawn based on the available data. The intensity of the longitudinal fields detected in HD 101412 and BF Ori suggest that they correspond to globally ordered magnetic fields with surface intensities of order 1 kG. On the other hand, no magnetic field is detected in 4 other HAeBe stars in our sample in which magnetic fields had previously been confirmed. Monte Carlo simulations of the longitudinal field measurements of the undetected stars allow us to place an upper limit of about 300 G on the general presence of aligned magnetic dipole magnetic fields, and of about 500 G on perpendicular dipole fields. Taking into account the results of our survey and other published results, we find that the observed bulk incidence of magnetic HAeBe stars in our sample is 8-12 per cent, in good agreement with that of magnetic main-sequence stars of similar masses. We also find that the rms longitudinal field intensity of magnetically detected HAe

  5. Search of massive star formation with COMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshiko K.

    2004-04-01

    Mid-infrared observations is useful for studies of massive star formation. Especially COMICS offers powerful tools: imaging survey of the circumstellar structures of forming massive stars such as massive disks and cavity structures, mass estimate from spectroscopy of fine structure lines, and high dispersion spectroscopy to census gas motion around formed stars. COMICS will open the next generation infrared studies of massive star formation.

  6. A Barnard's Star Perturbation Search Using McCormick Observatory Photographic Plate Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J.; Ianna, P.

    2001-05-01

    Barnard's Star is of particular interest due to its high proper motion, nearness to the Solar System, and previous claims of planetary companions. Based upon observations made at the Sproul Observatory between 1916 and 1962, Peter van de Kamp claimed the star had a 24-year period and a planetary companion of about 1.6 Jupiter masses (Van de Kamp, AJ, 68, 515, 1963). Later, based on Sproul observations from 1938 to 1974, Van de Kamp found that the perturbation was better fit by two companions with 11.5- and 20 or 25-year orbits and corresponding masses of 1 and 0.5 Jupiter masses (Van de Kamp, ARA&A, 13, 295, 1975). Searches by other observers over shorter periods of time or with fewer exposures failed to find clear indications of planetary companions (Gatewood and Eichhorn, AJ, 78, 769, 1973). However, the McCormick Observatory has more than 900 exposures made on photographic plates between 1969 and 1998. In view of the continuing controversy, reviewing these data to identify any perturbations indicative of a companion is worthwhile. Therefore, we scanned the plates on the microdensitometer (PDS) at the McCormick Observatory. We present the results of a time-series analysis to search these observations for one or more perturbations. We acknowledge support from NSF grant AST 98-20711 and from Litton Marine Systems, Incorporated.

  7. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. II. Searching for signatures of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We search for signatures of reionization in the star formation histories (SFHs) of 38 Local Group dwarf galaxies (10{sup 4} < M{sub *} < 10{sup 9} M{sub ☉}). The SFHs are derived from color-magnitude diagrams using archival Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 imaging. Only five quenched galaxies (And V, And VI, And XIII, Leo IV, and Hercules) are consistent with forming the bulk of their stars before reionization, when full uncertainties are considered. Observations of 13 of the predicted 'true fossils' identified by Bovill and Ricotti show that only two (Hercules and Leo IV) indicate star formation quenched by reionization. However, both are within the virial radius of the Milky Way and evidence of tidal disturbance complicates this interpretation. We argue that the late-time gas capture scenario posited by Ricotti for the low mass, gas-rich, and star-forming fossil candidate Leo T is observationally indistinguishable from simple gas retention. Given the ambiguity between environmental effects and reionization, the best reionization fossil candidates are quenched low mass field galaxies (e.g., KKR 25).

  8. A Brightness-Referenced Star Identification Algorithm for APS Star Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan; Liu, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Star trackers are currently the most accurate spacecraft attitude sensors. As a result, they are widely used in remote sensing satellites. Since traditional charge-coupled device (CCD)-based star trackers have a limited sensitivity range and dynamic range, the matching process for a star tracker is typically not very sensitive to star brightness. For active pixel sensor (APS) star trackers, the intensity of an imaged star is valuable information that can be used in star identification process. In this paper an improved brightness referenced star identification algorithm is presented. This algorithm utilizes the k-vector search theory and adds imaged stars' intensities to narrow the search scope and therefore increase the efficiency of the matching process. Based on different imaging conditions (slew, bright bodies, etc.) the developed matching algorithm operates in one of two identification modes: a three-star mode, and a four-star mode. If the reference bright stars (the stars brighter than three magnitude) show up, the algorithm runs the three-star mode and efficiency is further improved. The proposed method was compared with other two distinctive methods the pyramid and geometric voting methods. All three methods were tested with simulation data and actual in orbit data from the APS star tracker of ZY-3. Using a catalog composed of 1500 stars, the results show that without false stars the efficiency of this new method is 4∼5 times that of the pyramid method and 35∼37 times that of the geometric method. PMID:25299950

  9. A search for X-rays from UV Ceti flare stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crannell, C.J.; Spangler, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    A search of the MIT/OSO-7 data has been made for evidence of X-ray emission from flares of UV Ceti flare stars. Observations from McDonald Observatory have been used to identify the times of optical flares. The only instance of coincident coverage occurred on 1974 January 21 UT at 03:43:26 GMT for a Δm = 0.86 flare of YZ CMi. No radio coverage of this particular event was obtained. Upper limits of 0.8, 1.0, and 0.7 photons/cm 2 s on the observed X-ray flux have been set for the energy ranges >= 15, >= 3, and 1-10 keV, respectively. (orig.) [de

  10. A search for time variability and its possible regularities in linear polarization of Be stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, L.; Guo, Z.H.; Hsu, J.C.; Huang, L.

    1989-01-01

    Linear polarization measurements are presented for 14 Be stars obtained at McDonald Observatory during four observing runs from June to November of 1983. Methods of observation and data reduction are described. Seven of eight program stars which were observed on six or more nights exhibited obvious polarimetric variations on time-scales of days or months. The incidence is estimated as 50% and may be as high as 93%. No connection can be found between polarimetric variability and rapid periodic light or spectroscopic variability for our stars. Ultra-rapid variability on time-scale of minutes was searched for with negative results. In all cases the position angles also show variations indicating that the axis of symmetry of the circumstellar envelope changes its orientation in space. For the Be binary CX Dra the variations in polarization seems to have a period which is just half of the orbital period

  11. A search for pre-main sequence stars in the high-latitude molecular clouds. II - A survey of the Einstein database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris

    1990-01-01

    The preliminary results are reported of a survey of every EINSTEIN image which overlaps any high-latitude molecular cloud in a search for X-ray emitting pre-main sequence stars. This survey, together with complementary KPNO and IRAS data, will allow the determination of how prevalent low mass star formation is in these clouds in general and, particularly, in the translucent molecular clouds.

  12. Shooting stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    1985-01-01

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is this article object; orbit gathering projects are also presented [fr

  13. Little Bear’s pulsating stars: Variable star census of UMi dSph Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinemuchi K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations and a photometric search for variable stars in the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy (UMi dSph are presented. Our observations were taken at Apache Point Observatory in 2014 and 2016 using the 0.5m ARCSAT telescope and the West Mountain Observatory (WMO 0.9m telescope of Brigham Young University in 2016. Previously known RR Lyrae stars in our field of view of the UMi dSph are identified, and we also catalog new variable star candidates. Tentative classifications are given for some of the new variable stars. We have conducted period searches with the data collected with the WMO telescope. Our ultimate goal is to create an updated catalog of variable stars in the UMi dSph and to compare the RR Lyrae stellar characteristics to other RR Lyrae stars found in the Local Group dSph galaxies.

  14. Objective Assessment Method for RNAV STAR Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael; Matthews, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    Flight crews and air traffic controllers have reported many safety concerns regarding area navigation standard terminal arrival routes (RNAV STARs). Specifically, optimized profile descents (OPDs). However, our information sources to quantify these issues are limited to subjective reporting and time consuming case-by-case investigations. This work is a preliminary study into the objective performance of instrument procedures and provides a framework to track procedural concepts and assess design specifications. We created a tool and analysis methods for gauging aircraft adherence as it relates to RNAV STARs. This information is vital for comprehensive understanding of how our air traffic behaves. In this study, we mined the performance of 24 major US airports over the preceding three years. Overlaying 4D radar track data onto RNAV STAR routes provided a comparison between aircraft flight paths and the waypoint positions and altitude restrictions. NASA Ames Supercomputing resources were utilized to perform the data mining and processing. We assessed STARs by lateral transition path (full-lateral), vertical restrictions (full-lateral/full-vertical), and skipped waypoints (skips). In addition, we graphed frequencies of aircraft altitudes relative to the altitude restrictions. Full-lateral adherence was always greater than Full-lateral/ full- vertical, as it is a subset, but the difference between the rates was not consistent. Full-lateral/full-vertical adherence medians of the 2016 procedures ranged from 0% in KDEN (Denver) to 21% in KMEM (Memphis). Waypoint skips ranged from 0% to nearly 100% for specific waypoints. Altitudes restrictions were sometimes missed by systematic amounts in 1,000 ft. increments from the restriction, creating multi-modal distributions. Other times, altitude misses looked to be more normally distributed around the restriction. This tool may aid in providing acceptability metrics as well as risk assessment information.

  15. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: 1.1-1.9 GHz Observations of 692 Nearby Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Siemion, Andrew; Foster, Griffin; Gajjar, Vishal; Hellbourg, Greg; Hickish, Jack; Isaacson, Howard; Price, Danny C.; Croft, Steve; DeBoer, David; Lebofsky, Matt; MacMahon, David H. E.; Werthimer, Dan

    2017-11-01

    We report on a search for engineered signals from a sample of 692 nearby stars using the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope, undertaken as part of the Breakthrough Listen Initiative search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Observations were made over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L band), with three sets of five-minute observations of the 692 primary targets, interspersed with five-minute observations of secondary targets. By comparing the “ON” and “OFF” observations, we are able to identify terrestrial interference and place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. During the analysis, 11 events passed our thresholding algorithm, but a detailed analysis of their properties indicates that they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio-frequency interference. We conclude that, at the time of our observations, none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz with an Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power of ˜1013 W, which is readily achievable by our own civilization. Our results suggest that fewer than ˜0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey.

  16. Accretion-induced spin-wandering effects on the neutron star in Scorpius X-1: Implications for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arunava; Messenger, Chris; Riles, Keith

    2018-02-01

    The LIGO's discovery of binary black hole mergers has opened up a new era of transient gravitational wave astronomy. The potential detection of gravitational radiation from another class of astronomical objects, rapidly spinning nonaxisymmetric neutron stars, would constitute a new area of gravitational wave astronomy. Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is one of the most promising sources of continuous gravitational radiation to be detected with present-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. As the sensitivity of these detectors improve in the coming years, so will power of the search algorithms being used to find gravitational wave signals. Those searches will still require integration over nearly year long observational spans to detect the incredibly weak signals from rotating neutron stars. For low mass X-ray binaries such as Sco X-1 this difficult task is compounded by neutron star "spin wandering" caused by stochastic accretion fluctuations. In this paper, we analyze X-ray data from the R X T E satellite to infer the fluctuating torque on the neutron star in Sco X-1. We then perform a large-scale simulation to quantify the statistical properties of spin-wandering effects on the gravitational wave signal frequency and phase evolution. We find that there are a broad range of expected maximum levels of frequency wandering corresponding to maximum drifts of between 0.3 - 50 μ Hz /sec over a year at 99% confidence. These results can be cast in terms of the maximum allowed length of a coherent signal model neglecting spin-wandering effects as ranging between 5-80 days. This study is designed to guide the development and evaluation of Sco X-1 search algorithms.

  17. Searching for dust around hyper metal poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else; Puzia, Thomas H.; Côté, Stephanie; Lambert, David L.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <–5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T ≤ 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii ≤1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  18. Searching for dust around hyper metal poor stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venn, Kim A.; Divell, Mike; Starkenburg, Else [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Road, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2 (Canada); Puzia, Thomas H. [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Côté, Stephanie [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lambert, David L., E-mail: kvenn@uvic.ca [McDonald Observatory and the Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, RLM 15.308, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-08-20

    We examine the mid-infrared fluxes and spectral energy distributions for stars with iron abundances [Fe/H] <–5, and other metal-poor stars, to eliminate the possibility that their low metallicities are related to the depletion of elements onto dust grains in the formation of a debris disk. Six out of seven stars examined here show no mid-IR excesses. These non-detections rule out many types of circumstellar disks, e.g., a warm debris disk (T ≤ 290 K), or debris disks with inner radii ≤1 AU, such as those associated with the chemically peculiar post-asymptotic giant branch spectroscopic binaries and RV Tau variables. However, we cannot rule out cooler debris disks, nor those with lower flux ratios to their host stars due to, e.g., a smaller disk mass, a larger inner disk radius, an absence of small grains, or even a multicomponent structure, as often found with the chemically peculiar Lambda Bootis stars. The only exception is HE0107-5240, for which a small mid-IR excess near 10 μm is detected at the 2σ level; if the excess is real and associated with this star, it may indicate the presence of (recent) dust-gas winnowing or a binary system.

  19. Searching for Be stars in the open cluster NGC 663

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, P. C.; Lin, C. C.; Chen, W. P.; Lee, C. D.; Ip, W. H.; Ngeow, C. C. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 32001, Taiwan (China); Laher, Russ; Surace, Jason [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We present Be star candidates in the open cluster NGC 663, identified by Hα imaging photometry with the Palomar Transient Factory Survey, as a pilot program to investigate how the Be star phenomena, the emission spectra, extended circumstellar envelopes, and fast rotation, correlate with massive stellar evolution. Stellar membership of the candidates was verified by 2MASS magnitudes and colors and by proper motions (PMs). We discover four new Be stars and exclude one known Be star from being a member due to its inconsistent PMs. The fraction of Be stars to member stars [N(Be)/N(members)] in NGC 663 is 3.5%. The spectral type of the 34 Be stars in NGC 663 shows bimodal peaks at B0–B2 and B5–B7, which is consistent with the statistics in most star clusters. Additionally, we also discover 23 emission-line stars of different types, including non-member Be stars, dwarfs, and giants.

  20. THE A-X INFRARED BANDS OF ALUMINUM OXIDE IN STARS: SEARCH AND NEW DETECTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, D. P. K.; Mathew, Blesson; Ashok, N. M. [Astronomy and Astrophysics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380009 (India); Varricatt, W. P. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. Aohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii, HI 96720 (United States); Launila, O., E-mail: orion@prl.res.in [KTH-AlbaNova, Applied Physics, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    We describe a search for the A-X infrared bands of AlO with a view toward better understanding the characteristics of this radical. These bands are infrequently encountered in astronomical sources but surprisingly were very prominent in the spectra of two well-known, novalike variables (V838 Mon and V4332 Sgr) thereby motivating us to explore the physical conditions necessary for their excitation. In this study, we present the detection of A-X bands in the spectra of 13 out of 17 stars, selected on the basis of their J - K colors as potential candidates for detection of these bands. The majority of the AlO detections are in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, viz., nine OH/IR stars, two Mira variables, and two bright infrared sources. Our study shows that the A-X bands are fairly prevalent in sources with low temperature and O-rich environments. Interesting variation in the strength of the AlO bands in one of the sources (IRAS 18530+0817) is reported and the cause for this is examined. Possible applications of the present study are discussed in terms of the role of AlO in alumina dust formation, the scope for estimating the radioactive {sup 26}Al content in AGB stars from the A-X bands, and providing possible targets for further mm/radio studies of AlO which has recently been discovered at millimeter wavelengths.

  1. A search for lithium-rich giant stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Sneden, C.; Lambert, D.L.; Dutchover, E. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Lithium abundances or upper limits have been determined for 644 bright G-K giant stars selected from the DDO photometric catalog. Two of these giants possess surface lithium abundances approaching the cosmic value of the interstellar medium and young main-sequence stars, and eight more giants have Li contents far in excess of standard predictions. At least some of these Li-rich giants are shown to be evolved to the stage of having convectively mixed envelopes, either from the direct evidence of low surface carbon isotope ratios, or from the indirect evidence of their H-R diagram positions. Suggestions are given for the unique conditions that might have allowed these stars to produce or accrete new lithium for their surface layers, or simply to preserve from destruction their initial lithium contents. The lithium abundance of the remaining stars demonstrates that giants only very rarely meet the expectations of standard first dredge-up theories; the average extra Li destruction required is about 1.5 dex. The evolutionary states of these giants and their average masses are discussed briefly, and the Li distribution of the giants is compared to predictions of Galactic chemical evolution. 110 refs

  2. The Search for New Luminous Blue Variable Stars: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Stars With 24 micron Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy; Gvaramadze, Vasilii

    2010-02-01

    Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars represent an extremely rare class of very luminous and massive stars. Only about a dozen confirmed Galactic LBV stars are known to date, which precludes us from determining a solid evolutionary connection between LBV and other intermediate (e.g. Ofpe/WN9, WNL) phases in the life of very massive stars. The known LBV stars each have their own unique properties, so new discoveries add insight into the properties and evolutionary status of LBVs and massive stars; even one new discovery of objects of this type could provide break-through results in the understanding of the intermediate stages of massive star evolution. We have culled a prime sample of possible LBV candidates from the Spitzer 24 (micron) archival data. All have circumstellar nebulae, rings, and shells (typical of LBVs and related stars) surrounding reddened central stars. Spectroscopic followup of about two dozen optically visible central stars associated with the shells from this sample showed that they are either candidate LBVs, late WN-type Wolf-Rayet stars or blue supergiants. We propose infrared spectroscopic observations of the central stars for a large fraction (23 stars) of our northern sample to determine their nature and discover additional LBV candidates. These stars have no plausible optical counterparts, so infrared spectra are needed. This program requires two nights of Hale time using TripleSpec.

  3. ASSESSING RADIATION PRESSURE AS A FEEDBACK MECHANISM IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Brett H.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation pressure from the absorption and scattering of starlight by dust grains may be an important feedback mechanism in regulating star-forming galaxies. We compile data from the literature on star clusters, star-forming subregions, normal star-forming galaxies, and starbursts to assess the importance of radiation pressure on dust as a feedback mechanism, by comparing the luminosity and flux of these systems to their dust Eddington limit. This exercise motivates a novel interpretation of the Schmidt law, the L IR -L' CO correlation, and the L IR -L' HCN correlation. In particular, the linear L IR -L' HCN correlation is a natural prediction of radiation pressure regulated star formation. Overall, we find that the Eddington limit sets a hard upper bound to the luminosity of any star-forming region. Importantly, however, many normal star-forming galaxies have luminosities significantly below the Eddington limit. We explore several explanations for this discrepancy, especially the role of 'intermittency' in normal spirals-the tendency for only a small number of subregions within a galaxy to be actively forming stars at any moment because of the time dependence of the feedback process and the luminosity evolution of the stellar population. If radiation pressure regulates star formation in dense gas, then the gas depletion timescale is 6 Myr, in good agreement with observations of the densest starbursts. Finally, we highlight the importance of observational uncertainties, namely, the dust-to-gas ratio and the CO-to-H 2 and HCN-to-H 2 conversion factors, that must be understood before a definitive assessment of radiation pressure as a feedback mechanism in star-forming galaxies.

  4. VLA observations of dwarf M flare stars and magnetic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Foster, P.

    1988-01-01

    The VLA has been used to search for 6 cm emission from 16 nearby dwarf M stars, leading to the detection of only one of them - Gliese 735. The dwarf M flare stars AD Leonis and YZ Canis Minoris were also monitored at 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength in order to study variability. Successive oppositely circularly polarized bursts were detected from AD Leo at 6 cm, suggesting the presence of magnetic fields of both magnetic polarities. An impulsive 20-cm burst from YZ CMi preceded slowly varying 6-cm emission. The VLA was also used, unsuccessfully, to search for 6-cm emission from 13 magnetic Ap stars, all of which exhibit kG magnetic fields. Although the Ap magnetic stars have strong dipolar magnetic fields, the failure to detect gyroresonant radiation suggests that these stars do not have hot, dense coronae. The quiescent microwave emission from GL 735 is probably due to nonthermal radiation, since unusually high (H = 50 kG or greater) surface magnetic fields are inferred under the assumption that the 6-cm radiation is the gyroresonant radiation of thermal electrons.

  5. Neurobehavioural assessment and diagnosis in disorders of consciousness: a preliminary study of the Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Verity; Gunn, Sarah; Schouwenaars, Katie; Badwan, Derar

    2018-09-01

    The Sensory Tool to Assess Responsiveness (STAR) is an interdisciplinary neurobehavioural diagnostic tool for individuals with prolonged disorders of consciousness. It utilises current diagnostic criteria and is intended to improve upon the high misdiagnosis rate in this population. This study assesses the inter-rater reliability of the STAR and its diagnostic validity in comparison with the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) and the Wessex Head Injury Matrix (WHIM). Participants were patients with severe acquired brain injury resulting in a disorder of consciousness, who were admitted to the Royal Leamington Spa Rehabilitation Hospital between 1999 and 2009. Patients underwent sensory stimulation sessions during their period of admission, which were recorded on video. Using this footage, patients were re-assessed for this study using the STAR, WHIM and CRS-R criteria. The STAR demonstrated "moderate" inter-rater reliability, "substantial" diagnostic agreement with the CRS-R, and "moderate" agreement with the WHIM. There were no significant differences between diagnoses assigned by the different assessments. The STAR demonstrated a good degree of inter-rater reliability in identification of diagnoses for patients with disorders of consciousness. The diagnostic outcomes of the STAR agreed at a good level with the CRS-R, moderately with the WHIM, and did not significantly differ from either. This demonstrates the reliability and validity of the STAR, showing its appropriateness for clinical use. Future longitudinal studies and research into the STAR's applicability in long-stay rehabilitation are indicated.

  6. SEARCH FOR RED DWARF STARS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6397

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Left A NASA Hubble Space Telescope image of a small region (1.4 light-years across) in the globular star cluster NGC 6397. Simulated stars (diamonds) have been added to this view of the same region of the cluster to illustrate what astronomers would have expected to see if faint red dwarf stars were abundant in the Milky Way Galaxy. The field would then contain 500 stars, according to theoretical calculations. Right The unmodified HST image shows far fewer stars than would be expected, according to popular theories of star formation. HST resolves about 200 stars. The stellar density is so low that HST can literally see right through the cluster and resolve far more distant background galaxies. From this observation, scientists have identified the surprising cutoff point below which nature apparently doesn't make many stars smaller that 1/5 the mass of our Sun. These HST findings provide new insights into star formation in our Galaxy. Technical detail:The globular cluster NGC 6397, one of the nearest and densest agglomerations of stars, is located 7,200 light-years away in the southern constellation Ara. This visible-light picture was taken on March 3, 1994 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, as part the HST parallel observing program. Credit: F. Paresce, ST ScI and ESA and NASA

  7. SEARCHES FOR METAL-POOR STARS FROM THE HAMBURG/ESO SURVEY USING THE CH G BAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placco, Vinicius M.; Rossi, Silvia [Departamento de Astronomia-Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Kennedy, Catherine R.; Beers, Timothy C.; Lee, Young Sun [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA (Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Christlieb, Norbert [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Landessternwarte, Koenigstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Sivarani, Thirupathi [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Reimers, Dieter [Hamburger Sternwarte, Universitaet Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112, 21029 Hamburg (Germany); Wisotzki, Lutz, E-mail: vmplacco@astro.iag.usp.br [Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We describe a new method to search for metal-poor candidates from the Hamburg/ESO objective-prism survey (HES) based on identifying stars with apparently strong CH G-band strengths for their colors. The hypothesis we exploit is that large overabundances of carbon are common among metal-poor stars, as has been found by numerous studies over the past two decades. The selection was made by considering two line indices in the 4300 A region, applied directly to the low-resolution prism spectra. This work also extends a previously published method by adding bright sources to the sample. The spectra of these stars suffer from saturation effects, compromising the index calculations and leading to an undersampling of the brighter candidates. A simple numerical procedure, based on available photometry, was developed to correct the line indices and overcome this limitation. Visual inspection and classification of the spectra from the HES plates yielded a list of 5288 new metal-poor (and by selection, carbon-rich) candidates, which are presently being used as targets for medium-resolution spectroscopic follow-up. Estimates of the stellar atmospheric parameters, as well as carbon abundances, are now available for 117 of the first candidates, based on follow-up medium-resolution spectra obtained with the SOAR 4.1 m and Gemini 8 m telescopes. We demonstrate that our new method improves the metal-poor star fractions found by our pilot study by up to a factor of three in the same magnitude range, as compared with our pilot study based on only one CH G-band index. Our selection scheme obtained roughly a 40% success rate for identification of stars with [Fe/H] <-1.0; the primary contaminant is late-type stars with near-solar abundances and, often, emission line cores that filled in the Ca II K line on the prism spectrum. Because the selection is based on carbon, we greatly increase the numbers of known carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars from the HES with intermediate metallicities -2

  8. Searching for Exoplanets around X-Ray Binaries with Accreting White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imara, Nia; Di Stefano, Rosanne

    2018-05-01

    We recommend that the search for exoplanets around binary stars be extended to include X-ray binaries (XRBs) in which the accretor is a white dwarf, neutron star, or black hole. We present a novel idea for detecting planets bound to such mass transfer binaries, proposing that the X-ray light curves of these binaries be inspected for signatures of transiting planets. X-ray transits may be the only way to detect planets around some systems, while providing a complementary approach to optical and/or radio observations in others. Any planets associated with XRBs must be in stable orbits. We consider the range of allowable separations and find that orbital periods can be hours or longer, while transit durations extend upward from about a minute for Earth-radius planets, to hours for Jupiter-radius planets. The search for planets around XRBs could begin at once with existing X-ray observations of these systems. If and when a planet is detected around an X-ray binary, the size and mass of the planet may be readily measured, and it may also be possible to study the transmission and absorption of X-rays through its atmosphere. Finally, a noteworthy application of our proposal is that the same technique could be used to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. If an advanced exocivilization placed a Dyson sphere or similar structure in orbit around the accretor of an XRB in order to capture energy, such an artificial structure might cause detectable transits in the X-ray light curve.

  9. Search for a planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokovinin, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of search for star planets is discussed in a popular form. Two methods of search for planets are considered: astrometric and spectral. Both methods complement one another. An assumption is made that potential possessors of planets are in the first place yellow and red dwarfs with slow axial rotation. These stars are the most numerous representatives of Galaxy population

  10. IMPROVED VARIABLE STAR SEARCH IN LARGE PHOTOMETRIC DATA SETS: NEW VARIABLES IN CoRoT FIELD LRa02 DETECTED BY BEST II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruth, T.; Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Eigmüller, P.; Erikson, A.; Kirste, S.; Pasternacki, T.; Rauer, H.; Titz-Weider, R.; Kabath, P.; Chini, R.; Lemke, R.; Murphy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The CoRoT field LRa02 has been observed with the Berlin Exoplanet Search Telescope II (BEST II) during the southern summer 2007/2008. A first analysis of stellar variability led to the publication of 345 newly discovered variable stars. Now, a deeper analysis of this data set was used to optimize the variability search procedure. Several methods and parameters have been tested in order to improve the selection process compared to the widely used J index for variability ranking. This paper describes an empirical approach to treat systematic trends in photometric data based upon the analysis of variance statistics that can significantly decrease the rate of false detections. Finally, the process of reanalysis and method improvement has virtually doubled the number of variable stars compared to the first analysis by Kabath et al. A supplementary catalog of 272 previously unknown periodic variables plus 52 stars with suspected variability is presented. Improved ephemerides are given for 19 known variables in the field. In addition, the BEST II results are compared with CoRoT data and its automatic variability classification.

  11. Systematic search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; deWilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.

    2018-04-01

    Context. Runaway stars form bow shocks by ploughing through the interstellar medium at supersonic speeds and are promising sources of non-thermal emission of photons. One of these objects has been found to emit non-thermal radiation in the radio band. This triggered the development of theoretical models predicting non-thermal photons from radio up to very-high-energy (VHE, E ≥ 0.1 TeV) gamma rays. Subsequently, one bow shock was also detected in X-ray observations. However, the data did not allow discrimination between a hot thermal and a non-thermal origin. Further observations of different candidates at X-ray energies showed no evidence for emission at the position of the bow shocks either. A systematic search in the Fermi-LAT energy regime resulted in flux upper limits for 27 candidates listed in the E-BOSS catalogue. Aim. Here we perform the first systematic search for VHE gamma-ray emission from bow shocks of runaway stars. Methods: Using all available archival H.E.S.S. data we search for very-high-energy gamma-ray emission at the positions of bow shock candidates listed in the second E-BOSS catalogue release. Out of the 73 bow shock candidates in this catalogue, 32 have been observed with H.E.S.S. Results: None of the observed 32 bow shock candidates in this population study show significant emission in the H.E.S.S. energy range. Therefore, flux upper limits are calculated in five energy bins and the fraction of the kinetic wind power that is converted into VHE gamma rays is constrained. Conclusions: Emission from stellar bow shocks is not detected in the energy range between 0.14 and 18 TeV.The resulting upper limits constrain the level of VHE gamma-ray emission from these objects down to 0.1-1% of the kinetic wind energy.

  12. Using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS) to Assess Product Availability, Price Promotions, and Messaging in New Hampshire Vape Shop Retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y; Eaddy, Jessica L; Morrison, Susan L; Asbury, Donna; Lindell, Kristine M; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-04-01

    This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92.6% and 14.6% of stores, respectively. Cross-product promotions with tobacco products were rare, and messaging promoting e-cigarettes as effective cessation devices was found in 27.3% of all stores. Candy/fruit and menthol e-liquids were most commonly found in stores, and sampling of products was available in 83.6% of stores. Ten (18.2%) stores did not have a minimum age sign posted, and self-service sampling displays were available in about one-fifth of stores. Using V-STARS to conduct retail assessments of vape shops is feasible and is important for assessing the changing retail environment of vape shops. Vape shops distinguish themselves from traditional tobacco product retailers and offer a variety of products to customize a consumer's experience. Regulations and effective enforcement ensuring accurate health messages is essential.

  13. Using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS) to Assess Product Availability, Price Promotions, and Messaging in New Hampshire Vape Shop Retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Amanda Y.; Eaddy, Jessica L.; Morrison, Susan L.; Asbury, Donna; Lindell, Kristine M.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This is the first statewide census of the product availability, price promotions, and product messaging of vape shops. Methods A comprehensive list of New Hampshire vape shops was developed through a previously validated online search method. Store audits were conducted in 55 stores between January and February 2016 using the Vape Shop Standardized Tobacco Assessment for Retail Settings (V-STARS). Results Modifiable devices and cig-alikes were sold in 92.6% and 14.6% of stores, respectively. Cross-product promotions with tobacco products were rare, and messaging promoting e-cigarettes as effective cessation devices was found in 27.3% of all stores. Candy/fruit and menthol e-liquids were most commonly found in stores, and sampling of products was available in 83.6% of stores. Ten (18.2%) stores did not have a minimum age sign posted, and self-service sampling displays were available in about one-fifth of stores. Conclusions Using V-STARS to conduct retail assessments of vape shops is feasible and is important for assessing the changing retail environment of vape shops. Vape shops distinguish themselves from traditional tobacco product retailers and offer a variety of products to customize a consumer’s experience. Regulations and effective enforcement ensuring accurate health messages is essential. PMID:29201950

  14. The search for ZZ Ceti stars in the original Kepler mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiss, S.; Hermes, J. J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Raddi, R.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Breedt, E.; Ramsay, G.; Koester, D.; Carter, P. J.; Vanderbosch, Z.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2016-04-01

    We report the discovery of 42 white dwarfs in the original Kepler mission field, including nine new confirmed pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (ZZ Ceti stars). Guided by the Kepler-Isaac Newton Telescope Survey, we selected white dwarf candidates on the basis of their U - g, g - r, and r - Hα photometric colours. We followed up these candidates with high-signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy from the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. Using ground-based, time series photometry, we put our sample of new spectroscopically characterized white dwarfs in the context of the empirical ZZ Ceti instability strip. Prior to our search, only two pulsating white dwarfs had been observed by Kepler. Ultimately, four of our new ZZ Cetis were observed from space. These rich data sets are helping initiate a rapid advancement in the asteroseismic investigation of pulsating white dwarfs, which continues with the extended Kepler mission, K2.

  15. Stars get dizzy after lunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Michael; Penev, Kaloyan

    2014-01-01

    Exoplanet searches have discovered a large number of h ot Jupiters — high-mass planets orbiting very close to their parent stars in nearly circular orbits. A number of these planets are sufficiently massive and close-in to be significantly affected by tidal dissipation in the parent star, to a degree parameterized by the tidal quality factor Q * . This process speeds up their star's rotation rate while reducing the planet's semimajor axis. In this paper, we investigate the tidal destruction of hot Jupiters. Because the orbital angular momenta of these planets are a significant fraction of their star's rotational angular momenta, they spin up their stars significantly while spiraling to their deaths. Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we predict that for Q * = 10 6 , 3.9 × 10 –6 of stars with the Kepler Target Catalog's mass distribution should have a rotation period shorter than 1/3 day (8 hr) due to accreting a planet. Exoplanet surveys such as SuperWASP, HATnet, HATsouth, and KELT have already produced light curves of millions of stars. These two facts suggest that it may be possible to search for tidally destroyed planets by looking for stars with extremely short rotational periods, then looking for remnant planet cores around those candidates, anomalies in the metal distribution, or other signatures of the recent accretion of the planet.

  16. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Chevrotière, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the ∼0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B ∼ 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  17. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Chevrotiere, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal and Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique du Quebec (CRAQ), C. P. 6128, succ. centre-ville, Montreal (Quebec) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Collaboration: MiMeS Collaboration

    2013-02-20

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the {approx}0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B {approx} 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  18. B fields in OB stars (BOB): Low-resolution FORS2 spectropolarimetry of the first sample of 50 massive stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fossati, L.; Castro, N.; Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Langer, N.; Morel, T.; Briquet, M.; Herrero, A.; Przybilla, N.; Sana, H.; Schneider, F.R.N.; de Koter, A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of the collaboration "B fields in OB stars" (BOB), we used the FORS2 low-resolution spectropolarimeter to search for a magnetic field in 50 massive stars, including two reference magnetic massive stars. Because of the many controversies of magnetic field detections obtained with

  19. AGAPE a search for dark matter towards M31 by microlensing effects on unresolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, R; Baillon, Paul; Bouquet, A; Coupinot, G; Coutures, C; Ghesquière, C; Gondolo, P; Hecquet, J; Kaplan, J; Le Du, Y; Melchior, A L; Moniez, M; Picat, J P; Soucail, G

    1996-01-01

    M31 is a very tempting target for a microlensing search of compact objects in galactic haloes. It is the nearest large galaxy, it probably has its own dark halo, and its tilted position with respect to the line of sight provides an unmistakable signature of microlensing. However most stars of M31 are not resolved and one has to use the ``pixel method'': monitor the pixels of the image rather than the stars. AGAPE is the implementation of this idea. Data have been collected and treated during two autumns of observation at the 2 metre telescope of Pic du Midi. The process of geometric and photometric alignment, which must be performed before constructing pixel light curves, is described. Seeing variations are minimised by working with large super-pixels (2.1 ") compared with the average seeing. A high level of stability of pixel fluxes, crucial to the approach, is reached. Fluctuations of super-pixels do not exceed 1.7 times the photon noise which is 0.1\\% of the intensity for the brightest ones. With such stab...

  20. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    among all classes of neutron star binaries. Intrigued by this diversity - which points to diverse birth masses - we undertook a systematic survey to measure the masses of neutron stars in nine high-mass X-ray binaries. In this thesis, I present results from this ongoing project. While neutron stars formed the primary focus of my work, I also explored other topics in compact objects. Appendix A describes the discovery and complete characterization of a 1RXS J173006.4+033813, a polar cataclysmic variable. Appendix B describes the discovery of a diamond planet orbiting a millisecond pulsar, and our search for its optical counterpart.

  1. Photometric Survey to Search for Field sdO Pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Green, E.; Wallace, S.; O'Malley, C.; Amaya, H.; Biddle, L.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of a campaign to search for subdwarf O (sdO) star pulsators among bright field stars. The motivation for this project is the recent discovery by Randall et al. (2011) of four rapidly pulsating sdO stars in the globular cluster ω Cen, with Teff near 50,000 K, 5.4 -0.1 and similar temperatures and gravities. To date, we have found no detectable pulsations at amplitudes above 0.08% (4 times the mean noise level) in any of the 36 field sdO stars that we observed. The presence of pulsations in ω Cen sdO stars and their apparent absence in seemingly comparable field sdO stars is perplexing. While very suggestive, the significance of this result is difficult to assess more completely right now due to remaining uncertainties about the temperature width and purity of the ω Cen instability strip and the existence of any sdO pulsators with weaker amplitudes than the current detection limit in globular clusters.

  2. When is a search not a search? A comparison of searching the AMED complementary health database via EBSCOhost, OVID and DIALOG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paula; Boddy, Kate

    2009-06-01

    The researchers involved in this study work at Exeter Health library and at the Complementary Medicine Unit, Peninsula School of Medicine and Dentistry (PCMD). Within this collaborative environment it is possible to access the electronic resources of three institutions. This includes access to AMED and other databases using different interfaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether searching different interfaces to the AMED allied health and complementary medicine database produced the same results when using identical search terms. The following Internet-based AMED interfaces were searched: DIALOG DataStar; EBSCOhost and OVID SP_UI01.00.02. Search results from all three databases were saved in an endnote database to facilitate analysis. A checklist was also compiled comparing interface features. In our initial search, DIALOG returned 29 hits, OVID 14 and Ebsco 8. If we assume that DIALOG returned 100% of potential hits, OVID initially returned only 48% of hits and EBSCOhost only 28%. In our search, a researcher using the Ebsco interface to carry out a simple search on AMED would miss over 70% of possible search hits. Subsequent EBSCOhost searches on different subjects failed to find between 21 and 86% of the hits retrieved using the same keywords via DIALOG DataStar. In two cases, the simple EBSCOhost search failed to find any of the results found via DIALOG DataStar. Depending on the interface, the number of hits retrieved from the same database with the same simple search can vary dramatically. Some simple searches fail to retrieve a substantial percentage of citations. This may result in an uninformed literature review, research funding application or treatment intervention. In addition to ensuring that keywords, spelling and medical subject headings (MeSH) accurately reflect the nature of the search, database users should include wildcards and truncation and adapt their search strategy substantially to retrieve the maximum number of appropriate

  3. Searching for dark matter with neutron star mergers and quiet kilonovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph; Linden, Tim; Tsai, Yu-Dai

    2018-03-01

    We identify new astrophysical signatures of dark matter that implodes neutron stars (NSs), which could decisively test whether NS-imploding dark matter is responsible for missing pulsars in the Milky Way galactic center, the source of some r -process elements, and the origin of fast-radio bursts. First, NS-imploding dark matter forms ˜10-10 solar mass or smaller black holes inside neutron stars, which proceed to convert neutron stars into ˜1.5 solar mass black holes (BHs). This decreases the number of neutron star mergers seen by LIGO/Virgo (LV) and associated merger kilonovae seen by telescopes like DES, BlackGEM, and ZTF, instead producing a population of "black mergers" containing ˜1.5 solar mass black holes. Second, dark matter-induced neutron star implosions may create a new kind of kilonovae that lacks a detectable, accompanying gravitational signal, which we call "quiet kilonovae." Using DES data and the Milky Way's r-process abundance, we constrain quiet kilonovae. Third, the spatial distribution of neutron star merger kilonovae and quiet kilonovae in galaxies can be used to detect dark matter. NS-imploding dark matter destroys most neutron stars at the centers of disc galaxies, so that neutron star merger kilonovae would appear mostly in a donut at large radii. We find that as few as ten neutron star merger kilonova events, located to ˜1 kpc precision could validate or exclude dark matter-induced neutron star implosions at 2 σ confidence, exploring dark matter-nucleon cross-sections 4-10 orders of magnitude below current direct detection experimental limits. Similarly, NS-imploding dark matter as the source of fast radio bursts can be tested at 2 σ confidence once 20 bursts are located in host galaxies by radio arrays like CHIME and HIRAX.

  4. Pulsating stars in the region of Carina Nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steslicki, Marek [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail: steslicki@astro.uni.wroc.p1

    2008-10-15

    We present the results of a search for pulsating stars in the region of Carina Nebula which includes three very young open clusters: Trumpler 14, 15 and 16. The search was made with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope in La Silla (Chile). In total, about 16,000 stars have been analyzed using classical Fourier techniques. We found over 20 pulsating {delta}-Scuti type stars in this region. Most of them are probable members of open clusters at the pre-main sequence evolutionary stage.

  5. The Dependence of Signal-To-Noise Ratio (S/N) Between Star Brightness and Background on the Filter Used in Images Taken by the Vulcan Photometric Planet Search Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Werth, Jose

    1998-01-01

    The Vulcan Photometric Planet Search is the ground-based counterpart of Kepler Mission Proposal. The Kepler Proposal calls for the launch of telescope to look intently at a small patch of sky for four year. The mission is designed to look for extra-solar planets that transit sun-like stars. The Kepler Mission should be able to detect Earth-size planets. This goal requires an instrument and software capable of detecting photometric changes of several parts per hundred thousand in the flux of a star. The goal also requires the continuous monitoring of about a hundred thousand stars. The Kepler Mission is a NASA Discovery Class proposal similar in cost to the Lunar Prospector. The Vulcan Search is also a NASA project but based at Lick Observatory. A small wide-field telescope monitors various star fields successively during the year. Dozens of images, each containing tens of thousands of stars, are taken any night that weather permits. The images are then monitored for photometric changes of the order of one part in a thousand. These changes would reveal the transit of an inner-orbit Jupiter-size planet similar to those discovered recently in spectroscopic searches. In order to achieve a one part in one thousand photometric precision even the choice of a filter used in taking an exposure can be critical. The ultimate purpose of an filter is to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of one's observation. Ideally, filters reduce the sky glow cause by street lights and, thereby, make the star images more distinct. The higher the S/N, the higher is the chance to observe a transit signal that indicates the presence of a new planet. It is, therefore, important to select the filter that maximizes the S/N.

  6. Massive runaway stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2010-09-01

    The origin of massive field stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) has long been an enigma. The recent measurements of large offsets (˜ 100 km s-1) between the heliocentric radial velocities of some very massive (O2-type) field stars and the systemic LMC velocity provides a possible explanation of this enigma and suggests that the field stars are runaway stars ejected from their birthplaces at the very beginning of their parent cluster's dynamical evolution. A straightforward way to prove this explanation is to measure the proper motions of the field stars and to show that they are moving away from one of the nearby star clusters or OB associations. This approach is, however, complicated by the long distance to the LMC, which makes accurate proper motion measurements difficult. We used an alternative approach for solving the problem (first applied for Galactic field stars), based on the search for bow shocks produced by runaway stars. The geometry of detected bow shocks would allow us to infer the direction of stellar motion, thereby determining their possible parent clusters. In this paper we present the results of a search for bow shocks around six massive field stars that have been proposed as candidate runaway stars. Using archival Spitzer Space Telescope data, we found a bow shock associated with one of our programme stars, the O2 V((f*)) star BI 237, which is the first-ever detection of bow shocks in the LMC. Orientation of the bow shock suggests that BI 237 was ejected from the OB association LH 82 (located at ≃ 120 pc in projection from the star). A by-product of our search is the detection of bow shocks generated by four OB stars in the field of the LMC and an arc-like structure attached to the candidate luminous blue variable R81 (HD 269128). The geometry of two of these bow shocks is consistent with the possibility that their associated stars were ejected from the 30 Doradus star-forming complex. We discuss implications of our findings for the

  7. A search for the age-dependency of Ap star parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruediger, G.; Scholz, G.

    1988-01-01

    Some observational data of the sample of the magnetic chemically peculiar stars (MCP stars) are investigated statistically. For the MCP stars of spectral types later than A2 both the frequency distribution and the R · sin i-values suggest the existence of a linear relation between stellar diameter and rotation period. The MCP stars of spectral types earlier than B9 show an overpopulation of small R · sin i which may indicate the existence of a second group with smaller radius in this sample. The equatorially symmetric rotator is used as the magnetic model. With respect to its temporal behaviour the effective magnetic field is separated into dipolar and quadrupolar contribution. Both signs of the axisymmetric quadrupole moment appear with equal frequency. The dipole moment which produces the amplitude of the B eff (t) curve forms for longer periods two groups which are separated by a distinct gap. Both of the groups exhibit magnetic fields which are the stronger the greater the stellar radius is, contrary to what is expected for frozen-in fields. The dominance of magnetic curves without polarity reversal for longer-period stars is in accordance with predictions of the dynamo theory. (author)

  8. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS IN APPARENTLY SINGLE GALACTIC WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. A GLOBAL VIEW OF THE WIND VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far as can be concluded from the data on hand. Also, we discuss the spectroscopic variability level of all single galactic WR stars that are brighter than v ∼ 12.5, and some WR stars with 12.5 < v ≤ 13.5, i.e., all the stars presented in our two papers and four more stars for which spectra have already been published in the literature. We find that 23/68 stars (33.8%) present large-scale variability, but only 12/54 stars (∼22.1%) are potentially of CIR type. Also, we find that 31/68 stars (45.6%) only show small-scale variability, most likely due to clumping in the wind. Finally, no spectral variability is detected based on the data on hand for 14/68 (20.6%) stars. Interestingly, the variability with the highest amplitude also has the widest mean velocity dispersion.

  9. Stellar aspects of habitability--characterizing target stars for terrestrial planet-finding missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Eiroa, Carlos; Ribas, Ignasi; Paresce, Francesco; Leitzinger, Martin; Odert, Petra; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lammer, Helmut; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss the criteria for selecting potential target stars suitable for the search for Earth-like planets, with a special emphasis on the stellar aspects of habitability. Missions that search for terrestrial exoplanets will explore the presence and habitability of Earth-like exoplanets around several hundred nearby stars, mainly F, G, K, and M stars. The evaluation of the list of potential target systems is essential in order to develop mission concepts for a search for terrestrial exoplanets. Using the Darwin All Sky Star Catalogue (DASSC), we discuss the selection criteria, configuration-dependent subcatalogues, and the implication of stellar activity for habitability.

  10. The Dushak–Erekdag Survey of roAp Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The search of roAp stars at Mt. Dushak–Erekdag Observatory was started in 1992 using the 0.8m Odessa telescope equipped with a two-star high-speed photometer. We have observed more than a dozen stars so far and discovered HD 99563 as roAp star while BD+8087 is suspected to have rapid ...

  11. A search for stars of very low metal abundance. VI. Detailed abundances of 313 metal-poor stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, Ian U.; Preston, George W.; Thompson, Ian B.; Shectman, Stephen A.; Burley, Gregory S.; Kelson, Daniel D.; Sneden, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We present radial velocities, equivalent widths, model atmosphere parameters, and abundances or upper limits for 53 species of 48 elements derived from high resolution optical spectroscopy of 313 metal-poor stars. A majority of these stars were selected from the metal-poor candidates of the HK Survey of Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We derive detailed abundances for 61% of these stars for the first time. Spectra were obtained during a 10 yr observing campaign using the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle spectrograph on the Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, the Robert G. Tull Coudé Spectrograph on the Harlan J. Smith Telescope at McDonald Observatory, and the High Resolution Spectrograph on the Hobby-Eberly Telescope at McDonald Observatory. We perform a standard LTE abundance analysis using MARCS model atmospheres, and we apply line-by-line statistical corrections to minimize systematic abundance differences arising when different sets of lines are available for analysis. We identify several abundance correlations with effective temperature. A comparison with previous abundance analyses reveals significant differences in stellar parameters, which we investigate in detail. Our metallicities are, on average, lower by ≈0.25 dex for red giants and ≈0.04 dex for subgiants. Our sample contains 19 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.5, 84 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–3.0, and 210 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5. Detailed abundances are presented here or elsewhere for 91% of the 209 stars with [Fe/H] ≤–2.5 as estimated from medium resolution spectroscopy by Beers, Preston, and Shectman. We will discuss the interpretation of these abundances in subsequent papers.

  12. Search for (exotic) strange matter in the Star and Alice experiments with the ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernet, R.

    2006-02-01

    Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions offer the possibility to create conditions of temperature and density that could lead nuclear matter to a state of deconfined partons, the quark-gluon plasma. Strange baryon production is one of the essential observables to understand the mechanisms involved in the medium. Furthermore, theories predict a possible production of strange dibaryons, still hypothetical particles, from which one could draw important inferences in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The experiments STAR at RHIC, and, soon, ALICE at LHC, allow one to search for strange baryons and dibaryons. The STAR sensitivity to the metastable dibaryon H 0 in the Λpπ - decay mode was calculated thanks to a dedicated simulation. The search for the H 0 , and for the Ξ - p resonance as well, was performed in the STAR Au+Au data at √(s NN ) = 62.4 and 200 GeV energies. Within the framework of the preparation of ALICE to the first Pb+Pb data, the detector ability to identify strange baryons Λ, Ξ and Ω, was estimated via several simulations. So as to favour the reconstruction efficiency in a large range of transverse momentum while keeping a reasonable S/B ratio, the influence of the geometrical selections and the size of the reconstruction zone was emphasized. The ALICE sensitivities to the metastable strange dibaryons H 0 and (Ξ 0 p) b and to the ΛΛ resonance were calculated as well. (author)

  13. There Are (super)Giants in the Sky: Searching for Misidentified Massive Stars in Algorithmically-Selected Quasar Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn-Wallenstein, Trevor Z.; Levesque, Emily

    2017-11-01

    Thanks to incredible advances in instrumentation, surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey have been able to find and catalog billions of objects, ranging from local M dwarfs to distant quasars. Machine learning algorithms have greatly aided in the effort to classify these objects; however, there are regimes where these algorithms fail, where interesting oddities may be found. We present here an X-ray bright quasar misidentified as a red supergiant/X-ray binary, and a subsequent search of the SDSS quasar catalog for X-ray bright stars misidentified as quasars.

  14. Improved autonomous star identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Li-Yan; Xu Lu-Ping; Zhang Hua; Sun Jing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The log–polar transform (LPT) is introduced into the star identification because of its rotation invariance. An improved autonomous star identification algorithm is proposed in this paper to avoid the circular shift of the feature vector and to reduce the time consumed in the star identification algorithm using LPT. In the proposed algorithm, the star pattern of the same navigation star remains unchanged when the stellar image is rotated, which makes it able to reduce the star identification time. The logarithmic values of the plane distances between the navigation and its neighbor stars are adopted to structure the feature vector of the navigation star, which enhances the robustness of star identification. In addition, some efforts are made to make it able to find the identification result with fewer comparisons, instead of searching the whole feature database. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition rate and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the LPT algorithm and the modified grid algorithm. (paper)

  15. A Search for Circumstellar Gas-Disk Variability in F-type Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Ally; Montgomery, Sharon Lynn; Welsh, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Over the past six years, short-term (night-to-night) variability in the CaII K-line (3933Å) absorption has been detected towards 22 rapidly-rotating A-type stars, all but four of them discovered by us. Most of these stars are young (age McDonald Observatory) during June 2017. The appearance or absence of similar short-lived, Doppler-shifted absorption in F-type stars serves as a test of our understanding of the underlying phenomena.

  16. Hot subluminous stars: On the Search for Chemical Signatures of their Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Heiko Andreas

    2009-10-01

    This thesis deals with the hot subluminous stars of spectral class O. Although the name suggests otherwise, these stars are still 10 to 1000 times more luminous than the sun, they emit most of their radiation energy in the ultraviolet range. First stars of this type have been categorized in the 1950ies. Since they are blue objects like Quasars they often are discovered in surveys at high Galactic latitudes aiming at Quasars and other extragalactic objects. The hot subluminous stars can be divided into two classes, the subluminous O and subluminous B stars, or short sdO and sdB. The sdOs and sdBs play an important role in astronomy, as many old stellar populations, e.g. globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, have strong UV fluxes. UV bright regions often are "stellar nurseries", where new stars are born. Globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, however, do not experience star formation. This UV excess can be explained by population models that include the hot subluminous stars. Many sdB stars show short-period, multiperiodic light variations, which are due to radial and nonradial pulsations. Asteroseismology can explore the inner structure of stars and estimate e.g. the stellar mass, a variable that can only determine in very lucky circumstances (eclipsing binaries). These stars are also important for cosmology because they qualify as supernova Ia progenitors. The nature of the sdO stars is less well understood than that of their cooler and more numerous siblings, the sdBs. The connection of the sdBs to the horizontal branch is established for many years now, accordingly they are old helium core burning objects after their red giant phase. More precisely, they are on the extended horizontal branch (EHB), the hot end of the horizontal branch. EHB stars are characterized by a very low envelope mass, i.e. we see more or less directly the hot helium burning core. Strong mass loss in the RGB phase is regarded as responsible for this phenomenon, the exact mechanism

  17. Photometric search for variable stars in the young open cluster Berkeley 59

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Sneh; Pandey, A. K.; Maheswar, G.; Mondal, Soumen; Kumar, Brijesh

    2011-12-01

    We present the time series photometry of stars located in the extremely young open cluster Berkeley 59. Using the 1.04-m telescope at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Nainital, we have identified 42 variables in a field of ˜13 × 13 arcmin2 around the cluster. The probable members of the cluster have been identified using a (V, V-I) colour-magnitude diagram and a (J-H, H-K) colour-colour diagram. 31 variables have been found to be pre-main-sequence stars associated with the cluster. The ages and masses of the pre-main-sequence stars have been derived from the colour-magnitude diagram by fitting theoretical models to the observed data points. The ages of the majority of the probable pre-main-sequence variable candidates range from 1 to 5 Myr. The masses of these pre-main-sequence variable stars have been found to be in the range of ˜0.3 to ˜3.5 M⊙, and these could be T Tauri stars. The present statistics reveal that about 90 per cent T Tauri stars have period dispersal of the discs of relatively massive stars.

  18. A search for peculiar stars in the open cluster Hogg 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariddi, Stefano; Azatyan, Naira M.; Kurfürst, Petr; Štofanová, Lýdia; Netopil, Martin; Paunzen, Ernst; Pintado, Olga I.; Aidelman, Yael J.

    2018-01-01

    The study of chemically peculiar (CP) stars in open clusters provides valuable information about their evolutionary status. Their detection can be performed using the Δa photometric system, which maps a characteristic flux depression at λ ∼ 5200 Å. This paper aims at studying the occurrence of CP stars in the earliest stages of evolution of a stellar population by applying this technique to Hogg 16, a very young Galactic open cluster ( ∼ 25 Myr). We identified several peculiar candidates: two B-type stars with a negative Δa index (CD - 60 4701, CPD - 60 4706) are likely emission-line (Be) stars, even though spectral measurements are necessary for a proper classification of the second one; a third object (CD - 60 4703), identified as a Be candidate in literature, appears to be a background B-type supergiant with no significant Δa index, which does not rule out the possibility that it is indeed peculiar as the normality line of Δa for supergiants has not been studied in detail yet. A fourth object (CD - 60 4699) appears to be a magnetic CP star of 8 M⊙, but obtained spectral data seem to rule out this hypothesis. Three more magnetic CP star candidates are found in the domain of early F-type stars. One is a probable nonmember and close to the border of significance, but the other two are probably pre-main sequence cluster objects. This is very promising, as it can lead to very strong constraints to the diffusion theory. Finally, we derived the fundamental parameters of Hogg 16 and provide for the first time an estimate of its metal content.

  19. Low-mass stars with mass loss and low-luminosity carbon star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothroyd, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of large carbon enrichments in static stellar envelopes were investigated, using new Los Alamos opacities (including low-temperature carbon and molecular opacities) and including carbon ionizations. To search for the production of low-mass,low-luminosity carbon stars, detailed stellar evolutionary computations were carried out for a grid of low-mass stars of two different metallicities. The stars were evolved from the main sequence through all intermediate stages and through helium-shell flashes on the asymptotic giant branch. The effects of the latest nuclear reaction rates, the new Los Alamos opacities, Reimers-type wind mass loss, and detailed treatment of convection and semi-convection were investigated. Two low-luminosity carbon stars were achieved, in excellent agreement with observations. Conditions favoring dredge-up (and thus carbon-star production) include a reasonably large convective mixing length, low metallicity, relatively large envelope mass, and high flash strength. Mass loss was of major importance, tending to oppose dredge-up; the total mass-loss amounts inferred from observations suffice to prevent formation of high-mass, high-luminosity carbon stars

  20. THE PREVALENCE AND IMPACT OF WOLF–RAYET STARS IN EMERGING MASSIVE STAR CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokal, Kimberly R.; Johnson, Kelsey E.; Indebetouw, Rémy [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Massey, Philip, E-mail: krs9tb@virginia.edu [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We investigate Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars as a source of feedback contributing to the removal of natal material in the early evolution of massive star clusters. Despite previous work suggesting that massive star clusters clear out their natal material before the massive stars evolve into the WR phase, WR stars have been detected in several emerging massive star clusters. These detections suggest that the timescale for clusters to emerge can be at least as long as the time required to produce WR stars (a few million years), and could also indicate that WR stars may be providing the tipping point in the combined feedback processes that drive a massive star cluster to emerge. We explore the potential overlap between the emerging phase and the WR phase with an observational survey to search for WR stars in emerging massive star clusters hosting WR stars. We select candidate emerging massive star clusters from known radio continuum sources with thermal emission and obtain optical spectra with the 4 m Mayall Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the 6.5 m MMT.{sup 4} We identify 21 sources with significantly detected WR signatures, which we term “emerging WR clusters.” WR features are detected in ∼50% of the radio-selected sample, and thus we find that WR stars are commonly present in currently emerging massive star clusters. The observed extinctions and ages suggest that clusters without WR detections remain embedded for longer periods of time, and may indicate that WR stars can aid, and therefore accelerate, the emergence process.

  1. An Autonomous Star Identification Algorithm Based on One-Dimensional Vector Pattern for Star Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liyan; Xu, Luping; Zhang, Hua

    2015-07-07

    In order to enhance the robustness and accelerate the recognition speed of star identification, an autonomous star identification algorithm for star sensors is proposed based on the one-dimensional vector pattern (one_DVP). In the proposed algorithm, the space geometry information of the observed stars is used to form the one-dimensional vector pattern of the observed star. The one-dimensional vector pattern of the same observed star remains unchanged when the stellar image rotates, so the problem of star identification is simplified as the comparison of the two feature vectors. The one-dimensional vector pattern is adopted to build the feature vector of the star pattern, which makes it possible to identify the observed stars robustly. The characteristics of the feature vector and the proposed search strategy for the matching pattern make it possible to achieve the recognition result as quickly as possible. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively accelerate the star identification. Moreover, the recognition accuracy and robustness by the proposed algorithm are better than those by the pyramid algorithm, the modified grid algorithm, and the LPT algorithm. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other three star identification algorithms.

  2. SEARCHING FOR NEW YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STARS: POSITIVE IDENTIFICATION OF StHα63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O. [Unidad de Astronomía, Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Per (Peru); Pereira, C. B.; Alvarez-Candal, A. [Observatório Nacional/MCTI, Rua Gen. José Cristino, 77, 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F., E-mail: nobar.baella@gmail.com, E-mail: claudio@on.br, E-mail: alvarez@on.br, E-mail: lfm@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía- CSIC, C/Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Yellow symbiotic stars are useful targets for probing whether mass transfer has happened in their binary systems. However, the number of known yellow symbiotic stars is very scarce. We report spectroscopic observations of five candidate yellow symbiotic stars that were selected by their positions in the 2MASS (J − H) versus (H − K{sub s}) diagram and which were included in some emission-line catalogs. Among the five candidates, only StHα63 is identified as a new yellow symbiotic star because of its spectrum and its position in the [TiO]{sub 1}–[TiO]{sub 2} diagram, which indicates a K4–K6 spectral type. In addition, the derived electron density (∼10{sup 8.4} cm{sup −3}) and several emission-line intensity ratios provide further support for that classification. The other four candidates are rejected as symbiotic stars because three of them actually do not show emission lines and the fourth one only Balmer emission lines. We also found that the WISE W3–W4 index clearly separates normal K-giants from yellow symbiotic stars and therefore can be used as an additional tool for selecting candidate yellow symbiotic stars.

  3. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  4. Discovery of a New Nearby Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teegarden, B. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Covey, K.; Frazier, O.; Hawley, S. L.; Hicks, M.; Lawrence, K.; McGlynn, T.; Reid, I. N.; Shaklan, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nearby star with a very large proper motion of 5.06 +/- 0.03 arcsec/yr. The star is called SO025300.5+165258 and referred to herein as HPMS (high proper motion star). The discovery came as a result of a search of the SkyMorph database, a sensitive and persistent survey that is well suited for finding stars with high proper motions. There are currently only 7 known stars with proper motions greater than 5 arcsec/yr. We have determined a preliminary value for the parallax of pi = 0.43 +/- 0.13 arcsec. If this value holds our new star ranks behind only the Alpha Centauri system (including Proxima Centauri) and Barnard's star in the list of our nearest stellar neighbours. The spectrum and measured tangential velocity indicate that HPMS is a main-sequence star with spectral type M6.5. However, if our distance measurement is correct, the HPMS is underluminous by 1.2 +/- 0.7 mag.

  5. A modern search for Wolf-Rayet stars in the Magellanic Clouds: First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601 La Serena (Chile); Hillier, D. John, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl, E-mail: hillier@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics, and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Over the years, directed surveys and incidental spectroscopy have identified 12 Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and 139 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), numbers which are often described as 'essentially complete'. Yet, new WRs are discovered in the LMC almost yearly. We have therefore initiated a new survey of both Magellanic Clouds using the same interference-filter imaging technique previously applied to M31 and M33. We report on our first observing season, in which we have successfully surveyed ∼15% of our intended area of the SMC and LMC. Spectroscopy has confirmed nine newly found WRs in the LMC (a 6% increase), including one of WO-type, only the third known in that galaxy and the second to be discovered recently. The other eight are WN3 stars that include an absorption component. In two, the absorption is likely from an O-type companion, but the other six are quite unusual. Five would be classified naively as 'WN3+O3 V', but such a pairing is unlikely given the rarity of O3 stars, the short duration of this phase (which is incommensurate with the evolution of a companion to a WN star), and because these stars are considerably fainter than O3 V stars. The sixth star may also fall into this category. CMFGEN modeling suggests these stars are hot, bolometrically luminous, and N-rich like other WN3 stars, but lack the strong winds that characterize WNs. Finally, we discuss two rare Of?p stars and four Of supergiants we found, and propose that the B[e] star HD 38489 may have a WN companion.

  6. New candidates for carbon stars with silicate features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. J.; Kwok, Sun

    1991-01-01

    All stars in the General Catalog of Cool Galactic Carbon Stars with IRAS 12-micron fluxes greater than 10 Jy were searched for Low-Resolution-Spectrometer (LRS) spectra in the IRAS LRS data base. Out of the 532 spectra examined, 11 were found to show the 9.7-micron silicate emission feature. Four of these are identified for the first time. This group of carbon stars may represent transition objects between oxygen-rich and carbon-rich stars on the asymptotic giant branch.

  7. Searches on star graphs and equivalent oracle problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Lee, Hai-Woong; Hillery, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We examine a search on a graph among a number of different kinds of objects (vertices), one of which we want to find. In a standard graph search, all of the vertices are the same, except for one, the marked vertex, and that is the one we wish to find. We examine the case in which the unmarked vertices can be of different types, so the background against which the search is done is not uniform. We find that the search can still be successful, but the probability of success is lower than in the uniform background case, and that probability decreases with the number of types of unmarked vertices. We also show how the graph searches can be rephrased as equivalent oracle problems.

  8. NuSTAR Search for Hard X-ray Emission from the Star Formation Regions in Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthelf, Eric V.

    2016-04-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh2-104, a compact Hii region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019+37 in the Cygnus region. Faint, diffuse X-ray emission coincident with the eastern YMSC in Sh2-104 is likely the result of colliding winds of component stars. Just outside the radio shell of Sh2-104 lies 3XMM J201744.7+365045 and nearby nebula NuSTAR J201744.3+364812, whose properties are most consistent with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with NH = (3.1+/-1.0)E22 1/cm^2 and photon index Gamma = 2.1+/-0.1. Based on possible long-term flux variation and lack of detected pulsations (Sh2-104 will help identify the nature of the X-ray sources and their relation to MGRO J2019+37.

  9. B- AND A-TYPE STARS IN THE TAURUS-AURIGA STAR-FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooley, Kunal; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Rebull, Luisa; Padgett, Deborah; Knapp, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    We describe the results of a search for early-type stars associated with the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex, a diffuse nearby star-forming region noted as lacking young stars of intermediate and high mass. We investigate several sets of possible O, B, and early A spectral class members. The first is a group of stars for which mid-infrared images show bright nebulae, all of which can be associated with stars of spectral-type B. The second group consists of early-type stars compiled from (1) literature listings in SIMBAD, (2) B stars with infrared excesses selected from the Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the Taurus cloud, (3) magnitude- and color-selected point sources from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, and (4) spectroscopically identified early-type stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey coverage of the Taurus region. We evaluated stars for membership in the Taurus-Auriga star formation region based on criteria involving: spectroscopic and parallactic distances, proper motions and radial velocities, and infrared excesses or line emission indicative of stellar youth. For selected objects, we also model the scattered and emitted radiation from reflection nebulosity and compare the results with the observed spectral energy distributions to further test the plausibility of physical association of the B stars with the Taurus cloud. This investigation newly identifies as probable Taurus members three B-type stars: HR 1445 (HD 28929), τ Tau (HD 29763), 72 Tau (HD 28149), and two A-type stars: HD 31305 and HD 26212, thus doubling the number of stars A5 or earlier associated with the Taurus clouds. Several additional early-type sources including HD 29659 and HD 283815 meet some, but not all, of the membership criteria and therefore are plausible, though not secure, members.

  10. UPPER LIMITS ON THE RATES OF BINARY NEUTRON STAR AND NEUTRON STAR-BLACK HOLE MERGERS FROM ADVANCED LIGO'S FIRST OBSERVING RUN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, E.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, E.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Chen, Y; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, E.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, E.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -E; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garunfi, E.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, R.G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, E.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kusunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzar, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Luck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, E.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, E.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Deill, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, E.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passahieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Proxhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Purrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, E. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rudiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schonbecx, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltevi, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Toxmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.G.; van den Brand, J. E. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heuningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, E.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablong, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the non-detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary-neutron star systems and neutron star-black hole systems during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). In particular, we searched for gravitational-wave

  11. Wolf-Rayet stars and galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenholm, B.

    1975-01-01

    A 15 0 wide strip along the galactic equator between longitudes 250 0 and 360 0 has been searched for Wolf-Rayet stars. Six new WR stars and four new planetary nebulae have been found. Seven stars earlier listed as WR stars have been rejected as such. The new WR stars in the 'Luminous Stars in the Southern Milky Way' are discussed. A sample of 154 WR stars has been treated statistically. For the distribution in longitude, comparisons are made with OB stars and classical cepheids. The differences in distribution are thought to be an age effect. An effort to explain the empty interval towards the anticentre is made. The distribution in latitude is compared with young clusters and long-period cepheids. The physical plane formed by these objects is tilted about one degree to the galactic plane and the tilt is upwards in the Cygnus direction. This result is also received by a least squares solution of the objects when given in rectangular coordinates. The WR star sample is regarded as fairly complete up to a distance of 5 kpc. (orig.) [de

  12. Faint (and bright variable stars in the satellites of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivas A. Katherina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available I describe two ongoing projects related with variable stars in the satellites of the MilkyWay. In the first project, we are searching for dwarf Cepheid stars (a.k.a δ Scuti and/or SX Phe in some of the classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies. Our goal is to characterize the population of these variable stars under different environments (age, metallicity in order to study their use as standard candles in systems for which the metallicity is not necessarily known. In the second project we search for RR Lyrae stars in the new ultra-faint satellite galaxies that have been discovered around the Milky Way in recent years.

  13. Search for local parity violation with STAR ZDC-SMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Gang, E-mail: gwang@physics.ucla.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Parity-odd domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the orbital momentum of the system created in non-central relativistic heavy ion collisions. A signal consistent with several of the theoretical expectations has been detected by STAR, with a three particle azimuthal correlator which is a P-even observable, but still sensitive to the charge separation effect. In this correlator, the first two particles are used to reveal the physics of interest, and the third particle serves as a reference for the reaction plane. In this work, to minimize the non-parity correlation between the third particle and the first two, we utilize the spectator neutrons detected by STAR ZDC-SMDs to define the event plane. The 1st-order event plane thus obtained can also be used to study the global strong parity violation effect, and to provide further systematic checks for this analysis. We report measurements of both P-even and P-odd observables using the STAR ZDC-SMDs in Au+Au at 200 GeV. The results are presented as a function of collision centrality, particle separation in rapidity and transverse momentum (p{sub T}). Systematic checks on the impact from the directed flow will also be discussed.

  14. Global and photospheric physical parameters of active dwarf stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, B.R.

    1983-01-01

    Physical parameters (temperature, luminosity, radius, mass and chemical abundance) of the photospheres of red dwarf flare stars and spotted stars are determined for quiescent conditions. The interrelations between these quantities are compared to the results of theoretical investigation for low mass stars. The evolutionary state of flare stars is discussed. Observational results from spectroscopic and photometric methods to determine the rotation of active dwarfs are reviewed. The possibilities of global oscillations in dwarf stars are considered and preliminary results of a photometric search for oscillation in red dwarf luminosities are presented. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of methods for the detection of gravitational waves from unknown neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S.; Pitkin, M.; Oliver, M.; D'Antonio, S.; Dergachev, V.; Królak, A.; Astone, P.; Bejger, M.; Di Giovanni, M.; Dorosh, O.; Frasca, S.; Leaci, P.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Miller, A.; Palomba, C.; Papa, M. A.; Piccinni, O. J.; Riles, K.; Sauter, O.; Sintes, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars are promising sources of continuous gravitational wave radiation for the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. The majority of neutron stars in our galaxy have not been identified with electromagnetic observations. All-sky searches for isolated neutron stars offer the potential to detect gravitational waves from these unidentified sources. The parameter space of these blind all-sky searches, which also cover a large range of frequencies and frequency derivatives, presents a significant computational challenge. Different methods have been designed to perform these searches within acceptable computational limits. Here we describe the first benchmark in a project to compare the search methods currently available for the detection of unknown isolated neutron stars. The five methods compared here are individually referred to as the PowerFlux, sky Hough, frequency Hough, Einstein@Home, and time domain F -statistic methods. We employ a mock data challenge to compare the ability of each search method to recover signals simulated assuming a standard signal model. We find similar performance among the four quick-look search methods, while the more computationally intensive search method, Einstein@Home, achieves up to a factor of two higher sensitivity. We find that the absence of a second derivative frequency in the search parameter space does not degrade search sensitivity for signals with physically plausible second derivative frequencies. We also report on the parameter estimation accuracy of each search method, and the stability of the sensitivity in frequency and frequency derivative and in the presence of detector noise.

  16. 2MASS Identifications for Galactic OB Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2007-01-01

    Cross-identifications for 14,574 intrinsically luminous galactic stars (mostly OB stars) to objects in the 2MASS survey have been determined using a search box of +/-0.0015 degrees (+/- 5.4 arcsec) in both RA and Dec. Instructions on obtaining the relevant files can be obtained at othello.alma.edu/~reed/OB-2MASS.doc.

  17. Wide cool and ultracool companions to nearby stars from Pan-STARRS 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deacon, Niall R.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, H.; Kaiser, Nick; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Morgan, Jeff S.; Tonry, John L.; Dupuy, Trent; Mann, Andrew W.; Redstone, Joshua A.; Draper, Peter W.; Metcalfe, Nigel; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Price, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of 57 wide (>5'') separation, low-mass (stellar and substellar) companions to stars in the solar neighborhood identified from Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) data and the spectral classification of 31 previously known companions. Our companions represent a selective subsample of promising candidates and span a range in spectral type of K7-L9 with the addition of one DA white dwarf. These were identified primarily from a dedicated common proper motion search around nearby stars, along with a few as serendipitous discoveries from our Pan-STARRS 1 brown dwarf search. Our discoveries include 23 new L dwarf companions and one known L dwarf not previously identified as a companion. The primary stars around which we searched for companions come from a list of bright stars with well-measured parallaxes and large proper motions from the Hipparcos catalog (8583 stars, mostly A-K dwarfs) and fainter stars from other proper motion catalogs (79170 stars, mostly M dwarfs). We examine the likelihood that our companions are chance alignments between unrelated stars and conclude that this is unlikely for the majority of the objects that we have followed-up spectroscopically. We also examine the entire population of ultracool (>M7) dwarf companions and conclude that while some are loosely bound, most are unlikely to be disrupted over the course of ∼10 Gyr. Our search increases the number of ultracool M dwarf companions wider than 300 AU by 88% and increases the number of L dwarf companions in the same separation range by 82%. Finally, we resolve our new L dwarf companion to HIP 6407 into a tight (0.''13, 7.4 AU) L1+T3 binary, making the system a hierarchical triple. Our search for these key benchmarks against which brown dwarf and exoplanet atmosphere models are tested has yielded the largest number of discoveries to date.

  18. Neutron star evolution and emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, R. I.; Edwards, B. C.; Haines, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors investigated the evolution and radiation characteristics of individual neutron stars and stellar systems. The work concentrated on phenomena where new techniques and observations are dramatically enlarging the understanding of stellar phenomena. Part of this project was a study of x-ray and gamma-ray emission from neutron stars and other compact objects. This effort included calculating the thermal x-ray emission from young neutron stars, deriving the radio and gamma-ray emission from active pulsars and modeling intense gamma-ray bursts in distant galaxies. They also measured periodic optical and infrared fluctuations from rotating neutron stars and search for high-energy TeV gamma rays from discrete celestial sources.

  19. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez; De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions

  20. A GALEX-BASED SEARCH FOR THE SPARSE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION IN THE TAURUS-AURIGAE STAR FORMING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez de Castro, Ana I.; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; López-Martínez, Fatima; Sánchez, Néstor; Sestito, Paola; Gestoso, Javier Yañez [AEGORA Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); De Castro, Elisa; Cornide, Manuel [Fac. de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza de Ciencias 1, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we identify 63 bona fide new candidates to T Tauri stars (TTSs) in the Taurus-Auriga region, using its ultraviolet excess as our baseline. The initial data set was defined from the GALEX all sky survey (AIS). The GALEX satellite obtained images in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) and far-ultraviolet (FUV) bands where TTSs show a prominent excess compared with main-sequence or giants stars. GALEX AIS surveyed the Taurus-Auriga molecular complex, as well as a fraction of the California Nebula and the Perseus complex; bright sources and dark clouds were avoided. The properties of TTSs in the ultraviolet (GALEX), optical (UCAC4), and infrared (2MASS) have been defined using the TTSs observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer reference sample. The candidates were identified by means of a mixed ultraviolet-optical-infrared excess set of colors; we found that the FUV-NUV versus J–K color-color diagram is ideally suited for this purpose. From an initial sample of 163,313 bona fide NUV sources, a final list of 63 new candidates to TTSs in the region was produced. The search procedure has been validated by its ability to detect all known TTSs in the area surveyed: 31 TTSs. Also, we show that the weak-lined TTSs are located in a well-defined stripe in the FUV-NUV versus J–K diagram. Moreover, in this work, we provide a list of TTSs photometric standards for future GALEX-based studies of the young stellar population in star forming regions.

  1. A systematic search for brown dwarfs orbiting nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, T.J.; Mccarthy, D.W. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Survey data for brown dwarf and stellar companions relative to known M dwarf stars within 5 pc north of -30 deg are analyzed. A region 0.2 to 5 arcsec in radius around 27 stars at the IR H and K bands are examined using IR speckle interferometry. The frequency of binary versus single M dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is examined. The IR mass-magnitude relations and mass-luminosity-age relation are studied. The data reveal that there are 19 single M dwarfs, 8 M dwarf binaries, 1 M dwarf triple system, and 1 M dwarf in a triple system for M dwarfs within 5 pc north of -30 deg. Also of the 27 M dwarfs studied none was found to have a brown dwarf companion. 64 refs

  2. A Multi-Fiber Spectroscopic Search for Low-mass Young Stars in Orion OB1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerincs, Jacqueline; Briceno, Cesar; Calvet, Nuria; Mateo, Mario L.; Hernandez, Jesus

    2017-01-01

    We present here results of a low resolution spectroscopic followup of candidate low-mass pre-main sequence stars in the Orion OB1 association. Our targets were selected from the CIDA Variability Survey of Orion (CVSO), and we used the Michigan/Magellan Fiber Spectrograph (M2FS) on the Magellan Clay 6.5m telescope to obtain spectra of 500 candidate T Tauri stars distributed in seven 0.5 deg diameter fields, adding to a total area of ~5.5 deg2. We identify young stars by looking at the distinctive Hα 6563 Å emission and Lithium Li I 6707 Å absorption features characteristic of young low mass pre-main sequence stars. Furthermore, by measuring the strength of their Hα emission lines, confirmed T Tauri stars can be classified as either Classical T Tauris (CTTS) or Weak-line T Tauris (WTTS), which give indication of whether the star is actively accreting material from a gas and dust disk surrounding the star, which may be the precursor of a planetary system. We confirm a total of 90 T Tauri stars, of which 50% are newly identified young members of Orion; out of the 49 new detections,15 are accreting CTTS, and of these all but one are found in the OB1b sub-region. This result is in line with our previous findings that this region is much younger than the more extended Orion OB1a sub-association. The M2FS results add to our growing census of young stars in Orion, that is allowing us to characterize in a systematic and consistent way the distribution of stellar ages across the entire complex, in order to building a complete picture of star formation in this, one of nearest most active sites of star birth.

  3. Online Searching at 9600 Baud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Ralph Lee; Scott, Nancy Sue Schell

    1991-01-01

    Discusses online searching with the new 9600 baud rate and describes test searches on the BRS, Data-Star, LEXIS, and Dow Jones databases through three packet-switching networks: US Sprint, MEADNET, and TYMNET. Hardware and software are described, data communications equipment standards are discussed, and the impact of higher baud rates on pricing…

  4. The Vatican emission star survey: review and comments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardon de Lichtbuer, P.

    1982-01-01

    Eight years ago a program was started at the Vatican Observatory to search for faint emission-line stars close to the galactic plane. The author presents the results of a part of the VES with l 11 between 55 0 and 115 0 and b 11 from -5 0 to +5 0 . The Wackerling catalogue (1971) lists for the same region about 675 emission-line stars; the VES added to these about 550 new stars. (Auth.)

  5. X-ray sources in stars formation areas: T Tauri stars and proto-stars in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosso, Nicolas

    1999-01-01

    This thesis studies from large to small scales, X-ray sources in the rho Ophiuchi dark cloud. After some background on the formation of the low-mass young stars (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 takes an interest in the T Tauri star population. Chapter 3 tackles the search of the magnetic activity at the younger stage of protostar, presenting a powerful X-ray emission from an IR protostar, called YLW15, during a flare, and a quasi-periodic flare of the same source; as well as a new detection of another IR protostar in the ROSAT archives. It ends with a review of protostar detections. Some IR protostar flares show a very long increasing phase. Chapter 4 links this behaviour with a modulation by the central star rotation. The standard model of jet emission assumes that the central star rotates at the same speed that the inner edge of its accretion disk. This chapter shows that the observation of the YLW15 quasi-periodic flare suggests rather that the forming star rotates faster than its accretion disk, at the break up limit. The synchronism with the accretion disk, observed on T Tauri stars, must be reach progressively by magnetic breaking during the IR protostar stage, and more or less rapidly depending on the forming star mass. Recent studies have shown that T Tauri star X-ray emission could ionize the circumstellar disk, and play a role in the instability development, as well as stimulate the accretion. The protostar X-ray emission might be higher than the T Tauri star one, Chapter 5 presents a millimetric interferometric observation dedicated to measure this effect on YLW15. Finally, Chapter 6 reassembles conclusions and perspectives of this work. (author) [fr

  6. A survey of TiOλ567 nm absorption in solar-type stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Fatemeh; Mirtorabi, Mohammad Taghi

    2018-04-01

    Molecular absorption bands are estimators of stellar activity and spot cycles on magnetically active stars. We have previously introduced a new colour index that compares absorption strength of the titanium oxide (TiO) at 567 nm with nearby continuum. In this paper, we implement this index to measure long-term activity variations and the statistical properties of the index in a sample of 302 solar-type stars from the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet search Spectrograph planet search programme. The results indicate a pattern of change in star's activity, covers a range of periods from 2 yr up to 17 yr.

  7. Evidence for a solar companion star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    Periodicity seen in both the mass extinctions and large impact cratering on earth can be explained if one postulates that the sun has a companion star, orbiting in a moderately eccentric orbit with a major axis of 2.8 light-years. No other explanations that have been suggested are compatible with known facts of physics and astronomy. If the companion is a red dwarf star, the most common kind in the galaxy, then no previous astronomical observations would have found it. A search for red objects with large parallax is now underway at Berkeley, and has a good chance of identifying the star in the near future

  8. Evidence for a solar companion star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, R.A.

    1984-08-01

    Periodicity seen in both the mass extinctions and large impact cratering on earth can be explained if one postulates that the sun has a companion star, orbiting in a moderately eccentric orbit with a major axis of 2.8 light-years. No other explanations that have been suggested are compatible with known facts of physics and astronomy. If the companion is a red dwarf star, the most common kind in the galaxy, then no previous astronomical observations would have found it. A search for red objects with large parallax is now underway at Berkeley, and has a good chance of identifying the star in the near future.

  9. Searching for chemical classes among metal-poor stars using medium-resolution spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Monique A.; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Rossi, Silvia

    2018-04-01

    Astronomy is in the era of large spectroscopy surveys, with the spectra of hundreds of thousands of stars in the Galaxy being collected. Although most of these surveys have low or medium resolution, which makes precise abundance measurements not possible, there is still important information to be extracted from the available data. Our aim is to identify chemically distinct classes among metal-poor stars, observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, using line indices. The present work focused on carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars and their subclasses. We applied the latent profile analysis technique to line indices for carbon, barium, iron and europium, in order to separate the sample into classes with similar chemical signatures. This technique provides not only the number of possible groups but also the probability of each object to belong to each class. The method was able to distinguish at least two classes among the observed sample, with one of them being probable CEMP stars enriched in s-process elements. However, it was not able to separate CEMP-no stars from the rest of the sample. Latent profile analysis is a powerful model-based tool to be used in the identification of patterns in astrophysics. Our tests show the potential of the technique for the attainment of additional chemical information from `poor' data.

  10. In Search of Stellar Music: Finding Pulsators for the TESS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey-Yowell, Tyler; Pepper, Joshua; KELT Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) will search for small transiting exoplanets orbiting bright stars. One of the additional mission objectives is to observe oscillating variable stars to precisely measure these stars’ masses, radii, and internal structures. Since TESS can observe only a limited number of stars with high enough cadence to detect these oscillations, it is necessary to identify candidates that will yield the most valuable results. Using data from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT), we searched for bright stars showing oscillations to be included as TESS targets. We found 2,108 variable stars with B-V < 0.5 and P < 5 days. Further analysis will be carried out to establish final candidates. This project was funded by the National Science Foundation grant PHY-1359195 to the Lehigh University REU program.

  11. Sounds of a Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Acoustic Oscillations in Solar-Twin "Alpha Cen A" Observed from La Silla by Swiss Team Summary Sound waves running through a star can help astronomers reveal its inner properties. This particular branch of modern astrophysics is known as "asteroseismology" . In the case of our Sun, the brightest star in the sky, such waves have been observed since some time, and have greatly improved our knowledge about what is going on inside. However, because they are much fainter, it has turned out to be very difficult to detect similar waves in other stars. Nevertheless, tiny oscillations in a solar-twin star have now been unambiguously detected by Swiss astronomers François Bouchy and Fabien Carrier from the Geneva Observatory, using the CORALIE spectrometer on the Swiss 1.2-m Leonard Euler telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. This telescope is mostly used for discovering exoplanets (see ESO PR 07/01 ). The star Alpha Centauri A is the nearest star visible to the naked eye, at a distance of a little more than 4 light-years. The new measurements show that it pulsates with a 7-minute cycle, very similar to what is observed in the Sun . Asteroseismology for Sun-like stars is likely to become an important probe of stellar theory in the near future. The state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph , to be mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla, will be able to search for oscillations in stars that are 100 times fainter than those for which such demanding observations are possible with CORALIE. PR Photo 23a/01 : Oscillations in a solar-like star (schematic picture). PR Photo 23b/01 : Acoustic spectrum of Alpha Centauri A , as observed with CORALIE. Asteroseismology: listening to the stars ESO PR Photo 23a/01 ESO PR Photo 23a/01 [Preview - JPEG: 357 x 400 pix - 96k] [Normal - JPEG: 713 x 800 pix - 256k] [HiRes - JPEG: 2673 x 3000 pix - 2.1Mb Caption : PR Photo 23a/01 is a graphical representation of resonating acoustic waves in the interior of a solar-like star. Red and blue

  12. Star-Formation in Free-Floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2017-08-01

    We propose to study the stellar embryos in select members of a newly recognized class of Free-floating Evaporating Gaseous Globules (frEGGS) embedded in HII regions and having head-tail shapes. We discovered two of these in the Cygnus massive star-forming region (MSFR) with HST, including one of the most prominent members of this class (IRAS20324). Subsequent archival searches of Spitzer imaging of MSFRs has allowed us to build a statistical sample of frEGGs. Our molecular-line observations show the presence of dense molecular cores with total gas masses of (0.5-few) Msun in these objects, and our radio continuum images and Halpha images (from the IPHAS survey) reveal bright photo-ionized peripheries around these objects. We hypothesize that frEGGs are density concentrations originating in giant molecular clouds, that, when subject to the sculpting and compression by strong winds and UV radiation from massive stars, become active star-forming cores. For the 4 frEGGs with HST or near-IR AO images showing young stars and bipolar cavities produced by their jets or collimated outflows, the symmetry axis points roughly toward the external ionizing star or star cluster - exciting new evidence for our overpressure-induced star formation hypothesis. We propose to test this hypothesis by imaging 24 frEGGs in two nearby MSFRs that represent different radiation-dominated environments. Using ACS imaging with filters F606W, F814W, & F658N (Ha+[NII]), we will search for jets and outflow-excavated cavities, investigate the stellar nurseries inside frEGGs, and determine whether the globules are generally forming multiple star systems or small clusters, as in IRAS20324.

  13. Wolf-Rayet stars in open clusters and associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstroem, I.; Stenholm, B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have made a search for line-of-sight coincidences between WR stars and open clusters using the new catalogue of galactic WR stars (van der Hucht et al., 1981, called the HCLS catalogue) and the catalogue of open cluster data (Lyngaa and Lundstroem, 1980). As a measure of the separation they used the angular distance between the WR star and the cluster centre expressed with the cluster angular radius, r', as unit. By comparing the results found from the real angular distributions of WR stars and open clusters with those found if the WR stars were redistributed by changing signs in their latitudes, it is concluded that the majority of WR stars with separations less than 3r' are true cluster members. For larger separations only a few stars can be expected to be members. The authors have therefore limited their investigation to those WR stars that were found within 5r' from an open cluster. (Auth.)

  14. Study on the flare stars in the Taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the search of flare stars and their photometric, Hsub(α)-spectroscopic and statistical study in the Taurus are presented. By means of photographic observations carried out during 1980-1984, 92 new flare stars were discovered, 13 of which are known Orion Population variables, and 16 repeated flare-ups among 13 known flare stars. Spatial distribution of these stars was considered and the problem of their membership was discussed. Comparative analysis of the data of flare stars in the Taurus with that of other systems has been carried out. The Herzsprung-Russel and two-colour (U-B, B-V) diagrams for the Taurus flare stars are similar to the diagrams of stellar clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion etc.). The estimated total number of flare stars in this region is larger than 500

  15. THE 3 MU-M SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE CARBON STARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROENEWEGEN, MAT; DEJONG, T; GEBALLE, TR

    We have searched for the 3.1 mum absorption feature, a well-known characteristic of optical carbon stars, in a sample of sixteen candidate carbon stars, most of which have very red colors and some of which have no optical counterparts. The sample was selected on the basis of similarity of LRS

  16. Mission hazard assessment for STARS Mission 1 (M1) in the Marshall Islands area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Outka, D.E.; LaFarge, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    A mission hazard assessment has been performed for the Strategic Target System Mission 1 (known as STARS M1) for hazards due to potential debris impact in the Marshall Islands area. The work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories as a result of discussion with Kwajalein Missile Range (KMR) safety officers. The STARS M1 rocket will be launched from the Kauai Test Facility (KTF), Hawaii, and deliver two payloads to within the viewing range of sensors located on the Kwajalein Atoll. The purpose of this work has been to estimate upper bounds for expected casualty rates and impact probability or the Marshall Islands areas which adjoin the STARS M1 instantaneous impact point (IIP) trace. This report documents the methodology and results of the analysis.

  17. Construction of Database for Pulsating Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B. Q.; Yang, M.; Jiang, B. W.

    2011-07-01

    A database for the pulsating variable stars is constructed for Chinese astronomers to study the variable stars conveniently. The database includes about 230000 variable stars in the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC observed by the MACHO (MAssive Compact Halo Objects) and OGLE (Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) projects at present. The software used for the construction is LAMP, i.e., Linux+Apache+MySQL+PHP. A web page is provided to search the photometric data and the light curve in the database through the right ascension and declination of the object. More data will be incorporated into the database.

  18. Constraining Asymmetric Dark Matter through observations of compact stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos; Tinyakov, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We put constraints on asymmetric dark matter candidates with spin-dependent interactions based on the simple existence of white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. For a wide range of the parameters (WIMP mass and WIMP-nucleon cross section), WIMPs can be trapped in progenitors in large...... numbers and once the original star collapses to a white dwarf or a neutron star, these WIMPs might self-gravitate and eventually collapse forming a mini-black hole that eventually destroys the star. We impose constraints competitive to direct dark matter search experiments, for WIMPs with masses down...

  19. Nebraska STARS: Achieving Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschewski, Pat; Isernhagen, Jody; Dappen, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In 2000, the state of Nebraska passed legislation requiring the assessment of student performance on content standards, but its requirements were very different from those of any other state. Nebraska created what has come to be known as STARS (School-based Teacher-led Assessment and Reporting System). Under STARS, each of Nebraska's nearly 500…

  20. Search for dark matter effects on gravitational signals from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John; Hektor, Andi; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville

    2018-06-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.

  1. Search for dark matter effects on gravitational signals from neutron star mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, John; Hektor, Andi; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.

  2. The WFCAM multiwavelength Variable Star Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Lopes, C. E.; Dékány, I.; Catelan, M.; Cross, N. J. G.; Angeloni, R.; Leão, I. C.; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Context. Stellar variability in the near-infrared (NIR) remains largely unexplored. The exploitation of public science archives with data-mining methods offers a perspective for a time-domain exploration of the NIR sky. Aims: We perform a comprehensive search for stellar variability using the optical-NIR multiband photometric data in the public Calibration Database of the WFCAM Science Archive (WSA), with the aim of contributing to the general census of variable stars and of extending the current scarce inventory of accurate NIR light curves for a number of variable star classes. Methods: Standard data-mining methods were applied to extract and fine-tune time-series data from the WSA. We introduced new variability indices designed for multiband data with correlated sampling, and applied them for preselecting variable star candidates, i.e., light curves that are dominated by correlated variations, from noise-dominated ones. Preselection criteria were established by robust numerical tests for evaluating the response of variability indices to the colored noise characteristic of the data. We performed a period search using the string-length minimization method on an initial catalog of 6551 variable star candidates preselected by variability indices. Further frequency analysis was performed on positive candidates using three additional methods in combination, in order to cope with aliasing. Results: We find 275 periodic variable stars and an additional 44 objects with suspected variability with uncertain periods or apparently aperiodic variation. Only 44 of these objects had been previously known, including 11 RR Lyrae stars on the outskirts of the globular cluster M 3 (NGC 5272). We provide a preliminary classification of the new variable stars that have well-measured light curves, but the variability types of a large number of objects remain ambiguous. We classify most of the new variables as contact binary stars, but we also find several pulsating stars, among which

  3. Radio observations of symbiotic stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, A E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Epping (Australia). Div. of Radiophysics; Allen, D A

    1978-09-01

    A search for 2-cm continuum emission from 91 symbiotic stars has been undertaken using the Parkes radio telescope. Nine sources have been detected, four of which are reported for the first time. The radio spectral indices are mostly about + 0.6; these are interpreted in terms of mass loss. In two stars a portion of the radio spectrum has an index of zero, and for one of these stars (RX Puppis) this is plausibly a manifestation of the cessation of symbiotic activity that occurred about two decades ago. There is an extraordinarily good correlation between the detectability at 2cm and the presence of circumstellar dust, but not between the radio and optical domains. The importance of continued radio monitoring of HM Sagittae over the next few years is stressed.

  4. The first detection on Wolf-Rayet stars in M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, M.M.; Moffat, A.F.J.

    1982-01-01

    A search to continuum magnitude B approximately equal to 21.5 (Msub(B) approximately equal to -3) using a narrow band filter at lambda4670A and a wide B-band filter has revealed 21 Wolf-Rayet star candidates in about half the giant Sb galaxy M31. Some weak-line WR stars, particularly WN subtypes, may have escaped detection. These numbers are compatible with the total number of luminous (i.e. massive) stars in M31. Eighteen of twenty confirmed candidate stars in M31 lie in the direction of OB associations in the ring of prominent star formation 5-16 kpc from the center. (Auth.)

  5. Construction of the Database for Pulsating Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Qiu; Yang, Ming; Jiang, Bi-Wei

    2012-01-01

    A database for pulsating variable stars is constructed to favor the study of variable stars in China. The database includes about 230,000 variable stars in the Galactic bulge, LMC and SMC observed in an about 10 yr period by the MACHO(MAssive Compact Halo Objects) and OGLE(Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment) projects. The software used for the construction is LAMP, i.e., Linux+Apache+MySQL+PHP. A web page is provided for searching the photometric data and light curves in the database through the right ascension and declination of an object. Because of the flexibility of this database, more up-to-date data of variable stars can be incorporated into the database conveniently.

  6. Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Gabriel Antonio; Feigelson, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler AutoRegressive Planet Search (KARPS) project uses statistical methodology associated with autoregressive (AR) processes to model Kepler lightcurves in order to improve exoplanet transit detection in systems with high stellar variability. We also introduce a planet-search algorithm to detect transits in time-series residuals after application of the AR models. One of the main obstacles in detecting faint planetary transits is the intrinsic stellar variability of the host star. The variability displayed by many stars may have autoregressive properties, wherein later flux values are correlated with previous ones in some manner. Our analysis procedure consisting of three steps: pre-processing of the data to remove discontinuities, gaps and outliers; AR-type model selection and fitting; and transit signal search of the residuals using a new Transit Comb Filter (TCF) that replaces traditional box-finding algorithms. The analysis procedures of the project are applied to a portion of the publicly available Kepler light curve data for the full 4-year mission duration. Tests of the methods have been made on a subset of Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) systems, classified both as planetary `candidates' and `false positives' by the Kepler Team, as well as a random sample of unclassified systems. We find that the ARMA-type modeling successfully reduces the stellar variability, by a factor of 10 or more in active stars and by smaller factors in more quiescent stars. A typical quiescent Kepler star has an interquartile range (IQR) of ~10 e-/sec, which may improve slightly after modeling, while those with IQR ranging from 20 to 50 e-/sec, have improvements from 20% up to 70%. High activity stars (IQR exceeding 100) markedly improve. A periodogram based on the TCF is constructed to concentrate the signal of these periodic spikes. When a periodic transit is found, the model is displayed on a standard period-folded averaged light curve. Our findings to date on real

  7. A study of flare stars in the taurus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhaev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The results are given of a search for flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus together with the results of photometric, H /sub alpha/ -spectroscopic, and statistical investigations of them. Photographic observations during 1980-1984 revealed 92 new flare stars, 13 of which were found to be known Orion variables with 16 repeated flares of 13 previously known flare stars. Their apparent distribution is considered. The question of whether the flare stars belong to a dark cloud is discussed. A comparative analysis of the flare stars in the Taurus region and other aggregates is made. The Hertzsprung-Russell (V, B - V) and two-color (U - B, B - V) diagrams for the flare stars are similar to the corresponding diagrams constructed for star clusters and associations (Pleiades, Orion, etc.). The total number of flare stars in the region of the dark clouds in Taurus is estimated at ≥ 500

  8. Stars and Planets: A New Set of Middle School Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A set of lesson plans for grades 6-8 which deal with the sizes and distances of stars and planets using a scale factor of 1 to 10 billion, the life cycle of stars, and the search for planets beyond the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. Magnetic field of massive chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Yakunin, I. A.

    2018-01-01

    Spectropolarimetric observations of 55 chemically peculiar stars in the Orion OB1 association were obtained at the 6 m telescope of the Russian Academy of Sciences with the aim of searching for the presence of stellar magnetic fields. We found 8 new magnetic stars in addition to 20 previously known objects. The frequency of chemically peculiar A and B-type stars among normal A and B-type stars and the frequency of magnetic stars among all chemically peculiar stars decreases with age in the Orion OB1 association.

  10. Field O stars: formed in situ or as runaways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Weidner, C.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    2012-08-01

    A significant fraction of massive stars in the Milky Way and other galaxies are located far from star clusters and star-forming regions. It is known that some of these stars are runaways, i.e. possess high space velocities (determined through the proper motion and/or radial velocity measurements), and therefore most likely were formed in embedded clusters and then ejected into the field because of dynamical few-body interactions or binary-supernova explosions. However, there exists a group of field O stars whose runaway status is difficult to prove via direct proper motion measurements (e.g. in the Magellanic Clouds) or whose (measured) low space velocities and/or young ages appear to be incompatible with their large separation from known star clusters. The existence of this group led some authors to believe that field O stars can form in situ. Since the question of whether or not O stars can form in isolation is of crucial importance for star formation theory, it is important to thoroughly test candidates of such stars in order to improve the theory. In this paper, we examine the runaway status of the best candidates for isolated formation of massive stars in the Milky Way and the Magellanic Clouds by searching for bow shocks around them, by using the new reduction of the Hipparcos data, and by searching for stellar systems from which they could originate within their lifetimes. We show that most of the known O stars thought to have formed in isolation are instead very likely runaways. We show also that the field must contain a population of O stars whose low space velocities and/or young ages are in apparent contradiction to the large separation of these stars from their parent clusters and/or the ages of these clusters. These stars (the descendants of runaway massive binaries) cannot be traced back to their parent clusters and therefore can be mistakenly considered as having formed in situ. We argue also that some field O stars could be detected in optical

  11. Identification of faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwitter, K.B.; Lydon, T.J.; Jacoby, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    As part of a larger program to study the properties of planetary nebula central stars, a search for faint central stars in extended, low-surface-brightness planetary nebulae using CCD imaging is performed. Of 25 target nebulae, central star candidates have been identified in 17, with certainties ranging from extremely probable to possible. Observed V values in the central star candidates extend to fainter than 23 mag. The identifications are presented along with the resulting photometric measurements. 24 references

  12. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs. High-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of 324 survey stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, A.; Zechmeister, M.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Morales, J. C.; Jeffers, S. V.; Schöfer, P.; Tal-Or, L.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Kaminski, A.; Seifert, W.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Antona, R.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Azzaro, M.; Baroch, D.; Barrado, D.; Bauer, F. F.; Becerril, S.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Benítez, D.; Berdinas˜, Z. M.; Bergond, G.; Blümcke, M.; Brinkmöller, M.; del Burgo, C.; Cano, J.; Cárdenas Vázquez, M. C.; Casal, E.; Cifuentes, C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Díez-Alonso, E.; Dreizler, S.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Ferro, I. M.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; García Vargas, M. L.; Gesa, L.; Galera, V. Gómez; González Hernández, J. I.; González-Peinado, R.; Grözinger, U.; Grohnert, S.; Guàrdia, J.; Guenther, E. W.; Guijarro, A.; Guindos, E. de; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hatzes, A. P.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Helmling, J.; Henning, Th.; Hermelo, I.; Hernández Arabí, R.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Hernández Hernando, F.; Herrero, E.; Huber, A.; Huke, P.; Johnson, E. N.; Juan, E. de; Kim, M.; Klein, R.; Klüter, J.; Klutsch, A.; Kürster, M.; Lafarga, M.; Lamert, A.; Lampón, M.; Lara, L. M.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; Launhardt, R.; López del Fresno, M.; López-González, J.; López-Puertas, M.; López Salas, J. F.; López-Santiago, J.; Luque, R.; Magán Madinabeitia, H.; Mall, U.; Mancini, L.; Mandel, H.; Marfil, E.; Marín Molina, J. A.; Maroto Fernández, D.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Marvin, C. J.; Mathar, R. J.; Mirabet, E.; Montes, D.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Moya, A.; Mundt, R.; Nagel, E.; Naranjo, V.; Nortmann, L.; Nowak, G.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Pascual, J.; Passegger, V. M.; Pavlov, A.; Pedraz, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Medialdea, D. Pérez; Perger, M.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Pluto, M.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reffert, S.; Reinhart, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sadegi, S.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sánchez-López, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarkis, P.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schiller, J.; Schweitzer, A.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Strachan, J. B. P.; Stürmer, J.; Suárez, J. C.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tala, M.; Trifonov, T.; Tulloch, S. M.; Ulbrich, R. G.; Veredas, G.; Vico Linares, J. I.; Vilardell, F.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Wolthoff, V.; Xu, W.; Yan, F.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    The CARMENES radial velocity (RV) survey is observing 324 M dwarfs to search for any orbiting planets. In this paper, we present the survey sample by publishing one CARMENES spectrum for each M dwarf. These spectra cover the wavelength range 520-1710 nm at a resolution of at least R >80 000, and we measure its RV, Hα emission, and projected rotation velocity. We present an atlas of high-resolution M-dwarf spectra and compare the spectra to atmospheric models. To quantify the RV precision that can be achieved in low-mass stars over the CARMENES wavelength range, we analyze our empirical information on the RV precision from more than 6500 observations. We compare our high-resolution M-dwarf spectra to atmospheric models where we determine the spectroscopic RV information content, Q, and signal-to-noise ratio. We find that for all M-type dwarfs, the highest RV precision can be reached in the wavelength range 700-900 nm. Observations at longer wavelengths are equally precise only at the very latest spectral types (M8 and M9). We demonstrate that in this spectroscopic range, the large amount of absorption features compensates for the intrinsic faintness of an M7 star. To reach an RV precision of 1 m s-1 in very low mass M dwarfs at longer wavelengths likely requires the use of a 10 m class telescope. For spectral types M6 and earlier, the combination of a red visual and a near-infrared spectrograph is ideal to search for low-mass planets and to distinguish between planets and stellar variability. At a 4 m class telescope, an instrument like CARMENES has the potential to push the RV precision well below the typical jitter level of 3-4 m s-1.

  13. Stellar oscillations in planet-hosting giant stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzes, Artie P; Zechmeister, Mathias [Thueringer Landessternwarte, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 (Germany)], E-mail: artie@tls-tautenburg.de

    2008-10-15

    Recently a number of giant extrasolar planets have been discovered around giant stars. These discoveries are important because many of these giant stars have intermediate masses in the range 1.2-3 Msun. Early-type main sequence stars of this mass range have been avoided by radial velocity planet search surveys due the difficulty of getting the requisite radial velocity precision needed for planet discoveries. Thus, giant stars can tell us about planet formation for stars more massive than the sun. However, the determination of stellar masses for giant stars is difficult due to the fact that evolutionary tracks for stars covering a wide range of masses converge to the same region of the H-R diagram. We report here on stellar oscillations in three planet-hosting giant stars: HD 13189, {beta} Gem, and {iota} Dra. Precise stellar radial velocity measurements for these stars show variations whose periods and amplitudes are consistent with solar-like p-mode oscillations. The implied stellar masses for these objects based on the characteristics of the stellar oscillations are consistent with the predictions of stellar isochrones. An investigation of stellar oscillations in planet hosting giant stars offers us the possibility of getting an independent determination of the stellar mass for these objects which is of crucial importance for extrasolar planet studies.

  14. Mining the Sloan digital sky survey in search of extremely α-poor stars in the galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Q. F.; Zhao, G., E-mail: qfxing@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-07-20

    As we know, the majority of metal-poor Galactic halo stars appear to have chemical abundances that were enhanced by α-elements (e.g., O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti) during the early stage of the Galaxy. Observed metal-poor halo stars preserved this pattern by exhibiting abundance ratios [α/Fe] ∼+0.4. A few striking exceptions that show severe departures from the general enhanced α-element chemical abundance trends of the halo have been discovered in recent years. They possess relatively low [α/Fe] compared to other comparable-metallicity stars, with abundance ratios over 0.5 dex lower. These stars may have a different chemical enrichment history from the majority of the halo. Similarly, low-α abundances are also displayed by satellite dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. We present a method to select extremely α-poor (EAP) stars from the SDSS/SEGUE survey. The method consists of a two-step approach. In the first step, we select suspected metal-poor ([Fe/H] <–0.5) and α-poor ([Mg/Fe] <0) stars as our targets. In the second step, we determine [Mg/Fe] from low-resolution (R = 2000) stellar spectra for our targets and select stars with [Mg/Fe] <–0.1 as candidate EAP stars. In a sample of 40,000 stars with atmospheric parameters in the range of T{sub eff} = [4500, 7000] K, log g = [1.0, 5.0], and [Fe/H] = [–4.0, +0.5], 14 candidate stars were identified. Three of these stars are found to have already been confirmed by other research.

  15. Residual Gas and Dust around Transition Objects and Weak T Tauri Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doppmann, Greg W. [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy., Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Najita, Joan R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Carr, John S., E-mail: gdoppmann@keck.hawaii.edu, E-mail: najita@noao.edu, E-mail: carr@nrl.navy.mil [Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2017-02-20

    Residual gas in disks around young stars can spin down stars, circularize the orbits of terrestrial planets, and whisk away the dusty debris that is expected to serve as a signpost of terrestrial planet formation. We have carried out a sensitive search for residual gas and dust in the terrestrial planet region surrounding young stars ranging in age from a few to ∼10 Myr. Using high-resolution 4.7 μ m spectra of transition objects (TOs) and weak T Tauri stars, we searched for weak continuum excesses and CO fundamental emission, after making a careful correction for the stellar contribution to the observed spectrum. We find that the CO emission from TOs is weaker and located farther from the star than CO emission from nontransition T Tauri stars with similar stellar accretion rates. The difference is possibly the result of chemical and/or dynamical effects (i.e., a low CO abundance or close-in low-mass planets). The weak T Tauri stars show no CO fundamental emission down to low flux levels (5 × 10{sup −20} to 10{sup −18} W m{sup −2}). We illustrate how our results can be used to constrain the residual disk gas content in these systems and discuss their potential implications for star and planet formation.

  16. The commission errors search and assessment (CESA) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reer, B.; Dang, V. N

    2007-05-15

    Errors of Commission (EOCs) refer to the performance of inappropriate actions that aggravate a situation. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) terms, they are human failure events that result from the performance of an action. This report presents the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method and describes the method in the form of user guidance. The purpose of the method is to identify risk-significant situations with a potential for EOCs in a predictive analysis. The main idea underlying the CESA method is to catalog the key actions that are required in the procedural response to plant events and to identify specific scenarios in which these candidate actions could erroneously appear to be required. The catalog of required actions provides a basis for a systematic search of context-action combinations. To focus the search towards risk-significant scenarios, the actions that are examined in the CESA search are prioritized according to the importance of the systems and functions that are affected by these actions. The existing PSA provides this importance information; the Risk Achievement Worth or Risk Increase Factor values indicate the systems/functions for which an EOC contribution would be more significant. In addition, the contexts, i.e. PSA scenarios, for which the EOC opportunities are reviewed are also prioritized according to their importance (top sequences or cut sets). The search through these context-action combinations results in a set of EOC situations to be examined in detail. CESA has been applied in a plant-specific pilot study, which showed the method to be feasible and effective in identifying plausible EOC opportunities. This experience, as well as the experience with other EOC analyses, showed that the quantification of EOCs remains an issue. The quantification difficulties and the outlook for their resolution conclude the report. (author)

  17. The commission errors search and assessment (CESA) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reer, B.; Dang, V. N.

    2007-05-01

    Errors of Commission (EOCs) refer to the performance of inappropriate actions that aggravate a situation. In Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) terms, they are human failure events that result from the performance of an action. This report presents the Commission Errors Search and Assessment (CESA) method and describes the method in the form of user guidance. The purpose of the method is to identify risk-significant situations with a potential for EOCs in a predictive analysis. The main idea underlying the CESA method is to catalog the key actions that are required in the procedural response to plant events and to identify specific scenarios in which these candidate actions could erroneously appear to be required. The catalog of required actions provides a basis for a systematic search of context-action combinations. To focus the search towards risk-significant scenarios, the actions that are examined in the CESA search are prioritized according to the importance of the systems and functions that are affected by these actions. The existing PSA provides this importance information; the Risk Achievement Worth or Risk Increase Factor values indicate the systems/functions for which an EOC contribution would be more significant. In addition, the contexts, i.e. PSA scenarios, for which the EOC opportunities are reviewed are also prioritized according to their importance (top sequences or cut sets). The search through these context-action combinations results in a set of EOC situations to be examined in detail. CESA has been applied in a plant-specific pilot study, which showed the method to be feasible and effective in identifying plausible EOC opportunities. This experience, as well as the experience with other EOC analyses, showed that the quantification of EOCs remains an issue. The quantification difficulties and the outlook for their resolution conclude the report. (author)

  18. PULSATION PERIOD VARIATIONS IN THE RRc LYRAE STAR KIC 5520878

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippke, Michael [Institute for Data Analysis, Luiter Str. 21b, D-47506 Neukirchen-Vluyn (Germany); Learned, John G. [High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Manoa 327 Watanabe Hall, 2505 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Zee, A. [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Edmondson, William H. [School of Computer Science, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Lindner, John F. [Physics Department, The College of Wooster, Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Kia, Behnam; Ditto, William L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai' i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stevens, Ian R., E-mail: hippke@ifda.eu, E-mail: jgl@phys.hawaii.edu, E-mail: zee@kitp.ucsb.edu, E-mail: w.h.edmondson@bham.ac.uk, E-mail: jlindner@wooster.edu, E-mail: wditto@hawaii.edu, E-mail: behnam@hawaii.edu, E-mail: irs@star.sr.bham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Learned et al. proposed that a sufficiently advanced extra-terrestrial civilization may tickle Cepheid and RR Lyrae variable stars with a neutrino beam at the right time, thus causing them to trigger early and jogging the otherwise very regular phase of their expansion and contraction. This would turn these stars into beacons to transmit information throughout the galaxy and beyond. The idea is to search for signs of phase modulation (in the regime of short pulse duration) and patterns, which could be indicative of intentional, omnidirectional signaling. We have performed such a search among variable stars using photometric data from the Kepler space telescope. In the RRc Lyrae star KIC 5520878, we have found two such regimes of long and short pulse durations. The sequence of period lengths, expressed as time series data, is strongly autocorrelated, with correlation coefficients of prime numbers being significantly higher (p = 99.8%). Our analysis of this candidate star shows that the prime number oddity originates from two simultaneous pulsation periods and is likely of natural origin. Simple physical models elucidate the frequency content and asymmetries of the KIC 5520878 light curve. Despite this SETI null result, we encourage testing of other archival and future time-series photometry for signs of modulated stars. This can be done as a by-product to the standard analysis, and can even be partly automated.

  19. The Search for Another Earth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    for our very existence in the universe. Although the search for ... confirmed planet orbiting around the solar-type star 51 Pegasi. ... for planets outside the solar system, termed as extraso- lar planets or ..... another Indian origin astrophysicist.

  20. Variable stars in the Pegasus dwarf galaxy (DDO 216)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoessel, J.G.; Abbott, M.J.; Saha, A.; Mossman, A.E.; Danielson, G.E. (Washburn Observatory, Madison, WI (USA) Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (USA) Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Observations obtained over a period of five years of the resolved stars in the Pegasus dwarf irregular galaxy (DDO 216) have been searched for variable stars. Thirty-one variables were found, and periods established for 12. Two of these variable stars are clearly eclipsing variables, seven are very likely Cepheid variables, and the remaining three are probable Cepheids. The period-luminosity relation for the Cepheids indicates a distance modulus for Pegasus of m - M = 26.22 + or - 0.20. This places Pegasus very near the zero-velocity surface of the Local Group. 25 refs.

  1. ACCOUNTING FOR USERS' INFLATED ASSESSMENTS OF ONLINE CATALOG SEARCH PERFORMANCE AND USEFULNESS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R. Hildreth

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available User-oriented approaches to information retrieval (IR system performance evaluation assign a major role to user satisfaction with search results and overall system performance. Expressed satisfaction with search results is often used as a measure of utility. Many research studies indicate that users of on-line library catalogs (OPACs and other IR systems often express satisfaction with poor search results. This phenomenon of "false positives," inflated assessments of search results and system performance, has not been adequately explained. Non-performance factors such as interface style and ease of use may have an affect on a searcher's satisfaction with search results. The research described in this report investigates this phenomenon. This paper presents the findings of an experimental study which compared users' search performance and assessments of ease of use, system usefulness, and satisfaction with search results after use of a Web OPAC or its conventional counterpart. The primary questions addressed by this research center on the influence of two experimental factors, OPAC search interface style and search task level of difficulty, on the dependent variables: actual search performance, perceptions of ease of use and system usefulness, and assessments of satisfaction with search results. The study also investigated associations between perceived ease of use, system usefulness, and satisfaction with search results. Lastly, the study looked for associations between the dependent variables and personal characteristics. No association was found between satisfaction with search results and actual search performance. Web OPAC searchers outperformed Text OPAC searchers, but search task level of difficulty is a major determinant of search success. A strong positive correlation was found between perceptions of system ease of use and assessments of search results.

  2. New worlds on the horizon: Earth-sized planets close to other stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidos, Eric; Haghighipour, Nader; Agol, Eric; Latham, David; Raymond, Sean; Rayner, John

    2007-10-12

    The search for habitable planets like Earth around other stars fulfills an ancient imperative to understand our origins and place in the cosmos. The past decade has seen the discovery of hundreds of planets, but nearly all are gas giants like Jupiter and Saturn. Recent advances in instrumentation and new missions are extending searches to planets the size of Earth but closer to their host stars. There are several possible ways such planets could form, and future observations will soon test those theories. Many of these planets we discover may be quite unlike Earth in their surface temperature and composition, but their study will nonetheless inform us about the process of planet formation and the frequency of Earth-like planets around other stars.

  3. The Frequency of Binary Stars in the Globular Cluster M71

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, S. C.; Armandroff, T. E.; Pryor, C. P.

    1994-12-01

    The frequency of binary stars is a fundamental property of a stellar population. A comparison of the frequency of binaries in globular clusters with those in the field halo and disk populations tests the similarity of star formation in those environments. Binary stars in globular clusters also act as an energy source which ``heats" the cluster through super-elastic encounters with other stars and binaries. Such encounters can not only profoundly affect the dynamical evolution of the cluster, they can disrupt the widely separated binaries and catalyze the formation of exotic objects such as blue stragglers, x-ray binaries, and milli-second pulsars. We have used the KPNO 4-m and the multi-fiber instruments Nessie and Hydra to measure radial velocities at 4 epochs over two years for a sample of 126 stars in the globular cluster M71. Velocity errors are under 1 km s(-1) for the brighter stars and under 2 km s(-1) for the majority of our data set. These velocities will be valuable for studying the kinematics of M71, but here we focus on searching for binaries. The faintest stars are at V=17, or just above the main sequence turnoff. Our sample is thus deeper than any published globular cluster binary search utilizing spectroscopic techniques. By observing smaller stars, we double the number of decades of binary periods sampled compared to previous studies and come within a factor of 4 of the shortest possible periods for turnoff stars. This wider period window has produced the largest known sample of binaries in a globular cluster. Four stars show velocity ranges larger than 20 km s(-1) , nine have ranges larger than 10 km s(-1) , and others are clearly variable. We will compare the radial distribution of these stars to that predicted by theory and derive the main-sequence binary fraction.

  4. Assessment of antimycotoxigenic and antioxidant activity of star anise (Illicium verum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soher E. Aly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years scientists have focused on the identification and the application of natural products for inactivation of mycotoxins. Essential oils with antimicrobial properties are probably the most promising method for the prevention of potentially toxigenic fungi. Thus the aim of this work is to characterise star anise (Illicium verum and to assess its antioxidant and antifungal and antimycotoxigenic properties using different methods. Results revealed that the major components of star anise essential oil identified by GC/MS were trans-anethole (82.7%, carryophyllene (4.8% and limonene (2.3%. Total phenolics of ethanol and methanol extracts recorded 112.4 and 96.3 mg GAE/g DW respectively, whereas higher total flavonoid content was recorded for the ethanol extract than the methanol extract. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity (55.6 mg/mL than the extracts using DPPH-scavenging and β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Results revealed growth reduction of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides by 83.2%, 72.8% and 65.11%, respectively when using 100 ppm of the star anise essential oil, where a complete inhibition was achieved at 200 ppm for A. flavus and A. parasiticus respectively. Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 production were inhibited completely at 100 and 200 ppm respectively. It could be concluded that star anise extracts could be considered an important substance that should be explored for the discovery and development of newer and safer food supplements as well as drug products.

  5. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  6. Banks of templates for directed searches of gravitational waves from spinning neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, Andrzej; Jaranowski, Piotr; Pietka, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    We construct efficient banks of templates suitable for directed searches of almost monochromatic gravitational waves originating from spinning neutron stars in our Galaxy in data being collected by currently operating interferometric detectors. We thus assume that the position of the gravitational-wave source in the sky is known, but we do not assume that the wave's frequency and its derivatives are a priori known. In the construction we employ a simplified model of the signal with constant amplitude and phase which is a polynomial function of time. All our template banks enable usage of the fast Fourier transform algorithm in the computation of the maximum-likelihood F-statistic for nodes of the grids defining the bank. We study and employ the dependence of the grid's construction on the choice of the position of the observational interval with respect to the origin of time axis. We also study the usage of the fast Fourier transform algorithms with nonstandard frequency resolutions achieved by zero padding or folding the data. In the case of the gravitational-wave signal with one spin-down parameter included we have found grids with covering thicknesses which are only 0.1-16% larger than the thickness of the optimal 2-dimensional hexagonal covering.

  7. Search features of digital libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G. Smith

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional on-line search services such as Dialog, DataStar and Lexis provide a wide range of search features (boolean and proximity operators, truncation, etc. This paper discusses the use of these features for effective searching, and argues that these features are required, regardless of advances in search engine technology. The literature on on-line searching is reviewed, identifying features that searchers find desirable for effective searching. A selective survey of current digital libraries available on the Web was undertaken, identifying which search features are present. The survey indicates that current digital libraries do not implement a wide range of search features. For instance: under half of the examples included controlled vocabulary, under half had proximity searching, only one enabled browsing of term indexes, and none of the digital libraries enable searchers to refine an initial search. Suggestions are made for enhancing the search effectiveness of digital libraries, for instance by: providing a full range of search operators, enabling browsing of search terms, enhancement of records with controlled vocabulary, enabling the refining of initial searches, etc.

  8. A radial velocity survey of extremely hydrogen-deficient stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, C.S.; Kiel Univ.; Drilling, J.S.; Heber, U.

    1987-01-01

    A radial velocity survey of hot extremely hydrogen-deficient stars has been carried out in order to search for possible binaries. The survey found three stars to have large velocity variations. Of these, two are known hydrogen-deficient binaries and one, HDE 320156 (= LSS 4300), is a suspected binary. HDE 320156 (= LSS 4300) is therefore confirmed to be a single-lined spectroscopic hydrogen-deficient binary. The hydrogen-deficient binary stars all show weak C-lines. The remaining stars in the sample are C-strong extreme-helium (EHe) stars and did not show large-amplitude velocity variations. Small-amplitude radial velocity variations known to be present amongst the EHe stars are largely undetected. Evidence for variability is, however, present in the known variable V2076 Oph (HD 160641) and in LS IV - 1 0 2 with amplitudes between 10 and 20 km s -1 . (author)

  9. V 1343 aquilae (SS 433) as a double-periodic star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goranskij, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The new computer method of double periodicity search earlier tested on the Blazhko effect in RR Lyrae type variable stars is applied to define more precise periods of brightness variability of the binary V 1343 Aql (SS 433). Computer program was used in the two-parameter search regime. The obtained periods are P 1 = 13sup(d).074+-0sup(d).008 and P 2 = 163sup(d).8+-1sup(d).2. The periodically repeating brithness curve deeps treated as primary minima (the accretion disc eclipsed by the star) vary their shape with the phase of period P 2 . The expected eclipse at 1979 October 16 did nor occur

  10. ASSESSMENT OF STELLAR STRATIFICATION IN THREE YOUNG STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.; Rochau, Boyke; Mackey, Dougal; Xin Yu

    2010-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of stellar stratification in young star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We apply our recently developed effective radius method for the assessment of stellar stratification on imaging data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of three young LMC clusters to characterize the phenomenon and develop a comparative scheme for its assessment in such clusters. The clusters of our sample, NGC 1983, NGC 2002, and NGC 2010, are selected on the basis of their youthfulness, and their variety in appearance, structure, stellar content, and surrounding stellar ambient. Our photometry is complete for magnitudes down to m 814 ≅ 23 mag, allowing the calculation of the structural parameters of the clusters, the estimation of their ages, and the determination of their stellar content. Our study shows that each cluster in our sample demonstrates stellar stratification in a quite different manner and at different degree from the others. Specifically, NGC 1983 shows partial segregation, with the effective radius increasing with fainter magnitudes only for the faintest stars of the cluster. Our method on NGC 2002 provides evidence of strong stellar stratification for both bright and faint stars; the cluster demonstrates the phenomenon with the highest degree in the sample. Finally, NGC 2010 is not segregated, as its bright stellar content is not centrally concentrated, the relation of effective radius to magnitude for stars of intermediate brightness is rather flat, and we find no evidence of stratification for its faintest stars. For the parameterization of the phenomenon of stellar stratification and its quantitative comparison among these clusters, we propose the slope derived from the change in the effective radius over the corresponding magnitude range as indicative parameter of the degree of stratification in the clusters. A positive value of this slope indicates mass segregation in the cluster, while a negative or zero value

  11. Further candidates of supermassive stars in other galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, Th.; Feitzinger, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    To look for other supermassive stars in other galaxies means to answer the question: what is the spectroscopic and morphological signature of such objects. The interpretation of WR sources found in other supergiant HII complexes depends basically on our picture of 30 Dor and in particular of R136a. The authors have undertaken a search of possible sites of such supermassive stars on the basis of the morphology of 30 Dor and NGC 604. (Auth.)

  12. Highlights from the heavy-ion program in STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupka Petr

    2017-01-01

    STAR collaboration has successfully completed the Beam Energy Scan, program focused on searching for the onset of the QGP signatures and studying the nature of the phase transition, indicating that the region of interests for critical point and the first-order phase transition is within the reach of RHIC experiments. Moreover, with its two newly installed detector upgrades, STAR has launched a comprehensive heavy-flavor program which allows high precision measurements of the properties of the partonic matter.

  13. Exoplanets search and characterization with the SOPHIE spectrograph at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébrard G.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Several programs of exoplanets search and characterization have been started with SOPHIE at the 1.93-m telescope of Haute-Provence Observatory, France. SOPHIE is an environmentally stabilized echelle spectrograph dedicated to high-precision radial velocity measurements. The objectives of these programs include systematic searches for exoplanets around different types of stars, characterizations of planet-host stars, studies of transiting planets through RossiterMcLaughlin effect, follow-up observations of photometric surveys. The instrument SOPHIE and a review of its latest results are presented here.

  14. Searching the stars the story of Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Marilyn B

    2011-01-01

    Caroline Herschel is best known as the less significant sister of the astronomer William Herschel. Yet the romantic notion of her tirelessly working for her brother while he made his studies of the heavens, documenting his discoveries so he could achieve greatness in the scientific world, couldn't be further from the truth. When Caroline wasn't working as her brother's assistant, she was sweeping the stars with her own small telescope given to her by William. Not only did she unearth three important nebulae, but she discovered no fewer than eight comets in her own right. When William beca

  15. Search for (exotic) strange matter in the Star and Alice experiments with the ultra-relativistic heavy ion colliders RHIC and LHC; Recherche de matiere etrange (exotique) dans les experiences STAR et ALICE aupres des collisionneurs d'ions lourds ultra-relativistes RHIC et LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernet, R

    2006-02-15

    Ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions offer the possibility to create conditions of temperature and density that could lead nuclear matter to a state of deconfined partons, the quark-gluon plasma. Strange baryon production is one of the essential observables to understand the mechanisms involved in the medium. Furthermore, theories predict a possible production of strange dibaryons, still hypothetical particles, from which one could draw important inferences in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The experiments STAR at RHIC, and, soon, ALICE at LHC, allow one to search for strange baryons and dibaryons. The STAR sensitivity to the metastable dibaryon H{sup 0} in the {lambda}p{pi}{sup -} decay mode was calculated thanks to a dedicated simulation. The search for the H{sup 0}, and for the {xi}{sup -}p resonance as well, was performed in the STAR Au+Au data at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 62.4 and 200 GeV energies. Within the framework of the preparation of ALICE to the first Pb+Pb data, the detector ability to identify strange baryons {lambda}, {xi} and {omega}, was estimated via several simulations. So as to favour the reconstruction efficiency in a large range of transverse momentum while keeping a reasonable S/B ratio, the influence of the geometrical selections and the size of the reconstruction zone was emphasized. The ALICE sensitivities to the metastable strange dibaryons H{sup 0} and ({xi}{sup 0}p){sub b} and to the {lambda}{lambda} resonance were calculated as well. (author)

  16. Searching for Strange Quark Matter Objects in Exoplanets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y. F.; Yu, Y. B., E-mail: hyf@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2017-10-20

    The true ground state of hadronic matter may be strange quark matter (SQM). Consequently, observed pulsars may actually be strange quark stars, but not neutron stars. However, proving or disproving the SQM hypothesis still remains a difficult problem to solve due to the similarity between the macroscopical characteristics of strange quark stars and neutron stars. Here, we propose a hopeful method to probe the existence of SQM. In the framework of the SQM hypothesis, strange quark dwarfs and even strange quark planets can also stably exist. Noting that SQM planets will not be tidally disrupted even when they get very close to their host stars due to their extreme compactness, we argue that we could identify SQM planets by searching for very close-in planets among extrasolar planetary systems. Especially, we should keep our eyes on possible pulsar planets with orbital radius less than ∼5.6 × 10{sup 10} cm and period less than ∼6100 s. A thorough search in the currently detected ∼2950 exoplanets around normal main-sequence stars has failed to identify any stable close-in objects that meet the SQM criteria, i.e., lying in the tidal disruption region for normal matter planets. However, the pulsar planet PSR J1719-1438B, with an orbital radius of ∼6 × 10{sup 10} cm and orbital period of 7837 s, is, encouragingly, found to be a good candidate.

  17. Mass return to the interstellar medium from highly-evolved carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latter, W.B.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Hacking, P.; Bally, J.; Black, J.; Bell Telephone Labs. Inc., Holmdel, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    Data produced by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) was surveyed at the mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. Visually-identified carbon stars in the 12/25/60 micron color-color diagram were plotted, along with the location of a number of mass-losing stars that lie near the location of the carbon stars, but are not carbon rich. The final sample consisted of 619 objects, which were estimated to be contaminated by 7 % noncarbon-rich objects. The mass return rate was estimated for all evolved circumstellar envelopes. The IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC) was also searched for the entire class of stars with excess emission. Mass-loss rates, lifetimes, and birthrates for evolved stars were also estimated

  18. From strange stars to strange dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, N.K.; Kettner, C.; Weber, F.

    1995-01-01

    We determine all possible equilibrium sequences of compact strange-matter stars with nuclear crusts, which range from massive strange stars to strange white dwarf endash like objects (strange dwarfs). The properties of such stars are compared with those of their nonstrange counterparts emdash neutron stars and ordinary white dwarfs. The main emphasis of this paper is on strange dwarfs, which we divide into two distinct categories. The first one consists of a core of strange matter enveloped within ordinary white dwarf matter. Such stars are hydrostatically stable with or without the strange core and are therefore referred to as open-quote open-quote trivial close-quote close-quote strange dwarfs. This is different for the second category which forms an entirely new class of dwarf stars that contain nuclear material up to 4x10 4 times denser than in ordinary white dwarfs of average mass, M∼0.6 M circle-dot , and still about 400 times denser than in the densest white dwarfs. The entire family of such dwarfs, denoted dense strange dwarfs, owes its hydrostatic stability to the strange core. A striking features of strange dwarfs is that the entire sequence from the maximum-mass strange star to the maximum-mass strange dwarf is stable to radial oscillations. The minimum-mass star is only conditionally stable, and the sequences on both sides are stable. Such a stable, continuous connection does not exist between ordinary white dwarfs and neutron stars, which are known to be separated by a broad range of unstable stars. We find an expansive range of very low mass (planetary-like) strange-matter stars (masses even below 10 -4 M circle-dot are possible) that arise as natural dark-matter candidates, which if abundant enough in our Galaxy, should be seen in the gravitational microlensing searches that are presently being performed. copyright 1995 The American Astronomical Society

  19. Detecting gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, A.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars carry unique information about their structure and composition. Direct detection of these gravitational waves, however, is a formidable technical challenge. In a recent study we quantified the hurdles facing searches for gravitational waves from the

  20. An astrometric search for a stellar companion to the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlmutter, S.

    1986-01-01

    A companion star within 0.8 pc of the Sun has been postulated to explain a possible 26 Myr periodicity in mass extinctions of species on the Earth. Such a star would already be catalogued in the Yale Bright Star catalogue unless it is fainter than m/sub nu/ = 6.5; this limits the possible stellar types for an unseen companion to red dwarfs, brown dwarfs, or compact objects. Red dwarfs account for about 75% of these possible stars. We describe here the design and development of an astrometric search for a nearby red dwarf companion with a six-month peak-to-peak parallax of ≥2.5 arcseconds. We are measuring the parallax of 2770 candidate faint red stars selected from the Dearborn Observatory catalogue. An automated 30-inch telescope and CCD camera system collect digitized images of the candidate stars, along with a 13' x 16' surrounding field of background stars. Second-epoch images, taken a few months later, are registered to the first epoch images using the background stars as fiducials. An apparent motion, m/sub a/, of the candidate stars is found to a precision of σ/sub m//sub a/ ≅ 0.08 pixel ≅ 0.2 arcseconds for fields with N/sub fiducial/ ≥ 10 fiducial stars visible above the background noise. This precision is sufficient to detect the parallactic motion of a star at 0.8 pc with a two month interval between the observation epochs. Images with fewer fiducial stars above background noise are observed with a longer interval between epochs. If a star is found with high parallactic motion, we will confirm its distance with further parallax measurements, photometry, and spectral studies, and will measure radial velocity and proper motion to establish its orbit. We have demonstrated the search procedure with observations of 41 stars, and have shown that none of these is a nearby star. 37 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs

  1. The first symbiotic stars from the LAMOST survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jiao; Chen, Xue-Fei; Han, Zhan-Wen; Mikołajewska, Joanna; Luo, A-Li; Wu, Yue; Yang, Ming; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto; Hou, Yong-Hui; Wang, Yue-Fei; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are interacting binary systems with the longest orbital periods. They are typically formed by a white dwarf and a red giant that are embedded in a nebula. These objects are natural astrophysical laboratories for studying the evolution of binaries. Current estimates of the population of symbiotic stars in the Milky Way vary from 3000 up to 400 000. However, a current census has found less than 300. The Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey can obtain hundreds of thousands of stellar spectra per year, providing a good opportunity to search for new symbiotic stars. We detect four such binaries among 4 147 802 spectra released by LAMOST, of which two are new identifications. The first is LAMOST J12280490–014825.7, considered to be an S-type halo symbiotic star. The second is LAMOST J202629.80+423652.0, a D-type symbiotic star. (paper)

  2. Radial Velocities of Subgiant Stars and New Astrophysical Insights into RV Jitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhn, Jacob; Bastien, Fabienne; Wright, Jason T.

    2018-01-01

    For nearly 20 years, the California Planet Search (CPS) has simultaneously monitored precise radial velocities and chromospheric activity levels of stars from Keck observatory to search for exoplanets. This sample provides a useful set of stars to better determine the dependence of RV jitter on flicker (which traces surface gravity) first shown in Bastien et al. (2014). We expand upon this initial work by examining a much larger sample of stars covering a much wider range of stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and activity, among others). For more than 600 stars, there are enough RV measurements to distinguish this astrophysical jitter from accelerations due to orbital companions. To properly isolate RV jitter from these effects, we must first remove the RV signal due to these companions, including several previously unannounced giant planets around subgiant stars. We highlight some new results from our analysis of the CPS data. A more thorough understanding of the various sources of RV jitter and the underlying stellar phenomena that drive these intrinsic RV variations will enable more precise jitter estimates for RV follow-up targets such as those from K2 or the upcoming TESS mission.

  3. DRAFTS: A DEEP, RAPID ARCHIVAL FLARE TRANSIENT SEARCH IN THE GALACTIC BULGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osten, Rachel A.; Sahu, Kailash; Kowalski, Adam; Hawley, Suzanne L.

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys data set for a Deep Rapid Archival Flare Transient Search to constrain the flare rate toward the older stellar population in the Galactic bulge. During seven days of monitoring 229,293 stars brighter than V = 29.5, we find evidence for flaring activity in 105 stars between V = 20 and V = 28. We divided the sample into non-variable stars and variable stars whose light curves contain large-scale variability. The flare rate on variable stars is ∼700 times that of non-variable stars, with a significant correlation between the amount of underlying stellar variability and peak flare amplitude. The flare energy loss rates are generally higher than those of nearby well-studied single dMe flare stars. The distribution of proper motions is consistent with the flaring stars being at the distance and age of the Galactic bulge. If they are single dwarfs, then they span a range of ≈1.0-0.25 M ☉ . A majority of the flaring stars exhibit periodic photometric modulations with P < 3 days. If these are tidally locked magnetically active binary systems, then their fraction in the bulge is enhanced by a factor of ∼20 compared to the local value. These stars may be useful for placing constraints on the angular momentum evolution of cool close binary stars. Our results expand the type of stars studied for flares in the optical band, and suggest that future sensitive optical time-domain studies will have to contend with a larger sample of flaring stars than the M dwarf flare stars usually considered.

  4. A search for new hot subdwarf stars by means of Virtual Observatory tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreiro, R.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Solano, E.; Ulla, A.; Østensen, R.; García-Torres, M.

    2011-06-01

    Context. Recent massive sky surveys in different bandwidths are providing new opportunities to modern astronomy. The Virtual Observatory (VO) provides the adequate framework to handle the huge amount of information available and filter out data according to specific requirements. Aims: Hot subdwarf stars are faint, blue objects, and are the main contributors to the far-UV excess observed in elliptical galaxies. They offer an excellent laboratory to study close and wide binary systems, and to scrutinize their interiors through asteroseismology, since some of them undergo stellar oscillations. However, their origins are still uncertain, and increasing the number of detections is crucial to undertake statistical studies. In this work, we aim at defining a strategy to find new, uncatalogued hot subdwarfs. Methods: Making use of VO tools we thoroughly search stellar catalogues to retrieve multi-colour photometry and astrometric information of a known sample of blue objects, including hot subdwarfs, white dwarfs, cataclysmic variables and main-sequence OB stars. We define a procedure to distinguish among these spectral classes, which is particularly designed to obtain a hot subdwarf sample with a low contamination factor. To check the validity of the method, this procedure is then applied to two test sky regions: to the Kepler FoV and to a test region of 300 deg2 around (α:225, δ:5) deg. Results: As a result of the procedure we obtained 38 hot subdwarf candidates, 23 of which had already a spectral classification. We have acquired spectroscopy for three other targets, and four additional ones have an available SDSS spectrum, which we used to determine their spectral type. A temperature estimate is provided for the candidates based on their spectral energy distribution, considering two-atmospheres fit for objects with clear infrared excess as a signature of the presence of a cool companion. Eventually, out of 30 candidates with spectral classification, 26 objects were

  5. The possible nature of socket stars in H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelaz, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Close inspection of faint stars (V of about 14 mag) in H II regions show that they appear to be surrounded by circumstellar envelopes of about 10 arcsecs in diameter (as reported by Feibelman in 1989). The present premise is that the sockets are envelopes of obscuring dust which should emit a measurable amount of infrared radiation based on a simple thermal equilibrium model. A search of literature shows that, of 36 socket stars listed by Feibelman, 17 have been measured in the infrared. Of the 17, 14 show excess IR emission. This is very strong evidence that the socket stars are really stars with circumstellar envelopes. Socket stars may be a new type of astronomical object or well-known astronomical objects in environments or evolutionary states not previously seen. 22 refs

  6. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David [American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succ. C-V, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gerke, Jill [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org, E-mail: dzurek@amnh.org, E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: artigau@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Pavillon Vachon, Quebec City, QC, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  7. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, René; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg 2 of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150° in Galactic longitude and reaches 1° above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  8. Exploring the SDSS Data Set with Linked Scatter Plots. I. EMP, CEMP, and CV Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbon, Duane F.; Henze, Christopher; Nelson, Bron C., E-mail: Duane.F.Carbon@nasa.gov [NASA Ames Research Center, NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility, Moffett Field, CA, 94035-1000 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We present the results of a search for extremely metal-poor (EMP), carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP), and cataclysmic variable (CV) stars using a new exploration tool based on linked scatter plots (LSPs). Our approach is especially designed to work with very large spectrum data sets such as the SDSS, LAMOST, RAVE, and Gaia data sets, and it can be applied to stellar, galaxy, and quasar spectra. As a demonstration, we conduct our search using the SDSS DR10 data set. We first created a 3326-dimensional phase space containing nearly 2 billion measures of the strengths of over 1600 spectral features in 569,738 SDSS stars. These measures capture essentially all the stellar atomic and molecular species visible at the resolution of SDSS spectra. We show how LSPs can be used to quickly isolate and examine interesting portions of this phase space. To illustrate, we use LSPs coupled with cuts in selected portions of phase space to extract EMP stars, CEMP stars, and CV stars. We present identifications for 59 previously unrecognized candidate EMP stars and 11 previously unrecognized candidate CEMP stars. We also call attention to 2 candidate He ii emission CV stars found by the LSP approach that have not yet been discussed in the literature.

  9. Central Stars of Mid-Infrared Nebulae Discovered with Spitzer and WISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2017-02-01

    Searches for compact mid-IR nebulae with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), accompanied by spectroscopic observations of central stars of these nebulae led to the discovery of many dozens of massive stars at different evolutionary stages, of which the most numerous are candidate luminous blue variables (LBVs). In this paper, we give a census of candidate and confirmed Galactic LBVs revealed with Spitzer and WISE, and present some new results of spectroscopic observations of central stars of mid-IR nebulae.

  10. Absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, V.V.; Lambert, D.L.

    1987-10-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars. 41 references.

  11. Tools for assessing European streams with macroinvertebrates: major results and conclusions from the STAR project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Moog, O.

    2006-01-01

    This short paper summarises the information developed in the EU funded research project STAR on autecology databases, metrics, multimetrics and community approaches. For Europe the WFD implementation gave an important stimulus for the development of ecology based assessment techniques. Along with

  12. The collective radio properties of symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaquist, E.R.; Taylor, A.R.

    1990-01-01

    Radio measurements of symbiotic stars are reported which extend the search for radio emission and provide multifrequency and multiepoch measurements of previously detected stars. The results show no evidence that there are time variations in excess of about 30 percent over a period of several years in the detected stars. The radio flux densities are correlated with brightness in the IR, especially at the longer IR wavelengths where dust emission dominates. It is confirmed that symbiotics with the latest red giant spectral types are the most luminous radio emitters. The D-types are the most radio-luminous. Virtually all detected stars with measurements at more than one frequency exhibit a positive spectral index, consistent with optically thick thermal bremsstrahlung. The binary separation for a number of radio-emitting symbiotics is estimated, and it is found that the distribution of inferred binary separations is dramatically different for IR D-types than for S-types. 37 refs

  13. North Star Ambulatory Assessment, 6-minute walk test and timed items in ambulant boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Elena; Martinelli, Diego; Berardinelli, Angela; Messina, Sonia; D'Amico, Adele; Vasco, Gessica; Main, Marion; Doglio, Luca; Politano, Luisa; Cavallaro, Filippo; Frosini, Silvia; Bello, Luca; Carlesi, Adelina; Bonetti, Anna Maria; Zucchini, Elisabetta; De Sanctis, Roberto; Scutifero, Marianna; Bianco, Flaviana; Rossi, Francesca; Motta, Maria Chiara; Sacco, Annalisa; Donati, Maria Alice; Mongini, Tiziana; Pini, Antonella; Battini, Roberta; Pegoraro, Elena; Pane, Marika; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Bruno, Claudio; Vita, Giuseppe; de Waure, Chiara; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2010-11-01

    The North Star Ambulatory Assessment is a functional scale specifically designed for ambulant boys affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Recently the 6-minute walk test has also been used as an outcome measure in trials in DMD. The aim of our study was to assess a large cohort of ambulant boys affected by DMD using both North Star Assessment and 6-minute walk test. More specifically, we wished to establish the spectrum of findings for each measure and their correlation. This is a prospective multicentric study involving 10 centers. The cohort included 112 ambulant DMD boys of age ranging between 4.10 and 17 years (mean 8.18±2.3 DS). Ninety-one of the 112 were on steroids: 37/91 on intermittent and 54/91 on daily regimen. The scores on the North Star assessment ranged from 6/34 to 34/34. The distance on the 6-minute walk test ranged from 127 to 560.6 m. The time to walk 10 m was between 3 and 15 s. The time to rise from the floor ranged from 1 to 27.5 s. Some patients were unable to rise from the floor. As expected the results changed with age and were overall better in children treated with daily steroids. The North Star assessment had a moderate to good correlation with 6-minute walk test and with timed rising from floor but less with 10 m timed walk/run test. The 6-minute walk test in contrast had better correlation with 10 m timed walk/run test than with timed rising from floor. These findings suggest that a combination of these outcome measures can be effectively used in ambulant DMD boys and will provide information on different aspects of motor function, that may not be captured using a single measure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. DARK STARS: A NEW LOOK AT THE FIRST STARS IN THE UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolyar, Douglas; Bodenheimer, Peter; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    We have proposed that the first phase of stellar evolution in the history of the universe may be dark (matter powered) stars (DSs), luminous objects powered by dark matter (DM) heating rather than by nuclear fusion, and in this paper we examine the history of these DSs. The power source is annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) which are their own antiparticles. These WIMPs are the best motivated DM candidates and may be discovered by ongoing direct or indirect detection searches (e.g., Fermi/GLAST) or at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A new stellar phase results, powered by DM annihilation as long as there is a DM fuel, from millions to billions of years. We build up the DSs from the time DM heating becomes the dominant power source, accreting more and more matter onto them. We have included many new effects in the current study, including a variety of particle masses and accretion rates, nuclear burning, feedback mechanisms, and possible repopulation of DM density due to capture. Remarkably, we find that in all these cases, we obtain the same result: the first stars are very large, 500-1000 times as massive as the Sun; as well as puffy (radii 1-10 AU), bright (10 6 -10 7 L sun ), and cool (T surf sun and the temperatures are much hotter (T surf > 50,000 K). Hence DSs should be observationally distinct from standard Pop III stars. In addition, DSs avoid the (unobserved) element enrichment produced by the standard first stars. Once the DM fuel is exhausted, the DS becomes a heavy main-sequence star; these stars eventually collapse to form massive black holes that may provide seeds for the supermassive black holes observed at early times as well as explanations for recent ARCADE data and for intermediate-mass black holes.

  15. THE CHANDRA VARIABLE GUIDE STAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Joy S.; Lauer, Jennifer L.; Morgan, Douglas L.; Sundheim, Beth A.; Henden, Arne A.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Martin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    generally 6-11 mag and are commonly spectral types A and later. Due to the selection of guide stars entirely for positional convenience, this catalog avoids the possible bias of searching for variability in objects where it is to be expected. Statistics of variability compared to spectral type indicate the expected dominance of A-F stars as pulsators. Eclipsing binaries are consistently 20%-30% of the detected variables across all spectral types.

  16. 2013 - Life is a Cosmic Phenomenon : The "Search for Water" evolves into the "Search for Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2013-03-01

    We propose that the 2013 data from the Kepler Mission (giving a current estimate of the number of earth-like planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars as 144 billion), has caused a consciousness change in human belief in the probability of life off earth. This seems to have affected NASA's public statements which are now leaning to the more visionary mission goal of the "Search for Life" rather than the 1975-2012 focus of the "Search for Water". We propose that the first confirmed earth-like planet, expected to be announced later this year, be called "BORUCKI" in honour of the visionary USA scientist Bill Borucki, the father of the Kepler Mission. We explore the 2013 status of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model of Panspermia, its hypothesis, propositions, experiments and evidence. We use the Karl Popper model for scientific hypotheses (1). Finally we explore Sir Fred Hoyle's vision of a planetary microbe defense system we call the Hoyle Shield. We explore the subsystem components of the shield and assess some options for these components using break-though technologies already available.

  17. Variability search in M 31 using principal component analysis and the Hubble Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, M. I.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Karampelas, A.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Gavras, P.; Yang, M.

    2018-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is being extensively used in Astronomy but not yet exhaustively exploited for variability search. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of using the PCA as a method to search for variable stars in large photometric data sets. We apply PCA to variability indices computed for light curves of 18 152 stars in three fields in M 31 extracted from the Hubble Source Catalogue. The projection of the data into the principal components is used as a stellar variability detection and classification tool, capable of distinguishing between RR Lyrae stars, long-period variables (LPVs) and non-variables. This projection recovered more than 90 per cent of the known variables and revealed 38 previously unknown variable stars (about 30 per cent more), all LPVs except for one object of uncertain variability type. We conclude that this methodology can indeed successfully identify candidate variable stars.

  18. Amplitude Modulation of Pulsation Modes in Delta Scuti Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.

    2017-10-01

    The pulsations in δ Sct stars are excited by a heat engine driving mechanism caused by increased opacity in their surface layers, and have pulsation periods of order a few hours. Space based observations in the last decade have revealed a diverse range of pulsational behaviour in these stars, which is investigated using an ensemble of 983 δ Sct stars observed continuously for 4 yr by the Kepler Space Telescope. A statistical search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes is carried out and it is shown that 61.3 per cent of the 983 δ Sct stars exhibit significant amplitude modulation in at least a single pulsation mode, and that this is uncorrelated with effective temperature and surface gravity. Hence, the majority of δ Sct stars exhibit amplitude modulation, with time-scales of years and longer demonstrated to be significant in these stars both observationally and theoretically. An archetypal example of amplitude modulation in a δ Sct star is KIC 7106205, which contains only a single pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude whilst all other pulsation modes stay constant in amplitude and phase throughout the 4-yr Kepler data set. Therefore, the visible pulsational energy budget in this star, and many others, is not conserved over 4 yr. Models of beating of close-frequency pulsation modes are used to identify δ Sct stars with frequencies that lie closer than 0.001 d^{-1}, which are barely resolved using 4 yr of Kepler observations, and maintain their independent identities over 4 yr. Mode coupling models are used to quantify the strength of coupling and distinguish between non-linearity in the form of combination frequencies and non-linearity in the form of resonant mode coupling for families of pulsation modes in several stars. The changes in stellar structure caused by stellar evolution are investigated for two high amplitude δ Sct (HADS) stars in the Kepler data set, revealing a positive quadratic change in phase for the fundamental and

  19. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies : Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to

  20. Extremely metal-poor stars in classical dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafelmeyer, M.; Jablonka, P.; Hill, V.; Shetrone, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M. J.; Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Starkenburg, E.; Venn, K. A.; Abel, T.; Francois, P.; Kaufer, A.; North, P.; Primas, F.; Szeifert, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a dedicated search for extremely metal-poor stars in the Fornax, Sculptor, and Sextans dSphs. Five stars were selected from two earlier VLT/Giraffe and HET/HRS surveys and subsequently followed up at high spectroscopic resolution with VLT/UVES. All of them turned out to

  1. Accretion of dark matter by stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Okawa, Hirotada

    2015-09-11

    Searches for dark matter imprints are one of the most active areas of current research. We focus here on light fields with mass m_{B}, such as axions and axionlike candidates. Using perturbative techniques and full-blown nonlinear numerical relativity methods, we show the following. (i) Dark matter can pile up in the center of stars, leading to configurations and geometries oscillating with a frequency that is a multiple of f=2.5×10^{14}(m_{B}c^{2}/eV)  Hz. These configurations are stable throughout most of the parameter space, and arise out of credible mechanisms for dark-matter capture. Stars with bosonic cores may also develop in other theories with effective mass couplings, such as (massless) scalar-tensor theories. We also show that (ii) collapse of the host star to a black hole is avoided by efficient gravitational cooling mechanisms.

  2. A Search for Giant Planet Companions to T Tauri Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    detection – stars: pre-main sequence – techniques: radial velocities Online-only material: color figures 1. INTRODUCTION The discovery of over 760...exoplanets8 in the past twenty years has revealed that planetary systems are common and diverse. Pulsar planets (Wolszczan 1994), hot Jupiters (Mayor... discoveries , the processes underlying planet formation remain unclear. Lacking direct observational inputs, theorists must deduce formation mechanisms from

  3. The ASAS-SN Catalog of Variable Stars I: The Serendipitous Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, T.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Thompson, Todd A.; Prieto, J. L.; Dong, Subo; Pawlak, M.; Shields, J. V.; Pojmanski, G.; Otero, S.; Britt, C. A.; Will, D.

    2018-04-01

    The All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) is the first optical survey to routinely monitor the whole sky with a cadence of ˜2 - 3 days down to V≲ 17 mag. ASAS-SN has monitored the whole sky since 2014, collecting ˜100 - 500 epochs of observations per field. The V-band light curves for candidate variables identified during the search for supernovae are classified using a random forest classifier and visually verified. We present a catalog of 66,533 bright, new variable stars discovered during our search for supernovae, including 27,753 periodic variables and 38,780 irregular variables. V-band light curves for the ASAS-SN variables are available through the ASAS-SN variable stars database (https://asas-sn.osu.edu/variables). The database will begin to include the light curves of known variable stars in the near future along with the results for a systematic, all-sky variability survey.

  4. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Benjamin M.; Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for ∼17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  5. THE CLOSE BINARY FRACTION OF DWARF M STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Benjamin M. [Penn Manor High School, 100 East Cottage Avenue, Millersville, PA 17551 (United States); Blake, Cullen H.; Knapp, Gillian R. [Princeton University, Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We describe a search for close spectroscopic dwarf M star binaries using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to address the question of the rate of occurrence of multiplicity in M dwarfs. We use a template-fitting technique to measure radial velocities from 145,888 individual spectra obtained for a magnitude-limited sample of 39,543 M dwarfs. Typically, the three or four spectra observed for each star are separated in time by less than four hours, but for {approx}17% of the stars, the individual observations span more than two days. In these cases we are sensitive to large-amplitude radial velocity variations on timescales comparable to the separation between the observations. We use a control sample of objects having observations taken within a four-hour period to make an empirical estimate of the underlying radial velocity error distribution and simulate our detection efficiency for a wide range of binary star systems. We find the frequency of binaries among the dwarf M stars with a < 0.4 AU to be 3%-4%. Comparison with other samples of binary stars demonstrates that the close binary fraction, like the total binary fraction, is an increasing function of primary mass.

  6. What Determines Star Formation Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Neal John

    2017-06-01

    The relations between star formation and gas have received renewed attention. We combine studies on scales ranging from local (within 0.5 kpc) to distant galaxies to assess what factors contribute to star formation. These include studies of star forming regions in the Milky Way, the LMC, nearby galaxies with spatially resolved star formation, and integrated galaxy studies. We test whether total molecular gas or dense gas provides the best predictor of star formation rate. The star formation ``efficiency," defined as star formation rate divided by mass, spreads over a large range when the mass refers to molecular gas; the standard deviation of the log of the efficiency decreases by a factor of three when the mass of relatively dense molecular gas is used rather than the mass of all the molecular gas. We suggest ways to further develop the concept of "dense gas" to incorporate other factors, such as turbulence.

  7. Revealing evolved massive stars with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Fabrika, S.

    2010-06-01

    Massive evolved stars lose a large fraction of their mass via copious stellar wind or instant outbursts. During certain evolutionary phases, they can be identified by the presence of their circumstellar nebulae. In this paper, we present the results of a search for compact nebulae (reminiscent of circumstellar nebulae around evolved massive stars) using archival 24-μm data obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. We have discovered 115 nebulae, most of which bear a striking resemblance to the circumstellar nebulae associated with luminous blue variables (LBVs) and late WN-type (WNL) Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars in the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We interpret this similarity as an indication that the central stars of detected nebulae are either LBVs or related evolved massive stars. Our interpretation is supported by follow-up spectroscopy of two dozen of these central stars, most of which turn out to be either candidate LBVs (cLBVs), blue supergiants or WNL stars. We expect that the forthcoming spectroscopy of the remaining objects from our list, accompanied by the spectrophotometric monitoring of the already discovered cLBVs, will further increase the known population of Galactic LBVs. This, in turn, will have profound consequences for better understanding the LBV phenomenon and its role in the transition between hydrogen-burning O stars and helium-burning WR stars. We also report on the detection of an arc-like structure attached to the cLBV HD 326823 and an arc associated with the LBV R99 (HD 269445) in the LMC. Partially based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); fabrika@sao.ru (SF)

  8. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  9. The Snapshot A Star SurveY (SASSY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garani, Jasmine I.; Nielsen, Eric; Marchis, Franck; Liu, Michael C.; Macintosh, Bruce; Rajan, Abhijith; De Rosa, Robert J.; Jinfei Wang, Jason; Esposito, Thomas M.; Best, William M. J.; Bowler, Brendan; Dupuy, Trent; Ruffio, Jean-Baptiste

    2018-01-01

    The Snapshot A Star Survey (SASSY) is an adaptive optics survey conducted using NIRC2 on the Keck II telescope to search for young, self-luminous planets and brown dwarfs (M > 5MJup) around high mass stars (M > 1.5 M⊙). We present the results of a custom data reduction pipeline developed for the coronagraphic observations of our 200 target stars. Our data analysis method includes basic near infrared data processing (flat-field correction, bad pixel removal, distortion correction) as well as performing PSF subtraction through a Reference Differential Imaging algorithm based on a library of PSFs derived from the observations using the pyKLIP routine. We present the results from the pipeline of a few stars from the survey with analysis of candidate companions. SASSY is sensitive to companions 600,000 times fainter than the host star withint the inner few arcseconds, allowing us to detect companions with masses ~8MJup at age 110 Myr. This work was supported by the Leadership Alliance's Summer Research Early Identification Program at Stanford University, the NSF REU program at the SETI Institute and NASA grant NNX14AJ80G.

  10. DOUBLE STARS IN THE USNO CCD ASTROGRAPHIC CATALOG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartkopf, William I.; Mason, Brian D.; Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Wycoff, Gary L.; Hsu, Danley, E-mail: wih@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: bdm@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: finch@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: nz@usno.navy.mil [US Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The newly completed Fourth USNO CCD Astrographic Catalog (UCAC4) has proven to be a rich source of double star astrometry and photometry. Following initial comparisons of UCAC4 results against those obtained by speckle interferometry, the UCAC4 catalog was matched against known double stars in the Washington Double Star Catalog in order to provide additional differential astrometry and photometry for these pairs. Matches to 58,131 pairs yielded 61,895 astrometric and 68,935 photometric measurements. Finally, a search for possible new common proper motion (CPM) pairs was made using new UCAC4 proper motion data; this resulted in 4755 new potential CPM doubles (and an additional 27,718 astrometric and photometric measures from UCAC and other sources)

  11. arXiv Search for Dark Matter Effects on Gravitational Signals from Neutron Star Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Hütsi, Gert; Kannike, Kristjan; Marzola, Luca; Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville

    2018-06-10

    Motivated by the recent detection of the gravitational wave signal emitted by a binary neutron star merger, we analyse the possible impact of dark matter on such signals. We show that dark matter cores in merging neutron stars may yield an observable supplementary peak in the gravitational wave power spectral density following the merger, which could be distinguished from the features produced by the neutron components.

  12. First NuSTAR Limits on Quiet Sun Hard X-Ray Transient Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Andrew J.; Smith, David M.; Glesener, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of a search for transient hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the quiet solar corona with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite. While NuSTAR was designed as an astrophysics mission, it can observe the Sun above 2 keV with unprecedented sensitivity due...... to its pioneering use of focusing optics. NuSTAR first observed quiet-Sun regions on 2014 November 1, although out-of-view active regions contributed a notable amount of background in the form of single-bounce (unfocused) X-rays. We conducted a search for quiet-Sun transient brightenings on timescales...... as model-independent photon fluxes. The limits in both bands are well below previous HXR microflare detections, though not low enough to detect events of equivalent T and EM as quiet-Sun brightenings seen in soft X-ray observations. We expect future observations during solar minimum to increase the Nu...

  13. Visualization of Pulsar Search Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, R. S.; Wolszczan, A.

    1993-05-01

    The search for periodic signals from rotating neutron stars or pulsars has been a computationally taxing problem to astronomers for more than twenty-five years. Over this time interval, increases in computational capability have allowed ever more sensitive searches, covering a larger parameter space. The volume of input data and the general presence of radio frequency interference typically produce numerous spurious signals. Visualization of the search output and enhanced real-time processing of significant candidate events allow the pulsar searcher to optimally processes and search for new radio pulsars. The pulsar search algorithm and visualization system presented in this paper currently runs on serial RISC based workstations, a traditional vector based super computer, and a massively parallel computer. A description of the serial software algorithm and its modifications for massively parallel computing are describe. The results of four successive searches for millisecond period radio pulsars using the Arecibo telescope at 430 MHz have resulted in the successful detection of new long-period and millisecond period radio pulsars.

  14. Lost-in-Space Star Identification Using Planar Triangle Principal Component Analysis Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a challenging task for a star sensor to implement star identification and determine the attitude of a spacecraft in the lost-in-space mode. Several algorithms based on triangle method are proposed for star identification in this mode. However, these methods hold great time consumption and large guide star catalog memory size. The star identification performance of these methods requires improvements. To address these problems, a star identification algorithm using planar triangle principal component analysis is presented here. A star pattern is generated based on the planar triangle created by stars within the field of view of a star sensor and the projection of the triangle. Since a projection can determine an index for a unique triangle in the catalog, the adoption of the k-vector range search technique makes this algorithm very fast. In addition, a sharing star validation method is constructed to verify the identification results. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is more robust than the planar triangle and P-vector algorithms under the same conditions.

  15. Search of the Orion spur for continuous gravitational waves using a loosely coherent algorithm on data from LIGO interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Andersen, M.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ashton, G.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, Sukanta; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Branco, V.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Celerier, C.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Colombini, M.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Damjanic, M. D.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Dominguez, E.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. A.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Gonzalez, J.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gossler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C. J.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammer, D. X.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hoelscher-Obermaier, J.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh, M.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Islas, G.; Isler, J. C.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jang, D.H.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Ji, Y.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karlen, J. L.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelecsenyi, N.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kerrigan, J.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J. T.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Lin, A. C.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lockett, V.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lubinski, M. J.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E. P.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Madden-Fong, D. X.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mangini, N. M.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Meinders, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okounkova, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ortega, W. E.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Padilla, C. T.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Racz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rodger, A. S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffery, P.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Stebbins, J.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Steplewski, S.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vansuch, G.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, MT; Wade, L. E.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, K. J.; Williams, L.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report results of a wideband search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars within the Orion spur towards both the inner and outer regions of our Galaxy. As gravitational waves interact very weakly with matter, the search is unimpeded by dust and concentrations of stars. One

  16. The Power of Stars Across Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, Julian; Clement, Michel; Hennig-Thurau, Thorsten

    Stars as ‘human brands’ help consumers to assess the uncertain quality of experiential products and provide an important risk-reducing function. Nevertheless, managers of (fully integrated) media companies should be aware of potentially differences in the impact of stars across industries when...... making budget allocation decisions or deciding on the appropriate remuneration of stars. Based on a unique dataset the authors compare, for the first time, the impact of stars on product success across movies, books, and musical recordings. The results indicate significantly positive effects of star...... power in all three media industries but reveal substantial differences regarding the effect sizes....

  17. A reconnaissance of the possible donor stars to the Kepler supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerzendorf, Wolfgang E.; Childress, Michael; Schmidt, Brian P.; Scharwächter, Julia; Do, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    The identity of Type Ia supernova progenitors remains a mystery, with various lines of evidence pointing toward either accretion from a nondegenerate companion or the rapid merger of two degenerate stars leading to the thermonuclear destruction of a white dwarf. In this paper, we spectroscopically scrutinize 24 of the brightest stars residing in the central 38'' × 38'' of the SN 1604 (Kepler) supernova remnant to search for a possible surviving companion star. We can rule out, with high certainty, a red giant companion star—a progenitor indicated by some models of the supernova remnant. Furthermore, we find no star that exhibits properties uniquely consistent with those expected of a donor star down to L > 10 L ☉ . While the distribution of star properties toward the remnant are consistent with unrelated stars, we identify the most promising candidates for further astrometric and spectroscopic follow up. Such a program would either discover the donor star or place strong limits on progenitor systems to luminosities with L << L ☉ .

  18. Stars on Local Time: A Personal Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb-Roberts, M.

    2016-01-01

    First presented at INSAP VIII, the artwork A Personal Almanac is my interpretation of the familiar seasons-of-life allegory. The booklet's eight pairs of seasonal pages— spring equinox through the cross-quarter Groundhog Day—portray a life in the decades from the 1940s to the 2010s under the stars of rural Georgia, France, Miami, West Africa and the other places I have lived. A Personal Almanac is included in the art book A Durable Tale, the illustrated story of my thirty-year search in the Southeast United States and in West Africa for living memories of old star almanacs. In that odyssey I uncovered some very deep roots for an oral literature of the African desert, the nomadic bard's star story that I believe inspired creation of the first nine tablets of the standard version Babylonian Gilgamesh.

  19. Unsupervised classification of variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Lucas; Pichara, Karim

    2018-03-01

    During the past 10 years, a considerable amount of effort has been made to develop algorithms for automatic classification of variable stars. That has been primarily achieved by applying machine learning methods to photometric data sets where objects are represented as light curves. Classifiers require training sets to learn the underlying patterns that allow the separation among classes. Unfortunately, building training sets is an expensive process that demands a lot of human efforts. Every time data come from new surveys; the only available training instances are the ones that have a cross-match with previously labelled objects, consequently generating insufficient training sets compared with the large amounts of unlabelled sources. In this work, we present an algorithm that performs unsupervised classification of variable stars, relying only on the similarity among light curves. We tackle the unsupervised classification problem by proposing an untraditional approach. Instead of trying to match classes of stars with clusters found by a clustering algorithm, we propose a query-based method where astronomers can find groups of variable stars ranked by similarity. We also develop a fast similarity function specific for light curves, based on a novel data structure that allows scaling the search over the entire data set of unlabelled objects. Experiments show that our unsupervised model achieves high accuracy in the classification of different types of variable stars and that the proposed algorithm scales up to massive amounts of light curves.

  20. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  1. Search for brown dwarfs in the IRAS data bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, F.J.

    1986-01-01

    A report is given on the initial searches for brown dwarf stars in the IRAS data bases. The paper was presented to the workshop on 'Astrophysics of brown dwarfs', Virginia, USA, 1985. To date no brown dwarfs have been discovered in the solar neighbourhood. Opportunities for future searches with greater sensitivity and different wavelengths are outlined. (U.K.)

  2. Which of Kepler's Stars Flare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-12-01

    The habitability of distant exoplanets is dependent upon many factors one of which is the activity of their host stars. To learn about which stars are most likely to flare, a recent study examines tens of thousands of stellar flares observed by Kepler.Need for a Broader SampleArtists rendering of a flaring dwarf star. [NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center/S. Wiessinger]Most of our understanding of what causes a star to flare is based on observations of the only star near enough to examine in detail the Sun. But in learning from a sample size of one, a challenge arises: we must determine which conclusions are unique to the Sun (or Sun-like stars), and which apply to other stellar types as well.Based on observations and modeling, astronomers think that stellar flares result from the reconnection of magnetic field lines in a stars outer atmosphere, the corona. The magnetic activity is thought to be driven by a dynamo caused by motions in the stars convective zone.HR diagram of the Kepler stars, with flaring main-sequence (yellow), giant (red) and A-star (green) stars in the authors sample indicated. [Van Doorsselaere et al. 2017]To test whether these ideas are true generally, we need to understand what types of stars exhibit flares, and what stellar properties correlate with flaring activity. A team of scientists led by Tom Van Doorsselaere (KU Leuven, Belgium) has now used an enormous sample of flares observed by Kepler to explore these statistics.Intriguing TrendsVan Doorsselaere and collaborators used a new automated flare detection and characterization algorithm to search through the raw light curves from Quarter 15 of the Kepler mission, building a sample of 16,850 flares on 6,662 stars. They then used these to study the dependence of the flare occurrence rate, duration, energy, and amplitude on the stellar spectral type and rotation period.This large statistical study led the authors to several interesting conclusions, including:Flare star incidence rate as a a

  3. A spectroscopic search for variability of Be stars in the SMC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baade, D.; Rivinius, Th.; Štefl, Stanislav; Kaufner, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 383, č. 1 (2002), s. L31-L34 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : Be stars * galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.781, year: 2002

  4. Search for Transient Gravitational Waves in Coincidence with Short-Duration Radio Transients During 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Hughey, Brennan; Zanolin, Michele; Szczepanczyk, Marek; Gill, Kiranjyot; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), Virgo (Variability of Solar Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations) and GEO (German-UK Interferometric Detector) interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast radio bursts using similar methods. Data analyzed in these searches were collected between 2007 and 2013. Possible sources of emission of both short-duration radio signals and transient gravitational-wave emission include star quakes on neutron stars, binary coalescence of neutron stars, and cosmic string cusps. While no evidence for gravitational-wave emission in coincidence with these radio transients was found, the current analysis serves as a prototype for similar future searches using more sensitive second-generation interferometers.

  5. New CO and HCN sources associated with IRAS carbon stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    NGUYEN-Q-RIEU; Epchtein, N.; TRUONG-BACH; Cohen, M.

    1987-01-01

    Emission of CO and HCN was detected in 22 out of a sample of 53 IRAS sources classified as unidentified carbon-rich objects. The sample was selected according to the presence of the silicon carbide feature as revealed by low-resolution spectra. The molecular line widths indicate that the CO and HCN emission arises from the circumstellar envelopes of very highly evolved stars undergoing mass loss. The visible stars tend to be deficient in CO as compared with unidentified sources. Most the detected CO and HCN IRAS stars are distinct and thick-shelled objects, but their infrared and CO luminosities are similar to those of IRC + 102156 AFGL and IRC-CO evolved stars. The 12 micron flux seems to be a good indicator of the distance, hence a guide for molecular searches.

  6. The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamuy, M.; Pignata, G.; Maza, J.

    2012-01-01

    The CHilean Automatic Supernova sEarch (CHASE) project began in 2007 with the goal to discover young, nearby southern supernovae in order to (1) better understand the physics of exploding stars and their progenitors, and (2) refine the methods to derive extragalactic distances. During the first...

  7. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars

    OpenAIRE

    Petigura, Erik A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size (1-2 Earth-radii) and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (within a factor of four). We account...

  8. Strategies for the search of life in the universe

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Jean

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of an increasing number of Jupiter-like planets in orbit around other stars (or extra-solar planets) is a promising first step toward the search for Life in the Universe. We review all aspects of the question: - definition of Life - definition and characterization of the `habitable zone' around a star - overview of detection methods of planets, with special attention to habitable planets - present fingings - future projects.

  9. Electromagnetic Chirps from Neutron Star-Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.; Dal Canton, Tito; Camp, Jordan B.; Tsang, David; Kelly, Bernard J.

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic signal of a gamma-ray flare coming from the surface of a neutron star shortly before merger with a black hole companion. Using a new version of the Monte Carlo radiation transport code Pandurata that incorporates dynamic spacetimes, we integrate photon geodesics from the neutron star surface until they reach a distant observer or are captured by the black hole. The gamma-ray light curve is modulated by a number of relativistic effects, including Doppler beaming and gravitational lensing. Because the photons originate from the inspiraling neutron star, the light curve closely resembles the corresponding gravitational waveform: a chirp signal characterized by a steadily increasing frequency and amplitude. We propose to search for these electromagnetic chirps using matched filtering algorithms similar to those used in LIGO data analysis.

  10. Search for missing baryons through scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi, F.

    2011-06-01

    Cool molecular hydrogen H 2 may be the ultimate possible constituent to the Milky-Way missing baryon. We describe a new way to search for such transparent matter in the Galactic disc and halo, through the diffractive and refractive effects on the light of background stars. By simulating the phase delay induced by a turbulent medium, we computed the corresponding illumination pattern on the earth for an extended source and a given passband. We show that in favorable cases, the light of a background star can be subjected to stochastic fluctuations of the order of a few percent at a characteristic time scale of a few minutes. We have searched for scintillation induced by molecular gas in visible dark nebulae as well as by hypothetical halo clumpuscules of cool molecular hydrogen (H 2 -He) during two nights, using the NTT telescope and the IR SOFI detector. Amongst a few thousands of monitored stars, we found one light-curve that is compatible with a strong scintillation effect through a turbulent structure in the B68 nebula. Because no candidate were found toward the SMC (Small Magellan Cloud), we are able to establish upper limits on the contribution of gas clumpuscules to the Galactic halo mass. We show that the short time-scale monitoring of a few 10 6 star*hour in the visible band with a >4 m telescope and a fast readout camera should allow one to interestingly quantify or constrain the contribution of turbulent molecular gas to the Galactic halo. (author)

  11. Relationship between Usefulness Assessments and Perceptions of Work Task Complexity and Search Topic Specificity: An Exploratory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Wang, Peiling

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the relations between the usefulness assessments of retrieved documents and the perceptions of task complexity and search topic specificity. Twenty-three academic researchers submitted 65 real task-based information search topics. These task topics were searched...... in an integrated document collection consisting of full text research articles in PDFs, abstracts, and bibliographic records (the iSearch Test Collection in Physics). The search results were provided to the researchers who, as task performers, made assessments of usefulness using a four-point sale (highly, fairly......, marginally, or not useful). In addition, they also assessed the perceived task complexity (highly, fairly, and routine/low) and the perceived specificity of the search topic (highly, fairly, and generic/low). It is found that highly specific topics associate with all degrees of task complexity, whereas...

  12. McDonald Observatory Planetary Search - A high precision stellar radial velocity survey for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.

    1993-01-01

    The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search program surveyed a sample of 33 nearby F, G, and K stars since September 1987 to search for substellar companion objects. Measurements of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of better than 10 m/s were performed as routine observations to detect Jovian planets in orbit around solar type stars. Results confirm the detection of a companion object to HD114762.

  13. A SPITZER CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE PIPE NEBULA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbrich, Jan; Lada, Charles J.; Muench, August A.; Alves, Joao; Lombardi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The Pipe Nebula, a large nearby molecular cloud, lacks obvious signposts of star formation in all but one of more than 130 dust extinction cores that have been identified within it. In order to quantitatively determine the current level of star formation activity in the Pipe Nebula, we analyzed 13 deg 2 of sensitive mid-infrared maps of the entire cloud, obtained with the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer at wavelengths of 24 μm and 70 μm, to search for candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the high-extinction regions. We argue that our search is complete for class I and typical class II YSOs with luminosities of L bol ∼ 0.2 L sun and greater. We find only 18 candidate YSOs in the high-extinction regions of the entire Pipe cloud. Twelve of these sources are previously known members of a small cluster associated with Barnard 59, the largest and most massive dense core in the cloud. With only six candidate class I and class II YSOs detected toward extinction cores outside of this cluster, our findings emphatically confirm the notion of an extremely low level of star formation activity in the Pipe Nebula. The resulting star formation efficiency for the entire cloud mass is only ∼0.06%.

  14. The HOSTS Survey—Exozodiacal Dust Measurements for 30 Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, S.; Defrère, D.; Hinz, P.; Mennesson, B.; Kennedy, G. M.; Danchi, W. C.; Gelino, C.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Rieke, G.; Shannon, A.; Spalding, E.; Stone, J. M.; Vaz, A.; Weinberger, A. J.; Willems, P.; Absil, O.; Arbo, P.; Bailey, V. P.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Downey, E. C.; Durney, O.; Esposito, S.; Gaspar, A.; Grenz, P.; Haniff, C. A.; Leisenring, J. M.; Marion, L.; McMahon, T. J.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Montoya, M.; Morzinski, K. M.; Pinna, E.; Power, J.; Puglisi, A.; Roberge, A.; Serabyn, E.; Skemer, A. J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Su, K. Y. L.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2018-05-01

    The Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems survey searches for dust near the habitable zones (HZs) around nearby, bright main-sequence stars. We use nulling interferometry in the N band to suppress the bright stellar light and to probe for low levels of HZ dust around the 30 stars observed so far. Our overall detection rate is 18%, including four new detections, among which are the first three around Sun-like stars and the first two around stars without any previously known circumstellar dust. The inferred occurrence rates are comparable for early-type and Sun-like stars, but decrease from {60}-21+16% for stars with previously detected cold dust to {8}-3+10% for stars without such excess, confirming earlier results at higher sensitivity. For completed observations on individual stars, our sensitivity is five to ten times better than previous results. Assuming a lognormal excess luminosity function, we put upper limits on the median HZ dust level of 13 zodis (95% confidence) for a sample of stars without cold dust and of 26 zodis when focusing on Sun-like stars without cold dust. However, our data suggest that a more complex luminosity function may be more appropriate. For stars without detectable Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) excess, our upper limits are almost reduced by a factor of two, demonstrating the strength of LBTI target vetting for future exo-Earth imaging missions. Our statistics are limited so far, and extending the survey is critical to informing the design of future exo-Earth imaging surveys.

  15. In Orbit Performance of a Fully Autonomous Star Tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Automation at DTU has developed the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous star tracker, for use as high precision attitude reference onboard spacecrafts. The ASC is composed of a CCD-based camera and a powerful microprocessor containing star catalogue, image......-analysis software and a search engine. The unit autonomously performs all tasks necessary to calculate the inertial attitude from a star image. To allow for flexible attitude manoeuvres, the ASC can, simultaneously, drive from one to four cameras, efficiently removing dropouts from, e.g., sun blinding of one camera......, it is difficult to test and verify the true robustness and accuracy of a star tracker on ground. This is caused by the fact that only real-sky tests offer high fidelity stimulation of the sensor, while the atmosphere instabilities result in a dominant noise source intrinsically limiting the achievable accuracy...

  16. RED RUNAWAYS II: LOW-MASS HILLS STARS IN SDSS STRIPE 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Smith, Martin C. [Key Laboratory of Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Carlin, Jeffrey L., E-mail: zhangyq@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: msmith@shao.ac.cn [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy (United States)

    2016-11-20

    Stars ejected from the Galactic Center can be used to place important constraints on the Milky Way potential. Since existing hypervelocity stars are too distant to accurately determine orbits, we have conducted a search for nearby candidates using full three-dimensional velocities. Since the efficacy of such studies is often hampered by deficiencies in proper motion catalogs, we have chosen to utilize the reliable, high-precision Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 proper motion catalog. Although we do not find any candidates which have velocities in excess of the escape speed, we identify 226 stars on orbits that are consistent with Galactic Center ejection. This number is significantly larger than what we would expect for halo stars on radial orbits and cannot be explained by disk or bulge contamination. If we restrict ourselves to metal-rich stars, we find 29 candidates with [Fe/H] > −0.8 dex and 10 with [Fe/H] > −0.6 dex. Their metallicities are more consistent with what we expect for bulge ejecta, and so we believe these candidates are especially deserving of further study. We have supplemented this sample using our own radial velocities, developing an algorithm to use proper motions for optimizing candidate selection. This technique provides considerable improvement on the blind spectroscopic sample of SDSS, being able to identify candidates with an efficiency around 20 times better than a blind search.

  17. RED RUNAWAYS II: LOW-MASS HILLS STARS IN SDSS STRIPE 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Smith, Martin C.; Carlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Stars ejected from the Galactic Center can be used to place important constraints on the Milky Way potential. Since existing hypervelocity stars are too distant to accurately determine orbits, we have conducted a search for nearby candidates using full three-dimensional velocities. Since the efficacy of such studies is often hampered by deficiencies in proper motion catalogs, we have chosen to utilize the reliable, high-precision Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 proper motion catalog. Although we do not find any candidates which have velocities in excess of the escape speed, we identify 226 stars on orbits that are consistent with Galactic Center ejection. This number is significantly larger than what we would expect for halo stars on radial orbits and cannot be explained by disk or bulge contamination. If we restrict ourselves to metal-rich stars, we find 29 candidates with [Fe/H] > −0.8 dex and 10 with [Fe/H] > −0.6 dex. Their metallicities are more consistent with what we expect for bulge ejecta, and so we believe these candidates are especially deserving of further study. We have supplemented this sample using our own radial velocities, developing an algorithm to use proper motions for optimizing candidate selection. This technique provides considerable improvement on the blind spectroscopic sample of SDSS, being able to identify candidates with an efficiency around 20 times better than a blind search.

  18. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  19. The Nainital–Cape Survey: A Search for Variability in Ap and Am ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The “Nainital–Cape Survey” program for searching photo- metric variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars was initiated in 1997 at ARIES, Nainital. We present here the results obtained to date. The Am stars HD 98851, HD 102480, HD 13079 and HD 113878 were discovered to exhibit δ Scuti type variability.

  20. Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin; Oppenheimer; Hambly; Jameson; Smartt; Steele

    2000-01-06

    White dwarfs are the remnant cores of stars that initially had masses of less than 8 solar masses. They cool gradually over billions of years, and have been suggested to make up much of the 'dark matter' in the halo of the Milky Way. But extremely cool white dwarfs have proved difficult to detect, owing to both their faintness and their anticipated similarity in colour to other classes of dwarf stars. Recent improved models indicate that white dwarfs are much more blue than previously supposed, suggesting that the earlier searches may have been looking for the wrong kinds of objects. Here we report an infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white dwarf that is consistent with the new models. We determine the star's temperature to be 3,500 +/- 200 K, making it the coolest known white dwarf. The kinematics of this star indicate that it is in the halo of the Milky Way, and the density of such objects implied by the serendipitous discovery of this star is consistent with white dwarfs dominating the dark matter in the halo.

  1. Extended Aperture Photometry of K2 RR Lyrae stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachy, Emese; Klagyivik, Péter; Molnár, László; Sódor, Ádám; Szabó, Róbert

    2017-10-01

    We present the method of the Extended Aperture Photometry (EAP) that we applied on K2 RR Lyrae stars. Our aim is to minimize the instrumental variations of attitude control maneuvers by using apertures that cover the positional changes in the field of view thus contain the stars during the whole observation. We present example light curves that we compared to the light curves from the K2 Systematics Correction (K2SC) pipeline applied on the automated Single Aperture Photometry (SAP) and on the Pre-search Data Conditioning Simple Aperture Photometry (PDCSAP) data.

  2. A COMPREHENSIVE CENSUS OF NEARBY INFRARED EXCESS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotten, Tara H.; Song, Inseok, E-mail: tara@physast.uga.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The conclusion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE ) mission presents an opportune time to summarize the history of using excess emission in the infrared as a tracer of circumstellar material and exploit all available data for future missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope . We have compiled a catalog of infrared excess stars from peer-reviewed articles and perform an extensive search for new infrared excess stars by cross-correlating the Tycho-2 and all-sky WISE (AllWISE) catalogs. We define a significance of excess in four spectral type divisions and select stars showing greater than either 3 σ or 5 σ significance of excess in the mid- and far-infrared. Through procedures including spectral energy distribution fitting and various image analyses, each potential excess source was rigorously vetted to eliminate false positives. The infrared excess stars from the literature and the new stars found through the Tycho-2 and AllWISE cross-correlation produced nearly 500 “Prime” infrared excess stars, of which 74 are new sources of excess, and >1200 are “Reserved” stars, of which 950 are new sources of excess. The main catalog of infrared excess stars are nearby, bright, and either demonstrate excess in more than one passband or have infrared spectroscopy confirming the infrared excess. This study identifies stars that display a spectral energy distribution suggestive of a secondary or post-protoplanetary generation of dust, and they are ideal targets for future optical and infrared imaging observations. The final catalogs of stars summarize the past work using infrared excess to detect dust disks, and with the most extensive compilation of infrared excess stars (∼1750) to date, we investigate various relationships among stellar and disk parameters.

  3. On the absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Verne V.; Lambert, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars.

  4. Variable stars in metal-rich globular clusters. IV. Long-period variables in NGC 6496

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Mohamad A. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Layden, Andrew C.; Guldenschuh, Katherine A. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403 (United States); Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.; LaCluyze, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Welch, Douglas L., E-mail: mabbas@ari.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: laydena@bgsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8 S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-02-01

    We present VI-band photometry for stars in the metal-rich globular cluster NGC 6496. Our time-series data were cadenced to search for long-period variables (LPVs) over a span of nearly two years, and our variability search yielded the discovery of 13 new variable stars, of which 6 are LPVs, 2 are suspected LPVs, and 5 are short-period eclipsing binaries. An additional star was found in the ASAS database, and we clarify its type and period. We argue that all of the eclipsing binaries are field stars, while five to six of the LPVs are members of NGC 6496. We compare the period–luminosity distribution of these LPVs with those of LPVs in the Large Magellanic Cloud and 47 Tucanae, and with theoretical pulsation models. We also present a VI color–magnitude diagram, display the evolutionary states of the variables, and match isochrones to determine a reddening of E(B−V)= 0.21±0.02 mag and apparent distance modulus of 15.60±0.15 mag.

  5. SPB stars in the open SMC cluster NGC 371

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoff, C.; Arentoft, T.; Glowienka, L.; Coutures, C.; Nielsen, T. B.; Dogan, G.; Grundahl, F.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2008-05-01

    Pulsation in β Cep and slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars are driven by the κ mechanism which depends critically on the metallicity. It has therefore been suggested that β Cep and SPB stars should be rare in the Magellanic Clouds which have lower metallicities than the solar neighbourhood. To test this prediction we have observed the open Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) cluster NGC 371 for 12 nights in order to search for β Cep and SPB stars. Surprisingly, we find 29 short-period B-type variables in the upper part of the main sequence, many of which are probably SPB stars. This result indicates that pulsation is still driven by the κ mechanism even in low-metallicity environments. All the identified variables have periods longer than the fundamental radial period which means that they cannot be β Cep stars. Within an amplitude detection limit of 5 mmag no stars in the top of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram show variability with periods shorter than the fundamental radial period. So if β Cep stars are present in the cluster they oscillate with amplitudes below 5 mmag, which is significantly lower than the mean amplitude of β Cep stars in the Galaxy. We see evidence that multimode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower. We have also identified five eclipsing binaries and three periodic pulsating Be stars in the cluster field.

  6. The onset of chromospheric activity among the A and F stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Theodore; Landsman, Wayne

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for an upper boundary for the onset of main-sequence star activity based on a quest for high-temperature UV line emission in a large collection of IUE spectra. It is shown that strong chromospheric emission is common among early F dwarf and subgiant stars. At its brightest, the emission is equal to that of the most active solar-type stars and is exceeded only by that of the spotted RS CVn and BY Dra variables. It is suggested that the emission from the main-sequence stars reaches a peak near B-V = 0.28, in the vicinity of spectral type F0 V, before it declines to lower flux levels among the late A stars. Emission is seen in some dwarf stars as early as B-V = 0.25. It is demonstrated that the C II emission of stars earlier than the spectral type F5 is uncorrelated with rotation. Previous findings that the coronal X-ray:chromospheric UV flux ratio is lower for stars earlier than spectral type F5 than for those later than F5 are confirmed.

  7. Antenna concepts for interstellar search systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basler, R.P.; Johnson, G.L.; Vondrak, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    An evaluation is made of microwave receiving systems designed to search for signals from extraterrestrial intelligence. Specific design concepts are analyzed parametrically to determine whether the optimum antenna system location is on earth, in space, or on the moon. Parameters considered include the hypothesized number of transmitting civilizations, the number of stars that must be searched to give any desired probability of receiving a signal, the antenna collecting area, the search time, the search range, and the cost. This analysis suggests that search systems based on the moon are not cost-competitive, if the search is extended only a few hundred light years from the earth, a Cyclops-type array on earth may be the most cost-effective system, for a search extending to 500 light years or more, a substantial cost and search-time advantage can be achieved with a large spherical reflector in space with multiple feeds, radio frequency interference shields can be provided for space systems, and cost can range from a few hundred million to tens of billions of dollars, depending on the parameter values assumed

  8. VVV Survey Search for Habitable Planets around M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minniti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) is a public ESO near- infrared (near-IR) variability survey aimed at scanning the Milky Way Bulge and an adjacent section of the mid-plane. The survey covers an area of 562 sqdeg in the Galactic bulge and the southern disk, containing a billion point sources. In this work we discuss the selection of nearby M-type dwarf stars using multicolor cuts. The ZYJHKs photometry allows an accurate estimation of the spectral types of the M-dwarf candidates. Our procedure is applied for fields located far from the Galactic center where the photometric quality is best. The results of this search covering 15 sqdeg allow us to estimate the total number of M-dwarfs that can be photometrically monitored in the VVV database. In addition, we analyze the light curves of the ~10000 best candidate M-dwarf stars searching for extrasolar planetary transits. In this poster we present the light curves of a hundred good transit candidates, and select those that lie in the HZ around their parent stars.

  9. Photometric Variability of the Be Star Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Pepper, Joshua; McSwain, M. Virginia; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Lund, Michael B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Stevens, Daniel J.; James, David J.; Kuhn, Rudolf B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Be stars have generally been characterized by the emission lines in their spectra, and especially the time variability of those spectroscopic features. They are known to also exhibit photometric variability at multiple timescales, but have not been broadly compared and analyzed by that behavior. We have taken advantage of the advent of wide-field, long-baseline, and high-cadence photometric surveys that search for transiting exoplanets to perform a comprehensive analysis of brightness variations among a large number of known Be stars. The photometric data comes from the KELT transit survey, with a typical cadence of 30 minutes, a baseline of up to 10 years, photometric precision of about 1%, and coverage of about 60% of the sky. We analyze KELT light curves of 610 known Be stars in both the northern and southern hemispheres in an effort to study their variability. Consistent with other studies of Be star variability, we find most of the stars to be photometrically variable. We derive lower limits on the fraction of stars in our sample that exhibit features consistent with non-radial pulsations (25%), outbursts (36%), and long-term trends in the circumstellar disk (37%), and show how these are correlated with spectral sub-types. Other types of variability, such as those owing to binarity, are also explored. Simultaneous spectroscopy for some of these systems from the Be Star Spectra database allow us to better understand the physical causes for the observed variability, especially in cases of outbursts and changes in the disk.

  10. Photometric Variability of the Be Star Population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labadie-Bartz, Jonathan; Pepper, Joshua; McSwain, M. Virginia [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, 16 Memorial Drive East, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Lund, Michael B.; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Stevens, Daniel J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James, David J. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603 La Serena (Chile); Kuhn, Rudolf B. [Southern African Large Telescope, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935, Cape Town (South Africa); Siverd, Robert J. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Beatty, Thomas G. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Be stars have generally been characterized by the emission lines in their spectra, and especially the time variability of those spectroscopic features. They are known to also exhibit photometric variability at multiple timescales, but have not been broadly compared and analyzed by that behavior. We have taken advantage of the advent of wide-field, long-baseline, and high-cadence photometric surveys that search for transiting exoplanets to perform a comprehensive analysis of brightness variations among a large number of known Be stars. The photometric data comes from the KELT transit survey, with a typical cadence of 30 minutes, a baseline of up to 10 years, photometric precision of about 1%, and coverage of about 60% of the sky. We analyze KELT light curves of 610 known Be stars in both the northern and southern hemispheres in an effort to study their variability. Consistent with other studies of Be star variability, we find most of the stars to be photometrically variable. We derive lower limits on the fraction of stars in our sample that exhibit features consistent with non-radial pulsations (25%), outbursts (36%), and long-term trends in the circumstellar disk (37%), and show how these are correlated with spectral sub-types. Other types of variability, such as those owing to binarity, are also explored. Simultaneous spectroscopy for some of these systems from the Be Star Spectra database allow us to better understand the physical causes for the observed variability, especially in cases of outbursts and changes in the disk.

  11. 2013; life is a cosmic phenomenon: the search for water evolves into the search for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William E.

    2013-09-01

    The 2013 data from the Kepler Mission gives a current estimate of the number of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of sun-like stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, as 144 billion. We propose that this estimate has caused a consciousness change in human belief in the probability of life off Earth. This seems to have affected NASA's public statements which are now leaning to the more visionary mission goal of the "Search for Life" rather than the 1975-2012 focus of the "Search for Water". We propose that the first confirmed Earth-like planet, expected to be announced later this year, be called "BORUCKI" in honour of the visionary USA scientist Bill Borucki, the father of the Kepler Mission. We explore the 2013 status of the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Model of Panspermia, its hypothesis, propositions, experiments and evidence. We use the Karl Popper model for scientific hypotheses (1). Finally we explore Sir Fred Hoyle's vision of a planetary microbe defense system we call the Hoyle Shield. We explore the subsystem components of the shield and assess some options for these components using break-though technologies already available.

  12. SEARCHING FOR PLANETS IN HOLEY DEBRIS DISKS WITH THE APODIZING PHASE PLATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Bailey, Vanessa P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Smith, Paul S.; Mamajek, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    We present our first results from a high-contrast imaging search for planetary mass companions around stars with gapped debris disks, as inferred from the stars' bright infrared excesses. For the six considered stars, we model the disks' unresolved infrared spectral energy distributions in order to derive the temperature and location of the disk components. With VLT/NaCo Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraphic L'-band imaging, we search for planetary mass companions that may be sculpting the disks. We detect neither disks nor companions in this sample, confirmed by comparing plausible point sources with archival data. In order to calculate our mass sensitivity limit, we revisit the stellar age estimates. One target, HD 17848, at 540 ± 100 Myr old is significantly older than previously estimated. We then discuss our high-contrast imaging results with respect to the disk properties

  13. SEARCHING FOR PLANETS IN HOLEY DEBRIS DISKS WITH THE APODIZING PHASE PLATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkat, Tiffany; Kenworthy, Matthew A. [Sterrewacht Leiden, P.O. Box 9513, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bailey, Vanessa P.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Hinz, Philip M.; Smith, Paul S. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    We present our first results from a high-contrast imaging search for planetary mass companions around stars with gapped debris disks, as inferred from the stars' bright infrared excesses. For the six considered stars, we model the disks' unresolved infrared spectral energy distributions in order to derive the temperature and location of the disk components. With VLT/NaCo Apodizing Phase Plate coronagraphic L'-band imaging, we search for planetary mass companions that may be sculpting the disks. We detect neither disks nor companions in this sample, confirmed by comparing plausible point sources with archival data. In order to calculate our mass sensitivity limit, we revisit the stellar age estimates. One target, HD 17848, at 540 ± 100 Myr old is significantly older than previously estimated. We then discuss our high-contrast imaging results with respect to the disk properties.

  14. Preliminary results of variable star search using KMTNet data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Young-Beom

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The KMTNet (Korea Microlensing Telescope Network was completed on October 2nd in 2015. There are three 1.6 m telescopes in Chile (CTIO, Australia (SSO and South Africa (SAAO. The field of view of the CCD camera is 2 degree × 2 degree. We are monitoring and observing the bulge region for 24-hour continuous observations using the KMTNet telescopes. I present the characteristics of CCD camera and telescope, and the status of observation programs. We are still developing CCD cameras to accurate photometry. From the KMTNet data, we can obtain accurate 24-hour continuous time-series data for many variable stars.

  15. C2D spitzer-IRS spectra of disks around T tauri stars : II. PAH emission features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geers, V. C.; Augereau, J. -C; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Dullemond, C. P.; Visser, R.; Kessler-Silacci, J. E.; Evans, N. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; Boogert, A. C. A.; Lahuis, F.; Merin, B.

    Aims. We search for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) features towards young low-mass (T Tauri) stars and compare them with surveys of intermediate mass (Herbig Ae/Be) stars. The presence and strength of the PAH features are interpreted with disk radiative transfer models exploring the PAH

  16. ROTSE All-Sky Surveys for Variable Stars. I. Test Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, C.; Amrose, S.; Balsano, R.; Bloch, J.; Casperson, D.; Fletcher, S.; Gisler, G.; Hills, J.; Kehoe, R.; Lee, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment I (ROTSE-I) experiment has generated CCD photometry for the entire northern sky in two epochs nightly since 1998 March. These sky patrol data are a powerful resource for studies of astrophysical transients. As a demonstration project, we present first results of a search for periodic variable stars derived from ROTSE-I observations. Variable identification, period determination, and type classification are conducted via automatic algorithms. In a set of nine ROTSE-I sky patrol fields covering roughly 2000 deg2, we identify 1781 periodic variable stars with mean magnitudes between m v = 10.0 and m v = 15.5. About 90% of these objects are newly identified as variable. Examples of many familiar types are presented. All classifications for this study have been manually confirmed. The selection criteria for this analysis have been conservatively defined and are known to be biased against some variable classes. This preliminary study includes only 5.6% of the total ROTSE-I sky coverage, suggesting that the full ROTSE-I variable catalog will include more than 32,000 periodic variable stars. (c) (c) 2000. The American Astronomical Society

  17. Stellar activity for every TESS star in the Southern sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ward S.; Law, Nicholas; Fors, Octavi; Corbett, Henry T.; Ratzloff, Jeff; del Ser, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Although TESS will search for Earths around more than 200,000 nearby stars, the life-impacting superflare occurrence of these stars remains poorly characterized. We monitor long-term stellar flare occurrence for every TESS star in the accessible sky at 2-minute cadence with the CTIO-based Evryscope, a combination of twenty-four telescopes, together giving instantaneous sky coverage of 8000 square degrees. In collaboration with Owens Valley Long Wavelength Array (LWA) all-sky monitoring, Evryscope also provides optical counterparts to radio flare, CME, and exoplanet-magnetosphere stellar activity searches. A Northern Evryscope will be installed at Mount Laguna Observatory, CA in collaboration with SDSU later this year, enabling stellar activity characterization for the full TESS target list and both continuous viewing zones, as well as providing 100% overlap with LWA radio activity. Targets of interest (e.g. Proxima Cen, TRAPPIST-1) are given special focus. We are currently sensitive to stellar activity down to 1% precision at g' ~ 10 and about 0.2 of a magnitude at g' ~ 15. With 2-minute cadence and a projected 5-year timeline, with 2+ years already recorded, we present preliminary results from an activity characterization of every Southern TESS target.

  18. Searching for WR stars in I Zw 18 -- The origin of HeII emission

    OpenAIRE

    de Mello, Duilia; Schaerer, Daniel; Heldmann, Jennifer; Leitherer, Claus

    1998-01-01

    I Zw 18 is the most metal poor star-forming galaxy known and is an ideal laboratory to probe stellar evolution theory at low metallicities. Using archival HST WFPC2 imaging and FOS spectroscopy we were able to improve previous studies. We constructed a continuum free HeII map, which was used to identify Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars recently found by ground-based spectroscopy and to locate diffuse nebular emission. Most of the HeII emission is associated with the NW stellar cluster, clearly displaced...

  19. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    parts of the ILA project are “Stellar Bell” (interesting pulsating variables of different types and periods - M, SR, RV Tau, RR Lyr, Delta Sct with changes of characteristics) and “Novice”(=“New Variable”) discoveries and classification based on special own observations and data mining with a subsequent monitoring for searching and studying possible multiple components of variability. Special mathematical methods have been developed to create a set of complementary software for statistically optimal modeling of variable stars of different types.

  20. Galaxies in the act of quenching star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quai, Salvatore; Pozzetti, Lucia; Citro, Annalisa; Moresco, Michele; Cimatti, Andrea

    2018-04-01

    Detecting galaxies when their star-formation is being quenched is crucial to understand the mechanisms driving their evolution. We identify for the first time a sample of quenching galaxies selected just after the interruption of their star formation by exploiting the [O III] λ5007/Hα ratio and searching for galaxies with undetected [O III]. Using a sample of ˜174000 star-forming galaxies extracted from the SDSS-DR8 at 0.04 ≤ z growth of the quiescent population at these redshifts. Their main properties (i.e. star-formation rate, colours and metallicities) are comparable to those of the star-forming population, coherently with the hypothesis of recent quenching, but preferably reside in higher-density environments.Most candidates have morphologies similar to star-forming galaxies, suggesting that no morphological transformation has occurred yet. From a survival analysis we find a low fraction of candidates (˜ 0.58% of the star-forming population), leading to a short quenching timescale of tQ ˜ 50 Myr and an e-folding time for the quenching history of τQ ˜ 90 Myr, and their upper limits of tQ < 0.76 Gyr and τQ <1.5 Gyr, assuming as quenching galaxies 50% of objects without [O III] (˜7.5%).Our results are compatible with a 'rapid' quenching scenario of satellites galaxies due to the final phase of strangulation or ram-pressure stripping. This approach represents a robust alternative to methods used so far to select quenched galaxies (e.g. colours, specific star-formation rate, or post-starburst spectra).

  1. The “UV-route” to Search for Blue Straggler Stars in Globular Clusters: First Results from the HST UV Legacy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, S.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat, 6/2, Bologna (Italy); Dalessandro, E. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, Bologna (Italy); Nardiello, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy Galileo Galilei, University of Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bellini, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Vesperini, E. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 47401 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We used data from the Hubble Space Telescope UV Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters to select the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in four intermediate/high density systems (namely NGC 2808, NGC 6388, NGC 6541, and NGC 7078) through a “UV-guided search.” This procedure consists of using the F275W images in each cluster to construct the master list of detected sources, and then force it to the images acquired in the other filters. Such an approach optimizes the detection of relatively hot stars and allows the detection of a complete sample of BSSs even in the central region of high-density clusters, because the light from the bright cool giants, which dominates the optical emission in old stellar systems, is sensibly reduced at UV wavelengths. Our UV-guided selections of BSSs have been compared to the samples obtained in previous, optical-driven surveys, clearly demonstrating the efficiency of the UV approach. In each cluster we also measured the parameter A {sup +}, defined as the area enclosed between the cumulative radial distribution of BSSs and that of a reference population, which traces the level of BSS central segregation and the level of dynamical evolution suffered by the system. The values measured for the four clusters studied in this paper nicely fall along the dynamical sequence recently presented for a sample of 25 clusters.

  2. Mapping the Region in the Nearest Star System to Search for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Quarles, B.

    2015-01-01

    Circumstellar planets within the alpha Centauri AB star system have been suggested through formation models and recent observations, and ACESat (Belikov et al. AAS Meeting #225, #311.01, 2015) is a proposed space mission designed to directly image Earth-sized planets in the habitable zones of both of these stars. The alpha Centauri system is billions of years old, so planets are only expected to be found in regions where their orbits are long-lived. We evaluate the extent of the regions within the alpha Centauri AB star system where small planets are able to orbit for billion-year timescales and we map the positions in the sky plane where planets on stable orbits about either stellar component may appear. We confirm the qualitative results of Wiegert & Holman (Astron. J. 113, 1445, 1997) regarding the approximate size of the regions of stable orbits, which are larger for retrograde orbits relative to the binary than for prograde orbits. Additionally, we find that mean motion resonances with the binary orbit leave an imprint on the limits of orbital stability, and the effects of the Lidov-Kozai mechanism are also readily apparent. Overall, orbits in the habitable zones near the plane of the binary are stable, whereas high-inclination orbits are short-lived.

  3. FLUORINE IN ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH CARBON STARS REVISITED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abia, C.; Dominguez, I.; Recio-Blanco, A.; De Laverny, P.; Cristallo, S.; Straniero, O.

    2009-01-01

    A re-analysis of the fluorine abundance in three Galactic asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars (TX Psc, AQ Sgr, and R Scl) has been performed from the molecular HF (1-0) R9 line at 2.3358 μm. High resolution (R ∼ 50,000) and high signal-to-noise spectra obtained with the CRIRES spectrograph and the VLT telescope or from the NOAO archive (for TX Psc) have been used. Our abundance analysis uses the latest generation of MARCS model atmospheres for cool carbon-rich stars. Using spectral synthesis in local thermodynamic equilibrium, we derive for these stars fluorine abundances that are systematically lower by ∼0.8 dex in average with respect to the sole previous estimates by Jorissen et al. The possible reasons of this discrepancy are explored. We conclude that the difference may rely on the blending with C-bearing molecules (CN and C 2 ) that were not properly taken into account in the former study. The new F abundances are in better agreement with the prediction of full network stellar models of low-mass AGB stars. These models also reproduce the s-process elements distribution in the sampled stars. This result, if confirmed in a larger sample of AGB stars, might alleviate the current difficulty to explain the largest [F/O] ratios found by Jorissen et al. In particular, it may not be necessary to search for alternative nuclear chains affecting the production of F in AGB stars.

  4. Obscured asymptotic giant branch stars in the Magellanic Clouds .2. Near-infrared and mid-infrared counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, AA; Loup, C; Waters, LBFM; Whitelock, PA; vanLoon, JT; Guglielmo, F

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out an infrared search for obscured asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Fields were observed in the vicinity of IRAS sources with colours and flux densities consistent with such a classification. The survey uncovered a number of obscured AGE stars as well as

  5. All-sky LIGO search for periodic gravitational waves in the early fifth-science-run data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Adhikari, R; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allen, G; Amin, R S; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arain, M A; Araya, M; Armandula, H; Armor, P; Aso, Y; Aston, S; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Baker, P; Ballmer, S; Bantilan, H; Barish, B C; Barker, C; Barker, D; Barr, B; Barriga, P; Barsotti, L; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Bastarrika, M; Behnke, B; Benacquista, M; Betzwieser, J; Beyersdorf, P T; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Biswas, R; Black, E; Blackburn, J K; Blackburn, L; Blair, D; Bland, B; Bodiya, T P; Bogue, L; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Brau, J E; Brinkmann, M; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brunet, G; Bullington, A; Buonanno, A; Burmeister, O; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Camp, J B; Cannizzo, J; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Cardenas, L; Cardoso, V; Caride, S; Casebolt, T; Castaldi, G; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cepeda, C; Chalkley, E; Charlton, P; Chatterji, S; Chelkowski, S; Chen, Y; Christensen, N; Clark, D; Clark, J; Clayton, J H; Cokelaer, T; Conte, R; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R C; Cornish, N; Coyne, D C; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cutler, R M; Danzmann, K; Daudert, B; Davies, G; Debra, D; Degallaix, J; Dergachev, V; Desai, S; Desalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M; Dickson, J; Dietz, A; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doomes, E E; Drever, R W P; Duke, I; Dumas, J-C; Dwyer, J; Echols, C; Edgar, M; Effler, A; Ehrens, P; Ely, G; Espinoza, E; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T; Fairhurst, S; Faltas, Y; Fan, Y; Fazi, D; Fejer, M M; Finn, L S; Flasch, K; Foley, S; Forrest, C; Fotopoulos, N; Franzen, A; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fyffe, M; Garofoli, J A; Gholami, I; Giaime, J A; Giampanis, S; Giardina, K D; Goda, K; Goetz, E; Goggin, L M; González, G; Gossler, S; Gouaty, R; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Gray, M; Greenhalgh, R J S; Gretarsson, A M; Grimaldi, F; Grosso, R; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guenther, M; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hage, B; Hallam, J M; Hanna, C; Hanson, J; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harstad, E D; Haughian, E; Hayama, K; Hayler, T; Heefner, J; Heng, I S; Heptonstall, A; Hewitson, M; Hild, S; Hirose, E; Hoak, D; Holt, K; Hosken, D; Hough, J; Huttner, S H; Ingram, D; Ito, M; Ivanov, A; Johnson, B; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, G; Jones, R; Ju, L; Kalmus, P; Kalogera, V; Kamat, S; Kanner, J; Kasprzyk, D; Katsavounidis, E; Kawabe, K; Kawamura, S; Kawazoe, F; Kells, W; Keppel, D G; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Ya; Khan, R; Khazanov, E; King, P; Kissel, J S; Klimenko, S; Kocsis, B; Kokeyama, K; Kondrashov, V; Kopparapu, R; Koranda, S; Kozak, D; Kozhevatov, I; Krishnan, B; Kwee, P; Landry, M; Lantz, B; Lazzarini, A; Lei, M; Leonor, I; Li, C; Lin, H; Lindquist, P E; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lodhia, D; Lormand, M; Lu, P; Lubinski, M; Lucianetti, A; Lück, H; Machenschalk, B; Macinnis, M; Mageswaran, M; Mailand, K; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A; Markowitz, J; Maros, E; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Matzner, R; Mavalvala, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McGuire, S C; McHugh, M; McIntyre, G; McKechan, D; McKenzie, K; Mehmet, M; Melissinos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C J; Meyers, D; Miller, A; Miller, J; Minelli, J; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Miyakawa, O; Moe, B; Mohanty, S D; Moreno, G; Mors, K; Mossavi, K; Mowlowry, C; Mueller, G; Muhammad, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukhopadhyay, H; Mullavey, A; Müller-Ebhardt, H; Munch, J; Murray, P G; Myers, E; Myers, J; Nash, T; Nelson, J; Newton, G; Nishizawa, A; Numata, K; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Ogin, G; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Papa, M A; Parameshwaraiah, V; Patel, P; Pedraza, M; Penn, S; Perraca, A; Petrie, T; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Pletsch, H J; Plissi, M V; Postiglione, F; Principe, M; Prix, R; Quetschke, V; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Rainer, N; Rakhmanov, M; Ramsunder, M; Reed, T; Rehbein, H; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Riesen, R; Riles, K; Rivera, B; Robertson, N A; Robinson, C; Robinson, E L; Roddy, S; Rogan, A M; Rollins, J; Romano, J D; Romie, J H; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruet, L; Russell, P; Ryan, K; Sakata, S; Sancho de la Jordana, L; Sandberg, V; Sannibale, V; Santamaria, L; Saraf, S; Sarin, P; Sathyaprakash, B S; Sato, S; Saulson, P R; Savage, R; Savov, P; Scanlan, M; Schediwy, S W; Schilling, R; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R; Schutz, B F; Schwinberg, P; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Searle, A C; Sears, B; Seifert, F; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sergeev, A; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Shoemaker, D H; Sibley, A; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Sinha, S; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Slutsky, J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Somiya, K; Sorazu, B; Stein, L C; Strain, K A; Stuver, A; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, K-X; Sung, M; Sutton, P J; Takahashi, H; Tanner, D B; Taylor, R; Taylor, R; Thacker, J; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thüring, A; Tokmakov, K V; Torres, C; Torrie, C; Traylor, G; Trias, M; Ugolini, D; Urbanek, K; Vahlbruch, H; Van Den Broeck, C; van der Sluys, M V; van Veggel, A A; Vass, S; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Veitch, J D; Veitch, P; Villar, A; Vorvick, C; Vyachanin, S P; Waldman, S J; Wallace, L; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wen, S; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, H R; Williams, L; Willke, B; Wilmut, I; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Woan, G; Wooley, R; Worden, J; Wu, W; Yakushin, I; Yamamoto, H; Yan, Z; Yoshida, S; Zanolin, M; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, C; Zotov, N; Zucker, M E; Zur Mühlen, H; Zweizig, J

    2009-03-20

    We report on an all-sky search with the LIGO detectors for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency range 50-1100 Hz and with the frequency's time derivative in the range -5 x 10{-9}-0 Hz s{-1}. Data from the first eight months of the fifth LIGO science run (S5) have been used in this search, which is based on a semicoherent method (PowerFlux) of summing strain power. Observing no evidence of periodic gravitational radiation, we report 95% confidence-level upper limits on radiation emitted by any unknown isolated rotating neutron stars within the search range. Strain limits below 10{-24} are obtained over a 200-Hz band, and the sensitivity improvement over previous searches increases the spatial volume sampled by an average factor of about 100 over the entire search band. For a neutron star with nominal equatorial ellipticity of 10{-6}, the search is sensitive to distances as great as 500 pc.

  6. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-01-01

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1–3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya (DM) spin–orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases. (paper)

  7. Topological magnon bands in ferromagnetic star lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-05-10

    The experimental observation of topological magnon bands and thermal Hall effect in a kagomé lattice ferromagnet Cu(1-3, bdc) has inspired the search for topological magnon effects in various insulating ferromagnets that lack an inversion center allowing a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) spin-orbit interaction. The star lattice (also known as the decorated honeycomb lattice) ferromagnet is an ideal candidate for this purpose because it is a variant of the kagomé lattice with additional links that connect the up-pointing and down-pointing triangles. This gives rise to twice the unit cell of the kagomé lattice, and hence more interesting topological magnon effects. In particular, the triangular bridges on the star lattice can be coupled either ferromagnetically or antiferromagnetically which is not possible on the kagomé lattice ferromagnets. Here, we study DM-induced topological magnon bands, chiral edge modes, and thermal magnon Hall effect on the star lattice ferromagnet in different parameter regimes. The star lattice can also be visualized as the parent material from which topological magnon bands can be realized for the kagomé and honeycomb lattices in some limiting cases.

  8. ESPRI: Astrometric planet search with PRIMA at the VLTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ségransan D.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The ESPRI consortium will conduct an astrometric survey for extrasolar planets, using the PRIMA facility at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. Our scientific goals include determining orbital inclinations and masses for planets already known from radial-velocity surveys, searches for planets around nearby stars of all masses, and around young stars. The consortium has built the PRIMA differential delay lines, developed an astrometric operation and calibration plan, and will deliver astrometric data reduction software.

  9. KNOW THE STAR, KNOW THE PLANET. II. SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY OF EXOPLANET HOST STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Raghavan, Deepak; Subasavage, John P.; Roberts, Lewis C.; Turner, Nils H.; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of the host stars to exoplanets is important for understanding their environment. To that end, we report new speckle observations of a sample of exoplanet host primaries. The bright exoplanet host HD 8673 (= HIP 6702) is revealed to have a companion, although at this time we cannot definitively establish the companion as physical or optical. The observing lists for planet searches and for these observations have for the most part been pre-screened for known duplicity, so the detected binary fraction is lower than what would otherwise be expected. Therefore, a large number of double stars were observed contemporaneously for verification and quality control purposes, to ensure that the lack of detection of companions for exoplanet hosts was valid. In these additional observations, 10 pairs are resolved for the first time and 60 pairs are confirmed. These observations were obtained with the USNO speckle camera on the NOAO 4 m telescopes at both KPNO and CTIO from 2001 to 2010.

  10. Television for Effective Parenthood; Literature Search and Existing Materials Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appalachia Educational Lab., Charleston, WV.

    Materials concerning parenthood education were assessed and classified as published research, audiovisual materials, and pamphlets and booklets. Eighty-nine items of related research were reviewed and listed in a bibliography. Content and technical quality of audiovisual materials from a national search were reviewed and evaluated based on…

  11. The TESS Input Catalog and Selection of Targets for the TESS Transit Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Paegert, Martin; Oelkers, Ryan; De Lee, Nathan Michael; Torres, Guillermo; TESS Target Selection Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The TESS mission will photometrically survey millions of the brightest stars over almost the entire the sky to detect transiting exoplanets. A key step to enable that search is the creation of the TESS Input Catalog (TIC), a compiled catalog of 700 million stars and galaxies with observed and calculated parameters. From the TIC we derive the Candidate Target List (CTL) to identify target stars for the 2-minute TESS postage stamps. The CTL is designed to identify the best stars for the detection of small planets, which includes all bright cool dwarf stars in the sky. I will describe the target selection strategy, the distribution of stars in the current CTL, and how both the TIC and CTL will expand and improve going forward.

  12. THE HERBIG BE STAR V1818 ORI AND ITS ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Hsin-Fang; Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Hillenbrand, Lynne, E-mail: hchiang@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The little-studied Herbig Be star V1818 Ori is located in the direction of the southern L1641 cloud and the Mon R2 star-forming complex, and is most likely associated with the latter at a distance of ∼900 pc. A high-resolution spectrum is consistent with a spectral type around B7 V, with lines of Hα, the red Ca ii triplet, and several forbidden lines in emission. An All Sky Automated Survey V-band light curve spanning 9 yr reveals major variability with deep absorption episodes reminiscent of the UX Orionis stars. We have searched for additional young stars clustering around V1818 Ori using grism images and the 2MASS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer catalogs, and have found almost two dozen fainter stars with evidence of youth. Direct images show that the bright star IRAS 05510–1025, only about 3 arcmin from V1818 Ori, is surrounded by a reflection nebula, indicating its association with a molecular cloud. A spectrum of the star shows no emission-lines, and it is found to be a close binary with late B and early G type components. Its radial velocity indicates that it is an interloper, accidentally passing through the cloud and not physically associated with V1818 Ori.

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, P E [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Avgeropoulos, A [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Freire, J J [Departamento de Ciencias y Tecnicas FisicoquImicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Facultad de Ciencias, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kosmas, M [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Vlahos, C [Department of Chemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina (Greece)

    2007-11-21

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, P. E.; Avgeropoulos, A.; Freire, J. J.; Kosmas, M.; Vlahos, C.

    2007-11-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of star/linear and star/star blends with chemically identical monomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theodorakis, P E; Avgeropoulos, A; Freire, J J; Kosmas, M; Vlahos, C

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chain size and architectural asymmetry on the miscibility of blends with chemically identical monomers, differing only in their molecular weight and architecture, are studied via Monte Carlo simulation by using the bond fluctuation model. Namely, we consider blends composed of linear/linear, star/linear and star/star chains. We found that linear/linear blends are more miscible than the corresponding star/star mixtures. In star/linear blends, the increase in the volume fraction of the star chains increases the miscibility. For both star/linear and star/star blends, the miscibility decreases with the increase in star functionality. When we increase the molecular weight of linear chains of star/linear mixtures the miscibility decreases. Our findings are compared with recent analytical and experimental results

  16. A Binary Nature of the Marginal CP Star Sigma Sculptoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janík, Jan; Krtička, Jiří; Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Zverko, Juraj; Pintado, Olga; Paunzen, Ernst; Prvák, Milan; Skalický, Jan; Zejda, Miloslav; Adam, Christian

    2018-05-01

    The A2 V star σ Scl was suspected of being a low-amplitude rotating variable of the Ap-type star by several authors. Aiming to decide whether the star is a variable chemically peculiar (CP) star, we searched for the photometric and spectroscopic variability, and determined chemical abundances of σ Scl. The possible variability was tested using several types of periodograms applied to the photometry from Long-Term Photometry of Variables project (LTPV) and Hipparcos. Sixty spectrograms of high signal-to-noise (S/N) were obtained and used for chemical analysis of the stellar atmosphere and for looking for spectral variability that is symptomatic for the CP stars. We did not find any signs of the light variability or prominent chemical peculiarity, that is specific for the CP stars. The only exception is the abundance of scandium, which is significantly lower than the solar one and yttrium and barium, which are strongly overabundant. As a by-product of the analysis, and with the addition of 29 further spectra, we found that σ Scl is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with orbital period of 46.877(8) d. We argue that σ Scl is not an Ap star, but rather a marginal Am star in SB1 system. The spectral energy distribution of the binary reveals infrared excess due to circumstellar material.

  17. Seismic Search for Strange Quark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitz, Vigdor

    2004-01-01

    Two decades ago, Witten suggested that the ground state of matter might be material of nuclear density made from up, down and strange quarks. Since then, much effort has gone into exploring astrophysical and other implications of this possibility. For example, neutron stars would almost certainly be strange quark stars; dark matter might be strange quark matter. Searches for stable strange quark matter have been made in various mass ranges, with negative, but not conclusive results. Recently, we [D. Anderson, E. Herrin, V. Teplitz, and I. Tibuleac, Bull. Seis. Soc. of Am. 93, 2363 (2003)] reported a positive result for passage through the Earth of a multi-ton "nugget" of nuclear density in a search of about a million seismic reports, to the U.S. Geological Survey for the years 1990-93, not associated with known Earthquakes. I will present the evidence (timing of first signals to the 9 stations involved, first signal directions, and unique waveform characteristics) for our conclusion and discuss potential improvements that could be obtained from exploiting the seismologically quieter environments of the moon and Mars.

  18. Extended Aperture Photometry of K2 RR Lyrae stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plachy Emese

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the method of the Extended Aperture Photometry (EAP that we applied on K2 RR Lyrae stars. Our aim is to minimize the instrumental variations of attitude control maneuvers by using apertures that cover the positional changes in the field of view thus contain the stars during the whole observation. We present example light curves that we compared to the light curves from the K2 Systematics Correction (K2SC pipeline applied on the automated Single Aperture Photometry (SAP and on the Pre-search Data Conditioning Simple Aperture Photometry (PDCSAP data.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Vatican Emission-line stars (Coyne+ 1974-1983)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, G. V.; Lee, T. A.; de Graeve, E.; Wisniewski, W.; Corbally, C.; Otten, L. B.; MacConnell, D. J.

    2009-10-01

    The survey represents a search for Hα emission-line stars, and was conducted with a 12{deg} objective prism on the Vatican Schmidt telescope. The Vatican Emission Stars (VES) survey covers the galactic plane (|b|II/246), IRAS point source catalog (II/125), MSX6C (V/114), CMC14 (I/304), GSC-2.3 (I/305), UCAC2 (I/289). Cross-identifications are also supplied with HD/BD/GCVS names, and with Dearborn catalog of red stars (II/68). Many of the stars in the first four papers are not early-type emission-line stars, but instead M giants, where the sharp TiO bandhead at 6544{AA} was mistaken for H-{alpha} emission on the objective-prism plates. Based on the revision of paper V and a later list prepared by Jack MacConnell, a column identifies the "non H-alpha" stars explicitly. The links with the Dearborn, IRAS, and MSX catalogues help identify the red stars. These and other identifications and comments are given in the remarks at the end of each line, or in longer notes in a separate file, indicated by an asterisk (*) next to the star number. (3 data files).

  20. Critical Assessment of Search Strategies in Systematic Reviews in Endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaylali, Ibrahim Ethem; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an overview of literature search strategies in systematic reviews (SRs) published in 2 endodontic journals, Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal. A search was done by using the MEDLINE (PubMed interface) database to retrieve the articles published between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2015. The last search was on January 10, 2016. All the SRs published in the 2 journals were retrieved and screened. Eligible SRs were assessed by using 11 questions about search strategies in the SRs that were adapted from 2 guidelines (ie, AMSTAR checklist and the Cochrane Handbook). A total of 83 SRs were retrieved by electronic search. Of these, 55 were from the Journal of Endodontics, and 28 were from the International Endodontic Journal. After screening, 2 SRs were excluded, and 81 SRs were included in the study. Some issues, such as search of grey literature and contact with study authors, were not fully reported (30% and 25%, respectively). On the other hand, some issues, such as the use of index terms and key words and search in at least 2 databases, were reported in most of the SRs (97% and 95%, respectively). The overall quality of the search strategy in both journals was 61%. No significant difference was found between the 2 journals in terms of evaluation criteria (P > .05). There exist areas for improving the quality of reporting of search strategies in SRs; for example, grey literature should be searched for unpublished studies, no language limitation should be applied to databases, and authors should make an attempt to contact the authors of included studies to obtain further relevant information. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Design of an On-Line Query Language for Full Text Patent Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Richard S.

    The design of an English-like query language and an interactive computer environment for searching the full text of the U.S. patent collection are discussed. Special attention is paid to achieving a transparent user interface, to providing extremely broad search capabilities (including nested substitution classes, Kleene star events, and domain…

  2. New High Proper Motion Stars from the Digitized Sky Survey. II. Northern Stars with 0.5" yr-1 < μ < 2.0" yr-1 at High Galactic Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Shara, Michael M.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-08-01

    In a continuation of our systematic search for high proper motion stars in the Digitized Sky Survey, we have completed the analysis of northern sky fields at Galactic latitudes above 25°. With the help of our SUPERBLINK software, a powerful automated blink comparator developed by us, we have identified 1146 stars in the magnitude range 8data mining of the Digitized Sky Survey, developed and operated by the Catalogs and Surveys Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore.

  3. On the Possibility of Habitable Trojan Planets in Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Bazsó, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 60% of all stars in the solar neighbourhood (up to 80% in our Milky Way) are members of binary or multiple star systems. This fact led to the speculations that many more planets may exist in binary systems than are currently known. To estimate the habitability of exoplanetary systems, we have to define the so-called habitable zone (HZ). The HZ is defined as a region around a star where a planet would receive enough radiation to maintain liquid water on its surface and to be able to build a stable atmosphere. We search for new dynamical configurations-where planets may stay in stable orbits-to increase the probability to find a planet like the Earth.

  4. Using photometrically selected metal-poor stars to study dwarf galaxies and the Galactic stellar halo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youakim, Kris; Starkenburg, Else; Martin, Nicolas; Pristine Team

    2018-06-01

    The Pristine survey is a narrow-band photometric survey designed to efficiently search for extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars. In the first three years of the survey, it has demonstrated great efficiency at finding EMP stars, and also great promise for increasing the current, small sample of the most metal-poor stars. The present sky coverage is ~2500 square degrees in the Northern Galactic Halo, including several individual fields targeting dwarf galaxies. By efficiently identifying member stars in the outskirts of known faint dwarf galaxies, the dynamical histories and chemical abundance patterns of these systems can be understood in greater detail. Additionally, with reliable photometric metallicities over a large sky coverage it is possible to perform a large scale clustering analysis in the Milky Way halo, and investigate the characteristic scale of substructure at different metallicities. This can reveal important details about the process of building up the halo through dwarf galaxy accretion, and offer insight into the connection between dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way halo. In this talk I will outline our results on the search for the most pristine stars, with a focus on how we are using this information to advance our understanding of dwarf galaxies and their contribution to the formation of the Galactic stellar halo.

  5. SEARCHING FOR SUB-KILOMETER TRANS-NEPTUNIAN OBJECTS USING PAN-STARRS VIDEO MODE LIGHT CURVES: PRELIMINARY STUDY AND EVALUATION USING ENGINEERING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.-H.; Protopapas, P.; Alcock, C. R.; Chen, W.-P.; Burgett, W. S.; Morgan, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Tonry, J. L.; Dombeck, T.; Grav, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present a pre-survey study of using the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) high sampling rate video mode guide star images to search for trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Guide stars are primarily used by Pan-STARRS to compensate for image motion and hence improve the point-spread function. With suitable selection of the guide stars within the Pan-STARRS 7 deg 2 field of view, the light curves of these guide stars can also be used to search for occultations by TNOs. The best target stars for this purpose are stars with high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and small angular size. In order to do this, we compiled a catalog using the S/N calculated from stars with m V 0 ), we are able to set an upper limit of N(>0.5 km) ∼ 2.47 x 10 10 deg -2 at 95% confidence limit.

  6. Case Study of Data Mining in Observational Astronomy: The Search for New OB Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Cormac; Vink, Jorick; Kalari, Venu; Groh, Jose

    2018-01-01

    OB stars are the most luminous and massive stars, living short lives and exerting a disproportionate influence on their environments. They are key to understanding progenitors of gravitational wave sources and reionization of the early Universe. To detect new OB stars, we combine photometric catalog data with TLUSTY and ATLAS9 stellar atmospheres. This method is also believed to be sensitive to elusive “stripped” stars, thought to lose their hydrogen envelope through binary interaction.OB stars are intrinsically luminous, so complete populations are assumed for local group galaxies such as the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our findings challenge this, as we find 26 new OB candidates. Spectroscopy of 7 candidates shows a 100% detection rate. Most interestingly, 5 of our candidates are consistent with “stripped” stars.To date only 5 “stripped” candidates have been found serendipitously (e.g. HD 45166) as current methods are not sensitive to them. Our work doubles the sample of detected candidates, highlighting that our approach is the first to identify them in a targeted, systematic way. The finding of “stripped” stars could rewrite our understanding of the early Universe, offering an alternative hypothesis to Wolf-Rayet driven cosmic reionization.

  7. Neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvine, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: introduction (resume of stellar evolution, gross characteristics of neutron stars); pulsars (pulsar characteristics, pulsars as neutron stars); neutron star temperatures (neutron star cooling, superfluidity and superconductivity in neutron stars); the exterior of neutron stars (the magnetosphere, the neutron star 'atmosphere', pulses); neutron star structure; neutron star equations of state. (U.K.)

  8. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  9. Neutron Stars in Supernova Remnants and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a concept of off-centred cavity supernova explosion as applied to neutron star/supernova remnant associations and show how this concept could be used to preclude the anti-humane decapitating the Duck (G5.4-1.2 + G5.27-0.9) and dismembering the Swan (Cygnus Loop), as well as to search for a stellar remnant associated with the supernova remnant RCW86.

  10. Asteroseismic modelling of the solar-type subgiant star β Hydri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandão, I.M.; Dogan, Gülnur; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Context. Comparing models and data of pulsating stars is a powerful way to understand the stellar structure better. Moreover, such comparisons are necessary to make improvements to the physics of the stellar models, since they do not yet perfectly represent either the interior or especially...... the surface layers of stars. Because β Hydri is an evolved solar-type pulsator with mixed modes in its frequency spectrum, it is very interesting for asteroseismic studies. Aims: The goal of the present work is to search for a representative model of the solar-type star β Hydri, based on up-to-date non...... frequencies of β Hydri: (i) we assume that the best model is the one that reproduces the star's interior based on the radial oscillation frequencies alone, to which we have applied the correction for the near-surface effects; (ii) we assume that the best model is the one that produces the lowest value...

  11. Activity in X-ray-selected late-type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takalo, L.O.; Nousek, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A spectroscopic study has been conducted of nine X-ray bright late-type stars selected from two Einstein X-ray surveys: the Columbia Astrophysical Laboratory Survey (five stars) and the CFA Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS; four stars). Spectral classes were determined and radial and V sin(i) velocities were measured for the stars. Four of the Columbia Survey stars were found to be new RS CVn-type binaries. The fifth Columbia survey star was found to be an active G dwarf star without evidence for binarity. None of the four MSS stars were found to be either binaries or optically active stars. Activity in these stars was assessed by measuring the excess emission in H-alpha and the Ca II IRT (8498, 8542) lines in comparison with inactive stars of similar spectral types. A correlation was found between X-ray luminosity and V sin(i) and H-alpha line excess. The measured excess line emission in H-alpha was also correlated with V sin(i) but not with the IRT line excess. 36 references

  12. Spectral differential imaging detection of planets about nearby stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Direct ground-based optical imaging of planets in orbit about nearby stars may be accomplished by spectral differential imaging using multiple passband acoustooptic filters with a CCD. This technique provides two essential results. First, it provides a means to modulate the stellar flux reflected from a planet while leaving the flux from the star and other sources in the same field of view unmodulated. Second, spectral differential imaging enables the CCD detector to achieve a sufficiently high dynamic range to locate planets near a star in spite of an integrated brightness differential of 5 x 10 8 . Spectral differential imaging at nearby diffraction limited imaging conditions with telescope apodization can reduce the time to conduct a sensitive planetary search to a few hours in some cases. The feasibility of this idea is discussed here and shown to provide, in principle, the discrimination and sensitivity to detect a Jovian-class planet about stars at distances of about 10 parsecs. The detection of brown dwarfs is shown to be feasible as well. 31 references

  13. Prevalence of Earth-size planets orbiting Sun-like stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petigura, Erik A; Howard, Andrew W; Marcy, Geoffrey W

    2013-11-26

    Determining whether Earth-like planets are common or rare looms as a touchstone in the question of life in the universe. We searched for Earth-size planets that cross in front of their host stars by examining the brightness measurements of 42,000 stars from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Kepler mission. We found 603 planets, including 10 that are Earth size ( ) and receive comparable levels of stellar energy to that of Earth (1 - 2 R[Symbol: see text] ). We account for Kepler's imperfect detectability of such planets by injecting synthetic planet-caused dimmings into the Kepler brightness measurements and recording the fraction detected. We find that 11 ± 4% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet receiving between one and four times the stellar intensity as Earth. We also find that the occurrence of Earth-size planets is constant with increasing orbital period (P), within equal intervals of logP up to ~200 d. Extrapolating, one finds 5.7(-2.2)(+1.7)% of Sun-like stars harbor an Earth-size planet with orbital periods of 200-400 d.

  14. Retired A Stars and Their Companions. III. Comparing the Mass-Period Distributions of Planets Around A-Type Stars and Sun-Like Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Brendan P.; Johnson, John Asher; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Henry, Gregory W.; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Fischer, Debra A.; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Liu, Michael C.; Reffert, Sabine; Schwab, Christian; Lowe, Thomas B.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of ~5 years of Lick Observatory radial velocity measurements targeting a uniform sample of 31 intermediate-mass (IM) subgiants (1.5 lsim M */M sunlsim 2.0) with the goal of measuring the occurrence rate of Jovian planets around (evolved) A-type stars and comparing the distributions of their orbital and physical characteristics to those of planets around Sun-like stars. We provide updated orbital solutions incorporating new radial velocity measurements for five known planet-hosting stars in our sample; uncertainties in the fitted parameters are assessed using a Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method. The frequency of Jovian planets interior to 3 AU is 26+9 -8%, which is significantly higher than the 5%-10% frequency observed around solar-mass stars. The median detection threshold for our sample includes minimum masses down to {0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1.3} M Jup within {0.1, 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 3.0} AU. To compare the properties of planets around IM stars to those around solar-mass stars we synthesize a population of planets based on the parametric relationship dN vprop M α P β dlnMdlnP, the observed planet frequency, and the detection limits we derived. We find that the values of α and β for planets around solar-type stars from Cumming et al. fail to reproduce the observed properties of planets in our sample at the 4σ level, even when accounting for the different planet occurrence rates. Thus, the properties of planets around A stars are markedly different than those around Sun-like stars, suggesting that only a small (~50%) increase in stellar mass has a large influence on the formation and orbital evolution of planets. Based on observations obtained at the Lick Observatory, which is operated by the University of California.

  15. HABITABLE ZONES AROUND MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS: NEW ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Ramirez, Ramses; Kasting, James F. [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, 443 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Eymet, Vincent [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, Universite de Bordeaux 1, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Robinson, Tyler D.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory (United States); Mahadevan, Suvrath; Terrien, Ryan C.; Deshpande, Rohit [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Identifying terrestrial planets in the habitable zones (HZs) of other stars is one of the primary goals of ongoing radial velocity (RV) and transit exoplanet surveys and proposed future space missions. Most current estimates of the boundaries of the HZ are based on one-dimensional (1D), cloud-free, climate model calculations by Kasting et al. However, this model used band models that were based on older HITRAN and HITEMP line-by-line databases. The inner edge of the HZ in the Kasting et al. model was determined by loss of water, and the outer edge was determined by the maximum greenhouse provided by a CO{sub 2} atmosphere. A conservative estimate for the width of the HZ from this model in our solar system is 0.95-1.67 AU. Here an updated 1D radiative-convective, cloud-free climate model is used to obtain new estimates for HZ widths around F, G, K, and M stars. New H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} absorption coefficients, derived from the HITRAN 2008 and HITEMP 2010 line-by-line databases, are important improvements to the climate model. According to the new model, the water-loss (inner HZ) and maximum greenhouse (outer HZ) limits for our solar system are at 0.99 and 1.70 AU, respectively, suggesting that the present Earth lies near the inner edge. Additional calculations are performed for stars with effective temperatures between 2600 and 7200 K, and the results are presented in parametric form, making them easy to apply to actual stars. The new model indicates that, near the inner edge of the HZ, there is no clear distinction between runaway greenhouse and water-loss limits for stars with T{sub eff} {approx}< 5000 K, which has implications for ongoing planet searches around K and M stars. To assess the potential habitability of extrasolar terrestrial planets, we propose using stellar flux incident on a planet rather than equilibrium temperature. This removes the dependence on planetary (Bond) albedo, which varies depending on the host star's spectral type. We suggest

  16. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II. The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G.S.; Harnden, F.R. Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars. 77 refs

  17. X-ray studies of coeval star samples. II - The Pleiades cluster as observed with the Einstein Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micela, G.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.; Rosner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Coronal X-ray emission of the Pleiades stars is investigated, and maximum likelihood, integral X-ray luminosity functions are computed for Pleiades members in selected color-index ranges. A detailed search is conducted for long-term variability in the X-ray emission of those stars observed more than once. An overall comparison of the survey results with those of previous surveys confirms the ubiquity of X-ray emission in the Pleiades cluster stars and its higher rate of emission with respect to older stars. It is found that the X-ray emission from dA and early dF stars cannot be proven to be dissimilar to that of Hyades and field stars of the same spectral type. The Pleiades cluster members show a real rise of the X-ray luminosity from dA stars to early dF stars. X-ray emission for the young, solarlike Pleiades stars is about two orders of magnitude more intense than for the nearby solarlike stars.

  18. A search for pre-main-sequence stars in high-latitude molecular clouds. 3: A survey of the Einstein database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillault, Jean-Pierre; Magnani, Loris; Fryer, Chris

    1995-01-01

    In order to discern whether the high-latitude molecular clouds are regions of ongoing star formation, we have used X-ray emission as a tracer of youthful stars. The entire Einstein database yields 18 images which overlap 10 of the clouds mapped partially or completely in the CO (1-0) transition, providing a total of approximately 6 deg squared of overlap. Five previously unidentified X-ray sources were detected: one has an optical counterpart which is a pre-main-sequence (PMS) star, and two have normal main-sequence stellar counterparts, while the other two are probably extragalactic sources. The PMS star is located in a high Galactic latitude Lynds dark cloud, so this result is not too suprising. The translucent clouds, though, have yet to reveal any evidence of star formation.

  19. Adaptive Optics Photometry and Astrometry of Binary Stars. III. A Faint Companion Search of O-Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Mason et al. (1998) survey. 3.3. 2MASS Data Mining Confirmations Searches were made for Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ) (Cutri et al. 2003...the separation/m limits of 2MASS , the point-source catalog was searched for sources in the magnitude range 5.5 J 8.0, corresponding to the...approximate 2MASS J -magnitude range for the AO targets in this project. This yielded 99,656 sources. All sources within 10′′ of these “primaries” were then

  20. Search for Post-merger Gravitational Waves from the Remnant of the Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bernuzzi, S.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Dietrich, T.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Flynn, E.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Phukon, K. S.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sarin, N.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Rana, J.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Sowell, E.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. D.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; (LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The first observation of a binary neutron star (NS) coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave (GW) detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiraling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole (BH) or an NS, with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a BH. Here, we present a search for GWs from the remnant of the binary NS merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short- (≲1 s) and intermediate-duration (≲500 s) signals, which include GW emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root sum square of the GW strain emitted from 1-4 kHz is {h}{rss}50 % =2.1× {10}-22 {{Hz}}-1/2 at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is {h}{rss}50 % =8.4× {10}-22 {{Hz}}-1/2 for a millisecond magnetar model, and {h}{rss}50 % =5.9× {10}-22 {{Hz}}-1/2 for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.

  1. Using Internet search behavior to assess public awareness of protected wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Yuno; Kim, Ji Yoon; Lineman, Maurice; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Joo, Gea-Jae

    2015-02-01

    Improving public awareness of protected wetlands facilitates sustainable wetland management, which depends on public participation. One way of gauging public interest is by tracking Internet search behavior (ISB). We assessed public awareness of issues related to protected wetland areas (PWAs) in South Korea by examining the frequencies of specific queries (PWAs, Ramsar, Upo wetland, Sunchon Bay, etc.) using relative search volumes (RSVs) obtained from an Internet search engine. RSV shows how many times a search term is used relative to a second search term during a specific period. Public awareness of PWAs changed from 2007 to 2013. Initially the majority of Internet searches were related to the most well-known tidal and inland wetlands Sunchon Bay and Upo wetlands, which are the largest existing wetlands in Korea with the greatest historical exposure. Public awareness, as reflected in RSVs, of wetlands increased significantly following PWA designation for the wetlands in 2008, which followed the Ramsar 10th Conference of Contracting Parties to the Convention on Wetlands (COP10) meeting. Public interest was strongly correlated to the number of news articles in the popular media, as evidenced by the increase in Internet searches for specific wetlands and words associated with specific wetlands. Correspondingly, the number of visitors to specific wetlands increased. To increase public interest in wetlands, wetland aspects that enhance wetland conservation should be promoted by the government and enhanced via public education. Our approach can be used to gauge public awareness and participation in a wide range of conservation efforts. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. VLA radio-continuum survey of a sample of confirmed and marginal barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.A.; Simon, T.; Linsky, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from a 6-cm VLA survey of five confirmed Ba II stars and eight mild Ba II stars, undertaken to search for evidence of gyrosynchrotron emission or thermal emission from the primary star's wind that is enhanced or photoionized by a white dwarf companion. Of these 13 stars, only Beta UMi was detected as a possible radio source at a flux level of 0.11 mJy (3sigma). The 6-cm radio luminosities (L6) of the other stars are as small as log L6 less than or equal to 14.0 and are an order of magnitude or more lower than the average levels found in RS CVn systems, but are consistent with the L6 upper limits previously found for stars of spectral type similar to the Ba II stars and normal elemental abundances. The upper limit to the radio luminosity for the possible mild Ba II star 56 Peg, when combined with its previously known X-ray luminosity, may provide useful constraints on the various models that have been proposed for this interesting object, once its orbital period is known. 28 references

  3. Simultaneous, multi-wavelength flare observations of nearby low-mass stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Beverly; Barclay, Thomas; Quintana, Elisa; Villadsen, Jacqueline; Wofford, Alia; Schlieder, Joshua; Boyd, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Low-mass stars are the most common stars in the Galaxy and have been targeted in the tens-of-thousands by K2, the re-purposed Kepler mission, as they are prime targets to search for and characterize small, Earth-like planets. Understanding how these fully convective stars drive magnetic activity that manifests as stochastic, short-term brightenings, or flares, provides insight into the prospects of planetary habitability. High energy radiation and energetic particle emission associated with these stars can erode atmospheres, and impact habitability. An innovative campaign to study low mass stars through simultaneous multi-wavelength observations is currently underway with observations ongoing in the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio. I will present early results of our pilot study of the nearby M-Dwarf star Wolf 359 (CN Leo) using K2, SWIFT, and ground based radio observatories, forming a comprehensive picture of flare activity from an M-Dwarf, and discuss the potential impact of these results on exoplanets. "This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program under Grant No. DGE1322106. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation."

  4. Gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.I.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the likely detectability of gravitational waves from freely precessing neutron stars. We begin by presenting a neutron star model of sufficient complexity to take into account both the elasticity and fluidity of a realistic neutron star. We then examine the effect of internal dissipation (i.e. heat generation within the star) and gravitational radiation reaction on the wobble. This is followed by an examination of various astrophysical scenarios where some mechanism might pump the precessional motion. We estimate the gravitational wave amplitude in these situations. Finally, we conclude that gravitational radiation from freely precessing neutron stars is almost certainly limited to a level undetectable by a LIGO II detector by internal dissipation. (author)

  5. New Hsub(α) emission stars in galactic dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Hsub(α) emission stars have been searched in galactic dark clouds. 110 Hsub(α) emission objects not published previously were detected with the 60/90/180 cm Schmidt telescope of Konkoly Observatory in two fields containing several dark clouds. The centres of these fields have the coordinates of at αsb(1950)=2sup(n)04sup(m, deltasub(1950)=+75 deg, and αsub(1950)=22sup(h)35sup(m), deltasub(1950)=+75 deg. Most of the emission stars appears to be located near the edges of the dark regions. Their appar red magnitudes are between 11sup(m) and 16sup(m)

  6. Assessment and Comparison of Search capabilities of Web-based Meta-Search Engines: A Checklist Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Isfandiyari Moghadam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available   The present investigation concerns evaluation, comparison and analysis of search options existing within web-based meta-search engines. 64 meta-search engines were identified. 19 meta-search engines that were free, accessible and compatible with the objectives of the present study were selected. An author’s constructed check list was used for data collection. Findings indicated that all meta-search engines studied used the AND operator, phrase search, number of results displayed setting, previous search query storage and help tutorials. Nevertheless, none of them demonstrated any search options for hypertext searching and displaying the size of the pages searched. 94.7% support features such as truncation, keywords in title and URL search and text summary display. The checklist used in the study could serve as a model for investigating search options in search engines, digital libraries and other internet search tools.

  7. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF SiO AND H2O MASERS TOWARD SYMBIOTIC STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Se-Hyung; Kim, Jaeheon

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of simultaneous observations of SiO v = 1, 2, J = 1-0, 29 SiO v = 0, J = 1-0, and H 2 O 6 16 -5 23 maser lines performed with the KVN Yonsei 21 m radio telescope from 2009 November to 2010 January. We searched for these masers in 47 symbiotic stars and detected maser emission from 21 stars, giving the first time detection from 19 stars. Both SiO and H 2 O masers were detected from seven stars of which six were D-type symbiotic stars and one was an S-type star, WRAY 15-1470. In the SiO maser emission, the 28 SiO v = 1 maser was detected from 10 stars, while the v = 2 maser was detected from 15 stars. In particular, the 28 SiO v = 2 maser emission without the v = 1 maser detection was detected from nine stars with a detection rate of 60%, which is much higher than that of isolated Miras/red giants. The 29 SiO v = 0 maser emission was also detected from two stars, H 2-38 and BF Cyg, together with the 28 SiO v = 2 maser. We conclude that these different observational results between isolated Miras/red giants and symbiotic stars may be related with the presence of hot companions in a symbiotic binary system.

  8. On the reconstruction of the surface structure of the spotted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.; Sakhibullin, N. A.

    2013-07-01

    We have developed and tested a light-curve inversion technique for photometric mapping of spotted stars. The surface of a spotted star is partitioned into small area elements, over which a search is carried out for the intensity distribution providing the best agreement between the observed and model light curves within a specified uncertainty. We have tested mapping techniques based on the use of both a single light curve and several light curves obtained in different photometric bands. Surface reconstruction artifacts due to the ill-posed nature of the problem have been identified.

  9. Assessing magnetic torques and energy fluxes in close-in star-planet systems

    OpenAIRE

    Strugarek, A

    2016-01-01

    Planets in close-in orbit interact with the magnetized wind of their hosting star. This magnetic interaction was proposed to be a source for enhanced emissions in the chromosphere of the star, and to participate in setting the migration time-scale of the close-in planet. The efficiency of the magnetic interaction is know to depend on the magnetic properties of the host star, of the planet, and on the magnetic topology of the interaction. We use a global, three-dimensional numerical model of c...

  10. Neutron Star Science with the NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, J. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR), launched in June 2012, helped scientists obtain for the first time a sensitive high-­energy X-­ray map of the sky with extraordinary resolution. This pioneering telescope has aided in the understanding of how stars explode and neutron stars are born. LLNL is a founding member of the NuSTAR project, with key personnel on its optics and science team. We used NuSTAR to observe and analyze the observations of different neutron star classes identified in the last decade that are still poorly understood. These studies not only help to comprehend newly discovered astrophysical phenomena and emission processes for members of the neutron star family, but also expand the utility of such observations for addressing broader questions in astrophysics and other physics disciplines. For example, neutron stars provide an excellent laboratory to study exotic and extreme phenomena, such as the equation of state of the densest matter known, the behavior of matter in extreme magnetic fields, and the effects of general relativity. At the same time, knowing their accurate populations has profound implications for understanding the life cycle of massive stars, star collapse, and overall galactic evolution.

  11. Variable stars in the Leo A dwarf galaxy (DDO 69)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoessel, John G.; Saha, A.; Krist, John; Danielson, G. Edward

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the Leo A dwarf galaxy, obtained over the period from 1980 to 1991 are reported. Forty two separate Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) frames were searched for variable stars. A total of 14 suspected variables were found, 9 had sufficient coverage for period determination, and 5 had Cepheid light curves. Four of these stars fit well on a P-L relation and yield a distance modulus, after correction for Galactic foreground extinction, of m-M = 26.74. This corresponds to a distance of 2.2 Mpc, placing Leo A near the Local Group zero-velocity surface.

  12. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF METAL-POOR STARS FROM LAMOST: EARLY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Hailong; Christlieb, Norbert; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui

    2015-01-01

    We report on early results from a pilot program searching for metal-poor stars with LAMOST and follow-up high-resolution observation acquired with the MIKE spectrograph attached to the Magellan II telescope. We performed detailed abundance analysis for eight objects with iron abundances [Fe/H] < -2.0, including five extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars with two having [Fe/H] < -3.5. Among these objects, three are newly discovered EMP stars, one of which is confirmed for the first time with high-resolution spectral observations. Three program stars are regarded as carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars, including two stars with no enhancement in their neutron-capture elements, which thus possibly belong to the class of CEMP-no stars; one of these objects also exhibits significant enhancement in nitrogen, and is thus a potential carbon and nitrogen-enhanced metal-poor star. The [X/Fe] ratios of the sample stars generally agree with those reported in the literature for other metal-poor stars in the same [Fe/H] range. We also compared the abundance patterns of individual program stars with the average abundance pattern of metal-poor stars and find only one chemically peculiar object with abundances of at least two elements (other than C and N) showing deviations larger than 0.5 dex. The distribution of [Sr/Ba] versus [Ba/H] agrees that an additional nucleosynthesis mechanism is needed aside from a single r-process. Two program stars with extremely low abundances of Sr and Ba support the prospect that both main and weak r-processes may have operated during the early phase of Galactic chemical evolution. The distribution of [C/N] shows that there are two groups of carbon-normal giants with different degrees of mixing. However, it is difficult to explain the observed behavior of the [C/N] of the nitrogen-enhanced unevolved stars based on current data

  13. STAR FORMATION IN 30 DORADUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchi, Guido; Spezzi, Loredana; Sirianni, Marco; Andersen, Morten; Paresce, Francesco; Panagia, Nino; Mutchler, Max; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Bond, Howard; Beccari, Giacomo; Balick, Bruce; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Marcella Carollo, C.; Disney, Michael J.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Using observations obtained with the Wide-Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have studied the properties of the stellar populations in the central regions of 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The observations clearly reveal the presence of considerable differential extinction across the field. We characterize and quantify this effect using young massive main-sequence stars to derive a statistical reddening correction for most objects in the field. We then search for pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars by looking for objects with a strong (>4σ) Hα excess emission and find about 1150 of them over the entire field. Comparison of their location in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram with theoretical PMS evolutionary tracks for the appropriate metallicity reveals that about one-third of these objects are younger than ∼4 Myr, compatible with the age of the massive stars in the central ionizing cluster R 136, whereas the rest have ages up to ∼30 Myr, with a median age of ∼12 Myr. This indicates that star formation has proceeded over an extended period of time, although we cannot discriminate between an extended episode and a series of short and frequent bursts that are not resolved in time. While the younger PMS population preferentially occupies the central regions of the cluster, older PMS objects are more uniformly distributed across the field and are remarkably few at the very center of the cluster. We attribute this latter effect to photo-evaporation of the older circumstellar disks caused by the massive ionizing members of R 136.

  14. Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process

  15. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Underhill, A.B.; Jordan, S.; Thomas, R.

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented

  16. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (Editor); Thomas, Richard (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  17. Four new planets around giant stars and the mass-metallicity correlation of planet-hosting stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. I.; Jenkins, J. S.; Brahm, R.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Olivares E., F.; Melo, C. H. F.; Rojo, P.; Jordán, A.; Drass, H.; Butler, R. P.; Wang, L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Exoplanet searches have revealed interesting correlations between the stellar properties and the occurrence rate of planets. In particular, different independent surveys have demonstrated that giant planets are preferentially found around metal-rich stars and that their fraction increases with the stellar mass. Aims: During the past six years we have conducted a radial velocity follow-up program of 166 giant stars to detect substellar companions and to characterize their orbital properties. Using this information, we aim to study the role of the stellar evolution in the orbital parameters of the companions and to unveil possible correlations between the stellar properties and the occurrence rate of giant planets. Methods: We took multi-epoch spectra using FEROS and CHIRON for all of our targets, from which we computed precision radial velocities and derived atmospheric and physical parameters. Additionally, velocities computed from UCLES spectra are presented here. By studying the periodic radial velocity signals, we detected the presence of several substellar companions. Results: We present four new planetary systems around the giant stars HIP 8541, HIP 74890, HIP 84056, and HIP 95124. Additionally, we study the correlation between the occurrence rate of giant planets with the stellar mass and metallicity of our targets. We find that giant planets are more frequent around metal-rich stars, reaching a peak in the detection of f = 16.7+15.5-5.9% around stars with [Fe/H] ~ 0.35 dex. Similarly, we observe a positive correlation of the planet occurrence rate with the stellar mass, between M⋆ ~ 1.0 and 2.1 M⊙, with a maximum of f = 13.0+10.1-4.2% at M⋆ = 2.1 M⊙. Conclusions: We conclude that giant planets are preferentially formed around metal-rich stars. In addition, we conclude that they are more efficiently formed around more massive stars, in the stellar mass range of ~1.0-2.1 M⊙. These observational results confirm previous findings for solar

  18. Chromospheres in metal deficient field stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupree, A.K.; Hartmann, L.; Smith, G.

    1984-01-01

    The chromospheric structure of red giant stars with metal deficient atmospheres presents a fundamental observational and theoretical problem for atmospheric theory. Moreover, the occurrence and rate of mass loss from these stars have consequences for the theory of stellar evolution of low mass stars in globular clusters. This paper reports some results from a systematic program to assess the presence and character of chromospheric line profiles and their variations, and to obtain quantitative measurements of radiative losses from chromospheres. Such data are needed to constrain semi-empirical models of these atmospheres. Three metal deficient field stars have been observed both in the ultraviolet and optical spectral regions: HD 165195, HD 110281, and HD 232078. High dispersion spectra near the Hα transition were obtained with the echelle spectrograph and reticon detector at the F.L. Whipple Observatory of SAO. These stars were observed twice in 1983, separated by a two month interval. IUE spectra were also obtained using the long wavelength cameras in low dispersion mode. Observations of the three stars are discussed

  19. A robust star identification algorithm with star shortlisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Deval Samirbhai; Chen, Shoushun; Low, Kay Soon

    2018-05-01

    A star tracker provides the most accurate attitude solution in terms of arc seconds compared to the other existing attitude sensors. When no prior attitude information is available, it operates in "Lost-In-Space (LIS)" mode. Star pattern recognition, also known as star identification algorithm, forms the most crucial part of a star tracker in the LIS mode. Recognition reliability and speed are the two most important parameters of a star pattern recognition technique. In this paper, a novel star identification algorithm with star ID shortlisting is proposed. Firstly, the star IDs are shortlisted based on worst-case patch mismatch, and later stars are identified in the image by an initial match confirmed with a running sequential angular match technique. The proposed idea is tested on 16,200 simulated star images having magnitude uncertainty, noise stars, positional deviation, and varying size of the field of view. The proposed idea is also benchmarked with the state-of-the-art star pattern recognition techniques. Finally, the real-time performance of the proposed technique is tested on the 3104 real star images captured by a star tracker SST-20S currently mounted on a satellite. The proposed technique can achieve an identification accuracy of 98% and takes only 8.2 ms for identification on real images. Simulation and real-time results depict that the proposed technique is highly robust and achieves a high speed of identification suitable for actual space applications.

  20. Core-Collapse Supernova Progenitors In The Era Of Untargeted Transient Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nathan Edward

    2014-04-01

    Core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are the highly energetic explosions of massive stars (≳ 8 M⊙) that are pervasive in their influence throughout astrophysics. They are the phenomenon with primary responsibility for enriching the universe with many of the heavy elements (like carbon and oxygen) that are needed for life, provide a critical feedback pressure which helps to shape the galaxies that host them, and are the likely formation mechanism for stellar mass black holes. In the past decade, the study of these explosions has been revolutionized by the advent of wide field, untargeted transient searches like Pan-STARRS1 (PS1). These new searches permit the discovery of SNe at unprecedented rates, and absent of many of the selection effects that have enforced biases on past, targeted transient searches. This thesis presents a broad survey of core-collapse SN phenomenology exhibited in the discoveries of untargeted searches, and statistically quantifies population properties of these explosions that link them to distinct classes of progenitor stars. Through studies of the host galaxy and explosion properties of extreme PS1-discovered events, and controlled samples of specific classes of core-collapse objects, we constrain the effect of progenitor star chemical composition (metallicity) on their eventual death states. We provide a new observational, photometric tool which lowers the cost of precisely and accurately measuring the metallicities of distant galaxies and supernova host environments. Moreover, we develop and apply a novel, multi-level Bayesian model for optical transient light curves which we apply to simultaneously interpret more than 20,000 PS1 images. This study illustrates how population-level modeling of data from large photometric surveys can yield improved physical inference on their progenitor stars through comparison to physical models. In the coming era, as next-generation facilities like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope come online, the

  1. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH) : IV. A survey of low-J H2O line profiles toward high-mass protostars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Chavarria, L.; Herpin, F.; Wyrowski, F.; Walmsley, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Benz, A. O.; Bergin, E. A.; Caselli, P.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Johnstone, D.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Nisini, B.; Tafalla, M.

    Context. Water is a key constituent of star-forming matter, but the origin of its line emission and absorption during high-mass star formation is not well understood. Aims. We study the velocity profiles of low-excitation H2O lines toward 19 high-mass star-forming regions and search for trends with

  2. Star-Branched Polymers (Star Polymers)

    KAUST Repository

    Hirao, Akira

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis of well-defined regular and asymmetric mixed arm (hereinafter miktoarm) star-branched polymers by the living anionic polymerization is reviewed in this chapter. In particular, much attention is being devoted to the synthetic development of miktoarm star polymers since 2000. At the present time, the almost all types of multiarmed and multicomponent miktoarm star polymers have become feasible by using recently developed iterative strategy. For example, the following well-defined stars have been successfully synthesized: 3-arm ABC, 4-arm ABCD, 5-arm ABCDE, 6-arm ABCDEF, 7-arm ABCDEFG, 6-arm ABC, 9-arm ABC, 12-arm ABC, 13-arm ABCD, 9-arm AB, 17-arm AB, 33-arm AB, 7-arm ABC, 15-arm ABCD, and 31-arm ABCDE miktoarm star polymers, most of which are quite new and difficult to synthesize by the end of the 1990s. Several new specialty functional star polymers composed of vinyl polymer segments and rigid rodlike poly(acetylene) arms, helical polypeptide, or helical poly(hexyl isocyanate) arms are introduced.

  3. A search for β Cephei variable stars in the Magellanic Clouds: motivation and first results for the LMC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterken, C.; Jerzykiewicz, M.

    1988-01-01

    Motivation for starting a programme of detecting and investigating β Cephei variables in the Magellanic Clouds is given. Differential photoelectric observations are then reported of six LMC stars which fall in the instability strip defined by the galactic β Cephei variables. Three programme stars are found to exhibit short-term brightness variations. One of them, showing a sinusoidal light-curve with an amplitude (half-range) equal to 0.0070 ± 0.0011 mag and a period equal to about 5 hr, is a promising β Cephei candidate. In the case of the other two variable programme stars, the interpretation of the results is less straightforward. The remaining three programme stars are shown to be constant on a short time-scale, two to within ± 0.010 mag, and one to within ± 0.005 magn. (author)

  4. Searching for Short GRBs in Soft Gamma Rays with INTEGRAL/PICsIT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodi, James; Bazzano, Angela; Ubertini, Pietro

    spectral information about these sources at soft gamma-ray energies.We have begun a study of PICsIT data for faint SGRB ssimilar to the one associated with the binary neutron star (BNS) merger GW170817, and also are preparing for future GW triggers by developing a realtime burst analysis for PICs......IT. Searching the PICsIT data for significant excesses during ~30 min-long pointings containing times of SGRBs, we have been able to differentiate between SGRBs and spurious events. Also, this work allows us to assess what fraction of reported SGRBs have been detected by PICsIT, which can be used to provide...

  5. The Ĝ Infrared Search for Extraterrestrial Civilizations with Large Energy Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason Thomas; Povich, Matthew; Griffith, Roger; Maldonado, Jessica; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Star Cartier, Kimberly

    2015-08-01

    The WISE and Spitzer large-area surveys of the mid-infrared sky bring a new opportunity to search for evidence of the energy supplies of very large extraterrestrial civilizations. If these energy supplies rival the output of a civilization's parent star (Kardashev Type II), or if a galaxy-spanning supercivilization's use rivals that of the total galactic luminosity (Type III), they would be detectable as anomolously mid-infrared-bright stars and galaxies, respectively. We have already performed the first search for this emission from Type III civilizations using the WISE all-sky survey, and put the first upper limits on them in the local universe, and discuss ways to improve on these limits. We also discuss some detectable forms of and limits on Type II civilizations in the Mliky Way.

  6. Variable Stars in the M31 Dwarf Spheroidal Companion Cassiopeia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritzl, Barton J.; Armandroff, T. E.; Jacoby, G. H.; Da Costa, G. S.

    2007-12-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies show very diverse star formation histories. For the Galactic dwarf spheroidal galaxies, a correlation exists between Galactocentric distance and the prominence of intermediate-age ( 2 - 10 Gyr) populations. To test whether this correlation exists for the M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies, we observed the Cassiopeia (And VII) dwarf galaxy, which is one of the most distant M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies. We will present the results of a variable star search using HST/ACS data, along with a preliminary color-magnitude diagram. From the RR Lyrae stars we can obtain an independent distance and metallicity estimate for the dwarf galaxy. These results will be compared to those found for the other M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxies.This research is supported in part by NASA through grant number GO-11081.11 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  7. A detailed study of lithium in 107 CHEPS dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Jenkins, J. S.; Ivanyuk, O. M.; Jones, H. R. A.; Kaminsky, B. M.; Lyubchik, Yu. P.; Yakovina, L. A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. We report results from lithium abundance determinations using high resolution spectral analysis of the 107 metal-rich stars from the Calan-Hertfordshire Extrasolar Planet Search programme. Aims: We aim to set out to understand the lithium distribution of the population of stars taken from this survey. Methods: The lithium abundance taking account of non-local thermodynamical equilibrium effects was determined from the fits to the Li I 6708 Å resonance doublet profiles in the observed spectra. Results: We find that a) fast rotators tend to have higher lithium abundances; b) log N(Li) is higher in more massive and hot stars; c) log N(Li) is higher in stars of lower log g; d) stars with the metallicities >0.25 dex do not show the lithium lines in their spectra; e) most of our planet hosts rotate slower; and f) a lower limit of lithium isotopic ratio is 7Li/6Li > 10 in the atmospheres of two stars with planets (SWP) and two non-SWP stars. Conclusions: Measurable lithium abundances were found in the atmospheres of 45 stars located at distances of 20-170 pc from the Sun, for the other 62 stars the upper limits of log N(Li) were computed. We found well defined dependences of lithium abundances on Teff, V sin i, and less pronounced for the log g. In case of V sin i we see two sequences of stars: with measurable lithium and with the upper limit of log N(Li). About 10% of our targets are known to host planets. Only two SWP have notable lithium abundances, so we found a lower proportion of stars with detectable Li among known planet hosts than among stars without planets. However, given the small sample size of our planet-host sample, our analysis does not show any statistically significant differences in the lithium abundance between SWP and stars without known planets.

  8. A comparison of two search methods for determining the scope of systematic reviews and health technology assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsetlund, Louise; Kirkehei, Ingvild; Harboe, Ingrid; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to compare two different search methods for determining the scope of a requested systematic review or health technology assessment. The first method (called the Direct Search Method) included performing direct searches in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and the Health Technology Assessments (HTA). Using the comparison method (called the NHS Search Engine) we performed searches by means of the search engine of the British National Health Service, NHS Evidence. We used an adapted cross-over design with a random allocation of fifty-five requests for systematic reviews. The main analyses were based on repeated measurements adjusted for the order in which the searches were conducted. The Direct Search Method generated on average fewer hits (48 percent [95 percent confidence interval {CI} 6 percent to 72 percent], had a higher precision (0.22 [95 percent CI, 0.13 to 0.30]) and more unique hits than when searching by means of the NHS Search Engine (50 percent [95 percent CI, 7 percent to 110 percent]). On the other hand, the Direct Search Method took longer (14.58 minutes [95 percent CI, 7.20 to 21.97]) and was perceived as somewhat less user-friendly than the NHS Search Engine (-0.60 [95 percent CI, -1.11 to -0.09]). Although the Direct Search Method had some drawbacks such as being more time-consuming and less user-friendly, it generated more unique hits than the NHS Search Engine, retrieved on average fewer references and fewer irrelevant results.

  9. Statistical investigation of flare stars. III. Flare stars in the general galactic star field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, L.V.; Ambaryan, V.V.; Garibdzhanyan, A.T.; Mirzoyan, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Some questions relating to the existence of a large number of flare stars in the general star field of the Galaxy are discussed. It is shown that only a small proportion of them can be found by photographic observations, and the fraction of field flare stars among such stars found in the regions of star clusters and associations does not exceed 10%. The ratio of the numbers of flare stars of the foreground and the background for a particular system depends on its distance, reaching zero at a distance of about 500 pc. The spatial density of flare stars in the Pleiades is at least two orders of magnitude greater than in the general galactic field. A lower limit for the number of flare stars in the Galaxy is estimated at 4.2 ·10 9 , and the number of nonflare red dwarfs at 2.1·10 10 . There are grounds for believing that they were all formed in star clusters and associations

  10. Neutron star/red giant encounters in globular clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    The author presents a simple expression for the amount by which xsub(crit) is diminished as a star evolves xsub(crit) Rsub(crit)/R*, where Rsub(crit) is the maximum distance of closest approach between two stars for which the tidal energy is sufficient to bind the system, and R* is the radius of the star on which tides are being raised. Also it is concluded that tidal capture of giants by neutron stars resulting in binary systems is unlikely in globular clusters. However, collisions between neutron stars and red giants, or an alternative process involving tidal capture of a main-sequence star into an initially detached binary system, may result either in rapidly rotating neutron stars or in white dwarf/neutron star binaries. (author)

  11. Symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyarchuk, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    There are some arguments that the symbiotic stars are binary, where one component is a red giant and the other component is a small hot star which is exciting a nebula. The symbiotic stars belong to the old disc population. Probably, symbiotic stars are just such an evolutionary stage for double stars as planetary nebulae for single stars. (Auth.)

  12. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs

  13. First results from the LIFE project: discovery of two magnetic hot evolved stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Neiner, C.; Oksala, M. E.; Wade, G. A.; Keszthelyi, Z.; Fossati, L.; Marcolino, W.; Mathis, S.; Georgy, C.

    2018-04-01

    We present the initial results of the Large Impact of magnetic Fields on the Evolution of hot stars (LIFE) project. The focus of this project is the search for magnetic fields in evolved OBA giants and supergiants with visual magnitudes between 4 and 8, with the aim to investigate how the magnetic fields observed in upper main-sequence (MS) stars evolve from the MS until the late post-MS stages. In this paper, we present spectropolarimetric observations of 15 stars observed using the ESPaDOnS instrument of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. For each star, we have determined the fundamental parameters and have used stellar evolution models to calculate their mass, age, and radius. Using the least-squared deconvolution technique, we have produced averaged line profiles for each star. From these profiles, we have measured the longitudinal magnetic field strength and have calculated the detection probability. We report the detection of magnetic fields in two stars of our sample: a weak field of Bl = 1.0 ± 0.2 G is detected in the post-MS A5 star 19 Aur and a stronger field of Bl = -230 ± 10 G is detected in the MS/post-MS B8/9 star HR 3042.

  14. Kinematic and spatial distributions of barium stars - are the barium stars and Am stars related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of an evolutionary link between Am stars and barium stars is considered, and an examination of previous data suggests that barium star precursors are main-sequence stars of intermediate mass, are most likely A and/or F dwarfs, and are intermediate-mass binaries with close to intermediate orbital separations. The possible role of mass transfer in the later development of Am systems is explored. Mass transfer and loss from systems with a range of masses and orbital separations may explain such statistical peculiarities of barium stars as the large dispersion in absolute magnitude, the large range of elemental abundances from star to star, and the small number of stars with large peculiar velocities. 93 refs

  15. Star Tracker Performance Estimate with IMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Swank, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A software tool for estimating cross-boresight error of a star tracker combined with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was developed to support trade studies for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication project (iROC) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center. Typical laser communication systems, such as the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) and the Laser Communication Relay Demonstration (LCRD), use a beacon to locate ground stations. iROC is investigating the use of beaconless precision laser pointing to enable laser communication at Mars orbits and beyond. Precision attitude knowledge is essential to the iROC mission to enable high-speed steering of the optical link. The preliminary concept to achieve this precision attitude knowledge is to use star trackers combined with an IMU. The Star Tracker Accuracy (STAcc) software was developed to rapidly assess the capabilities of star tracker and IMU configurations. STAcc determines the overall cross-boresight error of a star tracker with an IMU given the characteristic parameters: quantum efficiency, aperture, apparent star magnitude, exposure time, field of view, photon spread, detector pixels, spacecraft slew rate, maximum stars used for quaternion estimation, and IMU angular random walk. This paper discusses the supporting theory used to construct STAcc, verification of the program and sample results.

  16. Mapping the Tidal Destruction of the Hercules Dwarf: A Wide-field DECam Imaging Search for RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garling, Christopher; Willman, Beth; Sand, David J.; Hargis, Jonathan; Crnojević, Denija; Bechtol, Keith; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Strader, Jay; Zou, Hu; Zhou, Xu; Nie, Jundan; Zhang, Tianmeng; Zhou, Zhimin; Peng, Xiyan

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the hypothesized tidal disruption of the Hercules ultra-faint dwarf galaxy (UFD). Previous tidal disruption studies of the Hercules UFD have been hindered by the high degree of foreground contamination in the direction of the dwarf. We bypass this issue by using RR Lyrae stars, which are standard candles with a very low field-volume density at the distance of Hercules. We use wide-field imaging from the Dark Energy Camera on CTIO to identify candidate RR Lyrae stars, supplemented with observations taken in coordination with the Beijing–Arizona Sky Survey on the Bok Telescope. Combining color, magnitude, and light-curve information, we identify three new RR Lyrae stars associated with Hercules. All three of these new RR Lyrae stars lie outside its published tidal radius. When considered with the nine RR Lyrae stars already known within the tidal radius, these results suggest that a substantial fraction of Hercules’ stellar content has been stripped. With this degree of tidal disruption, Hercules is an interesting case between a visibly disrupted dwarf (such as the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy) and one in dynamic equilibrium. The degree of disruption also shows that we must be more careful with the ways we determine object membership when estimating dwarf masses in the future. One of the three discovered RR Lyrae stars sits along the minor axis of Hercules, but over two tidal radii away. This type of debris is consistent with recent models that suggest Hercules’ orbit is aligned with its minor axis.

  17. Binarity and Variable Stars in the Open Cluster NGC 2126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehlaeh, Nareemas; Mkrtichian, David; Kim, Seung-Lee; Lampens, Patricia; Komonjinda, Siramas; Kusakin, Anatoly; Glazunova, Ljudmila

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of an analysis of photometric time-series observations for NGC 2126 acquired at the Thai National Observatory (TNO) in Thailand and the Mount Lemmon Optical Astronomy Observatory (LOAO) in USA during the years 2004, 2013 and 2015. The main purpose is to search for new variable stars and to study the light curves of binary systems as well as the oscillation spectra of pulsating stars. NGC 2126 is an intermediate-age open cluster which has a population of stars inside the δ Scuti instability strip. Several variable stars are reported including three eclipsing binary stars, one of which is an eclipsing binary star with a pulsating component (V551 Aur). The Wilson-Devinney technique was used to analyze its light curves and to determine a new set of the system’s parameters. A frequency analysis of the eclipse-subtracted light curve was also performed. Eclipsing binaries which are members of open clusters are capable of delivering strong constraints on the cluster’s properties which are in turn useful for a pulsational analysis of their pulsating components. Therefore, high-resolution, high-quality spectra will be needed to derive accurate component radial velocities of the faint eclipsing binaries which are located in the field of NGC 2126. The new Devasthal Optical Telescope, suitably equipped, could in principle do this.

  18. Amplitude modulation in δ Sct stars: statistics from an ensemble of Kepler targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Breger, Michel; Murphy, Simon J.; Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-10-01

    The results of a search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes in 983 δ Sct stars, which have effective temperatures between 6400 ⩽ Teff ⩽ 10 000 K in the Kepler Input Catalogue and were continuously observed by the Kepler Space Telescope for 4 yr, are presented. A total of 603 δ Sct stars (61.3 per cent) are found to exhibit at least one pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude over 4 yr. Furthermore, it is found that amplitude modulation is not restricted to a specific region within the classical instability strip in the HR diagram, therefore its cause is not necessarily dependent on stellar parameters such as Teff or log g. On the other hand, many δ Sct stars show constant pulsation amplitudes demonstrating that the cause of pulsational non-linearity in these stars is not well understood.

  19. Absolute Nuv magnitudes of Gaia DR1 astrometric stars and a search for hot companions in nearby systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    Accurate parallaxes from Gaia DR1 (TGAS) are combined with GALEX visual Nuv magnitudes to produce absolute Mnuv magnitudes and an ultraviolet HR diagram for a large sample of astrometric stars. A functional fit is derived of the lower envelope main sequence of the nearest 1403 stars (distance Pleiades, or, most likely, tight interacting binaries of the BY Dra-type. A separate collection of 40 stars with precise trigonometric parallaxes and Nuv-G colors bluer than 2 mag is presented. It includes several known novae, white dwarfs, and binaries with hot subdwarf (sdOB) components, but most remain unexplored.

  20. Ensemble Asteroseismology of Solar-Type Stars with the NASA Kepler Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaplin, William J.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its search for extrasolar planets, the NASA Kepler mission provides exquisite data on stellar oscillations. We report the detections of oscillations in 500 solar-type stars in the Kepler field of view, an ensemble that is large enough to allow statistical studies of intrinsic stellar...

  1. Ensemble asteroseismology of solar-type stars with the NASA Kepler mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaplin, W.J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Basu, S.; Miglio, A.; Appourchaux, T.; Bedding, T.R.; Elsworth, Y.; Garcia, R.A.; Gilliland, R.L.; Girardi, L.; Houdek, G.; Karoff, C.; Kawaler, S.D.; Metcalfe, T.S.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J.; Monteiro, M.J.P.F.G.; Thompson, M.J.; Verner, G.A.; Ballot, J.; Bonanno, A.; Brandao, I.M.; Broomhall, A.M.; Bruntt, H.; Campante, T.L.; Corsaro, E.; Creevey, O.L.; Esch, L.; Gai, N.; Gaulme, P.; Hale, S.J.; Handberg, R.; Hekker, S.; Huber, D.; Jimenez, A.; Mathur, S.; Mazumdar, A.; Mosser, B.; New, R.; Pinsonneault, M.H.; Pricopi, D.; Quirion, P.O.; Regulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Serenelli, A.M.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Sousa, S.G.; Stello, D.; Stevens, I.R.; Suran, M.D.; Uytterhoeven, K.; White, T.R.; Borucki, W.J.; Brown, T.M.; Jenkins, J.M.; Kinemuchi, K.; Van Cleve, J.; Klaus, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its search for extrasolar planets, the NASA Kepler mission provides exquisite data on stellar oscillations. We report the detections of oscillations in 500 solar-type stars in the Kepler field of view, an ensemble that is large enough to allow statistical studies of intrinsic stellar

  2. The HARPS-N Rocky Planet Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Motalebi, F.; Udry, S.; Gillon, M.

    2015-01-01

    We know now from radial velocity surveys and transit space missions that planets only a few times more massive than our Earth are frequent around solar-type stars. Fundamental questions about their formation history, physical properties, internal structure, and atmosphere composition are, however......, still to be solved. We present here the detection of a system of four low-mass planets around the bright (V = 5.5) and close-by (6.5 pc) star HD 219134. This is the first result of the Rocky Planet Search programme with HARPS-N on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo in La Palma. The inner planet orbits...... on a close-in, quasi-circular orbit with a period of 6.767 ± 0.004 days. The third planet in the system has a period of 46.66 ± 0.08 days and a minimum-mass of 8.94 ± 1.13 M⊕, at 0.233 ± 0.002 AU from the star. Its eccentricity is 0.46 ± 0.11. The period of this planet is close to the rotational period...

  3. Optical photometry and spectroscopy for five dwarf M stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, J.G.; Byrne, P.B.; Menzies, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    A search for flaring and BY Dra (spotted) variations on five M-dwarf stars, Gliese 1, 461, 825, 899 and 908 is reported. The results for Gl 461 and 825 are compared with predictions of activity levels based on the measured quiescent X-ray flux. The chromospheric radiative loss rate in the Ca H and K lines are determined for Gl 461.

  4. MEASURING GALAXY STAR FORMATION RATES FROM INTEGRATED PHOTOMETRY: INSIGHTS FROM COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAMS OF RESOLVED STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benjamin D. [Institute d' Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UPMC, 98bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Johnson, L. C.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Lee, Janice C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Boquien, Mederic [Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)

    2013-07-20

    We use empirical star formation histories (SFHs), measured from Hubble-Space-Telescope-based resolved star color-magnitude diagrams, as input into population synthesis codes to model the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 50 nearby dwarf galaxies (6.5 < log M{sub *}/M{sub Sun} < 8.5, with metallicities {approx}10% solar). In the presence of realistic SFHs, we compare the modeled and observed SEDs from the ultraviolet (UV) through near-infrared and assess the reliability of widely used UV-based star formation rate (SFR) indicators. In the FUV through i bands, we find that the observed and modeled SEDs are in excellent agreement. In the Spitzer 3.6 {mu}m and 4.5 {mu}m bands, we find that modeled SEDs systematically overpredict observed luminosities by up to {approx}0.2 dex, depending on treatment of the TP-AGB stars in the synthesis models. We assess the reliability of UV luminosity as a SFR indicator, in light of independently constrained SFHs. We find that fluctuations in the SFHs alone can cause factor of {approx}2 variations in the UV luminosities relative to the assumption of a constant SFH over the past 100 Myr. These variations are not strongly correlated with UV-optical colors, implying that correcting UV-based SFRs for the effects of realistic SFHs is difficult using only the broadband SED. Additionally, for this diverse sample of galaxies, we find that stars older than 100 Myr can contribute from <5%-100% of the present day UV luminosity, highlighting the challenges in defining a characteristic star formation timescale associated with UV emission. We do find a relationship between UV emission timescale and broadband UV-optical color, though it is different than predictions based on exponentially declining SFH models. Our findings have significant implications for the comparison of UV-based SFRs across low-metallicity populations with diverse SFHs.

  5. Massive stars dying alone: Extremely remote environments of SN2009ip and SN2010jp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan

    2014-10-01

    We propose an imaging study of the astonishingly remote environments of two recent supernovae (SNe): SN2009ip and SN2010jp. Both were unusual Type IIn explosions that crashed into dense circumstellar material (CSM) ejected by the star shortly before explosion. The favored progenitors of these SNe are very massive luminous blue variable (LBV) stars. In fact, SN2009ip presents an extraordinay case where the LBV-like progenitor was actually detected directly in archival HST data, and where we obtained spectra and photometry for numerous pre-SN eruptions. No other SN has this treasure trove of detailed information about the progenitor (not even SN1987A). SN2010jp represents a possible collapsar-powered event, since it showed evidence of a fast bipolar jet in spectra and a low 56Ni mass; this would be an analog of the black-hole forming explosions that cause gamma ray bursts, but where the relativistic jet is damped by a residual H envelope on the star. In both cases, the only viable models for these SNe involve extremely massive (initial masses of 40-100 Msun) progenitor stars. This seems at odds with their extremely remote environments in the far outskirts of their host galaxies, with no detected evidence for an underlying massive star population in ground-based data (nor in the single shallow WFPC2/F606W image of SN2009ip). Here we propose deep UV HST images to search for any mid/late O-type stars nearby, deep red images to detect any red supergiants, and an H-alpha image to search for any evidence of ongoing star formation in the vicinity. These observations will place important and demanding constraints on the initial masses and ages of these progenitors.

  6. A Search for Rapidly Pulsating Hot Subdwarf Stars in the GALEX Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Thomas M.; Barlow, Brad N.; Soto, Alan Vasquez [Department of Physics, High Point University, One University Parkway, High Point, NC 27268 (United States); Fleming, Scott W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Million, Chase [Million Concepts LLC, P.O. Box 119, 141 Mary Street, Lemont, PA 16851 (United States); Reichart, Dan E.; Haislip, Josh B.; Moore, Justin P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Linder, Tyler R. [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, 600 Lincoln Avenue, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ) provided near- and far-UV observations for approximately 77% of the sky over a 10-year period; however, the data reduction pipeline initially only released single NUV and FUV images to the community. The recently released Python module gPhoton changes this, allowing calibrated time-series aperture photometry to be extracted easily from the raw GALEX data set. Here we use gPhoton to generate light curves for all hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars that were observed by GALEX , with the intention of identifying short-period, p-mode pulsations. We find that the spacecraft’s short visit durations, uneven gaps between visits, and dither pattern make the detection of hot subdwarf pulsations difficult. Nonetheless, we detect UV variations in four previously known pulsating targets and report their UV pulsation amplitudes and frequencies. Additionally, we find that several other sdB targets not previously known to vary show promising signals in their periodograms. Using optical follow-up photometry with the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network, we confirm p-mode pulsations in one of these targets, LAMOST J082517.99+113106.3, and report it as the most recent addition to the sdBV{sub r} class of variable stars.

  7. Simulating the Birth of Massive Star Clusters: Is Destruction Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Very early in its operation, the Hubble Space Telescope {HST} opened an entirely new frontier: study of the demographics and properties of star clusters far beyond the Milky Way. However, interpretation of HST's observations has proven difficult, and has led to the development of two conflicting models. One view is that most massive star clusters are disrupted during their infancy by feedback from newly formed stars {i.e., "infant mortality"}, independent of cluster mass or environment. The other model is that most star clusters survive their infancy and are disrupted later by mass-dependent dynamical processes. Since observations at present have failed to discriminate between these views, we propose a theoretical investigation to provide new insight. We will perform radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive star clusters, including for the first time a realistic treatment of the most important stellar feedback processes. These simulations will elucidate the physics of stellar feedback, and allow us to determine whether cluster disruption is mass-dependent or -independent. We will also use our simulations to search for observational diagnostics that can distinguish bound from unbound clusters, and to predict how cluster disruption affects the cluster luminosity function in a variety of galactic environments.

  8. The Breakthrough Listen Search for Intelligent Life: the first SETI results and other future science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, J. Emilio; Breakthrough Listen Team

    2018-01-01

    The Breakthrough Listen (BL) Initiative is the largest campaign in human history on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. The work presented here is the first BL search for engineered signals. This comprises a sample of 692 nearby stars within 50 pc. We used the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to conduct observations over 1.1-1.9 GHz (L-band). Our observing strategy allows us to reject most of the detected signals as terrestrial interference. During the analysis, eleven stars show events that passed our thresholding algorithm, but detailed analysis of their properties indicates they are consistent with known examples of anthropogenic radio frequency interference. This small number of false positives and their understood properties give confidence on the techniques used for this search. We conclude that, at the time of our observations none of the observed systems host high-duty-cycle radio transmitters emitting at the observed frequencies with an EIRP of 10^13 W, readily achievable by our own civilization.We can place limits on the presence of engineered signals from putative extraterrestrial civilizations inhabiting the environs of the target stars. Our results suggest that fewer than ~0.1% of the stellar systems within 50 pc possess the type of transmitters searched in this survey. This work provides the most stringent limit on the number of low power radio transmitters around nearby stars to date. We explored several metics to compare our results to previous SETI efforts. We developed a new figure-of-merit that can encompass a wider set of parameters and can be used on future SETI experiments for a meaningful comparison.We note that the current BL state-of-the-art digital backend installed at the Green Bank Observatory is the fastest ever used for a SETI experiment by a factor of a few. Here we will describe the potential use of the BL backend by other groups on complementary science, as well as a mention the ongoing and potential collaborations focused in

  9. New Mexico Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Mexico's Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  10. How star women build portable skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris

    2008-02-01

    In May 2004, with the war for talent in high gear, Groysberg and colleagues from Harvard Business School wrote in these pages about the risks of hiring star performers away from competitors. After studying the fortunes of more than 1,000 star stock analysts, they found that when a star switched companies, not only did his performance plunge, so did the effectiveness of the group he joined and the market value of his new company. But further analysis of the data reveals that it's not that simple. In fact, one group of analysts reliably maintained star rankings even after changing employers: women. Unlike their male counterparts, female stars who switched firms performed just as well, in the aggregate, as those who stayed put. The 189 star women in the sample (18% of the star analysts studied) achieved a higher rank after switching firms than the men did. Why the discrepancy? First, says the author, the best female analysts appear to have built their franchises on portable, external relationships with clients and the companies they covered, rather than on relationships rooted within their firms. By contrast, male analysts built up greater firm- and team-specific human capital by investing more in the internal networks and unique capabilities and resources of their own companies. Second, women took greater care when assessing a prospective new employer. In this article, Groysberg explores the reasons behind the star women's portable performance.

  11. Prototype pipeline to search for variable stars in the Ondfejov D50 archive

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, F.; Jelínek, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 133-136 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : variable stars * photometry * D50 telescope Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  12. The Productivity of Oxygenic Photosynthesis around Cool, M Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmer, Owen R.; Catling, David C.; Parenteau, Mary N.; Hoehler, Tori M.

    2018-06-01

    In the search for life around cool stars, the presence of atmospheric oxygen is a prominent biosignature, as it may indicate oxygenic photosynthesis (OP) on the planetary surface. On Earth, most oxygenic photosynthesizing organisms (OPOs) use photons between 400 and 750 nm, which have sufficient energy to drive the photosynthetic reaction that generates O2 from H2O and CO2. OPOs around cool stars may evolve similar biological machinery capable of producing oxygen from water. However, in the habitable zones (HZs) of the coolest M dwarf stars, the flux of 400–750 nm photons may be just a few percent that of Earth’s. We show that the reduced flux of 400–750 nm photons around M dwarf stars could result in Earth-like planets being growth limited by light, unlike the terrestrial biosphere, which is limited by nutrient availability. We consider stars with photospheric temperatures between 2300 and 4200 K and show that such light-limited worlds could occur at the outer edge of the HZ around TRAPPIST-1-like stars. We find that even if OP can use photons longer than 750 nm, there would still be insufficient energy to sustain the Earth’s extant biosphere throughout the HZ of the coolest stars. This is because such stars emit largely in the infrared and near-infrared, which provide sufficient energy to make the planet habitable, but limits the energy available for OP. TRAPPIST-1f and g may fall into this category. Biospheres on such planets, potentially limited by photon availability, may generate small biogenic signals, which could be difficult for future observations to detect.

  13. Searching gravitational microlensing events in the galaxy spiral arms by EROS II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derue, Frederic

    1999-01-01

    The EROS II experiment is searching for microlensing events due to compact massive objects passing through the line-of-sight of luminous stars. These objects are candidates to explain the baryonic component of Dark Matter in our Galaxy. EROS II was dedicated to different lines-of-sight: Small and Large Magellanic Clouds, Galactic Centre and 4 directions towards the Spiral Arms of the Galaxy. This thesis presents the first search for microlensing towards these last lines-of-sight (about 9 million stars). Simple criteria based on the search for significant fluctuations allowed one to discover a low noise sample of 7 candidates to the microlensing effect, with an average timescale of 50 days. A detailed analysis of the light curve of one candidate allows us to give a confidence interval on its mass 2.7 x 10 -3 0 0 = 50 ± 3 days. To improve the knowledge of the distance of the target stars, we have combined observations of EROS II with bibliographic sources on associations of stars linked with the spiral arm features, and we have developed a program to find variable stars. Ten cepheids have thus been found. Distances obtained with different methods are in rough agreement with each other. The average optical depth measured towards the four directions is τ-bar = 0.45 0.11 +0.23 x 10 -6 . It is compatible with expectations from simple galactic models. The long duration of most events favours interpretation of lensing by objects belonging to the disk instead of the halo. It also seems that some events due to bulge lenses have influenced measurements towards the line-of-sight which is closest to the Galactic Centre. Observation continue towards spiral arms. More accurate measurements should be obtained with increase of statistics, allowing one to estimate the disk contribution to the optical depth towards the bulge and the Magellanic Clouds. (author)

  14. (Sub)millimeter emission lines of molecules in born-again stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya, D.; Toalá, J. A.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Guerrero, M. A.; De Beck, E.; González, M.; Kimeswenger, S.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Treviño-Morales, S. P.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Born-again stars provide a unique possibility to study the evolution of the circumstellar envelope of evolved stars in human timescales. Up until now, most of the observations of the circumstellar material in these stars have been limited to studying the relatively hot gas and dust. In other evolved stars, the emission from rotational transitions of molecules, such as CO, is commonly used to study the cool component of their circumstellar envelopes. Thus, the detection and study of molecular gas in born-again stars is of great importance when attempting to understand their composition and chemical evolution. In addition, the molecular emission is an invaluable tool for exploring the physical conditions, kinematics, and formation of asymmetric structures in the circumstellar envelopes of these evolved stars. However, up until now, all attempts to detect molecular emission from the cool material around born-again stars have failed. Aims: We searched for emission from rotational transitions of molecules in the hydrogen-deficient circumstellar envelopes of born-again stars to explore the chemical composition, kinematics, and physical parameters of the relatively cool gas. Methods: We carried out observations using the APEX and IRAM 30 m telescopes to search for molecular emission toward four well-studied born-again stars, V4334 Sgr, V605 Aql, A30, and A78, that are thought to represent an evolutionary sequence. Results: For the first time, we detected emission from HCN and H13CN molecules toward V4334 Sgr, and CO emission in V605 Aql. No molecular emission was detected above the noise level toward A30 and A78. The detected lines exhibit broad linewidths ≳150 km s-1, which indicates that the emission comes from gas ejected during the born-again event, rather than from the old planetary nebula. A first estimate of the H12CN/H13CN abundance ratio in the circumstellar environment of V4334 Sgr is ≈3, which is similar to the value of the 12C/13C ratio measured

  15. Overview the Seven Stars Rating in Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Gita Subakti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Picking the right hotel can be tricky especially in today’s world of multiple rating systems. A luxury hotel rating once topped out at five stars but in the war to snag vacationers certain hotels that sing tunes of opulence and luxurious pleasure have started to accumulate seven stars. Star rating systems vary from continentto continent, country to country, and in a country. Hotel ratings have become a subjective assessment of amenities depending on the hotel and location. But the big question that is how they rate a seven stars Hotel. What makes it different from five stars Hotel or any fine establishment alike. In this case, the author is over viewing some of the Hotels in the world that are known for its seven stars reputation and taking a closer look on how they get their reputation for being the most luxurious Hotels in the world.

  16. SpecDB: The AAVSO’s Public Repository for Spectra of Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Stella; Weaver, John; Silvis, George; Beck, Sara

    2018-01-01

    SpecDB is the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) spectral database. Accessible to any astronomer with the capability to perform spectroscopy, SpecDB provides an unprecedented scientific opportunity for amateur and professional astronomers around the globe. Backed by the Variable Star Index, one of the most utilized variable star catalogs, SpecDB is expected to become one of the world leading databases of its kind. Once verified by a team of expert spectroscopists, an observer can upload spectra of variable stars target easily and efficiently. Uploaded spectra can then be searched for, previewed, and downloaded for inclusion in publications. Close community development and involvement will ensure a user-friendly and versatile database, compatible with the needs of 21st century astrophysics. Observations of 1D spectra are submitted as FITS files. All spectra are required to be preprocessed for wavelength calibration and dark subtraction; Bias and flat are strongly recommended. First time observers are required to submit a spectrum of a standard (non-variable) star to be checked for errors in technique or equipment. Regardless of user validation, FITS headers must include several value cards detailing the observation, as well as information regarding the observer, equipment, and observing site in accordance with existing AAVSO records. This enforces consistency and provides necessary details for follow up analysis. Requirements are provided to users in a comprehensive guidebook and accompanying technical manual. Upon submission, FITS headers are automatically checked for errors and any anomalies are immediately fed back to the user. Successful candidates can then submit at will, including multiple simultaneous submissions. All published observations can be searched and interactively previewed. Community involvement will be enhanced by an associated forum where users can discuss observation techniques and suggest improvements to the database.

  17. H2O sources in regions of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, K.Y.; Burke, B.F.; Haschick, A.D.

    1975-01-01

    Regions and objects believed to be in early stages of stellar formation have been searched for H 2 O 22-GHz line emission with the Haystack 120-foot (37 m) telescope. The objects include radio condensations, infrared objects in H ii regions, and Herbig-Haro objects. Nine new H 2 O sources were detected in the vicinity of such objects, including the Sharpless H ii regions S152, S235, S255, S269, G45.1+0.1, G45.5+0.1, AFCRL infrared object No. 809--2992, and Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 9. The new H 2 O sources detected in H ii regions are associated, but not coincident, with the the radio condensations. Water vapor line emission was detected in approx.25 percent of the regions searched. The association of H 2 O sources with regions of star formation is taken to be real. The spatial relationship of H 2 O sources to infrared objects, radio condensations, class I OH sources, and molecular clouds are discussed. The suggestion is made that an H 2 O source may be excited by a highly obscured star of extreme youth

  18. The Space-Time Asymmetry Research (STAR) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Sasha

    designed for re-search and leadership participation by university students the STAR program will bring new answers to some of the most important physics questions of our time -questions that have faced physicists for over 100 years.

  19. Searching for tidal disruption events at an unexplored wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, S.; Webb, N.; Saxton, R.

    2017-10-01

    When a star approaches too close to a black hole, the star can be torn apart by the gravitational forces and approximately half the matter falls towards the black hole, causing the luminosity to increase by several orders of magnitude. Such an event is known as a tidal disruption event (TDE). These events can help us locate black holes which would be otherwise too faint to be detected and help us understand the mass function of these objects. To date only a small sample of candidate TDEs have been detected (˜65), either in the optical or in soft X-rays. However, four TDEs have been observed with hard X-ray spectra. In order to determine if these hard TDEs are the result of a different mechanism to those detected at lower energy, we search for similar events in the 3XMM catalogue. Using spectral and timing characteristics determined from the hard TDEs and cross-correlating 3XMM with other catalogues, we have developed a methodology with which to identify new hard TDEs. In this poster we describe the characteristics used to search for previously undiscovered hard TDEs and present the results of this search and the resulting constraints on the central mechanism in TDEs.

  20. First detection of nonflare microwave emissions from the coronae of single late-type dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, D. E.; Linsky, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of a search for nonflare microwave radiation from the coronae of nearby late-type dwarf stars comparable to the sun: single stars without evidence for either a large wind or circumstellar envelope. The observing program consisted of flux measurements of six stars over a 24-h period with the VLA in the C configuration at a wavelength of 6 cm with 50 MHz bandwidth. Positive detections at 6 cm were made for Chi 1 Ori (0.6 mJy) and the flare star UV Cet (1.55 mJy), and upper limits were obtained for the stars Pi 1 UMa, Xi Boo A, 70 Oph A and Epsilon Eri. It is suggested that Chi 1 Ori, and possibly UV Cet, represent the first detected members of a new class of radio sources which are driven by gyroresonance emission, i.e. cyclotron emission from nonrelativistic Maxwellian electrons.

  1. Herschel-PACS photometry of faint stars for sensitivity performance assessment and establishment of faint FIR primary photometric standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaas, U.; Balog, Z.; Nielbock, M.; Müller, T. G.; Linz, H.; Kiss, Cs.

    2018-05-01

    approximation, for nine stars we obtain scaling factors of the continuum flux models of four PACS fiducial standards with the same or quite similar spectral type. We can verify a linear dependence of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) with flux and with square root of time over significant ranges. At 160 μm the latter relation is, however, affected by confusion noise. Conclusions: The PACS faint star sample has allowed a comprehensive sensitivity assessment of the PACS photometer. Accurate photometry allows us to establish a set of five FIR primary standard candidates, namely α Ari, ɛ Lep, ω Cap, HD 41047 and 42 Dra, which are 2-20 times fainter than the faintest PACS fiducial standard (γ Dra) with absolute accuracy of http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/613/A40

  2. On the Absence of Non-thermal X-Ray Emission around Runaway O Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toalá, J. A. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica (ASIAA), Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Oskinova, L. M. [Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical models predict that the compressed interstellar medium around runaway O stars can produce high-energy non-thermal diffuse emission, in particular, non-thermal X-ray and γ -ray emission. So far, detection of non-thermal X-ray emission was claimed for only one runaway star, AE Aur. We present a search for non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission from bow shocks using archived XMM-Newton observations for a clean sample of six well-determined runaway O stars. We find that none of these objects present diffuse X-ray emission associated with their bow shocks, similarly to previous X-ray studies toward ζ Oph and BD+43°3654. We carefully investigated multi-wavelength observations of AE Aur and could not confirm previous findings of non-thermal X-rays. We conclude that so far there is no clear evidence of non-thermal extended emission in bow shocks around runaway O stars.

  3. Search for Exoplanets around Northern Circumpolar Stars. II. The Detection of Radial Velocity Variations in M Giant Stars HD 36384, HD 52030, and HD 208742

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong-Cheol; Jeong, Gwanghui; Han, Inwoo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Kang-Min [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Myeong-Gu; Oh, Hyeong-Il [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Mkrtichian, David E. [National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Hatzes, Artie P. [Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg (TLS), Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenburg (Germany); Gu, Shenghong; Bai, Jinming, E-mail: bclee@kasi.re.kr [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2017-07-20

    We present the detection of long-period RV variations in HD 36384, HD 52030, and HD 208742 by using the high-resolution, fiber-fed Bohyunsan Observatory Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) for the precise radial velocity (RV) survey of about 200 northern circumpolar stars. Analyses of RV data, chromospheric activity indicators, and bisector variations spanning about five years suggest that the RV variations are compatible with planet or brown dwarf companions in Keplerian motion. However, HD 36384 shows photometric variations with a period very close to that of RV variations as well as amplitude variations in the weighted wavelet Z-transform (WWZ) analysis, which argues that the RV variations in HD 36384 are from the stellar pulsations. Assuming that the companion hypothesis is correct, HD 52030 hosts a companion with minimum mass 13.3 M {sub Jup} orbiting in 484 days at a distance of 1.2 au. HD 208742 hosts a companion of 14.0 M {sub Jup} at 1.5 au with a period of 602 days. All stars are located at the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage on the H–R diagram after undergoing the helium flash and leaving the giant clump.With stellar radii of 53.0 R {sub ⊙} and 57.2 R {sub ⊙} for HD 52030 and HD 208742, respectively, these stars may be the largest yet, in terms of stellar radius, found to host substellar companions. However, given possible RV amplitude variations and the fact that these are highly evolved stars, the planet hypothesis is not yet certain.

  4. Early galactic evolution and the nature of the first stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    In this paper, the observational data relating to the early evolution of the Galaxy are reviewed in order to assess the plausibility of a number of models that have been proposed for the first stars. On the basis of standard fragmentation models, it is argued that primordial stars were very similar to normal stars, but that in some circumstances the formation of low mass primordial stars may be suppressed through the dissociation of molecular hydrogen by UV radiation. The existence of these conditions at the time of formation of the Galaxy could explain the absence of zero-metal stars. (orig./WL)

  5. A Spectroscopic Orbit for the Late-type Be Star β CMi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dulaney, Nicholas A.; Richardson, Noel D.; Gerhartz, Cody J.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Morrison, Nancy D.; Bratcher, Allison D.; Greco, Jennifer J.; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin K.; Lembryk, Ludwik; Oswald, Wayne L.; Trucks, Jesica L. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606-3390 (United States); Carciofi, Alex C. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Klement, Robert [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Wang, Luqian, E-mail: noel.richardson@UToledo.edu [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    The late-type Be star β CMi is remarkably stable compared to other Be stars that have been studied. This has led to a realistic model of the outflowing Be disk by Klement et al. These results showed that the disk is likely truncated at a finite radius from the star, which Klement et al. suggest is evidence for an unseen binary companion in orbit. Here we report on an analysis of the Ritter Observatory spectroscopic archive of β CMi to search for evidence of the elusive companion. We detect periodic Doppler shifts in the wings of the H α line with a period of 170 days and an amplitude of 2.25 km s{sup −1}, consistent with a low-mass binary companion ( M ≈ 0.42 M {sub ⊙}). We then compared small changes in the violet-to-red peak height changes ( V / R ) with the orbital motion. We find weak evidence that it does follow the orbital motion, as suggested by recent Be binary models by Panoglou et al. Our results, which are similar to those for several other Be stars, suggest that β CMi may be a product of binary evolution where Roche lobe overflow has spun up the current Be star, likely leaving a hot subdwarf or white dwarf in orbit around the star. Unfortunately, no direct sign of this companion star is found in the very limited archive of International Ultraviolet Explorer spectra.

  6. Is timing noise important in the gravitational wave detection of neutron stars?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we ask whether the phenomenon of timing noise long known in electromagnetic pulsar astronomy is likely to be important in gravitational wave (GW) observations of spinning-down neutron stars. We find that timing noise is strong enough to be of importance only in the young pulsars, which must have larger triaxialities than theory predicts for their GW emission to be detectable. However, assuming that their GW emission is detectable, we list the pulsars for which timing noise is important, either because it is strong enough that its neglect by the observer would render the source undetectable or else because it is a measurable feature of the GW signal. We also find that timing noise places a limit on the observation duration of a coherent blind GW search, and suggest that hierarchical search techniques might be able to cope with this problem. Demonstration of the presence or absence of timing noise in the GW channel would give a new probe of neutron star physics

  7. Chemical analysis of eight giant stars of the globular cluster NGC 6366

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, Arthur A.; Alves-Brito, Alan; Campos, Fabíola; Dias, Bruno; Barbuy, Beatriz

    2018-05-01

    The metal-rich Galactic globular cluster NGC 6366 is the fifth closest to the Sun. Despite its interest, it has received scarce attention, and little is known about its internal structure. Its kinematics suggests a link to the halo, but its metallicity indicates otherwise. We present a detailed chemical analysis of eight giant stars of NGC 6366, using high-resolution and high-quality spectra (R > 40 000, S/N > 60) obtained at the VLT (8.2 m) and CFHT (3.6 m) telescopes. We attempted to characterize its chemistry and to search for evidence of multiple stellar populations. The atmospheric parameters were derived using the method of excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe I and Fe II lines and from those atmospheric parameters we calculated the abundances for other elements and found that none of the elements measured presents star-to-star variation greater than the uncertainties. We compared the derived abundances with those of other globular clusters and field stars available in the literature. We determined a mean [Fe/H] = -0.60 ± 0.03 for NGC 6366 and found some similarity of this object with M 71, another inner halo globular cluster. The Na-O anticorrelation extension is short and no star-to-star variation in Al is found. The presence of second generation stars is not evident in NGC 6366.

  8. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - V. Slowly pulsating subdwarf B stars in short-period binaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaler, Stephen D.; Reed, Michael D.; Østensen, Roy H.

    2010-01-01

    of sdB stars with a close M-dwarf companion with orbital periods of less than half a day. Because the orbital period is so short, the stars should be in synchronous rotation, and if so, the rotation period should imprint itself on the multiplet structure of the pulsations. However, we do not find clear......The survey phase of the Kepler Mission includes a number of hot subdwarf B (sdB) stars to search for non-radial pulsations. We present our analysis of two sdB stars that are found to be g-mode pulsators of the V1093 Her class. These two stars also display the distinct irradiation effect typical...... evidence for such rotational splitting. Though the stars do show some frequency spacings that are consistent with synchronous rotation, they also display multiplets with splittings that are much smaller. Longer-duration time series photometry will be needed to determine if those small splittings...

  9. STARS 2.0: 2nd-generation open-source archiving and query software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winegar, Tom

    2008-07-01

    The Subaru Telescope is in process of developing an open-source alternative to the 1st-generation software and databases (STARS 1) used for archiving and query. For STARS 2, we have chosen PHP and Python for scripting and MySQL as the database software. We have collected feedback from staff and observers, and used this feedback to significantly improve the design and functionality of our future archiving and query software. Archiving - We identified two weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS archiving software: a complex and inflexible table structure and uncoordinated system administration for our business model: taking pictures from the summit and archiving them in both Hawaii and Japan. We adopted a simplified and normalized table structure with passive keyword collection, and we are designing an archive-to-archive file transfer system that automatically reports real-time status and error conditions and permits error recovery. Query - We identified several weaknesses in 1st-generation STARS query software: inflexible query tools, poor sharing of calibration data, and no automatic file transfer mechanisms to observers. We are developing improved query tools and sharing of calibration data, and multi-protocol unassisted file transfer mechanisms for observers. In the process, we have redefined a 'query': from an invisible search result that can only transfer once in-house right now, with little status and error reporting and no error recovery - to a stored search result that can be monitored, transferred to different locations with multiple protocols, reporting status and error conditions and permitting recovery from errors.

  10. Atypical Mg-poor Milky Way Field Stars with Globular Cluster Second-generation-like Chemical Patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Geisler, D.; Tang, B.; Villanova, S.; Mennickent, R. E. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Zamora, O.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Dell’Agli, F.; Prieto, Carlos Allende [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Souto, Diogo; Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Schiavon, R. P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Hasselquist, Sten [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Shetrone, M. [University of Texas at Austin, McDonald Observatory, Fort Davis, TX 79734 (United States); Vieira, K. [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía, AP 264, Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Zasowski, G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sobeck, J.; Hayes, C. R.; Majewski, S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Placco, V. M., E-mail: jfernandezt@astro-udec.cl, E-mail: jfernandezt87@gmail.com [Department of Physics and JINA Center for the Evolution of the Elements, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the peculiar chemical abundance patterns of 11 atypical Milky Way (MW) field red giant stars observed by the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE). These atypical giants exhibit strong Al and N enhancements accompanied by C and Mg depletions, strikingly similar to those observed in the so-called second-generation (SG) stars of globular clusters (GCs). Remarkably, we find low Mg abundances ([Mg/Fe] < 0.0) together with strong Al and N overabundances in the majority (5/7) of the metal-rich ([Fe/H] ≳ −1.0) sample stars, which is at odds with actual observations of SG stars in Galactic GCs of similar metallicities. This chemical pattern is unique and unprecedented among MW stars, posing urgent questions about its origin. These atypical stars could be former SG stars of dissolved GCs formed with intrinsically lower abundances of Mg and enriched Al (subsequently self-polluted by massive AGB stars) or the result of exotic binary systems. We speculate that the stars Mg-deficiency as well as the orbital properties suggest that they could have an extragalactic origin. This discovery should guide future dedicated spectroscopic searches of atypical stellar chemical patterns in our Galaxy, a fundamental step forward to understanding the Galactic formation and evolution.

  11. Detection of new southern SiO maser sources associated with Mira and symbiotic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.A.; Hall, P.J.; Norris, R.P.; Troup, E.R.; Wark, R.M.; Wright, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    In 1987 July the Parkes radio telescope was used to search for 43.12 GHz SiO maser emission from southern late-type stars. We report the discovery of such emission from 12 Mira-like systems, including the symbiotic star H1-36, and discuss the implications of our data for the symbiotic stars. We identify several M-type Mira variables with unusually low SiO/infrared flux ratios, but with present data are not able to discredit the correlation between the two parameters. In addition, we present line profiles for the only other known symbiotic maser, R Aqr, at unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio; these profiles show linearly polarized emission from several components of the source. (author)

  12. On the precession of the optical star in the Cyg X-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopylov, I.M.; Sokolov, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Some results are analysed of previoUs spectroscopic investigation of the supergiant HDE 226868 (based on six-year observations at the 6-m telescope) with the puspose of searching for possible variations in the spectrum connected with the precession of the rotation axis of the star upper layers. It is noted that spectral type and HeI lambda 4471 line halfwidth show a coordinated behaviour with the phase of the 39-day period in the frame of the precession hypothesis. Nonuniform distribution of CNO anomalies over the star latitude seems to be possible

  13. DISCOVERY OF 14 NEW SLOWLY PULSATING B STARS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 7654

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y. P.; Han, Z. W.; Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L. C.

    2012-01-01

    We carried out time-series BV CCD photometric observations of the open cluster NGC 7654 (Messier 52) to search for variable stars. Eighteen slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars have been detected, among which 14 candidates are newly discovered, three known ones are confirmed, and a previously found δ Scuti star is also identified as an SPB candidate. Twelve SPBs are probable cluster members based on membership analysis. This makes NGC 7654 the richest galactic open cluster in terms of SPB star content. It is also a new discovery that NGC 7654 hosts three γ Dor star candidates. We found that all these stars (18 SPB and 3 γ Dor stars) have periods longer than their corresponding fundamental radial mode. With such a big sample of g-mode pulsators in a single cluster, it is clear that multi-mode pulsation is more common in the upper part of the main sequence than in the lower part. All the stars span a narrow strip on the period-luminosity plane, which also includes the γ Dor stars at the low-luminosity extension. This result implies that there may be a single period-luminosity relation applicable to all g-mode main-sequence pulsators. As a by-product, three EA-type eclipsing binaries and an EW-type eclipsing binary are also discovered.

  14. SETI - A preliminary search for narrowband signals at microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzi, J. N.; Clark, T. A.; Tarter, J. C.; Black, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    In the search for intelligent signals of extraterrestrial origin, certain forms of signals merit immediate and special attention. Extremely narrowband signals of spectral width similar to our own television transmissions are most favored energetically and least likely to be confused with natural celestial emission. A search of selected stars has been initiated using observational and data processing techniques optimized for the detection of such signals. These techniques allow simultaneous observation of 10 to the 5th to 10 to the 6th channels within the observed spectral range. About two hundred nearby (within 80 LY) solar type stars have been observed at frequencies near the main microwave transitions of the hydroxyl radical. In addition, several molecular (hydroxyl) masers and other non-thermal sources have been observed in this way in order to uncover any possible fine spectral structure of natural origin and to investigate the potential of such an instrument for radioastronomy.

  15. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. II. Fully convective main-sequence stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, Gregory A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden); Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: gregory.a.feiden@gmail.com, E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We examine the hypothesis that magnetic fields are inflating the radii of fully convective main-sequence stars in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). The magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code is used to analyze two systems in particular: Kepler-16 and CM Draconis. Magneto-convection is treated assuming stabilization of convection and also by assuming reductions in convective efficiency due to a turbulent dynamo. We find that magnetic stellar models are unable to reproduce the properties of inflated fully convective main-sequence stars, unless strong interior magnetic fields in excess of 10 MG are present. Validation of the magnetic field hypothesis given the current generation of magnetic stellar evolution models therefore depends critically on whether the generation and maintenance of strong interior magnetic fields is physically possible. An examination of this requirement is provided. Additionally, an analysis of previous studies invoking the influence of star spots is presented to assess the suggestion that star spots are inflating stars and biasing light curve analyses toward larger radii. From our analysis, we find that there is not yet sufficient evidence to definitively support the hypothesis that magnetic fields are responsible for the observed inflation among fully convective main-sequence stars in DEBs.

  16. Design and application of star map simulation system for star sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feng; Shen, Weimin; Zhu, Xifang; Chen, Yuheng; Xu, Qinquan

    2013-12-01

    Modern star sensors are powerful to measure attitude automatically which assure a perfect performance of spacecrafts. They achieve very accurate attitudes by applying algorithms to process star maps obtained by the star camera mounted on them. Therefore, star maps play an important role in designing star cameras and developing procession algorithms. Furthermore, star maps supply significant supports to exam the performance of star sensors completely before their launch. However, it is not always convenient to supply abundant star maps by taking pictures of the sky. Thus, star map simulation with the aid of computer attracts a lot of interests by virtue of its low price and good convenience. A method to simulate star maps by programming and extending the function of the optical design program ZEMAX is proposed. The star map simulation system is established. Firstly, based on analyzing the working procedures of star sensors to measure attitudes and the basic method to design optical system by ZEMAX, the principle of simulating star sensor imaging is given out in detail. The theory about adding false stars and noises, and outputting maps is discussed and the corresponding approaches are proposed. Then, by external programming, the star map simulation program is designed and produced. Its user interference and operation are introduced. Applications of star map simulation method in evaluating optical system, star image extraction algorithm and star identification algorithm, and calibrating system errors are presented completely. It was proved that the proposed simulation method provides magnificent supports to the study on star sensors, and improves the performance of star sensors efficiently.

  17. A Search for Debris Disks Around Variable Pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Ryan; Cordes, J.; Lazio, J.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A.

    2009-01-01

    After a supernova explosion, a modest amount of material will fall back and form a disk surrounding the resultant neutron star. This material can aggregate into rocky debris and the disk can be stable for the entire 10 million year lifetime of a canonical (non-recycled) radio pulsar. Previously, we developed a model that unifies the different classes of radio variability observed in many older pulsars. In this model, rocky material migrates inwards towards the neutron star and is ablated inside the pulsar magnetosphere. This material alters the electrodynamics in the magnetosphere which can cause the observed quiescent and bursting states observed in nulling pulsars, intermittent pulsars, and rotating radio transients. With this model in mind, we observed three nulling pulsars and one intermittent pulsar that are good candidates to host debris disks detectable by the Spitzer IRAC. Here we report how our IRAC observations constrain disk geometry, with particular emphasis on configurations that can provide the in-fall rate to cause the observed radio variability. We place these observations in the context of other searches for debris disks around neutron stars, which had studied either very young or very old (recycled) pulsars. By observing older canonical pulsars, all major classes of radio pulsars have been observed, and we can assess the presence of debris disks as a function of pulsar type. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  18. The environment and star formation of H II region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the environment of H II region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this H II region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the H II region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. Using 2MASS photometry, we tried to search for embedded young stellar object (YSO) candidates in this region. The very good agreement between CO emission, infrared shell and YSOs suggest that it is probably a star formation region triggered by the expansion of Sh2-163. We also found the most likely massive protostar related to IRAS 23314+6033.

  19. Ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.-H.

    1982-01-01

    Using strict selection criteria, the author and colleagues have searched for ring nebulae associated with Wolf-Rayet stars in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. 15 WR ring nebulae are identified in the Galaxy, 9 in the Large Magellanic Cloud, and none in the small Magellanic Cloud. The morphology and kinematics of these 24 nebulae have subsequently been observed to study their nature. These nebulae and their references are listed and a correlation between spectral and nebular types is presented. (Auth.)

  20. Star Formation at the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Could stars be forming in the inhospitable environment near Sagittarius A* in the heart of the Milky Way? A possible signature of low-mass star formation has recently been found just two light-years from the black hole at the center of our galaxy — a region that was previously thought to be too hostile for such activity. Searching for Signatures: Previous observations of the central few light-years of the Milky Way had focused on a population of about 200 massive, young and very bright stars in tight orbits around Sgr A*. These stars are only a few million years old and prompted scientists to wonder: have they somehow managed to form in situ, in spite of their close proximity to the black hole, or did they form further out and then migrate in? Motivated by this mystery, Farhad Yusef-Zadeh of Northwestern University and collaborators looked for evidence of even younger stars close to Sagittarius A*, which would demonstrate that star formation in the area is an ongoing process. Using the Very Large Array (VLA), the collaboration discovered several small sources in one arm of activity near Sgr A*. This 34-GHz image provides a close-up view of two protoplanetary disk candidates (labeled P26 and P8) located near Sgr A*. These objects are outlined on the right side by a bow shock caused by impacting stellar wind that streams from the young, hot stars closer to the Galactic center. The disks are thought to contain recently-formed, low-mass stars. (Credit: Yusef-Zadeh et al., 2015) Heated Disks: The team identified these sources as candidate photoevaporative protoplanetary disks, or “proplyds” — areas of dense, ionized gas and dust surrounding young, newly formed stars. The proplyd candidates are between 10,000 and 100,000 years old, and they lie along the edge of a large molecular cloud. It is likely that this cloud produced the disks by providing a reservoir of gas to feed the star-formation activity. The region surrounding these proplyds is blasted with harsh

  1. Sizing the star cluster population of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatti, Andrés E.

    2018-04-01

    The number of star clusters that populate the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at deprojected distances knowledge of the LMC cluster formation and dissolution histories, we closely revisited such a compilation of objects and found that only ˜35 per cent of the previously known catalogued clusters have been included. The remaining entries are likely related to stellar overdensities of the LMC composite star field, because there is a remarkable enhancement of objects with assigned ages older than log(t yr-1) ˜ 9.4, which contrasts with the existence of the LMC cluster age gap; the assumption of a cluster formation rate similar to that of the LMC star field does not help to conciliate so large amount of clusters either; and nearly 50 per cent of them come from cluster search procedures known to produce more than 90 per cent of false detections. The lack of further analyses to confirm the physical reality as genuine star clusters of the identified overdensities also glooms those results. We support that the actual size of the LMC main body cluster population is close to that previously known.

  2. A MODERN SEARCH FOR WOLF–RAYET STARS IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS. II. A SECOND YEAR OF DISCOVERIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, Philip; Neugent, Kathryn F. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Morrell, Nidia, E-mail: phil.massey@lowell.edu, E-mail: kneugent@lowell.edu, E-mail: nmorrell@lco.cl [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile)

    2015-07-01

    The numbers and types of evolved massive stars found in nearby galaxies provide an exacting test of stellar evolution models. Because of their proximity and rich massive star populations, the Magellanic Clouds have long served as the linchpins for such studies. Yet the continued accidental discoveries of Wolf–Rayet (WR) stars in these systems demonstrate that our knowledge is not as complete as usually assumed. Therefore, we undertook a multi-year survey for WRs in the Magellanic Clouds. Our results from our first year (reported previously) confirmed nine new LMC WRs. Of these, six were of a type never before recognized, with WN3-type emission combined with O3-type absorption features. Yet these stars are 2–3 mag too faint to be WN3+O3 V binaries. Here we report on the second year of our survey, including the discovery of four more WRs, two of which are also WN3/O3s, plus two “slash” WRs. This brings the total of known LMC WRs to 152, 13 (8.2%) of which were found by our survey, which is now ∼60% complete. We find that the spatial distribution of the WN3/O3s is similar to that of other WRs in the LMC, suggesting that they are descended from the same progenitors. We call attention to the fact that 5 of the 12 known SMC WRs may in fact be similar WN3/O3s rather than the binaries they have often assumed to be. We also discuss our other discoveries: a newly discovered Onfp-type star, and a peculiar emission-line object. Finally, we consider the completeness limits of our survey.

  3. Regular Generalized Star Star closed sets in Bitopological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    K. Kannan; D. Narasimhan; K. Chandrasekhara Rao; R. Ravikumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of τ1τ2-regular generalized star star closed sets , τ1τ2-regular generalized star star open sets and study their basic properties in bitopological spaces.

  4. Neutron Star/supernova Remnant Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    We propose a new approach for studying the neutron star/supernova remnant associations, based on the idea that the (diffuse) supernova remnants (SNRs) can be products of an off-centred supernova (SN) explosion in a preexisting bubble created by the wind of a moving massive star. A cavity SN explosion of a moving star results in a considerable offset of the neutron star (NS) birth-place from the geometrical centre of the SNR. Therefore: a) the high transverse velocities inferred for a number of NSs (e.g. PSR B 1610-50, PSR B 1757-24, SGR 0525-66) through their association with SNRs can be reduced; b) the proper motion vector of a NS should not necessarily point away from the geometrical centre of the associated SNR. Taking into account of these two facts allow us to enlarge the circle of possible NS/SNR associations, and could significantly affect the results of previous studies of NS/SNR associations. The possibilities of our approach are illustrated with the example of the association between PSR B 1706-44 and SNR G 343.1-2.3. We show that this association could be real if both objects are the remnants of a SN exploded within a mushroom-like cavity (created by the SN progenitor wind breaking out of the parent molecular cloud and expanding into an intercloud medium of a much less density). We also show that the SN explosion sites in some middle-aged (shell-like) SNRs could be marked by (compact) nebulae of thermal X-ray emission. The possible detection of such nebulae within middle-aged SNRs could be used for the re-estimation of implied transverse velocities of known NSs or for the search of new stellar remnants possibly associated with these SNRs.

  5. Stars of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Beyond its Measured Tidal Boundary

    OpenAIRE

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Armandroff, Taft E.; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2000-01-01

    We report R- and V-band photometry derived from CCD imaging for objects in nine fields in and around the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The most distant fields are about 1.3 degrees from the center. We use these data to search for Draco stars outside of its measured tidal boundary. The search involves three methods: 1) Plotting color-magnitude diagrams for individual fields, for sections of fields, and for combined fields and sections. A color-magnitude diagram can reveal a population of Drac...

  6. First low-frequency Einstein@Home all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bawaj, M.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Deelman, E.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Duncan, J.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gabel, M.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mayani, R.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Rynge, M.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahi, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y. -F.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Anderson, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO.

  7. Insights from Synthetic Star-forming Regions. III. Calibration of Measurement and Techniques of Star Formation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koepferl, Christine M.; Robitaille, Thomas P. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dale, James E., E-mail: koepferl@usm.lmu.de [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-11-01

    Through an extensive set of realistic synthetic observations (produced in Paper I), we assess in this part of the paper series (Paper III) how the choice of observational techniques affects the measurement of star formation rates (SFRs) in star-forming regions. We test the accuracy of commonly used techniques and construct new methods to extract the SFR, so that these findings can be applied to measure the SFR in real regions throughout the Milky Way. We investigate diffuse infrared SFR tracers such as those using 24 μ m, 70 μ m and total infrared emission, which have been previously calibrated for global galaxy scales. We set up a toy model of a galaxy and show that the infrared emission is consistent with the intrinsic SFR using extra-galactic calibrated laws (although the consistency does not prove their reliability). For local scales, we show that these techniques produce completely unreliable results for single star-forming regions, which are governed by different characteristic timescales. We show how calibration of these techniques can be improved for single star-forming regions by adjusting the characteristic timescale and the scaling factor and give suggestions of new calibrations of the diffuse star formation tracers. We show that star-forming regions that are dominated by high-mass stellar feedback experience a rapid drop in infrared emission once high-mass stellar feedback is turned on, which implies different characteristic timescales. Moreover, we explore the measured SFRs calculated directly from the observed young stellar population. We find that the measured point sources follow the evolutionary pace of star formation more directly than diffuse star formation tracers.

  8. In search of future earths: assessing the possibility of finding Earth analogues in the later stages of their habitable lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley-James, Jack T; Greaves, Jane S; Raven, John A; Cockell, Charles S

    2015-05-01

    Earth will become uninhabitable within 2-3 Gyr as a result of the increasing luminosity of the Sun changing the boundaries of the habitable zone (HZ). Predictions about the future of habitable conditions on Earth include declining species diversity and habitat extent, ocean loss, and changes to geochemical cycles. Testing these predictions is difficult, but the discovery of a planet that is an analogue to future Earth could provide the means to test them. This planet would need to have an Earth-like biosphere history and to be approaching the inner edge of the HZ at present. Here, we assess the possibility of finding such a planet and discuss the benefits of analyzing older Earths. Finding an old-Earth analogue in nearby star systems would be ideal, because this would allow for atmospheric characterization. Hence, as an illustrative example, G stars within 10 pc of the Sun are assessed as potential old-Earth-analog hosts. Six of these represent good potential hosts. For each system, a hypothetical Earth analogue is placed at locations within the continuously habitable zone (CHZ) that would allow enough time for Earth-like biosphere development. Surface temperature evolution over the host star's main sequence lifetime (assessed by using a simple climate model) is used to determine whether the planet would be in the right stage of its late-habitable lifetime to exhibit detectable biosignatures. The best candidate, in terms of the chances of planet formation in the CHZ and of biosignature detection, is 61 Virginis. However, planet formation studies suggest that only a small fraction (0.36%) of G stars in the solar neighborhood could host an old-Earth analogue. If the development of Earth-like biospheres is rare, requiring a sequence of low-probability events to occur, biosphere evolution models suggest they are rarer still, with only thousands being present in the Galaxy as a whole.

  9. Types of Information Expected from a Photometric Search for Extra-Solar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William; Koch, David; Bell, James, III; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The current theory postulates that planets are a consequence of the formation of stars from viscous accretion disks. Condensation from the hotter, inner portion of the accretion disk favors the formation of small rocky planets in the inner portion and the formation of gas giants in the cuter, cooler part. Consequently, terrestrial-type planets in inner orbits must be commonplace (Wetheril 1991). From the geometry of the situation (Borucki and Summers 1984), it can be shown that 1% of those planetary systems that resemble our solar system should show transits for Earth-sized (or larger) planets. Thus a photometric satellite that uses a wide field of view telescope and a large CCD array to simultaneously monitor 5000 target stars should detect 50 planetary systems. To verify that regularly recurring transits are occurring rather than statistical fluctuations of the stellar flux, demands observations that extend over several orbital periods so that the constancy of the orbital period, signal amplitude, and duration can be measured. Therefore, to examine the region from Mercury's orbit to that of the Earth requires a duration of three years whereas a search out to the orbit of mars requires about six years. The results of the observations should provide estimates of the distributions of planetary size and orbital radius, and the frequency of planetary systems that have Earth-sized planets in inner orbits. Because approximately one half of the star systems observed will be binary systems, the frequency of planetary systems orbit ' ing either one or both of the stars can also be determined. Furthermore, the complexity of the photometric signature of a planet transiting a pair of stars provides enough information to estimate the eccentricities of the planetary orbits. In summary, the statistical evidence from a photometric search of solar-like stars should be able to either confirm or deny the applicability of the current theory of planet formation and provide new

  10. The cocoon emission - an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2018-01-01

    Short gamma-ray bursts are believed to arise from compact binary mergers (either neutron star-neutron star or black hole-neutron star). If so, their jets must penetrate outflows that are ejected during the merger. As a jet crosses the ejecta, it dissipates its energy, producing a hot cocoon that surrounds it. We present here 3D numerical simulations of jet propagation in mergers' outflows, and we calculate the resulting emission. This emission consists of two components: the cooling emission, the leakage of the thermal energy of the hot cocoon, and the cocoon macronova that arises from the radioactive decay of the cocoon's material. This emission gives a brief (∼1 h) blue, wide angle signal. While the parameters of the outflow and jet are uncertain, for the configurations we have considered, the signal is bright (∼-14 to -15 absolute magnitude) and outshines all other predicted ultraviolet-optical signals. The signal is brighter when the jet breakout time is longer, and its peak brightness does not depend strongly on the highly uncertain opacity. A rapid search for such a signal is a promising strategy to detect an electromagnetic merger counterpart. A detected candidate could be then followed by deep infrared searches for the longer but weaker macronova arising from the rest of the ejecta.

  11. Extrasolar planets searches today and tomorrow

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    So far the searches for extrasolar planets have found 40 planetary companions orbiting around nearby stars. In December 1999 a transit has been observed for one of them, providing the first independent confirmation of the reality of close-in planets as well as a measurement of its density. The techniques used to detect planets are limited and the detection threshold is biased but a first picture of the planet diversity and distribution emerges. Results of the search for extra-solar planets and their impacts on planetary formation will be reviewed. Future instruments are foreseen to detect Earth-like planets and possible signatures of organic activity. An overview of these future projects will be presented and more particularly the Darwin-IRSI mission studied by ESA for Horizon 2015.

  12. Open clusters. III. Fundamental parameters of B stars in NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530 B-type stars with circumstellar envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidelman, Y.; Cidale, L. S.; Zorec, J.; Panei, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. Stellar physical properties of star clusters are poorly known and the cluster parameters are often very uncertain. Methods: Our goals are to perform a spectrophotometric study of the B star population in open clusters to derive accurate stellar parameters, search for the presence of circumstellar envelopes, and discuss the characteristics of these stars. The BCD spectrophotometric system is a powerful method to obtain stellar fundamental parameters from direct measurements of the Balmer discontinuity. To this end, we wrote the interactive code MIDE3700. The BCD parameters can also be used to infer the main properties of open clusters: distance modulus, color excess, and age. Furthermore, we inspected the Balmer discontinuity to provide evidence for the presence of circumstellar disks and identify Be star candidates. We used an additional set of high-resolution spectra in the Hα region to confirm the Be nature of these stars. Results: We provide Teff, log g, Mv, Mbol, and spectral types for a sample of 68 stars in the field of the open clusters NGC 6087, NGC 6250, NGC 6383, and NGC 6530, as well as the cluster distances, ages, and reddening. Then, based on a sample of 230 B stars in the direction of the 11 open clusters studied along this series of three papers, we report 6 new Be stars, 4 blue straggler candidates, and 15 B-type stars (called Bdd) with a double Balmer discontinuity, which indicates the presence of circumstellar envelopes. We discuss the distribution of the fraction of B, Be, and Bdd star cluster members per spectral subtype. The majority of the Be stars are dwarfs and present a maximum at the spectral type B2-B4 in young and intermediate-age open clusters (operating under agreement of CONICET and the Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan, Argentina.Tables 1, 2, 9-16 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/610/A30

  13. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Muirhead, Philip S. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN (United States); Hinkley, Sasha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Exeter, Exeter (United Kingdom); Morton, Timothy D., E-mail: dpiskorz@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits.

  14. FRIENDS OF HOT JUPITERS. III. AN INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC SEARCH FOR LOW-MASS STELLAR COMPANIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piskorz, Danielle; Knutson, Heather A.; Ngo, Henry; Batygin, Konstantin; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of nearby field stars indicate that stellar binaries are common, yet little is known about the effects that these companions may have on planet formation and evolution. The Friends of Hot Jupiters project uses three complementary techniques to search for stellar companions to known planet-hosting stars: radial velocity monitoring, adaptive optics imaging, and near-infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, we examine high-resolution K band infrared spectra of fifty stars hosting gas giant planets on short-period orbits. We use spectral fitting to search for blended lines due to the presence of cool stellar companions in the spectra of our target stars, where we are sensitive to companions with temperatures between 3500 and 5000 K and projected separations less than 100 AU in most systems. We identify eight systems with candidate low-mass companions, including one companion that was independently detected in our AO imaging survey. For systems with radial velocity accelerations, a spectroscopic non-detection rules out scenarios involving a stellar companion in a high inclination orbit. We use these data to place an upper limit on the stellar binary fraction at small projected separations, and show that the observed population of candidate companions is consistent with that of field stars and also with the population of wide-separation companions detected in our previous AO survey. We find no evidence that spectroscopic stellar companions are preferentially located in systems with short-period gas giant planets on eccentric and/or misaligned orbits

  15. I-Love relations for incompressible stars and realistic stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, T. K.; Chan, AtMa P. O.; Leung, P. T.

    2015-02-01

    In spite of the diversity in the equations of state of nuclear matter, the recently discovered I-Love-Q relations [Yagi and Yunes, Science 341, 365 (2013), 10.1126/science.1236462], which relate the moment of inertia, tidal Love number (deformability), and the spin-induced quadrupole moment of compact stars, hold for various kinds of realistic neutron stars and quark stars. While the physical origin of such universality is still a current issue, the observation that the I-Love-Q relations of incompressible stars can well approximate those of realistic compact stars hints at a new direction to approach the problem. In this paper, by establishing recursive post-Minkowskian expansion for the moment of inertia and the tidal deformability of incompressible stars, we analytically derive the I-Love relation for incompressible stars and show that the so-obtained formula can be used to accurately predict the behavior of realistic compact stars from the Newtonian limit to the maximum mass limit.

  16. Exploring genomic dark matter: A critical assessment of the performance of homology search methods on noncoding RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freyhult, E.; Bollback, J. P.; Gardner, P. P.

    2006-01-01

    Homology search is one of the most ubiquitous bioinformatic tasks, yet it is unknown how effective the currently available tools are for identifying noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this work, we use reliable ncRNA data sets to assess the effectiveness of methods such as BLAST, FASTA, HMMer, and Infer......Homology search is one of the most ubiquitous bioinformatic tasks, yet it is unknown how effective the currently available tools are for identifying noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). In this work, we use reliable ncRNA data sets to assess the effectiveness of methods such as BLAST, FASTA, HMMer......, and Infernal. Surprisingly, the most popular homology search methods are often the least accurate. As a result, many studies have used inappropriate tools for their analyses. On the basis of our results, we suggest homology search strategies using the currently available tools and some directions for future...

  17. A new Wolf-Rayet star and its circumstellar nebula in Aquila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Hamann, W.-R.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Fabrika, S.; Valeev, A. F.

    2010-04-01

    We report the discovery of a new Wolf-Rayet star in Aquila via detection of its circumstellar nebula (reminiscent of ring nebulae associated with late WN stars) using the Spitzer Space Telescope archival data. Our spectroscopic follow-up of the central point source associated with the nebula showed that it is a WN7h star (we named it WR121b). We analysed the spectrum of WR121b by using the Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmospheres, obtaining a stellar temperature of ~=50kK. The stellar wind composition is dominated by helium with ~20 per cent of hydrogen. The stellar spectrum is highly reddened [E(B - V) = 2.85mag]. Adopting an absolute magnitude of Mv = -5.7, the star has a luminosity of logL/Lsolar = 5.75 and a mass-loss rate of 10-4.7Msolaryr-1, and resides at a distance of 6.3kpc. We searched for a possible parent cluster of WR121b and found that this star is located at ~=1° from the young star cluster embedded in the giant HII region W43 (containing a WN7+a/OB? star - WR121a). We also discovered a bow shock around the O9.5III star ALS9956, located at from the cluster. We discuss the possibility that WR121b and ALS9956 are runaway stars ejected from the cluster in W43. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, jointly operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC). E-mail: vgvaram@mx.iki.rssi.ru (VVG); akniazev@saao.ac.za (AYK); wrh@astro.physik.uni-potsdam.de (WRH); berdnik@sai.msu.ru (LNB); fabrika@sao.ru (SF); azamat@sao.ru (AFV)

  18. Search for excited quarks in the photon + jet final state in proton proton collisions at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The study presents a search for excited quarks $({\\rm q^{\\star}})$ decaying into a $\\gamma+\\mathrm{jet}$ final state at $\\sqrt{s}=13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS experiment, using the dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2.7\\,\\mathrm{fb^{-1}}$ collected during 2015 data taking at the LHC. High transverse momentum photons and $\\mathrm{jets}$ are selected to search for a resonance peak in the continuous invariant mass distribution of $\\gamma+\\mathrm{jet}$. The 95$\\%$ confidence level upper limits on cross section times branching ratio are evaluated as a function of excited quark mass ($M_{\\mathrm q^{\\star}}$). We exclude at 95\\% CL excited quarks with mass $1.0 < M_{\\mathrm q^{\\star}} < 4.37\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$ and coupling strength $f=1.0$, and present exclusions of excited quark mass as a function of coupling strength.

  19. Search for continuous gravitational waves from neutron stars in globular cluster NGC 6544

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, Laura; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M. Di; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, Perminder S; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoebeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Sigurdsson, S.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a directed search for continuous gravitational waves in data from the sixth initial LIGO science run. The target was the nearby globular cluster NGC 6544 at a distance of approximate to 2.7 kpc. The search covered a broad band of frequencies along with first and second frequency

  20. A search for extragalactic pulsars in the local group galaxies IC 10 and Barnard’s galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Noori, H; Roberts, M S E; Champion, D; McLaughlin, M; Ransom, Scott; Ray, P S

    2017-01-01

    As of today, more than 2500 pulsars have been found, nearly all in the Milky Way, with the exception of ∼28 pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds. However, there have been few published attempts to search for pulsars deeper in our Galactic neighborhood. Two of the more promising Local Group galaxies are IC 10 and NGC 6822 (also known as Barnard’s Galaxy) due to their relatively high star formation rate and their proximity to our galaxy. IC 10 in particular, holds promise as it is the closest starburst galaxy to us and harbors an unusually high number of Wolf-Rayet stars, implying the presence of many neutron stars. We observed IC 10 and NGC 6822 at 820 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope for ∼15 and 5 hours respectively, and put a strong upper limit of 0.1 mJy on pulsars in either of the two galaxies. We also performed single pulse searches of both galaxies with no firm detections. (paper)

  1. Young stellar population and star formation history ofW4 HII region/Cluster Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Neelam

    2018-04-01

    The HII region/cluster complex has been a subject of numerous investigations to study the feedback effect of massive stars on their surroundings. Massive stars not only alter the morphology of the parental molecular clouds, but also influence star formation, circumstellar disks and the mass function of low-mass stars in their vicinity. However, most of the studies of low-mass stellar content of the HII regions are limited only to the nearby regions. We study the star formation in the W4 HII region using deep optical observations obtained with the archival data from Canada - France - Hawaii Telescope, Two-Micron All Sky Survey, Spitzer, Herschel and Chandra. We investigate the spatial distribution of young stellar objects in the region, their association with the remnant molecular clouds, and search for the clustering to establish the sites of recent star formation. Our analysis suggests that the influence of massive stars on circumstellar disks is significant only to thei! r immediate neighborhood. The spatial correlation of the young stars with the distribution of gas and dust of the complex indicate that the clusters would have formed in a large filamentary cloud. The observing facilities at the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), providing high-resolution spectral and imaging capabilities, will fulfill the major objectives in the study of HII regions.

  2. FORMALDEHYDE MASERS: EXCLUSIVE TRACERS OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araya, E. D.; Brown, J. E. [Western Illinois University, Physics Department, 1 University Circle, Macomb, IL 61455 (United States); Olmi, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ortiz, J. Morales [University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus, Physical Sciences Department, P.O. Box 23323, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Hofner, P.; Creech-Eakman, M. J. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Physics Department, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Kurtz, S. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Linz, H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The detection of four formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) maser regions toward young high-mass stellar objects in the last decade, in addition to the three previously known regions, calls for an investigation of whether H{sub 2}CO masers are an exclusive tracer of young high-mass stellar objects. We report the first survey specifically focused on the search for 6 cm H{sub 2}CO masers toward non high-mass star-forming regions (non HMSFRs). The observations were conducted with the 305 m Arecibo Telescope toward 25 low-mass star-forming regions, 15 planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars, and 31 late-type stars. We detected no H{sub 2}CO emission in our sample of non HMSFRs. To check for the association between high-mass star formation and H{sub 2}CO masers, we also conducted a survey toward 22 high-mass star-forming regions from a Hi-GAL (Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey) sample known to harbor 6.7 GHz CH{sub 3}OH masers. We detected a new 6 cm H{sub 2}CO emission line in G32.74−0.07. This work provides further evidence that supports an exclusive association between H{sub 2}CO masers and young regions of high-mass star formation. Furthermore, we detected H{sub 2}CO absorption toward all Hi-GAL sources, and toward 24 low-mass star-forming regions. We also conducted a simultaneous survey for OH (4660, 4750, 4765 MHz), H110α (4874 MHz), HCOOH (4916 MHz), CH{sub 3}OH (5005 MHz), and CH{sub 2}NH (5289 MHz) toward 68 of the sources in our sample of non HMSFRs. With the exception of the detection of a 4765 MHz OH line toward a pre-planetary nebula (IRAS 04395+3601), we detected no other spectral line to an upper limit of 15 mJy for most sources.

  3. Do All O Stars Form in Star Clusters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, C.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Kroupa, P.; Pflamm-Altenburg, J.

    The question whether or not massive stars can form in isolation or only in star clusters is of great importance for the theory of (massive) star formation as well as for the stellar initial mass function of whole galaxies (IGIMF-theory). While a seemingly easy question it is rather difficult to answer. Several physical processes (e.g. star-loss due to stellar dynamics or gas expulsion) and observational limitations (e.g. dust obscuration of young clusters, resolution) pose severe challenges to answer this question. In this contribution we will present the current arguments in favour and against the idea that all O stars form in clusters.

  4. Diffuse remnants of supernova explosions of moving massive stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    The modification of the ambient interstellar medium by the wind of massive stars (the progenitors of most of supernovae) results in that the structure and evolution of diffuse supernova remnants (SNRs) significantly deviate from those derived from standard models of SNRs based of the Sedov-Taylor solution. The stellar proper motion and the regular interstellar magnetic field affect the symmetry of the processed medium and cause the SNR to be non-spherically-symmetric. We show that taking into account these effects allows us to explain the diverse morphologies of the known SNRs (the particular attention is paid to the elongated axisymmetric SNRs and the SNRs consisting of two partially overlapping shells) and to infer the ``true" supernova explosion sites in some peculiar SNRs (therefore to search for new neutron stars associated with them).

  5. Optimizing the search for transiting planets in long time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofir, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    Context. Transit surveys, both ground- and space-based, have already accumulated a large number of light curves that span several years. Aims: The search for transiting planets in these long time series is computationally intensive. We wish to optimize the search for both detection and computational efficiencies. Methods: We assume that the searched systems can be described well by Keplerian orbits. We then propagate the effects of different system parameters to the detection parameters. Results: We show that the frequency information content of the light curve is primarily determined by the duty cycle of the transit signal, and thus the optimal frequency sampling is found to be cubic and not linear. Further optimization is achieved by considering duty-cycle dependent binning of the phased light curve. By using the (standard) BLS, one is either fairly insensitive to long-period planets or less sensitive to short-period planets and computationally slower by a significant factor of ~330 (for a 3 yr long dataset). We also show how the physical system parameters, such as the host star's size and mass, directly affect transit detection. This understanding can then be used to optimize the search for every star individually. Conclusions: By considering Keplerian dynamics explicitly rather than implicitly one can optimally search the BLS parameter space. The presented Optimal BLS enhances the detectability of both very short and very long period planets, while allowing such searches to be done with much reduced resources and time. The Matlab/Octave source code for Optimal BLS is made available. The MATLAB code is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/561/A138

  6. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  7. Bursting star formation and the overabundance of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodigfee, G.; Deloore, C.

    1985-01-01

    The ratio of the number of WR-stars to their OB progenitors appears to be significantly higher in some extragalactic systems than in our Galaxy. This overabundance of Wolf-Rayet-stars can be explained as a consequence of a recent burst of star formation. It is suggested that this burst is the manifestation of a long period nonlinear oscillation in the star formation process, produced by positive feedback effects between young stars and the interstellar medium. Star burst galaxies with large numbers of WR-stars must generate gamma fluxes but due to the distance, all of them are beyond the reach of present-day detectors, except probably 30 Dor

  8. 77 FR 43586 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-479-000] Southern Star... abandonment of facilities by Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Logan and Oklahoma... concern. Southern Star provided landowners with a fact sheet prepared by the FERC entitled ``An Interstate...

  9. A DEEPER LOOK AT LEO IV: STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND EXTENDED STRUCTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, David J.; Seth, Anil; Olszewski, Edward W.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Willman, Beth; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2010-01-01

    We present MMT/Megacam imaging of the Leo IV dwarf galaxy in order to investigate its structure and star formation history, and to search for signs of association with the recently discovered Leo V satellite. Based on parameterized fits, we find that Leo IV is round, with ε h ≅ 130 pc. Additionally, we perform a thorough search for extended structures in the plane of the sky and along the line of sight. We derive our surface brightness detection limit by implanting fake structures into our catalog with stellar populations identical to that of Leo IV. We show that we are sensitive to stream-like structures with surface brightness μ r ∼ -2 , and at this limit we find no stellar bridge between Leo IV (out to a radius of ∼0.5 kpc) and the recently discovered, nearby satellite Leo V. Using the color-magnitude fitting package StarFISH, we determine that Leo IV is consistent with a single age (∼14 Gyr), single metallicity ([Fe/H] ∼ -2.3) stellar population, although we cannot rule out a significant spread in these values. We derive a luminosity of M V = -5.5 ± 0.3. Studying both the spatial distribution and frequency of Leo IV's 'blue plume' stars reveals evidence for a young (∼2 Gyr) stellar population which makes up ∼2% of its stellar mass. This sprinkling of star formation, only detectable in this deep study, highlights the need for further imaging of the new Milky Way satellites along with theoretical work on the expected, detailed properties of these possible 'reionization fossils'.

  10. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Qin Shengli, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2012-05-20

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and kinematic temperature {approx}20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  11. TRIGGERED STAR FORMATION SURROUNDING WOLF-RAYET STAR HD 211853

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tie; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Qin Shengli

    2012-01-01

    The environment surrounding Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star HD 211853 is studied in molecular, infrared, as well as radio, and H I emission. The molecular ring consists of well-separated cores, which have a volume density of 10 3 cm –3 and kinematic temperature ∼20 K. Most of the cores are under gravitational collapse due to external pressure from the surrounding ionized gas. From the spectral energy distribution modeling toward the young stellar objects, the sequential star formation is revealed on a large scale in space spreading from the W-R star to the molecular ring. A small-scale sequential star formation is revealed toward core 'A', which harbors a very young star cluster. Triggered star formations are thus suggested. The presence of the photodissociation region, the fragmentation of the molecular ring, the collapse of the cores, and the large-scale sequential star formation indicate that the 'collect and collapse' process functions in this region. The star-forming activities in core 'A' seem to be affected by the 'radiation-driven implosion' process.

  12. Machine learning search for variable stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchenko, Ilya N.; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Gavras, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    Photometric variability detection is often considered as a hypothesis testing problem: an object is variable if the null hypothesis that its brightness is constant can be ruled out given the measurements and their uncertainties. The practical applicability of this approach is limited by uncorrected systematic errors. We propose a new variability detection technique sensitive to a wide range of variability types while being robust to outliers and underestimated measurement uncertainties. We consider variability detection as a classification problem that can be approached with machine learning. Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machines (SVM), k Nearest Neighbours (kNN), Neural Nets (NN), Random Forests (RF), and Stochastic Gradient Boosting classifier (SGB) are applied to 18 features (variability indices) quantifying scatter and/or correlation between points in a light curve. We use a subset of Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment phase two (OGLE-II) Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) photometry (30 265 light curves) that was searched for variability using traditional methods (168 known variable objects) as the training set and then apply the NN to a new test set of 31 798 OGLE-II LMC light curves. Among 205 candidates selected in the test set, 178 are real variables, while 13 low-amplitude variables are new discoveries. The machine learning classifiers considered are found to be more efficient (select more variables and fewer false candidates) compared to traditional techniques using individual variability indices or their linear combination. The NN, SGB, SVM, and RF show a higher efficiency compared to LR and kNN.

  13. Constraints on the brown dwarf mass function from optical and infrared searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    Photometric surveys of faint proper motion stars and searches for infrared binary companions have identified a few very low luminosity objects. The author considers how these searches may constrain the brown dwarf mass function. An astrophysically plausible brown dwarf population is defined which yields a dark mass density = 0.5 x the observed density. Using the sensitivity and other limits of various surveys, the expected numbers of observable brown dwarfs are obtained from the model population for comparison with actual results. Reasonable improvement in search protocol could yield statistically significant tests of the brown dwarf mass function. (author)

  14. Eclipses and dust formation by WC9 type Wolf-Rayet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Visual photometry of 16 WC8-9 dust-making Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars during 2001-2009 was extracted from the All-Sky Automated Survey All Star Catalogue (ASAS-3) to search for eclipses attributable to extinction by dust formed in clumps in our line of sight. Data for a comparable number of dust-free WC6-9 stars were also examined to help characterize the data set. Frequent eclipses were observed from WR 104, and several from WR 106, extending the 1994-2001 studies by Kato et al., but not supporting their phasing the variations in WR 104 with its `pinwheel' rotation period. Only four other stars showed eclipses, WR 50 (one of the dust-free stars), WR 69, WR 95 and WR 117, and there may have been an eclipse by WR 121, which had shown two eclipses in the past. No dust eclipses were shown by the `historic' eclipsers WR 103 and WR 113. The atmospheric eclipses of the latter were observed but the suggestion by David-Uraz et al. that dust may be partly responsible for these is not supported. Despite its frequent eclipses, there is no evidence in the infrared images of WR 104 for dust made in its eclipses, demonstrating that any dust formed in this process is not a significant contributor to its circumstellar dust cloud and suggesting that the same applies to the other stars showing fewer eclipses.

  15. US EPA - A*Star Partnership - Accelerating the Acceptance of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The path for incorporating new alternative methods and technologies into quantitative chemical risk assessment poses a diverse set of scientific challenges. Some of these challenges include development of relevant and predictive test systems and computational models to integrate and extrapolate experimental data, and rapid characterization and acceptance of these systems and models. The series of presentations will highlight a collaborative effort between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) that is focused on developing and applying experimental and computational models for predicting chemical-induced liver and kidney toxicity, brain angiogenesis, and blood-brain-barrier formation. In addressing some of these challenges, the U.S. EPA and A*STAR collaboration will provide a glimpse of what chemical risk assessments could look like in the 21st century. Presentation on US EPA – A*STAR Partnership at international symposium on Accelerating the acceptance of next-generation sciences and their application to regulatory risk assessment in Singapore.

  16. An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buren, David Van

    1995-01-01

    We searched for bow shock-like objects like those known around Oph and a Cam near the positions of 183 runaway stars. Based primarily on the presence and morphology of excess 60 micron emission we identify 56 new candidate bow shocks, for which we determine photometric and morphological parameters. Previously only a dozen or so were known. Well resolved structures are present around 25 stars. A comparison of the distribution of symmetry axes of the infrared nebulae with that of their proper motion vectors indicates that these two directions are very significantly aligned. The observed alignment strongly suggests that the structures we see arise from the interaction of stellar winds with the interstellar medium, justifying the identification of these far-infrared objects as stellar wind bow shocks.

  17. Star Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jing M; McKenzie, Thomas G; Fu, Qiang; Wong, Edgar H H; Xu, Jiangtao; An, Zesheng; Shanmugam, Sivaprakash; Davis, Thomas P; Boyer, Cyrille; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-06-22

    Recent advances in controlled/living polymerization techniques and highly efficient coupling chemistries have enabled the facile synthesis of complex polymer architectures with controlled dimensions and functionality. As an example, star polymers consist of many linear polymers fused at a central point with a large number of chain end functionalities. Owing to this exclusive structure, star polymers exhibit some remarkable characteristics and properties unattainable by simple linear polymers. Hence, they constitute a unique class of technologically important nanomaterials that have been utilized or are currently under audition for many applications in life sciences and nanotechnologies. This article first provides a comprehensive summary of synthetic strategies towards star polymers, then reviews the latest developments in the synthesis and characterization methods of star macromolecules, and lastly outlines emerging applications and current commercial use of star-shaped polymers. The aim of this work is to promote star polymer research, generate new avenues of scientific investigation, and provide contemporary perspectives on chemical innovation that may expedite the commercialization of new star nanomaterials. We envision in the not-too-distant future star polymers will play an increasingly important role in materials science and nanotechnology in both academic and industrial settings.

  18. An explanation of the radio flux mystery of HD 192163 and empirical models for WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, T.

    1982-01-01

    The radio flux value of the star HD 192163 (WN6) measured by Dickel et al. (1980) imposes strong restrictions on the possible mass outflow region models of this star. Dickel et al. (1980) and also Barlow et al. (1980) suggested that the wind terminal velocity has not been reached in the IR emission region. But when taking into account the line spectrum data, it appears that the wind velocity must be comparatively close to the star already nearly constant. So it is necessary to search for some other explanation. The author has found that at reasonable values of density, electron and core (star) temperatures it is possible that helium becomes neutral at a comparatively large distance from the star and then the radio flux is mainly due to the f-f radiation of H + and N + . In the case of such an ionization structure there are no restrictions on the outflow velocity being already constant close to the star. Therefore it is now possible to explain the radio and IR fluxes as well as the line spectrum data of HD 192163. (Auth.)

  19. Fixed Target Collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, Kathryn C.

    2016-12-15

    The RHIC Beam Energy Scan (BES) program was proposed to look for the turn-off of signatures of the quark gluon plasma (QGP), search for a possible QCD critical point, and study the nature of the phase transition between hadronic and partonic matter. Previous results have been used to claim that the onset of deconfinement occurs at a center-of-mass energy of 7 GeV. Data from lower energies are needed to test if this onset occurs. The goal of the STAR Fixed-Target Program is to extend the collision energy range in BES II to energies that are likely below the onset of deconfinement. Currently, STAR has inserted a gold target into the beam pipe and conducted test runs at center-of-mass energies of 3.9 and 4.5 GeV. Tests have been done with both Au and Al beams. First physics results from a Coulomb potential analysis of Au + Au fixed-target collisions are presented and are found to be consistent with results from previous experiments. Furthermore, the Coulomb potential, which is sensitive to the Z of the projectile and degree of baryonic stopping, will be compared to published results from the AGS.

  20. Wolf-Rayet stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahade, J

    1981-12-01

    Aspects of the problems of the Wolf-Rayet stars related to their chemical composition, their evolutionary status, and their apparent dichotomy in two spectral sequences are discussed. Dogmas concerning WR stars are critically discussed, including the belief that WR stars lack hydrogen, that they are helium stars evolved from massive close binaries, and the existence of a second WR stage in which the star is a short-period single-lined binary. The relationship of WR stars with planetary nebulae is addressed, as is the membership of these stars in clusters and associations. The division of WR stars into WN and WC sequences is considered, questioning the reasonability of accounting for WR line formation in terms of abundance differences.

  1. The POINT-AGAPE Survey I: The Variable Stars in M31

    CERN Document Server

    An Jun Hong; Hewett, P C; Baillon, Paul; Calchi-Novati, S; Carr, B J; Creze, M; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gould, A; Jetzer, P; Kaplan, J; Kerins, E; Paulin-Henriksson, S; Smartt, S J; Stalin, C S; Tsapras, Y; An, Jin H.; Jetzer, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The POINT-AGAPE collaboration has been monitoring M31 for three seasons with the Wide Field Camera on the Isaac Newton Telescope. In each season, data are taken for one hour per night for roughly sixty nights during the six months that M31 is visible. The two fields of view straddle the central bulge, northwards and southwards. We have calculated the locations, periods and amplitudes of 35414 variable stars in M31 as a by-product of our microlensing search. The variables are classified according to their period and amplitude of variation. They are classified into population I and II Cepheids, Miras and semi-regular long-period variables. The population I Cepheids are associated with the spiral arms, while the central concentration of the Miras and long-period variables varies noticeably, the stars with brighter (and shorter) variations being much more centrally concentrated. A crucial role in the microlensing experiment is played by the asymmetry signal. It was initially assumed that the variable stars would ...

  2. StarDOM: From STAR format to XML

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, Jens P.; Nilges, Michael; Ehrlich, Lutz

    1999-01-01

    StarDOM is a software package for the representation of STAR files as document object models and the conversion of STAR files into XML. This allows interactive navigation by using the Document Object Model representation of the data as well as easy access by XML query languages. As an example application, the entire BioMagResBank has been transformed into XML format. Using an XML query language, statistical queries on the collected NMR data sets can be constructed with very little effort. The BioMagResBank/XML data and the software can be obtained at http://www.nmr.embl-heidelberg.de/nmr/StarDOM/

  3. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino 77, CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Miranda, L. F. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Vigo, E-36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K {sub s}) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10{sup 8-9} cm{sup –3}), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in

  4. SS 383: A NEW S-TYPE YELLOW SYMBIOTIC STAR?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baella, N. O.; Pereira, C. B.; Miranda, L. F.

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic stars are key objects in understanding the formation and evolution of interacting binary systems, and are probably the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae. However, the number of known symbiotic stars is much lower than predicted. We aim to search for new symbiotic stars, with particular emphasis on the S-type yellow symbiotic stars, in order to determine their total population, evolutionary timescales, and physical properties. The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) (J – H) versus (H – K s ) color-color diagram has been previously used to identify new symbiotic star candidates and show that yellow symbiotics are located in a particular region of that diagram. Candidate symbiotic stars are selected on the basis of their locus in the 2MASS (J – H) versus (H – K s ) diagram and the presence of Hα line emission in the Stephenson and Sanduleak Hα survey. This diagram separates S-type yellow symbiotic stars from the rest of the S-type symbiotic stars, allowing us to select candidate yellow symbiotics. To establish the true nature of the candidates, intermediate-resolution spectroscopy is obtained. We have identified the Hα emission line source SS 383 as an S-type yellow symbiotic candidate by its position in the 2MASS color-color diagram. The optical spectrum of SS 383 shows Balmer, He I, He II, and [O III] emission lines, in combination with TiO absorption bands that confirm its symbiotic nature. The derived electron density (≅10 8-9 cm –3 ), He I emission line intensity ratios, and position in the [O III] λ5007/Hβ versus [O III] λ4363/Hγ diagram indicate that SS 383 is an S-type symbiotic star, with a probable spectral type of K7-M0 deduced for its cool component based on TiO indices. The spectral type and the position of SS 383 (corrected for reddening) in the 2MASS color-color diagram strongly suggest that SS 383 is an S-type yellow symbiotic. Our result points out that the 2MASS color-color diagram is a powerful tool in identifying new S

  5. 76 FR 41788 - Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP11-481-000] Southern Star... Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline, Inc. (Southern Star) in Rice County, Kansas. This EA will be used by... Facility On My Land? What Do I Need To Know?'' was attached to the project notice Southern Star provided to...

  6. STARS no star on Kauai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.

    1993-01-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem

  7. Darwin--a mission to detect and search for life on extrasolar planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S; Léger, A; Fridlund, M; Herbst, T M; Kaltenegger, L; Absil, O; Beichman, C; Benz, W; Blanc, M; Brack, A; Chelli, A; Colangeli, L; Cottin, H; Coudé du Foresto, F; Danchi, W C; Defrère, D; den Herder, J-W; Eiroa, C; Greaves, J; Henning, T; Johnston, K J; Jones, H; Labadie, L; Lammer, H; Launhardt, R; Lawson, P; Lay, O P; LeDuigou, J-M; Liseau, R; Malbet, F; Martin, S R; Mawet, D; Mourard, D; Moutou, C; Mugnier, L M; Ollivier, M; Paresce, F; Quirrenbach, A; Rabbia, Y D; Raven, J A; Rottgering, H J A; Rouan, D; Santos, N C; Selsis, F; Serabyn, E; Shibai, H; Tamura, M; Thiébaut, E; Westall, F; White, G J

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of extrasolar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. The detection of planets that vary widely in mass demonstrates that extrasolar planets of low mass exist. In this paper, we describe a mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the search for, and characterization of, terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines, including astrophysics, planetary sciences, chemistry, and microbiology. Darwin is designed to detect rocky planets similar to Earth and perform spectroscopic analysis at mid-infrared wavelengths (6-20 mum), where an advantageous contrast ratio between star and planet occurs. The baseline mission is projected to last 5 years and consists of approximately 200 individual target stars. Among these, 25-50 planetary systems can be studied spectroscopically, which will include the search for gases such as CO(2), H(2)O, CH(4), and O(3). Many of the key technologies required for the construction of Darwin have already been demonstrated, and the remainder are estimated to be mature in the near future. Darwin is a mission that will ignite intense interest in both the research community and the wider public.

  8. Stellar Populations in Compact Galaxy Groups: a Multi-wavelength Study of HCGs 16, 22, and 42, Their Star Clusters, and Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Maybhate, A.; Charlton, J. C.; Fedotov, K.; Durrell, P. R.; Mulchaey, J. S.; English, J.; Desjardins, T. D.; Gallagher, S. C.; Walker, L. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of three compact galaxy groups, Hickson compact groups (HCGs) 16, 22, and 42, which describe a sequence in terms of gas richness, from space- (Swift, Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Spitzer) and ground-based (Las Campanas Observatory and Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) imaging and spectroscopy.We study various signs of past interactions including a faint, dusty tidal feature about HCG 16A, which we tentatively age-date at what were thought to be double nuclei in HCG 16C and D into multiple, distinct sources, likely to be star clusters. Beyond our phenomenological treatment, we focus primarily on contrasting the stellar populations across these three groups. The star clusters show a remarkable intermediate-age population in HCG 22, and identify the time at which star formation was quenched in HCG 42. We also search for dwarf galaxies at accordant redshifts. The inclusion of 33 members and 27 "associates" (possible members) radically changes group dynamical masses, which in turn may affect previous evolutionary classifications. The extended membership paints a picture of relative isolation in HCGs 16 and 22, but shows HCG 42 to be part of a larger structure, following a dichotomy expected from recent studies. We conclude that (1) star cluster populations provide an excellent metric of evolutionary state, as they can age-date the past epochs of star formation; and (2) the extended dwarf galaxy population must be considered in assessing the dynamical state of a compact group.

  9. New insights into nonradiative heating in late A star chromospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Matthews, Lynn D.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1995-01-01

    Using new and archival spectra from the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph, we have searched for evidence of chromospheric and transition region emission in six stars of mid to late A spectral type. Two of the stars, alpha Aq1 (A7 IV-V) and alpha Cep (A7 IV-V), show emission in the C II 1335 A doublet, confirming the presence of hot plasma with temperatures comparable to that of the solar transition region. Using radiative equilibrium photospheric models, we estimate the net surface fluxes in the CII emission line to be 9.4 x 10(exp 4) ergs/sq cm/s for alpha Aq1 and 6.5 x 10(exp 4)ergs/sq cm/s for alpha Cep. These are comparable to fluxes observed in stars as hot as approximately 8000 K (B-V = 0.22). We find no evidence for the blueshifted emission reported by Simon et al. (1994). We estimate the basal flux level to be about 30% of that seen in early F stars, and that the bulk of the emission is not basal in origin. We conclude that the basal flux level drops rapidly for B-V approximately less than 0.3, but that magnetic activity may persist to B-v as small as 0.22.

  10. The Globular Cluster NGC 6402 (M14). II. Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras Peña, C.; Catelan, M.; Grundahl, F.; Stephens, A. W.; Smith, H. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present time-series BVI photometry for the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6402 (M14). The data consist of ∼137 images per filter, obtained using the 0.9 and 1.0 m SMARTS telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. The images were obtained during two observing runs in 2006–2007. The image-subtraction package ISIS, along with DAOPHOT II/ALLFRAME, was used to perform crowded-field photometry and search for variable stars. We identified 130 variables, eight of which are new discoveries. The variable star population is comprised of 56 ab-type RR Lyrae stars, 54 c-type RR Lyrae, 6 type II Cepheids, 1 W UMa star, 1 detached eclipsing binary, and 12 long-period variables. We provide Fourier decomposition parameters for the RR Lyrae, and discuss the physical parameters and photometric metallicity derived therefrom. The M14 distance modulus is also discussed, based on different approaches for the calibration of the absolute magnitudes of RR Lyrae stars. The possible presence of second-overtone RR Lyrae in M14 is critically addressed, with our results arguing against this possibility. By considering all of the RR Lyrae stars as members of the cluster, we derive =0.589 {{d}}{{a}}{{y}}{{s}}. This, together with the position of the RR Lyrae stars of both Bailey types in the period–amplitude diagram, suggests an Oosterhoff-intermediate classification for the cluster. Such an intermediate Oosterhoff type is much more commonly found in nearby extragalactic systems, and we critically discuss several other possible indications that may point to an extragalactic origin for this cluster. Based on observations obtained with the 0.9 m and 1 m telescopes at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile, operated by the SMARTS consortium.

  11. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF WHITE DWARFS: THE MISSING PLANETARY DEBRIS AROUND DZ STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We report a Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera search for infrared excesses around white dwarfs, including 14 newly observed targets and 16 unpublished archived stars. We find a substantial infrared excess around two warm white dwarfs—J220934.84+122336.5 and WD 0843+516, the latter apparently being the hottest white dwarf known to display a close-in dust disk. Extending previous studies, we find that the fraction of white dwarfs with dust disks increases as the star's temperature increases; for stars cooler than 10,000 K, even the most heavily polluted ones do not have ∼1000 K dust. There is tentative evidence that the dust disk occurrence is correlated with the volatility of the accreted material. In the Appendix, we modify a previous analysis to clarify how Poynting-Robertson drag might play an important role in transferring materials from a dust disk into a white dwarf's atmosphere.

  12. Lightweight Double Neutron Star Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    for such a system.Through meticulous observations over the span of 2.5 years, Martinez and collaborators were able to obtain a number of useful measurements for the system, including the pulsars period (62 ms), the period of the binary (2.62 days), and the systems eccentricity (e = 0.17).In addition, the team measured the rate of advance of periastron of the system, allowing them to estimate the total mass of the system: M = 2.54 solar masses. This mass, combined with the eccentricity of the orbit, demonstrate that the companion of the pulsar in PSR J1411+2551 is almost certainly a neutron star and the system is one of the lightest known to date, even including the double neutron-star merger that was observed by LIGO in August this past year.Constraining Stellar PhysicsBased on its measured properties, PSR J1411+2551 is most likely a recycled pulsar in a double neutron-star system. [Martinez et al. 2017]The intriguing orbital properties and low mass of PSR J1411+2551 have already allowed the authors to explore a number of constraints to stellar evolution models, including narrowing the possible equations of state for neutron stars that could produce such a system. These constraints will be interesting to compare to constraints from LIGO and Virgo in the future, as more merging neutron-star systems are observed.Meanwhile, our best bet for obtaining further constraints is to continue searching for more pre-merger double neutron-star systems like the Hulse-Taylor binary and PSR J1411+2551. Let the hunt continue!CitationJ. G. Martinez et al 2017 ApJL 851 L29. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa9d87

  13. Optimally setting up directed searches for continuous gravitational waves in Advanced LIGO O1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Papa, Maria Alessandra; Krishnan, Badri; Prix, Reinhard; Beer, Christian; Zhu, Sylvia J.; Eggenstein, Heinz-Bernd; Bock, Oliver; Machenschalk, Bernd

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we design a search for continuous gravitational waves from three supernova remnants: Vela Jr., Cassiopeia A (Cas A) and G347.3. These systems might harbor rapidly rotating neutron stars emitting quasiperiodic gravitational radiation detectable by the advanced LIGO detectors. Our search is designed to use the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home for a few months and assumes the sensitivity and duty cycles of the advanced LIGO detectors during their first science run. For all three supernova remnants, the sky positions of their central compact objects are well known but the frequency and spin-down rates of the neutron stars are unknown which makes the searches computationally limited. In a previous paper we have proposed a general framework for deciding on what target we should spend computational resources and in what proportion, what frequency and spin-down ranges we should search for every target, and with what search setup. Here we further expand this framework and apply it to design a search directed at detecting continuous gravitational wave signals from the most promising three supernova remnants identified as such in the previous work. Our optimization procedure yields broad frequency and spin-down searches for all three objects, at an unprecedented level of sensitivity: The smallest detectable gravitational wave strain h0 for Cas A is expected to be 2 times smaller than the most sensitive upper limits published to date, and our proposed search, which was set up and ran on the volunteer computing project Einstein@Home, covers a much larger frequency range.

  14. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new

  15. Visual search by chimpanzees (Pan): assessment of controlling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, M

    1995-03-01

    Three experimentally sophisticated chimpanzees (Pan), Akira, Chloe, and Ai, were trained on visual search performance using a modified multiple-alternative matching-to-sample task in which a sample stimulus was followed by the search display containing one target identical to the sample and several uniform distractors (i.e., negative comparison stimuli were identical to each other). After they acquired this task, they were tested for transfer of visual search performance to trials in which the sample was not followed by the uniform search display (odd-item search). Akira showed positive transfer of visual search performance to odd-item search even when the display size (the number of stimulus items in the search display) was small, whereas Chloe and Ai showed a transfer only when the display size was large. Chloe and Ai used some nonrelational cues such as perceptual isolation of the target among uniform distractors (so-called pop-out). In addition to the odd-item search test, various types of probe trials were presented to clarify the controlling relations in multiple-alternative matching to sample. Akira showed a decrement of accuracy as a function of the display size when the search display was nonuniform (i.e., each "distractor" stimulus was not the same), whereas Chloe and Ai showed perfect performance. Furthermore, when the sample was identical to the uniform distractors in the search display, Chloe and Ai never selected an odd-item target, but Akira selected it when the display size was large. These results indicated that Akira's behavior was controlled mainly by relational cues of target-distractor oddity, whereas an identity relation between the sample and the target strongly controlled the performance of Chloe and Ai.

  16. Photometric investigation of possible binary occurrence in the central stars of seventeen planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, J.D. III.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search was conducted for all possible bihary central stars in planetary nebulae. The results, which include all known and suspected visual, spectroscopic, and spectrum binaries, as well as all reported variable central stars, are presented in a series of tables. A photoelectric study was conducted in order to determine the status of short period (on the order of hours) variability of the central regions of seventeen planetary nebulae. Only the stellar appearing planetary nebula M1-2 (PK 133-8 0 1) was found to be variable. Its short (4.0002 hours) period suggests that it may be only the second eclipsing binary found among central stars to date. A method of concentric apertures was developed to determine the amount of light contributed by the central star vis-a-vis the nebula through a given aperture and filter. The procedure enabled UBV magnitudes and colors (and the errors) of central stars to be measured, including some in the sample of seventeen for which no previous values have been published. Mean nebular UBV magnitudes, surface brightnesses, and color indices were also found with the technique, and represent the first such published measurements. Various UBV two-parameter were constructed, revealing possible nebular/stellar sequences; a star-plus-nebula two-color diagram identifies three spectral classes of central stars, and two suspected binaries in the seventeen studied

  17. Spectral Confirmation of New Galactic LBV and WN Stars Associated With Mid-IR Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy; Gvaramadze, Vasilii V.

    2014-08-01

    Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars represent an extremely rare class and short-lived phase in the lives of very luminous massive stars with high mass loss rates. Extragalactic LBVs are responsible for producing false supernovae (SN), the SN Impostors, and have been directly linked with the progenitors of actual SN, indicating the LBV phase can be a final endpoint for massive star evolution. Yet only a few confirmed LBVs have been identified in the Galaxy. Their stellar evolution is poorly constrained by observations, and the physical reason for their unstable nature, both in terms of moderate spectral and photometric variability of a few magnitudes and the giant eruptions a la η Car that rival SN explosions, remains a mystery. Newly discovered mid-IR shells act as signposts, pointing to the central massive stars (LBV and Wolf-Rayet [WR] stars) that produced them. We have undertaken a spectroscopic survey of possible progenitor stars within these shells and are discovering that many are LBVs and WN-type WR transitional stars. We propose to extend this IR spectral survey to the south to search for new progenitor stars associated with dozens of newly identified shells. This survey should result in a substantial increase of new WRs and candidate LBVs for continued future study. Spectral analysis will yield new insights into the winds and physical properties of these rare and important objects, and lead to a better understanding of the physics driving giant eruptions.

  18. First all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown sources in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first results of an all-sky search for continuous gravitational waves from unknown spinning neutron stars in binary systems using LIGO and Virgo data. Using a specially developed analysis program, the TwoSpect algorithm, the search was carried out on data from the sixth LIGO Science Run and the second and third Virgo Science Runs. The search covers a range of frequencies from 20 Hz to 520 Hz, a range of orbital periods from 2 to ~2,254 h and a frequency- and period-dependent ra...

  19. Star-forming galaxy models: Blending star formation into TREESPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihos, J. Christopher; Hernquist, Lars

    1994-01-01

    We have incorporated star-formation algorithms into a hybrid N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (TREESPH) in order to describe the star forming properties of disk galaxies over timescales of a few billion years. The models employ a Schmidt law of index n approximately 1.5 to calculate star-formation rates, and explicitly include the energy and metallicity feedback into the Interstellar Medium (ISM). Modeling the newly formed stellar population is achieved through the use of hybrid SPH/young star particles which gradually convert from gaseous to collisionless particles, avoiding the computational difficulties involved in creating new particles. The models are shown to reproduce well the star-forming properties of disk galaxies, such as the morphology, rate of star formation, and evolution of the global star-formation rate and disk gas content. As an example of the technique, we model an encounter between a disk galaxy and a small companion which gives rise to a ring galaxy reminiscent of the Cartwheel (AM 0035-35). The primary galaxy in this encounter experiences two phases of star forming activity: an initial period during the expansion of the ring, and a delayed phase as shocked material in the ring falls back into the central regions.

  20. EMACSS: Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Poul E. R.; Gieles, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The star cluster evolution code Evolve Me A Cluster of StarS (EMACSS) is a simple yet physically motivated computational model that describes the evolution of some fundamental properties of star clusters in static tidal fields. The prescription is based upon the flow of energy within the cluster, which is a constant fraction of the total energy per half-mass relaxation time. According to Henon's predictions, this flow is independent of the precise mechanisms for energy production within the core, and therefore does not require a complete description of the many-body interactions therein. Dynamical theory and analytic descriptions of escape mechanisms is used to construct a series of coupled differential equations expressing the time evolution of cluster mass and radius for a cluster of equal-mass stars. These equations are numerically solved using a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration kernel; the results were benchmarked against a data base of direct N-body simulations. EMACSS is publicly available and reproduces the N-body results to within 10 per cent accuracy for the entire post-collapse evolution of star clusters.

  1. Semi-empirical seismic relations of A-F stars from COROT and Kepler legacy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A.; Suárez, J. C.; García Hernández, A.; Mendoza, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Asteroseismology is witnessing a revolution, thanks to high-precise asteroseismic space data (MOST, COROT, Kepler, BRITE) and their large ground-based follow-up programs. Those instruments have provided an unprecedented large amount of information, which allows us to scrutinize its statistical properties in the quest for hidden relations among pulsational and/or physical observables. This approach might be particularly useful for stars whose pulsation content is difficult to interpret. This is the case of intermediate-mass classical pulsating stars (I.e. γ Dor, δ Scuti, hybrids) for which current theories do not properly predict the observed oscillation spectra. Here, we establish a first step in finding such hidden relations from data mining techniques for these stars. We searched for those hidden relations in a sample of δ Scuti and hybrid stars observed by COROT and Kepler (74 and 153, respectively). No significant correlations between pairs of observables were found. However, two statistically significant correlations emerged from multivariable correlations in the observed seismic data, which describe the total number of observed frequencies and the largest one, respectively. Moreover, three different sets of stars were found to cluster according to their frequency density distribution. Such sets are in apparent agreement with the asteroseismic properties commonly accepted for A-F pulsating stars.

  2. Fundmental Parameters of Low-Mass Stars, Brown Dwarfs, and Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John A.; Bowler, Brendan; Shkolnik, Evgenya

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in evolutionary models of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs, these models remain poorly constrained by observations. In order to test these predictions directly, masses of individual stars must be measured and combined with broadband photometry and medium-resolution spectroscopy to probe stellar atmospheres. I will present results from an astrometric and spectroscopic survey of low-mass pre-main sequence binary stars to measure individual dynamical masses and compare to model predictions. This is the first systematic test of a large number of stellar systems of intermediate age between young star-forming regions and old field stars. Stars in our sample are members of the Tuc-Hor, AB Doradus, and beta Pictoris moving groups, the last of which includes GJ 3305 AB, the wide binary companion to the imaged exoplanet host 51 Eri. I will also present results of Spitzer observations of secondary eclipses of LHS 6343 C, a T dwarf transiting one member of an M+M binary in the Kepler field. By combining these data with Kepler photometry and radial velocity observations, we can measure the luminosity, mass, and radius of the brown dwarf. This is the first non-inflated brown dwarf for which all three of these parameters have been measured, providing the first benchmark to test model predictions of the masses and radii of field T dwarfs. I will discuss these results in the context of K2 and TESS, which will find additional benchmark transiting brown dwarfs over the course of their missions, including a description of the first planet catalog developed from K2 data and a program to search for transiting planets around mid-M dwarfs.

  3. The chemical composition of the Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    This review summarises current knowledge of the chemical composition of PopI WR stars, concentrating on work carried out in this area since the last IAU, No. 49, symposium devoted to this stellar class (Bappu and Sahade 1973). Section 2 deals with an assessment of the atmospheric H/He ratio in both WN and WC stars: a parameter of fundamental importance in addressing their evolutionary status, as well as providing a base species with which to compare other derived chemical abundances. Section 3 briefly deals with the models generally employed and gives recent results for He, C and N abundances derived from both visible and UV line analyses. Section 4 summarises recent results from stellar evolutionary theory and in Section 5 these are compared with those derived from observation, assessing the significance of these new results and their implications for the evolutionary status of the WR stars. Some areas for further advancement are identified. (Auth.)

  4. A 1.1-1.9 GHz SETI SURVEY OF THE KEPLER FIELD. I. A SEARCH FOR NARROW-BAND EMISSION FROM SELECT TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemion, Andrew P. V.; Korpela, Eric; Werthimer, Dan; Cobb, Jeff; Lebofsky, Matt; Marcy, Geoffrey W. [University of California, Berkeley, 110 Sproul Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Demorest, Paul; Maddalena, Ron J.; Langston, Glen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Rd Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North A' ohoku Place, 209 Hilo, HI 96720-2700 (United States); Tarter, Jill [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave 100 Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We present a targeted search for narrow-band (<5 Hz) drifting sinusoidal radio emission from 86 stars in the Kepler field hosting confirmed or candidate exoplanets. Radio emission less than 5 Hz in spectral extent is currently known to only arise from artificial sources. The stars searched were chosen based on the properties of their putative exoplanets, including stars hosting candidates with 380 K > T{sub eq} > 230 K, stars with five or more detected candidates or stars with a super-Earth (R{sub p} < 3 R{sub Circled-Plus }) in a >50 day orbit. Baseband voltage data across the entire band between 1.1 and 1.9 GHz were recorded at the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope between 2011 February and April and subsequently searched offline. No signals of extraterrestrial origin were found. We estimate that fewer than {approx}1% of transiting exoplanet systems host technological civilizations that are radio loud in narrow-band emission between 1 and 2 GHz at an equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP) of {approx}1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 21} erg s{sup -1}, approximately eight times the peak EIRP of the Arecibo Planetary Radar, and we limit the number of 1-2 GHz narrow-band-radio-loud Kardashev type II civilizations in the Milky Way to be <10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }{sup -1}. Here we describe our observations, data reduction procedures and results.

  5. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  6. Using Two Different Self-Directed Search (SDS) Interpretive Materials: Implications for Career Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, V. Casey; Sampson, James P.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    John Holland's Self-Directed Search (SDS) is a career assessment that consists of several booklets designed to be self-scored and self-administered. It simulates what a practitioner and an individual might do together in a career counseling session (e.g., review preferred activities and occupations; review competencies, abilities and possible…

  7. THE FUTILE SEARCH FOR GALACTIC DISK DARK MATTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido Pestana, Jose Luis; Eckhardt, Donald H.

    2010-01-01

    Several approaches have been used to search for dark matter in our galactic disk, but with mixed results: maybe yes and maybe no. The prevailing approach, integrating the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for tracer stars, has led to more definitive results: yes and no. The touchstone 'yes' analysis of Bahcall et al. has subsequently been confirmed or refuted by various other investigators. This has been our motivation for approaching the search from a different direction: applying the virial theorem to extant data. We conclude that the vertical density profile of the disk is not in a state of equilibrium and, therefore, that the Poisson-Boltzmann approach is inappropriate and it thereby leads to indefensible conclusions.

  8. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  9. TURBOVELOCITY STARS: KICKS RESULTING FROM THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF SOLITARY STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manukian, Haik; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; O'Leary, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The centers of most known galaxies host supermassive black holes (SMBHs). In orbit around these black holes are a centrally concentrated distribution of stars, both in single and in binary systems. Occasionally, these stars are perturbed onto orbits that bring them close to the SMBH. If the star is in a binary system, the three-body interaction with the SMBH can lead to large changes in orbital energy, depositing one of the two stars on a tightly-bound orbit, and its companion into a hyperbolic orbit that may escape the galaxy. In this Letter, we show that the disruption of solitary stars can also lead to large positive increases in orbital energy. The kick velocity depends on the amount of mass the star loses at pericenter, but not on the ratio of black hole to stellar mass, and are at most the star's own escape velocity. We find that these kicks are usually too small to result in the ejection of stars from the Milky Way, but can eject the stars from the black hole's sphere of influence, reducing their probability of being disrupted again. We estimate that ∼ 10 5 stars, ∼ 1% of all stars within 10 pc of the galactic center, are likely to have had mass removed by the central black hole through tidal interaction, and speculate that these 'turbovelocity' stars will at first be redder, but eventually bluer, and always brighter than their unharassed peers.

  10. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...... emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at , but improves on the constraints...... for energies of 10–25 keV....

  11. M-dwarf rapid rotators and the detection of relatively young multiple M-star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, S.; Joss, M.; Sanchis-Ojeda, R.

    2014-01-01

    We have searched the Kepler light curves of ∼3900 M-star targets for evidence of periodicities that indicate, by means of the effects of starspots, rapid stellar rotation. Several analysis techniques, including Fourier transforms, inspection of folded light curves, 'sonograms', and phase tracking of individual modulation cycles, were applied in order to distinguish the periodicities due to rapid rotation from those due to stellar pulsations, eclipsing binaries, or transiting planets. We find 178 Kepler M-star targets with rotation periods, P rot , of <2 days, and 110 with P rot < 1 day. Some 30 of the 178 systems exhibit two or more independent short periods within the same Kepler photometric aperture, while several have 3 or more short periods. Adaptive optics imaging and modeling of the Kepler pixel response function for a subset of our sample support the conclusion that the targets with multiple periods are highly likely to be relatively young physical binary, triple, and even quadruple M star systems. We explore in detail the one object with four incommensurate periods all less than 1.2 days, and show that two of the periods arise from one of a close pair of stars, while the other two arise from the second star, which itself is probably a visual binary. If most of these M-star systems with multiple periods turn out to be bound M stars, this could prove a valuable way discovering young hierarchical M-star systems; the same approach may also be applicable to G and K stars. The ∼5% occurrence rate of rapid rotation among the ∼3900 M star targets is consistent with spin evolution models that include an initial contraction phase followed by magnetic braking, wherein a typical M star can spend several hundred Myr before spinning down to periods longer than 2 days.

  12. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  13. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Michael J.; Tan, Jonathan C.; Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah; Rosdahl, Joakim; Van Loo, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H 2 -dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H 2 -dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  14. Kiloparsec-scale Simulations of Star Formation in Disk Galaxies. IV. Regulation of Galactic Star Formation Rates by Stellar Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Michael J. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tan, Jonathan C. [Departments of Astronomy and Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Teyssier, Romain; Nickerson, Sarah [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, 8049 Zurich (Switzerland); Rosdahl, Joakim [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Van Loo, Sven [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    Star formation from the interstellar medium of galactic disks is a basic process controlling the evolution of galaxies. Understanding the star formation rate (SFR) in a local patch of a disk with a given gas mass is thus an important challenge for theoretical models. Here we simulate a kiloparsec region of a disk, following the evolution of self-gravitating molecular clouds down to subparsec scales, as they form stars that then inject feedback energy by dissociating and ionizing UV photons and supernova explosions. We assess the relative importance of each feedback mechanism. We find that H{sub 2}-dissociating feedback results in the largest absolute reduction in star formation compared to the run with no feedback. Subsequently adding photoionization feedback produces a more modest reduction. Our fiducial models that combine all three feedback mechanisms yield, without fine-tuning, SFRs that are in excellent agreement with observations, with H{sub 2}-dissociating photons playing a crucial role. Models that only include supernova feedback—a common method in galaxy evolution simulations—settle to similar SFRs, but with very different temperatures and chemical states of the gas, and with very different spatial distributions of young stars.

  15. SEARCH FOR GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BURSTS FROM SIX MAGNETARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Affeldt, C.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Anderson, W. G.; Amariutei, D.; Arain, M. A.; Amin, R. S.; Antonucci, F.

    2011-01-01

    Soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are thought to be magnetars: neutron stars powered by extreme magnetic fields. These rare objects are characterized by repeated and sometimes spectacular gamma-ray bursts. The burst mechanism might involve crustal fractures and excitation of non-radial modes which would emit gravitational waves (GWs). We present the results of a search for GW bursts from six galactic magnetars that is sensitive to neutron star f-modes, thought to be the most efficient GW emitting oscillatory modes in compact stars. One of them, SGR 0501+4516, is likely ∼1 kpc from Earth, an order of magnitude closer than magnetars targeted in previous GW searches. A second, AXP 1E 1547.0-5408, gave a burst with an estimated isotropic energy >10 44 erg which is comparable to the giant flares. We find no evidence of GWs associated with a sample of 1279 electromagnetic triggers from six magnetars occurring between 2006 November and 2009 June, in GW data from the LIGO, Virgo, and GEO600 detectors. Our lowest model-dependent GW emission energy upper limits for band- and time-limited white noise bursts in the detector sensitive band, and for f-mode ringdowns (at 1090 Hz), are 3.0 x 10 44 d 2 1 erg and 1.4 x 10 47 d 2 1 erg, respectively, where d 1 = (d 0501 )/1 kpc and d 0501 is the distance to SGR 0501+4516. These limits on GW emission from f-modes are an order of magnitude lower than any previous, and approach the range of electromagnetic energies seen in SGR giant flares for the first time.

  16. Methodology for the AutoRegressive Planet Search (ARPS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, Eric; Caceres, Gabriel; ARPS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The detection of periodic signals of transiting exoplanets is often impeded by the presence of aperiodic photometric variations. This variability is intrinsic to the host star in space-based observations (typically arising from magnetic activity) and from observational conditions in ground-based observations. The most common statistical procedures to remove stellar variations are nonparametric, such as wavelet decomposition or Gaussian Processes regression. However, many stars display variability with autoregressive properties, wherein later flux values are correlated with previous ones. Providing the time series is evenly spaced, parametric autoregressive models can prove very effective. Here we present the methodology of the Autoregessive Planet Search (ARPS) project which uses Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models to treat a wide variety of stochastic short-memory processes, as well as nonstationarity. Additionally, we introduce a planet-search algorithm to detect periodic transits in the time-series residuals after application of ARIMA models. Our matched-filter algorithm, the Transit Comb Filter (TCF), replaces the traditional box-fitting step. We construct a periodogram based on the TCF to concentrate the signal of these periodic spikes. Various features of the original light curves, the ARIMA fits, the TCF periodograms, and folded light curves at peaks of the TCF periodogram can then be collected to provide constraints for planet detection. These features provide input into a multivariate classifier when a training set is available. The ARPS procedure has been applied NASA's Kepler mission observations of ~200,000 stars (Caceres, Dissertation Talk, this meeting) and will be applied in the future to other datasets.

  17. A hybrid method for accurate star tracking using star sensor and gyros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Lie; Zhang, Hao

    2017-10-01

    Star tracking is the primary operating mode of star sensors. To improve tracking accuracy and efficiency, a hybrid method using a star sensor and gyroscopes is proposed in this study. In this method, the dynamic conditions of an aircraft are determined first by the estimated angular acceleration. Under low dynamic conditions, the star sensor is used to measure the star vector and the vector difference method is adopted to estimate the current angular velocity. Under high dynamic conditions, the angular velocity is obtained by the calibrated gyros. The star position is predicted based on the estimated angular velocity and calibrated gyros using the star vector measurements. The results of the semi-physical experiment show that this hybrid method is accurate and feasible. In contrast with the star vector difference and gyro-assisted methods, the star position prediction result of the hybrid method is verified to be more accurate in two different cases under the given random noise of the star centroid.

  18. Star Products and Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iida, Mari; Yoshioka, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Star products parametrized by complex matrices are defined. Especially commutative associative star products are treated, and star exponentials with respect to these star products are considered. Jacobi's theta functions are given as infinite sums of star exponentials. As application, several concrete identities are obtained by properties of the star exponentials.

  19. Effective star tracking method based on optical flow analysis for star trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Jin; Wei, Minsong; You, Zheng

    2016-12-20

    Benefiting from rapid development of imaging sensor technology, modern optical technology, and a high-speed computing chip, the star tracker's accuracy, dynamic performance, and update rate have been greatly improved with low power consumption and miniature size. The star tracker is currently one of the most competitive attitude measurement sensors. However, due to restrictions of the optical imaging system, difficulties still exist in moving star spot detection and star tracking when in special motion conditions. An effective star tracking method based on optical flow analysis for star trackers is proposed in this paper. Spot-based optical flow, based on a gray gradient between two adjacent star images, is analyzed to distinguish the star spot region and obtain an accurate star spot position so that the star tracking can keep continuous under high dynamic conditions. The obtained star vectors and extended Kalman filter (EKF) are then combined to conduct an angular velocity estimation to ensure region prediction of the star spot; this can be combined with the optical flow analysis result. Experiment results show that the method proposed in this paper has advantages in conditions of large angular velocity and large angular acceleration, despite the presence of noise. Higher functional density and better performance can be achieved; thus, the star tracker can be more widely applied in small satellites, remote sensing, and other complex space missions.

  20. European team gauges a gamma-ray star

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Italian astrophysicists have pushed the Hubble Space Telescope to the limit of its powers in finding the distance of Geminga, a pointlike object 500 light-years from the Earth. It is the prototype of a novel kind of star, a radio-silent neutron star, which may be much more common in the Universe than previously supposed. Geminga is so weak in visible light that Hubble had to stare at the spot for more than an hour to register it adequately. The object is nevertheless one of the brightest sources of gamma-rays in the sky, and its output of this very energetic form of radiation can now be accurately ganged. Neutron stars, first discovered as radio pulsars in 1967, are fantastic creations of exploding stars, just one step short of a black hole. They are heavier than the Sun yet only about twenty kilometres wide. Made of compressed nuclear matter, they have gravity and magnetic fields many billions of times stronger than on the Earth. With the first direct measurement of the distance of a radio-silent neutron star, astrophysicists can assess Geminga's power and speed of motion. The astronomical task was like judging the width of a one- franc piece in Paris, seen from the distance of Sicily. Geminga's low brightness greatly aggravated the difficulties. Patrizia Caraveo and her colleagues at the Istituto di Fisica Cosmica in Milan arranged for Hubble's wide-field camera (WFPC2) to make its prolonged observations of Geminga three times. Their findings will be published in Astrophysical Journal Letters on 20 April 1996. Caraveo's co-authors are Giovanni Bignami and Roberto Mignani of Milan, and Laurence Taff of Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. The Italians took advantage of the European Space Agency's collaboration with NASA in the Hubble mission, which gives European astronomers privileged access to the Space Telescope. Shifts of millionths of a degree The three sightings of Geminga, made at intervals of six months, revealed small shifts in the position of the faint