WorldWideScience

Sample records for seals mammals

  1. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. 75 FR 21243 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. George AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. George Island, Traditional Council (Council) petitioned... St. George Island to take male fur seal young of the year during the fall. NMFS solicits public...

  3. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... seek input as to whether management measures are needed, and if so, what types of measures should be... proposed rulemaking (ANPR) on potential management measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal... need for regulations; (2) the geographic scope and time horizon of regulations; (3) management options...

  4. Lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals and molecular characterisation of marine mammal MSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Arlena Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are frequently infected with the lungworms Otostrongylus circumlitus and Parafilaroides gymnurus. The infection is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infections and can cause severe bronchopneumonia and even death in affected animals. Hitherto, the detection of lungworm infections was based on post mortem investigations from animals collected within stranding networks and a valid detection method for live free-ranging harbour seals was not available. Recently, an ELISA was developed for detecting lungworm antibodies in harbour seal serum, using major sperm protein (MSP of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus as recombinant diagnostic antigen. To determine lungworm seroprevalence in free-ranging harbour seals, serum was taken from four different seal age groups (n = 313 resulting in an overall prevalence of 17.9% (18.9% of males, 16.7% of females. 0.7% of harbour seals up to six weeks of age were seropositive, as were 89% of seals between six weeks and six months, 53.6% between six and 18 months and 24.2% of seals over 18 months of age. In the 18 months and over age group, seropositive animals showed statistically significant reductions in body weight (P = 0.003 and length (P < 0.001. Sera from lungworm infected harbour seals in rehabilitation (n = 6 revealed that duration of antibody persistence may be similar to that of lungworm infected cattle, but further studies are needed to confirm this. Phylogenetic analyses of MSP sequences of different marine and terrestrial mammal parasitic nematodes revealed that lungworm MSP of the genus Dictyocaulus (superfamily Trichostrongyloidea is more closely related to metastrongylid marine mammal lungworms than to trichostrongylid nematodes of terrestrial hosts.

  5. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population. PMID:21819589

  6. A review of Brucella infection in marine mammals, with special emphasis on Brucella pinnipedialis in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nymo Ingebjørg H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brucella spp. were isolated from marine mammals for the first time in 1994. Two novel species were later included in the genus; Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis, with cetaceans and seals as their preferred hosts, respectively. Brucella spp. have since been isolated from a variety of marine mammals. Pathological changes, including lesions of the reproductive organs and associated abortions, have only been registered in cetaceans. The zoonotic potential differs among the marine mammal Brucella strains. Many techniques, both classical typing and molecular microbiology, have been utilised for characterisation of the marine mammal Brucella spp. and the change from the band-based approaches to the sequence-based approaches has greatly increased our knowledge about these strains. Several clusters have been identified within the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis species, and multiple studies have shown that the hooded seal isolates differ from other pinniped isolates. We describe how different molecular methods have contributed to species identification and differentiation of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, with special emphasis on the hooded seal isolates. We further discuss the potential role of B. pinnipedialis for the declining Northwest Atlantic hooded seal population.

  7. Heat loss in air of an Antarctic marine mammal, the Weddell seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, Jo-Ann; Hindle, Allyson; Skinner, John; Horning, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The conflicting needs of homeostasis in air versus water complicate our understanding of thermoregulation in marine mammals. Large-scale modeling efforts directed at predicting the energetic impact of changing sea ice conditions on polar ecosystems require a better understanding of thermoregulation in air of free-ranging animals. We utilized infrared imaging as an indirect approach to determine surface temperatures of dry, hauled-out Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n = 35) of varying age and body condition during the Antarctic summer. The study groups provided a fivefold range in body mass and a threefold range in blubber depth. Surface temperature (T s) did not vary by body region (head, shoulder, axilla, torso, hip, flippers). Average seal T s (mean 13.9 ± 11.2 °C) was best described through a combination of the physical traits of body mass and environmental variables of ambient temperature T air, and wind speed. Additional factors of ice temperature (T ice), relative humidity and cloud cover did not improve the model. Heat transfer model estimates suggested that radiation contributed 56.6 ± 7.7 % of total heat loss. Convection and conduction accounted for the remaining 15.7 ± 12.3 and 27.7 ± 9.3 %, respectively. Heat loss by radiation was primarily influenced by body mass and wind speed, whereas convective heat loss was influenced primarily by blubber depth and wind speed. Conductive heat loss was modeled largely as a function of physical traits of mass and blubber depth rather than any environmental covariates, and therefore was substantially higher in animals in leaner condition.

  8. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN HARBOR SEALS (PHOCA VITULINA) AT A MARINE MAMMAL REHABILITATION CENTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chelsea E; Haulena, Martin; Zabek, Erin; Habing, Gregory; Raverty, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    Between 1998 and 2008, 15 cases of segmental to diffuse hemorrhagic to necrohemorrhagic enterocolitis were diagnosed in neonatal and weaned juvenile harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) presented from the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Mammal Rescue Centre for rehabilitation. Based on a combination of gross pathology, histopathology, bacterial isolation, and toxin testing, Clostridium difficile enterocolitis was diagnosed. Most pups were anorexic or inappetant and died acutely with few other premonitory signs. Due to ongoing clinical concerns and possible emergence of this pathogen at the facility, efforts to better characterize the disease and understand the epidemiology of C. difficile was initiated in 95 harbor seal pups presented for rehabilitation in a single stranding season. Fecal samples were collected on admission, following completion of antibiotic treatment, and also prerelease or postmortem. All samples were collected fresh and submitted either directly or stored frozen. Fecal samples were inoculated into selective media for culture and screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) for C. difficile toxins A, B, or both. Results of the 95 seals in the study were as follows: on hospital admit 72 seals were sampled, 10 were culture positive, 12 were ELISA positive; following antibiotic therapy 46 seals were sampled noting three culture positive and nine ELISA positive; prior to release 58 seals were sampled noting zero culture positive and one ELISA positive; and on postmortem exam seven seals were sampled noting zero culture positive and two ELISA positive. Clostridium difficile was not deemed to be the cause of death in any of the animals. Although the exact mechanism of disease is unknown, this study suggests that C. difficile infection is not a significant cause of mortality and may be part of the normal flora in harbor seals undergoing rehabilitation. Morbidity and mortality from this bacterium can likely be minimized by judicious use of antibiotics

  9. Diving into old age: muscular senescence in a large-bodied, long-lived mammal, the Weddell seal (Leptonychotes weddellii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Horning, Markus; Mellish, Jo-Ann E; Lawler, John M

    2009-03-01

    Classic aging theory postulates the absence of pronounced organismal senescence in wild animals since mortality probably occurs first. Large-bodied, long-lived mammals are a recognized exception to this tenet, yet organismal senescence has not been investigated to date in such mammals in the wild. Furthermore, oxidative stress theory of aging supports the suggestion that exercise hypoxia, as regularly incurred during apneustic foraging in diving mammals might lead to cellular dysfunction and accelerated aging. To determine if an aspect of organismal senescence occurs in wild marine mammals, we examined the pattern of skeletal muscle aging (contractile and connective tissue components of longissimus dorsi and pectoralis muscles) in free-ranging adult Weddell seals (9-26 years). The average myocyte cross-sectional area was 22% greater with age in the longissiums dorsi, but no significant increase occurred in the pectoralis. Cross-sectional area was not related to body mass. Changes in myocyte number per area were consistent with the 35-40% age-increase in extracellular space in both muscle groups. Also consistent with extracellular space remodeling, total and relative collagen contents were significantly elevated in older seals (115% in longissimus dorsi; 65% in pectoralis). The ratio of muscle myocyte to collagen declined with age (50-63%) at both sites. Additionally, a shift towards a higher ratio of type I to type III collagen occurred with advancing age in both muscle groups (79% increase in pectoralis; 49% in longissimus dorsi). We reject the classic tenet and null-hypothesis that Weddell seals do not survive to an age where muscular senescence becomes detectable.

  10. 76 FR 45499 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; Harvest Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... Statement is available on the Internet at the following address: http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov... influences the need to take fur seals during the subsequent summer northern fur seal subsistence harvest....O.) 12866. The proposed actions are not likely to result in (1) an annual effect on the economy of...

  11. Seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsher, R.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    An aperture through a biological shield is sealed by a flexible sheath having a beading at one end located on an annular member slidable in the aperture such that the beading bears in sealing engagement against the sides of the aperture. The annular member is retained by a retractable latch and can be rejected by pushing it out of the aperture using a replacement annular member with a replacement sheath thereon to butt against the annular member to be rejected. The replacement annular member may be mounted on a tubular device having an outer co-axial member for operating the latch when the replacement annular member butts against the annular member to be rejected. Applications include effecting a seal between a remote handling equipment and a wall through which the equipment extends. (author)

  12. Dynamics of Vibrio with virulence genes detected in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California: implications for marine mammal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephanie N; Greig, Denise J; Miller, Woutrina A; Byrne, Barbara A; Gulland, Frances M D; Harvey, James T

    2013-05-01

    Given their coastal site fidelity and opportunistic foraging behavior, harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) may serve as sentinels for coastal ecosystem health. Seals using urbanized coastal habitat can acquire enteric bacteria, including Vibrio that may affect their health. To understand Vibrio dynamics in seals, demographic and environmental factors were tested for predicting potentially virulent Vibrio in free-ranging and stranded Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) off California. Vibrio prevalence did not vary with season and was greater in free-ranging seals (29 %, n = 319) compared with stranded seals (17 %, n = 189). Of the factors tested, location, turbidity, and/or salinity best predicted Vibrio prevalence in free-ranging seals. The relationship of environmental factors with Vibrio prevalence differed by location and may be related to oceanographic or terrestrial contributions to water quality. Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae were observed in seals, with V. cholerae found almost exclusively in stranded pups and yearlings. Additionally, virulence genes (trh and tdh) were detected in V. parahaemolyticus isolates. Vibrio cholerae isolates lacked targeted virulence genes, but were hemolytic. Three out of four stranded pups with V. parahaemolyticus (trh+ and/or tdh+) died in rehabilitation, but the role of Vibrio in causing mortality is unclear, and Vibrio expression of virulence genes should be investigated. Considering that humans share the environment and food resources with seals, potentially virulent Vibrio observed in seals also may be of concern to human health.

  13. 76 FR 43266 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16472

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... importing of marine mammals (50 CFR Part 216). The applicant requests a five-year permit to take Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina), crabeater seals... juveniles; 600 Antarctic fur seal pups; 50 leopard seal adults and juveniles; 50 southern elephant seal...

  14. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Seals and Sealing Handbook, 6th Edition provides comprehensive coverage of sealing technology, bringing together information on all aspects of this area to enable you to make the right sealing choice. This includes detailed coverage on the seals applicable to static, rotary and reciprocating applications, the best materials to use in your sealing systems, and the legislature and regulations that may impact your sealing choices. Updated in line with current trends this updated reference provides the theory necessary for you to select the most appropriate seals for the job and with its 'Failur

  15. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Wherever machinery operates there will be seals of some kind ensuring that the machine remains lubricated, the fluid being pumped does not leak, or the gas does not enter the atmosphere. Seals are ubiquitous, in industry, the home, transport and many other places. This 5th edition of a long-established title covers all types of seal by application: static, rotary, reciprocating etc. The book bears little resemblance to its predecessors, and Robert Flitney has re-planned and re-written every aspect of the subject. No engineer, designer or manufacturer of seals can afford to be without this uniq

  16. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine mammals (seals) in the Hudson River. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  17. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  18. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  19. Mechanical seals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, E

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical Seals, Third Edition is a source of practical information on the design and use of mechanical seals. Topics range from design fundamentals and test rigs to leakage, wear, friction and power, reliability, and special designs. This text is comprised of nine chapters; the first of which gives a general overview of seals, including various types of seals and their applications. Attention then turns to the fundamentals of seal design, with emphasis on six requirements that must be considered: sealing effectiveness, length of life, reliability, power consumption, space requirements, and c

  20. Security seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  1. Seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A hydraulically balanced face type shaft seal is provided in which the opening and closing seal face areas retain concentricity with each other in the event of lateral shaft displacement. The seal arrangement is for a vertical high pressure pump, indented for use in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. (Auth.)

  2. 76 FR 13603 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16087

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216). The applicant requests a five-year... californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustrirostris... capture and handling, and 1,135 by incidental disturbance. Up to 2,766 northern elephant seals may be...

  3. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel

  4. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing rings operatively disposed between the outlet nozzles and the hoop. The sealing rings connected by flexible members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop, establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel. 4 claims, 2 figures

  5. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  6. Ceramic Seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  7. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  8. Ferrules seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  9. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  10. NOAA declares string of seal deaths in New England an unusual mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    A virus found in these animals. Seals, like other marine mammals (dolphins, whales, and sea lions Information for NOAA Employees Related Links Marine Mammal Unusual Mortality Events Marine Mammal Health and Rowles, National Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program Coordinator, NOAA Fisheries Service

  11. 77 FR 19646 - Marine Mammals; File No. 17178

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062, has applied in due form for a permit to import marine... the dietary preferences and feeding ecology of Antarctic marine mammals by analyzing seal and whale...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: New Hampshire: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, porpoise, and whales in New Hampshire. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  13. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  14. Annual report of the Marine Mammal Commission, calendar year 1992. Report to the Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This is the 20th Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors on Marine Mammals. The Commission was established under Title II of the Marine Mammal Protection Act to provide an independent source of guidance on Federal activities and policies, both domestic and international, affecting marine mammal protection and conservation. Each year, the Marine Mammal Commission and its Committee of Scientific Advisors devote particular attention to marine mammal species or populations that are or may be in jeopardy. Chapter III describes efforts to conserve: sea otters in California and Alaska; Steller sea lions; Hawaiian monk seals; harbor seals; northern fur seals; Pacific walruses; northern right whales; humpback whales; gray whales; bowhead whales; harbor porpoises; vaquitas or Gulf of California harbor porpoises; bottlenose dolphins; killer whales; and polar bears. Activities related to West Indian manatees, Hawaiian monk seals, vaquitas, and gray whales are summarized

  15. Contaminant-induced immunotoxicity in harbour seals: Wildlife at risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.S. Ross (Peter); R.L. de Swart (Rik); R. Addison; H. van Loveren (Henk); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractPersistent, lipophilic polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) accumulate readily in the aquatic food chain and are found in high concentrations in seals and other marine mammals. Recent mass mortalities among several marine mammal populations have been attributed to infection by

  16. Morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); T.C. Harder (Timm); P.S. Ross (Peter); H.W. Vos (Helma); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. The first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously

  17. seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population increase in the Amsterdam Island fur seal Arctocephaius tropicaiis at Gough Island. M.N. Bester. Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria. Population size of Arctocephalus tropicalis on Gough Island was determined by direct censuses of parts of the coast duro ing the summers of 1974 - 1976 ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, F J; Pérez-Boto, D; Jiménez, C; San Miguel, E; Echeita, A; Rengifo-Herrera, C; García-Párraga, D; Ortega-Mora, L M; Pedraza-Díaz, S

    2010-09-01

    The presence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 41 Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) and 9 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) at Deception Island, Antarctica. Infections were encountered in six Antarctic fur seals. The isolates, the first reported from marine mammals in the Antarctic region, were identified as Campylobacter insulaenigrae and Campylobacter lari.

  19. Distribution of mammals in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Prigioni

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Some 63 species have been recorded in Albania from 1950 to 1994, with the exclusion of Cetacea. Another 15 species, including 5 found on the eastern border between Albania and Greece, are considered probably present. Hence 78 species could occur in Albania. According to IUCN red list of threatened animals, 8 species are defined as vulnerable, 15 as lower risk and one (the Mediterranean monk seal as critically endangered. In Albania, the legal protection of mammals includes all bat species, carnivores (except the stone marten, the red fox and the wolf, the chamois, the roe deer and the Mediterranean monk seal. General information on the distributional pattern and the population size is reported for some species, mainly carnivores.

  20. Seals as collectors of oceanographic data in the coastal zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Villar-Guerra, Diego; Cronin, Michelle; Dabrowski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    opportunities for sensor deployment on a variety of marine animals, including marine mammals, sea birds, fish and turtles, to gather data from inaccessible areas. In this study, we explored the use of telemetryderived data from instrumented seals in Kenmare Bay in southwest Irish waters to ascertain if seals...... stratification, up/downwellings and the onset of the thermocline, and provide unique insights into the marine environment in and around the bay, where no previous oceanographic studies have been conducted. Strong correlation between the seal-derived temperature data and in situ temperature recorders and modelled...... data validates the use of seals as oceanographic platforms on different spatial scales...

  1. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  2. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  3. Lithuanian mammal fauna review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Balciauskas

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Data on Lithuania mammal fauna are presented. From 78 mammal species recorded in Lithuania, 7 were seen only in the 17-18th centuries, two species are extinct. Recent Lithuanian mammal fauna contains 68 species. Five of them are observed occasionally. 63 mammal species are permant inhabitants, 18 included in the Red Data Book, mostly bats and dormice. 8 mammal species were introduced or reintroduced. Population tendencies of game animals are also considered.

  4. Rotary plug seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Abiko, Yoshihiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fuel exchange even upon failure of regular seals and also to enable safety seal exchange by the detection of the reduction in the contact pressure of a rotary plug seal. Constitution: If one of a pair of regular tube seals for the rotary plug is failed during ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, the reduction in the contact pressure of the seal to the plug gibbousness is detected by a pressure gauge and a solenoid valve is thereby closed. Thus, a back-up-tube seal provided above or below the tube seal is press-contacted by way of argon gas to the gibbousness to enter into operation state and lubricants are supplied from an oil tank. In such a structure, the back-up-tube seal is operated before the failure of the tube seal to enable to continue the fuel exchange work, as well as safety exchange for the tube seal. (Moriyama, K.)

  5. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  6. Mechanical seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  7. Mechanical Seal Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1999-06-18

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  8. Mechanical seal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental plans and timing for completion of the mechanical seal program for both the slurry and transfer pumps are given. The slurry pump seal program will be completed by April 1984 with turnover of two seals in pumps to SRP Tank 15H. Transfer pump seal design will be released for plant use by May 1984. Also included are various other pump and seal related tests

  9. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  10. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system is disclosed. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel

  11. Inboard seal mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  12. Aerial surveys of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) on fast and pack ice in the central Beaufort Sea of Alaska, 1985-1987 and 1996-1999 (NODC Accession 0000931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These datasets include counts of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and other marine mammals made during aerial surveys of ringed seals on fast and pack ice of the central...

  13. Replication of avian influenza A viruses in mammals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hinshaw, V S; Webster, R G; Easterday, B C; Bean, W J

    1981-01-01

    The recent appearance of an avian influenza A virus in seals suggests that viruses are transmitted from birds to mammals in nature. To examine this possibility, avian viruses of different antigenic subtypes were evaluated for their ability to replicate in three mammals-pigs, ferrets, and cats. In each of these mammals, avian strains replicated to high titers in the respiratory tract (10(5) to 10(7) 50% egg infective doses per ml of nasal wash), with peak titers at 2 to 4 days post-inoculation...

  14. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...; and Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, 1-year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We... California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and Northern elephant...

  15. 77 FR 38587 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Northern elephant seals by Level B harassment only. To date, we have issued nine, one-year, Incidental... as far north as Alaska and as far south as Mexico. Northern elephant seals spend much of the year... numbers of marine mammals, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner harbor operations for one year. We...

  16. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  17. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  18. Fog seal guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Fog seals are a method of adding asphalt to an existing pavement surface to improve sealing or waterproofing, prevent further stone loss by holding aggregate in place, or simply improve the surface appearance. However, inappropriate use can result in...

  19. Influenza A (H10N7) Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brand, Judith M A; Wohlsein, Peter; Herfst, Sander; Bodewes, Rogier; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Seehusen, Frauke; Puff, Christina; Richard, Mathilde; Siebert, Ursula; Lehnert, Kristina; Bestebroer, Theo; Lexmond, Pascal; Fouchier, Ron A M; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Herbst, Werner; Koopmans, Marion; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7) in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). This epidemic

  20. Hermetically Sealed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hermetically sealed pump compresses fluid to pressure up to 4,000 atm (400 MPa). Pump employs linear electric motor instead of rotary motor to avoid need for leakage-prone rotary seals. In addition, linear-motor-powered pump would not require packings to seal its piston. Concept thus eliminates major cause of friction and wear. Pump is double-ended diaphragm-type compressor. All moving parts sealed within compressor housing.

  1. Investigation of positive shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, J. O.

    1970-01-01

    Welded metal bellows secondary seals prevent secondary seal leakage with a minimum number of potential leak paths. High performance seal is obtained by controlling the potentially unstable seal-face movements induced by mechanical vibrations and fluid pressure pulsations.

  2. 76 FR 56167 - Marine Mammals; Pinniped Removal Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... problem interactions. See http://www.nwr.noaa.gov/Marine-Mammals/Seals-and-Sea-Lions/Sec-120-Authority.cfm... to the pinniped predation problem at Bonneville Dam and is not a na[iuml]ve animal that can be driven... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA681 Marine...

  3. Circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  4. Seals in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from

  5. Electronic self-monitoring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electronic Self-Monitoring Seal is a new type of security seal which allows continuous verification of the seal's identity and status. The identity information is a function of the individual seal, time, and seal integrity. A description of this seal and its characteristics are presented. Also described are the use cycle for the seal and the support equipment for programming and verifying the seal

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in arctic marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norstrom, R J; Muir, D C

    1994-09-16

    By 1976, the presence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants (CHCs) had been demonstrated in fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus), ringed seal (Phoca hispida), hooded seal (Cystophora cristata), bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus), walrus (Obdobenus rosmarus divergens), beluga (Delphinapterus leucas), porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in various parts of the Arctic. In spite of this early interest, very little subsequent research on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals was undertaken until the mid-1980s. Since that time, there has been an explosion of interest, resulting in a much expanded data base on contaminants in Arctic marine mammals. Except in the Russian Arctic, data have now been obtained on the temporospatial distribution of PCBs and other contaminants in ringed seal, beluga and polar bear. Contaminants in narwhal (Monodon monoceros) have also now been measured. On a fat weight basis, the sum of DDT-related compounds (S-DDT) and PCB levels are lowest in walrus (Polar bears have similar levels of PCBs as cetaceans (1-10 micrograms/g), but with a much simpler congener pattern. DDE levels are lowest in polar bear, indicating rapid metabolism. Effects of age and sex on residue levels are found for all species where this was measured. Among cetaceans and ringed seal, sexually mature females have lower levels than males due to lactation. Although PCB levels in adult male polar bears are about twice as high as females, there is only a trivial age effect in either sex apart from an initial decrease from birth to sexual maturity (age 0-5). Comparison of levels of S-DDT and PCBs in Arctic beluga and ringed seal with those in beluga in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and ringed seal in the Baltic Sea, indicate that overall contamination of the Arctic marine ecosystem is 10-50 times less than the most highly contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere temperate latitude marine environment. Geographic distribution of residue levels in polar bears

  7. ORTHOMYXO- AND PARAMYXOVIRUSES IN MARINE MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina G. Gulyaeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Aim. Marine mammals play the role of "sentries", standing guard over the health and functioning of marine ecosystems. The analysis of data reported in literature was carried out to understand and to evaluate a circulation of representatives of the Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae, dangerous pathogens capable to cause morbidity and mortality in marine warm-blooded animals. Discussion. In the population of marine animals, in the available literature, no more than twenty infectious diseases were described. At the same time, according to preliminary estimates, about 15% of marine mammals die from indicated diseases. Previous studies conducted by various groups of scientists have already shown the circulation of various viral pathogens, which cause different infections in these animals. The present fact indicates the important role of marine mammals in the ecology and spreading of a number of viruses. In accordance with a literature data, representatives of Orthomixoviruses and Paramyxoviruses are among the most dangerous pathogens, which may infect this type of animals. Thus, it was suggested that seals may be infected with a wide range of influenza viruses without prior adaptation. It was emphasized that pinnipeds are one of the reservoir of a human influenza B virus in nature. Infections caused by morbilliviruses, can be the reason of epizootics in a population of seals and among the other species of marine mammals. Signs of a disease are similar to the clinic of carnivore plague. Main conclusions. The data presented in literature is extremely not enough for fully understanding a role of marine mammals as hosts or carriers of potential zoonotic pathogens, such as avian influenza virus (AIV, morbilliviruses and others. Thus, this issue requires further more detailed study.

  8. Ocean climate and seal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Daniel E

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming trends. The weaning weight of northern elephant seal pups, Mirounga angustirostris, being closely linked to maternal condition, indirectly reflects prey availability and foraging success of pregnant females in deep waters of the northeastern Pacific. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ocean climate on foraging success in this deep-diving marine mammal over the course of three decades, using cohort weaning weight as the principal metric of successful resource accrual. Results The mean annual weaning weight of pups declined from 1975 to the late 1990s, a period characterized by a large-scale, basin-wide warm decadal regime that included multiple strong or long-duration El Niños; and increased with a return to a cool decadal regime from about 1999 to 2004. Increased foraging effort and decreased mass gain of adult females, indicative of reduced foraging success and nutritional stress, were associated with high ocean temperatures. Conclusion Despite ranging widely and foraging deeply in cold waters beyond coastal thermoclines in the northeastern Pacific, elephant seals are impacted significantly by ocean thermal dynamics. Ocean warming redistributes prey decreasing foraging success of females, which in turn leads to lower weaning mass of pups. Annual fluctuations in weaning mass, in turn, reflect the foraging success of females during the year prior to giving birth and signals changes in ocean temperature cycles.

  9. VAK III. Seals and sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Agraives, B.C.; Dal Cero, G.; Debeir, R.; Mascetti, E.; Toornvliet, J.; Volcan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the VAK III seals and sealing system, which have been used over a period of two years at the Kahl nuclear facility (Federal Republic of Germany), where field tests and feasibility studies were conducted in order to offer a possible solution for the sealing of LWR fuel assemblies. It has been prepared with the aim of an assessment study to be done at the IAEA. It gives all characteristics and technical descriptions for: the sealing principle, the seal construction, the operating tools, the data processing, the drawings, the publications related to that seal. The main points of progress are: the Strong Random Internal Defects (STRID) incorporated in the seals, allowing the obtention of a good signature stability; the Integrity Check on the Seal Status (broken or not) obtained through a decisive mechanical improvement: the Double Breakage Integrity Check (DOBRIC) and with a better ultrasonic evidence of that status; the provision of new function tools, allowing the performance of Identity Measurements in dry conditions (which means also at the manufacturer plant) or in deeper water (wet storage); the study and development of a new JRC VAK 45 Compact Instrument Box, in which all the measuring functions can be grouped and incorporating an autonomous Minicomputer offering to the Inspection the possibility of performing, on the spot, Correlation and Decision processes. The general benefit of such a feasibility study should be to convince the potential users that such a Safeguards Sealing System can be studied for slightly - or largely - different other applications, provided that the Basic and Operating Functions required to the system be clearly defined, possibly after a common agreement would be stated

  10. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  11. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate). The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database. To perform this development, IPSN relies on industrial partners: SAPHYMO for the general architecture of the seal and the electronics, THALES for the authentication of data and the security of transmission. The main features of the IRES seal are the following: Interrogation by different inspectorate, allowing independent conclusions; Recording of events, including tampering, in a non-volatile memory; Authentication of data and enhanced security of the communication between the seal and the seal reader; Remote interrogation by an inspector or/and automatic for unattended systems or remote monitoring; Reusable after erasing the seal memory and replacement of the batteries

  12. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  13. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlez, P.; Funk, P.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate) Furthermore, a bilateral co-ordination between Euratom and French domestic safeguards takes place in some French facilities regarding a common approach concerning the seals especially in case of crisis situation. The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database

  14. High pressure shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  15. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  16. 78 FR 15669 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    .... 2007; Womble et al. 2010). Vessel-based tourism in Alaska has been increasing rapidly over the last few... collaboration with the Yakutat Tlingit Tribe and Northwest Cruise Ship Association examined the effects of...

  17. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The seals described are for use in a nuclear reactor where there are fuel assemblies in a vessel, an inlet and an outlet for circulating a coolant in heat transfer relationship with the fuel assemblies and a closure head on the vessel in a tight fluid relationship. The closure head comprises rotatable plugs which have mechanical seals disposed in the annulus around each plug while allowing free rotation of the plug when the seal is not actuated. The seal is usually an elastomer or copper. A means of actuating the seal is attached for drawing it vertically into the annulus for sealing. When the reactor coolant is liquid sodium, contact with oxygen must be avoided and argon cover gas fills the space between the bottom of the closure head and the coolant liquid level and the annuli in the closure head. (U.K.)

  18. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  19. Compliant seal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  20. Seal containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, R.W.; Gerkey, K.S.; Kasner, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    An automated system for transporting nuclear fuel elements between fuel element assembly stations without contaminating the area outside the sealed assembly stations is described. The system comprises a plurality of assembly stations connected together by an elongated horizontal sealing mechanism and an automatic transport mechanism for transporting a nuclear fuel element in a horizontal attitude between the assembly stations while the open end of the fuel element extends through the sealing mechanism into the assembly station enclosure. The sealing mechanism allows the fuel element to be advanced by the transport mechanism while limiting the escape of radioactive particles from within the assembly station enclosure. 4 claims, 6 figures

  1. Characterisation of North American Brucella isolates from marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M Whatmore

    Full Text Available Extension of known ecological niches of Brucella has included the description of two novel species from marine mammals. Brucella pinnipedialis is associated predominantly with seals, while two major Brucella ceti clades, most commonly associated with porpoises or dolphins respectively, have been identified. To date there has been limited characterisation of Brucella isolates obtained from marine mammals outside Northern European waters, including North American waters. To address this gap, and extend knowledge of the global population structure and host associations of these Brucella species, 61 isolates from marine mammals inhabiting North American waters were subject to molecular and phenotypic characterisation enabling comparison with existing European isolates. The majority of isolates represent genotypes previously described in Europe although novel genotypes were identified in both B. ceti clades. Harp seals were found to carry B. pinnipedialis genotypes previously confined to hooded seals among a diverse repertoire of sequence types (STs associated with this species. For the first time Brucella isolates were characterised from beluga whales and found to represent a number of distinct B. pinnipedialis genotypes. In addition the known host range of ST27 was extended with the identification of this ST from California sea lion samples. Finally the performance of the frequently used diagnostic tool Bruce-ladder, in differentiating B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, was critically assessed based on improved knowledge of the global population structure of Brucella associated with marine mammals.

  2. Characterisation of North American Brucella isolates from marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whatmore, Adrian M; Dawson, Claire; Muchowski, Jakub; Perrett, Lorraine L; Stubberfield, Emma; Koylass, Mark; Foster, Geoffrey; Davison, Nicholas J; Quance, Christine; Sidor, Inga F; Field, Cara L; St Leger, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Extension of known ecological niches of Brucella has included the description of two novel species from marine mammals. Brucella pinnipedialis is associated predominantly with seals, while two major Brucella ceti clades, most commonly associated with porpoises or dolphins respectively, have been identified. To date there has been limited characterisation of Brucella isolates obtained from marine mammals outside Northern European waters, including North American waters. To address this gap, and extend knowledge of the global population structure and host associations of these Brucella species, 61 isolates from marine mammals inhabiting North American waters were subject to molecular and phenotypic characterisation enabling comparison with existing European isolates. The majority of isolates represent genotypes previously described in Europe although novel genotypes were identified in both B. ceti clades. Harp seals were found to carry B. pinnipedialis genotypes previously confined to hooded seals among a diverse repertoire of sequence types (STs) associated with this species. For the first time Brucella isolates were characterised from beluga whales and found to represent a number of distinct B. pinnipedialis genotypes. In addition the known host range of ST27 was extended with the identification of this ST from California sea lion samples. Finally the performance of the frequently used diagnostic tool Bruce-ladder, in differentiating B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis, was critically assessed based on improved knowledge of the global population structure of Brucella associated with marine mammals.

  3. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  4. Improved cryogenic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, W. A., Jr.; Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Seals are designed for use with liquid propellant ball valves at temperatures ranging from -400 F to 130 F and 8,000 psig. Seals are capable of sustaining 90 degree rotation, with substantial amount of lateral and axial play, caused by large pressure loads and differential thermal contraction.

  5. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  6. Rotary shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing

  7. Sealing a conduit end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentz, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing or blocking conduits, such as the primary nozzles of a nuclear steam generator is described. It includes an annular bracket sealingly attached to the open end of the nozzle, the bracket having a plurality of threaded holes therein. Mounted atop the bracket is a generally circular nozzle dam for covering the opening. Interposed between the nozzle dam and the bracket is an extrusion-resistant seal member having a plurality of apertures therethrough for receiving each bolt. The seal member is configured to resist extrusion by having laminated layers of differing hardnesses, so that the seal member will not laterally extrude away from each bolt in a manner that enlarges the aperture surrounding each bolt as the nozzle dam is bolted to the bracket. (author)

  8. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  9. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  10. Influenza A (H10N7 Virus Causes Respiratory Tract Disease in Harbor Seals and Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Avian influenza viruses sporadically cross the species barrier to mammals, including humans, in which they may cause epidemic disease. Recently such an epidemic occurred due to the emergence of avian influenza virus of the subtype H10N7 (Seal/H10N7 in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. This epidemic caused high mortality in seals along the north-west coast of Europe and represented a potential risk for human health. To characterize the spectrum of lesions and to identify the target cells and viral distribution, findings in 16 harbor seals spontaneously infected with Seal/H10N7 are described. The seals had respiratory tract inflammation extending from the nasal cavity to bronchi associated with intralesional virus antigen in respiratory epithelial cells. Virus infection was restricted to the respiratory tract. The fatal outcome of the viral infection in seals was most likely caused by secondary bacterial infections. To investigate the pathogenic potential of H10N7 infection for humans, we inoculated the seal virus intratracheally into six ferrets and performed pathological and virological analyses at 3 and 7 days post inoculation. These experimentally inoculated ferrets displayed mild clinical signs, virus excretion from the pharynx and respiratory tract inflammation extending from bronchi to alveoli that was associated with virus antigen expression exclusively in the respiratory epithelium. Virus was isolated only from the respiratory tract. In conclusion, Seal/H10N7 infection in naturally infected harbor seals and experimentally infected ferrets shows that respiratory epithelial cells are the permissive cells for viral replication. Fatal outcome in seals was caused by secondary bacterial pneumonia similar to that in fatal human cases during influenza pandemics. Productive infection of ferrets indicates that seal/H10N7 may possess a zoonotic potential. This outbreak of LPAI from wild birds to seals demonstrates the risk of such occasions for mammals

  11. Reactor cavity seal ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrostatic seal is described for sealing an annular gap between two flat substantially horizontal coplanar surfaces comprising, in combination: a generally flat annular plate of a width sufficient to span a gap between two surfaces: compressible annular sealing means disposed on the bottom surface of the flat annular plate for sealingly engaging the two flat surfaces in response to a downward force exerted on the plate; and fastening means, distributed along the center line of the plate, for releasably fastening the plate in a position to span the gap to be sealed and exert a downward force on the plate, each fastening means including a pair of elongated members of a size to fit into the gap to be sealed, means for mounting the members on the bottom surface of the plate so that at least a portion of each member is radially moveable in a direction toward a respective one of the vertical side surfaces defining the gap to be sealed to engage same and so that the plate is moveable relative to the members in a downward direction in response to hydrostatic pressure applied to the upper surface of the plate when the members are engaging the vertical side surfaces of an annular gap, and an actuating means, mounted on the plate for movement therewith in response to hydrostatic pressure, for radially moving the members, the actuating means extending through a bore in the plate to the upper surface of the plate

  12. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  13. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  14. Cover-gas seals: 11-LMFBR seal-test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, O.P. III; Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the Cover Gas Seal Material Development Program is to perform the engineering development required to provide reliable seals for LMFBR application. Specific objectives are to verify the performance of commercial solid cross-section and inflatable seals under reactor environments including radiation, to develop advanced materials and configurations capable of achieving significant improvement in radioactive gas containment and seal temperature capabilities, and to optimize seal geometry for maximum reliability and minimal gas permeation

  15. Rotatable seal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, J.L.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an oring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers

  16. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing the annulus defined within a substantially cylindrical rotatable riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor closure head is described. The apparatus comprises an inflatable sealing mechanism disposed in one portion of the riser assembly near the annulus such that upon inflation the sealing mechanism is radially actuated against the other portion of the riser assembly thereby sealing the annulus. The apparatus further comprises a connecting mechanism which places one end of the sealing mechanism in fluid communication with the reactor cover gas so that overpressurization of the reactor cover gas will increase the radial actuation of the sealing mechanism thus enhancing sealing of the annulus

  17. Self-acting shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  18. Sealing arrangement for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

  19. Isolation of Brucella pinnipedialis from Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvelä-Koski, Varpu; Nylund, Minna; Skrzypczak, Teresa; Heikkinen, Petra; Kauhala, Kaarina; Jay, Maryne; Isomursu, Marja

    2017-10-01

    Brucella infection in seals was reported for the first time in 1994 around the coast of Scotland. Since then, marine mammal Brucella infections were found to be widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Two Brucella species affect marine mammals: Brucella pinnipedialis in pinnipeds and Brucella ceti in cetaceans. We examined the livers of Baltic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) from the Finnish coast (n=122) hunted, found dead, or killed as by-catch in fishing gear in 2013-15 as part of population health monitoring. We detected B. pinnipedialis in the livers of three grey seals. The bacterium was isolated from livers displaying parasitic cholangitis. We also detected Brucella DNA in liver flukes (Pseudamphistomum truncatum) obtained from a Brucella-infected grey seal, suggesting that flukes might be possible vectors of this pathogen in the marine environment.

  20. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  1. 78 FR 25958 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Demolition and Construction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... stock under the MMPA. Further information on the biology and local distribution of these marine mammal... harassment, is at or above 90 dB re 20 [micro]Pa for harbor seals and at or above 100 dB re 20 [micro]Pa for... threshold for Level B harassment, is at or above 90 dB re 20 [micro]Pa for harbor seals and at or above 100...

  2. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  3. Northern fur seal demography studies at San Miguel Island, California conducted from 1975-10-07 to 2014-09-26 (NCEI Accession 0141240)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  4. Molecular Indicators of Chronic Stress in a Model Pinniped - The Northern Elephant Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Pinniped - The Northern Elephant Seal Cory Champagne , Jane Kyudyakov, & Dorian Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Dr, Suite...in studies of stress and its impacts ( Champagne et al, 2012). Measurements will be conducted in juvenile elephant seals that reliably haul out each...their large adipose stores) and a reduced amino acid release (potentially resulting from a protein sparing adaptation during fasting; Champagne et

  5. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  6. Radiocaesium (137Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Magnus; Gwynn, Justin P.; Dowdall, Mark; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, 137 Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (± SD) of 137 Cs were: 0.72 ± 0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49 ± 0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25 ± 0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22 ± 0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36 ± 0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in 137 Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of 137 Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of 137 Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79 ± 32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244 ± 36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in the marine ecosystem

  7. Shaft seal assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  8. Louisiana ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for terrestrial mammals in Louisiana. Vector polygons in this data set represent terrestrial mammal...

  9. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  10. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  11. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  12. Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaz, Frédéric M.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Carnitine is indispensable for energy metabolism, since it enables activated fatty acids to enter the mitochondria, where they are broken down via beta-oxidation. Carnitine is probably present in all animal species, and in numerous micro-organisms and plants. In mammals, carnitine homoeostasis is

  13. The Mammals of Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The knowledge of the fauna of Suriname is of essential importance in the study of the neotropical Mammalia. The first publications containing information on mammals of Suriname appeared very early in the history of European exploration of South America. Such publications were relatively numerous in

  14. The Mammals of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984, 19(4). Book Review. The Mammals of the. Southern Mrican. Subregiol1. Reay H.N. Smithers. University of Pretoria, Pretoria, 1983. 736 pp. Price RIOO. A major new work ... of wild horses with separate profIles of two subspecies of mountain ... broader problems of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history which ...

  15. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  16. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  17. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  18. Continuous improvement of pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Eyvindson, A.; Rhodes, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Pump seal reliability continues to be an area needing improvement and ongoing vigilance. Methods have been developed for identifying and assessing factors relating to seal performance, selecting the most relevant ones for a specific station, and then focusing on the most significant aspects and how to improve. Discussion invariably addresses maintenance practices, seal design, monitoring capabilities, operating conditions, transients, and pump and motor design. Success in reliability improvement requires ongoing dialogue among the station operators, pump manufacturers and seal designers. AECL CAN-seals lead the nuclear industry in reliability and seal life. They effectively save operators millions of dollars in outage time and person-rem. This paper describes some of the significant developments in AECL's ongoing program in seal R and D, as well as recent new installations following the most demanding seal qualification programs to date. (author)

  19. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ...-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric.... 14534 is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216...

  20. 75 FR 68605 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ...-XX23 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... permit to conduct research on marine mammals. ADDRESSES: The permit and related documents are available... applicant. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of...

  1. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal Foundation, 2240 Shelter Island Drive, 200, San Diego, CA... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended...

  2. 77 FR 14352 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...-XB065 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  3. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    .... 14334] Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing the taking and importing of marine mammals (50 CFR part 216), the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  4. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Physiological Monitoring in Diving Mammals Andreas...825-2025 email: andreas.fahlman@tamucc.edu Peter L. Tyack School of Biology Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute...OBJECTIVES This project is separated into three aims: Aim 1: Develop a new generation of tags/data logger for marine mammals that will

  5. Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Namroodi

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015-2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively. Twelve (33%, 6 (17%, and 30 (83% samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. The highest titers of CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii antibodies were 16, 400, and 50, respectively. Frequencies of antibody to these pathogens were higher in seals >1 year old compared to seals <1 year old. Two serovars of L. interrogans (Pomona and Canicola were detected. Our results suggest a need for additional studies to clarify the impact of these pathogens on Caspian seal population decline and the improvement of management programs, including systematic screening to detect and protect the remaining population from disease outbreaks.

  6. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Wang, Zhihong; Littnan, Charles; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are potent algal neurotoxins that concentrate in fish preyed upon by the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). The only report for Hawaiian monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins occurred during a 1978 mortality event when two seal liver extracts tested positive by mouse bioassay. Ciguatoxins were thus proposed as a potential threat to the Hawaiian monk seal population. To reinvestigate monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins we utilized more selective detection methods, the Neuro-2A cytotoxicity assay, to quantify ciguatoxin activity and an analytical method LC-MS/MS to confirm the molecular structure. Tissue analysis from dead stranded animals revealed ciguatoxin activity in brain, liver, and muscle, whereas analysis of blood samples from 55 free-ranging animals revealed detectable levels of ciguatoxin activity (0.43 to 5.49 pg/mL P-CTX-1 equiv) in 19% of the animals. Bioassay-guided LC fractionation of two monk seal liver extracts identified several ciguatoxin-like peaks of activity including a peak corresponding to the P-CTX-3C which was confirmed present by LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this work provides first confirmation that Hawaiian monk seals are exposed to significant levels of ciguatoxins and first evidence of transfer of ciguatoxin to marine mammals. This threat could pose management challenges for this endangered marine mammal species.

  7. Frequency of exposure of endangered Caspian seals to Canine distemper virus, Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namroodi, Somayeh; Shirazi, Amir S; Khaleghi, Seyyed Reza; N Mills, James; Kheirabady, Vahid

    2018-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), Leptospira interrogans, and Toxoplasma gondii are potentially lethal pathogens associated with decline in marine mammal populations. The Caspian Sea is home for the endangered Caspian seal (Pusa caspica). In the late 1990s and early 2000s, CDV caused a series of mortality events involving at least several thousand Caspian seals. To assess current infection status in Caspian seals, we surveyed for antibodies to three pathogens with potential to cause mortality in marine mammals. During 2015-2017, we tested serum samples from 36, apparently healthy, Caspian seals, accidentally caught in fishing nets in the Caspian Sea off Northern Iran, for antibodies to CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii, by virus neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and modified agglutination, respectively. Twelve (33%), 6 (17%), and 30 (83%) samples were positive for CDV, L. interrogans and T. gondii antibodies, respectively. The highest titers of CDV, L. interrogans, and T. gondii antibodies were 16, 400, and 50, respectively. Frequencies of antibody to these pathogens were higher in seals >1 year old compared to seals <1 year old. Two serovars of L. interrogans (Pomona and Canicola) were detected. Our results suggest a need for additional studies to clarify the impact of these pathogens on Caspian seal population decline and the improvement of management programs, including systematic screening to detect and protect the remaining population from disease outbreaks.

  8. Intratracheal Seal Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen J; Moeslund, Niels; Lauridsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . The device consisted of an intratracheal silicone seal disc fixated by a cord through the stoma to an external part. At day 14, computed tomography (CT) was performed before the device was extracted. With the pulling of a cord, the disc unraveled into a thin thread and was extracted through the stoma. At day...

  9. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  10. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  11. Fiber Optic Safeguards Sealing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    8217 or trade names does not constitute an official indorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not...an intergrity check of a seal than to photograph the seal’s fingerprints and to match positive/negative overlays. The seal identification time and

  12. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  13. Radial lip seals, thermal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakenborg, M.J.L.; van Ostaijen, R.A.J.; Dowson, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the influence of temperature on tne seal-snarc contact is studied, using coupled temperature-stress FEH analysis. A thermal network model is used to calculate the seal-shaft contact temperature for steady-state and transient conditions. Contact temperatures were measured under the seal

  14. Cover gas seals: FFTF-LMFBR seal test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, T.S.; Shimazaki, T.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor-inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configurations provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the CRBRP to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  15. Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

    2008-11-01

    Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

  16. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Siebert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases causing considerable mortality in harbour seal populations have mainly been reported from the waters of the United States and Europe. Such die-offs were largely attributable to viral infections. Several hundred individuals died from respiratory infections caused by Influenza A viruses at the coast of New England, USA, in 1979, 1980 and 1982. More than 53,000 harbour seals were killed in European waters by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV, a morbillivirus,in two outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. For several other epizootics of smaller scale in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of the USA and, most recently, in Danish and Swedish waters in 2007 the causes remain unclear, although characteristic respiratory symptoms and interstitial pneumonia suspicious of viral etiology were detected as well as occasionally bacterial infections caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mass mortalities caused by biotoxins, direct human interactions or changes in oceanographic conditions have so far not been described for harbour seals. However, high organochlorine loads detected in European harbour seal populations and suspected to impede immune functions, were considered an aggravating factor in the 1988 morbillivirus epizootic. Establishing supranational stranding networks is a key prerequisite for the detection of future unusual die-offs in marine mammals. Detailed post-mortem investigations of all organ systems are essential for targeted etiological studies towards the causes of mass mortalities in seals.

  17. Refrigeration system with clearance seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-01-01

    In a refrigeration system such as a split Stirling system, fluid seals associated with the reciprocating displacer are virtually dragless clearance seals. Movement of the displacer relative to the pressure variations in the working volume of gas is retarded by a discrete braking element. Because it is not necessary that the brake providing any sealing action, the brake can be designed for greater durability and less dependence on ambient and operating temperatures. Similarly, the clearance seal can be formed of elements having low thermal expansion such that the seal is not temperature dependent. In the primary embodiments the braking element is a split friction brake

  18. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a hermetic seal leak detection apparatus, which can be used to test for hermetic seal leaks in instruments and containers. A vacuum tight chamber is created around the unit being tested to minimize gas space outside of the hermetic seal. A vacuum inducing device is then used to increase the gas chamber volume inside the device, so that a slight vacuum is pulled on the unit being tested. The pressure in the unit being tested will stabilize. If the stabilized pressure reads close to a known good seal calibration, there is not a leak in the seal. If the stabilized pressure reads closer to a known bad seal calibration value, there is a leak in the seal. The speed of the plunger can be varied and by evaluating the resulting pressure change rates and final values, the leak rate/size can be accurately calculated.

  19. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  20. Sealing wells with gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E C

    1967-10-01

    A new system is being used in Mexico to temporarily plug producing wells. The temporary seal is a gel with a catalyst. The use of this temporary plug allows gas-lift wells to be taken off production in order to carry out emergency repairs. The gel solidifies by the action of the catalyst to a high temperature (70 - 150/sup 0/C). By locating the bottom of the tubing at the top of the production interval, the gel material will go into the permeable formation, and immediately set. When the gel has solidified, it seals off the horizon that must not be stimulated, and leaves the others exposed to the acid action. When the treatment is finished, the gel, by action of the catalyst, is liquefied and removed from the formation, being produced with the oil.

  1. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  2. Electromagnetic shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1994-01-01

    As an electromagnetic shaft seal, there are disposed outwarding electromagnetic induction devices having generating power directing to an electroconductive fluid as an object of sealing, and inwarding electromagnetic induction device added coaxially. There are disposed elongate rectangular looped first coils having a predetermined inner diameter, second coils having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the first coil and third coil having the same shape and shifted by a predetermined pitch relative to the second coil respectively each at a predetermined inner diameter of clearance to the outwarding electromagnetic induction devices and the inwarding electromagnetic induction device. If the inwarding electromagnetic induction device and the outwarding electromagnetic induction device are operated, they are stopped at a point that the generating power of the former is equal with the sum of the generating power of the latter and a differential pressure. When three-phase AC is charged to the first coil, the second coil and the third coil successively, a force is generated in the advancing direction of the magnetic field in the electroconductive fluid by the similar effect to that of a linear motor, and the seal is maintained at high reliability. Moreover, the limit for the rotational angle of the shaft is not caused. (N.H.)

  3. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Anders; Bignert, Anders; Höglund, Johan; Lundström, Karl; Strömberg, Annika; Bäcklin, Britt-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9%) examined from 2002–2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2%) than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2%) and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted. PMID:27755567

  4. Emergence of the Zoonotic Biliary Trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum in Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus in the Baltic Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksija S Neimanis

    Full Text Available The biliary trematode Pseudamphistomum truncatum parasitizes a wide range of fish-eating mammals, including humans. Here we report the emergence of this parasite in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus in the Baltic Sea. One hundred eighty-three of 1 554 grey seals (11.9% examined from 2002-2013 had detectable hepatobiliary trematode infection. Parasite identification was confirmed as P. truncatum by sequencing the ITS2 region of a pool of five to 10 trematodes from each of ten seals collected off the coast of seven different Swedish counties. The proportion of seals parasitized by P. truncatum increased significantly over time and with increasing age of seals. Males were 3.1 times more likely to be parasitized than females and animals killed in fishery interactions were less likely to be parasitized than animals found dead or hunted. There was no significant difference in parasitism of seals examined from the Gulf of Bothnia versus those examined from the Baltic Proper. Although the majority of infections were mild, P. truncatum can cause severe hepatobiliary disease and resulted in liver failure in at least one seal. Because cyprinid fish are the second intermediate host for opisthorchiid trematodes, diets of grey seals from the Baltic Sea were analysed regarding presence of cyprinids. The proportion of gastrointestinal tracts containing cyprinid remains was ten times higher in seals examined from 2008 to 2013 (12.2% than those examined from 2002 to 2007 (1.2% and coincided with a general increase of trematode parasitism in the host population. The emergence and relatively common occurrence of P. truncatum in grey seals signals the presence of this parasite in the Baltic Sea ecosystem and demonstrates how aquatic mammals can serve as excellent sentinels of marine ecosystem change. Investigation of drivers behind P. truncatum emergence and infection risk for other mammals, including humans, is highly warranted.

  5. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  6. TECHNOLOGY ROADMAPPING FOR IAEA SEALS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOFFHEINS,B.; ANNESE,C.; GOODMAN,M.; OCONNOR,W.; GUSHUE,S.; PEPPER,S.

    2003-07-13

    In the fall of 2002, the U.S. Support Program (USSP) initiated an effort to define a strategy or ''roadmap'' for future seals technologies and to develop a generalized process for planning safeguards equipment development, which includes seals and other safeguards equipment. The underlying objectives of the USSP include becoming more proactive than reactive in addressing safeguards equipment needs, helping the IAEA to maintain an inventory of cost-effective, reliable, and effective safeguards equipment, establishing a long-term planning horizon, and securing IAEA ownership in the process of effective requirements definition and timely transitioning of new or improved systems for IAEA use. At an initial workshop, seals, their functions, performance issues, and future embodiments were discussed in the following order: adhesive seals, metal seals, passive and active loop seals, ultrasonic seals, tamper indicating enclosures (including sample containers, equipment enclosures, and conduits). Suggested improvements to these technologies focused largely on a few themes: (1) The seals must be applied quickly, easily, and correctly; (2) Seals and their associated equipment should not unduly add bulk or weight to the inspectors load; (3) Rapid, in-situ verifiability of seals is desirable; and (4) Seal systems for high risk or high value applications should have two-way, remote communications. Based upon these observations and other insights, the participants constructed a skeletal approach for seals technology planning. The process begins with a top-level review of the fundamental safeguards requirements and extraction of required system features, which is followed by analysis of suitable technologies and identification of technology gaps, and finally by development of a planning schedule for system improvements and new technology integration. Development of a comprehensive procedure will require the partnership and participation of the IAEA. The

  7. Surveillance for zoonotic and selected pathogens in harbor seals Phoca vitulina from central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Denise J.; Ip, Hon S.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Miller, Woutrina A.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Field, Cara L.; Fleetwood, Michelle; Harvey, James T.; Jang, Spencer; Packham, Andrea; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Hall, Ailsa J.

    2014-01-01

    The infection status of harbor seals Phoca vitulina in central California, USA, was evaluated through broad surveillance for pathogens in stranded and wild-caught animals from 2001 to 2008, with most samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Stranded animals from Mendocino County to San Luis Obispo County were sampled at a rehabilitation facility: The Marine Mammal Center (TMMC, n = 175); wild-caught animals were sampled at 2 locations: San Francisco Bay (SF, n = 78) and Tomales Bay (TB, n = 97), that differed in degree of urbanization. Low prevalences of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Giardia, and Cryptosporidium were detected in the feces of stranded and wild-caught seals. Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli were more prevalent in the feces of stranded (58% [78 out of 135] and 76% [102 out of 135]) than wild-caught (42% [45 out of 106] and 66% [68 out of 106]) seals, whereas Vibrio spp. were 16 times more likely to be cultured from the feces of seals from SF than TB or TMMC (p neurona, and type A influenza was only detected in the wild-caught harbor seals (post-weaning age classes), whereas antibody titers to Leptospira spp. were detected in stranded and wild-caught seals. No stranded (n = 109) or wild-caught (n = 217) harbor seals had antibodies to phocine distemper virus, although a single low titer to canine distemper virus was detected. These results highlight the role of harbor seals as sentinel species for zoonotic and terrestrial pathogens in the marine environment.

  8. Shaft and tunnel sealing considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsall, P.C.; Shukla, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    Much of the emphasis of previous repository sealing research has been placed on plugging small diameter boreholes. It is increasingly evident that equal emphasis should now be given to shafts and tunnels which constitute more significant pathways between a repository and the biosphere. The paper discusses differences in requirements for sealing shafts and tunnels as compared with boreholes and the implications for seal design. Consideration is given to a design approach for shaft and tunnel seals based on a multiple component design concept, taking into account the requirements for retrievability of the waste. A work plan is developed for the future studies required to advance shaft and tunnel sealing technology to a level comparable with the existing technology for borehole sealing

  9. Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Sarcocystis canis-like infections in marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J.P.; Zarnke, R.; Thomas, N.J.; Wong, S.K.; Vanbonn, W.; Briggs, M.; Davis, J.W.; Ewing, R.; Mense, M.; Kwok, O.C.H.; Romand, S.; Thulliez, P.

    2003-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and S. canis are related protozoans that can cause mortality in many species of domestic and wild animals. Recently, T. gondii and S. neurona were recognized to cause encephalitis in marine mammals. As yet, there is no report of natural exposure of N. caninum in marine mammals. In the present study, antibodies to T. gondii and N. caninum were assayed in sera of several species of marine mammals. For T. gondii, sera were diluted 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500 and assayed in the T. gondii modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies (MAT a?Y1:25) to T. gondii were found in 89 of 115 (77%) dead, and 18 of 30 (60%) apparently healthy sea otters (Enhydra lutris), 51 of 311 (16%) Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), 19 of 45 (42%) sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 5 of 32 (16%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida), 4 of 8 (50%) bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), 1 of 9 (11.1%) spotted seals (Phoca largha), 138 of 141 (98%) Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), and 3 of 53 (6%) walruses (Odobenus rosmarus). For N. caninum, sera were diluted 1:40, 1:80, 1:160, and 1:320 and examined with the Neospora agglutination test (NAT) using mouse-derived tachyzoites. NAT antibodies were found in 3 of 53 (6%) walruses, 28 of 145 (19%) sea otters, 11 of 311 (3.5%) harbor seals, 1 of 27 (3.7%) sea lions, 4 of 32 (12.5%) ringed seals, 1 of 8 (12.5%) bearded seals, and 43 of 47 (91%) bottlenose dolphins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N. caninum antibodies in any marine mammal, and the first report of T. gondii antibodies in walruses and in ringed, bearded, spotted, and ribbon seals. Current information on T. gondii-like and Sarcocystis-like infections in marine mammals is reviewed. New cases of clinical S. canis and T. gondii infections are also reported in sea lions, and T. gondii infection in an Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

  10. Anti-dog IgG secondary antibody successfully detects IgG in a variety of aquatic mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehl, Katherine; Jankowski, Mark D.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2016-01-01

    Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals. In an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or an immunofluorescence assay, antibody is detected using an antitarget species secondary conjugated antibody. The sensitivity of the assay depends on the avidity of the binding reaction between the bound antibody and the detection antibody. A commercial polyclonal antidog IgG conjugated antibody was tested in an EIA for its ability to sensitively detect the IgG of seven marine mammals including sea otter (Enhydra lutris), polar bear (Ursus maritimus), grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) and one freshwater mammal: Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). With the exception of Asian small-clawed sea otters, the detection of IgG in these marine mammals either exceeded or was nearly equal to detection of dog IgG. The use of the tested commercial antidog IgG antibody may be a valid approach to the detection of antibody response to disease in sea mammals.

  11. Sealed radioactive source management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources have been used in a wide range of application in medicine, agriculture, geology, industry and other fields. Since its utilization many sources have become out of use and became waste but no proper management. This has lead to many accidents causing deaths and serious radiation injuries worldwide. Spent sources application is expanding but their management has seen little improvements. Sealed radioactive sources have become a security risk calling for prompt action. Source management helps to maintain sources in a good physical status and provide means of source tracking and control. It also provides a well documented process of the sources making any future management options safe, secure and cost effective. Last but not least good source management substantially reduces the risk of accidents and eliminates the risk of malicious use. The International Atomic Energy Agency assists Member States to build the infrastructure to properly manage sealed radioactive sources. The assistance includes training of national experts to handle, condition and properly store the sources. For Member States that do not have proper facilities, we provide the technical assistance to design a proper facility to properly manage the radioactive sources and provide for their proper storage. For Member States that need to condition their sources properly but don't have the required infrastructure we provide direct assistance to physically help them with source recovery and provide an international expert team to properly condition their sources and render them safe and secure. We offer software (Radioactive Waste Management Registry) to properly keep a complete record on the sources and provide for efficient tracking. This also helps with proper planning and decision making for long term management

  12. Sealing of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Erlstroem, M.; Boergesson, L.

    1985-12-01

    The major water-bearing fractures in granite usually from fairly regular sets but the extension and degree of connectivity is varying. This means that only a few fractures that are interconnected with the deposition holes and larger water-bearing structures in a HLW repository are expected and if they can be identified and cut off through sealing it would be possible to improve the isolation of waste packages very effectively. Nature's own fracture sealing mechanisms may be simulated and a survey of the involved processes actually suggests a number of possible filling methods and substances. Most of them require high temperature and pressure and correspondingly sophisticated techniques, but some are of potential interest for immediate application with rather moderate effort. Such a technique is to fill the fractures with clayey substances which stay flexible and low-permeable provided that they remain physically and chemically intact. It is demonstrated in the report that effective grouting requires a very low viscosity and shear strength of the substance and this can be achieved by mechanical agitation as demonstrated in this report. Thus, by superimposing static pressure and shear waves induced by percussion hammering at a suitable frequency, clays and fine-grained silts as well as cement can be driven into fractures with an average aperture as small as 0.1 mm. Experiments were made in the laboratory using concrete and steel plates, and a field pilot test was also conducted under realistic conditions on site in Stripa. They all demonstrated the practicality of the 'dynamic injection technique' and that the fluid condition of the grouts yielded complete filling of the injected space to a considerable distance from the injection point. The field test indicated a good sealing ability as well as a surprisingly high resistance to erosion and piping. (author)

  13. Low-Torque Seal Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott B.; Borowski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The EcoTurn Class K production prototypes have passed all AAR qualification tests and received conditional approval. The accelerated life test on the second set of seals is in progress. Due to the performance of the first set, no problems are expected.The seal has demonstrated superior performance over the HDL seal in the test lab with virtually zero torque and excellent contamination exclusion and grease retention.

  14. Radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) in marine mammals from Svalbard, the Barents Sea and the North Greenland Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Magnus; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian [Norwegian Polar Institute, N-9296, Tromsoe (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P.; Dowdall, Mark [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, N-9296, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2006-06-15

    Specific activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide, {sup 137}Cs, were determined in marine mammals from Svalbard and the Barents and North Greenland Seas. Muscle samples were collected from 12 polar bears, 15 ringed seals, 10 hooded seals, 7 bearded seals, 14 harp seals, one walrus, one white whale and one blue whale in the period 2000-2003. The mean concentrations (+/-SD) of {sup 137}Cs were: 0.72+/-0.62 Bq/kg wet weight (w.w.) for polar bears; 0.49+/-0.07 Bq/kg w.w. for ringed seals; 0.25+/-0.10 Bq/kg w.w. for hooded seals; 0.22+/-0.11 Bq/kg w.w. for bearded seals; 0.36+/-0.13 Bq/kg w.w. for harp seals; 0.67 Bq/kg w.w. for the white whale sample; 0.24 Bq/kg w.w. for the blue whale; and below detection limit for the walrus. Significant differences in {sup 137}Cs specific activities between some of the species were found. Ringed seals had higher specific activities than the other seal species in the study. Bearded seals and hooded seals had similar values, which were both significantly lower than the harp seal values. The results in the present study are consistent with previous reported results, indicating low specific activities of {sup 137}Cs in Arctic marine mammals in the Barents Sea and Greenland Sea region during the last 20 years. The species specific differences found may be explained by varying diet or movement and distribution patterns between species. No age related patterns were found in specific activities for the two species (polar bears and hooded seals) for which sufficient data was available. Concentration factors (CF) of {sup 137}Cs from seawater were determined for polar bears, ringed, bearded, harp and hooded seals. Mean CF values ranged from 79+/-32 (SD) for bearded seals sampled in 2002 to 244+/-36 (SD) for ringed seals sampled in 2003 these CF values are higher than those reported for fish and benthic organisms in the literature, suggesting bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs in the marine ecosystem. (author)

  15. Production of sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandi, L.N.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope production has been an ongoing activity in India since the sixties. Radioisotopes find wide-ranging applications in various fields, including industry, research, agriculture and medicine. Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, an industrial unit of Department of Atomic Energy is involved in fabrication and supply of wide variety of sealed sources. The main radioisotopes fabricated and supplied by BRIT are Cobalt-60, Iridium-192. These isotopes are employed in industrial and laboratory irradiators, teletherapy machines, radiography exposure devices, nucleonic gauges. The source fabrication facilities of BRIT are located at Rajasthan Atomic Power Project Cobalt-60 Facility (RAPPCOF), Kota, Radiological Laboratories Group (RLG) and High Intensity Radiation Utilization Project (HIRUP) at Trombay

  16. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  17. Advanced High Temperature Structural Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newquist, Charles W.; Verzemnieks, Juris; Keller, Peter C.; Rorabaugh, Michael; Shorey, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This program addresses the development of high temperature structural seals for control surfaces for a new generation of small reusable launch vehicles. Successful development will contribute significantly to the mission goal of reducing launch cost for small, 200 to 300 pound payloads. Development of high temperature seals is mission enabling. For instance, ineffective control surface seals can result in high temperature (3100 F) flows in the elevon area exceeding structural material limits. Longer sealing life will allow use for many missions before replacement, contributing to the reduction of hardware, operation and launch costs.

  18. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  19. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Amphibious hearing in ringed seals (Pusa hispida): underwater audiograms, aerial audiograms and critical ratio measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sills, Jillian M; Southall, Brandon L; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-07-01

    Ringed seals (Pusa hispida) are semi-aquatic marine mammals with a circumpolar Arctic distribution. In this study, we investigate the amphibious hearing capabilities of ringed seals to provide auditory profiles for this species across the full range of hearing. Using psychophysical methods with two trained ringed seals, detection thresholds for narrowband signals were measured under quiet, carefully controlled environmental conditions to generate aerial and underwater audiograms. Masked underwater thresholds were measured in the presence of octave-band noise to determine critical ratios. Results indicate that ringed seals possess hearing abilities comparable to those of spotted seals (Phoca largha) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), and considerably better than previously reported for ringed and harp seals. Best sensitivity was 49 dB re. 1 µPa (12.8 kHz) in water, and -12 dB re. 20 µPa (4.5 kHz) in air, rivaling the acute hearing abilities of some fully aquatic and terrestrial species in their respective media. Critical ratio measurements ranged from 14 dB at 0.1 kHz to 31 dB at 25.6 kHz, suggesting that ringed seals--like other true seals--can efficiently extract signals from background noise across a broad range of frequencies. The work described herein extends similar research on amphibious hearing in spotted seals recently published by the authors. These parallel studies enhance our knowledge of the auditory capabilities of ice-living seals, and inform effective management strategies for these and related species in a rapidly changing Arctic environment. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Water conservation in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Christopher W; Costa, Daniel P

    2006-11-01

    Prolonged terrestrial fasting is a key element in the life history of elephant seals. While on land seals typically fast without access to fresh water, and thus must maintain positive water balance by reductions in water loss such that they can subsist primarily on metabolic water production (MWP). The terrestrial apnea demonstrated by seals may reduce respiratory evaporative water loss (REWL) to levels that allow seals to make a net gain of water from MWP. We empirically measured REWL in 13 fasting northern elephant seal pups and determined the effects on water conservation of a breathing mode that incorporates a regular pattern of apneas, of > or =1 min in duration, followed by eupneic recovery, compared with a breathing mode with no apneas longer than 20 s and resembling typical breathing patterns in other mammals (normative breathing). Overall REWL fell 41% from 0.075+/-0.013 g min(-1) (mean +/- s.d.) during normative breathing to 0.044+/-0.006 g min(-1) during apneic breathing. The decline in REWL is attributed to a decrease in overall ventilation rate, made possible by a decline in metabolic rate along with an increase in oxygen extraction that would occur during apneic breathing. Data on the range of ambient humidity conditions at the local breeding site were collected and used to bound the range of environmental conditions used in laboratory measurements. Our data showed that the observed variations in ambient humidity had no significant effect on REWL. A combination of apneic breathing and the complex nasal turbinates allows fasting elephant seals to reduce REWL well below the rate of MWP so that they can maintain water balance during the fast.

  2. The whale pump: marine mammals enhance primary productivity in a coastal basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Roman

    Full Text Available It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×10(4 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward "whale pump" played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities.

  3. Joint seal in tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, J.; White, G.V.

    1981-01-01

    A seal for a joint or gap between edges of adjacent wall sections (e.g. of concrete) of a liquid-containing vessel, such as a nuclear reactor cooling pond, comprises a sheet metal strip having longitudinally-extending edge parts, secured to the respective vessel-section edges, and a central part which is longitudinally corrugated to provide sufficient flexibility to accommodate slight relative movements between the vessel-section edges (e.g. due to thermal expansions). The edges of the sheet metal of the strip are turned in so that the edge parts of the strip are formed as generally U-section channels. These accommodate longitudinally extending securing bars which are bolted to the vessel wall sections by bolts which pass through the bars, through the free-edged wall of the channel section and through a longitudinally extending resilient seal pad compressed between that wall of the channel section and the vessel wall section to which it is secured. The other wall of the channel section (integral with the corrugated central part of the strip) has access windows through which the bolts are inserted and tightened, the windows being then closed off in liquid-tight manner by welding closure caps over them. (author)

  4. A memory like a female Fur Seal: long-lasting recognition of pup's voice by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Charrier, Isabelle; Aubin, Thierry

    2004-06-01

    In colonial mammals like fur seals, mutual vocal recognition between mothers and their pup is of primary importance for breeding success. Females alternate feeding sea-trips with suckling periods on land, and when coming back from the ocean, they have to vocally find their offspring among numerous similar-looking pups. Young fur seals emit a 'mother-attraction call' that presents individual characteristics. In this paper, we review the perceptual process of pup's call recognition by Subantarctic Fur Seal Arctocephalus tropicalis mothers. To identify their progeny, females rely on the frequency modulation pattern and spectral features of this call. As the acoustic characteristics of a pup's call change throughout the lactation period due to the growing process, mothers have thus to refine their memorization of their pup's voice. Field experiments show that female Fur Seals are able to retain all the successive versions of their pup's call.

  5. A neurological comparative study of the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walløe, Solveig; Eriksen, Nina; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The cetacean brain is well studied. However, few comparisons have been done with other marine mammals. In this study, we compared the harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus) and the harbor porpoise brain (Phocoena phocoena). Stereological methods were applied to compare three areas of interest...... cells, whereas the harp seal have 6.1 × 10(9) neocortical neurons and 17.5 × 10(9) neocortical glial cells. The harbor porpoise have significantly more neurons and glial cells in the auditory cortex than in the visual cortex, whereas the pattern was opposite for the harp seal. These results...... are the first to provide estimates of the number of neurons and glial cells in the neocortex of the harp seal and harbor porpoise brain and offer new data to the comparative field of mammalian brain evolution....

  6. Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammal Evolution, an mustrated Guide. R.J.G. Savage and M.R. Long. British Museum of Natural ... structural anatomy of fossils can be related to their probable function. The body of the text discusses the ... gnawers, rooters and browsers, mammals on island continents, hoofed herbivores and ftnally primate evolution,.

  7. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  8. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  9. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    caulking compounds, nonhardening extruded tapes, nonhardening mastics, strippable spray coatings, pressure sensitive tapes, gaskets, adhesives, fabrics...films, etc. Although all of these materials may provide a seal, care must be taken when selecting a sealing material as to its chemical and...gaskets have performed satisfactorily. Another factor to be considered in the selection of gasketing material is its compatibility with both the

  10. Research on seal control systems for international nuclear safeguard and the vulnerability assessment on the seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongjian; Liu Tianshu; Cao Fangfang; Xu Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Safeguard seals, also called Tamper-indicating devices (TIDs), are widely used to detect tampering or unauthorized entry in the international safeguard and security systems, Seal control systems consist of seal implementing plan, seal development and the vulnerability assessment on tbe seals, effective implementing procedures and methods of the seals. The vulnerability assessment contents of safeguard seals, thermo-shrinked film seals being as an example, and seals control systems in the implementation program are researched. The seal control systems discuss task assignment, seals management flow and seals program data flow to promote applying effectively seals. The vulnerability assessment program of seals studies assurance level to some different tampering techniques and measures. The researches must promote utilizing seals effectively for nuclear security, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, radioactive waste management, and the nuclear material accounting and control. (authors)

  11. Airfoil seal system for gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None, None

    2013-06-25

    A turbine airfoil seal system of a turbine engine having a seal base with a plurality of seal strips extending therefrom for sealing gaps between rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components. The seal strips may overlap each other and may be generally aligned with each other. The seal strips may flex during operation to further reduce the gap between the rotational airfoils and adjacent stationary components.

  12. Tamper tape seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, B.W.; Undem, H.A.

    1994-07-01

    Tamper tapes are appealing for many applications due to their ease of use and relative robustness. Applications include seals for temporary area denial, protection of sensitive equipment, chain-of-custody audit trails, and inventory control practices. A next generation of adhesive tamper tapes is being developed that combines the best features of commercially available devices with additional state-of-the-art features in tamper indication, tamper-resistance, and counterfeit-resistance. The additional features are based on U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research and development (R ampersand D) activities that were originally associated with preparations for the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START). New features include rapid-set, chemical-cure adhesive systems that allow user-friendly application and layered levels of counterfeit-resistance based on unique open-quotes fingerprintclose quotes characteristics that can be accessed as desired

  13. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  14. Hawaii ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for endangered Hawaiian monk seals, endangered humpback whales, and other whales and dolphins in coastal...

  15. Western Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, dolphins, walruses, and Steller sea lions in Western Alaska. Vector polygons in this...

  16. Virginia ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphin, seals, whales, and porpoise in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  17. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  18. Columbia River ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for Steller sea lions, harbor seals, and California sea lions in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  19. Maryland ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, porpoise, and dolphin in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  20. Turbine and Structural Seals Team Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Seals Team Facilities conceive, develop, and test advanced turbine seal concepts to increase efficiency and durability of turbine engines. Current projects include...

  1. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  2. POP load and vitamins as potential biomarkers in the Baltic seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Routti, H.; Nyman, M.; Helle, E. [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Backman, C. [National Veterinary and Food Research Inst. (Finland); Koistinen, J. [Div. of Environmental Health, National Public Health Inst. (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Exceptionally high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and 1,1,1.trichloro- 2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane (DDT) and its metabolites were reported in the Baltic seals in the late 1960s and early 1970s. PCB levels in ringed seals, in particular, are still high enough to threaten the well being of the animals. The observed difference in contaminant pattern between ringed and grey seals in the Baltic has not been explained, but could be partly due to species-specific food sources. Several pathological and biochemical changes observed in the Baltic seals correlate with the individual POP loads. Of the observed biochemical changes, elevated cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) levels, decreased liver vitamin A stores and increased vitamin E levels in blubber or plasma, have been proposed as possible biomarkers of contaminant load in Baltic seals. However, as the vitamin A and E status of marine mammals also reflects the nutritional vitamin level, the lower vitamin A and elevated vitamin E levels observed in the Baltic seals could be a reflection of the levels of these vitamins in their food sources. The aim of this study was to investigate the contaminant load in the Baltic seals and to evaluate the utility level of potential exposure and effect biomarkers. Seals from less contaminated areas were used as reference material (Svalbard and Sable Island, Canada). In the present study, POP and vitamin levels were also studied in seal prey species in order to study the transfer of these compounds to grey and ringed seals from their main food sources.

  3. Seasonal Variation of Harbor Seal's Diet from the Wadden Sea in Relation to Prey Availability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille de la Vega

    Full Text Available The Wadden Sea has an important role for marine mammals in terms of resting, nursing and foraging. Harbor seal is the most abundant marine mammal species in this area. The use of the food resources of the Wadden Sea by seals is not clear, and previous studies showed that this species can travel kilometers away from their haul-outs to forage in the North Sea. In this study, we analyzed the stable isotopes of vibrissae from 23 dead harbor seals found on the island of Sylt to investigate their diet. The predator´s carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions were compared to the compositions of different potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight and from the North Sea in order to study seasonal pattern in the diet and in the foraging location. In parallel, seasonal variation of abundance and biomass of the potential prey items from the Sylt-Rømø Bight were studied and compare to their contribution to the seal´s diet. The results revealed a change in the seal´s diet from pelagic sources in spring to a benthic based diet in summer, and an increasing use of the North Sea resources in fall and winter in accordance with the seasonal variation of the availability of prey in the Sylt-Rømø Bight.

  4. Alabama ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal distribution...

  5. American Samoa ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales and dolphins in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine mammal...

  6. Epigenetic memory in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe eMigicovsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic information can be passed on from one generation to another via DNA methylation, histone modifications and changes in small RNAs, a process called epigenetic memory. During a mammal’s lifecycle epigenetic reprogramming, or the resetting of most epigenetic marks, occurs twice. The first instance of reprogramming occurs in primordial germ cells and the second occurs following fertilization. These processes may be both passive and active. In order for epigenetic inheritance to occur the epigenetic modifications must be able to escape reprogramming. There are several examples supporting this non-Mendelian mechanism of inheritance including the prepacking of early developmental genes in histones instead of protamines in sperm, genomic imprinting via methylation marks, the retention of CenH3 in mammalian sperm and the inheritance of piwi-associated interfering RNAs. The ability of mammals to pass on epigenetic information to their progeny provides clear evidence that inheritance is not restricted to DNA sequence and epigenetics plays a key role in producing viable offspring.

  7. Prolonged fasting increases glutathione biosynthesis in postweaned northern elephant seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Forman, Henry Jay; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals experience prolonged periods of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting) while breeding, molting or weaning. The postweaning fast in elephant seals is characterized by increases in the renin–angiotensin system, expression of the oxidant-producing protein Nox4, and NADPH oxidase activity; however, these increases are not correlated with increased oxidative damage or inflammation. Glutathione (GSH) is a potent reductant and a cofactor for glutathione peroxidases (GPx), glutathione-S transferases (GST) and 1-cys peroxiredoxin (PrxVI) and thus contributes to the removal of hydroperoxides, preventing oxidative damage. The effects of prolonged food deprivation on the GSH system are not well described in mammals. To test our hypothesis that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting in postweaned elephant seals, we measured circulating and muscle GSH content at the early and late phases of the postweaning fast in elephant seals along with the activity/protein content of glutamate-cysteine ligase [GCL; catalytic (GCLc) and modulatory (GCLm) subunits], γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutathione disulphide reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), GST and PrxVI, as well as plasma changes in γ-glutamyl amino acids, glutamate and glutamine. GSH increased two- to four-fold with fasting along with a 40–50% increase in the content of GCLm and GCLc, a 75% increase in GGT activity, a two- to 2.5-fold increase in GR, G6PDH and GST activities and a 30% increase in PrxVI content. Plasma γ-glutamyl glutamine, γ-glutamyl isoleucine and γ-glutamyl methionine also increased with fasting whereas glutamate and glutamine decreased. Results indicate that GSH biosynthesis increases with fasting and that GSH contributes to counteracting hydroperoxide production, preventing oxidative damage in fasting seals. PMID:21430206

  8. Leak detection of KNI seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranyai, G.; Peter, A.; Windberg, P.

    1990-03-01

    In Unit 3 and 4 of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary, KNI type seals are used as lead-throughs with conical nickel sealing rings. Their failure can be critical for the operation of the reactor. An Acoustical Leak Detection System (ALDS) was constructed and tested for the operational testing of the seals. Some individual papers are presented in this collection on the calibration and testing of the ALDS intended to be placed on the top of the reactor vessels. The papers include simulation measurements of Unit 3 of NPP, laboratory experiments, evaluation of measurements, and further development needs with the ALDS. (R.P.) 50 figs.; 19 tabs

  9. Silicone foam for penetration seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Yoshikazu

    1986-01-01

    In nuclear power plants or general buildings, it is very important to form a fire-resistant seal around cables, cable trays and conduits passing through a wall or a floor. Rockwool, asbestos, glasswool and flame-retarded urethane foam have so far been used for these purposes. However, they were not satisfactory in sealing property, workability and safety. The silicone foam newly developed, ''TOSSEAL'' 300, has cleared these defects. It has now come to be used for fire resistant seal in nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. 76 FR 25308 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309

  11. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  12. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  13. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented

  14. 50 CFR 14.18 - Marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine mammals. 14.18 Section 14.18....18 Marine mammals. Any person subject to the jurisdiction of the United States who has lawfully taken a marine mammal on the high seas and who is authorized to import such marine mammal in accordance...

  15. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  16. Alaska Harbor Seal Glacial Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Floating glacial ice serves as a haul-out substrate for a significant number (10-15%) of Alaskan harbor seals, and thus surveying tidewater glacial fjords is an...

  17. Coupled processes in repository sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, J.B.; Kelsall, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The significance of coupled processes in repository sealing is evaluated. In most repository designs, shaft seals will be located in areas of relatively low temperature perturbation, in which case the coupling of temperature with stress and permeability may be less significant than the coupling between stress and permeability that occurs during excavation. Constitutive relationships between stress and permeability are reviewed for crystalline rock and rocksalt. These provide a basis for predicting the development of disturbed zones near excavations. Field case histories of the degree of disturbance are presented for two contrasting rock types - Stripa granite and Southeastern New Mexico rocksalt. The results of field investigations in both rock types confirm that hydraulic conductivity or permeability is stress dependent, and that shaft seal performance may be related to the degree that stresses are perturbed and restored near the seal

  18. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  19. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Jonatas H. F.; Mattos, Paulo H.; Silva, Kleber G.; Secchi, Eduardo R.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574), South American fur seal, (n = 3,419), South American sea lion (n = 2,049), bottlenose dolphins (n = 293) and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219) were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal) and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin) species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to climate change

  20. Long-Term Seasonal and Interannual Patterns of Marine Mammal Strandings in Subtropical Western South Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas H F Prado

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal patterns of marine mammal occurrence is useful for establishing conservation strategies. We used a 38 yr-long dataset spanning 1976 to 2013 to describe temporal patterns and trends in marine mammal strandings along a subtropical stretch of the east coast of South America. This region is influenced by a transitional zone between tropical and temperate waters and is considered an important fishing ground off Brazil. Generalized Additive Models were used to evaluate the temporal stranding patterns of the most frequently stranded species. Forty species were documented in 12,540 stranding events. Franciscana (n = 4,574, South American fur seal, (n = 3,419, South American sea lion (n = 2,049, bottlenose dolphins (n = 293 and subantarctic fur seal (n = 219 were the most frequently stranded marine mammals. The seasonality of strandings of franciscana and bottlenose dolphin coincided with periods of higher fishing effort and strandings of South American and subantarctic fur seals with post-reproductive dispersal. For South American sea lion the seasonality of strandings is associated with both fishing effort and post-reproductive dispersal. Some clear seasonal patterns were associated with occurrence of cold- (e.g. subantarctic fur seal and warm-water (e.g. rough-toothed dolphin species in winter and summer, respectively. Inter-annual increases in stranding rate were observed for franciscana and South American fur seal and these are likely related to increased fishing effort and population growth, respectively. For subantarctic fur seal the stranding rate showed a slight decline while for bottlenose dolphin it remained steady. No significant year to year variation in stranding rate was observed for South American sea lion. The slight decrease in frequency of temperate/polar marine mammals and the increased occurrence of subtropical/tropical species since the late 1990s might be associated with environmental changes linked to

  1. Design considerations for mechanical face seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Greiner, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    Two companion reports deal with design considerations for improving performance of mechanical face seals, one of family of devices used in general area of fluid sealing of rotating shafts. One report deals with basic seal configuration and other with lubrication of seal.

  2. Seals Research at AlliedSignal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    1996-01-01

    A consortium has been formed to address seal problems in the Aerospace sector of Allied Signal, Inc. The consortium is represented by makers of Propulsion Engines, Auxiliary Power Units, Gas Turbine Starters, etc. The goal is to improve Face Seal reliability, since Face Seals have become reliability drivers in many of our product lines. Several research programs are being implemented simultaneously this year. They include: Face Seal Modeling and Analysis Methodology; Oil Cooling of Seals; Seal Tracking Dynamics; Coking Formation & Prevention; and Seal Reliability Methods.

  3. Sealing Failure Analysis on V-Shaped Sealing Rings of an Inserted Sealing Tool Used for Multistage Fracturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The inserted sealing tool is a critical downhole implement that is used to balance the downhole pressure in multistage fracturing operations and prevent fracturing fluid from overflow and/or backward flow. The sealing ring of an inserted sealing tool plays an important role in downhole sealing since a sealing failure would ail the fracturing operation. In order to improve the sealing performance and reduce the potential fracturing failures, this research aims to investigate the influence of V-shaped sealing ring geometries on sealing performance. Constitutive experiments of rubber materials were carried out and the parameters of the constitutive relationship of rubber materials were obtained. A two-dimensional axisymmetric model considering the sealing ring has been established and influences are investigated with considerations of various system parameters and operating conditions. It is found that the stresses concentrated at the shoulder and inner vertex of the sealing ring have direct impact on the damage of the sealing rings under operational conditions. Moreover, the sealing interference, among several other factors, greatly affects the life of the sealing ring. A new design of the sealing ring is suggested with optimized geometric parameters. Its geometric parameters are the edge height of 5 mm, the vertex angle of 90°–100°, and the interference of 0.1 mm, which show a better performance and prolonged operation life of the sealing ring.

  4. Sealed can of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a seal plug cover with a gripping portion fitted to a canning machine and a gripping portion fitted to a gripper of the same configuration as a fuel body for handling the fuel body so as to facilitate the handling work. Structure: A sealed can comprises a vessel and a seal plug cover, said cover being substantially in the form of a bottomed cylinder, which is slipped on the vessel and air-tightly secured by a fastening bolt between it and a flange. The spent fuel body is received into the vessel together with coolant during the step of canning operation. Said seal plug cover has two gripping portions, one for opening and closing the plug cover of the canning machine as an exclusive use member, the other being in the form of a hook-shaped peripheral groove, whereby the gripping portions may be effectively used using the same gripper when the spent fuel body is transported while being received in the sealed can or when the fuel body is removed from the sealed can. (Kawakami, Y.)

  5. Reusable, tamper-indicating seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A reusable, tamper-indicating seal is comprised of a drum confined within a fixed body and rotatable in one direction therewithin, the top of the drum constituting a tray carrying a large number of small balls of several different colors. The fixed body contains parallel holes for looping a seal wire therethrough. The base of the drums carries cams adapted to coact with cam followers to lock the wire within the seal at one angular position of the drum. A channel in the fixed body, visible from outside the seal, adjacent the tray constitutes a segregated location for a small plurality of the colored balls. A spring in the tray forces colored balls into the segregated location at one angular position of the drum, further rotation securing the balls in position and the wires in the seal. A wedge-shaped plough removes the balls from the segregated location, at a different angular position of the drum, the wire being unlocked at the same postion. A new pattern of colored balls will appear in the segregated location when the seal is relocked

  6. Hydrodynamic perception in true seals (Phocidae) and eared seals (Otariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Wolf; Wieskotten, Sven; Marshall, Christopher; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Pinnipeds, that is true seals (Phocidae), eared seals (Otariidae), and walruses (Odobenidae), possess highly developed vibrissal systems for mechanoreception. They can use their vibrissae to detect and discriminate objects by direct touch. At least in Phocidae and Otariidae, the vibrissae can also be used to detect and analyse water movements. Here, we review what is known about this ability, known as hydrodynamic perception, in pinnipeds. Hydrodynamic perception in pinnipeds developed convergently to the hydrodynamic perception with the lateral line system in fish and the sensory hairs in crustaceans. So far two species of pinnipeds, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) representing the Phocidae and the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) representing the Otariidae, have been studied for their ability to detect local water movements (dipole stimuli) and to follow hydrodynamic trails, that is the water movements left behind by objects that have passed by at an earlier point in time. Both species are highly sensitive to dipole stimuli and can follow hydrodynamic trails accurately. In the individuals tested, California sea lions were clearly more sensitive to dipole stimuli than harbour seals, and harbour seals showed a superior trail following ability as compared to California sea lions. Harbour seals have also been shown to derive additional information from hydrodynamic trails, such as motion direction, size and shape of the object that caused the trail (California sea lions have not yet been tested). The peculiar undulated shape of the harbour seals' vibrissae appears to play a crucial role in trail following, as it suppresses self-generated noise while the animal is swimming.

  7. Brain transcriptomes of harbor seals demonstrate gene expression patterns of animals undergoing a metabolic disease and a viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Rosales

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of marine mammals can be difficult to diagnose because of their life history and protected status. Stranded marine mammals have been a particularly useful resource to discover and comprehend the diseases that plague these top predators. Additionally, advancements in high-throughput sequencing (HTS has contributed to the discovery of novel pathogens in marine mammals. In this study, we use a combination of HTS and stranded harbor seals (Phoca vitulina to better understand a known and unknown brain disease. To do this, we used transcriptomics to evaluate brain tissues from seven neonatal harbor seals that expired from an unknown cause of death (UCD and compared them to four neonatal harbor seals that had confirmed phocine herpesvirus (PhV-1 infections in the brain. Comparing the two disease states we found that UCD animals showed a significant abundance of fatty acid metabolic transcripts in their brain tissue, thus we speculate that a fatty acid metabolic dysregulation contributed to the death of these animals. Furthermore, we were able to describe the response of four young harbor seals with PhV-1 infections in the brain. PhV-1 infected animals showed a significant ability to mount an innate and adaptive immune response, especially to combat viral infections. Our data also suggests that PhV-1 can hijack host pathways for DNA packaging and exocytosis. This is the first study to use transcriptomics in marine mammals to understand host and viral interactions and assess the death of stranded marine mammals with an unknown disease. Furthermore, we show the value of applying transcriptomics on stranded marine mammals for disease characterization.

  8. Marine mammal fauna of potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico and Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal, an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale. The spinner dolphin and the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  9. THE MARINE MAMMAL FAUNA OF POTENTIAL OTEC SITES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND HAWAII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.

    1979-05-01

    Twenty-seven marine mammal species have been recorded for the Gulf of Mexico, including 7 Mysticetes or baleen whales, 17 Odontocetes or toothed whales, 1 Sirenian (manatee), and 1 or 2 Pinnipeds or seals. The most common species in the Gulf is Tursiops truncatus, the bottlenosed dolphin, an inshore species. Offshore, Stenella plagiodon, the spotted dolphin, is fairly common. Most other species are recorded from very few sightings or strandings. None of the endangered species is common in potential OTEC sites in the Gulf of Mexico. Twenty-two marine mammals may occur in Hawaii; 2 Mystecetes, 19 Odonotocetes, and the endemic monk seal. The monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi), an endangered species, lives in the extreme northwestern island chain away from potential OTEC sites. Among the most common cetaceans in Hawaii is the endangered humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Stenella longirostris, the spinner dolphin; and Tursiops sp., the bottlenosed dolphin are also fairly common. The baleen whales feed on zooplankton during the summer in polar waters, and are migratory, while the toothed whales feed mainly on fish and squid, and are found in temperate or tropical regions year-round. The manatee is vegetarian and the pinnipeds are fish- or squid-eaters. Environmental effects of OTEC which may affect mammals are: toxic effects of biocide release or ammonia spill, biostimulating effects of seawater redistribution, oil spills, or effects of the physical presence of OTEC plants.

  10. Patterns of seabird and marine mammal carcass deposition along the central California coast, 1980-1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, James L.; Jameson, Ronald J.

    1991-01-01

    At monthly intervals from February 1980 through December 1986, a 14.5-km section of central California coastline was systematically surveyed for beach-cast carcasses of marine birds and mammals. Five hundred and fifty-four bird carcasses and 194 marine mammal carcasses were found. Common murres, western grebes, and Brandt's cormorants composed 45% of the bird total. California sea lions, sea otters, and harbor seals composed 90% of the mammal total. Several factors appeared to affect patterns of carcass deposition. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of 1982–1983 was the dominant influence in terms of interannual variation in carcass deposition. During this ENSO, 56% of the seabirds and 48% of the marine mammals washed ashore. Patterns of intra-annual variation were species specific and were related to animal migration patterns, reproduction, and seasonal changes in weather. Nearshore currents and winds influenced the general area of carcass deposition, while beach substrate type and local patterns of sand deposition influenced the location of carcass deposition on a smaller spatial scale. Weekly surveys along a 1.1-km section of coastline indicated that 62% of bird carcasses and 41% of mammal carcasses remained on the beach less than 9 days. Cause of death was determined for only 8% of the carcasses. Oiling was the most common indication of cause of death in birds (6%). Neonates composed 8% of all mammal carcasses.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Wilson, Susan; Eybatov, Tariel; Mitrofanov, Igor V.; Aubrey, David G.; Khuraskin, Lev S.; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 μg/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression

  12. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Caspian seals of unusual mortality event during 2000 and 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kajiwara.natsuko@nies.go.jp; Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Wilson, Susan [Tara Seal Research Centre, Co. Down, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Eybatov, Tariel [Geological Institute of the Azerbaijan Republic Academy of Science, Baku (Azerbaijan); Mitrofanov, Igor V. [Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Ecotoxicology, Institution of Zoology, Academgorodok, Almaty 480060 (Kazakhstan); Aubrey, David G. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Khuraskin, Lev S. [Caspian Fisheries Research Institute, Astrakhan 414056 (Russian Federation); Miyazaki, Nobuyuki [Center for International Cooperation, Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-15-1 Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639 (Japan); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2008-03-15

    Persistent organic pollutants including organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PCDDs/DFs were determined in the blubber of Caspian seals, which died during an outbreak of canine distemper virus in 2000 and 2001. DDTs were the predominant contaminants that ranged from 3.1 to 560 {mu}g/g lipid. A negative correlation was observed between concentration of contaminants and blubber thickness. During spring, as the blubber layer becomes thin after breeding and moulting, seals may face higher risk due to the increased concentration of organochlorines in their bodies. TEQs in the blubber of Caspian seals (10-340 pg TEQ/g) were lower than those in seals from other locations, suggesting that toxic effects of these contaminants are a deal less in the present population and they are unlikely to be linked to mass mortality. The levels of PCBs and pesticides in Caspian seals, however, comparable to those in other aquatic mammals that have suffered from epizootics, might pose a risk of immunosuppression. - POPs in seals are high enough to induce immunosuppression.

  13. Competition for the fish - fish extraction from the Baltic Sea by humans, aquatic mammals and birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Sture; Bergström, Ulf; Bonsdorff, E.

    2018-01-01

    Populations of fish eating mammals (primarily seals) and birds have increased in the Baltic Sea and there is concern that their consumption reduces fish stocks and has negative impact on the fishery. Based primarily on published data on fisheries’ landings and abundances, consumption and diets...... to be addressed in basic ecosystem research, management and conservation. This requires improved quantitative data on wildlife diets, abundances and fish production...... of birds and seals around year 2010, we compare consumption of commercial fish species by seals (1*105 metric tons per year) and birds (1*105 tons) to the catch in the commercial and recreational fishery (7*105 tons), and when applicable at the geographical resolution of ICES subdivisions. The large...

  14. Marine mammal sightings around oil and gas installations in the central North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delefosse, Matthieu; Rahbek, Malene Louise; Roesen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    288 animals were reported between May 2013 and May 2016. A total of seven marine mammal species were identified, five cetaceans: harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata), white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), killer whale (Orcinus orca), pilot whales......Relatively little is known about the distribution and diversity of marine mammals around offshore anthropogenic structures. Wepresentresultsobtainedfromincidentalsightings ofmarinemammalsaroundoilandgasinstallationslocated200 kmoff the Danish coast. A total of 131 sightings corresponding to about...... (Globicephala spp.) and two species of pinnipeds: harbour (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus). The most sighted species were harbour porpoise (41%) and minke whale (31%). Relative counts and biodiversity of marine mammals observed around installations corresponded well with the expected...

  15. Spray sealing: A breakthrough in integral fuel tank sealing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin D.; Zadarnowski, J. H.

    1989-11-01

    In a continuing effort to increase readiness, a new approach to sealing integral fuel tanks is being developed. The technique seals potential leak sources by spraying elastomeric materials inside the tank cavity. Laboratory evaluations project an increase in aircraft supportability and reliability, an improved maintainability, decreasing acquisition and life cycle costs. Increased usable fuel volume and lower weight than conventional bladders improve performance. Concept feasibility was demonstrated on sub-scale aircraft fuel tanks. Materials were selected by testing sprayable elastomers in a fuel tank environment. Chemical stability, mechanical properties, and dynamic durability of the elastomer are being evaluated at the laboratory level and in sub-scale and full scale aircraft component fatigue tests. The self sealing capability of sprayable materials is also under development. Ballistic tests show an improved aircraft survivability, due in part to the elastomer's mechanical properties and its ability to damp vibrations. New application equipment, system removal, and repair methods are being investigated.

  16. Seal Related Development Activities at EG/G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Harold F.

    1991-01-01

    Seal related development activities including modeling, analysis, and performance testing are described for several current seal related projects. Among the current seal related projects are the following: high pressure gas sealing systems for turbomachinery; brush seals for gas path sealing in gas turbines; and tribological material evaluation for wear surfaces in sealing systems.

  17. The ghosts of mammals past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turvey, Samuel T; Fritz, Susanne A

    2011-01-01

    Although the recent historical period is usually treated as a temporal base-line for understanding patterns of mammal extinction, mammalian biodiversity loss has also taken place throughout the Late Quaternary. We explore the spatial, taxonomic and phylogenetic patterns of 241 mammal species...... extinctions known to have occurred during the Holocene up to the present day. To assess whether our understanding of mammalian threat processes has been affected by excluding these taxa, we incorporate extinct species data into analyses of the impact of body mass on extinction risk. We find that Holocene...... extinctions have been phylogenetically and spatially concentrated in specific taxa and geographical regions, which are often not congruent with those disproportionately at risk today. Large-bodied mammals have also been more extinction-prone in most geographical regions across the Holocene. Our data support...

  18. Enantioselective gas chromatographic separation of methylsulfonyl PCBs in seal blubber, pelican muscle and human adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasek, L.; Rosmus, J. [Veterinary Institute Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry; Hajslova, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Analysis; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfone derivatives are known to represent primary metabolic products of PCBs (MeSO2- CB) and DDE (MeSO2-DDE). These metabolites are formed via mercapturic acid pathway and belong to persistent, lipophilic compounds which accumulate in the adipose, lung, liver and kidney tissues of mammals exposed to PCBs. In 1976 Jenssen and Jansson reported the identification of PCB methyl sulfones as metabolites of PCBs in Baltic grey seal blubber. Methyl sulfones are moderately polar compounds that are only slightly less hydrophobic than the parent PCBs, and their partition coefficients fulfill the requirements for bioaccumulation. The highest concentrations have been found in kidney and lung tissues of seals, otters, beluga whales, polar bears, fishes and in human tissues. In the present investigation two samples of seal blubber, two pelican muscles and eleven human adipose tissue samples were analysed with regard to their concentrations of PCB parent compounds as well as to the respective chiral methylsulfonyl metabolites.

  19. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. 75 FR 12734 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Operation of Offshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... marine mammal or marine mammal stock in the wild by causing disruption of behavioral patterns, including... supplies; production operations; drilling operations; pipeline design, inspection, and maintenance; routine...

  1. Epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael; Duignan, Pádraig J; Taylor, Trevor; Nielsen, Ole; Kirkwood, Roger; Gibbens, John; Arnould, John P Y

    2011-04-01

    Novel members of the bacterial genus Brucella have recently emerged as pathogens of various marine mammal species and as potential zoonotic agents. We investigated the epizootiology of Brucella infection in Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) by establishing demographic and temporal variations in antibody prevalence, attempting isolation of the causative agent, and determining whether this potential pathogen is involved in frequent abortions observed in this pinniped species. Two competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (cELISAs), an indirect ELISA, and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) were used to test sera for Brucella antibodies. The FPA and cELISA proved suitable for use in this species. Significant differences in antibody prevalence were found between age classes of seals sampled between 2007 and 2009 at one colony. Pups sampled at this site (n=134) were negative for Brucella antibodies by all serologic tests but 17 of 45 (38%) of juveniles were antibody-positive. Antibody prevalence in adult females was significantly higher than in juveniles (P=0.044). Antibody prevalence for adult females between 2003 and 2009 varied significantly over time (P=0.011), and for individuals sampled between 2003 and 2005, the likelihood of pregnancy was greater in individuals positive for Brucella antibodies (P=0.034). Inflammatory lesions suggestive of infectious agents were found in 14 of 39 aborted Australian fur seal pups, but pathologic changes were not uniformly consistent for Brucella infection. Culture and PCR investigations on fetal tissues were negative for Brucella. Culture and PCR on selected fresh or frozen tissues from 36 juvenile and adult animals were also negative. We suspect that the prevalence of active infection with Brucella in Australian fur seals is low relative to antibody prevalence.

  2. Mechanical seal with textured sidewall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Xiao, Nian

    2017-02-14

    The present invention discloses a mating ring, a primary ring, and associated mechanical seal having superior heat transfer and wear characteristics. According to an exemplary embodiment of the present invention, one or more dimples are formed onto the cylindrical outer surface of a mating ring sidewall and/or a primary ring sidewall. A stationary mating ring for a mechanical seal assembly is disclosed. Such a mating ring comprises an annular body having a central axis and a sealing face, wherein a plurality of dimples are formed into the outer circumferential surface of the annular body such that the exposed circumferential surface area of the annular body is increased. The texture added to the sidewall of the mating ring yields superior heat transfer and wear characteristics.

  3. Turbine interstage seal with self-balancing capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jacob A; Jones, Russell B; Sexton, Thomas D

    2017-09-26

    An interstage seal for a turbine of a gas turbine engine, the interstage seal having a seal carrier with an axial extending seal tooth movable with a stator of the engine, and a rotor with a seal surface that forms the interstage seal with the seal tooth, where a magnetic force produced by two magnets and a gas force produced by a gas pressure acting on the seal carrier forms a balancing force to maintain a close clearance of the seal without the seal tooth contacting the rotor seal surfaces during engine operation. In other embodiments, two pairs of magnets produce first and second magnetic forces that balance the seal in the engine.

  4. EBR-II rotating plug seal maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The EBR-II rotating plug seals require frequent cleaning and maintenance to keep the plugs from sticking during fuel handling. Time consuming cleaning on the cover gas and air sides of the dip ring seal is required to remove oxidation and sodium reaction products that accumulate and stop plug rotation. Despite severely limited access, effective seal cleaning techniques have removed 11 800 lb (5 352 kg) of deposits from the seals since 1964. Temperature control modifications and repairs have also required major maintenance work. Suggested seal design recommendations could significantly reduce maintenance on future similar seals

  5. Self-acting and hydrodynamic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1973-01-01

    Self-acting and hydrodynamic seals are described. The analytical procedures are outlined for obtaining a seal force balance and the operating film thickness. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis revealed three different vibration modes. Proposed applications of self-acting seals in gas turbine engines and in rocket vehicle turbopumps are described. Also experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given; these data show the feasibility of operating the seal at conditions of 345 newtons per square centimeter (500 psi) and 152 meters per second (500 ft/sec) sliding speed.

  6. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  7. Pre-partum diet of adult female bearded seals in years of contrasting ice conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Hindell

    Full Text Available Changing patterns of sea-ice distribution and extent have measurable effects on polar marine systems. Beyond the obvious impacts of key-habitat loss, it is unclear how such changes will influence ice-associated marine mammals in part because of the logistical difficulties of studying foraging behaviour or other aspects of the ecology of large, mobile animals at sea during the polar winter. This study investigated the diet of pregnant bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus during three spring breeding periods (2005, 2006 and 2007 with markedly contrasting ice conditions in Svalbard using stable isotopes (δ(13C and δ(15N measured in whiskers collected from their newborn pups. The δ(15N values in the whiskers of individual seals ranged from 11.95 to 17.45 ‰, spanning almost 2 full trophic levels. Some seals were clearly dietary specialists, despite the species being characterised overall as a generalist predator. This may buffer bearded seal populations from the changes in prey distributions lower in the marine food web which seems to accompany continued changes in temperature and ice cover. Comparisons with isotopic signatures of known prey, suggested that benthic gastropods and decapods were the most common prey. Bayesian isotopic mixing models indicated that diet varied considerably among years. In the year with most fast-ice (2005, the seals had the greatest proportion of pelagic fish and lowest benthic invertebrate content, and during the year with the least ice (2006, the seals ate more benthic invertebrates and less pelagic fish. This suggests that the seals fed further offshore in years with greater ice cover, but moved in to the fjords when ice-cover was minimal, giving them access to different types of prey. Long-term trends of sea ice decline, earlier ice melt, and increased water temperatures in the Arctic are likely to have ecosystem-wide effects, including impacts on the forage bases of pagophilic seals.

  8. Secondary seal effects in hydrostatic non-contact seals for reactor coolant pump shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Koga, T.; Tanoue, H.; Hirabayashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents a seal flow analysis in a hydrostatic non-contact seal for a PWR coolant pump shaft. A description is given of the non-contact seal for the reactor coolant pump. Results are presented for a distortion analysis of the seal ring, along with the seal flow characteristics and the contact pressure profiles of the secondary seals. The results of the work confirm previously reported findings that the seal ring distortion is sensitive to the o-ring location (which was placed between the ceramic seal face and the seal ring retainer). The paper concludes that the seal flow characteristics and the tracking performance depend upon the dynamic properties of the secondary seal. (U.K.)

  9. Allometry in dinosaurs and mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott

    2015-03-01

    The proportions of the leg bones change as the size of an animal becomes larger since the mass of the animal increases at a faster rate than the cross-sectional area of its leg bones. For the case of elastic similarity (in which the longitudinal stress in the legs remains constant in animals of all sizes), the diameter d and length L of the femur should be related as d = A L3/2. For geometric similarity (in which all dimensions are scaled by the same factor), d = A L. For animals with femora longer than 20 cm, we find the power law relationship to be d = A Lb with b = 1.13 +/- 0.06 for extant mammals (the largest mammal being Loxodonta africana with a 1.00-m-long femur) and b = 1.18 +/- 0.02 for dinosaurs (the largest dinosaur being Brachiosaurus brancai with a 2.03-m-long femur). These data show that extinct dinosaurs and extant animals scale in the same basic manner. The large sauropods (with femora twice as long as found in elephants) scale in a manner consistent with extrapolation of the scaling shown by extant mammals. These results argue that extinct dinosaurs moved in a manner very similar to extant mammals.

  10. Small Mammals, Reptiles, and Amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter focuses on small mammals, reptiles, and amphibians that inhabit the grasslands within the Southwestern Region of the USDA Forest Service. The chapter is not intended to be an all inclusive list of species, but rather to address the species that play important roles in grassland ecosystems and that often are associated with the management of grasslands....

  11. 75 FR 76399 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [File No. 781-1824] RIN 0648-XZ66 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice; receipt of application for permit amendment; extension of public...

  12. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  13. Neo-oogenesis in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras-Gómez, Tania Janeth; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the existence of a mechanism for neo-oogenesis in the ovaries of adult mammals has generated much controversy within reproductive biology. This mechanism, which proposes that the ovary has cells capable of renewing the follicular reserve, has been described for various species of mammals. The first evidence was found in prosimians and humans. However, these findings were not considered relevant because the predominant dogma for reproductive biology at the time was that of Zuckerman. This dogma states that female mammals are born with finite numbers of oocytes that decline throughout postnatal life. Currently, the concept of neo-oogenesis has gained momentum due to the discovery of cells with mitotic activity in adult ovaries of various mammalian species (mice, humans, rhesus monkeys, domestic animals such as pigs, and wild animals such as bats). Despite these reports, the concept of neo-oogenesis has not been widely accepted by the scientific community, generating much criticism and speculation about its accuracy because it has been impossible to reproduce some evidence. This controversy has led to the creation of two positions: one in favour of neo-oogenesis and the other against it. Various animal models have been used in support of both camps, including both classic laboratory animals and domestic and wild animals. The aim of this review is to critically present the current literature on the subject and to evaluate the arguments pro and contra neo-oogenesis in mammals.

  14. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ..., Office of Protected Resources, NMFS, 1315 East-West Highway, Room 13705, Silver Spring, MD 20910; phone... surveys to document seasonal distribution and abundance of marine mammals in western lower Cook Inlet... on the human environment in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of [[Page 72681...

  15. Radionuclides in seals and porpoises in the coastal waters around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.S.; Sumner, D.J.; Baker, J.R.; Kennedy, S.; Reid, R.; Robinson, I.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that marine predators be assessed for biologically relevant contamination levels because of their trophic position. Accordingly, in studying radioactive contamination in the marine environment around the UK, tissues from seals and porpoises have been chosen. Liver and muscle tissue from dead seals and porpoises found stranded around the UK coast have been analysed for the following radionuclides: 134Cs, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239Pu+ 240 Pu. Multifactor analysis of variance indicated that, for radiocaesium, there was no significant difference for harbour seals, grey seals or porpoises in terms of species or gender; however, the tissue activity concentration increased with body weight and decreased with distance from Sellafield, the major nuclear reprocessing plant in the UK. The levels of radiocaesium in muscle were higher than those in liver, while there appeared to be a concentration factor of approximately 3-4 for muscle radiocaesium when compared to radiocaesium levels reported for fish, the main food source of the marine mammals under study. Approximate radiation dose calculations indicated that the average dose from radiocaesium was less than 10% of the dose from the naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium, 40K. The highest tissue activity concentration for plutonium of 0.037 Bq/kg (239Pu+ 240 Pu) was detected in a grey seal stranded at Rathlin Island in Northern Ireland. Calculation of approximate radiation doses from plutonium contamination showed that, as with radiocaesium, the average dose was small compared with that from 40K. In summary, the radiocaesium contamination in seals and porpoises decreased with distance from Sellafield indicating that the BNF plc processing plant was the major source of the contamination. The marine mammals concentrated radiocaesium from their environment by a factor of 300 relative to the concentration in seawater indicating the value of using marine mammal tissue to measure radiocaesium contamination in

  16. Southeast US Historical Marine Mammal Stranding Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data on marine mammal strandings are collected by the Southeast Marine Mammal Stranding Network. Basic data on the location, species identification, animal...

  17. Knife-edge seal for vacuum bagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschl, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Cam actuated clamps pinch bagging material between long knife edge (mounted to clamps) and high temperature rubber cushion bonded to baseplate. No adhesive, tape, or sealing groove is needed to seal edge of bagging sheet against base plate.

  18. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Crittercam video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  19. Film riding seals for rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidkar, Rahul Anil; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar; Wolfe, Christopher Edward; Ruggiero, Eric John; Raj Mohan, Vivek Raja

    2017-03-07

    A seal assembly for a rotary machine is provided. The seal assembly includes multiple sealing device segments disposed circumferentially intermediate to a stationary housing and a rotor. Each of the segments includes a shoe plate with a forward-shoe section and an aft-shoe section having one or more labyrinth teeth therebetween facing the rotor. The sealing device includes a stator interface element having a groove or slot for allowing disposal of a spline seal for preventing segment leakages. The sealing device segment also includes multiple bellow springs or flexures connected to the shoe plate and to the stator interface element. Further, the sealing device segments include a secondary seal integrated with the stator interface element at one end and positioned about the multiple bellow springs or flexures and the shoe plate at the other end.

  20. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Ultrasound Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ultrasound images for measuring the condition of juvenile seals at Laysan Island during 2009-2010, collected when seals were handled as part of the De-Worming Project

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Telemetry Tag Deployments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  2. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals Observers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set documents observers that have collected monk seal data as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment efforts by PSD personnel and cooperating...

  3. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  4. Recent advances in magnetic liquid sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, K.; Stahl, P.; Bottenberg, W.; True, D.; Martis, G.; Zook, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper recent work in design and testing of two special magnetic liquid seals extending the state-of-the-art of ferrofluidic sealing is discussed. These custom seals are a moving belt edge seal and an exclusion seal. The first seal provides a hermetic barrier to solid particulates expected to be present in enclosed nuclear environments. The second seal is used on a magnetic disk drive spindle and reduces the particulate contaminants in the memory disk pack area by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, bearing life in the spindle is found to be doubled due to reduction of operating temperature. The fundamentals of magnetic fluid sealing are presented in terms of magnetic circuit design and physical properties of ferrofluids

  5. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Argos Location Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with satellite...

  6. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  7. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  8. Acoustic resonance spectroscopy intrinsic seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olinger, C.T.; Burr, T.; Vnuk, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    We have begun to quantify the ability of acoustic resonance spectroscopy (ARS) to detect the removal and replacement of the lid of a simulated special nuclear materials drum. Conceptually, the acoustic spectrum of a container establishcs a baseline fingerprint, which we refer to as an intrinsic seal, for the container. Simply removing and replacing the lid changes some of the resonant frequencies because it is impossible to exactly duplicate all of the stress patterns between the lid and container. Preliminary qualitative results suggested that the ARS intrinsic seal could discriminate between cases where a lid has or has not been removed. The present work is directed at quantifying the utility of the ARS intrinsic seal technique, including the technique's sensitivity to ''nuisance'' effects, such as temperature swings, movement of the container, and placement of the transducers. These early quantitative tests support the potential of the ARS intrinsic seal application, but also reveal a possible sensitivity to nuisance effects that could limit environments or conditions under which the technique is effective

  9. Pre-sealing risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensminger, D.A.; Hough, M.E.; Oston, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes studies of accidents involving high-level radioactive waste before sealing the waste into a repository. The report summarizes work done in this area during Fiscal Year 1978 and supplements previous work. Models of accident probability, severity, and consequences are refined and extended

  10. Dampers for Stationary Labyrinth Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Aini, Yehia; Mitchell, William; Roberts, Lawrence; Montgomery, Stuart; Davis, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Vibration dampers have been invented that are incorporated as components within the stationary labyrinth seal assembly. These dampers are intended to supplement other vibration-suppressing features of labyrinth seals in order to reduce the incidence of high-cycle-fatigue failures, which have been known to occur in the severe vibratory environments of jet engines and turbopumps in which labyrinth seals are typically used. A vibration damper of this type includes several leaf springs and/or a number of metallic particles (shot) all held in an annular seal cavity by a retaining ring. The leaf springs are made of a spring steel alloy chosen, in conjunction with design parameters, to maintain sufficient preload to ensure effectiveness of damping at desired operating temperatures. The cavity is vented via a small radial gap between the retaining ring and seal housing. The damping mechanism is complex. In the case of leaf springs, the mechanism is mainly friction in the slippage between the seal housing and individual dampers. In the case of a damper that contains shot, the damping mechanism includes contributions from friction between individual particles, friction between particles and cavity walls, and dissipation of kinetic energy of impact. The basic concept of particle/shot vibration dampers has been published previously; what is new here is the use of such dampers to suppress traveling-wave vibrations in labyrinth seals. Damping effectiveness depends on many parameters, including, but not limited to, coefficient of friction, mode shape, and frequency and amplitude of vibrational modes. In tests, preloads of the order of 6 to 15 lb (2.72 to 6.8 kilograms) per spring damper were demonstrated to provide adequate damping levels. Effectiveness of shot damping of vibrations having amplitudes from 20 to 200 times normal terrestrial gravitational acceleration (196 to 1,960 meters per square second) and frequencies up to 12 kHz was demonstrated for shot sizes from 0.032 to

  11. Reactor coolant pump seals: improving their performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pothier, N.E.; Metcalfe, R.

    1986-06-01

    Large CANDU plants are benefitting from transient-resistant four-year reliable reactor coolant pump seal lifetimes, a direct result of AECL's 20-year comprehensive seal improvement program involving R and D staff, manufacturers, and plant designers and operators. An overview of this program is presented, which covers seal modification design, testing, post-service examination, specialized maintenance and quality control. The relevancy of this technology to Light Water Reactor Coolant Pump Seals is also discussed

  12. Development of simplified rotating plug seal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueta, M.; Ichimiya, M.; Kanaoka, T.; Sekiya, H.; Ueda, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    We studied a compact and simplified rotating plug seal structure and conducted experiments for key elements of the concept such us the mechanical seal structure and sodium deposit prevention system. Good characteristics were confirmed for the mechanical seal structure, which utilizes an elastomer seal and thin lathe bearing. Applicability of the density barrier concept was also confirmed as the sodium deposit prevention system. This concept can be applied to actual plants. (author)

  13. Piston rod seal for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1984-01-01

    In a piston rod seal for a Stirling engine, a hydrostatic bearing and differential pressure regulating valve are utilized to provide for a low pressure differential across a rubbing seal between the hydrogen and oil so as to reduce wear on the seal.

  14. 19 CFR 113.25 - Seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... signatures of principal and surety, if individuals, and the corporate seal shall be affixed close to the... law of the state in which executed. However, when the charter or governing statute of a corporation requires its acts to be evidenced by its corporate seal, such seal is required. ...

  15. Ergonomics and safety of manual bag sealing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.D. de; Bosch, T.; Eikhout, S.M.; Vink, P.

    2005-01-01

    A variety of seals is used to close bags. Each seal has advantages and disadvantages. For shop assistants sealing bags could be a repetitive physically demanding action. Opening and closing the bags again can cause some discomfort or annoyance for consumers. Besides, it is an activity which can

  16. Improved sealing for in-core systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, S.

    1989-01-01

    The in-core instrumentation sealing nozzles designed by Framatome have three mechanical seals in series instead of the one traditional seal, and are pressurized by simply tightening up the nozzle covers. They have been installed from the start on all Framatome PWRs, as well as having been backfitted on Belgium and Yugoslavian units and chosen for the Chinese Qinshan plant. (author)

  17. Comparative study on two different seal surface structure for reactor pressure vessel sealing behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jun; Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun

    2014-01-01

    The seal surface structure is very important to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) sealing behavior. In this paper, two 3-D RPV sealing analysis finite models have been established with different seal surface structures, in order to study the influence of two structures. The separation of RPV upper and lower flanges, bolt loads and etc. are obtained, which are used to evaluate the sealing behavior of the RPV. Meanwhile, the comparative analysis of safety margin of two seal surface structural had been done, which provides the theoretical basis for RPV seal structure design optimization. (authors)

  18. Phocid seal leptin: tertiary structure and hydrophobic receptor binding site preservation during distinct leptin gene evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hammond

    Full Text Available The cytokine hormone leptin is a key signalling molecule in many pathways that control physiological functions. Although leptin demonstrates structural conservation in mammals, there is evidence of positive selection in primates, lagomorphs and chiropterans. We previously reported that the leptin genes of the grey and harbour seals (phocids have significantly diverged from other mammals. Therefore we further investigated the diversification of leptin in phocids, other marine mammals and terrestrial taxa by sequencing the leptin genes of representative species. Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that leptin diversification was pronounced within the phocid seals with a high dN/dS ratio of 2.8, indicating positive selection. We found significant evidence of positive selection along the branch leading to the phocids, within the phocid clade, but not over the dataset as a whole. Structural predictions indicate that the individual residues under selection are away from the leptin receptor (LEPR binding site. Predictions of the surface electrostatic potential indicate that phocid seal leptin is notably different to other mammalian leptins, including the otariids. Cloning the grey seal leptin binding domain of LEPR confirmed that this was structurally conserved. These data, viewed in toto, support a hypothesis that phocid leptin divergence is unlikely to have arisen by random mutation. Based upon these phylogenetic and structural assessments, and considering the comparative physiology and varying life histories among species, we postulate that the unique phocid diving behaviour has produced this selection pressure. The Phocidae includes some of the deepest diving species, yet have the least modified lung structure to cope with pressure and volume changes experienced at depth. Therefore, greater surfactant production is required to facilitate rapid lung re-inflation upon surfacing, while maintaining patent airways. We suggest that this additional

  19. Sealing performance of a magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Kano, Kentaro; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya; Higuchi, Taka-Aki

    2009-09-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) for a rotary blood pump seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and, hence, has excellent durability. The performance of a MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We have developed a MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Under the condition of continuous flow, the MF seal remained in perfect condition against a pressure of 298 mm Hg (pump flow rate: 3.96 L/min). The seal was also perfect against a pressure of 170 mm Hg in a continuous flow of 3.9 L/min for 275 days. We have developed a MF seal that works in liquid against clinically used pressures. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  20. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1981): Marine Mammal Specimens (F025) (NODC Accession 0014150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  1. Transformation and diversification in early mammal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhe-Xi

    2007-12-13

    Evolution of the earliest mammals shows successive episodes of diversification. Lineage-splitting in Mesozoic mammals is coupled with many independent evolutionary experiments and ecological specializations. Classic scenarios of mammalian morphological evolution tend to posit an orderly acquisition of key evolutionary innovations leading to adaptive diversification, but newly discovered fossils show that evolution of such key characters as the middle ear and the tribosphenic teeth is far more labile among Mesozoic mammals. Successive diversifications of Mesozoic mammal groups multiplied the opportunities for many dead-end lineages to iteratively evolve developmental homoplasies and convergent ecological specializations, parallel to those in modern mammal groups.

  2. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  3. Immune function in arctic mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Jasperse, Lindsay; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a vital part of the rapid and non-specific immune defense against invading pathogens and tumor cells. This study evaluated NK cell-like activity by flow cytometry for the first time in three ecologically and culturally important Arctic mammal species: polar bear (Ursus...... the effector:target cell ratio increased. Comparing NK activity between fresh and cryopreserved mouse lymphocytes revealed little to no difference in function, highlighting the applicability of cryopreserving cells in field studies. The evaluation of this important innate immune function in Arctic mammals can...... contribute to future population health assessments, especially as pollution-induced suppression of immune function may increase infectious disease susceptibility....

  4. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  5. Turbine Seal Research at NASA GRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Margaret P.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Low-leakage, long-life turbomachinery seals are important to both Space and Aeronautics Missions. (1) Increased payload capability (2) Decreased specific fuel consumption and emissions (3) Decreased direct operating costs. NASA GRC has a history of significant accomplishments and collaboration with industry and academia in seals research. NASA's unique, state-of-the-art High Temperature, High Speed Turbine Seal Test Facility is an asset to the U.S. Engine / Seal Community. Current focus is on developing experimentally validated compliant, non-contacting, high temperature seal designs, analysis, and design methodologies to enable commercialization.

  6. Dietary characterization of terrestrial mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Munoz, Silvia; Alroy, John

    2014-08-22

    Understanding the feeding behaviour of the species that make up any ecosystem is essential for designing further research. Mammals have been studied intensively, but the criteria used for classifying their diets are far from being standardized. We built a database summarizing the dietary preferences of terrestrial mammals using published data regarding their stomach contents. We performed multivariate analyses in order to set up a standardized classification scheme. Ideally, food consumption percentages should be used instead of qualitative classifications. However, when highly detailed information is not available we propose classifying animals based on their main feeding resources. They should be classified as generalists when none of the feeding resources constitute over 50% of the diet. The term 'omnivore' should be avoided because it does not communicate all the complexity inherent to food choice. Moreover, the so-called omnivore diets actually involve several distinctive adaptations. Our dataset shows that terrestrial mammals are generally highly specialized and that some degree of food mixing may even be required for most species.

  7. Double angle seal forming lubricant film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, William D.

    1984-01-01

    A lubricated piston rod seal which inhibits gas leaking from a high pressure chamber on one side of the seal to a low pressure chamber on the other side of the seal. A liquid is supplied to the surface of the piston rod on the low pressure side of the seal. This liquid acts as lubricant for the seal and provides cooling for the rod. The seal, which can be a plastic, elastomer or other material with low elastic modulus, is designed to positively pump lubricant through the piston rod/seal interface in both directions when the piston rod is reciprocating. The capacity of the seal to pump lubricant from the low pressure side to the high pressure side is less than its capacity to pump lubricant from the high pressure side to the low pressure side which ensures that there is zero net flow of lubricant to the high pressure side of the seal. The film of lubricant between the seal and the rod minimizes any sliding contact and prevents the leakage of gas. Under static conditions gas leakage is prevented by direct contact between the seal and the rod.

  8. Air riding seal with purge cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Thomas D; Mills, Jacob A

    2017-08-15

    An air riding seal for a turbine in a gas turbine engine, where an annular piston is axial moveable within an annular piston chamber formed in a stator of the turbine and forms a seal with a surface on the rotor using pressurized air that forms a cushion in a pocket of the annular piston. A purge cavity is formed on the annular piston and is connected to a purge hole that extends through the annular piston to a lower pressure region around the annular piston or through the rotor to an opposite side. The annular piston is sealed also with inner and outer seals that can be a labyrinth seal to form an additional seal than the cushion of air in the pocket to prevent the face of the air riding seal from overheating.

  9. Insecurity of imperfect quantum bit seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.F.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum bit seal is a way to encode a classical bit quantum mechanically so that everyone can obtain non-zero information on the value of the bit. Moreover, such an attempt should have a high chance of being detected by an authorized verifier. Surely, a reader looks for a way to get the maximum amount of information on the sealed bit and at the same time to minimize her chance of being caught. And a verifier picks a sealing scheme that maximizes his chance of detecting any measurement of the sealed bit. Here, I report a strategy that passes all measurement detection procedures at least half of the time for all quantum bit sealing schemes. This strategy also minimizes a reader's chance of being caught under a certain scheme. In this way, I extend the result of Bechmann-Pasquinucci et al. by proving that quantum seal is insecure in the case of imperfect sealed bit recovery

  10. Development of the seal for nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Feng; Lu Zhao; Zhao Yonggang; Zhang Qixin; Xiao Xuefu

    2000-01-01

    Two kinds of double cap metallic seal and an adhesive seal are developed for the purpose of the accounting for and control of nuclear material. Two kinds of double cap metallic seal are made of stainless steel and copper, respectively and the self-locked technique is used. The number and the random pattern are carved out side and in side of a cap, respectively, for the seal. The random pattern carved inside of a cap for seal is taken a picture using numeral camera and memorized in computer. Special software is developed for verification of the random pattern memorized in computer. The adhesive seal is made of special adhesive paper for purpose of security, and a special pattern guarded against falsification is printed on seal paper using ultraviolet fluorescent light technique

  11. Cadmium toxicity to ringed seals (Phoca hispida): an epidemiological study of possible cadmium-induced nephropathy and osteodystrophy in ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Qaanaaq in Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Hansen, C; Dietz, R; Leifsson, P S

    2002-01-01

    The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose of the st......The Greenland marine food chains contain high levels of cadmium, mercury and selenium. Concentrations of cadmium in the kidney of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the municipalities of Qaanaaq and Upernavik (Northwest Greenland) are among the highest recorded in the Arctic. The purpose...... of the study was to determine whether cadmium-induced damage in the kidneys and the skeletal system could be detected among 100 ringed seals from Northwest Greenland. The cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex ranged from 0 to 248 microg/g wet weight (mean=44.5, N=100) in the 99 kidneys examined....... Experience from cadmium-poisoned humans and laboratory mammals indicates that concentrations above 50-200 microg/g wet wt. may induce histopathological changes. Overall, 31 of the ringed seals had cadmium concentrations in the kidney cortex above 50 microg/g wet wt., 11 had concentrations above 100 and one...

  12. Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Timm C; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Vahlenkamp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAV), members of the Orthomyxoviridae, cover a wide host spectrum comprising a plethora of avian and, in comparison, a few mammalian species. The viral reservoir and gene pool are kept in metapopulations of aquatic wild birds. The mammalian-adapted IAVs originally arose by transspecies transmission from avian sources. In swine, horse and man, species-adapted IAV lineages circulate independently of the avian reservoir and cause predominantly respiratory disease of highly variable severity. Sporadic outbreaks of IAV infections associated with pneumonic clinical signs have repeatedly occurred in marine mammals (harbour seals [Phoca vitulina]) off the New England coast of the U.S.A. due to episodic transmission of avian IAV. However, no indigenous marine mammal IAV lineages are described. In contrast to marine mammals, avian- and equine-derived IAVs have formed stable circulating lineages in terrestrial carnivores: IAVs of subtype H3N2 and H3N8 are found in canine populations in South Korea, China, and the U.S.A. Experimental infections revealed that dogs and cats can be infected with an even wider range of avian IAVs. Cats, in particular, also proved susceptible to native infection with human pandemic H1N1 viruses and, according to serological data, may be vulnerable to infection with further human-adapted IAVs. Ferrets are susceptible to a variety of avian and mammalian IAVs and are an established animal model of human IAV infection. Thus, a potential role of pet cats, dogs and ferrets as mediators of avian-derived viruses to the human population does exist. A closer observation for influenza virus infections and transmissions at this animal-human interface is indicated.

  13. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garin, J.; Belsick, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is an apparatus for sealing the annulus defined between a substantially cylindrical rotatable first riser assembly and plug combination disposed in a substantially cylindrical second riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor system. The apparatus comprises a flexible member disposed between the first and second riser components and attached to a metal member which is attached to an actuating mechanism. When the actuating mechanism is not actuated, the flexible member does not contact the riser components thus allowing the free rotation of the riser components. When desired, the actuating mechanism causes the flexible member to contact the first and second riser components in a manner to block the annulus defined between the riser components, thereby sealing the annulus between the riser components

  14. Transport of multiassembly sealed canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, R.D.; Lehnert, R.A.; Rosa, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A significant portion of the commercial spent nuclear fuel in dry storage in the US will be stored in multiassembly sealed canisters before the DOE begins accepting fuel from utilities in 1998. This paper reports that it is desirable from economic and ALARA perspectives to transfer these canisters directly from the plant to the MRS. To this end, it is necessary that the multiassembly sealed canisters, which have been licensed for storage under 10CFR72, be qualified for shipment within a suitable shipping cask under the rules of 10CFR71. Preliminary work performed to date indicates that it is feasible to license a current canister design for transportation, and work is proceeding on obtaining NRC approval

  15. Detection of Helicobacter and Campylobacter spp. from the aquatic environment of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, C G; Matteo, M J; Loureiro, J D; Degrossi, J; Teves, S; Heredia, S Rodriguez; Alvarez, K; González, A Beltrán; Catalano, M; Boccio, J; Cremaschi, G; Solnick, J V; Zubillaga, M B

    2009-01-13

    The mechanism by which Helicobacter species are transmitted remains unclear. To examine the possible role of environmental transmission in marine mammals, we sought the presence of Helicobacter spp. and non-Helicobacter bacteria within the order Campylobacterales in water from the aquatic environment of marine mammals, and in fish otoliths regurgitated by dolphins. Water was collected from six pools, two inhabited by dolphins and four inhabited by seals. Regurgitated otoliths were collected from the bottom of dolphins' pools. Samples were evaluated by culture, PCR and DNA sequence analysis. Sequences from dolphins' water and from regurgitated otoliths clustered with 99.8-100% homology with sequences from gastric fluids, dental plaque and saliva from dolphins living in those pools, and with 99.5% homology with H. cetorum. Sequences from seals' water clustered with 99.5% homology with a sequence amplified from a Northern sea lion (AY203900). Control PCR on source water for the pools and from otoliths dissected from feeder fish were negative. The findings of Helicobacter spp. DNA in the aquatic environment suggests that contaminated water from regurgitated fish otoliths and perhaps other tissues may play a role in Helicobacter transmission among marine mammals.

  16. Hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVault, Robert C.; McConnell, Benjamin W.; Phillips, Benjamin A.

    1996-01-01

    A hermetically sealed superconducting magnet motor includes a rotor separated from a stator by either a radial gap, an axial gap, or a combined axial and radial gap. Dual conically shaped stators are used in one embodiment to levitate a disc-shaped rotor made of superconducting material within a conduit for moving cryogenic fluid. As the rotor is caused to rotate when the field stator is energized, the fluid is pumped through the conduit.

  17. Fabrication of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given for fabricating a sealed radiation source, consisting in depositing on a metal substrate a thin active coat of a radioelement, termed first coat, submitting this coated substrate to an oxidation treatment in order to obtain on the first coat an inactive coat of an oxide of the metal, termed second coat, and depositing a coat of varnish on this second inactive coat [fr

  18. Seals for sealing a pressure vessel such as a nuclear reactor vessel or the like

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, H.J.; Huelsermann, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of seals for sealing a pressure vessel such as a nuclear reactor vessel, steam boiler vessel, or any other vessel which is desirably sealed against pressure of the type including a housing and a housing closure that present opposed vertical sealing surfaces which define the sides of a channel. The seals of the present invention comprise at least one sealing member disposed in the channel, having at least one stop face, a base portion and two shank portions extending from the base portion to form a groove-like recess. The shank portions are provided with sealing surfaces arranged to mate with the opposed vertical pressure vessel sealing surfaces. A shank-spreading wedge element also disposed in the channel has at least one stop face and is engaged in the groove-like recess with the sealing member and wedge element stop face adjacent to each other

  19. Summing the strokes: energy economy in northern elephant seals during large-scale foraging migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresh, J L; Adachi, T; Takahashi, A; Naito, Y; Crocker, D E; Horning, M; Williams, T M; Costa, D P

    2015-01-01

    The energy requirements of free-ranging marine mammals are challenging to measure due to cryptic and far-ranging feeding habits, but are important to quantify given the potential impacts of high-level predators on ecosystems. Given their large body size and carnivorous lifestyle, we would predict that northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) have elevated field metabolic rates (FMRs) that require high prey intake rates, especially during pregnancy. Disturbance associated with climate change or human activity is predicted to further elevate energy requirements due to an increase in locomotor costs required to accommodate a reduction in prey or time available to forage. In this study, we determined the FMRs, total energy requirements, and energy budgets of adult, female northern elephant seals. We also examined the impact of increased locomotor costs on foraging success in this species. Body size, time spent at sea and reproductive status strongly influenced FMR. During the short foraging migration, FMR averaged 90.1 (SE = 1.7) kJ kg(-1)d(-1) - only 36 % greater than predicted basal metabolic rate. During the long migration, when seals were pregnant, FMRs averaged 69.4 (±3.0) kJ kg(-1)d(-1) - values approaching those predicted to be necessary to support basal metabolism in mammals of this size. Low FMRs in pregnant seals were driven by hypometabolism coupled with a positive feedback loop between improving body condition and reduced flipper stroking frequency. In contrast, three additional seals carrying large, non-streamlined instrumentation saw a four-fold increase in energy partitioned toward locomotion, resulting in elevated FMRs and only half the mass gain of normally-swimming study animals. These results highlight the importance of keeping locomotion costs low for successful foraging in this species. In preparation for lactation and two fasting periods with high demands on energy reserves, migrating elephant seals utilize an economical foraging

  20. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  1. Design optimization of seal structure for sealing liquid by magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tonggang; Cheng Yusheng; Yang Zhiyi

    2005-01-01

    The durability of the magnetic fluid seal clearly decreases when sealing another liquid because of the interface instability caused by the applied magnetic field and the velocity difference of the two liquids. With an intention to establish a stable interface during sealing liquid, a new magnetic fluid seal was developed in this paper. The parameters of the structure were optimized by a simulation apparatus. And the magnetic fluid seal designed based on the optimum parameters shows good performance and long life for sealing lubricating oil

  2. Vacuum sealing with a spiral grooved gas dynamic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Tadashi

    1979-01-01

    Gas dynamic seals with rectangular spiral grooves are studied theoretically taking the effects of sidewalls of the grooves and the effects of gas compressibility into account, and slip boundary conditions are employed. The results are compared with the existing experimental data and the validity of the theory is confirmed over a wide pressure range except for the extremely low pressures. Suggestions are made regarding the choice of the geometrical dimensions, i.e., aspect ratio, helix angle, clearance parameter and groove width ratio. (author)

  3. 77 FR 41168 - Marine Mammals; Subsistence Taking of Northern Fur Seals; St. Paul Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... Administrative Procedure Act (APA). The Pribilof Island Community of St. Paul Island, Aleut Community of St. Paul... comment on from the resulting list and click on the ``Submit a Comment'' icon on the right of that line... Adobe PDF file formats only. Information related to the request for rulemaking is available on the...

  4. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Metabolic Changes in the Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata Brain in Response to Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff

    Full Text Available The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons. Here, we used RNA-Seq to compare the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation in vitro on brain slices from the visual cortex of hooded seals. We saw no general reduction of gene expression, suggesting that the response to hypoxia and reoxygenation is an actively regulated process. The treatments caused the preferential upregulation of genes related to inflammation, as found before e.g. in stroke studies using mammalian models. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed a downregulation of genes involved in ion transport and other neuronal processes, indicative for a neuronal shutdown in response to a shortage of O2 supply. These differences may be interpreted in terms of an energy saving strategy in the seal's brain. We specifically analyzed the regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism. Hypoxia and reoxygenation caused a similar response, with upregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism and downregulation of the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We also observed upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporter Mct4, suggesting increased lactate efflux. Together, these data indicate that the seal brain responds to the hypoxic challenge by a relative increase in the anaerobic energy metabolism.

  5. Actively controlled shaft seals for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, Richard F.

    1995-07-01

    This study experimentally investigates an actively controlled mechanical seal for aerospace applications. The seal of interest is a gas seal, which is considerably more compact than previous actively controlled mechanical seals that were developed for industrial use. In a mechanical seal, the radial convergence of the seal interface has a primary effect on the film thickness. Active control of the film thickness is established by controlling the radial convergence of the seal interface with a piezoelectric actuator. An actively controlled mechanical seal was initially designed and evaluated using a mathematical model. Based on these results, a seal was fabricated and tested under laboratory conditions. The seal was tested with both helium and air, at rotational speeds up to 3770 rad/sec, and at sealed pressures as high as 1.48 x 10(exp 6) Pa. The seal was operated with both manual control and with a closed-loop control system that used either the leakage rate or face temperature as the feedback. The output of the controller was the voltage applied to the piezoelectric actuator. The seal operated successfully for both short term tests (less than one hour) and for longer term tests (four hours) with a closed-loop control system. The leakage rates were typically 5-15 slm (standard liters per minute), and the face temperatures were generally maintained below 100C. When leakage rate was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint leakage rate was typically maintained within 1 slm. However, larger deviations occurred during sudden changes in sealed pressure. When face temperature was used as the feedback signal, the setpoint face temperature was generally maintained within 3 C, with larger deviations occurring when the sealed pressure changes suddenly. the experimental results were compared to the predictions from the mathematical model. The model was successful in predicting the trends in leakage rate that occurred as the balance ratio and sealed pressure changed

  6. Bisgaardia miroungae sp. nov., a new member of the family Pasteurellaceae isolated from the oral cavity of northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and emended description of the genus Bisgaardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mie Johanne; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Christensen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    A total of 17 bacterial isolates from northern elephant seals, tentatively classified within the family Pasteurellaceae, were further characterized by genotypic and phenotypic tests. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences showed that the isolates investigated formed...... of a wild northern elephant seal at The Marine Mammal Center, California, USA in 2011. To include the novel species, the description of the genus Bisgaardia has been emended....

  7. Mammal endemism In Italy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although there are various checklists of Italian mammals, there is not yet a synthesis of those mammals that are endemic to Italy. Therefore, we provide for the first time a detailed review on Italian mammal endemic species including endemic taxa deserving additional studies. This review is based on the most recent taxonomic revisions obtained using Scopus and Google Scholar databases. We also considered the age of endemic species. Some aspects of mammalian conservation are also provided and discussed.

  8. Internally Coupled Ears in Living Mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Matthew James

    2015-01-01

    It is generally held that the right and left middle ears of mammals are acoustically isolated from each other, such that mammals must rely on neural computation to derive sound localisation cues. There are, however, some unusual species in which the middle ear cavities intercommunicate, in which case each ear might be able to act as a pressure-difference receiver. This could improve sound localisation at lower frequencies. The platypus Ornithorhynchus is apparently unique among mammals in tha...

  9. A checklist of mammals of Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. O. Nameer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A checklist of mammals of Kerala State is presented in this paper. Accepted English names, scientific binomen, prevalent vernacular names in Malayalam, IUCN conservation status, endemism, Indian Wildlife (Protection Act schedules, and the appendices in the CITES, pertaining to the mammals of Kerala are also given. The State of Kerala has 118 species of mammals, 15 of which are endemic to Western Ghats, and 29 species fall under the various threatened categories of IUCN.  

  10. Biogeography and taxonomy of extinct and endangered monk seals illuminated by ancient DNA and skull morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk-Martin Scheel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Extinctions and declines of large marine vertebrates have major ecological impacts and are of critical concern in marine environments. The Caribbean monk seal, Monachus tropicalis, last definitively reported in 1952, was one of the few marine mammal species to become extinct in historical times. Despite its importance for understanding the evolutionary biogeography of southern phocids, the relationships of M.tropicalis to the two living species of critically endangered monk seals have not been resolved. In this study we present the first molecular data for M. tropicalis, derived from museum skins. Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome b sequences indicates that M. tropicalis was more closely related to the Hawaiian rather than the Mediterranean monk seal. Divergence time estimation implicates the formation of the Panamanian Isthmus in the speciation of Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals. Molecular, morphological and temporal divergence between the Mediterranean and “New World monk seals” (Hawaiian and Caribbean is profound, equivalent to or greater than between sister genera of phocids. As a result, we classify the Caribbean and Hawaiian monk seals together in a newly erected genus, Neomonachus. The two genera of extant monk seals (Monachus and Neomonachus represent old evolutionary lineages each represented by a single critically endangered species, both warranting continuing and concerted conservation attention and investment if they are to avoid the fate of their Caribbean relative.

  11. Guide to optimized replacement of equipment seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleason, J.F.

    1990-03-01

    A reevaluation of current scheduled replacement intervals of polymeric seals in plant equipment can achieve significant benefits. Information is provided which has the potential for increasing replacement intervals based on better information on how seals have performed through unique nuclear industry tests to qualify equipment, improved elastomers and increased knowledge of the failure mechanisms and related performance. The research was performed by reviewing applications of elastomeric seals in nuclear plants and practice associated with defining seal replacement intervals in the nuclear power and other industries. Performance indicators and how they predict degradation of seals were evaluated. Guidelines and a flow chart for reevaluating seal replacement intervals are provided. 29 refs., 38 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Seal analysis technology for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liangang; Zhang Liping; Yang Yu; Zang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    There is the coolant with radiation, high temperature and high pressure in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is closely correlated to RPV sealing capability whether the whole nuclear system work well or not. The aim of this paper is to study the seal analysis method and technology, such as the pre-tensioning of the bolt, elastoplastic contact and coupled technology of thermal and structure. The 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method really and generally consider the loads and model the contact problem with friction between the contact plates. This method is easier than the specialized seal program and used widely. And it is more really than the 2 D seal analysis method. This 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method has been successfully used in the design and analysis of RPV. (authors)

  13. Folded membrane dialyzer with mechanically sealed edges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markley, F.W.

    A semipermeable membrane is folded in accordion fashion to form a stack of pleats and the edges are sealed so as to isolate the opposite surfaces of the membrane. The stack is contained within a case that provides ports for flow of blood in contact with one surface of the membrane through channels formed by the pleats and also provides ports for flow of a dialysate through channels formed by the pleats in contact with the other surface of the membrane. The serpentine side edges of the membrane are sealed by a solidified plastic material, whereas effective mechanical means are provided to seal the end edges of the folded membrane. The mechanical means include a clamping strip which biases case sealing flanges into a sealed relationship with end portions of the membrane near the end edges, which portions extend from the stack and between the sealing flanges.

  14. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Froyland, Livar; Julshamn, Kare

    2006-01-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 μg/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 μg/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 μg/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 μg/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were higher

  15. Environmental impact assessment. Investigation of marine mammals in relation to the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-15

    Elsamproject has decided to carry out an environmental impact assessment with the aim to investigate whether the establishment of a marine wind farm on Horns Reef may impact on breeding and non-breeding marine mammals, particularly harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena and common seal Phoca vitulina. The marine mammals of the northern part of the German Bight can be characterised by a regular occurrence of harbour porpoise and common seal throughout the year, an irregular occurrence of grey seal Halichoerus grypus and white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and rare occurrences of white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata, sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus, long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas and killer whale Orcinus orca. The environment impact assessment therefore focuses on the evaluation of the possible effects on harbour porpoise and common seal. The investigation constitutes the first phase of a before-after-control-impact (BACI) analysis of the occurrence of harbour porpoise before, during and after the construction of the wind farm. (au)

  16. Management of disused sealed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukauskas, D.; Skridaila, N.

    2003-01-01

    The report presents the requirements on management of disused sealed sources in Lithuania; disused sealed source disposal facilities; performed safety analysis and planed repository safety improvements. The requirements on pre-disposal management of Disused Sealed Sources (DSS) are presented. The requirements on disposal of short lived VLLW and LILW (A, B and C classes) radioactive waste approved in 2002-2003. Generic Waste Acceptance Criteria for Near Surface Disposal, P-2003-01 approved in 2003. Requirements on disposal of Low and intermediate level long lived waste do not exist (D and E classes). Requirements for the disposal of disused sealed sources (F class) do not exist. Disposal method for the F class - Near Surface or Deep geological repository, depending on the waste acceptance criteria. Only one repository for institutional radioactive waste exist in Lithuania - Maisiagala repository. It is near surface RADON type disposal facility, built in 1963 and closed in 1988. It was constructed of the monolithic reinforced concrete with the dimensions 5 m x 15 m x 3 m, the thickness of the sidewalls is about 0.25 m and the thickness of the bottom is about 0.2 m. The overall volume is about 200 m 3 . At time of closure only three fifths of the volume had been filled. The empty two fifths of the vault were filled with concrete, then with sand, then with the concrete (0.01 m), hot bitumen and the 0.05 m asphalt layers. Monolithic concrete that was covered with bitumen and 0.05 m thick layer of asphalt closed the vault. Sand layer the thickness of which was not less than 1.2 m formed the cap. Disused radioactive sources embedded in a biological shielding were buried together with their shielding, the sources without the shielding were buried in two stainless steel containers. The total activity of buried radioactive nuclides is 3.42.10 -15 Bq (calculated according the documentation). There are some uncertainties about the inventory: from 1963 to 1973. After the

  17. 77 FR 12246 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... declined in recent years (NMFS, 2003). Behavior and Ecology--Northern elephant seals breed and give birth... elephant seals are present at SNI during all months of the year. Adult males arrive at SNI in late fall to..., and elephant seals, depending on the time of year and the specific site, typically haul out near six...

  18. Sealing method and sealing device for radioactive waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwatari, Koji; Otsuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A radioactive waste-containing body is hoisted down into a strong-material vessel opened upwardly, and a strong-material lid is hoisted down to the opening of the strong-material-vessel and welded. The strong material vessel is hoisted up and loaded on a corrosion resistant-material bottom plate placed horizontally. A corrosion resistant-material vessel having one opening end and having a corrosion resistant-material flange on the other end and previously agreed with the strong material-vessel main body is hoisted up by a hoisting device having an inserting device so that the opening of the corrosion resistant vessel is directed downwardly. The corrosion resistant vessel is press-fitted to the outside of the strong material-vessel by the inserting device while being heated by a preheater to shrink. Subsequently, the lower end of the corrosion resistant-material vessel and the corrosion resistant-material bottom plate are welded to constitute a corrosion resistant-material vessel. Then, the radioactive waste containing body can be sealed in a sealing vessel comprising the strong-material vessel and the corrosion resistant-material vessel. (N.H.)

  19. Comment on 'Quantum string seal is insecure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guangping

    2007-01-01

    An attack strategy was recently proposed by Chau [Phys. Rev. A 75, 012327 (2007)], which was claimed to be able to break all quantum string seal protocols. Here it will be shown that the attack cannot obtain nontrivial information and escape the detection simultaneously in a class of quantum string seal, including the one proposed by He [Int. J. Quantum Inf. 4, 677 (2006)]. Thus it is insufficient to conclude that all quantum string seals are insecure

  20. A seal analyzer for testing container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.; Jenkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of laboratory and production seal analyzer that offers a rapid, nondestructive method of assuring the seal integrity of virtually any type of single or double sealed container. The system can test a broad range of metal cans, drums and trays, membrane-lidded vessels, flexible pouches, aerosol containers, and glass or metal containers with twist-top lids that are used in the chemical/pesticide (hazardous materials/waste), beverage, food, medical and pharmaceutical industries

  1. Ceramic blade with tip seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glezer, B.; Bhardwaj, N.K.; Jones, R.B.

    1997-08-05

    The present gas turbine engine includes a disc assembly defining a disc having a plurality of blades attached thereto. The disc has a preestablished rate of thermal expansion and the plurality of blades have a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being less than the preestablished rate of thermal expansion of the disc. A shroud assembly is attached to the gas turbine engine and is spaced from the plurality of blades a preestablished distance forming an interface there between. Positioned in the interface is a seal having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion being generally equal to the rate of thermal expansion of the plurality of blades. 4 figs.

  2. The Sealed Tube Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunnell, L.N.; Beyerle, A.; Durkee, R.; Headley, G.; Hurley, P.

    1992-01-01

    A Sealed Tube Neutron Generator (STNG) has been designed and tested at Special Technologies Laboratories (STL) in Santa Barbara, California. Unlike similar tubes that have been used for years in other applications, e.g., by the oil well logging industry, the present device was designed primarily to be part of the Associated Particle Imaging (API) system. Consequently, the size and quality of the neutron spot produced by the STNG is of primary importance. Results from initial measurements indicate that performance goals are satisfied

  3. Upgrading primary heat transport pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, T.; Metcalfe, R.; Rhodes, D.; McInnes, D.

    1995-01-01

    Changes in the operating environment at the Bruce-A Nuclear Generating Station created the need for an upgraded Primary Heat Transport Pump (PHTP) seal. In particular, the requirement for low pressure running during more frequent start-ups exposed a weakness of the CAN2 seal and reduced its reliability. The primary concern at Bruce-A was the rotation of the CAN2 No. 2 stators in their holders. The introduction of low pressure running exacerbated this problem, giving rapid wear of the stator back face, overheating, and thermocracking. In addition, the resulting increase in friction between the stator and its holder increased stationary-side hysteresis and thereby changed the seal characteristic to the point where interseal pressure oscillations became prevalent. The resultant increased hysteresis also led to hard rubbing of the seal faces during temperature transients. An upgraded seal was required for improved reliability to avoid forced outages and to reduce maintenance costs. This paper describes this upgraded 'replacement seal' and its performance history. In spite of the 'teething' problems detailed in this paper, there have been no forced outages due to the replacement seal, and in the words of a seal maintenance worker at Bruce-A, 'it allows me to go home and sleep at night instead of worrying about seal failures.' (author)

  4. Seal for an object containing nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerpflug, W.; Nentwich, D.

    1977-01-01

    This seal which cannot be counterfeited, specially for sealing nuclear objects, e.g. fuel rods, not only makes any damage which has taken place obvious, but makes identification according to a key possible. For this purpose a minimum number of 'particles' or small bodies, which are identical but of different permeability, are fixed inside a short tube during 'loading' of the seal in a certain or an accidental sequence. The sequence of the spheres, which represents a key, can only be determined by special electromagnetic measuring equipment. On first opening the seal, this key sequence is irrevocably destroyed. (HP) [de

  5. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampdla, D.S.; Speer, E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed

  6. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampolia, D.S.; Speer, E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed

  7. Reusable tamper-indicating security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    A reusable tamper-indicating mechanical security seal for use in safeguarding nuclear material has been developed. The high-security seal displays an unpredictable, randomly selected, five-digit code each time it is used. This five digit code serves the same purpose that the serial number does for conventional non-reusable seals - a unique identifier for each use or application. The newly developed reusable seal is completely enclosed within a seamless, tamper-indicating, plastic jacket. The jacket is designed to reveal any attempts to penetrate, section or to chemically remove and replace with a counterfeit for surreptitious purposes

  8. Ductile alloys for sealing modular component interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, John J.; Wessell, Brian J.; James, Allister W.; Marsh, Jan H.; Gear, Paul J.

    2017-08-08

    A vane assembly (10) having: an airfoil (12) and a shroud (14) held together without metallurgical bonding there between; a channel (22) disposed circumferentially about the airfoil (12), between the airfoil (12) and the shroud (14); and a seal (20) disposed in the channel (22), wherein during operation of a turbine engine having the vane assembly (10) the seal (20) has a sufficient ductility such that a force generated on the seal (20) resulting from relative movement of the airfoil (12) and the shroud (14) is sufficient to plastically deform the seal (20).

  9. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampolia, Donald S.; Speer, Elmer

    1990-01-01

    A quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed.

  10. Properties of Sealing Materials in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köser, Claus

    pellets as sealing material in groundwater wells. The way and the pattern, in which bentonite pellets are deposited, have been shown to have an effect on the swelling pressure of the bentonite seal. During the transport phase of pellets from the terrain to a given sedimentation depth, a sorting process......) into densities for clay/water systems has been developed. This method has successfully been used to evaluate e.g., macroporosity, homogenization of the bentonite seal during the hydration of water, hydraulic conductivity and the creation of channels in the bentonite seals. Based on the results obtained...

  11. Bingham Sealing and Application in Vacuum Clamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. M.; Teo, Wee Kin; Geng, Zunmin; Turner, Sam; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-12-01

    Vacuum clamping is extensively used in shell machining. In this paper a Bingham Sealing (BS) is presented and formulized based on Bingham plastic performance. The sealing capability of BS is evaluated in various cases. A new Bingham plastic is developed and the yield stress is measured. The performances of "O"ring sealing and BS with the developed Bingham plastic are compared to the static experiment. In this experiment the same vacuum is achieved and the distortion of the blade with BS is better than that with "O" ring sealing.

  12. Bingham Sealing and Application in Vacuum Clamping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, S M; Teo, Wee Kin; Geng Zunmin; Turner, Sam; Ridgway, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum clamping is extensively used in shell machining. In this paper a Bingham Sealing (BS) is presented and formulized based on Bingham plastic performance. The sealing capability of BS is evaluated in various cases. A new Bingham plastic is developed and the yield stress is measured. The performances of Or ing sealing and BS with the developed Bingham plastic are compared to the static experiment. In this experiment the same vacuum is achieved and the distortion of the blade with BS is better than that with 'O' ring sealing.

  13. Frequency of decompression illness among recent and extinct mammals and "reptiles": a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Agnete Weinreich

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of decompression illness was high among the extinct marine "reptiles" and very low among the marine mammals. Signs of decompression illness are still found among turtles but whales and seals are unaffected. In humans, the risk of decompression illness is five times increased in individuals with Patent Foramen Ovale; this condition allows blood shunting from the venous circuit to the systemic circuit. This right-left shunt is characteristic of the "reptile" heart, and it is suggested that this could contribute to the high frequency of decompression illness in the extinct reptiles.

  14. 78 FR 33357 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... confidence in these values is unknown. Table 3--Marine Mammal Density Estimates Density Species (animals/km\\2... unintentional taking of marine animals occurring incidental to the shock testing which involved large explosives... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting...

  15. 76 FR 7548 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  16. 77 FR 17033 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... take marine mammals by harassment incidental to its training activities at the Gulf of Mexico (GOMEX... Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy's Training Activities at the Gulf of Mexico Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  17. 75 FR 16754 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Conducting Precision Strike Weapons Testing and Training by Eglin Air Force Base in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... a Letter of Authorization. SUMMARY: In accordance with provisions of the Marine Mammal Protection...

  18. Ceramic/metal seals. [refractory materials for hermetic seals for lighium-metal sulfide batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredbenner, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Design criteria are discussed for a hermetic seal capable of withstanding the 450 C operating temperature of a lithium-metal sulfide battery system. A mechanical seal consisting of two high strength alloy metal sleeves welded or brazed to a conductor assembly and pressed onto a ceramic is described. The conductor center passes through the ceramic but is not sealed to it. The seal is effected on the outside of the taper where the tubular part is pressed down over and makes contact.

  19. Phocine distemper virus (PDV) seroprevalence as predictor for future outbreaks in harbour seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludes-Wehrmeister, Eva; Dupke, Claudia; Harder, Timm C; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Haas, Ludwig; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune; Jensen, Lasse F; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-02-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) infections caused the two most pronounced mass mortalities in marine mammals documented in the past century. During the two outbreaks, 23,000 and 30,000 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), died in 1988/1989 and 2002 across populations in the Wadden Sea and adjacent waters, respectively. To follow the mechanism and development of disease spreading, the dynamics of Morbillivirus-specific antibodies in harbour seal populations in German and Danish waters were examined. 522 serum samples of free-ranging harbour seals of different ages were sampled between 1990 and 2014. By standard neutralisation assays, Morbillivirus-specific antibodies were detected, using either the PDV isolate 2558/Han 88 or the related canine distemper virus (CDV) strain Onderstepoort. A total of 159 (30.5%) of the harbour seals were seropositive. Annual seroprevalence rates showed an undulating course: Peaks were seen in the post-epidemic years 1990/1991 and 2002/2003. Following each PDV outbreak, seroprevalence decreased and six to eight years after the epidemics samples were tested seronegative, indicating that the populations are now again susceptible to new PDV outbreak. After the last outbreak in 2002, the populations grew steadily to an estimated maximum (since 1975) of about 39,100 individuals in the Wadden Sea in 2014 and about 23,540 harbour seals in the Kattegat area in 2013. A re-appearence of PDV would presumably result in another epizootic with high mortality rates as encountered in the previous outbreaks. The current high population density renders harbour seals vulnerable to rapid spread of infectious agents including PDV and the recently detected influenza A virus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The marine mammal dive response is exercise modulated to maximize aerobic dive duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Randall W; Williams, Terrie M

    2012-08-01

    When aquatically adapted mammals and birds swim submerged, they exhibit a dive response in which breathing ceases, heart rate slows, and blood flow to peripheral tissues and organs is reduced. The most intense dive response occurs during forced submersion which conserves blood oxygen for the brain and heart, thereby preventing asphyxiation. In free-diving animals, the dive response is less profound, and energy metabolism remains aerobic. However, even this relatively moderate bradycardia seems diametrically opposed to the normal cardiovascular response (i.e., tachycardia and peripheral vasodilation) during physical exertion. As a result, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding how aquatic mammals and birds exercise while submerged. We hypothesized based on cardiovascular modeling that heart rate must increase to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to active muscles. Here, we show that heart rate (HR) does indeed increase with flipper or fluke stroke frequency (SF) during voluntary, aerobic dives in Weddell seals (HR = 1.48SF - 8.87) and bottlenose dolphins (HR = 0.99SF + 2.46), respectively, two marine mammal species with different evolutionary lineages. These results support our hypothesis that marine mammals maintain aerobic muscle metabolism while swimming submerged by combining elements of both dive and exercise responses, with one or the other predominating depending on the level of exertion.

  1. Assay dependence of Brucella antibody prevalence in a declining Alaskan harbor seal (Phoca vitulina population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueffer Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucella is a group of bacteria that causes brucellosis, which can affect population health and reproductive success in many marine mammals. We investigated the serological prevalence of antibodies against Brucella bacteria in a declining harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska. Results Prevalence ranged from 16 to 74 percent for those tests detecting antibodies, indicating that harbor seals in Glacier Bay have been exposed to Brucella bacteria. However, the actual level of serological prevalence could not be determined because results were strongly assay-dependent. Conclusions This study reinforces the need to carefully consider assay choice when comparing different studies on the prevalence of anti–Brucella antibodies in pinnipeds and further highlights the need for species- or taxon-specific assay validation for both pathogen and host species.

  2. 30 CFR 75.337 - Construction and repair of seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sealed areas. (b) Prior to sealing, the mine operator shall— (1) Remove insulated cables, batteries, and other potential electric ignition sources from the area to be sealed when constructing seals, unless it... after April 18, 2008, the seal at the lowest elevation shall have a corrosion-resistant, non-metallic...

  3. Albinistic common seals (Phoca vitulina) and melanistic grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) rehabilitated in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, Nynke; 't Hart, Pieter; Vader, Pieter C. van Voorst

    2010-01-01

    The Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre (SRRC) in Pieterburen, The Netherlands, rehabilitates seals from the waters of the Wadden Sea, North Sea and Southwest Delta area. Incidental observations of albinism and melanism in common and grey seals are known from countries surrounding the North Sea.

  4. Demographic, ecological, and physiological responses of ringed seals to an abrupt decline in sea ice availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Steven H; Young, Brent G; Yurkowski, David J; Anderson, Randi; Willing, Cornelia; Nielsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether demographic declines of Arctic species at the southern limit of their range will be gradual or punctuated, we compared large-scale environmental patterns including sea ice dynamics to ringed seal ( Pusa hispida ) reproduction, body condition, recruitment, and stress in Hudson Bay from 2003 to 2013. Aerial surveys suggested a gradual decline in seal density from 1995 to 2013, with the lowest density occurring in 2013. Body condition decreased and stress (cortisol) increased over time in relation to longer open water periods. The 2010 open water period in Hudson Bay coincided with extremes in large-scale atmospheric patterns (North Atlantic Oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, El Nino-Southern Oscillation) resulting in the earliest spring breakup and the latest ice formation on record. The warming event was coincident with high stress level, low ovulation rate, low pregnancy rate, few pups in the Inuit harvest, and observations of sick seals. Results provide evidence of changes in the condition of Arctic marine mammals in relation to climate mediated sea ice dynamics. We conclude that although negative demographic responses of Hudson Bay seals are occurring gradually with diminishing sea ice, a recent episodic environmental event played a significant role in a punctuated population decline.

  5. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habran, Sarah; Debier, Cathy; Crocker, Daniel E.; Houser, Dorian S.; Das, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. → The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. → The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  6. Blood dynamics of mercury and selenium in northern elephant seals during the lactation period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habran, Sarah, E-mail: S.Habran@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Debier, Cathy, E-mail: cathy.debier@uclouvain.be [Unite de Biochimie de la Nutrition, Institut des Sciences de la vie, Universite catholique de Louvain, Place Croix du Sud 2/8, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crocker, Daniel E., E-mail: crocker@sonoma.edu [Department of Biology, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 (United States); Houser, Dorian S., E-mail: biomimetica@cox.net [BIOMIMETICA, Santee, CA 92071 (United States); Das, Krishna, E-mail: Krishna.Das@ulg.ac.be [Laboratory for Oceanology - MARE Center B6c, University of Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-10-15

    The effects of reproduction and maternal investment (i.e., milk transfer) on trace element levels remain poorly understood in marine mammals. We examined the blood dynamics of mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) during lactation in the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris), a top predator from the North Pacific Ocean. Total Hg and Se levels were measured in whole blood and milk of 10 mother-pup pairs on days 5 and 22 of lactation. Both Hg and Se were transferred to offspring through the milk. Results suggested that the maternal transfer of Se was prominent during lactation, whereas the Hg transfer was larger during gestation. The lactation period affected Hg and Se levels in the blood of elephant seal mothers and pups. Physiological processes and their relationship to body condition should be considered carefully when interpreting trace element levels in the framework of biomonitoring. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The lactation period affects Hg and Se blood levels in elephant seal mothers and pups. > The Hg maternal transfer to offspring is larger during gestation. > The Se maternal transfer to offspring is prominent during lactation via the milk. - Blood levels of total Hg and Se are modified during the 4-week lactating period in northern elephant seals.

  7. Brucella antibody seroprevalence in Antarctic seals (Arctocephalus gazella, Leptonychotes weddellii and Mirounga leonina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Silje-Kristin; Nymo, Ingebjørg Helena; Forcada, Jaume; Hall, Ailsa; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-09-03

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Brucella, and Brucella infections in marine mammals were first reported in 1994. A serosurvey investigating the presence of anti-Brucella antibodies in 3 Antarctic pinniped species was undertaken with a protein A/G indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) and the Rose Bengal test (RBT). Serum samples from 33 Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli were analysed, and antibodies were detected in 8 individuals (24.2%) with the iELISA and in 21 (65.6%) with the RBT. We tested 48 southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina sera and detected antibodies in 2 animals (4.7%) with both the iELISA and the RBT. None of the 21 Antarctic fur seals Arctocephalus gazella was found positive. This is the first report of anti-Brucella antibodies in southern elephant seals. The potential impact of Brucella infection in pinnipeds in Antarctica is not known, but Brucella spp. are known to cause abortion in terrestrial species and cetaceans. Our findings suggest that Brucella infection in pinnipeds is present in the Antarctic, but to date B. pinnipedialis has not been isolated from any Antarctic pinniped species, leaving the confirmation of infection pending.

  8. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2 H or 3 H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2 HHO and 3 HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3 H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  9. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Truchon

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193 and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO. Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance. For most species (75%, n = 6 species, a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata. This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas, correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively. This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a

  10. High thermal expansion, sealing glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.

    1993-11-16

    A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.

  11. Safeguards sealing systems for Zebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingram, G.; Jamieson, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    A relatively simple design has been produced for safeguards seals to be applied throughout the fuel containing areas at Zebra. It is based on the use of wire seals and regular Inspector surveillance. The application of the system would allow an Inspector to establish to a high degree of confidence that significant quantities of fuel had not been diverted during an intensive experimental programme. It would add about 5% to the time required for experiments, and careful planning would reduce this value. The inspection effort required to witness element movements during the experimental programme would average about 2 hours per day, with a further 2 hours spent each week on NDA of the fuel exposed. The Safeguards Inspector would require to spend about 25% of his time in the reactor area and would have ample time to deal with the relatively small number of fuel movements taking place in the storage area and with his duties elsewhere in the plant. During a core change, full-time inspection effort would be required for about 6 weeks each year. (author)

  12. Introduced species: domestic mammals are more significant transmitters of parasites to native mammals than are feral mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Aqueveque, Carlos; Henríquez, Analía; Cattan, Pedro E

    2014-03-01

    The study of parasitism related to biological invasion has focused on attributes and impacts of parasites as invaders and the impact of introduced hosts on endemic parasitism. Thus, there is currently no study of the attributes of hosts which influence the invasiveness of parasites. We aimed to determine whether the degree of domestication of introduced mammalian species - feral introduced mammals, livestock or pets, hereafter 'D' - is important in the spillover of introduced parasites. The literature on introduced parasites of mammals in Chile was reviewed. We designed an index for estimating the relevance of the introduced host species to parasite spillover and determined whether the D of introduced mammals predicted this index. A total of 223 introduced parasite species were found. Our results indicate that domestic mammals have a higher number of introduced parasites and spillover parasites, and the index indicates that these mammals, particularly pets, are more relevant introducers than introduced feral mammals. Further analyses indicated that the higher impact is due to higher parasite richness, a longer time since introduction and wider dispersal, as well as how these mammals are maintained. The greater relevance of domestic mammals is important given that they are basically the same species distributed worldwide and can become the main transmitters of parasites to native mammals elsewhere. This finding also underlines the feasibility of management in order to reduce the transmission of parasites to native fauna through anti-parasitic treatment of domestic mammals, animal-ownership education and the prevention of importing new parasite species. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (n = 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (n = 2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n = 5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (n = 2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors-as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water-were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  14. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific walrus and bearded seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Terry; Seagars, Dana; Jokela, Terry; Layton, David

    2008-06-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ((137)Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ((210)Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea during May 1996. The mean (137)Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg(-1) (n=5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg(-1) (n=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, (137)Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, (210)Po activity concentrations are more variable and appear to be higher level compared with mammal data from other regions. The mean (210)Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (n=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg(-1), respectively. This compares with (210)Po concentration values (n=2, wet weight) of 27, 207 and 68 Bq kg(-1) measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated concentration factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for (210)Po that those of (137)Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of (137)Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessment of risks of Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic.

  15. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  16. Prolonged fasting does not increase oxidative damage or inflammation in postweaned northern elephant seal pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Crocker, Daniel E; Forman, Henry Jay; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2010-07-15

    Elephant seals are naturally adapted to survive up to three months of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). Prolonged food deprivation in terrestrial mammals increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative damage and inflammation that can be induced by an increase in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). To test the hypothesis that prolonged fasting in elephant seals is not associated with increased oxidative stress or inflammation, blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected from early (2-3 weeks post-weaning) and late (7-8 weeks post-weaning) fasted seals. Plasma levels of oxidative damage, inflammatory markers and plasma renin activity (PRA), along with muscle levels of lipid and protein oxidation, were compared between early and late fasting periods. Protein expression of angiotensin receptor 1 (AT(1)), pro-oxidant (Nox4) and antioxidant enzymes (CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) was analyzed in muscle. Fasting induced a 2.5-fold increase in PRA, a 50% increase in AT(1), a twofold increase in Nox4 and a 70% increase in NADPH oxidase activity. By contrast, neither tissue nor systemic indices of oxidative damage or inflammation increased with fasting. Furthermore, muscle antioxidant enzymes increased 40-60% with fasting in parallel with an increase in muscle and red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activities. These data suggest that, despite the observed increases in RAS and Nox4, an increase in antioxidant enzymes appears to be sufficient to suppress systemic and tissue indices of oxidative damage and inflammation in seals that have fasted for a prolonged period. The present study highlights the importance of antioxidant capacity in mammals during chronic periods of stress to help avoid deleterious systemic consequences.

  17. Calibration-free technique for the measurement of oxygen saturation changes in muscles of marine mammals and its proof of concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Martinez, Antonio; Goenka, Chhavi; Booker, Marloes; Grange, Robert M. H.; Hindle, Allyson G.; Franco, Walfre

    2018-02-01

    Marine mammals possess impressive breath-holding capabilities made possible by physiological adjustments during dives. Studying marine mammals in their natural environment unravels vital information about these physiological adjustments particularly when we can monitor altered dive behavior in response to stressful situations such as human-induced oceanic disturbances, presence of predators and altered prey distributions. An important indicator of physiological status during submergence is the change in oxygen saturation in the muscles and blood of these mammals. In this work, we aim to investigate oxygen storage and consumption in the muscles of free-diving elephant seals when exposed to disturbances such as sonar or predator sounds while they are at sea. Optical oxygen sensors are a mature technology with multiple medical applications that provide a way to measure oxygenation changes in biological tissues in a minimally invasive manner. While these sensors are well calibrated and readily available for humans, they are still inadequate for marine mammals primarily due to a very small number of test candidates and therefore little data is available for validation and calibration. We propose a probe geometry and associated mathematical model for measuring muscle oxygenation in seals based on near infrared diffuse transport with no need for calibration. A prototype based on this concept has been designed and tested on humans and rats. We use the test results to discuss the advantages and limitations of the approach. We also detail the constraints on size, sensor location, electronics, light source properties and detector characteristics posed by the unique biology of seals.

  18. Linkages between human health and ocean health: a participatory climate change vulnerability assessment for marine mammal harvesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadamus, Lily

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous residents of Alaska's Bering Strait Region depend, both culturally and nutritionally, on ice seal and walrus harvests. Currently, climate change and resultant increases in marine industrial development threaten these species and the cultures that depend on them. To document: (a) local descriptions of the importance of marine mammal hunting; (b) traditional methods for determining if harvested marine mammals are safe to consume; and (c) marine mammal outcomes that would have adverse effects on community health, the perceived causes of these outcomes, strategies for preventing these outcomes and community adaptations to outcomes that cannot be mitigated. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with 82 indigenous hunters and elders from the Bering Strait region. Standard qualitative analysis was conducted on interview transcripts, which were coded for both inductive and deductive codes. Responses describing marine mammal food safety and importance are presented using inductively generated categories. Responses describing negative marine mammal outcomes are presented in a vulnerability framework, which links human health outcomes to marine conditions. Project participants perceived that shipping noise and pollution, as well as marine mammal food source depletion by industrial fishing, posed the greatest threats to marine mammal hunting traditions. Proposed adaptations primarily fell into 2 categories: (a) greater tribal influence over marine policy; and (b) documentation of traditional knowledge for local use. This paper presents 1 example of documenting traditional knowledge as an adaptation strategy: traditional methods for determining if marine mammal food is safe to eat. Participant recommendations indicate that 1 strategy to promote rural Alaskan adaptation to climate change is to better incorporate local knowledge and values into decision-making processes. Participant interest in documenting traditional knowledge for local use also

  19. Introduced mammals on Western Indian Ocean islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Russell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of introduced mammals and their introduction history varies greatly across the Western Indian Ocean (WIO islands, from ancient introductions in the past millennia on islands off the East coast of Africa where extant terrestrial native mammal communities exist, to very recent invasions in the past decades on islands in the Mascarene archipelago. We compile the distribution of 16 introduced mammal taxa on 28 island groups comprising almost 2000 islands. Through an exhaustive literature review and expert consultation process we recorded all mammal eradications, and species recoveries which could be attributed to introduced mammal eradication or control. All island groups have been invaded by mammals, and invasive cats and rats in particular are ubiquitous, but cultural contingency has also led to regional invasions by other mammals such as lemurs, civets and tenrecs. Mammal eradications have been attempted on 45 islands in the WIO, the majority in the Seychelles and Mauritius, and where successful have resulted in spectacular recovery of species and ecosystems. Invasive mammalian predator eradication or control in association with habitat management has led to improved conservation prospects for at least 24 species, and IUCN red-list down-listing of eight species, in the Mascarene Islands. Future island conservation prioritisation in the region will need to take account of global climate change and predicted sea-level rises and coastal inundation. Greater investment and prioritisation in island conservation in the region is warranted, given its high biodiversity values and the extent of invasions.

  20. Natural History of Oregon Coast Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Bruce R. Mate; Jerry F. Franklin; C.T. Dyrness

    1981-01-01

    The book presents detailed information on the biology, habitats, and life histories of the 96 species of mammals of the Oregon coast. Soils, geology, and vegetation are described and related to wildlife habitats for the 65 terrestrial and 31 marine species. The book is not simply an identification guide to the Oregon coast mammals but is a dynamic portrayal of their...

  1. Evolution of the Placenta in Eutherian Mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Anthony Michael; Mess, A

    2007-01-01

    of eutherian mammals had an endotheliochorial placenta or a haemochorial one. Research has been stimulated by improved understanding of the relations between the orders of mammals provided by molecular phylogenetics. In part, the uncertainties arise from doubt about how to root the mammalian tree. Resolution...

  2. A magnetic fluid seal for rotary blood pumps: effects of seal structure on long-term performance in liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Sayaka; Amari, Shuichi; Okamoto, Eiji; Murabayashi, Shun; Nishimura, Ikuya

    2011-03-01

    A magnetic fluid (MF) seal enables mechanical contact-free rotation of the shaft and hence has excellent durability. The performance of an MF seal, however, has been reported to decrease in liquids. We developed an MF seal that has a "shield" mechanism, and a new MF with a higher magnetization of 47.9 kA/m. The sealing performance of the MF seal installed in a rotary blood pump was studied. Three types of MF seals were used. Seal A was a conventional seal without a shield. Seal B had the same structure as that of Seal A, but the seal was installed at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal C was a seal with a shield and the MF was set at 1 mm below liquid level. Seal A failed after 6 and 11 days. Seal B showed better results (20 and 73 days). Seal C showed long-term durability (217 and 275 days). The reason for different results in different seal structures was considered to be different flow conditions near the magnetic fluid. Fluid dynamics near the MF in the pump were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. We have developed an MF seal with a shield that works in liquid for >275 days. The MF seal is promising as a shaft seal for rotary blood pumps.

  3. mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, Martina Galatea; Rusten, Marte; Goksøyr, Anders; Routti, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Genes regulating lipid metabolism were studied in ringed seals. •We compared highly contaminated Baltic seals and less contaminated Svalbard seals. •mRNA expression of hepatic PPARγ was higher in the Baltic seals. •mRNA expression of adipose PPARγ target genes was higher in the Baltic seals. •Contaminant exposure may affect lipid metabolism in the Baltic ringed seals. -- Abstract: There is a growing concern about the ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to influence lipid metabolism. Although POPs are found at high concentrations in some populations of marine mammals, for example in the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic Sea, little is known about the effects of POPs on their lipid metabolism. An optimal regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial for ringed seals during the fasting/molting season. This is a physiologically stressful period, during which they rely on the energy stored in their fat reserves. The mRNA expression levels for seven genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed in liver and/or blubber tissue from molting ringed seals from the polluted Baltic Sea and a less polluted reference location, Svalbard (Norway). mRNA expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α and γ and their target genes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were analyzed in liver. mRNA expression level of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ and their target genes encoding fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were measured in inner and middle blubber layers. In addition, we evaluated the influence of molting status on hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARs and their target genes in ringed seals from Svalbard. Our results show higher mRNA expression of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ and adipose PPARβ, FABP4, and ADIPOQ in the Baltic seals compared to the Svalbard seals. A positive relationship between mRNA expressions of genes

  4. mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from differently polluted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Martina Galatea [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø (Norway); University of Bergen, Department of Biology, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Rusten, Marte; Goksøyr, Anders [University of Bergen, Department of Biology, 5020 Bergen (Norway); Routti, Heli, E-mail: heli.routti@npolar.no [Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •Genes regulating lipid metabolism were studied in ringed seals. •We compared highly contaminated Baltic seals and less contaminated Svalbard seals. •mRNA expression of hepatic PPARγ was higher in the Baltic seals. •mRNA expression of adipose PPARγ target genes was higher in the Baltic seals. •Contaminant exposure may affect lipid metabolism in the Baltic ringed seals. -- Abstract: There is a growing concern about the ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to influence lipid metabolism. Although POPs are found at high concentrations in some populations of marine mammals, for example in the ringed seal (Pusa hispida) from the Baltic Sea, little is known about the effects of POPs on their lipid metabolism. An optimal regulation of lipid metabolism is crucial for ringed seals during the fasting/molting season. This is a physiologically stressful period, during which they rely on the energy stored in their fat reserves. The mRNA expression levels for seven genes involved in lipid metabolism were analyzed in liver and/or blubber tissue from molting ringed seals from the polluted Baltic Sea and a less polluted reference location, Svalbard (Norway). mRNA expression of genes encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) α and γ and their target genes acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) and cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) were analyzed in liver. mRNA expression level of genes encoding PPARβ, PPARγ and their target genes encoding fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) and adiponectin (ADIPOQ) were measured in inner and middle blubber layers. In addition, we evaluated the influence of molting status on hepatic mRNA expression of genes encoding PPARs and their target genes in ringed seals from Svalbard. Our results show higher mRNA expression of genes encoding hepatic PPARγ and adipose PPARβ, FABP4, and ADIPOQ in the Baltic seals compared to the Svalbard seals. A positive relationship between mRNA expressions of genes

  5. Otolith Length-Fish Length Relationships of Eleven US Arctic Fish Species and Their Application to Ice Seal Diet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, K. L.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic ecosystem has moved into the spotlight of scientific research in recent years due to increased climate change and oil and gas exploration. Arctic fishes and Arctic marine mammals represent key parts of this ecosystem, with fish being a common part of ice seal diets in the Arctic. Determining sizes of fish consumed by ice seals is difficult because otoliths are often the only part left of the fish after digestion. Otolith length is known to be positively related to fish length. By developing species-specific otolith-body morphometric relationships for Arctic marine fishes, fish length can be determined for fish prey found in seal stomachs. Fish were collected during ice free months in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas 2009 - 2014, and the most prevalent species captured were chosen for analysis. Otoliths from eleven fish species from seven families were measured. All species had strong linear relationships between otolith length and fish total length. Nine species had coefficient of determination values over 0.75, indicating that most of the variability in the otolith to fish length relationship was explained by the linear regression. These relationships will be applied to otoliths found in stomachs of three species of ice seals (spotted Phoca largha, ringed Pusa hispida, and bearded Erignathus barbatus) and used to estimate fish total length at time of consumption. Fish lengths can in turn be used to calculate fish weight, enabling further investigation into ice seal energetic demands. This application will aid in understanding how ice seals interact with fish communities in the US Arctic and directly contribute to diet comparisons among and within ice seal species. A better understanding of predator-prey interactions in the US Arctic will aid in predicting how ice seal and fish species will adapt to a changing Arctic.

  6. Cover gas seals. 11 - FFTF-LMFBR seal-test program, January-March 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, F.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor - inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configuration provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at LMFBR Clinch River Plant operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the LMFBR Clinch River Plant to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  7. Phocine Distemper in German Seals, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlsein, Peter; Beineke, Andreas; Haas, Ludwig; Greiser-Wilke, Irene; Siebert, Ursula; Fonfara, Sonja; Harder, Timm; Stede, Michael; Gruber, Achim.D.; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 21,700 seals died during a morbillivirus epidemic in northwestern Europe in 2002. Phocine distemper virus 1 was isolated from seals in German waters. The sequence of the P gene showed 97% identity with the Dutch virus isolated in 1988. There was 100% identity with the Dutch isolate from 2002 and a single nucleotide mismatch with the Danish isolate. PMID:15200869

  8. Electron beam selectively seals porous metal filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, J. A.; Tulisiak, G.

    1968-01-01

    Electron beam welding selectively seals the outer surfaces of porous metal filters and impedances used in fluid flow systems. The outer surface can be sealed by melting a thin outer layer of the porous material with an electron beam so that the melted material fills all surface pores.

  9. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  10. Performance evaluation of chip seals in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The intent of this research project is to identify a wide variety of parameters that influence the performance of pavements treated via chip seals within the State of Idaho. Chip sealing is currently one of the most popular methods of maintenance for...

  11. 39 CFR 2.4 - Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES... Secretary of State, and is required by 39 U.S.C. 207 to be judicially noticed. The Seal shall be in the... description of the Postal Service emblem is described at 39 CFR 221.7. ...

  12. Floating seal system for rotary devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasiuk, H.A.

    1983-08-23

    This invention relates to a floating seal system for rotary devices to reduce gas leakage around the rotary device in a duct and across the face of the rotary device to an adjacent duct. The peripheral seal bodies are made of resilient material having a generally U-shaped cross section wherein one of the legs is secured to a support member and the other of the legs forms a contacting seal against the rotary device. The legs of the peripheral seal form an extended angle of intersection of about 10[degree] to about 30[degree] in the unloaded condition to provide even sealing forces around the periphery of the rotary device. The peripheral seal extends around the periphery of the support member except where intersected by radial seals which reduce gas leakage across the face of the rotary device and between adjacent duct portions. The radial seal assembly is fabricated from channel bars, the smaller channel bar being secured to the divider of the support member and a larger inverted rigid floating channel bar having its legs freely movable over the legs of the smaller channel bar forming therewith a tubular channel. A resilient flexible tube is positioned within the tubular channel for substantially its full length to reduce gas leakage across the tubular channel. A spacer extends beyond the face of the floating channel near each end of the floating channel a distance to provide desired clearance between the floating channel and the face of the rotary device. 5 figs.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MAGNETIC FLUID SEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bashtovoi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependences of critical pressure drop, being held by magnetic fluid seal, on time in a static state and shaft rotation velocity in dynamics have been experimentally determined. The significant influence of particles’ redistribution in magnetic fluid on static parameters of magnetic fluid seal has been established.

  14. Molybdenum sealing glass-ceramic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eagan, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A glass-ceramic composition is described having low hydrogen and helium permeability properties, along with high fracture strength, and a thermal coefficient of expansion similar to that of molybdenum. The composition is adaptable for hermetically sealing to molybdenum at temperatures between 900 and about 950 0 C to form a hermetically sealed insulator body

  15. Sealing a Loosely Fitting Valve Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, L.; Tellier, G.

    1986-01-01

    Double-ring seal avoids expense of remachining or redesigning valve parts. Mating fittings on valve sealed by pair of rings - one O-ring and backup ring. Backup ring fills relatively large gap between parts. Prevents softer O-ring from being pushed into and through gap.

  16. 19 CFR 101.7 - Customs seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs seal. 101.7 Section 101.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS § 101.7 Customs seal. (a) Design. According to the design furnished by the Department...

  17. Dura Seal recommendations for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Reactor systems (BWR, PWR and Candu) are briefly reviewed with reference to the pumping services encountered in each system, to indicate the conditions imposed on mechanical seals for nuclear power plant liquid handling equipment. A description of the Dura Seals used in each service is included. (U.K.)

  18. Sealing Occlusal Dentin Caries in Permanent Molars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Borum, Mette Kit; Møller, Kirsten Dynes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical and radiog......The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of postponing restorative intervention of manifest occlusal caries in young, permanent dentition by non-invasive sealing. This RCT-designed study included 521 occlusal lesions in 521 patients aged 6 to 17 y. Based on clinical...... longevity of sealings and restorations until retreatments, and 3) compare effectiveness of sealings and restorations to halt caries progression in sealed lesions and beneath restorations. Furthermore, we aimed to identify factors influencing longevity and the effectiveness of sealings and restorations.......001). The median survival time for sealings not replaced by restorations was 7.3 y (CI, 6.4 y to NA). Survival of sealings was increased in patients with low caries risk and/or excellent oral hygiene, second molars compared with first molars, and lesions not extending the middle one-third of the dentin. Survival...

  19. Machine Vision Inspection of Polymeric Traypack Seal Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, John

    2002-01-01

    .... Since entrapped matter can lead to open seals, defects, and seal anomalies, a method of measurement for seal area contamination is useful in quantifying effects of filler changes, line speeds, and product formulations...

  20. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-01-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10 -16 m 2 to 10 -18 m 2 (10 -4 darcy to 10 -6 ). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ''heal'' or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required

  1. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  2. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsik, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  3. PWR thermocouple mechanical sealing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiuping; He Youguang

    1991-08-01

    The PWR in-core temperature detection device, which is one of measures to insure reactor safety operation, is to monitor and diagnose reactor thermal power output and in-core power distribution. The temperature detection device system uses thermocouples as measuring elements with stainless steel protecting sleeves. The thermocouple has a limited service time and should be replaced after its service time has reached. A new sealing device for the thermocouples of reactor in-core temperature detection system has been developed to facilitate replacement. The structure is complete tight under high temperature and pressure without any leakage and seepage, and easy to be assembled or disassembled in radioactive environment. The device is designed to make it possible to replace the thermocouple one by one if necessary. This is a new, simple and practical structure

  4. Human Streptococcus agalactiae strains in aquatic mammals and fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Methods Isolates from fish (n = 26), seals (n = 6), a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Results Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST) 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set genotype identical to that of an emerging ST283 clone associated with invasive disease of adult humans in Asia. The human pathogenic strain ST7 serotype Ia was also detected in fish from Asia. ST23 serotype Ia, a subpopulation that is normally associated with human carriage, was found in all grey seals, suggesting that human effluent may contribute to microbial pollution of surface water and exposure of sea mammals to human pathogens. The final subpopulation consisted of non-haemolytic ST260 and ST261 serotype Ib isolates, which belong to a fish-associated clonal complex that has never been reported from humans. Conclusions The apparent association of the four subpopulations of S. agalactiae with specific groups of host species suggests that some strains of aquatic S. agalactiae may present a zoonotic or anthroponotic hazard. Furthermore, it provides a rational framework for exploration of pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of S

  5. Study on sealing of boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    A bibliographical research on the problem of the backfilling and sealing of boreholes, shafts and tunnels for radioactive waste disposal has been carried out. Various materials - both natural and artificial - like clay, industrial cement, polymer concrete, geothermical and magnesium cement have been examined. Their main physico-chemical and durability characteristics have been examined. The problem of the interaction between the sealing and the geological environment has been also dealt. The final subject discussed in the bibliography is the damage caused to the host formation by the excavation of shafts and tunnels. The laboratory tests have been performed on a natural clay and other types of material (cement grout, cement grout with expansive additive, cement mortar and remoulded clay) which have been used as plug materials. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are the following: - The permeability of the cement is lower than the permeability of the clay; - no adhesion was observed between clay and cement mortar, with or without expansive additive, when cured under different ambient conditions, but without any application of load; - When curing took place under load, good adhesion was observed between the clay and the cement mortar; - The flow of water in a specimen consisting of a clay core surrounded by remoulded clay is larger than in the natural clay. These results seem to be caused by the different permeabilities of the remoulded and undisturbed clay and not to depend on flow at the contact between the two materials. A remote instrumentation package for the in situ evaluation of the performance of a plug, has been developed. In order to get rid of the uncertainty associated with the infiltration of the cables through the plug a wireless data transmission system, based on acoustic waves, has been developed

  6. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  7. Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nunny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since the licensing system was put in place. While some license holders, notably fish farms, were using some non-lethal forms of deterrent to reduce seal-related damage, these were often used alongside seal shooting. Of the seals reported as shot to the Scottish Government, only a small percentage were also reported to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, despite this being a licensing requirement. Only 2.3% of the shot gray seals and 4.5% of the shot common seals were necropsied. There is evidence from these necropsies that some seals had not died instantly or had not been shot in the manner recommended by the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice. These preliminary results show that more carcasses need to be recovered and necropsied if the welfare implications of current seal shooting practice are to be properly assessed. The current legislation does not specify closed seasons to protect breeding seals and thirty-five per cent of necropsied seals were pregnant gray seals. Seals have also been shot during their lactation periods when pups are dependent on their mothers. This raises significant welfare concerns. The re-introduction of closed seasons specific to each species of seal is recommended along with greater effort to deploy non-lethal methods. Independent assessment of the number of seals being killed

  8. Riparian Habitat Management for Mammals on Corps of Engineers Projects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Chester

    2002-01-01

    .... This note provides an overview of the importance of riparian ecosystems to mammals, discusses regional variation in mammal communities characteristic of riparian zones, identifies potential impacts...

  9. Mineral elements and essential trace elements in blood of seals of the North Sea measured by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griesel, S.; Mundry, R.; Kakuschke, A.; Fonfara, S.; Siebert, U.; Prange, A.

    2006-01-01

    Mineral and essential trace elements are involved in numerous physiological processes in mammals. Often, diseases are associated with an imbalance of the electrolyte homeostasis. In this study, the concentrations of mineral elements (P, S, K, Ca) and essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr) in whole blood of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were determined using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF). Samples from 81 free-ranging harbor seals from the North Sea and two captive seals were collected during 2003-2005. Reference ranges and element correlations for health status determination were derived for P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn level in whole blood. Grouping the seals by age, gender and sample location the concentration levels of the elements were compared. The blood from two captive seals with signs of diseases and four free-ranging seals showed reduced element levels of P, S, and Ca and differences in element correlation of electrolytes were ascertained. Thus, simultaneous measurements of several elements in only 500 μL volumes of whole blood provide the possibility to obtain information on both, the electrolyte balance and the hydration status of the seals. The method could therefore serve as an additional biomonitoring tool for the health assessment

  10. Analysis on the Viscous Pumping in a Magnetic Fluid Seal Under a Rotating Load and the Seal Design

    OpenAIRE

    長屋, 幸助; 大沼, 浩身; 佐藤, 淳

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses effects of viscous pumping in a magnetic fluid seal under a rotating load. The Reynolds equation was presented for the seal based on magnetic fluid mechanics, and the expressions for obtaining pressures in the seal, eccentricities of the rotating shaft due to the viscous pumping and seal pressures were given. Numerical Calculations were carried out for some sample problems, and the effect of magnetic flux densities on the pressure in the seal and the seal pressures were c...

  11. Design and development of face seal type sealing plug for advanced heavy water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Patel, R.J.; Agrawal, R.G.; Vaze, K.K.

    2005-09-01

    Advanced Heavy Water Reactor is a vertical pressure tube type reactor having light water as its coolant and heavy water as moderator. Sealing plug is required to close the pressure boundary of main heat transport system of the reactor by preventing escape of light water/steam From the coolant channel. There are 452 coolant channels in the reactor located in square lattice pitch. Sealing plug is located at the top of each coolant channel (in the top end fitting). Top end fitting is having a stepped bore to create a sealing face. Sealing plug is held through its expanded jaws in a specially provided groove of the end fitting. The plug was designed and prototypes were manufactured considering its functional importance, intricate design and precision machining requirements. Sealing plug consists of about 20 components mostly made up of precipitation hardening stainless steel, which is suitable for water environment and meets other requirements of strength and resistance to wear and galling. Seal disc is a critical component of the sealing plug as it is the pressure-retaining component. It is a circular disc with protruded stem. One face of the seal disc is nickel plated in the peripheral area that creates the sealing by abutting against the sealing face provided in the end fitting. The typical shape and profile of seal disc provides flexibility and allows elastic deformation to assist in locking of sealing plug and creating adequate seating force for effective sealing. Design and development aspects of the sealing plug have been detailed out in this report. Also results of stress analysis and experimental studies for seal disc have been mentioned in the report. Stress analysis and experimental testing was required for the seal disc because high stresses are developed due to its exposure to high pressure and temperature environment of Main Heat Transport system. Hot testing was carried out to simulate the reactor-simulated condition. The performance was found to be

  12. Sealing glasses for titanium and titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; McCollister, Howard L.; Phifer, Carol C.; Day, Delbert E.

    1997-01-01

    Barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are provided comprising various combinations (in terms of mole-%) of boron oxide (B.sub.2 O.sub.3), barium oxide (BaO), lanthanum oxide (La.sub.2 O.sub.3), and at least one other oxide selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide (Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), calcium oxide (CaO), lithium oxide (Li.sub.2 O), sodium oxide (Na.sub.2 O), silicon dioxide (SiO.sub.2), or titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2). These sealing-glass compositions are useful for forming hermetic glass-to-metal seals with titanium and titanium alloys having an improved aqueous durability and favorable sealing characteristics. Examples of the sealing-glass compositions are provided having coefficients of thermal expansion about that of titanium or titanium alloys, and with sealing temperatures less than about 900.degree. C., and generally about 700.degree.-800.degree. C. The barium lanthanoborate sealing-glass compositions are useful for components and devices requiring prolonged exposure to moisture or water, and for implanted biomedical devices (e.g. batteries, pacemakers, defibrillators, pumps).

  13. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Radial Lip Seal Geometry on Sealing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, G.; Parlar, Z.; Temiz, V.

    2018-01-01

    Sealing elements are often needed in industry and especially in machine design. With the change and development of machine technology from day to day, sealing elements show continuous development and change in parallel with these developments. Many factors influence the performance of the sealing elements such as shaft surface roughness, radial force, lip geometry etc. In addition, the radial lip seals must have a certain pre-load and interference in order to provide a good sealing. This also affects the friction torque. Researchers are developing new seal designs to reduce friction losses in mechanical systems. In the presented study, the effect of the lip seal geometry on sealing performance will be examined numerically. The numerical model created for this purpose will be verified with experimental data firstly. In the numerical model, shaft and seal will be modeled as hyper-elastic in 2D and 3D. NBR (Nitrile Butadiene Rubber) as seal material will be analyzed for the rotating shaft state at constant speed by applying a uniform radial force.

  14. A comparison of blood nitric oxide metabolites and hemoglobin functional properties among diving mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fago, Angela; Parraga, Daniel Garcia; Petersen, Elin E; Kristensen, Niels; Giouri, Lea; Jensen, Frank B

    2017-03-01

    The ability of marine mammals to hunt prey at depth is known to rely on enhanced oxygen stores and on selective distribution of blood flow, but the molecular mechanisms regulating blood flow and oxygen transport remain unresolved. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that may be important in regulating blood flow, we measured concentration of nitrite and S-nitrosothiols (SNO), two metabolites of the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO), in the blood of 5 species of marine mammals differing in their dive duration: bottlenose dolphin, South American sea lion, harbor seal, walrus and beluga whale. We also examined oxygen affinity, sensitivity to 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) and nitrite reductase activity of the hemoglobin (Hb) to search for possible adaptive variations in these functional properties. We found levels of plasma and red blood cells nitrite similar to those reported for terrestrial mammals, but unusually high concentrations of red blood cell SNO in bottlenose dolphin, walrus and beluga whale, suggesting enhanced SNO-dependent signaling in these species. Purified Hbs showed similar functional properties in terms of oxygen affinity and sensitivity to DPG, indicating that reported large variations in blood oxygen affinity among diving mammals likely derive from phenotypic variations in red blood cell DPG levels. The nitrite reductase activities of the Hbs were overall slightly higher than that of human Hb, with the Hb of beluga whale, capable of longest dives, having the highest activity. Taken together, these results underscore adaptive variations in circulatory NO metabolism in diving mammals but not in the oxygenation properties of the Hb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Arias, Maykel A; Pardo, Julián; Álvarez, María Pilar; Alcaraz, Ana; Godfroid, Jacques; Jiménez de Bagüés, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina) and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena) were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  16. Marine Mammal Brucella Reference Strains Are Attenuated in a BALB/c Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingebjørg H Nymo

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution with numerous animal host species. Since the novel isolation of Brucella spp. from marine mammals in 1994 the bacteria have been isolated from various marine mammal hosts. The marine mammal reference strains Brucella pinnipedialis 12890 (harbour seal, Phoca vitulina and Brucella ceti 12891 (harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena were included in genus Brucella in 2007, however, their pathogenicity in the mouse model is pending. Herein this is evaluated in BALB/c mice with Brucella suis 1330 as a control. Both marine mammal strains were attenuated, however, B. ceti was present at higher levels than B. pinnipedialis in blood, spleen and liver throughout the infection, in addition B. suis and B. ceti were isolated from brains and faeces at times with high levels of bacteraemia. In B. suis-infected mice serum cytokines peaked at day 7. In B. pinnipedialis-infected mice, levels were similar, but peaked predominantly at day 3 and an earlier peak in spleen weight likewise implied an earlier response. The inflammatory response induced pathology in the spleen and liver. In B. ceti-infected mice, most serum cytokine levels were comparable to those in uninfected mice, consistent with a limited inflammatory response, which also was indicated by restricted spleen and liver pathology. Specific immune responses against all three strains were detected in vitro after stimulation of splenocytes from infected mice with the homologous heat-killed brucellae. Antibody responses in vivo were also induced by the three brucellae. The immunological pattern of B. ceti in combination with persistence in organs and limited pathology has heretofore not been described for other brucellae. These two marine mammal wildtype strains show an attenuated pattern in BALB/c mice only previously described for Brucella neotomea.

  17. Tamper-indicating quantum optical seals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL; Williams, Brian P [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Confidence in the means for identifying when tampering occurs is critical for containment and surveillance technologies. Fiber-optic seals have proven especially useful for actively surveying large areas or inventories due to the extended transmission range and flexible layout of fiber. However, it is reasonable to suspect that an intruder could tamper with a fiber-optic sensor by accurately replicating the light transmitted through the fiber. In this contribution, we demonstrate a novel approach to using fiber-optic seals for safeguarding large-scale inventories with increased confidence in the state of the seal. Our approach is based on the use of quantum mechanical phenomena to offer unprecedented surety in the authentication of the seal state. In particular, we show how quantum entangled photons can be used to monitor the integrity of a fiber-optic cable - the entangled photons serve as active sensing elements whose non-local correlations indicate normal seal operation. Moreover, we prove using the quantum no-cloning theorem that attacks against the quantum seal necessarily disturb its state and that these disturbances are immediately detected. Our quantum approach to seal authentication is based on physical principles alone and does not require the use of secret or proprietary information to ensure proper operation. We demonstrate an implementation of the quantum seal using a pair of entangled photons and we summarize our experimental results including the probability of detecting intrusions and the overall stability of the system design. We conclude by discussing the use of both free-space and fiber-based quantum seals for surveying large areas and inventories.

  18. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  19. Mercury in marine fish, mammals, seabirds, and human hair in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Falkowska, Lucyna

    Mercury (Hg), aside from having high toxicity, is characterized by its ability to biomagnify in the marine trophic chain. This is an important problem especially in estuaries, or in the coastal zone, particularly near the mouths of large rivers. This study was conducted in the years 2001-2011, in the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea near to the mouth of the River Vistula, which is the second biggest river discharging into the Baltic. Mercury concentration was measured in the tissues and organs of cod, flounder, herring, seals (living in the wild and in captivity), great black-backed gulls, and African penguins from Gdańsk Zoo, and also in human hair. Penguins and seals at the seal sanctuary in Hel were fed only herring. In marine birds and mammals and in the pelagic herring, the highest Hg concentration was observed in the kidney and in the liver, while in cod and flounder (located on a higher trophic level) the muscles were the most contaminated with mercury. In gray seals living in the seal sanctuary, Hg concentration in all analyzed tissues and organs except the kidneys was lower in comparison with seals living in the wild. The comparatively small share of fish in the diet of local Polish people and their preference towards the consumption of herring contributed to low concentration of Hg in their hair. The protective mechanisms related to detoxification and elimination of mercury were shown to be more effective in the seals than in the penguins, despite the former consuming around 10 times more food per day.

  20. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  1. Resource partitioning between Pacific walruses and bearded seals in the Alaska Arctic and sub-Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxtoby, L E; Horstmann, L; Budge, S M; O'Brien, D M; Wang, S W; Schollmeier, T; Wooller, M J

    2017-06-01

    Climate-mediated changes in the phenology of Arctic sea ice and primary production may alter benthic food webs that sustain populations of Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). Interspecific resource competition could place an additional strain on ice-associated marine mammals already facing loss of sea ice habitat. Using fatty acid (FA) profiles, FA trophic markers, and FA stable carbon isotope analyses, we found that walruses and bearded seals partitioned food resources in 2009-2011. Interspecific differences in FA profiles were largely driven by variation in non-methylene FAs, which are markers of benthic invertebrate prey taxa, indicating varying consumption of specific benthic prey. We used Bayesian multi-source FA stable isotope mixing models to estimate the proportional contributions of particulate organic matter (POM) from sympagic (ice algal), pelagic, and benthic sources to these apex predators. Proportional contributions of FAs to walruses and bearded seals from benthic POM sources were high [44 (17-67)% and 62 (38-83)%, respectively] relative to other sources of POM. Walruses also obtained considerable contributions of FAs from pelagic POM sources [51 (32-73)%]. Comparison of δ 13 C values of algal FAs from walruses and bearded seals to those from benthic prey from different feeding groups from the Chukchi and Bering seas revealed that different trophic pathways sustained walruses and bearded seals. Our findings suggest that (1) resource partitioning may mitigate interspecific competition, and (2) climate change impacts on Arctic food webs may elicit species-specific responses in these high trophic level consumers.

  2. Design, construction and monitoring of sealing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischle, W.R.; Schwieger, K.

    1986-01-01

    By flooding a worked-out mine, it was possible to test the sealing work on a full scale. The aim is to erect an impermeable, statically secure seal requiring no maintenance. Apart from testing measuring equipment, data were to be obtained for later safety calculations. The measurements are also used to check the computer programs. After a dry period of over a year, flooding started at the beginning of 1985 and so did the testing of the seal and the measuring equipment in caustic soda solution. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Magnetic fluid seals for DWDM filter manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhixin

    2002-01-01

    Performance requirements of rotary magnetic fluid seals for thin film dense wavelength division multiplexing filter manufacturing are discussed. High speed, large diameter, tight tolerance for rotating accuracy and motion control are some of the technical challenges in this application. Analytical methods for studying these technical issues and experimental data are presented. Innovative design approaches are also discussed. It is shown that using the most advanced magnetic fluid technology and seal design technology, magnetic fluid seals can provide satisfactory performance in this challenging new application

  4. Pilot cryo tunnel: Attachments, seals, and insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. F.; Ware, G. D.; Ramsey, J. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Several different tests are described which simulated the actual configuration of a cryogenic wind tunnel operating at pressures up to 5 atmospheres (507 kPa) and temperatures from -320 F (78K) to 120 F (322K) in order to determine compatible bolting, adequate sealing, and effective insulating materials. The evaluation of flange attachments (continuous threaded studs) considered bolting based on compatible flanges, attachment materials, and prescribed bolt elongations. Various types of seals and seal configurations were studied to determine suitability and reusability under the imposed pressure and temperature loadings. The temperature profile was established for several materials used for structural supports.

  5. Compliant Glass Seals for SOFC Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Yeong -Shyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Choi, Jung-Pyung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xu, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephens, Elizabeth V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koeppel, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stevenson, Jeffry W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lara-Curzio, Edgar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report summarizes results from experimental and modeling studies performed by participants in the Solid-State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Core Technology Program, which indicate that compliant glass-based seals offer a number of potential advantages over conventional seals based on de-vitrifying glasses, including reduced stresses during stack operation and thermal cycling, and the ability to heal micro-damage induced during thermal cycling. The properties and composition of glasses developed and/or investigated in these studies are reported, along with results from long-term (up to 5,800h) evaluations of seals based on a compliant glass containing ceramic particles or ceramic fibers.

  6. Infiltrating/sealing proximal caries lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Gomez, J

    2012-01-01

    This randomized split-mouth controlled clinical trial aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of infiltration vs. sealing for controlling caries progression on proximal surfaces. Out of 90 adult students/patients assessed at university clinics and agreeing to participate, 39, each with 3...... differences in lesion progression between infiltration and placebo (P = 0.0012) and between sealing and placebo (P = 0.0269). The study showed that infiltration and sealing are significantly better than placebo treatment for controlling caries progression on proximal lesions. No significant difference...

  7. 76 FR 51002 - Marine Mammals; File No. 16553

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... californianus), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). DATES... five-year permit to study three species of pinnipeds in California. The objectives of the research are.... California sea lions, northern elephant seals, and harbor seals would be captured and samples at several...

  8. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    hunted small mammals mainly by dogs for cultural and ornamental reasons. Products of African ... (WHO) defines traditional medicine as ''health practices ... particularly in Asian countries. ..... Ntiamoa- Baidu Y 1992 Local Perceptions and.

  9. Ocean Disposal of Marine Mammal Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocean dumping of marine mammal carcasses is allowed with a permit issued by EPA under the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. Includes permit information, potential environmental impacts, and instructions for getting the general permit.

  10. Atlantic Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in South Atlantic (Florida to Maryland) waters from 1994 to the...

  11. South African red data book - large mammals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skinner, JD

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Data sheets are provided for 22 threatened South African large mammals, one exterminated (Liechtenstein1s hartebeest), eight endangered (cheetah, hunting dog, dugong, Cape mountain zebra, black rhinoceros, tsessebe, roan antelope, suni), one...

  12. Caribbean Marine Mammal Assessment Vessel Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets are a compilation of large vessel surveys for marine mammal stock assessments in Caribbean waters conducted during 2000-2001. These surveys were...

  13. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  14. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  15. The role of glycogen, glucose and lactate in neuronal activity during hypoxia in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, N U; Geiseler, S J; Hoff, M L M; Schliep, R; Ramirez, J-M; Folkow, L P; Burmester, T

    2014-09-05

    The brains of diving mammals are repeatedly exposed to hypoxic conditions during diving. Brain neurons of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) have been shown to be more hypoxia tolerant than those of mice, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we investigated the roles of different metabolic substrates for maintenance of neuronal activity and integrity, by comparing the in vitro spontaneous neuronal activity of brain slices from layer V of the visual cortex of hooded seals with those in mice (Mus musculus). Studies were conducted by manipulating the composition of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), containing either 10 mM glucose, or 20 mM lactate, or no external carbohydrate supply (aglycemia). Normoxic, hypoxic and ischemic conditions were applied. The lack of glucose or the application of lactate in the aCSF containing no glucose had little effect on the neuronal activity of seal neurons in either normoxia or hypoxia, while neurons from mice survived in hypoxia only few minutes regardless of the composition of the aCSF. We propose that seal neurons have higher intrinsic energy stores. Indeed, we found about three times higher glycogen stores in the seal brain (∼4.1 ng per μg total protein in the seal cerebrum) than in the mouse brain. Notably, in aCSF containing no glucose, seal neurons can tolerate 20 mM lactate while in mouse neuronal activity vanished after few minutes even in normoxia. This can be considered as an adaptation to long dives, during which lactate accumulates in the blood. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of bar sealing parameters on OPP/MCPP heat seal strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bar sealing parameters on the heat seal strength of oriented polypropylene (OPP/metallic cast polypropylene (MCPP laminate film was investigated. Based on the results obtained from the parametric study, a bar sealing process window was developed. All points drop within the process window are combinations of platen temperature and dwell time that produce acceptable heat seal. Optimum combinations are indicated by the lower border of the window. The plateau initiation temperature, Tpi of OPP/MCPP laminate film used in the present study occurred before the final melting temperature, Tmf of the sealant material. The highest achievable heat seal strength was at the plateau region, and the corresponding failure modes were delaminating, tearing or combine failure modes (delaminating and tearing. Minimum pressure level of 1.25 bars is necessary to bring the laminate interface into intimate contact in order to effect sealing.

  17. Aerial surveys of seals at Rødsand seal sanctuary and adjacent haul-out sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, J.; Dietz, R.; Edren, Susi M.C.

    This report describes the preliminary results of aerial surveys at Rødsand seal sanctuary, southeast Denmark and adjacent seal haul-out sites in southwestern Baltic. The work was carried out in connection with studies of potential effects of the Nysted offshore wind farm. Rødsand seal sanctuary...... is a part of seal management area 4, and the area is believed to hold a more or less closed population with little exchange to other areas. Although the harbour seal is relatively stationary there may be movements between the haul-out sites in the area. A possible reaction to disturbance from...... the construction and operation of the wind farm may be that the seals use other haul-out sites to a higher extend....

  18. Investigating the sealing capacity of a seal system in rock salt (DOPAS project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantschik, Kyra; Moog, Helge C.; Czaikowski, Oliver; Wieczorek, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    This paper describes research and development work on plugging and sealing repositories, an issue of fundamental importance for the rock salt option which represents one of the three European repository options, besides the clay rock and the crystalline rock options. The programme aims at providing experimental data needed for the theoretical analysis of the long-term sealing capacity of concrete- based sealing materials. In order to demonstrate hydro-mechanical material stability under representative load scenarios, a comprehensive laboratory testing programme is carried out. This comprises investigation of the sealing capacity of the combined seal system and impact of the so-called excavation-damaged zones (EDZ) as well as investigation of the hydro-chemical long-term stability of the seal in contact with different brines under diffusive and advective conditions. This paper presents experimental approaches and preliminary results from laboratory investigations on salt concrete and combined systems as obtained to date.

  19. Recovery trends in marine mammal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Magera

    Full Text Available Marine mammals have greatly benefitted from a shift from resource exploitation towards conservation. Often lauded as symbols of conservation success, some marine mammal populations have shown remarkable recoveries after severe depletions. Others have remained at low abundance levels, continued to decline, or become extinct or extirpated. Here we provide a quantitative assessment of (1 publicly available population-level abundance data for marine mammals worldwide, (2 abundance trends and recovery status, and (3 historic population decline and recent recovery. We compiled 182 population abundance time series for 47 species and identified major data gaps. In order to compare across the largest possible set of time series with varying data quality, quantity and frequency, we considered an increase in population abundance as evidence of recovery. Using robust log-linear regression over three generations, we were able to classify abundance trends for 92 spatially non-overlapping populations as Significantly Increasing (42%, Significantly Decreasing (10%, Non-Significant Change (28% and Unknown (20%. Our results were comparable to IUCN classifications for equivalent species. Among different groupings, pinnipeds and other marine mammals (sirenians, polar bears and otters showed the highest proportion of recovering populations, likely benefiting from relatively fast life histories and nearshore habitats that provided visibility and protective management measures. Recovery was less frequent among cetaceans, but more common in coastal than offshore populations. For marine mammals with available historical abundance estimates (n = 47, larger historical population declines were associated with low or variable recent recoveries so far. Overall, our results show that many formerly depleted marine mammal populations are recovering. However, data-deficient populations and those with decreasing and non-significant trends require attention. In particular

  20. Troubleshooting ProSeal LMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimla Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Supraglottic devices have changed the face of the airway management. These devices have contributed in a big way in airway management especially, in the difficult airway scenario significantly decreasing the pharyngolaryngeal morbidity. There is a plethora of these devices, which has been well matched by their wider acceptance in clinical practice. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA is one such frequently used device employed for spontaneous as well as controlled ventilation. However, the use of PLMAat tunes maybe associated with certain problems. Some of the problems related with its use are unique while others are akin to the classic laryngeal mask airway (eLMA. However, expertise is needed for its safe and judicious use, correct placement, recognition and management of its various malpositions and complications. The present article describes the tests employed for proper confirmation of placementto assess the ventilatooy and the drain tube functions of the mask, diagnosis of various malpositions and the management of these aspects. All these areas have been highlighted under the heading of troubleshooting PLMA. Many problems can be solved by proper patient and procedure selection, maintaining adequate depth of anaesthesia, diagnosis and management of malpositions. Proper fixation of the device and monitoring cuff pressure intraopera-tively may bring down the incidence of airway morbidity.

  1. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  2. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  3. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals on Social Media

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As social media platforms develop, they potentially provide valuable information for wildlife researchers and managers. NOAA’s Hawaiian Monk Seal Research Program...

  5. Multi-Canister overpack sealing configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) position regarding the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) sealing configuration is to initially rely on an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III Subsection NB code compliant mechanical closure/sealing system to quickly and safely establish and maintain full confinement of radioactive materials prior to and during MCO fuel drying activities. Previous studies have shown the mechanical seal to be the preferred closure method, based on dose, cost, and schedule considerations. The cost and schedule impacts of redesigning the mechanical closure to a welded shield plug do not support changing the closure system. The SNF Project has determined that the combined mechanical/welded closure system meets or exceeds the regulatory requirements to provide redundant seals while accommodating key safety and schedule limitations that are unique to K Basins fuel removal effort

  6. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Fisheries Interactions data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all documented hookings and/or entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals with actively fished gear, both commercial and recreational. The...

  7. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  8. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Microsatellite Genotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently ~2,400 Hawaiian monk seal specimens have been analyzed genetically, providing genotypes at 18 microsatellite loci. These data are organized by individual,...

  9. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Survival Factors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of survival factors recorded by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the ongoing monk seal population assessment...

  10. Cask systems development program seal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1991-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (10 CFR 71). Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. Experiments were performed to characterize the performance of several seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Results show that the seal materials tested, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings

  11. Magnetic vector field tag and seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Roger G.; Garcia, Anthony R.

    2004-08-31

    One or more magnets are placed in a container (preferably on objects inside the container) and the magnetic field strength and vector direction are measured with a magnetometer from at least one location near the container to provide the container with a magnetic vector field tag and seal. The location(s) of the magnetometer relative to the container are also noted. If the position of any magnet inside the container changes, then the measured vector fields at the these locations also change, indicating that the tag has been removed, the seal has broken, and therefore that the container and objects inside may have been tampered with. A hollow wheel with magnets inside may also provide a similar magnetic vector field tag and seal. As the wheel turns, the magnets tumble randomly inside, removing the tag and breaking the seal.

  12. Concepts for backfilling and sealing of shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierau, B.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal site is situated at a depth of 1000 to 1200 meters. It is covered by very thick cretatious mudstone layers forming the main barrier against the spread of radioactively contaminated water into the biosphere. Because of the excavation works and the resulting stress redistributions, the material surrounding the shafts is probably broken up, which leads to increased permeability in comparison with the intact rock. It is planned to backfill the shafts with an insoluble mineral mixture including a fine fraction necessary to achieve the sealing required. The joints and cracks in the brocken-up surrounding material are believed to be sealed by themselves due to swelling of the mudstone. Some strata of the mudstone contain more than 20% of smektite, a swelling clay mineral. Those regions, where the broken-up zone cannot be considered sure to self-seal due to swelling, are planned to be sealed by pressure grouting using clay suspension. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmore, A. B.

    1966-01-01

    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of Hawaiian monk seal and green turtle sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) since 1982 at Lisianski Island, and since...

  15. Fuel cell cassette with compliant seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Haltiner, Jr. J.; Anthony, Derose J.; Klotzbach, Darasack C.; Schneider, Jonathan R.

    2017-11-07

    A fuel cell cassette for forming a fuel cell stack along a fuel cell axis includes a cell retainer, a plate positioned axially to the cell retainer and defining a space axially with the cell retainer, and a fuel cell having an anode layer and a cathode layer separated by an electrolyte layer. The outer perimeter of the fuel cell is positioned in the space between the plate and the cell retainer, thereby retaining the fuel cell and defining a cavity between the cell retainer, the fuel cell, and the plate. The fuel cell cassette also includes a seal disposed within the cavity for sealing the edge of the fuel cell. The seal is compliant at operational temperatures of the fuel cell, thereby allowing lateral expansion and contraction of the fuel cell within the cavity while maintaining sealing at the edge of the fuel cell.

  16. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Tag Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all tags applied to Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These tags were applied by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of...

  17. Management of spent sealed sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisnubroto, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the effort of the Center for Development of Radioactive Waste Management (CDRWM) to develop and implement activities in maintaining and improving the safety of spent sealed radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials over their life cycle. There is a wide variety of uses of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Indonesia, while the CDRWM plan to cover all spent radiation sources. Primary consideration is given to sealed radiation sources with relatively high levels of radioactivity which might necessitate interventional measures should control over them be lost. The policy of the Government of Indonesia for spent radiation sources is, whenever possible, spent sealed sources should be returned to the supplier. CDRWM has a general principle that sealed sources should not be removed from their holders, or the holders physically modified (except for Ra-226 needles, smoke detector and lighting preventer). (author)

  18. Inflatable Module Seal Interface Development and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a repeatable low permeable sealing interface evaluating O-ring, RTV bond and flowed RTV bond methods. Advanced Bladder materials (ArmorFlex, Nanoclay, etc)...

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Photo Identification Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This photo collection contains identification and other images and video of Hawaiian monk seals taken by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the...

  20. Epoxy resins used to seal brachytherapy seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Natalia Carolina Camargos; Ferraz, Wilmar Barbosa; Reis, Sergio Carneiro dos; Santos, Ana Maria Matildes dos

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer treatment with brachytherapy is recommended for patients with cancer at an early stage. In this treatment, small radioactive seeds are implanted directly in the prostate gland. These seeds are composed at least of one radionuclide carrier and an X-ray marker enclosed within a metallic tube usually sealed by laser process. This process is expensive and, furthermore, it can provoke a partial volatilization of the radionuclide and change the isotropy in dose distribution around the seed. In this paper, we present a new sealing process using epoxy resin. Three kinds of resins were utilized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X ray (EDS) and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) and in sodium iodine solution (NaI). The sealing process showed excellent potential to replace the sealing laser usually employed. (author)

  1. Crashworthy sealed pressure vessel for plutonium transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A rugged transportation package for the air shipment of radioisotopic materials was recently developed. This package includes a tough, sealed, stainless steel inner containment vessel of 1460 cc capacity. This vessel, intended for a mass load of up to 2 Kg PuO 2 in various isotopic forms (not to exceed 25 watts thermal activity), has a positive closure design consisting of a recessed, shouldered lid fastened to the vessel body by twelve stainless-steel bolts; sealing is accomplished by a ductile copper gasket in conjunction with knife-edge sealing beads on both the body and lid. Follow-on applications of this seal in newer, smaller packages for international air shipments of plutonium safeguards samples, and in newer, more optimized packages for greater payload and improved efficiency and utility, are briefly presented

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Necropsy Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on Hawaiian monk seal gross necropsy (in some cases only field notes or minimal information) and histopathology results beginning...

  3. Onboard Acoustic Recording from Diving Elephant Seals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Stacia

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this project was to record sounds impinging on free-ranging northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris, a first step in determining the importance of LFS to these animals as they dive...

  4. 50 CFR 216.83 - Importation of birds or mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Importation of birds or mammals. 216.83 Section 216.83 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... MAMMALS Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.83 Importation of birds or mammals. No mammals or birds...

  5. 45 CFR 670.19 - Designation of native mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native mammals. 670.19 Section 670... CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates § 670.19 Designation of native mammals. The following are designated native mammals: Pinnipeds: Crabeater seal—Lobodon...

  6. Characterization and expression analysis of AH receptors in aquatic mammals and birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Young [Ehime Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Science, Matsuyama (Japan); Yasui, Tomoko; Hisato, Iwata; Shinsuke, Tanabe [Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The magnitude of the risk that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) pose to the health of aquatic birds and mammals is uncertain, because of the lack of direct information on the sensitivity and toxicity to these chemicals. Exposure to PHAHs is speculated to produce toxicity through changes in the expression of genes involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. These changes are initiated by the binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-dependent transcription factor. The AHR and its dimerization partner ARNT belong to the basic-helix-loop-helix/Per-ARNT-Sim (bHLH-PAS) family of transcriptional regulation proteins. The bHLH domain was involved in protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions, and the PAS domain forms a secondary dimerization surface for heteromeric interactions between AHR and ARNT. Although the presence and basic function of AHR are known to be conserved in most vertebrates, only a limited number of studies on the structure and functional diversity of AHR in aquatic mammals and birds have been reported, in spite of their high exposure to dioxins and other related chemicals. To understand the molecular mechanism of susceptibility to dioxin exposure and toxic effects that PHAHs pose in wild animals, we investigated the molecular and functional characterization of AHRs from aquatic mammals and birds. Initially, the AHR cDNAs from the livers of Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica), black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes) and common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) were cloned and sequenced. We also clarified the tissue-specific expression pattern of AHR mRNA and the relationships among PHAHs, AHR and CYP expression levels in the liver of Baikal seals and common cormorants.

  7. Sealing apparatus for airfoils of gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.B.

    1998-05-19

    An improved airfoil tip sealing apparatus is disclosed wherein brush seals are attached to airfoil tips with the distal ends of the brush seal fibers sealingly contacting opposing wall surfaces. Embodiments for variable vanes, stators and both cooled and uncooled turbine blade applications are disclosed. 17 figs.

  8. 21 CFR 864.9750 - Heat-sealing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Blood Products § 864.9750 Heat-sealing device. (a) Identification. A heat-sealing device is a device intended for medical purposes that uses heat to seal plastic bags containing blood or blood... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat-sealing device. 864.9750 Section 864.9750...

  9. The southern elephant seal Mirounga leonina at Gough Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haul-out in December coincided with the elephant seal moulting season, the elephant seals were found on the vegetated areas whilst the majority of fur seals hauled out onto the boulder beach. No interactions between the two species were recorded. Potential predators of elephant seals, i.e. the killer whales Orcinus orca ...

  10. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  11. Cover-gas-seal component development: dynamic inflatable-plug seal improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    This report documents the 1) radial compliance and 2) low friction coating tests conducted on the CRBRP Rotating Plug Inflatable Seals per test plan N707TR810014. Test results show that narrowing the seal blade from 0.25 to 0.12 in. will effectively reduce dynamic drag from 30 to 20 lb/ft under nominal conditions and will increase seal radial compliance from 0.12 to 0.30 in. without an unacceptable rise in dynamic drag. Tests also demonstrated that application of a teflon coating to the seal wear surface reduced breakaway drag by 25% based on results of comparison dwells

  12. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  13. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  14. Simulation of leakage through mechanical sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomorov, V. P.; Gorlenko, O. A.; Izmerov, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    The procedure of mathematical modeling of leakage through the mechanical seal taking into account waviness and roughness is considered. The percolation process is represented as the sum of leakages through a gap between wavy surfaces and percolation through gaps formed by fractal roughness, i.e. the total leakage is determined by the slot model and filtration leakage. Dependences of leaks on the contact pressure of corrugated and rough surfaces of the mechanical seal elements are presented.

  15. Static inflation and deflation pressure–volume curves from excised lungs of marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Andreas; Loring, Stephen H.; Ferrigno, Massimo; Moore, Colby; Early, Greg; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; Wenzel, Frederic; Joy, Ruth; Moore, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Excised lungs from eight marine mammal species [harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandicus), harbor seal (Phoca vitulina), gray seal (Halichoerus grypush), Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus acutus), common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)] were used to determine the minimum air volume of the relaxed lung (MAV, N=15), the elastic properties (pressure–volume curves, N=24) of the respiratory system and the total lung capacity (TLC). Our data indicate that mass-specific TLC (sTLC, l kg–1) does not differ between species or groups (odontocete vs phocid) and agree with that estimated (TLCest) from body mass (Mb) by applying the equation: TLCest=0.135 Mb0.92. Measured MAV was on average 7% of TLC, with a range from 0 to 16%. The pressure–volume curves were similar among species on inflation but diverged during deflation in phocids in comparison with odontocetes. These differences provide a structural basis for observed species differences in the depth at which lungs collapse and gas exchange ceases. PMID:22031747

  16. Tamper-indicating devices and safeguards seals evaluation test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.R.V.; Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was asked to evaluate the seals used as tamper-indicating devices (TIDs) at DOE facilities. Initially, a survey determined what seal manufacturers were being used and what similar seal types were available. Once the required specifications for TIDs were defined, a test plan measured the currently available seals against the requirements. Environmental and physical type tests stressed the seals under two broad categories: (1) handling durability and (2) tamper resistance. Results of the testing provide comparative ratings for the various seals, recommendations for using currently available seals, and a new tamper-indicating technology

  17. Metal and elastomer seal tests for accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, K.M.; McIntyre, G.T.; Tuozzolo, J.E.; Skelton, R.; Pate, D.J.; Gill, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The vacuum system of the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory has more than a thousand metal vacuum seals. Also, numerous elastomer seals are used throughout the AGS to seal large beam component chambers. An accelerator upgrade program is being implemented to reduce the AGS operating pressure by x100 and improve the reliability of the vacuum system. This paper describes work in progress on metal and elastomer vacuum seals to help meet those two objectives. Tests are reported on the sealing properties of a variety of metal seals used on different sealing surfaces. Results are also given on reversible sorption properties of certain elastomers. 16 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, D.B.; Hill, R.C.; Wensel, R.G.

    1987-05-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries

  19. Reactor coolant pump shaft seal stability during station blackout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, D B; Hill, R C; Wensel, R G

    1987-05-01

    Results are presented from an investigation into the behavior of Reactor Coolant Pump shaft seals during a potential station blackout (loss of all ac power) at a nuclear power plant. The investigation assumes loss of cooling to the seals and focuses on the effect of high temperature on polymer seals located in the shaft seal assemblies, and the identification of parameters having the most influence on overall hydraulic seal performance. Predicted seal failure thresholds are presented for a range of station blackout conditions and shaft seal geometries.

  20. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  1. The impact of predation by marine mammals on patagonian toothfish longline fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Söffker

    Full Text Available Predatory interaction of marine mammals with longline fisheries is observed globally, leading to partial or complete loss of the catch and in some parts of the world to considerable financial loss. Depredation can also create additional unrecorded fishing mortality of a stock and has the potential to introduce bias to stock assessments. Here we aim to characterise depredation in the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides fishery around South Georgia focusing on the spatio-temporal component of these interactions. Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella, sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus, and orcas (Orcinus orca frequently feed on fish hooked on longlines around South Georgia. A third of longlines encounter sperm whales, but loss of catch due to sperm whales is insignificant when compared to that due to orcas, which interact with only 5% of longlines but can take more than half of the catch in some cases. Orca depredation around South Georgia is spatially limited and focused in areas of putative migration routes, and the impact is compounded as a result of the fishery also concentrating in those areas at those times. Understanding the seasonal behaviour of orcas and the spatial and temporal distribution of "depredation hot spots" can reduce marine mammal interactions, will improve assessment and management of the stock and contribute to increased operational efficiency of the fishery. Such information is valuable in the effort to resolve the human-mammal conflict for resources.

  2. Design and research of seal structure for thermocouple column assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Qiqi; Li Na; Zhao Wei; Ma Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The new seal structure was designed to satisfy the function of thermocouple column assembly and the reactor structure. This seal structure uses the packing graphite ring and adopts the self-sealing principle. Cone angle is brought to the seal face of seal structure which is conveniently to assembly and disassembly. After the sealing principle analysis and stress calculation of graphite ring which adopt the cone angle, the cone angle increases the radial force of seal structure and improves the seal effect. The stress analysis result shows the seal structure strength satisfies the regulation requirement. The cold and hot function test results shows the sealing effect is good, and the design requirement is satisfied. (authors)

  3. Application study of magnetic fluid seal in hydraulic turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z Y; Zhang, W

    2012-01-01

    The waterpower resources of our country are abundant, and the hydroelectric power is developed, but at present the main shaft sealing device of hydraulic turbine is easy to wear and tear and the leakage is great. The magnetic fluid seal has the advantages of no contact, no wear, self-healing, long life and so on. In this paper, the magnetic fluid seal would be used in the main shaft of hydraulic turbine, the sealing structure was built the model, meshed the geometry, applied loads and solved by using MULTIPHYSICS in ANSYS software, the influence of the various sealing structural parameters such as tooth width, height, slot width, sealing gap on the sealing property were analyzed, the magnetic fluid sealing device suitable for large-diameter shaft and sealing water was designed, the sealing problem of the hydraulic turbine main shaft was solved effectively which will bring huge economic benefits.

  4. A dynamic analysis of rotary combustion engine seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, J.; Vilmann, C. R.; Schock, H. J.; Stumpf, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Real time work cell pressures are incorporated into a dynamic analysis of the gas sealing grid in Rotary Combustion Engines. The analysis which utilizes only first principal concepts accounts for apex seal separation from the crochoidal bore, apex seal shifting between the sides of its restraining channel, and apex seal rotation within the restraining channel. The results predict that apex seals do separate from the trochoidal bore and shift between the sides of their channels. The results also show that these two motions are regularly initiated by a seal rotation. The predicted motion of the apex seals compares favorably with experimental results. Frictional losses associated with the sealing grid are also calculated and compare well with measurements obtained in a similar engine. A comparison of frictional losses when using steel and carbon apex seals has also been made as well as friction losses for single and dual side sealing.

  5. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  6. Do Bird Friendly® Coffee Criteria Benefit Mammals? Assessment of Mammal Diversity in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, S Amanda; Rice, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Biodiversity-friendly coffee certifications offer a viable way to protect wildlife habitat while providing a financial incentive to farmers. Most studies related to these certifications focus on avian habitat requirements and it is not known whether these standards also apply to other wildlife, such as mammals, that inhabit the coffee landscapes. We assessed the non-volant mammalian fauna and their associated habitat requirements in 23 sites representing forest, Bird Friendly® shade, conventional shade, and sun coffee habitats. We used Sherman trap-grids to measure small mammal abundance and richness, while camera traps were set for medium-sized and large mammals. We detected 17 species of mammals, representing 11 families. This preliminary study indicates that coffee farms in this region provide an important refuge for mammalian wildlife. Mammal species density ranked significantly higher in Bird Friendly® coffee sites than other coffee habitats, although there was no significant difference for species richness (using Chao2 estimator) among the habitat types. No significant difference was found in small mammal abundance among the habitat types. We found a higher species density of medium and large mammals in sites with larger, more mature shade trees associated with, but not required by Bird Friendly® certification standards. However, lower strata vegetation (5 cm to 1 m tall), the only vegetation parameter found to increase abundance and density for small mammals, is not specified in the Bird Friendly® standards. Our findings suggest that although the standards devised for avian habitat do benefit mammals, further study is needed on the requirements specific for mammals that could be included to enhance the coffee habitat for mammals that inhabit these coffee landscapes.

  7. 77 FR 841 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to U.S. Navy Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... and the Single Ping Equivalent (SPE) To model potential impacts to marine animals from exposure to... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... [Docket No. 110808485-1534-01] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals...

  8. 76 FR 13130 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Sections 101(a)(5)(A) and (D) of the MMPA (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.) direct... , respectively. The ringed seal status review report by Kelly et al. (2010) can be found on the Internet at: http... acoustic and non-acoustic effects. It is uncertain if the seals react to the sound of the helicopter or to...

  9. 75 FR 71672 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ..., and review existing information regarding potential displacement of Northern elephant seals, Pacific... 9 years, Northern elephant seals exhibited little reaction to vehicle launches. The Navy's most... 2010 LOA (75 FR 28587), will remain the same. The Navy will submit a single annual report for the...

  10. 75 FR 58365 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... potential displacement of Northern elephant seals, Pacific harbor seals, and California sea lions from those... reaction to vehicle launches. The Navy's most recent monitoring report estimated that zero Northern... single launches from SNI on two different days. These launches occurred during daylight hours. A single...

  11. 77 FR 61575 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...: This authorization is effective for a period of 1 year from the date of issuance. ADDRESSES: A copy of... seals (Phoca vitulina), and northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). The take is expected to... made to each site on SNI up to four times per year in order to complete standardized annual black...

  12. Performances of Magnetic Fluid Seal and Application to Turbopumps

    OpenAIRE

    北洞, 貴也; 黒川, 淳一; 宮副, 雄貴; 林, 正悦

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic fluid shaft seal can achieve zero-leakage and operate stably against shaft vibration, but the sealing pressure is very low. In order to improve the pressure performance of a magnetic fluid seal and apply it to a turbopump, the seal pressure characteristics are studied theoretically and experimentally. The Poisson equation for magnetic vector potential is solved by FEM, and the seal performances are determined by use of the Bernoulli equation. The validity of the theory is confirmed...

  13. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linn. depredate toothfish longlines in the midnight zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John van den Hoff

    Full Text Available Humans have devised fishing technologies that compete with marine predators for fish resources world-wide. One such fishery for the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides has developed interactions with a range of predators, some of which are marine mammals capable of diving to extreme depths for extended periods. A deep-sea camera system deployed within a toothfish fishery operating in the Southern Ocean acquired the first-ever video footage of an extreme-diver, the southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina, depredating catch from longlines set at depths in excess of 1000m. The interactions recorded were non-lethal, however independent fisheries observer reports confirm elephant seal-longline interactions can be lethal. The seals behaviour of depredating catch at depth during the line soak-period differs to other surface-breathing species and thus presents a unique challenge to mitigate their by-catch. Deployments of deep-sea cameras on exploratory fishing gear prior to licencing and permit approvals would gather valuable information regarding the nature of interactions between deep diving/dwelling marine species and longline fisheries operating at bathypelagic depths. Furthermore, the positive identification by sex and age class of species interacting with commercial fisheries would assist in formulating management plans and mitigation strategies founded on species-specific life-history strategies.

  14. Cloning and Sequencing of Protein Kinase cDNA from Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C. C. Neale

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinases (PKs play critical roles in signal transduction and activation of lymphocytes. The identification of PK genes provides a tool for understanding mechanisms of immunotoxic xenobiotics. As part of a larger study investigating persistent organic pollutants in the harbor seal and their possible immunomodulatory actions, we sequenced harbor seal cDNA fragments encoding PKs. The procedure, using degenerate primers based on conserved motifs of human protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs, successfully amplified nine phocid PK gene fragments with high homology to human and rodent orthologs. We identified eight PTKs and one dual (serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase. Among these were several PKs important in early signaling events through the B- and T-cell receptors (FYN, LYN, ITK and SYK and a MAP kinase involved in downstream signal transduction. V-FGR, RET and DDR2 were also expressed. Sequential activation of protein kinases ultimately induces gene transcription leading to the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes critical to adaptive immunity. PKs are potential targets of bioactive xenobiotics, including persistent organic pollutants of the marine environment; characterization of these molecules in the harbor seal provides a foundation for further research illuminating mechanisms of action of contaminants speculated to contribute to large-scale die-offs of marine mammals via immunosuppression.

  15. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Seal Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Harbor Seals and Gray Seals from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Rubio García, Ana; Brasseur, Sophie M; Sanchez Conteras, Guillermo J; van de Bildt, Marco W G; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    In the spring and summer 2014, an outbreak of seal influenza A(H10N7) virus infection occurred among harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the coasts of Sweden and Denmark. This virus subsequently spread to harbor seals off the coasts of Germany and the Netherlands. While thousands of seals were reported dead in Sweden, Denmark and Germany, only a limited number of seals were found dead in the Netherlands. To determine the extent of exposure of seals in the Netherlands to influenza A/H10N7 virus, we measured specific antibody titers in serum samples from live-captured seals and seals admitted for rehabilitation in the Netherlands by use of a hemagglutination inhibition assay and an ELISA. In harbor seals in 2015, antibodies against seal influenza A(H10N7) virus were detected in 41% (32 out of 78) pups, 10% (5 out of 52) weaners, and 58% (7 out of 12) subadults or adults. In gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in 2015, specific antibodies were not found in the pups (n = 26), but in 26% (5 out of 19) of the older animals. These findings indicate that, despite apparent low mortality, infection with seal influenza A(H10N7) virus was geographically widespread and also occurred in grey seals.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  17. Development of a ceramic tamper indicating seal: SRNL contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, Dan; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Mendez-Torres, Adrian E.; Weeks, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  18. 76 FR 11205 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of a Liquefied Natural Gas Deepwater Port in the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... request from Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) for authorization for the take, by Level B harassment...

  19. 75 FR 24906 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... physical effects; and, at least in theory, temporary or permanent hearing impairment (Richardson et al... based on measured received levels and the hearing sensitivity of that mammal group. Although various... must adapt, the introduction of strong sounds into the sea at frequencies important to marine mammals...

  20. 75 FR 20481 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... exploration drilling program on U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service (MMS) Alaska OCS... proposed drilling program in Camden Bay on marine mammals would most likely be acoustic in nature... acoustic effects on marine mammals relate to sound produced by drilling activity, vessels, and aircraft...

  1. NODC Standard Format Marine Mammals of Coastal Alaska Data (1975-1976): Marine Mammal Sighting 2 (F026) (NODC Accession 0014151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC maintains data in three NODC Standard Format Marine Mammal Data Sets: Marine Mammal Sighting and Census (F127); Marine Mammal Specimens (F025); Marine Mammal...

  2. Materials for water pump mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brousse, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the continually increasing power ratings of conventional and nuclear power plants and the related reliability and safety problems, plant builders have had to develop seal systems compatible with current water pump performances. In 1970, EDF/R and DD was already concerned by this problem. It soon became obvious that the nature of the materials used for the friction surfaces was decisive for seal durability. Exceptional loads (transients, high vibration levels, etc...) hasten aging. To begin with, friction surfaces consisted of a hard material (tungsten carbide) mated with a soft material (carbon). Resistance was unpredictable and not compatible with industrial requirements. Tests performed on the EDF/R and DD test benches evidenced the same types of degradation. The mechanical seal manufacturers then began to use ceramic materials (silicon carbide), which raised high expectations. Unfortunately, these were recent materials and their manufacturing process was not thoroughly understood. Hopes were soon dashed in many applications, including that of mechanical seals. Fluctuating results were obtained over the next few years. The raw material suppliers made progress, especially with regard to reducing fragility. On a parallel, the mechanical seal manufacturers initiated comparative tests on the friction resistance of materials. It has also been established that ceramics have to be stringently supervised at all levels: part design, inspection, assembly, use. EDF has much insisted that mechanical seal suppliers guarantee the constant quality of their products. EDF/R and DD has systematically tested new sensitive devices, under normal and exceptional conditions, prior to their installation at the plants. At the present time, the silicon carbides proposed by the mechanical seal suppliers are entirely satisfactory. The carbon mating surface was far less problematic. The required reliability was obtained by replacing resin binder carbons by the more resistant

  3. Tunnel sealing: concept and feasibility evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, R.P.; Eppinger, G.; Mettler, K.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses first the aim and purpose of tunnel seals as well as the requirements which should be satisfied. The basic seal concept is a zoned plug consisting of key zones and intermediate zones. The key zones act as barrier elements and will be placed into sections of competent and sound rock. The main function of the intermediate zones is that of a support and the requirements for sealing efficiency may be somewhat relaxed. Three sealing concepts have been devised for both the key zones and the intermediate zones. They differ in the materials used for the seal and in the placement method. For the key zones highly compacted bentonite is recommended, but also cement-based materials, such as standard concrete or prepact concrete are considered suitable. For the intermediate zones, the use of pumped concrete with subsequent grouting of the roof zone is favourable, but also a combination of concrete with a sand/gravel mixture or with properly compacted excavation material is feasible. The concepts introduced can all be realized by conventional tunnelling methods. Excavation by tunnel boring machine is most advantageous as it minimizes disturbance of the rock caused by the cavity-forming process. By employing simple material models, it can be shown that the depth of the excavation disturbed zone can be minimized if support of the tunnel is provided as early as possible after excavation. The cutting of a groove in the tunnel wall along the key zone can further contribute to reduce the depth of the excavation-disturbed zone. In order to ensure the quality of a seal, the quantities of the materials used can be checked and the work procedures to place the seal can be supervised. For the latter the experiences obtained from a large-scale test should be available. Finally, it is also shown that when considering safety analytical aspects, the proposed sealing concepts represent adequate solutions in spite of the probably increased permeability in the excavation

  4. Modeling the rubbing contact in honeycomb seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tim; Welzenbach, Sarah; Meier, Felix; Werner, Ewald; kyzy, Sonun Ulan; Munz, Oliver

    2018-03-01

    Metallic honeycomb labyrinth seals are commonly used as sealing systems in gas turbine engines. Because of their capability to withstand high thermo-mechanical loads and oxidation, polycrystalline nickel-based superalloys, such as Hastelloy X and Haynes 214, are used as sealing material. In addition, these materials must exhibit a tolerance against rubbing between the rotating part and the stationary seal component. The tolerance of the sealing material against rubbing preserves the integrity of the rotating part. In this article, the rubbing behavior at the rotor-stator interface is considered numerically. A simulation model is incorporated into the commercial finite element code ABAQUS/explicit and is utilized to simulate a simplified rubbing process. A user-defined interaction routine between the contact surfaces accounts for the thermal and mechanical interfacial behavior. Furthermore, an elasto-plastic constitutive material law captures the extreme temperature conditions and the damage behavior of the alloys. To validate the model, representative quantities of the rubbing process are determined and compared with experimental data from the literature. The simulation results correctly reproduce the observations made on a test rig with a reference stainless steel material (AISI 304). A parametric study using the nickel-based superalloys reveals a clear dependency of the rubbing behavior on the sliding and incursion velocity. Compared to each other, the two superalloys studied exhibit a different rubbing behavior.

  5. Auto-identification fiberoptical seal verifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Mukaiyama, Takehiro

    1998-08-01

    An auto COBRA seal verifier was developed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) to provide more efficient and simpler inspection measures for IAEA safeguards. The verifier is designed to provide means of a simple, quantitative and objective judgment on in-situ verification for the COBRA seal. The equipment is a portable unit with hand-held weight and size. It can be operated by battery or AC power. The verifier reads a COBRA seal signature by using a built-in CCD camera and carries out the signature comparison procedure automatically on digital basis. The result of signature comparison is given as a YES/NO answer. The production model of the verifier was completed in July 1996. The development was carried out in collaboration with Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. This report describes the design and functions of the COBRA seal verifier and the results of environmental and functional tests. The development of the COBRA seal verifier was carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JD-4 since 1981. (author)

  6. Verification on reliability of diaphragm seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hiroshi; Sakuta, Yoshiyuki; Hanawa, Yoshio; Tsuji, Tomoyuki; Tsuboi, Kazuaki; Nagao, Yoshiharu; Miyazawa, Masataka

    2009-06-01

    The main body of the JMTR is composed of reactor pressure vessel, core and reactor pool. At the bottom of the reactor pool, the Diaphragm-seal (2.6m outer diameter, 2m inner diameter, thickness 1.5mm) of the JMTR made of stainless steel is installed to prevent the water leak of the reactor pool and to absorb the expansion of the reactor pressure vessel due to pressure and temperature changes. In the long-term maintenance plans drawn up in 2004, it is required that the visual inspection for the diaphragm-seal should be carried out in 2007 and that the inspection should be carried out every around five-year. Therefore, prior to the refurbishment of the JMTR, the inspection device which is a deposition-collection apparatus with underwater-camera was developed, and the visual inspection was carried out to confirm the soundness of the diaphragm-seal. As a result, harmful flaws and/or corrosions were not inspected in the visual inspection, and the soundness of the diaphragm seal was confirmed. In future, the long-term integrity of the diaphragm-seal will could be achieved by conducting the periodic inspection. (author)

  7. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  8. Solid oxide fuel cell having a glass composite seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rose, Anthony J.; Mukerjee, Subhasish; Haltiner, Jr., Karl Jacob

    2013-04-16

    A solid oxide fuel cell stack having a plurality of cassettes and a glass composite seal disposed between the sealing surfaces of adjacent cassettes, thereby joining the cassettes and providing a hermetic seal therebetween. The glass composite seal includes an alkaline earth aluminosilicate (AEAS) glass disposed about a viscous glass such that the AEAS glass retains the viscous glass in a predetermined position between the first and second sealing surfaces. The AEAS glass provides geometric stability to the glass composite seal to maintain the proper distance between the adjacent cassettes while the viscous glass provides for a compliant and self-healing seal. The glass composite seal may include fibers, powders, and/or beads of zirconium oxide, aluminum oxide, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), or mixtures thereof, to enhance the desirable properties of the glass composite seal.

  9. Experimental toxoplasma gondii infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajadhar, A. A.; Measures, L.; Forbes, L. B.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory-reared animals were used to assess the susceptibility of seals (Halichoerus grypus) to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Four seals were each orally inoculated with 100 or 10,000 oocysts of T. gondii (VEG strain), and another 4 seals served as negative controls. Occasionally, mild behavioral...... changes were observed in all inoculated seals but not in control animals. A modified agglutination test revealed the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in sera collected from inoculated seals and mice inoculated as controls. No evidence of the parasite was found on an extensive histological examination...... of seal tissues, and immunohistochemical staining of tissue sections from inoculated seals revealed a single tissue cyst in only 1 seal. Control mice inoculated with 10 oocysts from the same inoculum given to seals became serologically and histologically positive for T. gondii. Cats that were fed brain...

  10. Area selection for conservation of Mexican mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, L. B.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of priority cells for mammal conservation in Mexico were identified using distributional data. A complementarity approach was implemented through linear integer programming. The minimum set of sites required for the representation of each mammal species varied between 38 (5.4% grid cells for at least one occurrence, 110 (15.6% grid cells for at least three occurrences, and 173 (24.5% grid cells for at least five occurrences. The complementary analyses mainly highlighted three regions of particular concern for mammal conservation in Mexico: (i the trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and natural provinces of the Pacific Coast, (ii Sierra Madre del Sur and the Highlands of Chiapas, and (iii the northern portion of the Sierra Madre Occidental. The results reported here did not indicate absolute priority locations for conservation activities, but rather identified locations warranting further investigation at finer resolutions more appropriate to such activity

  11. Life history consequences of mammal sibling rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, P; Parker, G A

    2002-10-01

    Mammal life history traits relating to growth and reproduction are extremely diverse. Sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing this diversity, because individuals that are relatively large at birth typically have an advantage in competition for milk. However, selection for increased growth rate is likely to be constrained by kin selection and physiological costs. Here, we present and test a model examining the ESS (evolutionarily stable strategy) balance between these constraints and advantages associated with increased prenatal growth in mammal sibling rivalry. Predictions of the model are supported by results of comparative analyses for the Carnivora and Insectivora, which demonstrate an increase in prenatal growth rate with increasing intensity of postnatal scramble competition, and a decrease in postnatal growth rate relative to size at birth. Because increased prenatal growth rates are predicted to select for reduced gestation length under certain conditions, our study also indicates that sibling rivalry may contribute to selection pressures influencing variation in altriciality and precociality among mammals.

  12. Function and Evolution of Vibrato-like Frequency Modulation in Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Taylor, Anna M; Reby, David

    2017-09-11

    Why do distantly related mammals like sheep, giant pandas, and fur seals produce bleats that are characterized by vibrato-like fundamental frequency (F0) modulation? To answer this question, we used psychoacoustic tests and comparative analyses to investigate whether this distinctive vocal feature has evolved to improve the perception of formants, key acoustic components of animal calls that encode important information about the caller's size and identity [1]. Psychoacoustic tests on humans confirmed that vibrato-like F0 modulation improves the ability of listeners to detect differences in the formant patterns of synthetic bleat-like stimuli. Subsequent phylogenetically controlled comparative analyses revealed that vibrato-like F0 modulation has evolved independently in six mammalian orders in vocal signals with relatively high F0 and, therefore, low spectral density (i.e., less harmonic overtones). We also found that mammals modulate the vibrato in these calls over greater frequency extents when the number of harmonic overtones per formant is low, suggesting that this is a mechanism to improve formant perception in calls with low spectral density. Our findings constitute the first evidence that formant perception in non-speech sounds is improved by fundamental frequency modulation and provide a mechanism for the convergent evolution of bleat-like calls in mammals. They also indicate that selection pressures for animals to transmit important information encoded by formant frequencies (on size and identity, for example) are likely to have been a key driver in the evolution of mammal vocal diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impaired immune function in seals and laboratory rats exposed to dioxin-like compounds from Baltic herring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, P.S. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Swart, R.L. de [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands); Timmerman, H.H.; Loveren, H. van [National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. [Seal Rehabilitation and Research Centre, Pieterburen (Netherlands)]|[National Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Complex mixtures of lipophilic contaminants have been shown to affect certain top predators in the aquatic food chain, including seals. A recent demonstration that harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) fed Baltic Sea herring displayed impaired natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function represented the first demonstration of immunotoxicity induced by ambient levels of contaminants in the environment. While these animals had a lower ability to respond to immunizations with inactivated vaccines, specific antibody responses, and in vitro antigen-specific lymphoproliferative responses, obvious constraints limited the ability to extend these results with host resistance tests or an evaluation of thymus and other lymphoid organs. The authors therefore set up a parallel study by exposing pregnant laboratory rats to the same Baltic herring contaminant mixture as received the seals. They then examined immune function parameters and host resistance to virus infection. As in the seals, rat pups of the Baltic group had impaired T-lymphocyte function. In addition, thymus cells and/or their precursors appeared to be targeted, as their numbers and function were reduced in the rats. Following challenge with rat cytomegalovirus in a host resistance study, rat pups in the Baltic group had impaired natural killer cell responses to the virus infection, and lower specific CD8 + (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte) responses following in vitro stimulation. By extrapolation, these results suggest that the impaired immune responses observed in the Baltic group of seals may lead to a less effective defense against virus infections in marine mammals inhabiting polluted coastal waters. Toxicological profiles and results of both the captive seal and laboratory rat experiments tend to implicate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD-like PCB, dioxin and furan congeners in the immunosuppression, and point to a major role for the PCBs.

  14. 137Cs and 210Po in Pacific Walrus and Bearded Seal from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T F; Seagars, D J; Jokela, T; Layton, D

    2005-01-01

    The activity concentration of Cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and naturally-occurring Polonium-210 ( 210 Po) were measured in the muscle tissue, kidney and liver of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and bearded seal (Erignathus barbatus) collected by native hunters from the Bering Sea. The mean 137 Cs concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus were 0.07, 0.09 and 0.07 Bq kg -1 (N= 5, wet weight), respectively, and 0.17, 0.10, and 0.17 Bq kg -1 (N=2, wet weight), respectively, in bearded seal. In general, 137 Cs tissue concentrations are significantly lower than those previously reported for mammals from other regions. By comparison, 210 Po activity concentrations appear to be higher than those reported elsewhere but a larger variation. The mean 210 Po concentration in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney of Pacific walrus (N=5, wet weight) were 28.7, 189, and 174 Bq kg -1 , respectively. This compares with 210 Po concentration values (N=2, wet weight) of 27, 207, and 68 Bq kg -1 measured in the muscle tissue, liver and kidney, of bearded seal, respectively. Estimated bioaccumulation factors--as defined by the radionuclide concentration ratio between the target tissue to that in sea water--were two to three orders of magnitude higher for 210 Po that those of 137 Cs. We conclude from radiological dose estimates that ingestion of 137 Cs in foods derived from walrus and seal will pose no threat to human health. This work has important implications for assessing health risks to Alaskan coastal communities concerned about the dumping of nuclear waste in the Russia Arctic

  15. A Histopathology Study of Caspian Seal (Pusa caspica (Phocidae, Mammalia Liver Infected with Trematode, Pseudamphistomum truncatum (Rudolphi, 1819 (Opisthorchidae, Trematoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heckmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study was to investigate the invasive activity of the liver fluke, Pseudamphistomom truncatum against the Caspian seal (Pusa caspica and was exemplified at the gross, light microscopy (LM and electron microscopy (EM levels.The study was done on a freshly dead Caspian Seal in the southern coast of Caspian Sea. The checked Caspian seal probably being died of canine distemper virus and was found host to numerous parasites of four helminth species.P. truncatum caused edematous foci on the surface of the liver with prominent fluid accumulation. Sections of the liver viewed with LM had multiple necrotic areas with extensive hemorrhaging and disorganized hepatic lobules. Granulocytes and invasion of connective tissue were prominent. Whole worms were visible with invasive pathways through the host tissue. Damage to both hepatic ducts and blood vessels were prominent. At the EM level, organelles within the impacted hepatocytes were disorganized as exemplified by the cristae of the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Parasite eggs were scattered throughout the tissue.It was shown that this trematode can be very pathogenic to Caspian Seal and as this only mammal of Caspian Sea is an endangered species; this needs more investigation toward control or possible treatment of this helminth.

  16. Spent fuel shipping cask sealing concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnier, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    In late 1985, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requested the US Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) to provide a study which examined sealing concepts for application to spent fuel shipping casks. This request was approved, and assigned to Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia). In the course of this study, discussions were held with personnel in the International Safeguards Community who were familiar with the shipping casks used in their States. A number of shipping casks were examined, and discussions were held with two shipping cask manufacturers in the US. As a result of these efforts, it was concluded that the shipping casks provided an extremely good containment, and that many of the existing casks can be effectively sealed by applying the seal to the cask closure bolts/nuts

  17. Subscale hood seal test topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, J.L.; Herold, B.A.; McClintic, J.K.; Schmall, R.A.; Hoetzl, M.

    1991-09-06

    To maximize the transfer of heat from the recirculated gases to the scrap, it is essential to percolate as much of the gases as possible through the scrap. To accomplish this flow path and avoid the bypassing of hot gas around the scrap, the seal between the preheater hood and the scrap bucket must be relatively tight. These tests which are described in this report were designed to measure the performance of several possible seal designs under simulated operating conditions. At the conclusion of the tests, one design was recommended as the primary arrangement with another design considered as an alternate. Both designs met the criteria of low leakage but one design was preferred due an expected greater resistance to wear. The test results also provided valuable information for estimating seal leakage in the full scale installation.

  18. Sealed sources in Peru: advances and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    Cementation of spent sealed sources is performed by the Radioactive Waste Management Group of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). The sealed sources are collected in different areas of the country and brought to the RACSO nuclear centre, a national storage and conditioning facility for spent sources from industry and medical institutions. In addition to its amenities dedicated to research and the production of radioisotopes, the RACSO nuclear centre features a complex of some 1.5 ha for radioactive waste management that includes an infiltration bed and chemical treatment plant for liquid waste, compacting equipment and trenches for solid radioactive waste, a tank for the elimination of biological residues and a temporary storage emplacement for radioactive waste immobilized in cement cylinder casings. The steps described are the unpacking, identification of spent sealed sources, placement of the source in shielding, cementation, solidification, tagging and storage, as well as the actions taken to comply with the appropriate measures of radiological protection. (author)

  19. LM2500+ Brush Seal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Fred G.

    2006-01-01

    The LM2500+ industrial aeroderivative gas turbine, a 25% enhanced power derivative of the LM2500 gas turbine, recently completed its development test program during the period 5/96 - 10/96. Early in the engine program a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) process was used to determine customer needs for this project.The feedback obtained from the QFD process showed without doubt that gas turbine customers now emphasize product reliability and availability at the top of their needs. One area of development on the LM2500+ was to investigate the use of a brush seal as a means to reduce undesirable turbine cooling leakages within the turbine mid frame in order to enhance part life. This presentation presents a case study on the factors that went into evaluating a brush seal during engine test, test results, and the ultimate decision not to implement the brush seal for cost and other reasons.

  20. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Fowler, Melinda A; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-08-01

    Animals that endure prolonged periods of food deprivation preserve vital organ function by sparing protein from catabolism. Much of this protein sparing is achieved by reducing metabolic rate and suppressing gluconeogenesis while fasting. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) endure prolonged fasts of up to 3 mo at multiple life stages. During these fasts, elephant seals maintain high levels of activity and energy expenditure associated with breeding, reproduction, lactation, and development while maintaining rates of glucose production typical of a postabsorptive mammal. Therefore, we investigated how fasting elephant seals meet the requirements of glucose-dependent tissues while suppressing protein catabolism by measuring the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to endogenous glucose production (EGP) during their natural 2-mo postweaning fast. Additionally, pathway flux rates associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were measured specifically, flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate cycling. The rate of glucose production decreased during the fast (F(1,13) = 5.7, P = 0.04) but remained similar to that of postabsorptive mammals. The fractional contributions of glycogen, glycerol, and PEP did not change with fasting; PEP was the primary gluconeogenic precursor and accounted for ∼95% of EGP. This large contribution of PEP to glucose production occurred without substantial protein loss. Fluxes through the TCA cycle, PEPCK, and pyruvate cycling were higher than reported in other species and were the most energetically costly component of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. The active pyruvate recycling fluxes detected in elephant seals may serve to rectify gluconeogeneic PEP production during restricted anaplerotic inflow in these fasting-adapted animals.

  1. SSME Seal Test Program: Test results for sawtooth pattern damper seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    Direct and transverse force coefficients for 11, sawtooth-pattern, and damper-seal configurations were examined. The designation damper seal uses a deliberately roughened stator and smooth rotor to increase the net damping force developed by a seal. The designation sawtooth-pattern refers to a stator roughness pattern. The sawtooth pattern yields axial grooves in the stator which are interrupted by spacer elements which act as flow constrictions or dams. All seals use the same smooth rotor and have the same, constant, minimum clearance. The stators examined the consequences of changes in the following design parameters: (1) axial-groove depth; (2) number of teeth: (3) number of sawtooth sections; (4) number of spacer elements; (5) dam width; (6) axially aligned sawtooth sections versus axially-staggered sawtooth sections; and (7) groove geometry. It is found that none of the sawtooth-pattern seal performs as well as the best round-hole-pattern seal. Maximum damping configurations for the sawtooth and round-hole-pattern stators have comparable stiffness performance. Several of the sawtooth pattern stators outperformed the best round-hole pattern seal.

  2. Space Shuttle Orbiter AFT heat shield seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkover, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of the orbiter aft heat shield seal (AHSS) design, which involved advancing mechanical seal technology in severe thermal environment is discussed. The baseline design, various improvements for engine access, and technical problem solution are presented. It is a structure and mechanism at the three main propulsion system (MPS) engine interfaces to the aft compartment structure. Access to each MPS engine requires disassembly and removal of the AHSS. Each AHSS accommodates the engine movement, is exposed to an extremely high temperature environment, and is part of the venting control of the aft compartment.

  3. Installation for producing sealed radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradin, J.; Hayoun, C.

    1969-01-01

    This installation has been designed and built for producing sealed sources of fission elements: caesium 137, strontium 90, promethium 147, ruthenium 106 and cerium 144 in particular. The installation consists of sealed and protected cells, each being assigned to a particular production. The safety and the operational reliability of the equipment are the principal considerations which have governed this work. The report describes the installation and, in particular, the apparatus used as well as the various control devices. In conclusion, a review as presented of six years operation. (authors) [fr

  4. Dynamic behaviour of rotary lip seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El gadari M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the dynamic behavior of a rotary lip seal by considering the interaction between lip, film and shaft roughness assumed to have a periodic form. The nonlinearities of stiffness and viscosity of the film are taken into account in a mass-spring-dumper model. Using the harmonic balance method, analytical prediction of the lip displacement is obtained, the frequency response is provided and the effect of the shaft undulation on the amplitude jumps of the lip displacement and on the film thickness fluctuations are discussed. The results have direct applications in reducing leakage that may occur between a smooth lip seal and a rough shaft.

  5. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  6. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  7. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Héloïse; Lebeuf, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Hammill, Mike; Pelletier, Emilien; Fournier, Michel

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT>TBT>MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system during

  8. 76 FR 43988 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14525

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... permit has been issued to Oleg Lyamin, PhD, Dept. of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of... fur seals for studies on the mechanisms of sleep in fur seals. Samples will be imported from Russia to...

  9. 76 FR 68719 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14676

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... seals (Phoca vitulina), 1,000 northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and 150 northern fur... year, for a total of 15 per year. The amendment would be valid through the expiration date of the...

  10. Miniature magnetic fluid seal working in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: ymitamura@par.odn.ne.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Durst, Christopher A., E-mail: chris@procyrion.com [Procyrion, Inc., Houston, TX 77027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to develop a miniature magnetic fluid (MF) seal working in a liquid environment. The miniature MF seal is intended for use in a catheter blood pump. The requirements for the MF seal included a size of less than Ø4×4.5 mm, shaft diameter of 1 mm, sealing pressure of 200 mmHg, shaft speed of up to 40000 rpm, and life of one month. The miniature MF seal was composed of an NdFeB magnet (Ø4×Ø2×1) sandwiched between two pole pieces (Ø4×Ø1.1×0.5). A shield (Ø4×Ø1.2×1.5) was placed on the pole piece facing the liquid to minimize the influence of pump flow on the MF. The seal was installed on a Ø1 shaft. A seal was formed by injecting MF (Ms: 47.8 kA/m and η: 0.5 Pa·sec) into the gap between the pole pieces and the shaft. Total volume of the MF seal was 44 μL. A sealing pressure of 370 mmHg was obtained at motor speeds of 0-40,000 rpm. The seal remained perfect for 10 days in saline under the condition of a pump flow of 1.5 L/min (The test was terminated in accordance with plans). The seal remained intact after ethylene oxide sterilization during which the seal was exposed to high pressures. In conclusion, the newly developed MF seal will be useful for a catheter pump. - Highlights: • A miniature magnetic fluid seal working in a liquid environment was developed. • The seal can be installed on Ø1 mm shaft and can seal against 370 mmHg at 40000 rpm. • The magnetic fluid seal will be useful for a catheter blood pump.

  11. Numerical Investigation on Windback Seals Used in Aero Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flouros

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seals are considered one of the most important flow elements in turbomachinery applications. The most traditional and widely known seal is the labyrinth seal but in recent years other types like the brush or carbon seals were introduced since they considerably reduce the sealing air consumption. When seals are used for sealing of aero engine bearing chambers they are subjected to high “bombardment” through oil particles which are present in the bearing chamber. These particles mainly result from the bearings as a consequence of the high rotational speeds. Particularly when carbon or brush seals are used, problems with carbon formation (coking may arise when oil gets trapped in the very tight gap of these seals. In order to prevent oil migration into the turbomachinery, particularly when the pressure difference over a seal is small or even negligible, significant improvement can be achieved through the introduction of so called windback seals. This seal has a row of static helical teeth (thread and below this thread a scalloped or smooth shaft section is rotating. Depending on the application, a windback seal can be used alone or as a combination with another seal (carbon, brush or labyrinth seal. A CFD analysis carried out with ANSYS CFX version 11 is presented in this paper with the aim to investigate this seal type. The simulations were performed by assuming a two-phase flow of air and oil in the bearing compartment. Design parameters like seal clearance, thread size, scallop width, were investigated at different operating conditions.

  12. Effect of sealing on the morphology of anodized aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Naiping; Dong, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Browning, James F.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored structural change of anodizing aluminum oxide induced by sealing. • All sealing methods decrease pore size as shown by X-ray/neutron scattering. • Cold sealing and hot water sealing do not alter the aluminum oxide framework. • Hot nickel acetate sealing both fills the pores and deposits on air oxide interface. • Samples with hot nickel acetate sealing outperform other sealing methods. - Abstract: Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and neutron reflectometry (NR) were used to probe structure evolution induced by sealing of anodized aluminum. While cold nickel acetate sealing and hot-water sealing decrease pore size, these methods do not alter the cylindrical porous framework of the anodic aluminum oxide layer. Hot nickel acetate both fills the pores and deposits on the air surface (air–oxide interface), leading to low porosity and small mean pore radius (39 Å). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and direct current polarization show that samples sealed by hot nickel acetate outperform samples sealed by other sealing methods

  13. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, porpoises, walruses, sea otters, and Steller sea lions in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The...

  14. 78 FR 43861 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... jubatus), by harassment, and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or... annual monitoring report within the required timeframe and the report is posted on NMFS Web site: http...

  15. Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, and dolphins in coastal Rhode Island, Connecticut, and the New York/New Jersey...

  16. 76 FR 37788 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... (HMB), North Monterey Bay (NMB; containing Santa Cruz/Soquel sites), South Monterey Bay (SMB... year number of events per year California sea lions Harbor seals HMB July 4 100 (400) 65 (260) NMB...

  17. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for seals, whales, and porpoises for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  18. 77 FR 27283 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ..., duty cycle, continuous vs. impulse vs. intermittent sounds, duration, moving vs. stationary sources...). Reeves (1998) noted that some ringed seals have been killed by icebreakers moving through fast-ice...

  19. 78 FR 22095 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Replacement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ..., including snorts, grunts, and growls. Male harbor seals produce communication sounds in the frequency range... visible in the dog-like profile of male sea lion heads, and hair around the crest gets lighter with age...

  20. Global mammal distributions, biodiversity hotspots, and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2006-12-19

    Hotspots, which have played a central role in the selection of sites for reserves, require careful rethinking. We carried out a global examination of distributions of all nonmarine mammals to determine patterns of species richness, endemism, and endangerment, and to evaluate the degree of congruence among hotspots of these three measures of diversity in mammals. We then compare congruence of hotspots in two animal groups (mammals and birds) to assess the generality of these patterns. We defined hotspots as the richest 2.5% of cells in a global equal-area grid comparable to 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude. Hotspots of species richness, "endemism," and extinction threat were noncongruent. Only 1% of cells and 16% of species were common to the three types of mammalian hotspots. Congruence increased with increases in both the geographic scope of the analysis and the percentage of cells defined as being hotspots. The within-mammal hotspot noncongruence was similar to the pattern recently found for birds. Thus, assigning global conservation priorities based on hotspots is at best a limited strategy.