WorldWideScience

Sample records for seal coating methods

  1. Effect of epoxy resin sealing on corrosion resistance of arc spraying aluminium coating using cathode electrophoresis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Xuming; Wang, Runqiu; Wei, Qian; Zhou, Jianxin

    2018-01-01

    Arc-sprayed Al coating was sealed with epoxy resin using the cathode electrophoresis method. The anti-corrosion performance of the coatings sealed with epoxy resin was studied by means of a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution test at 40 °C. For comparison, the anti-corrosion performance of Al coating sealed with boiling water was also performed under the same conditions. The results show that epoxy resin with a thickness of about 20 microns can entirely cover open pores and decreases the surface roughness of the as-sprayed Al coating, and the epoxy resin even permeates into the gaps among lamellar splats from open pores. After corrosion, the thickness of the epoxy resin layer is unchanged and can still cover the as-sprayed Al coating entirely. However, the thickness of Al coating sealed with boiling water decreases from 100 to 40 microns, which indicates that the arc-sprayed Al coating has much better corrosion resistance than the Al coating sealed with boiling water. Meanwhile, the content of substituted benzene ring in the epoxy resin increases, but aromatic ring decreases according to the fourier transform infrared spectra, which will cause the rigidity of the epoxy resin to increase, but the toughness slightly decreases after corrosion.

  2. Performance evaluation of seal coat materials and designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    "This project presents an evaluation of seal coat materials and design method. The primary objectives of this research are 1) to evaluate seal coat performance : from various combinations of aggregates and emulsions in terms of aggregate loss; 2) to ...

  3. Seal coat binder performance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Need to improve seal coat binder specs: replace empirical tests (penetration, ductility) with : performance-related tests applicable to both : unmodified and modified binders; consider temperatures that cover entire in service : range that are tied t...

  4. HFCVD Diamond-Coated Mechanical Seals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Simões

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A mechanical seal promotes the connection between systems or mechanisms, preventing the escape of fluids to the exterior. Nonetheless, due to extreme working conditions, premature failure can occur. Diamond, due to its excellent properties, is heralded as an excellent choice to cover the surface of these devices and extend their lifetime. Therefore, the main objective of this work was to deposit diamond films over mechanical seals and test the coated seals on a water pump, under real working conditions. The coatings were created by hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD and two consecutive layers of micro- and nanocrystalline diamond were deposited. One of the main difficulties is the attainment of a good adhesion between the diamond films and the mechanical seal material (WC-Co. Nucleation, deposition conditions, and pre-treatments were studied to enhance the coating. Superficial wear or delamination of the film was investigated using SEM and Raman characterization techniques, in order to draw conclusions about the feasibility of these coatings in the WC-Co mechanical seals with the purpose of increasing their performance and life time. The results obtained gave a good indication about the feasibility of this process and the deposition conditions used, with the mechanical seals showing no wear and no film delamination after a real work environment test.

  5. Shaft seal assembly and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  6. Nanocrystalline diamond coatings for mechanical seals applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A; Neto, V F; Ruch, D; Grácio, J

    2012-08-01

    A mechanical seal is a type of seal used in rotating equipment, such as pumps and compressors. It consists of a mechanism that assists the connection of the rotating shaft to the housings of the equipments, preventing leakage or avoiding contamination. A common cause of failure of these devices is end face wear out, thus the use of a hard, smooth and wear resistant coating such as nanocrystalline diamond would be of great importance to improve their working performance and increase their lifetime. In this paper, different diamond coatings were deposited by the HFCVD process, using different deposition conditions. Additionally, the as-grown films were characterized for, quality, morphology and microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The topography and the roughness of the films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  7. Processes for coating or sealing electronic components with synthetic varnishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, M.; Allard, M.

    1981-01-01

    A method of coating or sealing electrical or electronic components with a synthetic resin composition is described which consists of moving each component along a fixed path through a coating station at which at least one surface of the component receives a coating of synthetic resin and then moving each component through a beam of ionising radiation (ultra-violet or beta radiation) for a sufficient time to induce polymerisation of the resin. Suitable resin compositions for the process are listed. (U.K.)

  8. Sealing of Gastrointestinal Anastomoses with a Fibrin Glue-Coated Collagen Patch: A Safety Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Tyge; Rømer, John; Sørensen, Michael

    2007-01-01

    gastrointestinal anastomoses with a collagen patch coated with fibrin glue. The study is a prospective, experimental animal study comparing sealed and unsealed gastrointestinal anastomoses. Laparotomy was performed in 11 pigs under general anesthesia. In each pig two anastomoses were performed on the small......Sealing of anastomoses has previously been tested with several methods, including sealing with liquid fibrin glue. Sealing with a collagen patch coated with fibrin glue components has never been systematically examined. The aim of the present study was to determine the safety of sealing...... intestine. One of the anastomoses was sealed with a collagen patch coated with fibrin glue components (TachoSil). The other anastomosis contained no sealing. The pigs were observed for 1 to 6 weeks. The observation period was followed by in vivo examination under general anesthesia and included observation...

  9. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Jansen, G. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole. 5 claims, 1 figure

  10. Synthesis study on transverse variable asphalt application rates for seal coats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    This report documents a cooperative effort to collect, process, and make available information about successful methods of varying seal coat asphalt application rates across treated roadways to optimize aggregate retention and avoid wheel path flushi...

  11. Performance comparison of various seal coat grades used in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This report documents research efforts to provide comparative quantitative performance information for various grades of seal coat aggregate available in the Texas Department of Transportations standard specifications. Length of service before rep...

  12. Superior sealing effect of hydroxyapatite in porous-coated implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ole; Kold, Søren; Bendix, Knud

    2005-01-01

    Migration of wear debris to the periprosthetic bone is a major cause of osteolysis and implant failure. Both closed-pore porous coatings and hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been claimed to prevent the migration of wear debris. We investigated whether HA could augment the sealing effect of a por......Migration of wear debris to the periprosthetic bone is a major cause of osteolysis and implant failure. Both closed-pore porous coatings and hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings have been claimed to prevent the migration of wear debris. We investigated whether HA could augment the sealing effect...

  13. Ultrananocrystalline diamond film as a wear resistant and protective coating for mechanical seal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumant, A.V.; Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.; Auciello, O.; Erdemir, A.; Williams, M.; Artiles, A.F.; Adams, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mechanical shaft seals used in pumps are critically important to the safe operation of the paper, pulp, and chemical process industry, as well as petroleum and nuclear power plants. Specifically, these seals prevent the leakage of toxic gases and hazardous chemicals to the environment and final products from the rotating equipment used in manufacturing processes. Diamond coatings have the potential to provide negligible wear, ultralow friction, and high corrosion resistance for the sliding surfaces of mechanical seals, because diamond exhibits outstanding tribological, physical, and chemical properties. However, diamond coatings produced by conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) exhibit high surface roughness (R a ≥ 1 μm), which results in high wear of the seal counterface, leading to premature seal failure. To avoid this problem, we have developed an ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) film formed by a unique CH 4 /Ar microwave plasma CVD method. This method yields extremely smooth diamond coatings with surface roughness R a = 20-30 nm and an average grain size of 2-5 nm. We report the results of a systematic test program involving uncoated and UNCD-coated SiC shaft seals. Results confirmed that the UNCD-coated seals exhibited neither measurable wear nor any leakage during long-duration tests that took 21 days to complete. In addition, the UNCD coatings reduced the frictional torque for seal rotation by five to six times compared with the uncoated seals. This work promises to lead to rotating shaft seals with much improved service life, reduced maintenance cost, reduced leakage of environmentally hazardous materials, and increased energy savings. This technology may also have many other tribological applications involving rolling or sliding contacts.

  14. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  15. DETERMINATION OF PHASE COMPOSITION OF SEALING COATING BASED ON APC (ALUMINOPHOSPHATE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLSHAKOV V. I.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Goal. To investigate the phase composition of the obtained sealing coatings based on aluminophosphate compound (APC and the impact of temperature rise on it. Methods. Qualitative X-ray phase analysis (XRPA and differential thermal analysis (DTA are used as the methods of research. Roentgenograms for structural analysis were obtained on a DRON-4-07 using filtered copper radiation in the secondary beam. Registration and initial processing of diffraction patterns was performed using the software package PDOS with the output of the diffraction patterns on the screen. Using the "loupe" option allowed to identify weak interference lines, which increased the accuracy of the method of qualitative XRPA. The thermograms for DTA received on the device type Termoskan-2. The results. It is revealed that base of coating is X-ray amorphous phase. There are following crystalline phases: Al, AlPO4, Al (PO3 3, BN found in the coating. It is revealed that annealing doesn’t make a significant influence on the phase composition of the crystalline phases and the coating doesn’t lose properties after annealing during repeated thermal stress. Scientific novelty. The phase composition of the proposed sealing coatings based on APC and produced by plasma spraying, and the effect of annealing on the phase composition of the coating are investigated. The reaction of synthesis of primary material forming on the basis of APC for coating is offered. Practical significance. The results can be used in aviation technology in the development of gas turbine engines (GTE and the design of the compressors. The sealing coating may be used to improve the reliability of the compressor and to increase the efficiency ratio of turbine engine. During the operation the compressor’s blades touch the sealing coating of compressor’s stator and grooves it without causing locking and destruction of the rotor. Therefore, the development of new sealing coating compositions that

  16. The development of auto-sealing system for field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Yoshihiro [NKK Corp., Tsu, Mie (Japan); Shoji, Norio [NKK Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Namioka, Toshiyuki [Nippon Kokan Koji Corp., Osaka (Japan); Komura, Minoru [Nitto Denko Corp., Fukaya, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of electrically heated shrink sleeves and a low pressure chamber. The self-heating shrink sleeves include electric wires and heat themselves when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the sleeve and steel pipe by shrinking the sleeves under low pressure. The low pressure condition was automatically and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. The authors verified that the system produces high quality sealing of field joints.

  17. Use of rubber asphalt binder with graded aggregate for seal coats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    It has been known that incorporating rubber particles into asphalt can improve highway pavement performance. This paper describes a test program on pavement construction using asphalts containing recycled rubber. During the summer 1978, eight test sections were constructed in parts of the Saskatchewan road system to evaluate seal coats using rubber-asphalt as a binder membrane and a graded aggregate as protective cover. Test sections were chosen to represent typical road surface types and different states of repair for each type. These types included prime subgrade, cold-mix on subgrade, primed granular base course, asphaltic concrete on granular base, and full depth asphaltic concrete. Problems with construction materials, techniques, and equipment are discussed. Performance and economics were evaluated to determine whether low cost cold mix and current seal coat surfaces could be replaced successfully and economically by this method of construction. It was shown that use of reclaimed rubber for rubberized asphalt seal coats on Saskatechewan highways is a practical construction application. The economic justification for rubber asphalt seals will be determined after a full assessment of performance. Initial indications are that Saskatchewan graded aggregates are a suitable cover material for the rubberized asphalt membranes used in the trials. 8 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Sealed glass coating of high temperature ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weite; Chu, Cha Y.; Goretta, Kenneth C.; Routbort, Jules L.

    1995-01-01

    A method and article of manufacture of a lead oxide based glass coating on a high temperature superconductor. The method includes preparing a dispersion of glass powders in a solution, applying the dispersion to the superconductor, drying the dispersion before applying another coating and heating the glass powder dispersion at temperatures below oxygen diffusion onset and above the glass melting point to form a continuous glass coating on the superconductor to establish compressive stresses which enhance the fracture strength of the superconductor.

  19. Tribology and Microstructure of PS212 with a Cr2O3 Seal Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E.; Benoy, Patricia A.; Korenyi-Both, Andras; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    PS212 is a plasma sprayed metal bonding chrome carbide coating with solid lubricant additives which has lubricating properties at temperatures up to about 900 deg C. The coating is diamond ground to achieve an acceptable tribological surface. But, as with many plasma spray coatings, PS212 is not fully-dense. In this study, a chromium oxide base seal coating is used in an attempt to seal any porosity that is open to the surface of the PS212 coating, and to study the effect of the sealant on the tribological properties of PS212. The results indicate that the seal coating reduces friction and wear when it is applied and then diamond ground leaving a thin layer of seal coating which fills in the surface pits of the PS212 coating.

  20. PLASMA SPRAYED Al₂O₃-13 WT.%TiO₂ COATING SEALED WITH ORGANIC-INORGANIC HYBRID AGENT AND ITS CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehua Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel organic-inorganic hybrid material of γ-methacryloxypropyltrime-thoxysilane (KH570 -SiO₂ was fabricated by Sol-Gel method. The hybrid material was used as the sealing agent for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating. Infrared spectrum and grafted mechanism of the hybrid agent (HA were studied. Moreover, morphology and porosity, as well as characteristics of immersion plus electrochemical corrosion in acid environment of the coating with and without sealing treatment were evaluated, compared with those of the coating sealed with the conventional silicone resin agent (SRA. The results reveal that KH570 was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO₂. The HA film sealed on the surface of the coating presents a little better quality than the SRA film. The porosities of the coatings after the sealing treatment decreased. Furthermore, the sealing treatment can improve efficiently the corrosion resistance of the coating in 5 vol.% HCl solution. The hybrid sealing agent can become a candidate for the plasma sprayed Al₂O₃-13 wt.% TiO₂ coating used in acid environment to overcome some disadvantages of organic agents such as severely environmental pollution.

  1. Anti-Adhesion Elastomer Seal Coatings for Ultraviolet and Atomic Oxygen Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation blocking sunscreen coatings have been developed for the protection of elastomer seals used in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The coatings protect the seals from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO) damage. The coatings were developed for use on NASA docking seals. Docking seal damage from the UV and AO present in LEO can constrain mission time-line, flight mode options, and increases risk. A low level of adhesion is also required for docking seals so undocking push-off forces can be low. The coatings presented also mitigate this unwanted adhesion. Greases with low collected volatile condensable materials (CVCM) and low total mass loss (TML) were mixed with slippery and/or UV blocking powders to create the protective coatings. Coatings were applied at rates up to 2 milligrams per square centimeter. Coated seals were exposed to AO and UV in the NUV (near-UV) and UV-C wavelength ranges (300 to 400 nanometers and 254 nanometers, respectively). Ground based ashers were used to simulate the AO of space. The Sun's UV energy was mimicked assuming a nose forward flight mode, resulting in an exposure rate of 2.5 megajoules per square meter per day. Exposures between 0 and 147 megajoules per square meter (UV-C) and 245 megajoules per square meter (NUV) were accomplished. The protective coatings were durable, providing protection from UV after a simulated docking and undocking cycle. The level of protection begins to decline at coverage rates less than 0.9 milligrams per square centimeter. The leakage of seals coated with Braycote plus 20 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen increased by a factor of 40 after moderate AO exposure; indicating that this coating might not be suitable due to AO intolerance. Seals coated with DC-7-16.4 percent Z-cote ZnO sunscreen were not significantly affected by combined doses of 2 x 10 (sup 21) atoms per square AO with 73 megajoules per square meter UV-C. Unprotected seals were significantly damaged at UV-C exposures of 0.3 megajoules per

  2. Evaluation of the Texas tier system for seal coat binder specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) instituted a change in their seal coat binder specification in 2010 which allowed districts to select multiple binders within specified traffic levels or tiers for the purposes of allowing contractors to...

  3. Implementation of transverse variable asphalt rate seal coat practices in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An implementation project was performed to expand use of transversely varied asphalt rate (TVAR) seal : coat practices in all districts. The project included nine regional workshops, continued field texture testing of : test sites, provided one set o...

  4. The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 aluminum by a polyurethane-sealed anodized coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The corrosion protection of 6061-T6 anodized aluminum afforded by a newly patented polyurethane seal was studied using the ac impedance technique. Values of the average corrosion rates over a 27-day exposure period in 3.5 percent NaCl solutions at pH 5.2 and pH 9.5 compared very favorably for Lockheed-prepared polyurethane-sealed and dichromate-sealed coats of the same thickness. Average corrosion rates for both specimens over the first 7 days of exposure compared well with those for a hard anodized, dichromate-sealed coat, but rose well above those for the hard anodized coat over the entire 27-day period. This is attributed both to the greater thickness of the hard anodized coat, and possibly to its inherently better corrosion protective capability.

  5. Self-sealing multilayer coating for SiC/SiC composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraris, M.; Appendino Montorsi, M.; Salvo, M.; Isola, C.; Kohyama, A.

    1997-01-01

    A double layer coating for SiC/SiC for fusion applications is proposed: the first layer consists in a homogeneous, crack free, glass-ceramic with high characteristic temperatures and thermal expansion coefficient compatible to the composite one; the second layer is amorphous and shows self-sealing properties above 700degC. The glass and the glass-ceramic materials used for this double layer coating do not contain lithium and boron oxide, making them particularly interesting for thermonuclear fusion applications. The self-sealing property of the double layer coating was valued by inducing cracks on the coatings and observing their reparation after heating. (author)

  6. Method and system to facilitate sealing in gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Victor John; Foster, Gregory Thomas; Sarawate, Neelesh Nandkumar

    2017-09-12

    A method and system for sealing between components within a gas turbine is provided. A first recess defined in a first component receives a seal member. A second recess defined in a second component adjacent the first component also receives the seal member. The first and second recesses are located proximate a hot gas path defined through the gas turbine, and define circumferential paths about the turbine axis. The seal member includes a sealing face that extends in a direction substantially parallel to the turbine axis. The seal member also includes a plurality of seal layers, wherein at least one of the seal layers includes at least one stress relief region for facilitating flexing of the first seal member.

  7. Sealing method and sealing device for radioactive waste containing vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiwatari, Koji; Otsuki, Akira

    1998-01-01

    A radioactive waste-containing body is hoisted down into a strong-material vessel opened upwardly, and a strong-material lid is hoisted down to the opening of the strong-material-vessel and welded. The strong material vessel is hoisted up and loaded on a corrosion resistant-material bottom plate placed horizontally. A corrosion resistant-material vessel having one opening end and having a corrosion resistant-material flange on the other end and previously agreed with the strong material-vessel main body is hoisted up by a hoisting device having an inserting device so that the opening of the corrosion resistant vessel is directed downwardly. The corrosion resistant vessel is press-fitted to the outside of the strong material-vessel by the inserting device while being heated by a preheater to shrink. Subsequently, the lower end of the corrosion resistant-material vessel and the corrosion resistant-material bottom plate are welded to constitute a corrosion resistant-material vessel. Then, the radioactive waste containing body can be sealed in a sealing vessel comprising the strong-material vessel and the corrosion resistant-material vessel. (N.H.)

  8. Flow coating apparatus and method of coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumanthu, Ramasubrahmaniam; Neyman, Patrick; MacDonald, Niles; Brophy, Brenor; Kopczynski, Kevin; Nair, Wood

    2014-03-11

    Disclosed is a flow coating apparatus, comprising a slot that can dispense a coating material in an approximately uniform manner along a distribution blade that increases uniformity by means of surface tension and transfers the uniform flow of coating material onto an inclined substrate such as for example glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed is a method of flow coating a substrate using the apparatus such that the substrate is positioned correctly relative to the distribution blade, a pre-wetting step is completed where both the blade and substrate are completed wetted with a pre-wet solution prior to dispensing of the coating material onto the distribution blade from the slot and hence onto the substrate. Thereafter the substrate is removed from the distribution blade and allowed to dry, thereby forming a coating.

  9. Sealing of hard CrN and DLC coatings with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Emma; Kolev, Ivan; Díaz, Belén; Swiatowska, Jolanta; Maurice, Vincent; Seyeux, Antoine; Marcus, Philippe; Fenker, Martin; Toth, Lajos; Radnoczi, György; Vehkamäki, Marko; Ritala, Mikko

    2014-02-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film deposition technique that is based on alternating and saturating surface reactions of two or more gaseous precursors. The excellent conformality of ALD thin films can be exploited for sealing defects in coatings made by other techniques. Here the corrosion protection properties of hard CrN and diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings on low alloy steel were improved by ALD sealing with 50 nm thick layers consisting of Al2O3 and Ta2O5 nanolaminates or mixtures. In cross sectional images the ALD layers were found to follow the surface morphology of the CrN coatings uniformly. Furthermore, ALD growth into the pinholes of the CrN coating was verified. In electrochemical measurements the ALD sealing was found to decrease the current density of the CrN coated steel by over 2 orders of magnitude. The neutral salt spray (NSS) durability was also improved: on the best samples the appearance of corrosion spots was delayed from 2 to 168 h. On DLC coatings the adhesion of the ALD sealing layers was weaker, but still clear improvement in NSS durability was achieved indicating sealing of the pinholes.

  10. Methods of viscosity measurements in sealed ampoules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    1999-07-01

    Viscosity of semiconductors and metallic melts is usually measured by oscillating cup method. This method utilizes the melts contained in vacuum sealed silica ampoules, thus the problems related to volatility, contamination, and high temperature and pressure can be alleviate. In a typical design, the time required for a single measurement is of the order of one hour. In order to reduce this time to a minute range, a high resolution angular detection system is implemented in our design of the viscometer. Furthermore, an electromagnet generating a rotational magnetic field (RMF) is incorporated into the apparatus. This magnetic field can be used to remotely and nonintrusively measure the electrical conductivity of the melt. It can also be used to induce a well controlled rotational flow in the system. The transient behavior of this flow can potentially yield of the fluid. Based on RMF implementation, two novel viscometry methods are proposed in this work: a) the transient torque method, b) the resonance method. A unified theoretical approach to the three methods is presented along with the initial test result of the constructed apparatus. Advantages of each of the method are discussed.

  11. METHOD OF PROTECTIVELY COATING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.; Boller, E.R.

    1959-02-01

    A method is described for protectively coating uranium with zine comprising cleaning the U for coating by pickling in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, dipping the cleaned U into a bath of molten zinc between 430 to 600 C and containing less than 0 01% each of Fe and Pb, and withdrawing and cooling to solidify the coating. The zinccoated uranium may be given a; econd coating with another metal niore resistant to the corrosive influences particularly concerned. A coating of Pb containing small proportions of Ag or Sn, or Al containing small proportions of Si may be applied over the zinc coatings by dipping in molten baths of these metals.

  12. Superhydrophobic silica coating by dip coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadik, Satish A.; Parale, Vinayak; Vhatkara, Rajiv S.; Mahadik, Dinesh B.; Kavale, Mahendra S.; Wagh, Pratap B.; Gupta, Satish; Gurav, Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a simple and low cost method for the fabrication of superhydrophobic coating surface on quartz substrates via sol-gel dip coating method at room temperature. Desired surface chemistry and texture growth for superhydrophobicity developed under double step sol–gel process at room temperature. The resultant superhydrophobic surfaces were characterized by Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), water contact angle (WCA) measurement, differential thermal gravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA) calorimetry and optical spectrometer. Coating shows the ultra high water contact angle about 168 ± 2° and water sliding angle 3 ± 1° and superoleophilic with petroleum oils. This approach allows a simple strategy for the fabrication process of superhydrophilic–superhydrophobic on same surfaces with high thermal stability of superhydrophobicity up to 560 °C. Thus, durability, special wettability and thermal stability of superhydrophobicity expand their application fields.

  13. Enhanced Corrosion Resistance of PVD-CrN Coatings by ALD Sealing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan; Zhang, Teng Fei; Ding, Ji Cheng; Kim, Chang-Min; Park, So-Won; Yang, Yang; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Kwon, Se-Hun

    2017-04-01

    Multilayered hard coatings with a CrN matrix and an Al2O3, TiO2, or nanolaminate-Al2O3/TiO2 sealing layer were designed by a hybrid deposition process combined with physical vapor deposition (PVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). The strategy was to utilize ALD thin films as pinhole-free barriers to seal the intrinsic defects to protect the CrN matrix. The influences of the different sealing layers added in the coatings on the microstructure, surface roughness, and corrosion behaviors were investigated. The results indicated that the sealing layer added by ALD significantly decreased the average grain size and improved the corrosion resistance of the CrN coatings. The insertion of the nanolaminate-Al2O3/TiO2 sealing layers resulted in a further increase in corrosion resistance, which was attributed to the synergistic effect of Al2O3 and TiO2, both acting as excellent passivation barriers to the diffusion of corrosive substances.

  14. Nanocomposites biodegradable coating on BOPET films to enhance hot seal strength properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, G., E-mail: giovannibarbaro@email.it; Galdi, M. R., E-mail: mrgaldi@unisa.it; Di Maio, L., E-mail: ldimaio@unisa.it; Incarnato, L., E-mail: lincarnato@unisa.it [Industrial Engineering Department, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    The coating technology is a strategic solution to improve the properties of flexible packaging films. Indeed, additional functional layers are often designed and added as coating on the substrate, in order to improve the characteristic of the flexible packaging and to meet the requirements for the desired gas or vapour barrier, for adhesion and sealing, or for improving the film printability, its aesthetics and durability. Moreover, this technology allows to functionalize a polymeric substrate applying materials with different chemistry, rheology, thermal and structural characteristics. BOPET films are widely used for food packaging applications thanks to their good gas barrier and mechanical properties, high transparency and for the excellent printability. In regard to sealing performance, BOPET films show poor sealing properties so they are mostly submitted to lamination processes with polyethylene. Nevertheless, this solution compromises the PET recyclability and influences the gas permeability of the multilayer PET based structures. The aim of this work is to investigate on the effect of nanocomposite biodegradable coatings for BOPET substrates in enhancing the heat sealing strength of eco-compatible PET/PLA films. At this regards, different percentages of Cloisite C30B (0%, 2% and 4%{sub wt/wt}) have been added to PLA by solution intercalation technique and the nanocomposite biodegradable materials produced have been applied on BOPET commercial films by casting. The BOPET coated films have been characterized in order to evaluate the heat sealing strength and the mechanical, gas permeability and surface properties. The results have shown that the addition of nanoclay in PLA coating significantly enhance the hot tack properties of the PET/PLA system produced, while the oxygen and water vapour permeability are slightly increased if compared to pure BOPET films.

  15. Nanocomposites biodegradable coating on BOPET films to enhance hot seal strength properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, G.; Galdi, M. R.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-01-01

    The coating technology is a strategic solution to improve the properties of flexible packaging films. Indeed, additional functional layers are often designed and added as coating on the substrate, in order to improve the characteristic of the flexible packaging and to meet the requirements for the desired gas or vapour barrier, for adhesion and sealing, or for improving the film printability, its aesthetics and durability. Moreover, this technology allows to functionalize a polymeric substrate applying materials with different chemistry, rheology, thermal and structural characteristics. BOPET films are widely used for food packaging applications thanks to their good gas barrier and mechanical properties, high transparency and for the excellent printability. In regard to sealing performance, BOPET films show poor sealing properties so they are mostly submitted to lamination processes with polyethylene. Nevertheless, this solution compromises the PET recyclability and influences the gas permeability of the multilayer PET based structures. The aim of this work is to investigate on the effect of nanocomposite biodegradable coatings for BOPET substrates in enhancing the heat sealing strength of eco-compatible PET/PLA films. At this regards, different percentages of Cloisite C30B (0%, 2% and 4% wt/wt ) have been added to PLA by solution intercalation technique and the nanocomposite biodegradable materials produced have been applied on BOPET commercial films by casting. The BOPET coated films have been characterized in order to evaluate the heat sealing strength and the mechanical, gas permeability and surface properties. The results have shown that the addition of nanoclay in PLA coating significantly enhance the hot tack properties of the PET/PLA system produced, while the oxygen and water vapour permeability are slightly increased if compared to pure BOPET films

  16. Nanocomposites biodegradable coating on BOPET films to enhance hot seal strength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, G.; Galdi, M. R.; Di Maio, L.; Incarnato, L.

    2015-12-01

    The coating technology is a strategic solution to improve the properties of flexible packaging films. Indeed, additional functional layers are often designed and added as coating on the substrate, in order to improve the characteristic of the flexible packaging and to meet the requirements for the desired gas or vapour barrier, for adhesion and sealing, or for improving the film printability, its aesthetics and durability. Moreover, this technology allows to functionalize a polymeric substrate applying materials with different chemistry, rheology, thermal and structural characteristics. BOPET films are widely used for food packaging applications thanks to their good gas barrier and mechanical properties, high transparency and for the excellent printability. In regard to sealing performance, BOPET films show poor sealing properties so they are mostly submitted to lamination processes with polyethylene. Nevertheless, this solution compromises the PET recyclability and influences the gas permeability of the multilayer PET based structures. The aim of this work is to investigate on the effect of nanocomposite biodegradable coatings for BOPET substrates in enhancing the heat sealing strength of eco-compatible PET/PLA films. At this regards, different percentages of Cloisite C30B (0%, 2% and 4%wt/wt) have been added to PLA by solution intercalation technique and the nanocomposite biodegradable materials produced have been applied on BOPET commercial films by casting. The BOPET coated films have been characterized in order to evaluate the heat sealing strength and the mechanical, gas permeability and surface properties. The results have shown that the addition of nanoclay in PLA coating significantly enhance the hot tack properties of the PET/PLA system produced, while the oxygen and water vapour permeability are slightly increased if compared to pure BOPET films.

  17. Sealing of PEO Coated AZ91 Magnesium Alloy Using La-Based Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pezzato

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, solutions containing lanthanum salts were used for a post-treatment of sealing to increase the corrosion resistance of PEO coated AZ91 alloy. PEO coatings were produced on samples of AZ91 magnesium alloy using an alkaline solution containing sodium hydroxide, sodium phosphates, and sodium silicates. The sealing treatment was performed in a solution containing 12 g/L of La(NO33 at pH 4 at different temperatures and for different treatment times. Potentiodynamic polarization test, an EIS test, showed that the sealing treatment with solution containing lanthanum nitrate caused a remarkable increase in the corrosion resistance. The corrosion behavior was correlated with the surface morphology and elemental composition evaluated with scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. In particular, the sealing treatment at 50°C for 30 min resulted in being the most promising to increase the corrosion properties of PEO treated samples because of the formation of a homogeneous sealing layer, mainly composed of La(OH3.

  18. Tribological behavior of W-DLC coated rubber seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Bui, X.L.; Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coatings have been deposited on FKM (fluorocarbon) and HNBR (hydrogenated nitrile butadiene) rubbers via unbalanced magnetron reactive sputtering from a WC target in a C2H2/Ar plasma. The surface morphology and fracture cross sections of uncoated and

  19. Seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsher, R.A.G.

    1982-01-01

    An aperture through a biological shield is sealed by a flexible sheath having a beading at one end located on an annular member slidable in the aperture such that the beading bears in sealing engagement against the sides of the aperture. The annular member is retained by a retractable latch and can be rejected by pushing it out of the aperture using a replacement annular member with a replacement sheath thereon to butt against the annular member to be rejected. The replacement annular member may be mounted on a tubular device having an outer co-axial member for operating the latch when the replacement annular member butts against the annular member to be rejected. Applications include effecting a seal between a remote handling equipment and a wall through which the equipment extends. (author)

  20. Experimental study on friction and wear behaviour of amorphous carbon coatings for mechanical seals in cryogenic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianlei; Jia, Qian; Yuan, Xiaoyang; Wang, Shaopeng

    2012-10-01

    The service life and the reliability of contact mechanical seal are directly affected by the wear of seal pairs (rotor vs. stator), especially under the cryogenic environment in liquid rocket engine turbopumps. Because of the lower friction and wear rate, amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings are the promising protective coatings of the seal pairs for contact mechanical seal. In this paper, a-C coatings were deposited on 9Cr18 by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The tribological performances of the specimen were tested under three sealed fluid conditions (air, water and liquid nitrogen). The results show that the coatings could endure the cryogenic temperature while the friction coefficients decrease with the increased contact load. Under the same contact condition, the friction coefficient of the a-C coatings in liquid nitrogen is higher than that in water and that they are in air. The friction coefficients of the a-C coatings in liquid nitrogen range from 0.10 to 0.15. In the cryogenic environment, the coatings remain their low specific wear rates (0.9 × 10-6 to 1.8 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1). The results provide an important reference for designing a water lubricated bearing or a contact mechanical seal under the cryogenic environment that is both reliable and has longevity.

  1. Sealing of thermally-sprayed stainless steel coatings against corrosion using nickel electroplating technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathaipat Koiprasert

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc spraying (EAS is one of the thermal spray techniques used for restoration and to providecorrosion resistance. It can be utilized to build up coatings to thicknesses of several millimeters, It is easy to use on-site. Most importantly, the cost of this technique is lower than other thermal spraying techniques thatmay be suitable for part restoration. A major disadvantage associated with the electric arc sprayed coating is its high porosity, which can be as high as 3-8% making it not appropriate for use in immersion condition. This work was carried out around the idea of using electroplating to seal off the pore of the EAS coating, with an aim to improve the corrosion resistance of the coating in immersion condition. This research compared the corrosion behavior of a stainless steel 316 electric arc sprayed coating in 2M NaOH solution at 25oC. It was found that the Ni plating used as sealant can improve the corrosion resistance of the EAS coating. Furthermore, the smoothened and plated stainless steel 316 coating has a better corrosion resistance than the plated EAS coating that was not ground to smoothen the surface before plating.

  2. Coating and curing apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Brenor L; Maghsoodi, Sina; Neyman, Patrick J; Gonsalves, Peter R; Hirsch, Jeffrey G; Yang, Yu S

    2015-02-24

    Disclosed are coating apparatus including flow coating and roll-coating that may be used for uniform sol-gel coating of substrates such as glass, solar panels, windows or part of an electronic display. Also disclosed are methods for substrate preparation, flow coating and roll coating. Lastly systems and methods for skin curing sol-gel coatings deposited onto the surface of glass substrates using a high temperature air-knife are disclosed.

  3. Methods and means for coating paper by film coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maarel, Marc; Ter Veer, Arend Berend Cornelis; Vrieling-Smit, Annet; Delnoye, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This invention relates to the field of paper coating, more in particular to means and methods for providing paper with at least one layer of pigment using film coating to obtain a well printable surface. Provided is a method for preparing coated paper comprising the steps of: a) providing a

  4. Influence of elastomeric seal plate surface chemistry on interface integrity in biofouling-prone systems: Evaluation of a hydrophobic "easy-release" silicone-epoxy coating for maintaining water seal integrity of a sliding neoprene/steel interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolina, Vincent L.

    Attenuated Internal Reflection (MAIR-IR) and Microscopic Infrared Spectroscopy for organic surface compositional details, light microscopy for wear area quantification, and profilometry for surface roughness estimation and wear depth quantification. Pin-on-disc dynamic Coefficient of Friction (CoF) measurements provided data relevant to forecasts of seal integrity in dry, wet and biofouling-influenced sliding contact. Actual wear of neoprene seal material against uncoated and coated steel surfaces, wet and dry, was monitored after both rotary and linear cyclic wear testing, demonstrating significant reductions in elastomer wear areas and depths (and resultant volumes) when the coating was present. Coating the steel eliminated a 270% increase in neoprene surface area wear and an 11-fold increase in seal abrasive volume loss associated with underwater rusting in rotary experiments. Linear testing results confirm coating efficacy by reducing wear area in both loading regimes by about half. No coating delamination was observed, apparently due to a differential distribution of silicone and epoxy ingredients at the air-exposed vs. steel-bonded interfaces demonstrated by IR and EDS methods. Frictional testing revealed higher Coefficients of Friction (CoF) associated with the low-speed sliding of Neoprene over coated rather than uncoated steel surfaces in a wet environment, indicating better potential seal adhesion between the hydrophobic elastomer and coating than between the elastomer and intrinsically hydrophilic uncoated steel. When zebra mussel biofouling debris was present in the articulating joints, CoF was reduced as a result of a water channel path produced between the articulating surfaces by the retained biological matter. Easier release of the biofouling from the low-CST coated surfaces restored the seal integrity more rapidly with further water rinsing. Rapid sliding diminished these biofouling-related differences, but revealed a significant advantage in reducing the Co

  5. High temperature sealing method : induction brazing for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Y.H.; Lee, S.B.; Song, R.H.; Shin, D.R. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, T.H. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Fuel Cell Research Center

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the use of induction brazing as a high temperature sealing method for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Nickel-based brazing alloys were modified using reactive titanium-hydride (TiH2). The gas sealing properties of the induction brazing process on anode-supported tubular SOFCs and ferritic stainless steel were evaluated. Brazing alloys BNi-2 and BNi-4 were not wetted in a yttria-silica-zircon (YSZ) electrolyte. The brazing alloy with added TiH2 showed good wettability with the YSZ electrolyte as a result of the formation of a TiOX layer. Only the BNi-4 alloy joined with the YSZ electrolyte. An open circuit voltage (OCV) value was used to estimate the gas tightness of the brazed cell. It was concluded that the BNi-4 TiH2 modified alloy is a suitable sealing material for SOFCs operating in temperatures up to 750 degrees C.

  6. Vacuum sealing and cooling as methods to preserve surgical specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielsgaard Kristensen, Thomas; Engvad, Birte; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Recently, vacuum-based preservation of surgical specimens has been proposed as a safe alternative to formalin fixation at the surgical theater. The method seems feasible from a practical point of view, but no systematic study has examined the effect of vacuum sealing alone with respect to tissue...

  7. New alternatives to the industrially introduced methods for the sealing of anodized aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bautista, A.; Lizarbe, R.; Otero, E.; Lopez, V.; Gonzalez, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    The results shown in this paper allow the design of new processes for the industrial sealing of anodic oxides of aluminium. Thanks to the combination of the cathalitic power of tri ethanolamine (TEA) and the beneficial effects of ageing, the proposed processes offer considerable advantages compared with boiling water sealing and cold sealing, which are the most utilized sealing methods nowadays. (Author) 17 refs

  8. Ceramic Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-07-02

    2002 US 6,413,589 B1 35 36 yttria or CaO, can also be made porous by sol gel , or by superconductor powders 32 is at least 20 to 50 C. below its...Display Research Conference, (1988). 3,949,263 A 4/1976 Harper "Laser Method for Synthesis and Processing of Continuous 4,009,027 A 2/1977 Naidich et al...spots on reinforcing 33,800, WO3 (7.16) 33,600, Fe2O3 (5.24) 23,100, MoO3 carbon fibers in carbon composites; (4.692) 20,100, and MnO2 (5.026) 21,900

  9. Method of detecting leakage from sealing attached to pressure tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomomatsu, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Ken-ichi.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a detection method for measuring the amount of water leaked from sealings attached to the lower end of a pressure tube. That is, the lower end of the pressure tube is sealed only by a metal sealing. A capturing vessel is placed under the pressure tube for capturing the leaked water dropping from the lower end of the pressure tube and the weight of the leaked water is measured on every capturing vessels to determine the amount of the leaked water. The leakage detection method based on the weight measurement has higher accuracy compared with a conventional volume measuring method using a water level gauge as described below. For example, if the volume of the captured water is 10cc, an error of about 0.1cc is caused by the volume measuring method using the water level gauge, whereas if 10g (10cc) weight of water is measured by using an accurate balance, error is only about 10 -4 g (10 -4 cc). Accordingly, the method of the present invention can measure at an accuracy about 1000 times as high as the conventional method. (I.S.)

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  11. Development of a ceramic tamper indicating seal: SRNL contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, Dan; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Mendez-Torres, Adrian E.; Weeks, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  12. Evaluation of methods to leak test sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbeau, N.D.; Scott, C.K.

    1987-04-01

    The methods for the leak testing of sealed radiation sources were reviewed. One hundred and thirty-one equipment vendors were surveyed to identify commercially available leak test instruments. The equipment is summarized in tabular form by radiation type and detector type for easy reference. The radiation characteristics of the licensed sources were reviewed and summarized in a format that can be used to select the most suitable detection method. A test kit is proposed for use by inspectors when verifying a licensee's test procedures. The general elements of leak test procedures are discussed

  13. Apparatus and method for inspecting a sealed container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, J Frank [Pocatello, ID; Jones, James L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hunt, Alan W [Pocatello, ID; Spaulding, Randy J [Pocatello, ID; Smith, Michael [Phoenix, AZ

    2009-03-24

    An apparatus for inspecting a sealed container is disclosed and which includes a pulsed electron accelerator which is positioned in spaced relation relative to a first side of the sealed container, and which produces a pulsed beam of photons which passes through the sealed container and any contents enclosed within the sealed container; a detector positioned in spaced relation relative to a second, opposite side of the sealed container, and which receives the pulsed beam of photons which passes through the contents of the sealed container, and which produces an output signal; and a computer for developing a visible image from the output signal of the detector which depicts the contents of the sealed container.

  14. Remote vacuum or pressure sealing device and method for critical isolated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, James David [Newport News, VA; Keith, Christopher D [Newport News, VA

    2012-07-10

    A remote vacuum or pressure sealing apparatus and method for making a radiation tolerant, remotely prepared seal that maintains a vacuum or pressure tight seal throughout a wide temperature range. The remote sealing apparatus includes a fixed threaded sealing surface on an isolated system, a gasket, and an insert consisting of a plug with a protruding sample holder. An insert coupling device, provided for inserting samples within the isolated system, includes a threaded fastener for cooperating with the fixed threaded sealing surface on the isolated system. The insert coupling device includes a locating pin for azimuthal orientation, coupling pins, a tooted coaxial socket wrench, and an insert coupling actuator for actuating the coupling pins. The remote aspect of the sealing apparatus maintains the isolation of the system from the user's environment, safely preserving the user and the system from detrimental effect from each respectively.

  15. EFFECT OF AN ADDITIONAL HYDROPHILIC VERSUS HYDROPHOBIC COAT ON THE QUALITY OF DENTINAL SEALING PROVIDED BY TWO-STEP ETCH-AND-RINSE ADHESIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Safira Marques de Andrade; Carrilho, Marcela Rocha de Oliveira; Marquezini, Luiz; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Manso, Adriana Pigozzo; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; de Carvalho, Ricardo Marins

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that the quality of the dentinal sealing provided by two-step etch-and-rinse adhesives cannot be altered by the addition of an extra layer of the respective adhesive or the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated resin. Material and Methods: full-crown preparations were acid-etched with phosphoric acid for 15 s and bonded with Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE), Excite DSC (Ivoclar/Vivadent) or Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply). The adhesives were used according to the manufacturers' instructions (control groups) or after application to dentin they were a) covered with an extra coat of each respective system or b) coated with a non-solvated bonding agent (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Adhesive, 3M ESPE). Fluid flow rate was measured before and after dentin surfaces were acid-etched and bonded with adhesives. Results: None of the adhesives or experimental treatments was capable to block completely the fluid transudation across the treated dentin. Application of an extra coat of the adhesive did not reduce the fluid flow rate of adhesive-bonded dentin (p>0.05). Conversely, the application of a more hydrophobic non-solvated resin resulted in significant reductions in the fluid flow rate (padhesives. Conclusions: The quality of the dentinal sealing provided by etch-and-rinse adhesives can be significantly improved by the application of a more hydrophobic, non-solvated bonding agent. PMID:19466248

  16. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2016-02-09

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  17. Method to produce catalytically active nanocomposite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdemir, Ali; Eryilmaz, Osman Levent; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat

    2017-12-19

    A nanocomposite coating and method of making and using the coating. The nanocomposite coating is disposed on a base material, such as a metal or ceramic; and the nanocomposite consists essentially of a matrix of an alloy selected from the group of Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt and Re which are catalytically active for cracking of carbon bonds in oils and greases and a grain structure selected from the group of borides, carbides and nitrides.

  18. Microstructure characteristic and excellent corrosion protection properties of sealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating for sintered NdFeB magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Xiaokui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Li Qing, E-mail: liqingd@swu.edu.c [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang Shiyan; Liu Fang; Wang Shaoyin; Zhang Haixiao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2010-04-09

    In this paper, a protective sealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating (SCC) was prepared on sintered NdFeB magnet by electrodeposition and sol-gel combined technique. For a comparison, unsealed Zn-TiO{sub 2} composite coating (UCC) was also studied. The surface morphologies of composite coating were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The microstructure of composite coatings and structure of sealing layer were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, respectively. The anticorrosive properties of composite coatings in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solutions were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The results of corrosion tests showed that due to the blocking effect of sealing layer, SCC could suppress the corrosion process by holding back the transfer or diffusion of corrosive medium, and therefore showed the excellent corrosion protection properties for sintered NdFeB magnet.

  19. Releasable, high-pressure seal and method of forming same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.R.; Turkail, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    An inexpensive releaseable, high-pressure seal was developed, which can withstand pressures over 70 atm, and is particularly useful for nuclear reactors where remote-handling equipment must be used to access the flanged connections. It is smaller than existing high-pressure seals and does not require as many bolts. The fail-safe quality of the seal does not depend on close tolerances or high-quality surface finishes. The seal comprises two conduits through which the high-pressure fluid flows, each fitted with flanges. The second flange has a periphery attached to the second conduit. Each flange has a central opening for the fluid to flow through. The second flange is frustoconical in shape and is resilient so that a portion of it near its central opening can be resiliently biased towards the first flange. A seal ring between the end flanges seals the interior of the conduits from the exterior. A force is applied to the seal ring which acts nearly parallel to the axis of the conduits and varies as a function of the fluid pressure inside of the conduits. The flanges are attached to each other with peripheral collars via a circumferential clamp. (DN)

  20. Method of start-up of rotary plug sealing devices in FBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuragi, Masanori; Akita, Haruo

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly and safely start-up the rotary plug sealing device by controlling to eliminate the pressure difference in the pressures of gases exerting on the liquid surfaces in the inner and the outer cylinders of a sealing alloy vessel in the rotary plug of a FBR type reactor. Method: In a case where an abnormal state results in the pressure difference of gases exerted on the liquid surfaces in the inner and the outer cylinders of a vessel charged with sealing alloy in a rotary plug and the sealing valve for the back-up gas supply tube is rapidly closed to seal the sealing portion, the pressure in the gas supply tube is controlled so that the pressure difference in the gases exerted on the liquid surfaces in the inner and outer cylinders while closing the sealing valve. Then, after conforming that the pressure is controlled to a predetermined level at which the pressure difference can be regarded to be zero, the sealing valve is gradually opened while regulating the pressure in the gas supply tube so as to maintain the pressure difference to a predetermined level. This prevents the occurrence of external disturbances upon opening of the sealing valve and enables rapid and safety start-up for the rotary plug sealing device. (Moriyama, K.)

  1. Standard Test Method for Testing Polymeric Seal Materials for Geothermal and/or High Temperature Service Under Sealing Stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the initial evaluation of (screening) polymeric materials for seals under static sealing stress and at elevated temperatures. 1.2 This test method applies to geothermal service only if used in conjunction with Test Method E 1068. 1.3 The test fluid is distilled water. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as...

  3. METHOD OF APPLYING NICKEL COATINGS ON URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A.G.

    1959-07-14

    A method is presented for protectively coating uranium which comprises etching the uranium in an aqueous etching solution containing chloride ions, electroplating a coating of nickel on the etched uranium and heating the nickel plated uranium by immersion thereof in a molten bath composed of a material selected from the group consisting of sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lithium chloride, and mixtures thereof, maintained at a temperature of between 700 and 800 deg C, for a time sufficient to alloy the nickel and uranium and form an integral protective coating of corrosion-resistant uranium-nickel alloy.

  4. Transparent Hydrophobic Coating by Sol Gel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hamzah Harun; Nik Ghazali Nik Salleh; Mahathir Mohamed; Mohd Sofian Alias

    2016-01-01

    Transparent hydrophobic coating of inorganic based tetra orthosilicate (TEOS) was prepared by sol gel method by varying fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) content which works as hydrophobic agent. Surface contact angle, transmittance degree and surface morphology were characterized for each sample. All samples show good transparency which was confirmed by UV visible spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity obtained increases with FAS content indicates that FAS is best candidate to induce hydrophobicity for inorganic coating. (author)

  5. Wear of Flame-Sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si Powder Coating on Journal for Seal Contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Sheng-Yen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flame-sprayed techniques is used in this paper to coat Ni-Cr-B-Si powder on low-carbon steel or bearing steel materials of the journal surface. The wear tester is used to explore material properties of the binding capability, surface hardness, wear and friction within each layer depth. The normal force is applied in addition to the cladding layer by not only using bearing ball but also oil seal pieces, to explore rubber material of oil seal contact journal. In experiments to explore the material and processing conditions affect the microstructure and hardness of the cladding layer, and at the same hardness, surface roughness to affect the performance of the mill run.The results showed that spraying Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder in mild steel sheet to melt and run, cladding layer and the substrate has a uniform distribution of fine abrasive particles and binding effect, causing the substrate surface hardness (HRC about promotion 10 times. While, if sprayed Ni-Cr-B-Si alloy powder to steel panels bearing surface because the surface coated compact structure, can reduce the surface roughness and the coefficient of friction, and more improve the wear resistance of the cladding layer.

  6. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Hansen, F.D.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs

  7. Case studies of sealing methods and materials used in the salt and potash mining industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyermann, T.J.; Sambeek, L.L. Van [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-11-01

    Sealing methods and materials currently used in salt and potash industries were surveyed to determine if systems analogous to the shaft seal design proposed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) exist. Emphasis was first given to concrete and then expanded to include other materials. Representative case studies could provide useful design, construction, and performance information for development of the WIPP shaft seal system design. This report contains a summary of engineering and construction details of various sealing methods used by mining industries for bulkheads and shaft liners. Industrial experience, as determined from site visits and literature reviews, provides few examples of bulkheads built in salt and potash mines for control of water. Sealing experiences representing site-specific conditions often have little engineering design to back up the methods employed and even less quantitative evaluation of seal performance. Cases examined include successes and failures, and both contribute to a database of experiences. Mass salt-saturated concrete placement under ground was accomplished under several varied conditions. Information derived from this database has been used to assess the performance of concrete as a seal material. Concrete appears to be a robust material with successes in several case studies. 42 refs.

  8. Sealing device and method for sealing fractures or leaks in wall or formation surrounding tube-shaped channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The sealing device (1) includes an elongated body (5) adapted to be introduced into a tube-shaped channel (2) and including a sealing fluid placement section (6) arranged between a first and a second annular flow barrier (7, 8). The elongated body further includes a sealing fluid activation secti...

  9. Ceramic Seal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, Heidi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Romero, Juan A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Custer, Joyce Olsen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hymel, Ross W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krementz, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Gobin, Derek [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Harpring, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Varble, Don [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); DiMaio, Jeff [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States); Hudson, Stephen [Tetramer Technologies, Pendleton, SC (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  10. Ceramic Seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smartt, Heidi A.; Romero, Juan A.; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Hymel, Ross W.; Krementz, Dan; Gobin, Derek; Harpring, Larry; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael; Varble, Don; DiMaio, Jeff; Hudson, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Containment/Surveillance (C/S) measures are critical to any verification regime in order to maintain Continuity of Knowledge (CoK). The Ceramic Seal project is research into the next generation technologies to advance C/S, in particular improving security and efficiency. The Ceramic Seal is a small form factor loop seal with improved tamper-indication including a frangible seal body, tamper planes, external coatings, and electronic monitoring of the seal body integrity. It improves efficiency through a self-securing wire and in-situ verification with a handheld reader. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), under sponsorship from the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), have previously designed and have now fabricated and tested Ceramic Seals. Tests have occurred at both SNL and SRNL, with different types of tests occurring at each facility. This interim report will describe the Ceramic Seal prototype, the design and development of a handheld standalone reader and an interface to a data acquisition system, fabrication of the seals, and results of initial testing.

  11. Problems and criteria of quality improvement in end face mechanical seal rings through technological methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarelnik, V.; Belous, A.; Antoszewski, B.; Zukov, A.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper are presented the recommendations for material’s selections of the mechanical seals rings and basic productive and operating requirements. The system of a directional selection of technology that ensures the required quality of working surfaces of the mechanical seals rings covers their entire life cycle. The mathematical frictional model is proposed as an instrument for calculating a linear and weighing abrasion of the mechanical seals rings and helps to improve selection’s criteria and the most rational method of strengthening.

  12. Pressure vessels and methods of sealing leaky tubes disposed in pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, G.C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to pressure vessels and to methods of sealing leaky tubes in them and is especially applicable to pressure vessels in the form of sheet-and-tube type heat exchangers constructed with a large number of relatively small diameter tubes grouped in a bundle. To seal off a leaky tube in such a heat exchanger an explosive activated plug in the form of a hollow metal body is used, inserted at each end of the tube to be sealed. Using the arrangement of pressure vessel and associated tube sheets and the explosive activated plug method of sealing a leaky tube as described in this invention it is claimed that distortion of the adjacent tubes and the tube sheets is reduced when the explosive activated plugs are detonated. (U.K.)

  13. Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to backfill, seal, and/or densify porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitz, Janda K.; Reed, Scott T.; Ashley, Carol S.; Neiser, Richard A.; Moffatt, William C.

    1999-01-01

    Electrophoretically active sol-gel processes to fill, seal, and/or density porous, flawed, and/or cracked coatings on electrically conductive substrates. Such coatings may be dielectrics, ceramics, or semiconductors and, by the present invention, may have deposited onto and into them sol-gel ceramic precursor compounds which are subsequently converted to sol-gel ceramics to yield composite materials with various tailored properties.

  14. Gas sealing welding method and device for nuclear fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masayuki; Nishiyama, Motokuni; Kamimura, Katsuichiro; Yagi, Eiji; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Kobogata, Sadao; Taniguchi, Jun-ichi; Uesugi, Yoshisaku.

    1995-01-01

    An end plug and a cladding tube are held by clamping, respectively, by opposing movable electrode and static electrode. The movable electrode is forwarded toward the static electrode. The end plug and the cladding tube are abutted and held at a slight gap between their end faces. A region to be welded is surrounded by a pressurizing chamber and the side of the chamber is evacuated and He gas is filled in the cladding tube. Then, one of the electrodes is forwarded, to seal the abutted end faces of the end plug and the cladding tube. Then, pressure and welding current required for welding are applied to the abutted ends, and He gas is sealed in the vessel. The displacement of pressurization caused by slipping when the required pressure is applied to the abutted ends is detected by a sensor, and the operation of the welding control device for starting current supply is terminated by the detection signals. Abutment accuracy between the abutment of the cladding tube and the end plug as a nuclear fuel rod can be ensured, to further improve and stabilize the welding quality. (N.H.)

  15. New encapsulation method using low-melting-point alloy for sealing micro heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Congming; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Luo, Yi; Li, Zhixin; Li, Sidi [Dalian University of Technology, Dalian (China)

    2017-06-15

    This study proposed a method using Low-melting-point alloy (LMPA) to seal Micro heat pipes (MHPs), which were made of Si substrates and glass covers. Corresponding MHP structures with charging and sealing channels were designed. Three different auxiliary structures were investigated to study the sealability of MHPs with LMPA. One structure is rectangular and the others are triangular with corner angles of 30° and 45°, respectively. Each auxiliary channel for LMPA is 0.5 mm wide and 135 μm deep. LMPA was heated to molten state, injected to channels, and then cooled to room temperature. According to the material characteristic of LMPA, the alloy should swell in the following 12 hours to form strong interaction force between LMPA and Si walls. Experimental results show that the flow speed of liquid LMPA in channels plays an important role in sealing MHPs, and the sealing performance of triangular structures is always better than that of rectangular structure. Therefore, triangular structures are more suitable in sealing MHPs than rectangular ones. LMPA sealing is a plane packaging method that can be applied in the thermal management of high-power IC device and LEDs. Meanwhile, implanting in commercialized fabrication of MHP is easy.

  16. New encapsulation method using low-melting-point alloy for sealing micro heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Congming; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Chuanpeng; Luo, Yi; Li, Zhixin; Li, Sidi

    2017-01-01

    This study proposed a method using Low-melting-point alloy (LMPA) to seal Micro heat pipes (MHPs), which were made of Si substrates and glass covers. Corresponding MHP structures with charging and sealing channels were designed. Three different auxiliary structures were investigated to study the sealability of MHPs with LMPA. One structure is rectangular and the others are triangular with corner angles of 30° and 45°, respectively. Each auxiliary channel for LMPA is 0.5 mm wide and 135 μm deep. LMPA was heated to molten state, injected to channels, and then cooled to room temperature. According to the material characteristic of LMPA, the alloy should swell in the following 12 hours to form strong interaction force between LMPA and Si walls. Experimental results show that the flow speed of liquid LMPA in channels plays an important role in sealing MHPs, and the sealing performance of triangular structures is always better than that of rectangular structure. Therefore, triangular structures are more suitable in sealing MHPs than rectangular ones. LMPA sealing is a plane packaging method that can be applied in the thermal management of high-power IC device and LEDs. Meanwhile, implanting in commercialized fabrication of MHP is easy.

  17. Method and apparatus for coating thin foil with a boron coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.

    2018-01-16

    An apparatus and a process is disclosed for applying a boron coating to a thin foil. Preferably, the process is a continuous, in-line process for applying a coating to a thin foil comprising wrapping the foil around a rotating and translating mandrel, cleaning the foil with glow discharge in an etching chamber as the mandrel with the foil moves through the chamber, sputtering the foil with boron carbide in a sputtering chamber as the mandrel moves through the sputtering chamber, and unwinding the foil off the mandrel after it has been coated. The apparatus for applying a coating to a thin foil comprises an elongated mandrel. Foil preferably passes from a reel to the mandrel by passing through a seal near the initial portion of an etching chamber. The mandrel has a translation drive system for moving the mandrel forward and a rotational drive system for rotating mandrel as it moves forward. The etching chamber utilizes glow discharge on a surface of the foil as the mandrel moves through said etching chamber. A sputtering chamber, downstream of the etching chamber, applies a thin layer comprising boron onto the surface of the foil as said mandrel moves through said sputtering chamber. Preferably, the coated foil passes from the mandrel to a second reel by passing through a seal near the terminal portion of the sputtering chamber.

  18. Sealing nuclear graphite with pyrolytic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shanglei; Xu, Li; Li, Li; Bai, Shuo; Yang, Xinmei; Zhou, Xingtai

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolytic carbon (PyC) coatings were deposited on IG-110 nuclear graphite by thermal decomposition of methane at ∼1830 °C. The PyC coatings are anisotropic and airtight enough to protect IG-110 nuclear graphite against the permeation of molten fluoride salts and the diffusion of gases. The investigations indicate that the sealing nuclear graphite with PyC coating is a promising method for its application in Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)

  19. Geological conditions for lateral sealing of active faults and relevant research methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers worked a lot on geologic conditions for lateral sealing of faults, but none of their studies took the effect of internal structures of fault zones on the lateral sealing capacity of faults. Therefore, the lateral sealing of active faults has rarely been discussed. In this paper, based on the analysis of the composition and structure characteristics of fault fillings, the geological conditions for lateral sealing of active faults and relevant research method were discussed in reference to the lateral sealing mechanisms of inactive fault rocks. It is shown that, in order to satisfy geologically the lateral sealing of active faults, the faults should be antithetic and the faulted strata should be mainly composed of mudstone, so that the displacement pressure of fault fillings is higher than or equal to that of reservoir rocks in oil and gas migration block. Then, a research method for the lateral sealing of active faults was established by comparing the displacement pressure of fillings in the fault with that of reservoir rocks in oil and gas migration block. This method was applied to three antithetic faults (F1, F2 and F3 in No. 1 structure of the Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin. As revealed, the fillings of these three active faults were mostly argillaceous at the stage of natural gas accumulation (the late stage of Neogene Minghuazhen Fm sedimentation, and their displacement pressures were higher than that of reservoir rocks in the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm (F1 and F3 and the Neogene Guantao Fm (F2. Accordingly, they are laterally sealed for natural gas, which is conducive to the accumulation and preservation of natural gas. Industrial gas flow has been produced from the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm in Well Np101, the Guantao Fm in Well Np1-2 and the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm in Well Np1, which is in agreement with the analysis result. It is verified that this method is feasible for investigating the

  20. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2014-01-01

    Seals and Sealing Handbook, 6th Edition provides comprehensive coverage of sealing technology, bringing together information on all aspects of this area to enable you to make the right sealing choice. This includes detailed coverage on the seals applicable to static, rotary and reciprocating applications, the best materials to use in your sealing systems, and the legislature and regulations that may impact your sealing choices. Updated in line with current trends this updated reference provides the theory necessary for you to select the most appropriate seals for the job and with its 'Failur

  1. Silicon-incorporated diamond-like coatings for Si3N4 mechanical seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, S.S.; Gomes, J.R.; Carrapichano, J.M.; Silva, R.F.; Achete, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) and silicon-incorporated diamond-like carbon films (DLC-Si) were evaluated as protective and friction reduction coatings onto Si 3 N 4 rings. Unlubricated tribological tests were performed with a pin-on-disk apparatus against stainless steel pins with loads ranging from 3 to 55 N and sliding velocities from 0.2 to 1.0 m/s under ambient air and 50-60% relative humidity. At the lowest loads, a-SiC coatings present a considerable improvement with respect to the behavior of uncoated disks since the friction coefficient is reduced to about 0.2 and the system is able to run stably for thousands of meters. At higher loads, however, a-SiC coatings fail. DLC-Si-coated rings, on the other hand, presented for loads up to 10 N a steady-state friction coefficient below 0.1 and very low wear rates. The lowest steady-state mean friction coefficient value of only 0.055 was obtained with a sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s. For higher loads in the range of 20 N, the friction coefficient drops to values around 0.1 but no steady state is reached. For the highest loads of over 50 N, a catastrophic behavior is observed. Typically, wear rates below 5x10 -6 and 2x10 -7 mm 3 /N m were obtained for the ceramic rings and pins, respectively, with a load of 10 N and a sliding velocity of 0.5 m/s. Analysis of the steel pin contact surface by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and Auger spectroscopy revealed the formation of an adherent tribo-layer mainly composed by Si, C and O. The unique structure of DLC-Si films is thought to be responsible for the formation of the tribo-layer

  2. Dynamic Behavior Analysis of Non-Contacting Hydrodynamic Finger Seal Based on Fluid-Solid-Interaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Hua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Finger seal is an advanced compliant seal and can be utilized to separate high (HP and low pressure (LP zones in high speed rotating shaft environment. The work to be presented concerns the dynamic behavior of a repetitive section of a two-layer finger seal with high-and padded low-pressure laminates. The dynamic performance of the finger seal are analyzed by the coupled fluid-solid-interaction (FSI simulations. By using the commercial software ANSYS-CFX, the numerical simulation results of interactions between the gas flow and fingers structural deformation are described when the radial periodic excitation from the shaft applies to the finger seal. And the gas film loading capacity, gas film stiffness and leakage varied with time are put forward in different working conditions. Compared with the dynamic performance analysis results based on equivalent dynamic method, the FSI dynamic analysis shows some different characteristics which are more accordance with actual circumstance. Moreover, it is shown that under low pressure differential and high rotation speed the non-contacting finger seal with advance features both in sealing effectiveness and potential unlimited life span can be obtained by rational structure design. But for the non-contacting finger seal with circumferential convergent pad working in high pressure and low rotating speed conditions, it is difficult to improve the sealing performance by the way of changing the structure parameters of finger seal. It is because the high pressure plays a major role on this sealing situation.

  3. Method of manufacturing a graphite coated fuel can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Koichi; Uchida, Shunsuke.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the close bondability and homogeneity of a graphite coating formed at the inner surface of a fuel can. Method: A coating containing graphite dispersed in a volatile organic solvent is used and a graphite coating is formed to the inner surface of a fuel can by way of a plunger method. After applying graphite coating, an inert gas is caused to flow at a certain flow rate to the inside of the fuel can horizontally rotaged so that gassification and evaporation of the volatile organic solvent contained in the graphite coating may be promoted. Since drying of the graphite coating coated to the inner surface of the fuel can thus be controlled, a graphite coating with satisfactory close bondability and homogeneity can be formed. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Method for coating substrates and mask holder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Frederik; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Kessels, M.J.H.; Maas, Edward Lambertus Gerardus; Bruineman, Caspar

    2004-01-01

    When coating substrates it is frequently desired that the layer thickness should be a certain function of the position on the substrate to be coated. To control the layer thickness a mask is conventionally arranged between the coating particle source and the substrate. This leads to undesirable

  5. Fabrication of sealed radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, Jean.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given for fabricating a sealed radiation source, consisting in depositing on a metal substrate a thin active coat of a radioelement, termed first coat, submitting this coated substrate to an oxidation treatment in order to obtain on the first coat an inactive coat of an oxide of the metal, termed second coat, and depositing a coat of varnish on this second inactive coat [fr

  6. Colloidal spray method for low cost thin coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ai-Quoc; Glass, Robert S.; Lee, Tae H.

    2002-01-01

    A dense or porous coating of material is deposited onto a substrate by forcing a colloidal suspension through an ultrasonic nebulizer and spraying a fine mist of particles in a carrier medium onto a sufficiently heated substrate. The spraying rate is essentially matched to the evaporation rate of the carrier liquid from the substrate to produce a coating that is uniformly distributed over the surface of the substrate. Following deposition to a sufficient coating thickness, a single sintering step may be used to produce a dense ceramic coating. Using this method, coatings ranging in thickness from about one to several hundred microns can be obtained. By using a plurality of compounds in the colloidal suspension, coatings of mixed composition can be obtained. By using a plurality of solutions and separate pumps and a single or multiple ultrasonic nebulizer(s), and varying the individual pumping rates and/or the concentrations of the solutions, a coating of mixed and discontinuously graded (e.g., stepped) or continuously graded layers may be obtained. This method is particularly useful for depositing ceramic coatings. Dense ceramic coating materials on porous substrates are useful in providing improved electrode performance in devices such as high power density solid oxide fuel cells. Dense ceramic coatings obtained by the invention are also useful for gas turbine blade coatings, sensors, steam electrolyzers, etc. The invention has general use in preparation of systems requiring durable and chemically resistant coatings, or coatings having other specific chemical or physical properties.

  7. Method for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles, device for fluidizing and coating ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Yung Y

    2015-01-20

    The invention provides a method for dispersing particles within a reaction field, the method comprising confining the particles to the reaction field using a standing wave. The invention also provides a system for coating particles, the system comprising a reaction zone; a means for producing fluidized particles within the reaction zone; a fluid to produce a standing wave within the reaction zone; and a means for introducing coating moieties to the reaction zone. The invention also provides a method for coating particles, the method comprising fluidizing the particles, subjecting the particles to a standing wave; and contacting the subjected particles with a coating moiety.

  8. Near-infrared radiation curable multilayer coating systems and methods for applying same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Mark P; Verdun, Shelley D; Post, Gordon L

    2015-04-28

    Multilayer coating systems, methods of applying and related substrates are disclosed. The coating system may comprise a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, and a second coating deposited on a least a portion of the first coating. Methods of applying a multilayer coating composition to a substrate may comprise applying a first coating comprising a near-IR absorber, applying a second coating over at least a portion of the first coating and curing the coating with near infrared radiation.

  9. Method and compositions for producting optically clear photocatalytic coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and compositions for producing a hydrophilic coating on a surface of a solid material. The method comprises a cleaning step and a coating step. The cleaning step may be preceded by an initial cleaning step and it may optionally be succeeded by a preconditioning...... step prior to the coating step. The cleaning step comprises cleaning and preconditioning a surface of a material by use of a first cleaning fluid composition comprising ceria (CeO2) particles. The coating step comprises treatment by use of a coating fluid composition comprising photocatalytically...

  10. Research on RCP400-TB50 type reactor coolant pump shaft seal failure analysis and monitoring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Chaolian; Shen Yuxian; Wang Chuan; Du Pengcheng

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical seal is widely applied in mechanical devices of nuclear power plant. 3-stages mechanical seal applied in reactor coolant pump (abbreviate to RCP) is a kind of product with top technology and manufacture difficulty. As the only running machine in primary loop of nuclear power plant, RCP is designed with high security, reliability and perform ability. So performance of its key component, 3-stages mechanical seal, could directly decide whether units can operate safely and reliably. In this paper mechanical seal used in RCP400-TB50 type RCP which in designed and manufactured by Andritz AG is selected as a typical example of dynamic pressure type mechanical seal applied in second generation NPP. Its structure and working principle is expounded. Engineering fluid mechanics theory is used to establish the mathematical model using for analyzing status of mechanical seal and deducing the theoretical formula. Its correctness is verified by compare with the test data. So that research result can be used as the theoretical basis for analysis of RCP400-TB50 RCP shaft seal's working condition. According to the shaft seal operation characteristic we can establish a suitable RCP shaft seal monitoring method and interlock protection setting for NPP operation. (authors)

  11. Coping with heat: function of the natal coat of cape fur seal (Arctocephalus Pusillus Pusillus pups in maintaining core body temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Erdsack

    Full Text Available Cape fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus pups spend the first weeks of life exclusively or mainly ashore. They are exposed to intense solar radiation and high temperatures for long time periods, which results in temperatures up to at least 80°C on their black natal coat. To test the hypothesis that the natal coat has a crucial function in coping with these extreme conditions, we investigated the insulating properties of the natal coat in six captive newborn Cape fur seals during the first 50 days after birth. The natal fur differs from the adult fur not only in colour, but also in density, structure, and water repellence. We measured temperature on the fur surface and within the fur, as well as skin and rectal temperature under varying environmental conditions, comparable to the species' habitat. Experiments were designed to not influence the spontaneous behaviour of the pups. Rectal temperature was constant as long as the pups stayed dry, even during long-lasting intense solar radiation for up to 3 h. Skin temperature remained close to rectal temperature as long as the fur was dry, while with wet fur, skin temperature was significantly reduced as well. Our results show that the natal coat provides an effective insulation against overheating. The severely reduced insulation of wet natal fur against cold supports the assumption that the natal fur is an adaptation to the pups' terrestrial phase of life.

  12. Seal coat quality : does low cost mean low quality? : project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In the laboratory test program for aggregates, the research team found that the gravel aggregates, which are also SAC A aggregates, performed the best in terms of wear resistance as measured with the methods described here. The remaining aggregates, ...

  13. A Novel Method of Coating Orthodontic Archwires with Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Shibli S; Kulkarni, Dinraj; Todkar, Rohit; Bagul, Ravikiran S; Parekh, Kreena; Bhujbal, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major hazard to the orthodontic tooth movement is the friction developing at the bracket wire interface. In the past, there have been various attempts to reduce this friction. We believe that coating the commercially available orthodontic wires with nanoparticles can result in a successful reduction of this friction. The objective of this study is to develop a novel method of coating orthodontic archwires with nanoparticles. Materials and Methods: Stainless steel (Ormco, CA, USA), titanium molybdenum alloy (Ormco, CA, USA) and nickel-titanium (G and H Wire Company, USA) orthodontic wires with a rectangular cross-section dimension of 0.019”× 0.025”, were selected. The wires were later coated with a uniform and smooth nanoparticle film using 100 ml nanocremics. The coating procedure described in this article is a sol-gel thin film dip coating method. Results: The coating procedure was verified by comparing the surface topography of nanocoated archwires with the commercially available archwires in an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM). The ESEM images prove that the surface topography of the coated wires was found to be smoother with less surface deteriorations as compared to the commercially available wires. Conclusion: Commercially available orthodontic wires can be successfully coated using a novel method of sol-gel thin film dip coating method. PMID:26028899

  14. Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 28; Issue 6. Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy using concentrated SBF. S Bharati M K Sinha ... Optical microscopic and SEM observations revealed the deposition of Ca–P layer on the titanium alloy by both the methods. Thickness of coating ...

  15. Accelerated Test Method for Corrosion Protective Coatings Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy; Calle, Luz

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a new accelerated corrosion test method that predicts the long-term corrosion protection performance of spaceport structure coatings as accurately and reliably as current long-term atmospheric exposure tests. This new accelerated test method will shorten the time needed to evaluate the corrosion protection performance of coatings for NASA's critical ground support structures. Lifetime prediction for spaceport structure coatings has a 5-year qualification cycle using atmospheric exposure. Current accelerated corrosion tests often provide false positives and negatives for coating performance, do not correlate to atmospheric corrosion exposure results, and do not correlate with atmospheric exposure timescales for lifetime prediction.

  16. Experimental evaluation of optimization method for developing ultraviolet barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonome, Hiroki; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) barrier coatings can be used to protect many industrial products from UV attack. This study introduces a method of optimizing UV barrier coatings using pigment particles. The radiative properties of the pigment particles were evaluated theoretically, and the optimum particle size was decided from the absorption efficiency and the back-scattering efficiency. UV barrier coatings were prepared with zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). The transmittance of the UV barrier coating was calculated theoretically. The radiative transfer in the UV barrier coating was modeled using the radiation element method by ray emission model (REM2). In order to validate the calculated results, the transmittances of these coatings were measured by a spectrophotometer. A UV barrier coating with a low UV transmittance and high VIS transmittance could be achieved. The calculated transmittance showed a similar spectral tendency with the measured one. The use of appropriate particles with optimum size, coating thickness and volume fraction will result in effective UV barrier coatings. UV barrier coatings can be achieved by the application of optical engineering.

  17. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qiming, E-mail: liqiming@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Naxiu, E-mail: wangnaxiu@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Laboratory of Nuclear Radiation and Nuclear Energy Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail.

  18. A new method to evaluate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for Molten Salt Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qiming; Tian, Jian; Zhou, Chong; Wang, Naxiu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We novelly valuate the sealing reliability of the flanged connections for MSRs. • We focus on the passive decrease of the leak impetus in flanged connections. • The modified flanged connections are acquired a sealing ability of self-adjustment. • Effects of redesigned flange configurations on molten salt leakage are discussed. - Abstract: The Thorium based Molten Salt Reactor (TMSR) project is a future Generation IV nuclear reactor system proposed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences with the strategic goal of meeting the growing energy needs in the Chinese economic development and social progress. It is based on liquid salts served as both fuel and primary coolant and consequently great challenges are brought into the sealing of the flanged connections. In this study, an improved prototype flange assembly is performed on the strength of the Freeze-Flange initially developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The calculation results of the finite element model established to analyze the temperature profile of the Freeze-Flange agree well with the experimental data, which indicates that the numerical simulation method is credible. For further consideration, the ideal-gas thermodynamic model, together with the mathematical approximation, is novelly borrowed to theoretically evaluate the sealing performance of the modified Freeze-Flange and the traditional double gaskets bolted flange joint. This study focuses on the passive decrease of the leak driving force due to multiple gaskets introduced in flanged connections for MSR. The effects of the redesigned flange configuration on molten salt leakage resistance are discussed in detail

  19. Seals and sealing handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Flitney, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Wherever machinery operates there will be seals of some kind ensuring that the machine remains lubricated, the fluid being pumped does not leak, or the gas does not enter the atmosphere. Seals are ubiquitous, in industry, the home, transport and many other places. This 5th edition of a long-established title covers all types of seal by application: static, rotary, reciprocating etc. The book bears little resemblance to its predecessors, and Robert Flitney has re-planned and re-written every aspect of the subject. No engineer, designer or manufacturer of seals can afford to be without this uniq

  20. Method for adhering a coating to a substrate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxacher, Glenn Curtis; Crespo, Andres Garcia; Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey

    2015-02-17

    A method for adhering a coating to a substrate structure comprises selecting a substrate structure having an outer surface oriented substantially parallel to a direction of radial stress, modifying the outer surface to provide a textured region having steps to adhere a coating thereto, and applying a coating to extend over at least a portion of the textured region, wherein the steps are oriented substantially perpendicular to the direction of radial stress to resist deformation of the coating relative to the substrate structure. A rotating component comprises a substrate structure having an outer surface oriented substantially parallel to a direction of radial stress. The outer surface defines a textured region having steps to adhere a coating thereto, and a coating extends over at least a portion of the textured region. The steps are oriented substantially perpendicular to the direction of radial stress to resist creep.

  1. Improved coating and fixation methods for scanning electron microscope autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emulsion coating is described. The apparatus is inexpensive and easily assembled in a standard glass shop. Emulsion coating for scanning electron microscope autoradiography with this apparatus consistently yields uniform layers. When used in conjunction with newly described fixation methods, this new approach produces reliable autoradiographs of undamaged specimens

  2. A general method to coat colloidal particles with titiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a general one-pot method for coating colloidal particles with amorphous titania. Various colloidal particles such as silica particles, large silver colloids, gibbsite platelets, and polystyrene spheres were successfully coated with a titania shell. Although there are several ways of

  3. Fog seal guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Fog seals are a method of adding asphalt to an existing pavement surface to improve sealing or waterproofing, prevent further stone loss by holding aggregate in place, or simply improve the surface appearance. However, inappropriate use can result in...

  4. Electrochemical methods for corrosion testing of Ce-based coating prepared on AA6060 alloy by dip immersion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Bore V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dip-immersion is simple and cost-effective method for the preparation of Ce-based conversion coatings (CeCCs, a promising alternative to the toxic chromate coatings, on the metal substrates. In this work CeCCs were prepared on Al-alloy AA6060 from aqueous solution of cerium chloride at room temperature. Effect of immersion time and post-treatment in phosphate solution on the microstructure and corrosion properties of the coatings was studied. The longer immersion time, the thicker but nonhomogeneous and cracked CeCCs. The post-treatment contributed to the sealing of cracks, as proven by an increase in corrosion resistance compared with as-deposited coatings. CeCCs prepared at longer deposition time and post-treated showed much better corrosion protection than those prepared at short deposition time. A detailed EIS study was undertaken to follow the evolution of corrosion behaviour of CeCCs with time of exposure to aggressive chloride environment (3.5 % NaCl. For the sake of comparison, the EIS properties of bare AA6060 were also investigated. A linear voltammetry was performed to complete the study. Results confirmed a formation of protective CeCCs on AA6060 surface. However, even CeCCs prepared at longer deposition time and post-treated provided a short term protection in aggressive environment, due to the small thickness. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45019 i br. III 45012

  5. A study of mechanical sealing methods using graphite powder for high pressure vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Joung, C. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a facility that can conduct fuel irradiation tests at the HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The FTL simulates commercial NPP operating conditions such as pressure, temperature and neutron flux levels to conduct irradiation and thermo hydraulic tests. It is composed of an In Pile test Section (IPS) and an Out Pile System (OPS). The OPS contains a pressurizer, cooler, pump, heater and purification system, which are necessary to maintain the proper fluid conditions. In addition, the OPS contains engineered safety systems that can safely shutdown both HANARO and FTL if an accident occurs. The IPS accommodating fuel pins has a loaded IP 1 hole in HANARO, and a double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 .deg. C, 17.5MPa and is composed of an outer assembly and inner assembly. It has instruments such as a thermocouple, LVDT and SPND to measure the fuel performances during the test. FTL coolant is supplied to the IPS at the core of commercial nuclear power plants at the same temperature, pressure and flow conditions. Sensors are installed on the inside of the IPS to send signal transmission MI Cables to the outside for instrumentation through the pressure boundary. Therefore, the pressure boundary should be maintained in the sealing performance. Currently, the sealing of the IPS of the the FTL is maintained through a brazing method. However, A brazing method has disadvantages that can occur owing to thermal deformation or breakage in the instrumentation Mi cable. IPS inner assembly is a very long design length (approximately 5.29m), so it is difficult to perform in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, an easy and reliable way to assemble the instrumentation Mi cable mechanical sealing method has been studied. In this study, criteria tests at the pressure boundary were performed using universally applicable graphite powder for the instrumentation MI cable of various sizes.

  6. A study of mechanical sealing methods using graphite powder for high pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H. Y.; Hong, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Joung, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Fuel Test Loop (FTL) is a facility that can conduct fuel irradiation tests at the HANARO (High flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor). The FTL simulates commercial NPP operating conditions such as pressure, temperature and neutron flux levels to conduct irradiation and thermo hydraulic tests. It is composed of an In Pile test Section (IPS) and an Out Pile System (OPS). The OPS contains a pressurizer, cooler, pump, heater and purification system, which are necessary to maintain the proper fluid conditions. In addition, the OPS contains engineered safety systems that can safely shutdown both HANARO and FTL if an accident occurs. The IPS accommodating fuel pins has a loaded IP 1 hole in HANARO, and a double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 .deg. C, 17.5MPa and is composed of an outer assembly and inner assembly. It has instruments such as a thermocouple, LVDT and SPND to measure the fuel performances during the test. FTL coolant is supplied to the IPS at the core of commercial nuclear power plants at the same temperature, pressure and flow conditions. Sensors are installed on the inside of the IPS to send signal transmission MI Cables to the outside for instrumentation through the pressure boundary. Therefore, the pressure boundary should be maintained in the sealing performance. Currently, the sealing of the IPS of the the FTL is maintained through a brazing method. However, A brazing method has disadvantages that can occur owing to thermal deformation or breakage in the instrumentation Mi cable. IPS inner assembly is a very long design length (approximately 5.29m), so it is difficult to perform in a vacuum chamber. Therefore, an easy and reliable way to assemble the instrumentation Mi cable mechanical sealing method has been studied. In this study, criteria tests at the pressure boundary were performed using universally applicable graphite powder for the instrumentation MI cable of various sizes

  7. Compatibility of dip-coated Er2O3 coating by MOD method with liquid Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dongxun; Kondo, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Valentyn, Tsisar

    2011-01-01

    An electrical insulating ceramic coating on the self-cooled lithium blanket is a promising technology for suppressing MHD pressure drop in the blanket system. Er 2 O 3 is thought to be one of the potential candidate materials for ceramic coatings because of their high electrical resistivity and high compatibility with liquid lithium. In this study, Er 2 O 3 coating was fabricated on the ferritic steels by dip-coating method with MOD (metal organic decomposition) liquid precursor followed by baking in different atmosphere. The coated specimens were immersed at 500 o C in the static liquid lithium to test the compatibility. It was shown that the compatibility of the coating was degraded when Fe 2 O 3 or Fe 3 O 4 was formed as the main composition of the substrate oxidation layer during the baking. On the other hand, thin Cr 2 O 3 layer in the substrate oxidation layer did not influence the stability of Er 2 O 3 coating. Atmosphere controlling for suppressing the substrate oxidation, especially Fe 2 O 3 or Fe 3 O 4 , during the baking is shown to be essential for the compatibility of MOD Er 2 O 3 coating on ferritic steels.

  8. Simple method for measuring reflectance of optical coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Gui Wang; Yi Sheng Chen

    1995-01-01

    The quality of optical coatings has an important effect on the performance of optical instrument. The last few years, the requirements for super low loss dielectric mirror coatings used in low gain laser systems such as free electron laser and the ring laser etc., have given an impetus to the development of the technology of precise reflectance measurement of optical coatings. A reliable and workable technique is to measure the light intensity decay time of optical resonant cavity. This paper describes a measuring method which is dependent on direct measurement of the light intensity decay time of a resonant cavity comprised of low loss optical components. According to the evolution of a luminous flux stored inside the cavity, this method guarantees not only a quick and precise reflectance measurements of low loss highly reflecting mirror coatings but also transmittance measurements of low loss antireflection coatings and is especially effective with super los loss highly reflecting mirror. From the round-trip path length of the cavity and the speed of light, the light intensity exponential decay time of an optical cavity is easy to obtain and the cavity losses can be deduced. An optical reflectance of low loss highly mirror coatings and antireflection coatings is precisely measured as well. This is highly significant for the discrimination of the coating surface characteristics, the improvement of the performance of optical instrument and the development of high technology

  9. Method for coating a resinous coating material. [electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, T; Fujioka, S; Mibae, J; Takahashi, M

    1968-07-13

    The strength, flexibility and durability of a vinyl chloride resin, acryl resin and the like are improved. This method of application comprises the steps of applying and thereafter radically curing a mixture composed of a polymer (II) having double bond(s) on its side chain and an ethylenic unsaturated monomer, said polymer (II) being obtained by the reaction between an unsaturated carboxylic acid or anhydride represented by the formula XCH = CHY (X = (CH/sub 2/)sub(n)COOH, where 0 <= n <= 2, Y = COOR/sub 1/ or R/sub 2/(R/sub 1/ and R/sub 2/ are hydrogen or an alkyl group having from 1 to 10 atoms of carbon)) and the acrylic copolymer (I), containing a hydroxyl group, obtained by copolymerization of 10 to 50% by weight of at least one selected from the group of beta-hydroxy alkyl acrylate, beta-hydroxy alkyl methacrylate, N-methylol acrylamide and N-methylol methacryl amide with at least one selected from the group of acrylic ester, methacrylic ester and stylene. The copolymer (I) can be obtained by the usual radical polymerization such as bulk polymerization, solution polymerization, suspension polymerization or the like. The polymer (II) is dissolved in the ethylenic unsaturated monomer and radically cured with radical polymerization catalysts or electron beams, etc. The energy range of the electron beams may be 0.1 to 3 MeV. Any type of electron accelerator may be used.

  10. Effects of core sealing methods on the preservation of pore water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striffler, P.; Peters, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Five general core sealing methods (using Protecore, Lexan, wax, Protecore with wax, and Protecore with Lexan) were studied over a two year period to determine their moisture retention capabilities. Results indicate that the multibarrier methods (Protecore with wax and Protecore with Lexan) and the single barrier methods (Protecore and wax) provide successful means of retaining moisture in cores. Additional testing indicated that a tight wrap of Saran is effective in: (1) protecting the outer vapor barriers from puncture, (2) containing any condensate in close proximity to where it was condensed, and (3) retarding condensation. Tests conducted to determine the moisture adsorption potential of wax and the use of applying a positive or negative pressure to Protecore packets proved inconclusive, but warrant further investigation. The importance of proper and timely handling of core samples in the field, including refrigeration and weighing of samples, can not be overstated

  11. Effects of core sealing methods on the preservation of pore water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striffler, Pete; Peters, Charles A.

    1993-01-01

    Five general core sealing methods (using Protecore, Lexan, wax, Protecore with wax, and Protecore with Lexan) were studied over a two year period to determine their moisture retention capabilities. Results indicate that the multibarrier methods (Protecore with wax and Protecore with Lexan) and the single barrier methods (Protecore and wax) provide successful means of retaining moisture in cores. Additional testing indicated that a tight wrap of Saran is effective in: 1) protecting the outer vapor barriers from puncture, 2) containing any condensate in close proximity to where it was condensed, and 3) retarding condensation. Tests conducted to determine the moisture adsorption potential of wax and the use of applying a positive or negative pressure to Protecore packets proved inconclusive, but warrant further investigation. The importance of proper and timely handling of core samples in the field, including refrigeration and weighing of samples, can not be overstated.

  12. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method for sealing the cold leg nozzles of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location during maintenance and inspection of associated steam generators and pumps while the pressure vessel and refueling canal are filled with water. The apparatus includes a sealing plug for mechanically sealing the cold leg nozzle from the inside of a reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plugs include a primary and a secondary O-ring. An installation tool is suspended within the reactor vessel and carries the sealing plug. The tool telescopes to insert the sealing plug within the cold leg nozzle, and to subsequently remove the plug. Hydraulic means are used to activate the sealing plug, and support means serve to suspend the installation tool within the reactor vessel during installation and removal of the sealing plug

  13. Radioactive waste sealing container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozawa, S.; Kitamura, T.; Sugimoto, S.

    1984-01-01

    A low- to medium-level radioactive waste sealing container is constructed by depositing a foundation coating consisting essentially of zinc, cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base, then coating an organic synthetic resin paint containing a metal phosphate over the foundation coating, and thereafter coating an acryl resin, epoxy resin, and/or polyurethane paint. The sealing container can consist of a main container body, a lid placed over the main body, and fixing members for clamping and fixing the lid to the main body. Each fixing member may consist of a material obtained by depositing a coating consisting essentially of cadmium or a zinc-aluminum alloy over a steel base

  14. Research into Thermal Sprayed Coatings with Ultrasonic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justinas Gargasas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on thermal sprayed coatings with ultrasonic methods is the main object of this thesis. Metal surface coating was applied to modify its mechanical and physical-chemical properties and resistance to external impact and improve aesthetics. Spraying was carried out by scanning the rotating sample of 30 cm/s speed. Surface microstructure, ultrasonic thickness, porosity, micro hardness and surface modulus tests performed. Conclusions were formulated.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  16. Probabilistic methods as a tool aiding dimensioning drift and shaft seals for a repository in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Plischke, Elmar; Li, Xiaoshuo [TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Disposal Research (IELF)

    2015-07-01

    For repositories in rock salt, demonstrating the integrity of drift and shaft seals is an indispensable part of the long-term safety case. In this study, probabilistic methods are applied to assess the fictitious abutment length for a shaft seal and the effective permeability of a drift seal (dam), i.e. the integral entity for the whole structure including contact zone and damaged salt zone. For the seal permeability, the question arises how to derive it based on permeability measurements with a limited number of samples due to cost restrictions. Furthermore, it is of interest which conclusions can be derived regarding the minimum length of drift seals if the failure probability should be smaller than e.g. 10{sup -4}. Based on numerical experiments it was demonstrated that small-scale measurements can be upscale using known averaging methods. This suggests that dimensioning can be carried out based on cautions average estimates and the required reliability statement (e.g. about a failure probability smaller than e.g. 10{sup -4}) can be derived for realistic dam lengths. However, due to the limited amount of data available there are remaining uncertainties concerning the underlying model assumptions.

  17. Probabilistic methods as a tool aiding dimensioning drift and shaft seals for a repository in rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehlig, Klaus-Juergen; Plischke, Elmar; Li, Xiaoshuo

    2015-01-01

    For repositories in rock salt, demonstrating the integrity of drift and shaft seals is an indispensable part of the long-term safety case. In this study, probabilistic methods are applied to assess the fictitious abutment length for a shaft seal and the effective permeability of a drift seal (dam), i.e. the integral entity for the whole structure including contact zone and damaged salt zone. For the seal permeability, the question arises how to derive it based on permeability measurements with a limited number of samples due to cost restrictions. Furthermore, it is of interest which conclusions can be derived regarding the minimum length of drift seals if the failure probability should be smaller than e.g. 10 -4 . Based on numerical experiments it was demonstrated that small-scale measurements can be upscale using known averaging methods. This suggests that dimensioning can be carried out based on cautions average estimates and the required reliability statement (e.g. about a failure probability smaller than e.g. 10 -4 ) can be derived for realistic dam lengths. However, due to the limited amount of data available there are remaining uncertainties concerning the underlying model assumptions.

  18. Method of producing oxidation resistant coatings for molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmons, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for producing a molybdenum element having adherently bonded thereto a thermally self-healing plasma-sprayed coating consisting essentially of a composite of molybdenum and a refactory oxide material capable of reacting with molybdenum oxide under oxidizing conditions to form a substantially thermally stable refractory compound of molybdenum, the method comprising plasma-spraying a coating formed by the step-wise application of a plurality of interbonded plasma-sprayed layers of a composite of molybdenum/refractory oxide material produced from a particulate mixture thereof. The coating comprises a first layer of molybdenum plasma-sprayed bonded to the substrate of the molybdenum element, a second layer of plasma-sprayed mixture of particulate molybdenum/refactory oxide consisting essentially of predominantly molybdenum bonded to the first layer, and succeeding layers of this mixture. The next step is heating the coated molybdenum element under oxidizing conditions to an elevated temperature sufficient to cause oxygen to diffuse into the surface of the multi-layered coating to react with dispersed molybdenum therein to form molybdenum oxide and effect healing of the coating by reaction of the molybdenum oxide with the contained refractory oxide and thereby protect the substrate of the molybdenum element against oxidation

  19. Towards an integrated numerical simulator for crack-seal vein microstructure: Coupling phase-field with the Discrete Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Simon; Ankit, Kumar; Nestler, Britta; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-04-01

    Crack-seal veins form in a complex interplay of coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical processes. Their formation and cyclic growth involves brittle fracturing and dilatancy, phases of increased fluid flow and the growth of crystals that fill the voids and reestablish the mechanical strength. Existing numerical models of vein formation focus on selected aspects of the coupled process. Until today, no model exists that is able to use a realistic representation of the fracturing AND sealing processes, simultaneously. To address this challenge, we propose the bidirectional coupling of two numerical methods that have proven themselves as very powerful to model the fundamental processes acting in crack-seal systems: Phase-field and the Discrete Element Method (DEM). The phase-field Method was recently successfully extended to model the precipitation of quartz crystals from an aqueous solution and applied to model the sealing of a vein over multiple opening events (Ankit et al., 2013; Ankit et al., 2015a; Ankit et al., 2015b). The advantage over former, purely kinematic approaches is that in phase-field, the crystal growth is modeled based on thermodynamic and kinetic principles. Different driving forces for microstructure evolution, such as chemical bulk free energy, interfacial energy, elastic strain energy and different transport processes, such as mass diffusion and advection, can be coupled and the effect on the evolution process can be studied in 3D. The Discrete Element Method was already used in several studies to model the fracturing of rocks and the incremental growth of veins by repeated fracturing (Virgo et al., 2013; Virgo et al., 2014). Materials in DEM are represented by volumes of packed spherical particles and the response to the material to stress is modeled by interaction of the particles with their nearest neighbours. For rocks, in 3D, the method provides a realistic brittle failure behaviour. Exchange Routines are being developed that

  20. Study of classification and disposed method for disused sealed radioactive source in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk Hoon; Kim, Ju Youl; Lee, Seung Hee [FNC Technology Co., Ltd.,Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In accordance with the classification system of radioactive waste in Korea, all the disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) fall under the category of EW, VLLW or LILW, and should be managed in compliance with the restrictions for the disposal method. In this study, the management and disposal method are drawn in consideration of half-life of radionuclides contained in the source and A/D value (i.e. the activity A of the source dividing by the D value for the relevant radionuclide, which is used to provide an initial ranking of relative risk for sources) in addition to the domestic classification scheme and disposal method, based on the characteristic analysis and review results of the management practices in IAEA and foreign countries. For all the DSRSs that are being stored (as of March 2015) in the centralized temporary disposal facility for radioisotope wastes, applicability of the derivation result is confirmed through performing the characteristic analysis and case studies for assessing quantity and volume of DSRSs to be managed by each method. However, the methodology derived from this study is not applicable to the following sources; i) DSRSs without information on the radioactivity, ii) DSRSs that are not possible to calculate the specific activity and/or the source-specific A/D value. Accordingly, it is essential to identify the inherent characteristics for each of DSRSs prior to implementation of this management and disposal method.

  1. Glass sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.; Chambers, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Hernetic glass sealing technologies developed for weapons component applications can be utilized for the design and manufacture of fuel cells. Design and processing of of a seal are optimized through an integrated approach based on glass composition research, finite element analysis, and sealing process definition. Glass sealing procedures are selected to accommodate the limits imposed by glass composition and predicted calculations.

  2. Method of coating the interior surface of hollow objects with a diffusion coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Shawn D.; Senor, David J.; Forbes, Steven V.; Johnson, Roger N.; Hollenberg, Glenn W.

    2005-03-15

    A method for forming a diffusion coating on the interior of surface of a hollow object wherein a filament, extending through a hollow object and adjacent to the interior surface of the object, is provided, with a coating material, in a vacuum. An electrical current is then applied to the filament to resistively heat the filament to a temperature sufficient to transfer the coating material from the filament to the interior surface of the object. The filament is electrically isolated from the object while the filament is being resistively heated. Preferably, the filament is provided as a tungsten filament or molybdenum filament. Preferably, the coating materials are selected from the group consisting of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Ge, Hg, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni P, Pb, Pd, Pr, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Te, Tl, Y, Yb, Zn, and combinations thereof. The invention additionally allows for the formation of nitrides, hydrides, or carbides of all the possible coating materials, where such compounds exist, by providing a partial pressure of nitrogen, hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or combination thereof, within the vacuum.

  3. Innovation to reality for improved pump seal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Eyvindson, A.; Rhodes, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    'Full-Text:' The nuclear industry requires reliable pump seals. Extended operating conditions for aging plants (i.e., low pressure starts, pressure and temperature transients) and increasing demands from new plants (larger sizes, higher speeds) are pushing the operating envelope for seals. This means that many seals that were previously considered adequate are now requiring increased attention and care. Operating utilities have taken different approaches to addressing their existing, or emerging, seal problems. Primary concerns include maintenance practices, seal design, and monitoring capabilities, as well as operating conditions, transients, pump and motor design. Success in this area requires ongoing dialogue among the station operators, pump manufacturers and seal designers. Regardless of the design, the basic requirement in CANDU is a reliable seal lifetime exceeding 5 years. This paper describes AECL's efforts to meet this requirement through an ongoing program of research and development in seal technology. Current work includes rigorous testing and evaluation of new seal materials and coatings to maximize seal stability and minimize friction and wear (i.e., pressure/temperature transients produce unpredictable shaft movement that can significantly alter face deflections affecting leak rates and seal stability, and sometimes cause the seal to hang-up and de-stage). Also required is a practical method for on-line monitoring of the condition of the seal, whether it is newly installed or after several years of reliable performance. This provides crucial information for inventory, maintenance and outage planning. While new concepts may look good on paper, it is only after they have been demonstrated under fully representative station operating conditions that they can truly be considered ready for field use. AECL CAN-seals lead the nuclear industry in reliability and seal life. They effectively save operators millions of dollars in outage time and person

  4. Sealing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2013-12-10

    A sealing device for sealing a gap between a dovetail of a bucket assembly and a rotor wheel is disclosed. The sealing device includes a cover plate configured to cover the gap and a retention member protruding from the cover plate and configured to engage the dovetail. The sealing device provides a seal against the gap when the bucket assemply is subjected to a centrifugal force.

  5. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    caulking compounds, nonhardening extruded tapes, nonhardening mastics, strippable spray coatings, pressure sensitive tapes, gaskets, adhesives, fabrics...films, etc. Although all of these materials may provide a seal, care must be taken when selecting a sealing material as to its chemical and...gaskets have performed satisfactorily. Another factor to be considered in the selection of gasketing material is its compatibility with both the

  6. Valve seat pores sealed with thermosetting monomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmore, A. B.

    1966-01-01

    Hard anodic coating provides a smooth wear resistant value seating surface on a cast aluminum alloy valve body. Vacuum impregnation with a thermosetting monomer, diallyl phthalate, seals the pores on the coating to prevent galvanic corrosion.

  7. New method for evaluating high-quality fog protective coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeremuszkin, Grzegorz; Latreche, Mohamed; Mendoza-Suarez, Guillermo

    2011-05-01

    Fogging is commonly observed when humid-warm air contacts the cold surface of a transparent substrate, i.e. eyewear lenses, making the observed image blurred and hazy. To protect from fogging, the lens inner surfaces are protected with Anti-Fog coatings, which render them hydrophilic and induce water vapor condensation as a smooth, thin and invisible film, which uniformly flows down on the lens as the condensation progresses. Coatings differ in protection level, aging kinetics, and susceptibility to contamination. Some perform acceptably in limited conditions, beyond which the condensing water film becomes unstable, nonuniform, and scatters light or shows refractory distortions, both affecting the observed image. Quantifying the performance of Anti-Fog coated lenses is difficult: they may not show classical fogging and the existing testing methods, based on fog detection, are therefore inapplicable. The presented method for evaluating and quantifying AF properties is based on characterizing light scattering on lenses exposed to controlled humidity and temperature. Changes in intensity of laser light scattered at low angles (1, 2 4 and 8 degrees), observed during condensation of water on lenses, provide information on the swelling of Anti-Fog coatings, formation of uniform water film, going from an unstable to a steady state, and on the coalescence of discontinuous films. Real time observations/measurements allow for better understanding of factors controlling fogging and fog preventing phenomena. The method is especially useful in the development of new coatings for military-, sport-, and industrial protective eyewear as well as for medical and automotive applications. It allows for differentiating between coatings showing acceptable, good, and excellent performance.

  8. A method for determining leakage of 133Xe gas from septum-sealed glass vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, J.R.; Borak, T.B.; Pellicciarini, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed a method for determining the leakage of 133 Xe gas from septum-sealed glass vials that are supplied for medical examinations. Twenty vials each originally containing 370 MPq of 133 Xe and 20 vials each originally containing 740 MBq 133 Xe were measured daily for 26 d. Retention of 133 Xe within the vial was modeled as a first order process with a constant rate coefficient, λ T . The value of λ T was estimated for each vial using a regression analysis. The leakage rate, λ L , was then determined assuming that λ L = λ L + λ r where λ r represents the physical decay of 133 Xe. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using uncertainties in the estimates of each vial to obtain the mean and tails of the distribution for the average leakage rate, bar λ L . the average leakage rate for the complete sample of vials was 0.00007 d -1 with an upper, one-sided, 95% confidence limit of 0.0011 d -1 . Uncertainties in the published values of λ r for 133 Xe made a significant contribution to the uncertainties of the leakage rate for this sample of vials. The methods described can be applied to other situations where leakage of radioactive materials may be of concern

  9. Method for simultaneously coating a plurality of filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.A.; Pochan, P.D.; Siegal, M.P.; Dominguez, F.

    1995-07-11

    Methods and apparatuses are disclosed for coating materials, and the products and compositions produced thereby. Substances, such as diamond or diamond-like carbon, are deposited onto materials, such as a filament or a plurality of filaments simultaneously, using one or more cylindrical, inductively coupled, resonator plasma reactors. 3 figs.

  10. Method for providing uranium with a protective copper coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Forrest B.; Jones, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for providing uranium metal with a protective coating of copper. Uranium metal is subjected to a conventional cleaning operation wherein oxides and other surface contaminants are removed, followed by etching and pickling operations. The copper coating is provided by first electrodepositing a thin and relatively porous flash layer of copper on the uranium in a copper cyanide bath. The resulting copper-layered article is then heated in an air or inert atmosphere to volatilize and drive off the volatile material underlying the copper flash layer. After the heating step an adherent and essentially non-porous layer of copper is electro-deposited on the flash layer of copper to provide an adherent, multi-layer copper coating which is essentially impervious to corrosion by most gases.

  11. Hydroxyapatite coating on stainless steel by biomimetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, V.M.; Maia Filho, A.L.M.; Silva, G.; Sousa, E. de; Cardoso, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in implants due to their high mechanical strength and corrosion, however, are not able to connect to bone tissue and were classified as bioinert. The calcium phosphate ceramics such as hydroxyapatite (HA) are bioactive materials and create strong chemical bonds with bone tissue, but its brittleness and low fracture toughness render its use in conditions of high mechanical stress. The coating of steel with the bioactive ceramics such as HA, combines the properties of interest of both materials, accelerating bone formation around the implant. In this study, austenitic stainless steel samples were coated with apatite using the biomimetic method. The effect of three different surface conditions of steel and the immersion time in the SBF solution on the coating was evaluated. The samples were characterized by SEM, EDS and X-ray diffraction. (author)

  12. Mechanical seals

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, E

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical Seals, Third Edition is a source of practical information on the design and use of mechanical seals. Topics range from design fundamentals and test rigs to leakage, wear, friction and power, reliability, and special designs. This text is comprised of nine chapters; the first of which gives a general overview of seals, including various types of seals and their applications. Attention then turns to the fundamentals of seal design, with emphasis on six requirements that must be considered: sealing effectiveness, length of life, reliability, power consumption, space requirements, and c

  13. Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlena; Sukaryo, S.G.; Fajar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bone implants is a way to cure broken bones which is being developed. The implants can be made of metals, ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials commonly used are titanium (Ti), stainless steel, and metal alloys. This study used Co-based alloys, i.e. CoCrMo coated with titanium nitride (TiN) which was then coated on hidroxyapatite (HAp). The HAp coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy was done by biomimetic methods, first by soaking the metal alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 18, 24, and 36 hours. The immersion in the SBF solution produced white coat on the surface of the metal alloy. The layers formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Based on the SEM results of 36 hours treatment, the morphology of apatite crystal formed fine grains. According to XRD result, there were HAp peaks at angles 2θ 31.86, 32.25, dan 39.48. However, there were also CaCO 3 peaks at angles 2θ 29.46, 36.04, and 46.79. It indicated the pure HAp is not yet formed. (paper)

  14. Hidroxyapatite Coating on CoCrMo Alloy Titanium Nitride Coated Using Biomimetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlena; Sukaryo, S. G.; Fajar, M.

    2016-11-01

    Bone implants is a way to cure broken bones which is being developed. The implants can be made of metals, ceramics and polymers. Metallic materials commonly used are titanium (Ti), stainless steel, and metal alloys. This study used Co-based alloys, i.e. CoCrMo coated with titanium nitride (TiN) which was then coated on hidroxyapatite (HAp). The HAp coating on the surface of CoCrMo alloy was done by biomimetic methods, first by soaking the metal alloys in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution for 18, 24, and 36 hours. The immersion in the SBF solution produced white coat on the surface of the metal alloy. The layers formed were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and characterized by x-ray diffractometer (XRD). Based on the SEM results of 36 hours treatment, the morphology of apatite crystal formed fine grains. According to XRD result, there were HAp peaks at angles 2θ 31.86, 32.25, dan 39.48. However, there were also CaCO3 peaks at angles 2θ 29.46, 36.04, and 46.79. It indicated the pure HAp is not yet formed.

  15. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Thermal barrier coatings: Coating methods, performance, and heat engine applications. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning conference proceedings on coating methods, performance evaluations, and applications of thermal barrier coatings as protective coatings for heat engine components against high temperature corrosions and chemical erosions. The developments of thermal barrier coating techniques for high performance and reliable gas turbines, diesel engines, jet engines, and internal combustion engines are presented. Topics include plasma sprayed coating methods, yttria stabilized zirconia coatings, coating life models, coating failure and durability, thermal shock and cycling, and acoustic emission analysis of coatings. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Y.W.; Zhou, Y.C.; Bu, X.X.; Qiu, Y.

    2007-01-01

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method

  18. Evaluating elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings by relative method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y.W. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)], E-mail: ywbao@imr.ac.cn; Zhou, Y.C. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016 (China); Bu, X.X. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China); Qiu, Y. [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2007-06-15

    A simple approach named relative method is developed for determining the elastic modulus and strength of hard coatings. Analytical relationship among the moduli of the film, the substrate, and the film/substrate system was derived based on bending model, from which the elastic modulus of the coating can be determined uniquely via the measured moduli of the samples before and after coating. Furthermore, the relationship between the strength of the films and the bending strength of the coated sample is derived, thus both the modulus and the strength of coating can be evaluated via traditional tests on coated samples. Mathematic expressions of those calculations were derived, respectively for rectangular beam samples with three types of coating configurations: single face coating, sandwich coating and around coating. Experimental results using various brittle coatings demonstrated the validity and convenience of this method.

  19. Research on seal control systems for international nuclear safeguard and the vulnerability assessment on the seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongjian; Liu Tianshu; Cao Fangfang; Xu Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Safeguard seals, also called Tamper-indicating devices (TIDs), are widely used to detect tampering or unauthorized entry in the international safeguard and security systems, Seal control systems consist of seal implementing plan, seal development and the vulnerability assessment on tbe seals, effective implementing procedures and methods of the seals. The vulnerability assessment contents of safeguard seals, thermo-shrinked film seals being as an example, and seals control systems in the implementation program are researched. The seal control systems discuss task assignment, seals management flow and seals program data flow to promote applying effectively seals. The vulnerability assessment program of seals studies assurance level to some different tampering techniques and measures. The researches must promote utilizing seals effectively for nuclear security, non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, radioactive waste management, and the nuclear material accounting and control. (authors)

  20. Security seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobeli, Garth W.

    1985-01-01

    Security for a package or verifying seal in plastic material is provided by a print seal with unique thermally produced imprints in the plastic. If tampering is attempted, the material is irreparably damaged and thus detectable. The pattern of the imprints, similar to "fingerprints" are recorded as a positive identification for the seal, and corresponding recordings made to allow comparison. The integrity of the seal is proved by the comparison of imprint identification records made by laser beam projection.

  1. Seal arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempsey, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    A hydraulically balanced face type shaft seal is provided in which the opening and closing seal face areas retain concentricity with each other in the event of lateral shaft displacement. The seal arrangement is for a vertical high pressure pump, indented for use in the cooling system of a nuclear reactor. (Auth.)

  2. Optimization of Sealed Tube Graphitization Method for Environmental C-14 Studies Using MICADAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinyu, Laszlo, E-mail: rinyu@atomki.hu [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Isotoptech Zrt., H-4025 Debrecen (Hungary); Molnar, Mihaly [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Major, Istvan [Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Nagy, Tamas; Veres, Mihaly [Isotoptech Zrt., H-4025 Debrecen (Hungary); Kimak, Adam [University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary); Wacker, Lukas; Synal, Hans-Arno [Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The original sealed tube zinc reduction graphitization process was first developed for rapid low-precision measurements of biomedical tracer samples and later also applied for high precision measurements of not too old samples. In this study we tested the MICADAS (mini radiocarbon dating system [1]) radiocarbon measurements of targets prepared by sealed tube graphitization process. We found the optimal iron catalyst and reagents (TiH{sub 2} and Zn) amount whereby we can reach a relatively low background level, and minimized the overall {delta}{sup 13}C fractionation during the graphitization. Repeated measurements of normalization standards and real samples with known {sup 14}C activities were very well reproduced. Finally, we demonstrated the applicability of the sealed tube graphitization on real environmental samples covering a wide range of {sup 14}C concentrations.

  3. Development of nondestructive evaluation methods for ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingson, W. A.; Deemer, C.; Sun, J. G.; Erdman, S.; Muliere, D.; Wheeler, B.

    2002-01-01

    Various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are being developed to study the use of ceramic coatings on components in the hot-gas path of advanced low-emission gas-fired turbines. The types of ceramic coatings include thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) and environmental barrier coatings (EBCs). TBCs are under development for vanes, blades, and combustor liners to allow hotter gas-path temperatures, and EBCs are under development to reduce environmental damage to high-temperature components made of ceramic matrix composites. The NDE methods will be used to (a) provide data to assess the reliability of new coating application processes, (b) identify defective components that could cause unscheduled outages, (c) track growth rates of defects during component use in engines, and (d) allow rational judgment for replace/repair/re-use decisions regarding components. Advances in TBC application, both electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) and air plasma spraying (APS), are allowing higher temperatures in the hot-gas path. However, as TBCs become ''prime reliant,'' their condition at scheduled or unscheduled outages must be known. NDE methods are under development to assess the condition of the TBC for pre-spall conditions. EB-PVD test samples with up to 70 thermal cycles have been studied by a newly developed method involving polarized laser back-scatter NDE. Results suggest a correlation between the NDE laser data and the TBC/bond-coat topography. This finding is important because several theories directed toward understanding the pre-spall condition suggest that the topography in the thermally grown oxide layer changes significantly as a function of the number of thermal cycles. Tests have also been conducted with this NDE method on APS TBCs. Results suggest that the pre-spall condition is detected for these coatings. One-sided, high-speed thermal imaging also has shown promise for NDE of APS coatings. Testing of SiC/SiC composites for combustor liners

  4. FUSED SALT METHOD FOR COATING URANIUM WITH A METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, L.D.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for coating uranium with a less active metal such as Cr, Ni, or Cu comprising immersing the U in a substantially anhydrous molten solution of a halide of these less active metals in a ternary chloride composition which consists of selected percentages of KCl, NaCl and another chloride such as LiCl or CaCl/sub 2/.

  5. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, R.E. [TWI Ltd, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  6. Friction stir welding - an alternative method for sealing nuclear waste storage canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.E.

    2004-12-01

    When welding 50 mm thick copper a very high heat input is required to combat the high thermal diffusivity and only the Electron Beam Welding (EBW) process had this capability when this copper canister concept was conceived. Despite the encouraging results achieved using EBW with thick section copper, SKB felt that it would be prudent to assess other joining methods. This assessment concluded that friction welding, could also provide very high quality welds to satisfy the service life requirements of the SKB canister design. A friction welding variant called Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was shown to have the capability of welding 3 mm thick copper sheet with excellent integrity and reproducibility. This later provided sufficient encouragement for SKB to consider the potential of FSW as a method for joining thick section copper, using relatively simple machine tool based technology. It was thought that FSW might provide an alternative or complementary method for welding lids, or bases to canisters. In 1997 an FSW development programme started at TWI, focussed on the feasibility of welding 10 mm thick copper plate. Once this task was successfully completed, work continued to demonstrate that progressively thicker plate, up to 50 mm thick, could be joined. At this stage, with process viability established, a full size experimental FSW canister machine was designed and built. Work with this machine finished in January 2003, when it had been shown that FSW could definitely be used to weld lids to full size canisters. This report summarises the TWI development of FSW for SKB from 1997 to January 2003. It also highlights the important aspects of the process and the project milestones that will help to ensure that SKB has a welding technology that can be used with confidence for production fabrication of copper waste storage canisters in the future. The overall conclusion to this FSW development is that there is no doubt that the FSW process could be used to produce full

  7. Detection of spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis by immunological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Aritsune; Kadota, Hajime

    1976-01-01

    The spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis was separated, and the qualitative assay for the spore coat protein was made by use of the immunological technique. The immunological method was found to be useful for judging the maturation of spore coat in the course of sporulation. The spore coat protein antigen appeared at t 2 stage of sporulation. The addition of rifampicin at the earlier stages of sporulation inhibited the increase in content of the spore coat antigen. (auth.)

  8. Obtaining hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium by the biomimetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, A.; Martin, Y.; Pazos, L. M.; Parodi, M. B.; Ybarra, G. O.; Gonzalez, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a study about the deposition of hydroxyapatite on a titanium substrate employing the biomimetic method is presented. A solution with high content of calcium and phosphorus (SCS) was used. In addition, activation of titanium with hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid and a subsequent heat treatment was performed. The characterization of materials used and the coating obtained was carried out by Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). As a result of the activation processes a hydrated titanium oxide was formed. On the active surface, a coating of hydroxyapatite was obtained after a period of 24 h, which has a thickness of about 2-4 μm. (Author) 21 refs.

  9. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing members operatively disposed between the outlet nozzle and the hoop. The sealing members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop and are connected by a leak restraining member establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel

  10. Nozzle seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walling, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    In an illustrative embodiment of the invention, a nuclear reactor pressure vessel, having an internal hoop from which the heated coolant emerges from the reactor core and passes through to the reactor outlet nozzles, is provided with sealing rings operatively disposed between the outlet nozzles and the hoop. The sealing rings connected by flexible members are biased against the pressure vessel and the hoop, establishing a leak-proof condition between the inlet and outlet coolants in the region about the outlet nozzle. Furthermore, the flexible responsiveness of the seal assures that the seal will not structurally couple the hoop to the pressure vessel. 4 claims, 2 figures

  11. Continuous improvement of pump seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Eyvindson, A.; Rhodes, D.B.

    2003-01-01

    Pump seal reliability continues to be an area needing improvement and ongoing vigilance. Methods have been developed for identifying and assessing factors relating to seal performance, selecting the most relevant ones for a specific station, and then focusing on the most significant aspects and how to improve. Discussion invariably addresses maintenance practices, seal design, monitoring capabilities, operating conditions, transients, and pump and motor design. Success in reliability improvement requires ongoing dialogue among the station operators, pump manufacturers and seal designers. AECL CAN-seals lead the nuclear industry in reliability and seal life. They effectively save operators millions of dollars in outage time and person-rem. This paper describes some of the significant developments in AECL's ongoing program in seal R and D, as well as recent new installations following the most demanding seal qualification programs to date. (author)

  12. Method of coating an iron-based article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdefrau, Neal; Beals, James T.; Sun, Ellen Y.; Yamanis, Jean

    2016-11-29

    A method of coating an iron-based article includes a first heating step of heating a substrate that includes an iron-based material in the presence of an aluminum source material and halide diffusion activator. The heating is conducted in a substantially non-oxidizing environment, to cause the formation of an aluminum-rich layer in the iron-based material. In a second heating step, the substrate that has the aluminum-rich layer is heated in an oxidizing environment to oxidize the aluminum in the aluminum-rich layer.

  13. An evaluation of risk methods for prioritizing fire protection features: a procedure for fire barrier penetration seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generally evaluates risk methods available for prioritizing fire protection features. Risk methods involving both the use of qualitative insights, and quantitative results from a fire probabilistic risk analysis are reviewed. The applicability of these methods to develop a prioritized list of fire barrier penetration seals in a plant based on risk significance is presented as a procedure to illustrate the benefits of the methods. The paper concludes that current fire risk assessment methods can be confidently used to prioritize plant fire protection features, specifically fire barrier penetration seals. Simple prioritization schemes, using qualitative assessments and insights from fire PRA methodology may be implemented without the need for quantitative results. More elaborate prioritization schemes that allow further refinements to the categorization process may be implemented using the quantitative results of the screening processes in good fire PRAs. The use of the quantitative results from good fire PRAs provide several benefits for risk prioritization of fire protection features at plants, mainly from the plant systems analyses conducted for a fire PRA

  14. Development of Copper Canister through Cold Sprayed Coating Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun

    2007-12-15

    General thickness of a copper canister is 5 cm for a underground disposal application. The lower limit of a thickness is determined by a forging technology. But many experts in this area agrees that the thickness 1 cm is enough at the underground disposal for the life time of 1,000,000 years. Thus new technology is suggested for the making 1 cm thickness copper canister, that is a cold spray coating method(CSC). In this report, the CSC is examined and the technical possibility for making copper canister is measured. The overview of CSC and its characteristics are discussed. Various copper particles for the CSC are analyzed and the formed coating layers are examined to find their porosity and uniformity. A Tafa copper particle and Chang-sung copper particle are selected for making 1 cm thick test specimen. Using the CSC specimens, tensile test and XRD analysis are performed. As a corrosion evaluation, a electrochemical test such as a polarization test is done, together with humid corrosion test and chloric acid immersion test. Through the corrosion tests, it is tried to confirm that the CSC is valuable method for making a copper canister. Consequently, it is confirmed that the CSC method is very usful for making 1 cm thick copper canister. the porosity of CSC layer is very low at 0.3 in case of Tafa copper layer. In corrosion tests, the CSC layers are very stable in active environments. It is hard to say that the difference of processing method but the purity of copper is important for the corrosion rate evaluation. The CSC method is very effective method for making 1 cm thick copper canister, It is hoped that the CSC method is applied in a HLW underground disposal system in the future.

  15. Development of Copper Canister through Cold Sprayed Coating Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Jong Won; Choi, Heui Joo; Lee, Jong Youl; Jeong, Jong Tae; Kim, Sung Ki; Cho, Dong Keun

    2007-12-01

    General thickness of a copper canister is 5 cm for a underground disposal application. The lower limit of a thickness is determined by a forging technology. But many experts in this area agrees that the thickness 1 cm is enough at the underground disposal for the life time of 1,000,000 years. Thus new technology is suggested for the making 1 cm thickness copper canister, that is a cold spray coating method(CSC). In this report, the CSC is examined and the technical possibility for making copper canister is measured. The overview of CSC and its characteristics are discussed. Various copper particles for the CSC are analyzed and the formed coating layers are examined to find their porosity and uniformity. A Tafa copper particle and Chang-sung copper particle are selected for making 1 cm thick test specimen. Using the CSC specimens, tensile test and XRD analysis are performed. As a corrosion evaluation, a electrochemical test such as a polarization test is done, together with humid corrosion test and chloric acid immersion test. Through the corrosion tests, it is tried to confirm that the CSC is valuable method for making a copper canister. Consequently, it is confirmed that the CSC method is very usful for making 1 cm thick copper canister. the porosity of CSC layer is very low at 0.3 in case of Tafa copper layer. In corrosion tests, the CSC layers are very stable in active environments. It is hard to say that the difference of processing method but the purity of copper is important for the corrosion rate evaluation. The CSC method is very effective method for making 1 cm thick copper canister, It is hoped that the CSC method is applied in a HLW underground disposal system in the future

  16. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  17. Ferrules seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.L.

    1984-07-10

    A device is provided for sealing an inner tube and an outer tube without excessively deforming the tubes. The device includes two ferrules which cooperate to form a vacuum-tight seal between the inner tube and outer tube and having mating surfaces such that overtightening is not possible. 3 figs.

  18. Failure analysis and seal life prediction for contacting mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. J.; He, X. Y.; Wei, L.; Feng, X.

    2008-11-01

    Fault tree analysis method was applied to quantitatively investigate the causes of the leakage failure of mechanical seals. It is pointed out that the change of the surface topography is the main reasons causing the leakage of mechanical seals under the condition of constant preloads. Based on the fractal geometry theory, the relationship between the surface topography and working time were investigated by experiments, and the effects of unit load acting on seal face on leakage path in a mechanical seal were analyzed. The model of predicting seal life of mechanical seals was established on the basis of the relationship between the surface topography and working time and allowable leakage. The seal life of 108 mechanical seal operating at the system of diesel fuel storage and transportation was predicted and the problem of the condition monitoring for the long-period operation of mechanical seal was discussed by this method. The research results indicate that the method of predicting seal life of mechanical seals is feasible, and also is foundation to make scheduled maintenance time and to achieve safe-reliability and low-cost operation for industrial devices.

  19. A simple method for preparing superconducting FeSe pellets without sealing in evacuated silica tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting tetragonal FeSe pellets were made by reacting mixtures of elemental Fe and Se powders in argon atmosphere without sealing in evacuated silica tubes. A simple tube furnace has been used. Although the tube's material consisted of quartz, an alumina tube could be used as well. X......-ray pure samples with onset of superconducting transition between 8.0K and 8.5K were obtained under specific heat treatment conditions. Residual, unreacted Fe particles could be virtually eliminated through prolonged annealing. A key factor for the synthesis of good samples consists in using processing...

  20. Sealing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    A sealing device for minimising the leakage of toxic or radioactive contaminated environments through a biological shield along an opening through which a flexible component moves that penetrates the shield. The sealing device comprises an outer tubular member which extends over a length not less than the maximum longitudinal movement of the component along the opening. An inner sealing block is located intermediate the length of the component by connectors and is positioned in the bore of the outer tubular member to slide in the bore and effect a seal over the entire longitudinal movement of the component. The cross-section of the device may be circular and the block may be of polytetrafluoroethylene or of nylon impregnated with molybdenum or may be metallic. A number of the sealing devices may be combined into an assembly for a plurality of adjacent longitudinally movable components, each adapted to sustain a tensile load, providing the various drives of a master-slave manipulator. (author)

  1. Novel method for screening of enteric film coatings properties with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorożyński, Przemysław; Jamróz, Witold; Niwiński, Krzysztof; Kurek, Mateusz; Węglarz, Władysław P; Jachowicz, Renata; Kulinowski, Piotr

    2013-11-18

    The aim of the study is to present the concept of novel method for fast screening of enteric coating compositions properties without the need of preparation of tablets batches for fluid bed coating. Proposed method involves evaluation of enteric coated model tablets in specially designed testing cell with application of MRI technique. The results obtained in the testing cell were compared with results of dissolution studies of mini-tablets coated in fluid bed apparatus. The method could be useful in early stage of formulation development for screening of film coating properties that will shorten and simplify the development works. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Optically transparent, superhydrophobic, biocompatible thin film coatings and methods for producing same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Simpson, John T.; Hillesheim, Daniel A.; Trammell, Neil E.

    2017-09-05

    An optically transparent, hydrophobic coating, exhibiting an average contact angle of at least 100 degrees with a drop of water. The coating can be produced using low-cost, environmentally friendly components. Methods of preparing and using the optically transparent, hydrophobic coating.

  3. Development of Bioactive Ceramic Coating on Titanium Alloy substrate for Biomedical Application Using Dip Coating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmawi, R.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.; Amin, A. M.; Mustafa, N.; Noranai, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Bioactive apatite, such as hydroxyapatite ceramic (HA), [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2] has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications due to its excellent biocompatibility and tissue bioactivity properties. Its bioactivity provides direct bonding to the bone tissue. Because of its similarity in chemical composition to the inorganic matrix of bone, HA is widely used as implant materials for bone. Unfortunately, because of its poor mechanical properties,. this bioactive material is not suitable for load bearing applications. In this study, by the assistance of dip-coating technique, HA coatings were deposited on titanium alloy substrates by employing hydrothermal derived HA powder. The produced coatings then were oven-dried at 130°C for 1 hour and calcined at various temperature over the range of 200-800°C for 1 hour. XRD measurement showed that HA was the only phase present in the coatings. However coatings calcined at 800°C comprised a mixture of HA and tri-calcium phosphate (TCP). FTIR measurement showed the existence of hydroxyl, phosphate, and carbonate bands. PO4 - band became sharper and narrower with the increased of calcination temperature. FESEM observation showed that the coating is polycrystalline with individual particles of nano to submicron size and has an average particle size of 35 nm. The thickness of the coating are direcly propotional with the viscosity of coating slurry. It was shown that the more viscous coating slurry would produce a thicker ceramic coating. Mechanical properties of the coating were measured in term of adhesion strength using a Micro Materials Nano Test microscratch testing machine. The result revealed that the coating had a good adhesion to the titanium alloy substrate.

  4. A new measurement method of coatings thickness based on lock-in thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin-Yu; Meng, Xiang-bin; Ma, Yong-chao

    2016-05-01

    Coatings have been widely used in modern industry and it plays an important role. Coatings thickness is directly related to the performance of the functional coatings, therefore, rapid and accurate coatings thickness inspection has great significance. Existing coatings thickness measurement method is difficult to achieve fast and accurate on-site non-destructive coatings inspection due to cost, accuracy, destruction during inspection and other reasons. This paper starts from the introduction of the principle of lock-in thermography, and then performs an in-depth study on the application of lock-in thermography in coatings inspection through numerical modeling and analysis. The numerical analysis helps explore the relationship between coatings thickness and phase, and the relationship lays the foundation for accurate calculation of coatings thickness. The author sets up a lock-in thermography inspection system and uses thermal barrier coatings specimens to conduct an experiment. The specimen coatings thickness is measured and calibrated to verify the quantitative inspection. Experiment results show that the lock-in thermography method can perform fast coatings inspection and the inspection accuracy is about 95%. Therefore, the method can meet the field testing requirements for engineering projects.

  5. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

  6. Method of removing clogging materials due to ruthenium precipitates and sealing them in device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshikawa, Tadahiro; Sasahira, Akira.

    1994-01-01

    In a facility, such as a reprocessing facility, for processing a solution containing a great amount of ruthenium, precipitates due to evaporated ruthenium and cooled NO x are brought into contact with each other to decompose the precipitates due to the evaporated ruthenium. Precipitates due to ruthenium evaporated from the solution are reacted with cooled NO x , and the precipitates of ruthenium are decomposed and returned to the solution in the form of extremely fine particles together with recycling flow from the inner wall of the device. Since the precipitates of ruthenium returned to the solution are stable, they are no more evaporated and precipitated on the inner wall of the device. In the solution processing device having a possibility of clogging, clogging can be prevented and the precipitates of ruthenium can be sealed by decomposing them. (T.M.)

  7. Test Method Variability in Slow Crack Growth Properties of Sealing Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, J. A.; Tandon, R.

    2010-01-01

    The crack growth properties of several sealing glasses were measured by using constant stress rate testing in 2 and 95 percent RH (relative humidity). Crack growth parameters measured in high humidity are systematically smaller (n and B) than those measured in low humidity, and crack velocities for dry environments are 100x lower than for wet environments. The crack velocity is very sensitive to small changes in RH at low RH. Biaxial and uniaxial stress states produced similar parameters. Confidence intervals on crack growth parameters that were estimated from propagation of errors solutions were comparable to those from Monte Carlo simulation. Use of scratch-like and indentation flaws produced similar crack growth parameters when residual stresses were considered.

  8. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We successfully coated the poly(MPC-co-BMA) copolymer on the ultrafiltration membrane. • The hydrophilicity and antifouling were improved by coating poly(MPC-co-BMA). • The flow-through method showed better anti-fouling properties compared with immersion method. • P(MPC-co-BMA) was quite stable on the coated membranes. - Abstract: To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  9. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto, E-mail: matuyama@kobe-u.ac.jp

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We successfully coated the poly(MPC-co-BMA) copolymer on the ultrafiltration membrane. • The hydrophilicity and antifouling were improved by coating poly(MPC-co-BMA). • The flow-through method showed better anti-fouling properties compared with immersion method. • P(MPC-co-BMA) was quite stable on the coated membranes. - Abstract: To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  10. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 2 - EBW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salonen, T.

    2014-05-01

    This report consist the results of the development of the electron beam welding (EBW) method for sealing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal canister. This report has been used as background material for selection of the sealing method for the SNF canister. Report contains the state of the art knowledge of the EBW method and research and development (R and D) results done by Posiva. Relevant R and D results of EB-welds done by SKB are also reviewed in this report. Requirements set for the welding and weld are present. These requirements are based on the long term safety and also some part of requirements are set by other processes like non-destructive testing (NDT) and manufacturing processes of components. Initial state of the weld is described in this report. Initial state has significant effect on the long term safety issues like corrosion resistance and creep ductility. Also short and long term mechanical properties as well as corrosion properties are described. Microstructure and residual stresses of the weld is represented in this report. Report consists also imperfections of the weld and statistical analysis of the evaluation of the probability of the largest defect size on the weld. Results of corrosion and creep tests of EB-welds are reviewed in this report. EBW process and machine are described. Preliminary designing of the EBW-machine has been done including component handling equipments. Preliminary welding procedure specification (pWPS) has drawn up and qualification of the personnel is described briefly. In-line process and quality control system including seam tracking system is implemented in modern EBW machine. Also NDT methods for inspection of the weld are described in this report. Concerning the results from the research and development work it can be concluded that EB welding method is suitable method for sealing SNF canister. Weld material fulfils requirements set by the long term safety. The welding system is robust and reliable and it is based

  11. Method and coating composition for protecting and decontaminating surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhold, D C; Peterson, M D

    1959-03-10

    A protective coating useful in the decontamination of surfaces exposed to radioactive substances is described. This coating is placed on the surface before use and is soluble in water, allowing its easy removal in the event decontamination becomes necessary. Suitable coating compositions may be prepared by mixing a water soluble carbohydrate such as sucrose or dextrin, together with a hygroscopic agent such as calcium chloride or zinc chloride.

  12. Atomic layer deposition-A novel method for the ultrathin coating of minitablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautala, Jaana; Kääriäinen, Tommi; Hoppu, Pekka; Kemell, Marianna; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Cameron, David; George, Steven; Juppo, Anne Mari

    2017-10-05

    We introduce atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a novel method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets. The effects of ALD coating on the tablet characteristics and taste masking were investigated and compared with the established coating method. Minitablets containing bitter tasting denatonium benzoate were coated by ALD using three different TiO 2 nanolayer thicknesses (number of deposition cycles). The established coating of minitablets was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed apparatus using four concentration levels of aqueous Eudragit ® E coating polymer. The coated minitablets were studied with respect to the surface morphology, taste masking capacity, in vitro disintegration and dissolution, mechanical properties, and uniformity of content. The ALD thin coating resulted in minimal increase in the dimensions and weight of minitablets in comparison to original tablet cores. Surprisingly, ALD coating with TiO 2 nanolayers decreased the mechanical strength, and accelerated the in vitro disintegration of minitablets. Unlike previous studies, the studied levels of TiO 2 nanolayers on tablets were also inadequate for effective taste masking. In summary, ALD permits a simple and rapid method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets, and provides nanoscale-range TiO 2 coatings on porous minitablets. More research, however, is needed to clarify its potential in tablet taste masking applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Seals Research at AlliedSignal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M. Rifat

    1996-01-01

    A consortium has been formed to address seal problems in the Aerospace sector of Allied Signal, Inc. The consortium is represented by makers of Propulsion Engines, Auxiliary Power Units, Gas Turbine Starters, etc. The goal is to improve Face Seal reliability, since Face Seals have become reliability drivers in many of our product lines. Several research programs are being implemented simultaneously this year. They include: Face Seal Modeling and Analysis Methodology; Oil Cooling of Seals; Seal Tracking Dynamics; Coking Formation & Prevention; and Seal Reliability Methods.

  14. Cover-gas-seal component development: dynamic inflatable-plug seal improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    This report documents the 1) radial compliance and 2) low friction coating tests conducted on the CRBRP Rotating Plug Inflatable Seals per test plan N707TR810014. Test results show that narrowing the seal blade from 0.25 to 0.12 in. will effectively reduce dynamic drag from 30 to 20 lb/ft under nominal conditions and will increase seal radial compliance from 0.12 to 0.30 in. without an unacceptable rise in dynamic drag. Tests also demonstrated that application of a teflon coating to the seal wear surface reduced breakaway drag by 25% based on results of comparison dwells

  15. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  16. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T c superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T c superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances

  17. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  18. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  19. Characterization of sealed radioactive sources. Uncertainty analysis to improve detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, D.G.; Sommers, J.D.; Adamic, M.L.; Jimenez, M.; Giglio, J.J.; Carney, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    A radioactive 137 Cs source has been analyzed for the radioactive parent 137 Cs and stable decay daughter 137 Ba. The ratio of the daughter to parent atoms is used to estimate the date when Cs was purified prior to source encapsulation (an 'age' since purification). The isotopes were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after chemical separation. In addition, Ba was analyzed by isotope dilution ICP-MS (ID-ICP-MS). A detailed error analysis of the mass spectrometric work has been undertaken to identify areas of improvement, as well as quantifying the effect the errors have on the 'age' determined. This paper reports an uncertainty analysis to identifying areas of improvement and alternative techniques that may reduce the uncertainties. In particular, work on isotope dilution using ICP-MS for the 'age' determination of sealed sources is presented. The results will be compared to the original work done using external standards to calibrate the ICP-MS instrument. (author)

  20. In vitro biological performance of minerals substituted hydroxyapatite coating by pulsed electrodeposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopi, Dhanaraj, E-mail: dhanaraj_gopi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Karthika, Arumugam; Nithiya, Subramani [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Kavitha, Louis [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-03-01

    The present study deals with the optimization of minerals (Sr, Mg and Zn) substituted hydroxyapatite coatings (M-HAP) at different pulse on and off time (1 s, 2 s, 3 s and 4 s) by pulsed electrodeposition method. The formation of M-HAP coating was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction studies (XRD). The morphological features and the content of Sr, Mg and Zn ions in M-HAP coated Ti–6Al–4V were investigated by high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The electrochemical studies were performed for M-HAP coated Ti–6Al–4V in simulated body fluid which exhibited better corrosion resistance at the prolonged pulse off time. The in vitro cell adhesion test revealed that the M-HAP coating is found appropriate for the formation of new cell growth which proves the enhanced biocompatible nature of the coating. Thus the M-HAP coating will serve as a potential candidate in orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • We successfully achieved minerals substituted HAP coatings on Ti alloy by PED method. • The M-HAP coated Ti alloy exhibited better bioresistivity in SBF. • The as-coated sample showed antimicrobial activity and better cell viability. • The in vitro test displayed the formation of new cell growth. • The M-HAP coating can serve as a better candidate in orthopedic applications.

  1. Closure and Sealing Design Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Lahnalampi; J. Case

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the ''Closure and Sealing Design Calculation'' is to illustrate closure and sealing methods for sealing shafts, ramps, and identify boreholes that require sealing in order to limit the potential of water infiltration. In addition, this calculation will provide a description of the magma that can reduce the consequences of an igneous event intersecting the repository. This calculation will also include a listing of the project requirements related to closure and sealing. The scope of this calculation is to: summarize applicable project requirements and codes relating to backfilling nonemplacement openings, removal of uncommitted materials from the subsurface, installation of drip shields, and erecting monuments; compile an inventory of boreholes that are found in the area of the subsurface repository; describe the magma bulkhead feature and location; and include figures for the proposed shaft and ramp seals. The objective of this calculation is to: categorize the boreholes for sealing by depth and proximity to the subsurface repository; develop drawing figures which show the location and geometry for the magma bulkhead; include the shaft seal figures and a proposed construction sequence; and include the ramp seal figure and a proposed construction sequence. The intent of this closure and sealing calculation is to support the License Application by providing a description of the closure and sealing methods for the Safety Analysis Report. The closure and sealing calculation will also provide input for Post Closure Activities by describing the location of the magma bulkhead. This calculation is limited to describing the final configuration of the sealing and backfill systems for the underground area. The methods and procedures used to place the backfill and remove uncommitted materials (such as concrete) from the repository and detailed design of the magma bulkhead will be the subject of separate analyses or calculations. Post-closure monitoring will not

  2. Measure Guideline: Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks. The purpose of this document is to provide the outline of the overview and process of insulating and air sealing walls so that home retrofit professionals can identify approaches to air sealing and insulation measures.

  3. Hydroxyapatite coating by biomimetic method on titanium alloy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. This article reports a biomimetic approach for coating hydroxyapatite on titanium alloy at ambient temperature. In the present study, coating was obtained by soaking the substrate in a 5 times concentrated simulated body fluid (5XSBF) solution for different periods of time with and without the use of CaO–SiO2.

  4. Hydrogen permeation through steel coated with erbium oxide by sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhenyu; Suzuki, Akihiro; Levchuk, Denis; Chikada, Takumi; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo; Terai, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Er 2 O 3 coating is formed on austenitic stainless steel 316ss by sol-gel method. The results showed good crystallization of coating by baking in high purity flowing-argon at 973 K, and indicated that a little oxygen in baking atmosphere is necessary to crystallization of coating. The best baking temperature could be thought as 973 K, to get good crystallization of coating and avoid strong oxidation of steel substrate. The deuterium permeation test was performed for coated and bare 316ss, to evaluate the property of Er 2 O 3 sol-gel coating as a potential tritium permeation barrier. In this study, the deuterium permeability of coated 316ss is about 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than that of bare 316ss, and is about 2-3 orders of magnitude than the referred data of bare Eurofer97 and F82H martensitic steel.

  5. Method of making Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide superconductors comprising heating at elevated pressures in a sealed container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechtev, W.L.; Osofsky, M.S.; Skelton, E.F.; Toth, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of forming a Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide high T c superconductor. It comprises forming a reaction mixture of the oxides of Sr, Cu, Ca, and Tl in stoichiometric proportions to make a Tl-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide high T c superconducting compound; compressing the reaction mixture into a hard body; placing the hard body into a container for containing thallium vapor; evacuating and sealing the hard body in the container; heating the hard body and the container at a temperature of about 800 degrees C to about 950 degrees C and under pressure of at least about 30,000 psi until the container metal around the hard body and the oxides of Tl, Sr, Ca, and Cu react to form a superconducting compound; and cooling the superconducting compound to room temperature and returning the superconducting compound to atmospheric pressure

  6. Synthesis of Large-Scale Single-Crystalline Monolayer WS2 Using a Semi-Sealed Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei Lan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As a two-dimensional semiconductor, WS2 has attracted great attention due to its rich physical properties and potential applications. However, it is still difficult to synthesize monolayer single-crystalline WS2 at larger scale. Here, we report the growth of large-scale triangular single-crystalline WS2 with a semi-sealed installation by chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Through this method, triangular single-crystalline WS2 with an average length of more than 300 µm was obtained. The largest one was about 405 μm in length. WS2 triangles with different sizes and thicknesses were analyzed by optical microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM. Their optical properties were evaluated by Raman and photoluminescence (PL spectra. This report paves the way to fabricating large-scale single-crystalline monolayer WS2, which is useful for the growth of high-quality WS2 and its potential applications in the future.

  7. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Paul K. T.; Gallaher, George R.; Wu, Jeffrey C. S.

    1993-01-01

    A method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane.

  8. Design and optimization of coating structure for the thermal barrier coatings fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying via finite element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first prerequisite for fabricating the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs with excellent performance is to find an optimized coating structure with high thermal insulation effect and low residual stress. This paper discusses the design and optimization of a suitable coating structure for the TBCs prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS using the finite element method. The design and optimization processes comply with the rules step by step, as the structure develops from a simple to a complex one. The research results indicate that the suitable thicknesses of the bond-coating and top-coating are 60–120 μm and 300–420 μm, respectively, for the single ceramic layer YSZ/NiCoCrAlY APS-TBC. The embedded interlayer (50 wt.%YSZ + 50 wt.%NiCoCrAlY will further reduce the residual stress without sacrificing the thermal insulation effect. The double ceramic layer was further considered which was based on the single ceramic layer TBC. The embedded interlayer and the upper additional ceramic layer will have a best match between the low residual stress and high thermal insulation effect. Finally, the optimized coating structure was obtained, i.e., the La2Ce2O7(LC/YSZ/Interlayer/NiCoCrAlY coating structure with appropriate layer thickness is the best choice. The effective thermal conductivity of this optimized LC/YSZ/IL/BL TBC is 13.2% lower than that of the typical single ceramic layer YSZ/BL TBC.

  9. Long Gd-123 coated conductor by PLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, H.; Igarashi, M.; Hanada, Y.; Miura, T.; Hanyu, S.; Kakimoto, K.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed long Gd-123 coated conductors by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) method. Recently, large-scale reel-to-reel apparatus with the 110 cm x 15 cm assisting ion source was introduced to IBAD system. It was enable to produce 500 m-class IBAD-Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) tapes with Δφ of below 15 deg. and high throughputs of 3 m/h. Furthermore, apparatus with multi-lane and laser scanning was introduced to PLD system. As a result, end to end I c of 318 A were obtained for a 201.5 m long tape, and I c x L values were 64,077 Am. Furthermore, 500 m-class deposition was carried out by improving PLD conditions. As a result, I c x L values of 112,166 Am was obtained and it's a world record on August 2007. In the short samples, I c of over 500 A was obtained with Gd-123 thickness of 2.0 μm and over 100 A was obtained in magnetic field of 3 T, perpendicular to c-axis

  10. Method for Qualification of Coatings Applied to Wet Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-16

    The field application of a pipeline repair or rehabilitation coating usually cannot wait until ambient conditions become optimal. In a humid environment, water can condense on the pipe surface because the pipe surface is usually cooler than the ambie...

  11. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  12. A novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yukun; Ye, Fuxing; Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    The plasma sprayed coatings are stacked by splats, which are regarded generally as the elementary units of coating. Many researchers have focused on the morphology and formation mechanism of splat. However, a novel method to predict the highest hardness of plasma sprayed coating without micro-defects is proposed according to the nanohardness of splat in this paper. The effectiveness of this novel method was examined by experiments. Firstly, the microstructure of splats and coating, meanwhile the 3D topography of the splats were observed by SEM (SU1510) and video microscope (VHX-2000). Secondly, the nanohardness of splats was evaluated by nanoindentation (NHT) in order to be compared with microhardness of coating measured by microhardness tester (HV-1000A). The results show that the nanohardness of splats with diameter of 70 μm, 100 μm and 140 μm were in the scope of 11∼12 GPa while the microhardness of coating were in the range of 8∼9 GPa. Because the splats had not micro-defects such as pores and cracks in the nanohardness evaluated nano-zone, the nanohardness of the splats can be utilized to predict the highest hardness of coating without micro-defects. This method indicates the maximum of sprayed coating hardness and will reduce the test number to get high hardness coating for better wear resistance.

  13. Machine Vision Inspection of Polymeric Traypack Seal Areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coburn, John

    2002-01-01

    .... Since entrapped matter can lead to open seals, defects, and seal anomalies, a method of measurement for seal area contamination is useful in quantifying effects of filler changes, line speeds, and product formulations...

  14. Study of Thermal Fatigue Resistance of a Composite Coating Made by a Vacuum Fusion Sintering Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Thermal fatigue behavior of a Ni-base alloy chromium carbide composite coating made by a vacuum fusion sintering method are discussed. Results show that thermal fatigue behavior is associated with cyclic upper temperature and coating thickness. As the thickness of the coating decreases, the thermal fatigue resistance increases. The thermal fatigue resistance cuts down with the thermal cyclic upper temperature rising. The crack growth rate decreases with the increase in cyclic number until crack arrests. Thermal fatigue failure was not found along the interface of the coating/matrix. The tract of thermal fatigue crack cracks along the interfaces of phases.

  15. Synthesis of durable microcapsules for self-healing anticorrosive coatings: A comparison of selected methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesterova, Tatyana; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Kiil, Søren

    2011-01-01

    -based anticorrosive coatings, based on incorporation of microcapsules, filled with reactive agents, into the coating matrix, is investigated. Upon small damages to the coating, the reagents are released from the capsules and react, thereby forming a cross-linked network, which heals the crack. However......Self-healing materials have the ability to ‘repair’ themselves upon exposure to an external stimulus. In the field of coatings, extensive laboratory research has been conducted on these so-called smart materials in the last decade. In the present work, a self-healing concept for epoxy......, for the concept to work, microcapsules have to be strong enough to remain intact during storage and coating formulation and application. Furthermore, the capsules must remain stable for many years in the dry coating. Laboratory experiments, using four out of several encapsulation methods available...

  16. Influence of Starting Powders on Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated by Room Temperature Spraying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Hahn, Byung Dong; Yoon, Seog Young

    2015-08-01

    Three types of raw materials were used for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by using the room temperature spraying method and their influence on the microstructure and in vitro characteristics were investigated. Starting hydroxyapatite powders for coatings on titanium substrate were prepared by a heat treatment at 1100 °C for 2 h of bovine bone, bone ash, and commercial hydroxyapatite powders. The phase compositions and Ca/P ratios of the three hydroxyapatite coatings were similar to those of the raw materials without decomposition or formation of a new phase. All hydroxyapatite coatings showed a honeycomb structure, but their surface microstructures revealed different features in regards to surface morphology and roughness, based on the staring materials. All coatings consisted of nano-sized grains and had dense microstructure. Inferred from in vitro experiments in pure water, all coatings have a good dissolution-resistance and biostability in water.

  17. Method and apparatus for measuring on-line failure of turbine thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zombo, Paul J.; Lemieux, Dennis; Diatzikis, Evangelos

    2010-04-06

    A method of remotely monitoring the radiant energy (6) emitted from a turbine component such as a turbine blade (1) having a low-reflective surface coating (3) which may be undergoing potential degradation is used to determine whether erosion, spallation, delamination, or the like, of the coating (3) is occurring.

  18. Method of producing carbon coated nano- and micron-scale particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W. Lee; Weigle, John C; Phillips, Jonathan

    2013-12-17

    A method of making carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles comprising entraining particles in an aerosol gas, providing a carbon-containing gas, providing a plasma gas, mixing the aerosol gas, the carbon-containing gas, and the plasma gas proximate a torch, bombarding the mixed gases with microwaves, and collecting resulting carbon-coated nano- or micron-scale particles.

  19. Selection of boron based tribological hard coatings using multi-criteria decision making methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çalışkan, Halil

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Boron based coating selection problem for cutting tools was solved. • EXPROM2, TOPSIS and VIKOR methods were used for ranking the alternative materials. • The best coatings for cutting tool were selected as TiBN and TiSiBN. • The ranking results are in good agreement with cutting test results in literature. - Abstract: Mechanical and tribological properties of hard coatings can be enhanced using boron as alloying element. Therefore, multicomponent nanostructured boron based hard coatings are deposited on cutting tools by different methods at different parameters. Different mechanical and tribological properties are obtained after deposition, and it is a difficult task to select the best coating material. In this paper, therefore, a systematic evaluation model was proposed to tackle the difficulty of the material selection with specific properties among a set of available alternatives. The alternatives consist of multicomponent nanostructured TiBN, TiCrBN, TiSiBN and TiAlSiBN coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering and ion implantation assisted magnetron sputtering at different parameters. The alternative coating materials were ranked by using three multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods, i.e. EXPROM2 (preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluation), TOPSIS (technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution) and VIKOR (VIšekriterijumsko KOmpromisno Rangiranje), in order to determine the best coating material for cutting tools. Hardness (H), Young’s modulus (E), elastic recovery, friction coefficient, critical load, H/E and H 3 /E 2 ratios were considered as material selection criteria. In order to determine the importance weights of the evaluation criteria, a compromised weighting method, which composes of the analytic hierarchy process and Entropy methods, were used. The ranking results showed that TiBN and TiSiBN coatings deposited at given parameters are the best coatings for cutting tools

  20. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    Various types of shroud, diaphragm, and end seals preventing idle leak of working steam are installed in the flow paths of steam turbine cylinders for improving their efficiency. Widely known labyrinth seals are most extensively used in the Russian turbine construction industry. The category of labyrinth seals also includes seals with honeycomb inserts. The developers of seals with honeycomb inserts state that the use of such seals makes it possible to achieve certain gain due to smaller leaks of working fluid and more reliable operation of the system under the conditions in which the rotor rotating parts may rub against the stator elements. However, a positive effect can only be achieved if the optimal design parameters of the honeycomb structure are fulfilled with due regard to the specific features of its manufacturing technology and provided that this structure is applied in a goal-seeking manner in the seals of steam and gas turbines and compressors without degrading their vibration stability. Calculated and preliminary assessments made by experts testify that the replacement of conventional labyrinth seals by seals with honeycomb inserts alone, due to which the radial gaps in the shroud seal can be decreased from 1.5 to 0.5 mm, allows the turbine cylinder efficiency to be increased at the initial stage by approximately 1% with the corresponding gain in the turbine set power output. The use of rectangular-cellular seals may result, according to estimates made by their developers, in a further improvement of turbine efficiency by 0.5-1.0%. The labor input required to fabricate such seals is six to eight times smaller than that to fabricate labyrinth seals with honeycomb inserts. Recent years have seen the turbine construction companies of the United States and Germany advertising the use of abradable (sealing) coatings (borrowed from the gas turbine construction technology) in the turbine designs instead of labyrinth seals. The most efficient performance of

  1. Leak Rate Quantification Method for Gas Pressure Seals with Controlled Pressure Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Braun, Minel J.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement to the pressure decay leak rate method with mass point analysis solved deficiencies in the standard method. By adding a control system, a constant gas pressure differential across the test article was maintained. As a result, the desired pressure condition was met at the onset of the test, and the mass leak rate and measurement uncertainty were computed in real-time. The data acquisition and control system were programmed to automatically stop when specified criteria were met. Typically, the test was stopped when a specified level of measurement uncertainty was attained. Using silicone O-ring test articles, the new method was compared with the standard method that permitted the downstream pressure to be non-constant atmospheric pressure. The two methods recorded comparable leak rates, but the new method recorded leak rates with significantly lower measurement uncertainty, statistical variance, and test duration. Utilizing this new method in leak rate quantification, projects will reduce cost and schedule, improve test results, and ease interpretation between data sets.

  2. A new method for thermal spraying of Zn-Al coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorlach, I.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the thermal spraying system built on the principles of the high velocity air flame (HVAF) process. HVAF sprayed coatings showed considerably higher bond strength than coatings obtained by the conventional methods, indicating the advantage of this method in areas where the adhesion strength is critically important. The highly dense structure of the coating obtained with HVAF eliminates a need for a top paint coat, which is typically applied on metal sprayed coatings to extend service life. The thermal sprayed coatings were characterized by the standard techniques, such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, salt spray and bond strength tests. The results show that thermal sprayed coatings have a dense structure, low presence of oxides and high resistance to corrosion. High spray rate and good coating quality make the HVAF thermal spray method a viable alternative to the conventional thermal spraying technologies, such as Wire Flame and Twin-Wire Arc.

  3. Thermal Diffusivity Measurement for Thermal Spray Coating Attached to Substrate Using Laser Flash Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, Megumi; Tanaka, Takashi; Endo, Satoshi; Baba, Tetsuya; Harada, Yoshio; Kojima, Yoshitaka; Kawasaki, Akira; Ono, Fumio

    2011-11-01

    Ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings are used as heat and wear shields of gas turbine blades. There is a strong need to evaluate the thermal conductivity of coating for thermal design and use. The thermal conductivity of a bulk material is obtained as the product of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density above room temperature in many cases. Thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity are unique for a given material because they are sensitive to the structure of the material. Therefore, it is important to measure them in each sample. However it is difficult to measure the thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of coatings because coatings are attached to substrates. In order to evaluate the thermal diffusivity of a coating attached to the substrate, we have examined the laser flash method with the multilayer model on the basis of the response function method. We carried out laser flash measurements in layered samples composed of a CoNiCrAlY bond coating and a 8YSZ top coating by thermal spraying on a Ni-based superalloy substrate. It was found that the procedure using laser flash method with the multilayer model is useful for the thermal diffusivity evaluation of a coating attached to a substrate.

  4. Design of durability and lifetime assessment method under thermomechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyun Gyoo; Choi, Young Kue; Jeon, Seol; Lee, Hee Soo [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Min Seok [Korea Testing Laboratory, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A durability testing method under thermo-mechanical stress for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) specimens was designed by a combination of an electric furnace and a tensile testing machine, which was done on TBCs on NIMONIC 263 substrates by an atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) deposition method. The testing conditions were chosen according to a preliminary experiment that identified the elastic deformation region of the top coating and the substrate during mechanical loading. Surface cracking and a decrease in the thickness of the top coating, which are typical degradation behaviors under conventional thermal shock testing, were observed after the designed thermal fatigue test, and delamination at the top coating-bond coating interface occurred by the mechanical load. Lifetime assessment was conducted by statistical software using life cycle data which were obtained after the thermal fatigue test.

  5. Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes by blade coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shin-Rong; Meng, Hsin-Fei; Lee, Kuan-Chen; Horng, Sheng-Fu

    2008-10-01

    Multilayer polymer light-emitting diodes fabricated by blade coating are presented. Multilayer of polymers can be easily deposited by blade coating on a hot plate. The multilayer structure is confirmed by the total thickness and the cross section view in the scanning electron microscope. The film thickness variation is only 3.3% in 10cm scale and the film roughness is about 0.3nm in the micron scale. The efficiency of single layer poly(para-phenylene vinylene) copolymer Super Yellow and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO, deep blue) devices are 9 and 1.7cd/A, respectively, by blade coating. The efficiency of the PFO device is raised to 2.9cd/A with a 2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-5-(4-biphenylyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (PBD) hole-blocking layer and to 2.3cd/A with a poly[(9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-co-(4,4'-(N-(4-sec-butylphenyl))diphenylamine)] elec-tron-blocking layer added by blade coating.

  6. Appearance of cell-adhesion factor in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation of apatite coating titanium by blast coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeda, Hirotsugu; Mano, Takamitsu; Harada, Koji; Tarannum, Ferdous; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    We have already reported that the apatite coating of titanium by the blast coating (BC) method could show a higher rate of bone contact from the early stages in vivo, when compared to the pure titanium (Ti) and the apatite coating of titanium by the flame spraying (FS) method. However, the detailed mechanism by which BC resulted in satisfactory bone contact is still unknown. In the present study, we investigated the importance of various factors including cell adhesion factor in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation that could affect the osteoconductivity of the BC disks. Cell proliferation assay revealed that Saos-2 could grow fastest on BC disks, and that a spectrophotometric method using a LabAssay TM ALP kit showed that ALP activity was increased in cells on BC disks compared to Ti disks and FS disks. In addition, higher expression of E-cadherin and Fibronectin was observed in cells on BC disks than Ti disks and FS disks by relative qPCR as well as Western blotting. These results suggested that the expression of cell-adhesion factors, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast might be enhanced on BC disks, which might result higher osteoconductivity.

  7. Method of accurate thickness measurement of boron carbide coating on copper foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Regmi, Murari

    2017-11-07

    A method is disclosed of measuring the thickness of a thin coating on a substrate comprising dissolving the coating and substrate in a reagent and using the post-dissolution concentration of the coating in the reagent to calculate an effective thickness of the coating. The preferred method includes measuring non-conducting films on flexible and rough substrates, but other kinds of thin films can be measure by matching a reliable film-substrate dissolution technique. One preferred method includes determining the thickness of Boron Carbide films deposited on copper foil. The preferred method uses a standard technique known as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICPOES) to measure boron concentration in a liquid sample prepared by dissolving boron carbide films and the Copper substrates, preferably using a chemical etch known as ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN). Measured boron concentration values can then be calculated.

  8. Production method of burnable poison incorporated fuel pellet by coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Naoyoshi.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical member is formed with an organic material which is melted, decomposed or evaporated by heating. Such organic materials include polyethylene and polyvinyl alcohol, for example. A predetermined amount of burnable poisons are homogeneously incorporated in the cylindrical member by a means, such as melting before fabricating it into a cylindrical shape. UO 2 fuel pellets are inserted to the cylindrical member and heated, to scatter only the organic materials, so that non-volatile burnable poisons are homogeneously left on the surface of the pellets. It is preferred that the cylindrical member having pellets inserted therein is inserted to a cladding tube and applied with a heat treatment. With such procedures, a UO 2 pellet is coated with burnable poisons by a convenient and compact device. In addition, grinding step after the coating is unnecessary. (I.N.)

  9. Development of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) methods for controlled release pellet coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalle, P; Pollitt, M J; Bradley, K; Cooper, B; Pearce, G; Djemai, A; Fitzpatrick, S

    2014-07-01

    This work focused on the control of the manufacturing process for a controlled release (CR) pellet product, within a Quality by Design (QbD) framework. The manufacturing process was Wurster coating: firstly layering active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) onto sugar pellet cores and secondly a controlled release (CR) coating. For each of these two steps, development of a Process Analytical Technology (PAT) method is discussed and also a novel application of automated microscopy as the reference method. Ultimately, PAT methods should link to product performance and the two key Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) for this CR product are assay and release rate, linked to the API and CR coating steps respectively. In this work, the link between near infra-red (NIR) spectra and those attributes was explored by chemometrics over the course of the coating process in a pilot scale industrial environment. Correlations were built between the NIR spectra and coating weight (for API amount), CR coating thickness and dissolution performance. These correlations allow the coating process to be monitored at-line and so better control of the product performance in line with QbD requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Experimental Parameters Using the Dip-Coating Method on the Barrier Performance of Hybrid Sol-Gel Coatings in Strong Alkaline Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita B. Figueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the barrier effect and the performance of organic-inorganic hybrid (OIH sol-gel coatings are highly dependent on the coating deposition method as well as on the processing conditions. However, studies on how the coating deposition method influences the barrier properties in alkaline environments are scarce. The aim of this experimental research was to study the influence of experimental parameters using the dip-coating method on the barrier performance of an OIH sol-gel coating in contact with simulated concrete pore solutions (SCPS. The influence of residence time (Rt, a curing step between each dip step and the number of layers of sol-gel OIH films deposited on hot-dip galvanized steel to prevent corrosion in highly alkaline environments was studied. The barrier performance of these OIH sol-gel coatings, named U(400, was assessed in the first instants of contact with SCPS, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic methods. The durability and stability of the OIH coatings in SCPS was monitored during eight days by macrocell current density. The morphological characterization of the surface was performed by Scanning Electronic Microscopy before and after exposure to SCPS. Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy was used to investigate the thickness of the U(400 sol-gel coatings as a function of the number of layers deposited with and without Rt in the coatings thickness.

  11. Development of durable self-cleaning coatings using organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Divya [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wu, Xinghua [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Fu, Qitao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ho, Jeffrey Weng Chye [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Kanhere, Pushkar D. [Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore); Li, Lin [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Chen, Zhong, E-mail: ASZChen@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Energy Research Institute at NTU - ERI@N, 1 CleanTech Loop, #06-04, CleanTech One, Singapore 637141 (Singapore)

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • A facile method to produce sol–gel based self-cleaning coatings is described. • Effect of filler size and content is evaluated via contact angle, sliding angle, and surface morphology. • Coating with 15 wt.% nano-sized silica fillers exhibits the best self-cleaning performance. • The coatings are resistant to UV radiation and retain the functionality after the abrasion test. • A self-cleaning test and scheme to quantify the self-cleaning efficiency are described in this work. - Abstract: Self-cleaning coatings with excellent water-repellence and good mechanical properties are in high demand. However, producing such coatings with resistance to mechanical abrasion and environmental weathering remains a key challenge. Mechanically robust coatings based on tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and glycidoxypropyltriethoxysilane (Glymo) have been prepared using a sol–gel method. Emphasis is given to the addition of Glymo, an epoxy silane which creates an organic matrix that blends with the inorganic Si−O−Si matrix formed from the TEOS. The combination of the blended matrix produced coatings with good adhesion to substrates and improved mechanical properties. Fluoroalkylsilane (FAS) and silica fillers were introduced to increase the hydrophobicity of the coating. It was found that the water contact angle (CA) of these coatings increases from 115° to 164° upon decreasing filler size from 1–5 μm to 10–20 nm. The sliding angle (SA) for coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10–20 nm silica is around 2°. UV weathering does not show significant effect on the properties of the coatings. Mechanical properties and performances including hardness, Young's modulus, coating adhesion and abrasion resistance were systematically analyzed. In the current work, a simple self-cleaning test, which measures the extent of dirt accumulation and subsequent removal by water spray, was performed. The coatings with 15 wt.% loading of 10–20 nm silica particles

  12. Repository Closure and Sealing Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.T. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    The scope of this analysis will be to develop the conceptual design of the closure seals and their locations in the Subsurface Facilities. The design will be based on the recently established program requirements for transitioning to the Site Recommendation (SR) design as outlined by ''Approach to Implementing the Site Recommendation Baseline'' (Stroupe 2000) and the ''Monitored Geologic Repository Project Description Document'' (CRWMS M andO 1999b). The objective of this analysis will be to assist in providing a description for the Subsurface Facilities System Description Document, Section 2 and finally to document any conclusions reached in order to contribute and provide support to the SR. This analysis is at a conceptual level and is considered adequate to support the SR design. The final closure barriers and seals for the ventilation shafts, and the north and south ramps will require these openings to be permanently sealed to limit excessive air and water inflows and prevent human intrusion. The major tasks identified with closure in this analysis are: (1) Developing the overall subsurface seal layout and identifying design and operational interfaces for the Subsurface Facilities. (2) Summarizing the general site conditions and general rock characteristic with respect to seal location and describing the seal selected. (3) Identify seal construction materials, methodology of construction and strategic locations including design of the seal and plugs. (4) Discussing methods to prevent human intrusion

  13. Low Temperature Metal Coating Method Final Report CRADA No. TSB-1155-95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang-Wook [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gabel, Howard [Innovative Technology, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2018-01-19

    A new metal coating method, cidled KEM (kinetic energy metal.lization), demonstrated in the laboratory by lnovati, utilized fast-moving solid particIes entrained in a gas that are caused to fiow through a nozzIe to effect particle deposition on metal surfaces at room temperature conditions. This method (US Patent 5,795,626) was an attractive and viabIe alternative to the currentIy available high-temperature coating methods avaiIabIe. Since it differs significantly from existing metal coating technologies, a brief description of the method is incIuded here. The proposed method, KEM, achieves cohesive and adhesive metallurgical bonding through the high-speed coUision of powder with a substrate and the subsequent discharge of electrical charge at the substrate. Such coating is effected by entraining metal powder in a gas and accelerating this mixture through a supersonic nozzle. The gas/powder is directed towards the substrate to be coated. Collisions occur, initiaIly between the powder and the substrate, and, as the first Iayer of the coating forms, between the powder and the coating. During these collisions the powder is rapidly deformed, causing the exposure of fresh (oxide free) active metal surface. When these’active surfaces contact one another, they agglomerate and form true metaIIurgicaI bonds. The resultant coating has Iow porosity and high adhesive and cohesive strength. The formation of metaIIurgicaI bonds is potentiated by the discharge of electrical energy. This electrical energy is the result of triboeIectric charging of the particIes during acceleration and transit to the nozzIe. An advantage of the method is that it does not raise the temperature of the powder being appLiedor that of the substrate. Consequently, materials sensitive to high temperature may be applied without changing Me properties of the materkd or substrate.

  14. Detection of smaller Jc region and damage in YBCO coated conductors by using permanent magnet method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Saito, A.; Takano, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Yamada, H.; Takayama, T.; Kamitani, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2011-01-01

    We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J c ) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm 2 Co 17 ). J c could be determined from the repulsive force (F r ) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J c distribution. The measured F r when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J c ) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm 2 Co 17 ). J c could be determined from the repulsive force (F r ) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We tried to detect a smaller J c region in the coated conductor by using the system. The J c distribution could be determined without influence from the thick copper film on YBCO thin film. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J c distribution. The surface of the coated conductors was cut by using a knife. The measured F r when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. This J c measurement technique will be useful for detecting smaller J c regions and defects in coated conductors.

  15. Method of applying a coating to a steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, T; Murakami, S; Chihara, Y; Iijima, K

    1968-07-19

    An application of a coating material containing a radically or ionically polymerizable monomer that can be changed into a high molecular compound by irradiation with ionizing radiations is provided to protect steel from corrosion and the adhesion of organic material. In this irradiation, the radiation doses are not more than 30 Mrad. The coating material is at least one kind of vehicle selected from the group consisting of a radically or ionically polymerizable monomer, polymer, copolymer, or compound of this monomer. They are, for example, styrene, acrylate, methacrylate, vinyl pyridine and their derivatives, acrylonitrile, acrylamide, and other vinyl compounds, etc. The absorption doses may be 30 or less Mrad, but preferably in the range of from 10 to 1 Mrad. Advantages are that the auxiliary heating can be performed below 100/sup 0/C, and that hardening can be carried out below 50/sup 0/C. Furthermore, the irradiation time is shorter than 30 seconds; may kinds of vehicles can be used; and solvent is unnecessary. In one example, 15 parts of acrylamide, 40 parts of styrene and 45 parts of ethyl acrylate are copolymerized. This copolymer is dissolved into 100 parts of styrene and is mixed with 50 parts of rutile and 50 parts of yellow lead. The obtained vehicle is hardened with 10 Mrad. The coated film 30..mu.. thick shows no defects due to weathering after 3 months. In another example, a mixture of 80 parts of unsaturated polyester and 20 parts of ethylene dimethacrylate gives 3H by irradiation with 6 Mrad in inert gas.

  16. Anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yanying; Wu Guangming; Xing Guangjian; Li Donglin; Zhao Qing; Zhang Yunhong

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. However, the rapid degradation rate has limited their application in biomedical field. A great deal of studies have been done to improve the resistance of magnesium alloys. In this article, An anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating with a thickness of approximately 100μm was formed on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method. The morphology of the coatings were observed by an optical microscope and SEM. And the samples were soaked in hank's solution (37 deg. C) to investigate the corrosion resistance. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with magnesium hydroxide coatings present superior corrosion resistance than untreated samples.

  17. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  18. Coating hydroxiapatite on stainless steel 316 L by using sago starch as binder with dip-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadli, A.; Akbar, F.; Prabowo, A.; Hidayah, P. H.

    2018-04-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a mineral form of naturally occurring apatite calcium with Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 formula. One of the major innovations in the field of bone reconstruction is to apply HA as a surface coating on a mechanically strong implant metal and to improve the stability of bone implants thereby increasing the lifetime of the metal implants. Pure hydroxyapatite has poor mechanical properties so it is necessary to add sago starch as a binder to combine the strength and hardness of metal surfaces with bioactive properties of hydroxyapatite by Dip Coating method. Stainless steel 316L is the most commonly used alloy as an implant for bones and teeth due to its excellent corrosion and oxidation resistance and is easily formed. In this study, hydroxyapatite coatings used fixed variables as hydroxyapatite mass (10 grams), aquades mass (20 grams), dipping time (20 seconds), and calcination conditions (800°C, 1 hour). The variables are sago starch mass (1, 1.25, 1.5 gram) and stirring time (16, 20, 24 hours). The shear strength value is higher in the addition of 1.25, 10, 20, and again in the binder ratio of 1.5; 10; 20. The addition of stirring time causes a decrease in shear strength. The highest shear strength value obtained was 3.07 MPa. The layer attached to the substrate is a hydroxyapatite with a composition of 99.4% as evidenced by the results of XRD analysis.

  19. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  20. Improved circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    Comparative tests of modified and unmodified carbon ring seals showed that addition of helical grooves to conventional segmented carbon ring seals reduced leakage significantly. Modified seal was insensitive to shaft runout and to flooding by lubricant.

  1. Formation of polycrystalline MgB2 synthesized by powder in sealed tube method with different initial boron phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudanto, Sigit Dwi; Imaduddin, Agung; Kurniawan, Budhy; Manaf, Azwar

    2018-04-01

    Magnesium diboride, MgB2 is a new high critical temperature superconductor that discovered in the beginning of the 21st century. The MgB2 has a simple crystal structure and a high critical temperature, which can be manufactured in several forms like thin films, tapes, wires including bulk in the large scale. For that reason, the MgB2 has good prospects for various applications in the field of electronic devices. In the current work, we have explored the synthesis of MgB2 polycrystalline using powder in a sealed tube method. Different initial boron phase for the synthesized of MgB2 polycrystalline were used. These were, in addition to magnesium powders, crystalline boron, amorphous boron and combination both of them were respectively fitted in the synthesis. The raw materials were mixed in a stoichiometric ratio of Mg: B=1:2, ground using agate mortar, packed into stainless steel SS304. The pack was then sintered at temperature of 800°C for 2 hours in air atmosphere. Phase formation of MgB2 polycrystalline in difference of initial boron phase was characterized using XRD and SEM. Referring to the diffraction pattern and microstructure observation, MgB2 polycrystalline was formed, and the formation was effective when using the crystalline Mg and fully amorphous B as the raw materials. The critical temperature of the specimen was evaluated by the cryogenic magnet. The transition temperature of the MgB2 specimen synthesized using crystalline magnesium and full amorphous boron is 42.678 K (ΔTc = 0.877 K).

  2. Optical properties of titanium di-oxide thin films prepared by dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayari; Rahman, Kazi Hasibur; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method on ITO coated glass substrate. The sol was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 90°C. The sol was then used to make TiO2 films by dip coating. After dip coating the rest of the sol was dried at 100°C to make TiO2 powder. Thin films were made by varying the number of dipping cycles and were annealed at 500°C. XRD study was carried out for powder samples that confirms the formation of anatase phase. Transmission spectra of thin films show sharp rise in the violet-ultraviolet transition region and a maximum transmittance of ˜60%. Band gap of the prepared films varies from 3.15 eV to 3.22 eV.

  3. Study on Metal Microfilter Coated with Ceramics by Using Plasma Thermal Spray Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In Gyu; Shin, Hyun Myung; Choi, Hae Woon; Lee, Young Min

    2011-01-01

    This research was performed on a microfilter made of a hybrid material (ceramic + metal) that was coated with ceramics on the metal-filter surface by using the thermal spray method. The ceramic powders used were Al 2 O 3 +40TiO 2 powder with a particle size of 20 μm and Al 2 O 3 (98%+)powder with a particle size of 45 μm. The metal filters were filter-grade 20 μm, 30 μm, and 50 μm sintered metal powder filters (SIKA-R 20 IS, 30 IS, 50 IS: Sinter Metals Filters) and filter-grade 75 μm sintered mesh filter with five layers. Ceramic-coated filters that were coated using the thermal spray method had a great influence on powder material, particle size, and coating thickness. However, these filters showed a fine performance when used as micro-filters

  4. A facile method to prepare superhydrophobic fluorinated polysiloxane/ZnO nanocomposite coatings with corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Yongquan; Yang, Chuanning; Hu, Chuanbo; Zheng, Yansheng; Liu, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating fluorinated polysiloxane/ZnO nanocomposite coatings on the steel substrates. The surface wettability and topology of coating were characterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results showed that the hydrophobic sbnd CH3 and sbnd CH2sbnd groups were introduced into ZnO particles via modification, the ZnO nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. When the weight ratio of modified-ZnO to fluorinated polysiloxane was 13:7, the contact angle of nanocomposite coating was 166°, and a sliding angle of 4°, coating surface with hierarchical micro/nano-structures. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent durability and corrosion resistance. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on steel materials.

  5. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J

    2010-01-20

    Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers with accurate effective spore concentrations. The mosquito bioassay

  6. Measure Guideline. Wall Air Sealing and Insulation Methods in Existing Homes; An Overview of Opportunity and Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, S. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Stephenson, R. [NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This guide provides renovators and retrofit contractors an overview of considerations when including wall air sealing and insulation in an energy retrofit project. It also outlines the potential project risks, various materials for insulating, possible field inspections needed, installation procedures, as well as the benefits and drawbacks.

  7. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique

  8. A study for preparation of Ti-Fe coating by high temperature sintering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yonghai

    1995-03-01

    A new technology for preparation of Ti-Fe alloy coating on the steel substrate was investigated by high temperature sintering method. The pulp of titanium hydride powder was coated on the cleaned steel substrate, then heated in vacuum for desorption of hydrogen and sintered at high temperature in argon atmosphere for forming Ti-Fe alloy coating. The electron probe analysis shows a strong coherent diffusion layer formed between the elements of titanium and iron. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the coating consists of α-Ti, TiFe and TiFe 2 three phases. The wear resistance of the coating is twice as large as that of grey cast iron and the hardness determined can reach 7300∼7800 N/mm 2 . The coating is almost porous free. The corrosion potential increases with the time and the corrosion resistance is near to that of pure titanium. The working life of ridge-type diaphragm valve coated by Ti-Fe alloy for carbonization tower of alkali factories is five times higher than that of valve made of grey cast iron. Therefore, this new technology can be widely used in metallurgical, chemical and nuclear industries. (9 figs., 10 tabs.)

  9. Hierarchically rough, mechanically durable and superhydrophobic epoxy coatings through rapid evaporation spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simovich, Tomer; Wu, Alex H.; Lamb, Robert N., E-mail: rnlamb@unimelb.edu.au

    2015-08-31

    A mechanically durable and scalable superhydrophobic coating was fabricated by combining the advantages of both bottom-up and top-down approaches into a one-pot, one-step application method. This is achieved by spray coating a solution consisting of silica nanoparticles, which are embedded within epoxy resin, onto a heated substrate to rapidly drive both solvent evaporation and curing simultaneously. By maintaining a high substrate temperature, the arrival of spray-delivered micrometer-sized droplets are rapidly cured onto the substrate to form surface microroughness, while simultaneously, rapid solvent evaporation within each droplet results in the formation of a nanoporous structure. SEM, dual-beam FIB, and cross-sectional TEM/EDAX elemental mapping were used to confirm both the chemistry and the requisite micro- and nano-porosity within the coating structure requisite for superhydrophobicity. The resultant coatings exhibit contact angles greater than 150° (153.8° ± 0.8°) and roll-off angles of 8° ± 2°, with a coating hardness of 6H on the pencil hardness scale, and a rating of 5 on an ASTM crosshatch test. - Highlights: • A highly superhydrophobic coating was fabricated utilizing epoxy and nanoparticles. • The coating was demonstrated to be very durable and abrasion resistant. • The fabrication involves a novel, scalable one-pot synthesis technique.

  10. Influence of the cooling method on the structure of 55AlZn coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendala, J, E-mail: jacek.mendala@polsl.pl [Department of Materials Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Krasinskiego 8, 40-019 Katowice (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    In metallization processes, metals or metal alloys are used which have a low melting point and good anticorrosion properties. Moreover, they must form durable intermetallic compounds with iron or its alloys. The most common hot-dip metallization technology involves galvanizing, however, molten multi-component metal alloys are used as well. An addition of aluminium to the zinc bath causes an increase in corrosion resistance of the obtained coatings. The article presents results of tests of obtaining coatings by the batch hot-dip method in an 55AlZn bath. Kinetics of the coating growth in the tested alloys were determined in the changeable conditions of bath temperature, dip time and type of cooling. The structure of coatings and their phase composition were revealed. As a result of the tests performed, it has been found that an increase in total thickness of the coatings as a function of the dipping time at a constant temperature is almost of a parabolic nature, whereas an increase in the transient layer is of a linear nature. The structure was identified by the XRD analysis and the morphology of the coatings was tested by means of SEM. It has been found that the cooling process with the use of higher rates of cooling causes a size reduction of the structure in the outer layer and a reduction of thickness of both the intermediate diffusion layer and the whole coating by ca. 25 %.

  11. Seasonal changes in background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 prove water drinking by harp seals, which affects the use of the doubly labelled water method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordøy, Erling S; Lager, Anne R; Schots, Pauke C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor seasonal changes in stable isotopes of pool freshwater and harp seal ( Phoca groenlandica ) body water, and to study whether these potential seasonal changes might bias results obtained using the doubly labelled water (DLW) method when measuring energy expenditure in animals with access to freshwater. Seasonal changes in the background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the body water of four captive harp seals and in the freshwater pool in which they were kept were measured over a time period of 1 year. The seals were offered daily amounts of capelin and kept under a seasonal photoperiod of 69°N. Large seasonal variations of deuterium and oxygen-18 in the pool water were measured, and the isotope abundance in the body water showed similar seasonal changes to the pool water. This shows that the seals were continuously equilibrating with the surrounding water as a result of significant daily water drinking. Variations in background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 in freshwater sources may be due to seasonal changes in physical processes such as precipitation and evaporation that cause fractionation of isotopes. Rapid and abrupt changes in the background levels of deuterium and oxygen-18 may complicate calculation of energy expenditure by use of the DLW method. It is therefore strongly recommended that analysis of seasonal changes in background levels of isotopes is performed before the DLW method is applied on (free-ranging) animals, and to use a control group in order to correct for changes in background levels. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. High pressure mechanical seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Henry W. (Inventor); Anderson, Raymond H. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A relatively impervious mechanical seal is formed between the outer surface of a tube and the inside surface of a mechanical fitting of a high pressure fluid or hydraulic system by applying a very thin soft metal layer onto the outer surface of the hard metal tube and/or inner surface of the hard metal fitting. The thickness of such thin metal layer is independent of the size of the tube and/or fittings. Many metals and alloys of those metals exhibit the requisite softness, including silver, gold, tin, platinum, indium, rhodium and cadmium. Suitably, the coating is about 0.0025 millimeters (0.10 mils) in thickness. After compression, the tube and fitting combination exhibits very low leak rates on the order or 10.sup.-8 cubic centimeters per second or less as measured using the Helium leak test.

  13. Method of forming oxide coatings. [for solar collector heating panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    This invention is concerned with an improved plating process for covering a substrate with a black metal oxide film. The invention is particularly directed to making a heating panel for a solar collector. A compound is electrodeposited from an aqueous solution containing cobalt metal salts onto a metal substrate. This compound is converted during plating into a black, highly absorbing oxide coating which contains hydrated oxides. This is achieved by the inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath. The inclusion of an oxidizing agent in the plating bath is contrary to standard electroplating practice. The hydrated oxides are converted to oxides by treatment in a hot bath, such as boiling water. An oxidizing agent may be added to the hot liquid treating bath.

  14. Solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simandl, Ronald F.; Brown, John D.; Holt, Jerrid S.

    2010-08-03

    A solvent for urethane adhesives and coatings, the solvent having a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide as constituents. In some embodiments the solvent consists only of miscible constituents. In some embodiments the carbaldehyde is benzaldehyde and in some embodiments the cyclic amide is N-methylpyrrolidone (M-pyrole). An extender may be added to the solvent. In some embodiments the extender is miscible with the other ingredients, and in some embodiments the extender is non-aqueous. For example, the extender may include isopropanol, ethanol, tetrahydro furfuryl alcohol, benzyl alcohol, Gamma-butyrolactone or a caprolactone. In some embodiments a carbaldehyde and a cyclic amide are heated and used to separate a urethane bonded to a component.

  15. Application of radioisotope technique for investigation of pumps seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoszewski, B.; Zorawska, A.

    1988-01-01

    Radioisotope method of measuring the wear of rings of the face mechanical seals, bush in soft seals, and leakage in double mechanical seals is described. The examples are given. It is found that radioisotope technique can be used for investigation of the seals. (author)

  16. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  17. Examination of Internally and Externally Coated Cr3C2 Exhaust Pipe of a Diesel Engine via Plasma Spray Method

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hazar; S. Sap

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study; internal and external parts of an exhaust pipe were coated with a chromium carbide (Cr3C2) material having a thickness of 100 micron by using the plasma spray method. A diesel engine was used as the test engine. Thus, the results of continuing chemical reaction in coated and uncoated exhaust pipes were investigated. Internally and externally coated exhaust pipe was compared with the standard exhaust system. External heat transfer occurring as a result of coating th...

  18. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  19. Development of long GdBCO coated conductor using the IBAD/MPMT-PLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibi, A; Fukushima, H; Yamada, Y; Miyata, S; Kuriki, R; Takahashi, K; Shiohara, Y

    2006-01-01

    We have developed long GdBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (GdBCO) coated conductors by a multi-plume and multi-turn pulsed laser deposition (MPMT-PLD) method and have successfully fabricated 32 and 60.7 m long GdBCO coated conductors with a high critical current, I c , and high deposition rate. The I c of the 32 and 60.7 m long GdBCO coated conductors were 205 A (J c = 1.36 MA cm -2 ) and 183 A (J c = 1.45 MA cm -2 ), respectively, at 77 K and 0 T. In addition, they exhibited higher I c values in a magnetic field than a YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) coated conductor: typically 20 A at 77 K and 3 T while the value for a YBCO coated conductor is 8 A. These high I c values are due to the smaller number of a-axis oriented grains in GdBCO than in YBCO. Furthermore, the speed of production of the GdBCO layer was increased to 10 m h -1 while that of the former YBCO coated conductor was 3.75 m h -1 . The material yield of long GdBCO layers using the MPMT-PLD method was about 26-28%. The high I c of GdBCO in a magnetic field, the high production rate and the high material yield are promising for applications

  20. Method and Process Development of Advanced Atmospheric Plasma Spraying for Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Sebastian; Duda, Thomas; Gruner, Heiko; Thomas, Georg; Dzur, Birger

    2012-06-01

    Over the last few years, global economic growth has triggered a dramatic increase in the demand for resources, resulting in steady rise in prices for energy and raw materials. In the gas turbine manufacturing sector, process optimizations of cost-intensive production steps involve a heightened potential of savings and form the basis for securing future competitive advantages in the market. In this context, the atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) process for thermal barrier coatings (TBC) has been optimized. A constraint for the optimization of the APS coating process is the use of the existing coating equipment. Furthermore, the current coating quality and characteristics must not change so as to avoid new qualification and testing. Using experience in APS and empirically gained data, the process optimization plan included the variation of e.g. the plasma gas composition and flow-rate, the electrical power, the arrangement and angle of the powder injectors in relation to the plasma jet, the grain size distribution of the spray powder and the plasma torch movement procedures such as spray distance, offset and iteration. In particular, plasma properties (enthalpy, velocity and temperature), powder injection conditions (injection point, injection speed, grain size and distribution) and the coating lamination (coating pattern and spraying distance) are examined. The optimized process and resulting coating were compared to the current situation using several diagnostic methods. The improved process significantly reduces costs and achieves the requirement of comparable coating quality. Furthermore, a contribution was made towards better comprehension of the APS of ceramics and the definition of a better method for future process developments.

  1. Seal analysis technology for reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liangang; Zhang Liping; Yang Yu; Zang Fenggang

    2009-01-01

    There is the coolant with radiation, high temperature and high pressure in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is closely correlated to RPV sealing capability whether the whole nuclear system work well or not. The aim of this paper is to study the seal analysis method and technology, such as the pre-tensioning of the bolt, elastoplastic contact and coupled technology of thermal and structure. The 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method really and generally consider the loads and model the contact problem with friction between the contact plates. This method is easier than the specialized seal program and used widely. And it is more really than the 2 D seal analysis method. This 3 D elastoplastic seal analysis method has been successfully used in the design and analysis of RPV. (authors)

  2. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method

  3. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M; Champagne, Cory D; Fowler, Melinda A; Houser, Dorian H; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-02-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to 7 weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Water-soluble vitamin homeostasis in fasting northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) measured by metabolomics analysis and standard methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boaz, Segal M.; Champagne, Cory D.; Fowler, Melinda A.; Houser, Dorian H.; Crocker, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of water-soluble vitamins to metabolism, there is limited knowledge of their serum availability in fasting wildlife. We evaluated changes in water-soluble vitamins in northern elephant seals, a species with an exceptional ability to withstand nutrient deprivation. We used a metabolomics approach to measure vitamins and associated metabolites under extended natural fasts for up to seven weeks in free-ranging lactating or developing seals. Water-soluble vitamins were not detected with this metabolomics platform, but could be measured with standard assays. Concentrations of measured vitamins varied independently, but all were maintained at detectable levels over extended fasts, suggesting that defense of vitamin levels is a component of fasting adaptation in the seals. Metabolomics was not ideal for generating complete vitamin profiles in this species, but gave novel insights into vitamin metabolism by detecting key related metabolites. For example, niacin level reductions in lactating females were associated with significant reductions in precursors suggesting downregulation of the niacin synthetic pathway. The ability to detect individual vitamins using metabolomics may be impacted by the large number of novel compounds detected. Modifications to the analysis platforms and compound detection algorithms used in this study may be required for improving water-soluble vitamin detection in this and other novel wildlife systems. PMID:21983145

  5. Hydroxyapatite coating on cobalt alloys using electrophoretic deposition method for bone implant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminatun; M, Shovita; I, Chintya K.; H, Dyah; W, Dwi

    2017-05-01

    Damage on bone due to osteoporosis and cancer triggered high demand for bone implant prosthesis which is a permanent implant. Thus, a prosthesis coated with hydroxyapatite (HA) is required because it is osteoconductive that can trigger the growth of osteoblast cells. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimum concentration of HA suspension in terms of the surface morphology, coating thickness, adhesion strength and corrosion rate resulting in the HA coating with the best characteristics for bone implant. Coating using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method with concentrations of 0.02M, 0.04M, 0.06M, 0.08M, and 0.1M was performed on the voltage and time of 120V and 30 minutes respectively. The process was followed by sintering at the temperature of 900 °C for 10 minutes. The results showed that the concentration of HA suspension influences the thickness and the adhesion of layer of HA. The higher the concentration of HA-ethanol suspension the thicker the layer of HA, but its coating adhesion strength values became lower. The concentration of HA suspension of 0.04 M is the best concentration, with characteristics that meet the standards of the bone implant prosthesis. The characteristics are HA coating thickness of 199.93 ± 4.85 μm, the corrosion rate of 0.0018 mmpy and adhesion strength of 4.175 ± 0.716 MPa.

  6. Er2O3 coating development and improvisation by metal oxide decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayjada, Pratipalsinh A.; Sircar, Amit; Raole, Prakash M.; Rahman, Raseel; Manocha, Lalit M.

    2015-01-01

    Compact, highly resistive and chemically as well as physically stable ceramic coatings are going to play vital role in successful and safe exploitation of tritium breeding and recovery system in the future fusion reactors. Due to its stability and high resistivity, Er 2 O 3 was initially studied for resistive coating application to mitigate Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) forces in liquid Li cooled blanket concept. Subsequently, its excellence as tritium permeation barrier (TPB) was also revealed. Ever since, there is a continual thrust on studying its relevant properties and application methods among the fusion technology and materials community. Metal Oxide Decomposition is a chemical method of coating development. One of the major advantages of this process over most of the others is its simplicity and ability to coat complex structures swiftly. The component is dipped into a liquid solution of the Er 2 O 3 and subsequently withdrawn at an optimized constant speed, so as to leave a uniform wet layer on the surface. This can be repeated multiple times after drying the surface to obtain the required thickness. Subsequently, the component is heat treated to obtain crystalline uniform Er 2 O 3 coating over it. However, the porosity of the coatings and substrate oxidation are the challenges for in MOD method. We successfully develop Er 2 O 3 coating in cubic crystalline phase on P91 steel and fused silica substrates using 3 wt% erbium carboxylic acid solution in a solvent containing 50.5 wt% turpentine, 25.5 wt% n-butyl acetate, 8.4 wt% ethyl acetate, a stabilizer, and a viscosity adjustor. A dip coating system equipped with 800 C quartz tube furnace was used to prepare these coatings. The withdrawal speed was chosen as 72 mm/min from the literature survey. The crystallization and microstructure are studied as functions of heat treatment temperature in the range of 500-700 C. We also try to improvise the uniform coverage and porosity of the coating by altering the

  7. Toluene concentrations reduction by using photocatalytic coating methods for cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Ayat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOC generated from various sources like car combustion is one of the most surrounding pollutants, which can be transferred from one form to another in the presence of sunlight. In the present work the ability of the reduction of VOC have been conducted on cementitious samples surfaces by using toluene as a pollutant gas and TiO2 as an environmentally friendly photocatalyst . Two coating methods have been used (dip and spray with two types of aqueous solution, prepared by spreading 3g/L micro and nano TiO2 powder with deionized water. A laboratory test procedure was adopted to assess the performance of the coated specimens. The specimens were subjected to toluene gas and there efficiency in gas removal was monitored with time. Furthermore, contact angle for the coated samples was also examined to investigate the hydrophilicity of the coated substrate. The results showed that TiO2 give high activity and work as a good photocatalyst for mitigation of air pollutants, and that it could be used in different ways and concentrations to obtain better air quality and aesthetic building appearance. The observed coating efficiency in reducing the toluene was more pronounced in higher than lower gas concentrations for the micro coated samples with removal efficiency equals to 13% and 10% for dipping and spraying method, respectively. While the higher removal was about 20% for both nano dipping and nanospray methods for the inlet gas concentration 3ppm. This behavior reflects the beneficial effects of TiO2 coating procedure in highly pollutant environments, like Iraq.

  8. Crack monitoring method based on Cu coating sensor and electrical potential technique for metal structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Bo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Advanced crack monitoring technique is the cornerstone of aircraft structural health monitoring. To achieve real-time crack monitoring of aircraft metal structures in the course of service, a new crack monitoring method is proposed based on Cu coating sensor and electrical potential difference principle. Firstly, insulation treatment process was used to prepare a dielectric layer on structural substrate, such as an anodizing layer on 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate, and then a Cu coating crack monitoring sensor was deposited on the structure fatigue critical parts by pulsed bias arc ion plating technology. Secondly, the damage consistency of the Cu coating sensor and 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate was investigated by static tensile experiment and fatigue test. The results show that strain values of the coating sensor and the 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy substrate measured by strain gauges are highly coincident in static tensile experiment and the sensor has excellent fatigue damage consistency with the substrate. Thirdly, the fatigue performance discrepancy between samples with the coating sensor and original samples was investigated. The result shows that there is no obvious negative influence on the fatigue performance of the 2A12-T4 aluminum alloy after preparing the Cu coating sensor on its surface. Finally, crack monitoring experiment was carried out with the Cu coating sensor. The experimental results indicate that the sensor is sensitive to crack, and crack origination and propagation can be monitored effectively through analyzing the change of electrical potential values of the coating sensor.

  9. Rotary plug seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Koji; Abiko, Yoshihiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fuel exchange even upon failure of regular seals and also to enable safety seal exchange by the detection of the reduction in the contact pressure of a rotary plug seal. Constitution: If one of a pair of regular tube seals for the rotary plug is failed during ordinary operation of a FBR type reactor, the reduction in the contact pressure of the seal to the plug gibbousness is detected by a pressure gauge and a solenoid valve is thereby closed. Thus, a back-up-tube seal provided above or below the tube seal is press-contacted by way of argon gas to the gibbousness to enter into operation state and lubricants are supplied from an oil tank. In such a structure, the back-up-tube seal is operated before the failure of the tube seal to enable to continue the fuel exchange work, as well as safety exchange for the tube seal. (Moriyama, K.)

  10. Seal design alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Sambeek, L.L.; Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D.

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information

  11. Mechanical seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  12. Mechanical Seal Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1999-06-18

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  13. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R p ) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i corr ) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i corr by almost 100%. As expected, the R p of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R p of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack

  14. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: bobby.mathan@jcu.edu.au [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Ye, Qingsong [Discipline of Dentistry, James Cook University, Townsville 4811, Queensland (Australia); Blawert, Carsten [Magnesium Innovation Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht 21502 (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Poly(L-lactide) was used to seal the porous PEO layer on Mg. • The dual-layer coating improved the in vitro degradation resistance of Mg. • Localized degradation was inhibited in the dual-layer coated Mg. - Abstract: An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO–PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (R{sub p}) of the PEO–PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO–PLLA coating reduced the i{sub corr} by almost 100%. As expected, the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the R{sub p} of the PEO–PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  15. A method for the electrolytic coating of uranium or uranium alloy parts, and parts thus obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A method, preceded by a surface treatment, for applying an electrolytic coating (e.g. of nickel) on uranium, or uranium alloy parts. This method is characterized in that the previous surface treatment comprises a chemical removal of grease in halogenated solvent bath (free from halogen ions) and an anodic scouring in a buffered aqueous solution solution of an acid free from halogen ions. The coating can be applied to fuel elements for nuclear industry, counter-weight for aeronautics and space industries and to radiation shields [fr

  16. Mechanical seal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowery, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    The experimental plans and timing for completion of the mechanical seal program for both the slurry and transfer pumps are given. The slurry pump seal program will be completed by April 1984 with turnover of two seals in pumps to SRP Tank 15H. Transfer pump seal design will be released for plant use by May 1984. Also included are various other pump and seal related tests

  17. Active Infrared Thermography for Seal Contamination Detection in Heat-Sealed Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlien D’huys

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Packaging protects food products from environmental influences, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the quality of the packaging material and of the closure or seal. A common problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of seal contamination, which can cause a decreased seal strength, an increased packaging failure risk and leak formation. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal contaminated packages from the production chain is crucial. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heated seal bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. Thermal image sequences of contaminated seals were recorded shortly after sealing. The detection performances of six thermal image processing methods, based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profiles, thermal signal reconstruction, pulsed phase thermography, principal component thermography and a matched filter, were compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify seal contamination, and processed thermal images were mapped to these references. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter 0.60 mm was obtained for the method based on a fit of the cooling profiles. Moreover, the detection performance of this method did not depend strongly on the time after sealing at which recording of the thermal images was started, making it a robust and generally applicable method.

  18. Novel composite cBN-TiN coating deposition method: structure and performance in metal cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.C.; Malshe, A.P.; Yedave, S.N.; Brown, W.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cubic boron nitride coatings are under development for a variety of applications but stabilization of the pure cBN form and adhesion of films deposited by PVD and ion-based methods has been difficult. An alternative method for depositing a composite cBN-TiN film has been developed for wear related applications. The coating is deposited in a two-stage process utilizing ESC (electrostatic spray coating) and CVI (chemical vapor infiltration). Fully dense films of cBN particles evenly dispersed in a continuous TiN matrix have been developed. Testing in metal cutting has shown an increase in tool life (turning - 4340 steel) of three to seven times, depending of machining parameters, in comparison with CVD deposited TiN films. (author)

  19. Beryllium coating produced by evaporation-condensation method and some their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepekin, G.I.; Anisimov, A.B.; Chernikov, A.S.; Mozherinn, S.I.; Pirogov, A.A. [SRI SIA Lutch., Podolsk (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    The method of vacuum evaporation-condensation for deposition of beryllium coatings on metal substrates, considered in the paper, side by side with a plasma-spray method is attractive fon ITER application. In particular this technique may be useful for repair the surface of eroded tiles which is operated in a strong magnetic field. The possibility of deposition of beryllium coatings with the rate of layer growth 0.1-0.2 mm/h is shown. The compatibility of beryllium coating with copper or stainless steel substrate is provided due to intermediate barrier. The results of examination of microstructure, microhardness, porosity, thermal and physical properties and stability under thermal cycling of beryllium materials are presented. The value of thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of condensed beryllium are approximately the same as for industrial grade material produced by powder mettalurgy technique. However, the condensed beryllium has higher purity (up to 99.9-99.99 % wt.). (author)

  20. A Palladium free method to create a Nickel coated electrode for electrochemical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thien Khanh; Vu, Thanh, Vi; Vo, Minh Xuan

    2018-04-01

    For many generations, the coating of metals provides many applications in the industry: decoration, functional, electroforming. Electroless plating of Nickel with the supports of Palladium/Tin is famous for its properties and effects. In this study, we provide another catalysis solution for the electroless plating process of Nickel. With plastic Polyvinyl Chloride substrate controlled in thickness (2 mm) and scale (200x400 mm), the efficiency of the coating process was carried out under simple lab scale condition. The result of the process is a thin film layer of Nickel coated on the surface of the substrate with exceptional adhesion and strong physical properties also. The product sample then was tested by many methods such as SEM, XRD, EDS, and FTIR to clarify its properties. According to our observation and the result we obtained, we believe there is still more room for improvement to this method, and a further investigation on its application as well can be carried on in the future.

  1. Stress analysis of thermal sprayed coatings using a semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolhof, V.; Musil, J.; Cepera, M.; Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    Residual stress is an important parameter in coating technology since it often relates to the maximum coating thickness which can be deposited without spallation, and this applies to coatings produced by different thermal spray and thin film technologies. Indeed, the mechanisms by which residual stress is built up or locked into a coating depends markedly on the deposition process and coating structure (growth structure, phase composition) in the same way too. Methods for determining residual stresses in materials include both destructive and non-destructive methods. This contribution describes semi-destructive hole-drilling strain gauge method modified for measurement of residual stresses in thermal sprayed coatings. This method of stress analysis was used for determination of stress levels in thermal sprayed WC-17% Co coatings onto 13% Cr steel substrates. Results show that deposition conditions and final coating structure influence directly the residual stress level in the coatings. It is proved that semi-destructive hole-tube drilling measurement is effective reproducible method of coating stress analysis and good solution for optimization of deposition process

  2. 30 CFR 57.22219 - Seals and stoppings (II-A mines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... limestone; or other coatings with equivalent fire resistance. Foam-type blocks shall not be used for seals. ... least one inch of expanded vermiculite, Portland cement and limestone; or other coatings with equivalent...

  3. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  4. Nuclear reactor sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEdwards, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor sealing system is disclosed. The nuclear reactor includes a vessel sealed at its upper end by a closure head. The closure head comprises at least two components, one of which is rotatable; and the two components define an annulus therebetween. The sealing system includes at least a first and second inflatable seal disposed in series in an upper portion of the annulus. The system further includes a dip seal extending into a body of insulation located adjacent a bottom portion of the closure head. The dip seal comprises a trough formed by a lower portion of one of the components, and a seal blade pendently supported from the other component and extending downwardly into the trough. A body of liquid metal is contained in the trough which submerges a portion of the seal blade. The seal blade is provided with at least one aperture located above the body of liquid metal for providing fluid communication between the annulus intermediate the dip seal and the inflatable seals, and a body of cover gas located inside the vessel. There also is provided means for introducing a purge gas into the annulus intermediate the inflatable seals and the seal blade. The purge gas is introduced in an amount sufficient to substantially reduce diffusion of radioactive cover gas or sodium vapor up to the inflatable seals. The purge gas mixes with the cover gas in the reactor vessel where it can be withdrawn from the vessel for treatment and recycle to the vessel

  5. The study of the curing of the polyurethane coating by method of IR spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Korshunova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of the curing process of polyurethane compositions with participation of two different catalysts by the method of IR spectroscopy are given. The time dependences of curing of polyurethane coatings from concentrations of catalysts were determined, on the basis of which the most effective catalyst was selected.

  6. Determination of Young's modulus of epoxy coated polyethylene micro-cantilever using phase-shift shadow moiré method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. H.; Ratnam, M. M.; Azid, I. A.; Mutharasu, D.

    2011-11-01

    Young's moduli of various epoxy coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) micro-cantilevers were determined from the deflection results obtained using the phase-shift shadow moiré (PSSM) method. The filler materials for epoxy coatings were aluminum and graphite powders that were mixed with epoxy at various percentages. Young's moduli were calculated from theory based on the deflection results. The PET micro-cantilever coated with aluminum-epoxy coating showed increasing value of Young's modulus when the ratios of the aluminum-epoxy were increased. The graphite-epoxy coating on the PET micro-cantilever also showed the same trend. The experimental results also show that Young's modulus of the graphite-epoxy coating is higher than aluminum-epoxy coating in comparison at the same mixing ratio.

  7. The preparation and characterization of Bi-2212 film on Ag substrate by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yang; Zhao Liang; Li Pei; Qu Timing; Huang Yong; Han Zhenghe

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on the processing parameters and resulting critical current densities of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x thick films on Ag substrate. Bi-2212 tapes and wires are prepared by dip-coating method. It is found that parameters during partial melting (maximum process temperature T max and solidification temperature T s ) have strong influences on the transition temperature T c . The 0.5 mm diameter dip-coated wire can carry 4000 A/cm 2 critical current in 77 K, self field. Post-annealing on different temperatures and atmospheres are studied as well to obtain varied T c samples

  8. Characterisation of organic thin film coatings on automobile steel sheets by photothermal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, T. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Fluegge, W. [Salzgitter Mannesmann Forschung GmbH, Salzgitter (Germany); Gibkes, J. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum (Germany). AG FestKoerperSpektroskopie

    2006-07-01

    In the nineties, the first generation of organic thin film coatings for corrosion protection of zinc-coated thin sheet steel have been introduced. The coating typically consists of a suspension of small zinc particles, embedded in a polymer matrix. In the scope of quality control, the characterisation of the resulting layer structure is of great interest, comprising not only a constant layer thickness and a local homogeneity of the coating, but also the depth distribution of the particles within the layer. Especially the latter parameter does have a direct influence on the spot weldability of the steel sheets. The present work shows, how photothermal methods like modulated infrared radiometry and photoacoustics can be used for a successful depth profiling of the thin film coatings. The sample surface is periodically heated using an intensitymodulated laser beam, and a thermal wave is induced in the layer system. By variation of the modulation frequency of the laser beam, the thermal diffusion length and, as a consequence, the penetration depth of the thermal wave can be adjusted. By a suitable evaluation of the amplitude and phase lag signals as a function of the modulation frequency, accurate depth profiling has been realized which can be used for a very reliable prediction of the welding properties of the product. In the first investigations, artificial samples with well defined extreme distributions of the particles have been analyzed, and in a second step, an evaluation strategy has been developed for real production samples. (orig.)

  9. Diamond coating deposition by synergy of thermal and laser methods-A problem revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristic, Gordana S.; Trtica, Milan S.; Bogdanov, Zarko D.; Romcevic, Nebojsa Z.; Miljanic, Scepan S.

    2007-01-01

    Diamond coatings were deposited by synergy of the hot filament CVD method and the pulse TEA CO 2 laser, in spectroactive and spectroinactive diamond precursor atmospheres. Resulting diamond coatings are interpreted relying on evidence of scanning electron microscopy as well as microRaman spectroscopy. Thermal synergy component (hot filament) possesses an activating agent for diamond deposition, and contributes significantly to quality and extent of diamond deposition. Laser synergy component comprises a solid surface modification as well as the spectroactive gaseous atmosphere modification. Surface modification consists in changes of the diamond coating being deposited and, at the same time, in changes of the substrate surface structure. Laser modification of the spectroactive diamond precursor atmosphere means specific consumption of the precursor, which enables to skip the deposition on a defined substrate location. The resulting process of diamond coating elimination from certain, desired locations using the CO 2 laser might contribute to tailoring diamond coatings for particular applications. Additionally, the substrate laser modification could be optimized by choice of a proper spectroactive precursor concentration, or by a laser radiation multiple pass through an absorbing medium

  10. The suggestion of droplets generation prevention method of CNx coating by ion beam assisted deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Yuji; Tokoroyama, Takayuki; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Fuwa, Yoshio; Manabe, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the carbon nitride (CNx) coating was the super-low friction in which friction coefficient was less than 0.01, and it attracts attention as a high wear resistance and low friction material. When synthesizing a CNx coating with Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD) method, it was clear that the small asperities called droplets was generated onto the CNx coating surface with increasing thickness, and these droplets generated high friction. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify droplets generation mechanism to reduce droplets. To establish optimal coating conditions for controlling droplets were clarified by paying attention to the energy of an electron beam and the shape of a carbon target. First of all, 300 nm thickness CNx coatings were synthesized with five different filament current densities to clarify the relationship between the filament current density and droplet heights. Secondly, the effect of carbon target shape on droplets generation was confirmed with normal and processed carbon target. Finally, friction coefficient of these surfaces was measured by friction tests under PAO lubrication. (author)

  11. Effect of Shot Peening on Tribological Behaviors of Molybdenum-Thermal Spray Coating using HVOF Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohassel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of post-shot peening on Mo-coating as compared to substrate steel 16MnCr5 (according to ZFN-413 A. Shot peening of carburized steel discs with and without Mo-coating was performed by using Shot size S230, Almen intensity 0.42 mm ’A’ and exposure time 96 sec. Tribological properties were analyzed, using pin-on-disc tribometer apparatus, under dry sliding conditions at different specific applied loads, sliding velocities and distance. Typical standardized methods were used for studying of surface integrity parameters (micro-hardness, topography and surface roughness. Surface morphology of the Mo-coating specimens with and without Shot Peening before and after wear was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that shot peening after Mo-coating has considerable effect on improving wear resistance and because of having low friction coefficient has showed better wear behavior and tribologi cal properties over that of the un-peened Mo-coating.

  12. A facile method for emulsified oil-water separation by using polyethylenimine-coated magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Ting; Qi, Dongming; Zhang, Dong; Lü, Yulan; Zhao, Hongting

    2018-04-01

    Oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities have serious impacts on the environment and human health. In this study, a class of easy-to-synthesize polyethylenimine (PEI)-coated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was successfully synthesized via a one-step coprecipitation method. The synthesized PEI-coated Fe3O4 MNPs were characterized by using multiple technologies and applied in emulsified oil-water separation for the first time. It was found that the PEI effectively tuned the surface charge and wettability of MNPs. As a result, the PEI-coated MNPs could successfully assemble at the oil-water interface and promote the coalescence of oil droplets, thereby facilitating the subsequent magnetic separation. Results showed that the oil-water separation performance was superior and enhanced with the increase of ionic strength. Recycling experiment indicated that the PEI-coated MNPs could be reused up to six times without showing a significant decrease in separation efficiency. All of these results suggested that the PEI-coated MNP could potentially be used as a class of promising nanomaterials for emulsified oil-water separation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 2. Method performance as a function of heat seal defects, product-package refrigeration, and package plastic laminate lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mats; Damgaard, Rasmus; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    Part 1 of this three-part research series detailed the development and validation of a high-voltage leak detection test (HVLD, also known as an electrical conductivity and capacitance test) for verifying the container-closure integrity of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution formulation of the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®) by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Leak detection capability was verified using positive controls each with a single laser-drilled hole in the bag film face. In this Part 2, HVLD leak detection capability was further explored in four separate studies. Study 1 investigated the ability of HVLD to detect weaknesses and/or gaps in the bag heat seal. Study 2 checked the HVLD detection of bag holes in packages stored 4 days at ambient conditions followed by 17 days at refrigeration. Study 3 examined HVLD test results for packages tested when cold. Study 4 compared HVLD test results as a function of bag plastic film lots. The final Part 3 of this series will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product visual appearance and chemical stability. In Part 1 of this three-part series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, also called high-voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with a solution for injection of the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®) by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. In this Part 2, HVLD leak detection capability was further explored in four separate studies. Study 1 investigated the ability of HVLD to detect bag heat seal leaks. Study 2 checked HVLD's ability to detect bag holes after a total of 21 days at ambient plus refrigerated temperatures. Study 3 looked to see if HVLD results changed for packages tested when still cold. Study 4 compared HVLD results for multiple bag plastic film lots. The final Part 3 of this series will report any evidence of

  14. Age-related disease in recurrent outbreaks of phocid herpesvirus type-1 infections in a seal rehabilitation centre: evaluation of diagnostic methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); H. Vos; R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe prevalence and clinical signs of phocid herpesvirus type-1 (PhHV-1) infections among harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in a seal rehabilitation centre in the Netherlands were monitored between June and September 1993 and 1994 when 34 and 36 seals, respectively, were rehabilitated. In

  15. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinçarslan, Ş.; Akkurt, İ.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F.

    2012-09-01

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  16. Ternary ceramic thermal spraying powder and method of manufacturing thermal sprayed coating using said powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogli, Evelina; Sherman, Andrew J.; Glasgow, Curtis P.

    2018-02-06

    The invention describes a method for producing ternary and binary ceramic powders and their thermal spraying capable of manufacturing thermal sprayed coatings with superior properties. Powder contain at least 30% by weight ternary ceramic, at least 20% by weight binary molybdenum borides, at least one of the binary borides of Cr, Fe, Ni, W and Co and a maximum of 10% by weight of nano and submicro-sized boron nitride. The primary crystal phase of the manufactured thermal sprayed coatings from these powders is a ternary ceramic, while the secondary phases are binary ceramics. The coatings have extremely high resistance against corrosion of molten metal, extremely thermal shock resistance and superior tribological properties at low and at high temperatures.

  17. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilincarslan, S.; Akkurt, I.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F. [Department of Construction Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Department of Construction Education, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Textil Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)

    2012-09-06

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  18. Investigation of radiation keeping property of barite coated cloth via image processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilinçarslan, Ş.; Akkurt, İ.; Molla, T.; Akarslan, F.

    2012-01-01

    Preservative clothes which are able to absorb radiation beam are needed not only for saving people working at radioactive environment but also for saving others from natural and man-made radiation sources we are exposed in daily life. Barite is a mineral which can be used for armour plating because of high atomic numbered element barium constituent of barite. In this study, armour plating property of barite was applied to fabrics. Barite coated fabric having characteristic of keeping radiation was obtained by penetrating barite on cloth via coating method. Radiation keeping property of fabrics obtained was determined via image processing. The results of experiments showed that barite coated fabrics have blocked radiation more than normal fabrics have done.

  19. Inboard seal mounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A regenerator assembly for a gas turbine engine has a hot side seal assembly formed in part by a cast metal engine block having a seal recess formed therein that is configured to supportingly receive ceramic support blocks including an inboard face thereon having a regenerator seal face bonded thereto. A pressurized leaf seal is interposed between the ceramic support block and the cast metal engine block to bias the seal wear face into sealing engagement with a hot side surface of a rotary regenerator matrix.

  20. A seal analyzer for testing container integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.; Jenkins, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of laboratory and production seal analyzer that offers a rapid, nondestructive method of assuring the seal integrity of virtually any type of single or double sealed container. The system can test a broad range of metal cans, drums and trays, membrane-lidded vessels, flexible pouches, aerosol containers, and glass or metal containers with twist-top lids that are used in the chemical/pesticide (hazardous materials/waste), beverage, food, medical and pharmaceutical industries

  1. Antimicrobial characterization of silver nanoparticle-coated surfaces by “touch test” method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunell M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marianne Gunell,1,2 Janne Haapanen,3 Kofi J Brobbey,4 Jarkko J Saarinen,4 Martti Toivakka,4 Jyrki M Mäkelä,3 Pentti Huovinen,1 Erkki Eerola1,2 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Turku, 2Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Microbiology and Genetics Service Area, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 3Aerosol Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology, Tampere, 4Laboratory of Paper Coating and Converting, Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland Abstract: Bacterial infections, especially by antimicrobial resistant (AMR bacteria, are an increasing problem worldwide. AMR is especially a problem with health care-associated infections due to bacteria in hospital environments being easily transferred from patient to patient and from patient to environment, and thus, solutions to prevent bacterial transmission are needed. Hand washing is an effective tool for preventing bacterial infections, but other approaches such as nanoparticle-coated surfaces are also needed. In the current study, direct and indirect liquid flame spray (LFS method was used to produce silver nanoparticle-coated surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of these nanoparticle surfaces were evaluated with the “touch test” method against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was shown in this study that in glass samples one silver nanoparticle-coating cycle can inhibit E. coli growth, whereas at least two coating cycles were needed to inhibit S. aureus growth. Silver nanoparticle-coated polyethylene (PE and PE terephthalate samples did not inhibit bacterial growth as effectively as glass samples: three nanoparticle-coating cycles were needed to inhibit E. coli growth, and more than 30 coating cycles were needed until S. aureus growth was inhibited. To conclude, with the LFS method, it is possible to produce nanostructured large-area antibacterial surfaces which show

  2. Development of combinatorial chemistry methods for coatings: high-throughput adhesion evaluation and scale-up of combinatorial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A; Chisholm, Bret J; Morris, William G; Cawse, James N; Flanagan, William P; Hassib, Lamyaa; Molaison, Chris A; Ezbiansky, Karin; Medford, George; Reitz, Hariklia

    2003-01-01

    Coupling of combinatorial chemistry methods with high-throughput (HT) performance testing and measurements of resulting properties has provided a powerful set of tools for the 10-fold accelerated discovery of new high-performance coating materials for automotive applications. Our approach replaces labor-intensive steps with automated systems for evaluation of adhesion of 8 x 6 arrays of coating elements that are discretely deposited on a single 9 x 12 cm plastic substrate. Performance of coatings is evaluated with respect to their resistance to adhesion loss, because this parameter is one of the primary considerations in end-use automotive applications. Our HT adhesion evaluation provides previously unavailable capabilities of high speed and reproducibility of testing by using a robotic automation, an expanded range of types of tested coatings by using the coating tagging strategy, and an improved quantitation by using high signal-to-noise automatic imaging. Upon testing, the coatings undergo changes that are impossible to quantitatively predict using existing knowledge. Using our HT methodology, we have developed several coatings leads. These HT screening results for the best coating compositions have been validated on the traditional scales of coating formulation and adhesion loss testing. These validation results have confirmed the superb performance of combinatorially developed coatings over conventional coatings on the traditional scale.

  3. AlOx Coating of Ultrastable Zeolite Y: A Possible Method for Vanadium Passivation of FCC Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Catana, Gabriela; Grünert, W.; Voort, P. van der; Vansant, E.F.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    AlOx coating is proposed as a possible method for vanadium passivation of the ultrastable zeolite Y (USY). Two coating methods are discussed: (i) the deposition of the [Al13O4(OH)24(H2O)12]7+ ([Al13]) complex from aqueous solutions and (ii) the anchoring of alumoxane by in situ triisobutylaluminum

  4. Probing individal subcells of fully printed and coated polymer tandem solar cells using multichromatic opto-electronic characterization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method to opto-electronically probe the individual junctions and carrier transport across interfaces in fully printed and coated tandem polymer solar cells is described, enabling the identification of efficiency limiting printing/coating defects. The methods used are light beam...

  5. Microstructures and formation mechanism of W–Cu composite coatings on copper substrate prepared by mechanical alloying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Yunfei; Shen, Yifu; Chen, Cheng; Li, Yongcan; Feng, Xiaomei

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, high-energy mechanical alloying (MA) method was applied to prepare tungsten–copper composite coatings on pure copper surface using a planetary ball mill. During mechanical alloying process, grains on the surface layer of substrate were refined and the substrate surface was activated as a result of repeated collisions by a large number of flying balls along with powder particles. The repeated ball-to-substrate collisions resulted in the deposition of coatings. The microstructures and elemental and phase composition of mechanically alloyed coatings at different milling durations during mechanical alloying process were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Microhardness tests were carried out to examine the mechanical properties of the coatings. The results showed that the coatings and the substrates were well bonded, and with the increase of the milling duration, multi-layered coatings with different structures were generated and the coatings became denser. The microhardness tests showed that the maximum microhardness of the coatings reached HV 0.1 228, showing a threefold improvement upon the substrate. And the cross-sectional microhardness values of the processed sample changed gradually, which gave a proof for the cushioning and sustaining functions of the multi-layered coatings. A reasonable formation mechanism of coatings on bulk materials with metallic immiscible system by mechanical alloying method was presented.

  6. Biodegradable polymer for sealing porous PEO layer on pure magnesium: An in vitro degradation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabbasi, Alyaa; Mehjabeen, Afrin; Kannan, M. Bobby; Ye, Qingsong; Blawert, Carsten

    2014-05-01

    An attempt was made to seal the porous silicate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) layer on pure magnesium (Mg) with a biodegradable polymer, poly(L-lactide) (PLLA), to delay the localized degradation of magnesium-based implants in body fluid for better in-service mechanical integrity. Firstly, a silicate-based PEO coating on pure magnesium was performed using a pulsed constant current method. In order to seal the pores in the PEO layer, PLLA was coated using a two-step spin coating method. The performance of the PEO-PLLA Mg was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The EIS results showed that the polarization resistance (Rp) of the PEO-PLLA Mg was close to two orders of magnitude higher than that of the PEO Mg. While the corrosion current density (icorr) of the pure Mg was reduced by 65% with the PEO coating, the PEO-PLLA coating reduced the icorr by almost 100%. As expected, the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg decreased with increase in exposure time. However, it was noted that the Rp of the PEO-PLLA Mg even after 100 h was six times higher than that of the PEO Mg after 48 h exposure, and did not show any visible localized attack.

  7. Electrochemical characteristics of silver- and nickel-coated synthetic graphite prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method for the anode of lithium secondary batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Won Chang; Byun, Dongjin; Lee, Joong Kee; Cho, Byung won

    2004-01-01

    Four kinds of synthetic graphite coated with silver and nickel for the anodes of lithium secondary batteries were prepared by a gas suspension spray coating method. The electrode coated with silver showed higher charge-discharge capacities due to a Ag-Li alloy, but rate capability decreased at higher charge-discharge rate. This result can be explained by the formation of an artificial Ag oxidation film with higher impedance, this lowered the rate capability at high charge-discharge rate due to its low electrical conductivity. Rate capability is improved, however, by coating nickel and silver together on the surface of synthetic graphite. The nickel which is inactive with oxidation reaction plays an important role as a conducting agent which enhanced the conductivity of the electrode

  8. Nuclear waste vault sealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyenge, M.

    1980-01-01

    A nuclear waste vault must be designed and built to ensure adequate isolation of the nuclear wastes from human contact. Consequently, after a vault has been fully loaded, it must be adequately sealed off to prevent radionuclide migration which may be provided by circulating groundwater. Vault sealing entails four major aspects, i.e.: (a) vault grouting; (b) borehole sealing; (c) buffer packing; and (d) backfilling. Of particular concern in vault sealing are the physical and chemical properties of the sealing material, its long-term durability and stability, and the techniques used for its emplacement. Present sealing technology and sealing materials are reviewed in terms of the particular needs of vault sealing. Areas requiring research and development are indicated

  9. Surface characteristic of chemically converted graphene coated low carbon steel by electro spray coating method for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell bipolar plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoo; Kim, Yang Do; Nam, Dae Geun

    2013-05-01

    Graphene was coated on low carbon steel (SS400) by electro spray coating method to improve its properties of corrosion resistance and contact resistance. Exfoliated graphite was made of the graphite by chemical treatment (Chemically Converted Graphene, CCG). CCG is distributed using dispersing agent, and low carbon steel was coated with diffuse graphene solution by electro spray coating method. The structure of the CCG was analyzed using XRD and the coating layer of surface was analyzed using SEM. Analysis showed that multi-layered graphite structure was destroyed and it was transformed in to fine layers graphene structure. And the result of SEM analysis on the surface and the cross section, graphene layer was uniformly formed with 3-5 microm thickness on the surface of substrate. Corrosion resistance test was applied in the corrosive solution which is similar to the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack inside. And interfacial contact resistance (ICR) test was measured to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. As a result of measuring corrosion resistance and contact resistance, it could be confirmed that low carbon steel coated with CCG was revealed to be more effective in terms of its applicability as PEMFC bipolar plate.

  10. PREPARING OF THE CHAMELEON COATING BY THE ION JET DEPOSITION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Skocdopole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of chameleon coatings using an Ionized Jet Deposition (IJD technique is reported in the present paper. IJD is a new flexible method for thin film deposition developed by Noivion, Srl. The chameleon coatings are thin films characterised by a distinct change of their tribological properties according to the external conditions. The deposited films of SiC and TiN materials were examined by the Raman spectroscopy, SEM and XPS. The results of the Raman spectroscopy have proved an amorphous structure of SiC films. The data from XPS on TiN films have shown that the films are heavily oxidized, but also prove that the films are composed of TiN and pure Ti. The SEM provided information about the size of grains and particles constituting the deposited films, which is important for tribological properties of the films. Deposition of the chameleon coating is very complex problem and IJD could be ideal method for preparation of this coating.

  11. Study on Metal Microfilter Coated with Ceramics by Using Plasma Thermal Spray Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, In Gyu; Shin, Hyun Myung; Choi, Hae Woon [Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Min [Korea Polytechincs VI, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    This research was performed on a microfilter made of a hybrid material (ceramic + metal) that was coated with ceramics on the metal-filter surface by using the thermal spray method. The ceramic powders used were Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}+40TiO{sub 2} powder with a particle size of 20 {mu}m and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98%+)powder with a particle size of 45 {mu}m. The metal filters were filter-grade 20 {mu}m, 30 {mu}m, and 50 {mu}m sintered metal powder filters (SIKA-R 20 IS, 30 IS, 50 IS: Sinter Metals Filters) and filter-grade 75 {mu}m sintered mesh filter with five layers. Ceramic-coated filters that were coated using the thermal spray method had a great influence on powder material, particle size, and coating thickness. However, these filters showed a fine performance when used as micro-filters.

  12. Hermetically Sealed Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed hermetically sealed pump compresses fluid to pressure up to 4,000 atm (400 MPa). Pump employs linear electric motor instead of rotary motor to avoid need for leakage-prone rotary seals. In addition, linear-motor-powered pump would not require packings to seal its piston. Concept thus eliminates major cause of friction and wear. Pump is double-ended diaphragm-type compressor. All moving parts sealed within compressor housing.

  13. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampdla, D.S.; Speer, E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed

  14. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rampolia, D.S.; Speer, E.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed

  15. Quick-sealing design for radiological containment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampolia, Donald S.; Speer, Elmer

    1990-01-01

    A quick-sealing assembly and method for forming an adhesive seal on opposite sides of a mechanical seal for a flexible containment bag of the type used for working with radioactively contaminated objects. The assembly includes an elongated mechanical fastener having opposing engaging members affixed at a predetermined distance from each of the elongated edges, with an adhesive layer formed between the mechanical fastener and the elongated edge such that upon engagement of the mechanical fastener and adhesive layers to opposing containment fabric, a neat triple hermetic seal is formed.

  16. Properties of Sealing Materials in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köser, Claus

    pellets as sealing material in groundwater wells. The way and the pattern, in which bentonite pellets are deposited, have been shown to have an effect on the swelling pressure of the bentonite seal. During the transport phase of pellets from the terrain to a given sedimentation depth, a sorting process......) into densities for clay/water systems has been developed. This method has successfully been used to evaluate e.g., macroporosity, homogenization of the bentonite seal during the hydration of water, hydraulic conductivity and the creation of channels in the bentonite seals. Based on the results obtained...

  17. Investigation of positive shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfouts, J. O.

    1970-01-01

    Welded metal bellows secondary seals prevent secondary seal leakage with a minimum number of potential leak paths. High performance seal is obtained by controlling the potentially unstable seal-face movements induced by mechanical vibrations and fluid pressure pulsations.

  18. Effect of the External Lubrication Method for a Rotary Tablet Press on the Adhesion of the Film Coating Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisami; Toyota, Hiroyasu; Kamiya, Takayuki; Yamashita, Kazunari; Hakomori, Tadashi; Imoto, Junko; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    External lubrication is a useful method which reduces the adhesion of powder to punches and dies by spraying lubricants during the tableting process. However, no information is available on whether the tablets prepared using an external lubrication system can be applicable for a film coating process. In this study, we evaluated the adhesion force of the film coating layer to the surface of tablets prepared using an external lubrication method, compared with those prepared using internal lubrication method. We also evaluated wettability, roughness and lubricant distribution state on the tablet surface before film coating, and investigated the relationship between peeling of the film coating layer and these tablet surface properties. Increasing lubrication through the external lubrication method decreased wettability of the tablet surface. However, no change was observed in the adhesion force of the film coating layer. On the other hand, increasing lubrication through the internal lubrication method, decreased both wettability of the tablet surface and the adhesion force of the film coating layer. The magnesium stearate distribution state on the tablet surface was assessed using an X-ray fluorescent analyzer and lubricant agglomerates were observed in the case of the internal lubrication method. However, the lubricant was uniformly dispersed in the external lubrication samples. These results indicate that the distribution state of the lubricant affects the adhesion force of the film coating layer, and external lubrication maintained sufficient lubricity and adhesion force of the film coating layer with a small amount of lubricant.

  19. Circumferential shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal comprising two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band is disclosed. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  20. Seals in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brasseur, Sophie Marie Jacqueline Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The harbour seal Phoca vitulina and the grey seal Halichoerus grypus have been inhabitants of the Wadden Sea since millennia. Prehistoric findings indicate the presence of both species around 5000 BC. This changed dramatically in the mid Middle-Ages as around 1500 AC, the grey seal disappeared from

  1. High-voltage leak detection of a parenteral proteinaceous solution product packaged in form-fill-seal plastic laminate bags. Part 1. Method development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Mats; Buus, Peter; Mulhall, Brian; Guazzo, Dana Morton

    2013-01-01

    In Part 1 of this three-part research series, a leak test performed using high-voltage leak detection (HVLD) technology, also referred to as an electrical conductivity and capacitance leak test, was developed and validated for container-closure integrity verification of a small-volume laminate plastic bag containing an aqueous solution for injection. The sterile parenteral product is the rapid-acting insulin analogue, insulin aspart (NovoRapid®/NovoLog®, by Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark). The aseptically filled and sealed package is designed to preserve product sterility through expiry. Method development and validation work incorporated positive control packages with a single hole laser-drilled through the laminate film of each bag. A unique HVLD method characterized by specific high-voltage and potentiometer set points was established for testing bags positioned in each of three possible orientations as they are conveyed through the instrument's test zone in each of two possible directions-resulting in a total of six different test method options. Validation study results successfully demonstrated the ability of all six methods to accurately and reliably detect those packages with laser-drilled holes from 2.5-11.2 μm in nominal diameter. Part 2 of this series will further explore HVLD test results as a function of package seal and product storage variables. The final Part 3 will report the impact of HVLD exposure on product physico-chemical stability. In this Part 1 of a three-part research series, a leak test method based on electrical conductivity and capacitance, called high voltage leak detection (HVLD), was used to find leaks in small plastic bags filled with an insulin pharmaceutical solution for human injection by Novo Nordisk A/S (Bagsværd, Denmark). To perform the test, the package is electrically grounded while being conveyed past an electrode linked to a high-voltage, low-amperage transformer. The instrument measures the current that passes

  2. Methods of data analysis for the micro-scale abrasion test on coated substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Y.; Acker, K. Van; Hutchings, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    is proposed for plotting the experimental results, termed the double intercept method, which provides a clear graphical representation of the data and usually gives reliable values for kappa(c) and kappa(s). However, for the analysis of typical experimental data to obtain values for the specific wear rates...... available for data analysis in this test and proposes some new approaches. The wear volumes of the coating and the substrate can be described by two parameters chosen from among the inner and outer crater diameters, the coating thickness, and the penetration depth. The inner crater diameter can usually...... another method, termed the KVH plot, is shown to be somewhat more consistently accurate. Detailed guidelines are proposed for analysing the data by this method. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. The development of an auto-sealing system using an electrically shrinkable tube under a low-pressure condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okano, Yoshihiro; Kitagawa, Takao [NKK Corp, Tsu, Mie (Japan); Shoji, Norio [NKK Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Namioka, Toshiyuki [Nippon Kokan Koji Corp., Yokohama (Japan). Research and Development Dept.; Komura, Minoru [Nitto Denko Corp., Fukaya, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-04-01

    This article describes the development of a system to create high quality, automatic sealing of field joints of polyethylene coated pipelines. The system uses a combination of an electrically heated shrinkable tube and a low-pressure chamber. The self-heating shrinkable tube includes electric heater wires that heat when connected to electricity. A method was developed to eliminate air trapped between the tube and the steel pipe by shrinking the tube under a low-pressure condition. The low-pressure condition was automatic and easily attained by using a vacuum chamber. It was verified that the system produced high quality sealing of the field joints.

  4. Electronic self-monitoring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Electronic Self-Monitoring Seal is a new type of security seal which allows continuous verification of the seal's identity and status. The identity information is a function of the individual seal, time, and seal integrity. A description of this seal and its characteristics are presented. Also described are the use cycle for the seal and the support equipment for programming and verifying the seal

  5. Investigation on the evolution of microstructure and texture of electroplated Ni–Ti composite coating by Rietveld method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yuantao, E-mail: zhaoyuantao@sjtu.edu.cn; Cai, Fei, E-mail: caifei32@126.com; Wang, Chengxi, E-mail: sjtucxw@sjtu.edu.cn; Chai, Ze, E-mail: zechaisjtu@163.com; Zhu, Kaiyuan, E-mail: xrd125@163.com; Xu, Zhou, E-mail: xuzhou@sjtu.edu.cn; Jiang, Chuanhai, E-mail: chjiang-sjtu@hotmail.com

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Ni–Ti composite coatings were prepared by electroplating. • Morphology and Ti content of Ni–Ti coatings were studied upon SEM and EDXS. • Microstructures of Ni–Ti coatings were studied upon the Rietveld method. • The texture of Ni–Ti coatings was studied upon the pole figure. - Abstract: Rietveld refinement was utilized to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of the Ni–Ti composite coatings electroplated at different applied current densities. Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy were utilized to investigate the morphology and chemical composition of the coatings. Relative texture coefficients (RTC) and measured pole figures were utilized to investigate the texture evolution of the coatings. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from a colonial structure to a polyhedral one. And the incorporated Ti content decreased with increasing applied current density. As the applied current density increased, the crystallite sizes increased and their distribution got less uniform, and the microstrain and dislocation density decreased. The results of simulated pole figures obtained from Rietveld refinement illustrated that the texture of the coatings changed from no obvious texture to a strong [2 0 0] fiber texture with increasing applied current density. The texture evolution obtained from simulated pole figures was confirmed by the result of RTC and the measured pole figures. The evolutions of the microstructure and texture were derived from the change of the applied current density and incorporated Ti content in the Ni–Ti composite coatings.

  6. Characterization of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by hydrothermal electrochemical method on NaOH immersed Ti6Al4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Daihua; Liu, Ping; Liu, Xinkuan; Ma, Fengcang; Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Wei; Du, Jiandi; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The hydrothermal electrochemical method was used to deposit hydroxyapatite coating on Ti6Al4V. In order to improve the bonding strength between the coating and substrate, the substrates were modified by 8 M NaOH solution before the deposition. The effects of immersing time on the substrate, on the hydroxyapatite coating, and on the bonding strength were studied. X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Drop Shape Analysis Method were applied. And the crystallinity of hydroxyapatite coating was calculated. The results show that immersing treatment effects the phase compositions, the microstructure and the wettability of the substrate surface. A porous, three-dimensional network structure is formed on the Ti6Al4V surface through the NaOH immersion. The pore size and depth increase with the increase of immersing time from 12 to 48 h. The surface microstructure of Ti6Al4V with 60 h′ immersion time was different from the others. The modification treatment can improve the bonding strength between hydroxyapatite coating and the substrate obviously. The value of the bonding strength with the substrate immersed for 48 h is larger than those of the others. A bone-like apatite layer forms on the coating after 3 days of soaking in SBF, implying with good bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by the method. The surface characteristics of the sample immersed with 48 h are more conductive to the deposition of hydroxyapatite and to the improvement of the bonding strength. The formation mechanism of hydroxyapatite coating deposited by hydrothermal electrochemical method was discussed. - Highlights: • Immerse Ti6Al4V alloy with NaOH solution for different immersing time. • We deposit hydroxyapatite coating by hydrothermal electrochemical method. • We examine changes of composition, microstructure, bonding strength and bioactivity of the hydroxyapatite coating. • 48 h is the optimal immersing time. • We

  7. Mobility of as, Cu, Cr, and Zn from tailings covered with sealing materials using alkaline industrial residues: a comparison between two leaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Maurice, Christian; Öhlander, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Different alkaline residue materials (fly ash, green liquor dregs, and lime mud) generated from the pulp and paper industry as sealing materials were evaluated to cover aged mine waste tailings (tailings in the batch system only As dramatically exceeded the limit values at L/S 10 L/kg. The leaching results showed similar patterns to the batch results, though leached Cr, Cu, and Zn showed higher levels in the column tests than in the batch tests. However, when the columns were compared with the batches, the trend for Cu was opposite for the unamended tailings. By contrast, both batch and column results showed that the amendment caused mobilization of As compared with the unamended tailings in the ash-amended tailings. The amount of As released was greatest in the ash column and decreased from the dregs to the lime columns. The leaching of As at high levels can be a potential problem whenever alkaline materials (especially for fly ash) are used as sealing materials over tailings. The column test was considered by the authors to be a more informative method in remediation of the aged tailings with low sulfur content, since it mimics better actual situation in a field.

  8. Comparison of the burning behaviour of electric cables with intumescent coating in different test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, J.; Hosser, D.

    2000-01-01

    Cables used for electric power and control systems represent a significant potential hazard, particularly in buildings with highly complex wiring. To reduce the risk of ignition and of flame spread and to limit the fire effects, protective intumescent coatings or cables with fire retardant insulation materials have been implemented in safety related areas and locations, particularly of nuclear power plants. Since 1994, extensive experimental research has been performed by iBMB of the Branschweig University of Technology on the burning behaviour of unprotected as well as coated PVC cables. The main goal of this investigations was to develop a qualification method and licensing procedure for cable systems with protective coatings based on realistic fire conditions, which is accepted by the building authorities for application in buildings in general and, in particular, in nuclear power plants. For comparative results of tests with intumescent coatings in different scales - according to the standard IEC 332-3 (large scale), German standard DIN 4102-1 (intermediate scale) and ISO 5660 (small scale) - will be introduced. The setup of the different test procedures and the corresponding phases of natural fires will be discussed. It will be shown that cables with protective coatings are appropriate for fire scenarios up to a developed room fire while only resistance to a local ignition source could be guaranteed by testing according to international or national valid standard. The necessity of testing cables with insulation material, which should guarantee a fire retardant behaviour, by these different methods should be reasonable, because depending on the results of future tests, a more distinguished qualification and application of cables might be possible. (orig.) [de

  9. Effect of sealer coating and storage methods on the surface roughness of soft liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta Kutlu, Ilknur; Yanikoğlu, Nuran Dinckal; Kul, Esra; Duymuş, Zeynep Yesïl; Sağsöz, Nurdan Polat

    2016-03-01

    A soft lining is applied under a removable prosthesis for various reasons. The porosity of the lining material may increase colonization by microorganisms and cause tissue inflammation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of sealer coating on the surface roughness of soft lining materials under 4 different conditions. A total of 125 specimens were prepared. One high-temperature silicone-based soft lining material and 2 room-temperature-polymerized soft lining materials (1 silicone-based and 1 methacrylate-based) were used. Twenty-five specimens of each room-temperature soft lining material were coated with 2 layers of surface sealer. Additionally, 5 specimens of each material were stored in either distilled water, Coca-Cola, denture cleanser, saliva, or air. The surface roughness was measured at baseline and after 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Surface roughness values were analyzed with repeated measures analysis of variance, and the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed using time-dependent groups and storage methods. In the time-dependent groups, methacrylate-based sealer-coated soft liners exhibited a significant increase in roughness (1.74-2.09 μm, P.05). Therefore, the sealer coating was not effective in reducing surface roughness. Among the time-dependent storage methods, the denture cleanser exhibited an almost significant increase in roughness (1.83-1.99 μm, P=.054). Coca-Cola and artificial saliva did not show a significant difference (P>.05). However, a significant decrease in roughness was found with distilled water (P=.02) and air (P<.001). Statistically significant differences in surface roughness were found among the different types of soft liners. The sealer coating had no significant effect, and denture cleanser slightly increased the surface roughness. Contrary to expectations, the roughness did not increase in all groups over time. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

  10. Hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.

    2015-08-18

    The present disclosure relates generally to hardface coating systems and methods for metal alloys and other materials for wear and corrosion resistant applications. More specifically, the present disclosure relates to hardface coatings that include a network of titanium monoboride (TiB) needles or whiskers in a matrix, which are formed from titanium (Ti) and titanium diboride (TiB.sub.2) precursors by reactions enabled by the inherent energy provided by the process heat associated with coating deposition and, optionally, coating post-heat treatment. These hardface coatings are pyrophoric, thereby generating further reaction energy internally, and may be applied in a functionally graded manner. The hardface coatings may be deposited in the presence of a number of fluxing agents, beta stabilizers, densification aids, diffusional aids, and multimode particle size distributions to further enhance their performance characteristics.

  11. Wear Evaluation of AISI 4140 Alloy Steel with WC/C Lamellar Coatings Sliding Against EN 8 Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Nikhil Rajendra; Karthikeyan, Ganesarethinam

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the experiments in this paper is to use the Taguchi methods to investigate the wear of WC/C coated nitrided AISI 4140 alloy steel. A study of lamellar WC/C coating which were deposited by a physical vapor deposition on nitrided AISI 4140 alloy steel. The investigation includes wear evaluation using Pin-on-disk configuration. When WC/C coated AISI 4140 alloy steel slides against EN 8 steel, it was found that carbon-rich coatings show much lower wear of the countersurface than nitrogen-rich coatings. The results were correlated with the properties determined from tribological and mechanical characterization, therefore by probably selecting the proper processing parameters the deposition of WC/C coating results in decreasing the wear rate of the substrate which shows a potential for tribological application.

  12. Effect of sealing on the morphology of anodized aluminum oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Naiping; Dong, Xuecheng; He, Xueying; Browning, James F.; Schaefer, Dale W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We explored structural change of anodizing aluminum oxide induced by sealing. • All sealing methods decrease pore size as shown by X-ray/neutron scattering. • Cold sealing and hot water sealing do not alter the aluminum oxide framework. • Hot nickel acetate sealing both fills the pores and deposits on air oxide interface. • Samples with hot nickel acetate sealing outperform other sealing methods. - Abstract: Ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and neutron reflectometry (NR) were used to probe structure evolution induced by sealing of anodized aluminum. While cold nickel acetate sealing and hot-water sealing decrease pore size, these methods do not alter the cylindrical porous framework of the anodic aluminum oxide layer. Hot nickel acetate both fills the pores and deposits on the air surface (air–oxide interface), leading to low porosity and small mean pore radius (39 Å). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and direct current polarization show that samples sealed by hot nickel acetate outperform samples sealed by other sealing methods

  13. Simple and high yielding method for preparing tissue specific extracellular matrix coatings for cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeQuach, Jessica A; Mezzano, Valeria; Miglani, Amar; Lange, Stephan; Keller, Gordon M; Sheikh, Farah; Christman, Karen L

    2010-09-27

    The native extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a highly complex, tissue-specific network of proteins and polysaccharides, which help regulate many cellular functions. Despite the complex nature of the ECM, in vitro cell-based studies traditionally assess cell behavior on single ECM component substrates, which do not adequately mimic the in vivo extracellular milieu. We present a simple approach for developing naturally derived ECM coatings for cell culture that provide important tissue-specific cues unlike traditional cell culture coatings, thereby enabling the maturation of committed C2C12 skeletal myoblast progenitors and human embryonic stem cells differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Here we show that natural muscle-specific coatings can (i) be derived from decellularized, solubilized adult porcine muscle, (ii) contain a complex mixture of ECM components including polysaccharides, (iii) adsorb onto tissue culture plastic and (iv) promote cell maturation of committed muscle progenitor and stem cells. This versatile method can create tissue-specific ECM coatings, which offer a promising platform for cell culture to more closely mimic the mature in vivo ECM microenvironment.

  14. Development of AC impedance methods for evaluating corroding metal surfaces and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knockemus, Ward

    1986-01-01

    In an effort to investigate metal surface corrosion and the breakdown of metal protective coatings the AC Impedance Method was applied to zinc chromate primer coated 2219-T87 aluminum. The model 368-1 AC Impedance Measurement System recently acquired by the MSFC Corrosion Research Branch was used to monitor changing properties of coated aluminum disks immersed in 3.5% NaCl buffered at ph 5.5 over three to four weeks. The DC polarization resistance runs were performed on the same samples. The corrosion system can be represented by an electronic analog called an equivalent circuit that consists of transistors and capacitors in specific arrangements. This equivalent circuit parallels the impedance behavior of the corrosion system during a frequency scan. Values for resistances and capacities that can be assigned in the equivalent circuit following a least squares analysis of the data describe changes that occur on the corroding metal surface and in the protective coating. A suitable equivalent circuit was determined that predicts the correct Bode phase and magnitude for the experimental sample. The DC corrosion current density data are related to equivalent circuit element parameters.

  15. VAK III. Seals and sealing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    d'Agraives, B.C.; Dal Cero, G.; Debeir, R.; Mascetti, E.; Toornvliet, J.; Volcan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the VAK III seals and sealing system, which have been used over a period of two years at the Kahl nuclear facility (Federal Republic of Germany), where field tests and feasibility studies were conducted in order to offer a possible solution for the sealing of LWR fuel assemblies. It has been prepared with the aim of an assessment study to be done at the IAEA. It gives all characteristics and technical descriptions for: the sealing principle, the seal construction, the operating tools, the data processing, the drawings, the publications related to that seal. The main points of progress are: the Strong Random Internal Defects (STRID) incorporated in the seals, allowing the obtention of a good signature stability; the Integrity Check on the Seal Status (broken or not) obtained through a decisive mechanical improvement: the Double Breakage Integrity Check (DOBRIC) and with a better ultrasonic evidence of that status; the provision of new function tools, allowing the performance of Identity Measurements in dry conditions (which means also at the manufacturer plant) or in deeper water (wet storage); the study and development of a new JRC VAK 45 Compact Instrument Box, in which all the measuring functions can be grouped and incorporating an autonomous Minicomputer offering to the Inspection the possibility of performing, on the spot, Correlation and Decision processes. The general benefit of such a feasibility study should be to convince the potential users that such a Safeguards Sealing System can be studied for slightly - or largely - different other applications, provided that the Basic and Operating Functions required to the system be clearly defined, possibly after a common agreement would be stated

  16. Spray sealing: A breakthrough in integral fuel tank sealing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Martin D.; Zadarnowski, J. H.

    1989-11-01

    In a continuing effort to increase readiness, a new approach to sealing integral fuel tanks is being developed. The technique seals potential leak sources by spraying elastomeric materials inside the tank cavity. Laboratory evaluations project an increase in aircraft supportability and reliability, an improved maintainability, decreasing acquisition and life cycle costs. Increased usable fuel volume and lower weight than conventional bladders improve performance. Concept feasibility was demonstrated on sub-scale aircraft fuel tanks. Materials were selected by testing sprayable elastomers in a fuel tank environment. Chemical stability, mechanical properties, and dynamic durability of the elastomer are being evaluated at the laboratory level and in sub-scale and full scale aircraft component fatigue tests. The self sealing capability of sprayable materials is also under development. Ballistic tests show an improved aircraft survivability, due in part to the elastomer's mechanical properties and its ability to damp vibrations. New application equipment, system removal, and repair methods are being investigated.

  17. Reinforced seal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, G.M.; Odent, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns a seal component of the kind comprising a soft sheath and a flexible reinforcement housed throughout the entire length of the sheath. The invention enables O ring seals to be made capable of providing a radial seal, that is to say between two sides or flat collars of two cylindrical mechanical parts, or an axial seal, that is to say between two co-axial axisymmetrical areas. The seal so ensured is relative, but it remains adequately sufficient for many uses, for instance, to ensure the separation of two successive fixed blading compartments of axial compressors used in gas diffusion isotope concentration facilities [fr

  18. Comparative analysis of electrophysical properties of ceramic tantalum pentoxide coatings, deposited by electron beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Sudzhanskaya, I.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have been deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods. For the magnetron sputtering process Ta target was used. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these coatings are amorphous. XPS survey spectra of the ceramic Ta2O5 coatings were obtained. All spectra consist of well-defined XPS lines of Ta 4f, 4d, 4p and 4s; O 1s; C 1s. Ta 4f doublets are typical for Ta2O5 coatings with two main peaks. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of the e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have revealed a relatively flat surface with no cracks. The dielectric properties of the tantalum pentoxide coatings have been investigated in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical behaviour of e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have also been compared. The deposition process conditions principally effect the structure parameters and electrical properties of Ta2O5 ceramic coatings. The coatings deposited by different methods demonstrate the range of dielectric parameters due to the structural and stoichiometric composition changes

  19. Sealing of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Erlstroem, M.; Boergesson, L.

    1985-12-01

    The major water-bearing fractures in granite usually from fairly regular sets but the extension and degree of connectivity is varying. This means that only a few fractures that are interconnected with the deposition holes and larger water-bearing structures in a HLW repository are expected and if they can be identified and cut off through sealing it would be possible to improve the isolation of waste packages very effectively. Nature's own fracture sealing mechanisms may be simulated and a survey of the involved processes actually suggests a number of possible filling methods and substances. Most of them require high temperature and pressure and correspondingly sophisticated techniques, but some are of potential interest for immediate application with rather moderate effort. Such a technique is to fill the fractures with clayey substances which stay flexible and low-permeable provided that they remain physically and chemically intact. It is demonstrated in the report that effective grouting requires a very low viscosity and shear strength of the substance and this can be achieved by mechanical agitation as demonstrated in this report. Thus, by superimposing static pressure and shear waves induced by percussion hammering at a suitable frequency, clays and fine-grained silts as well as cement can be driven into fractures with an average aperture as small as 0.1 mm. Experiments were made in the laboratory using concrete and steel plates, and a field pilot test was also conducted under realistic conditions on site in Stripa. They all demonstrated the practicality of the 'dynamic injection technique' and that the fluid condition of the grouts yielded complete filling of the injected space to a considerable distance from the injection point. The field test indicated a good sealing ability as well as a surprisingly high resistance to erosion and piping. (author)

  20. Performance evaluation of chip seals in Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    The intent of this research project is to identify a wide variety of parameters that influence the performance of pavements treated via chip seals within the State of Idaho. Chip sealing is currently one of the most popular methods of maintenance for...

  1. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate). The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database. To perform this development, IPSN relies on industrial partners: SAPHYMO for the general architecture of the seal and the electronics, THALES for the authentication of data and the security of transmission. The main features of the IRES seal are the following: Interrogation by different inspectorate, allowing independent conclusions; Recording of events, including tampering, in a non-volatile memory; Authentication of data and enhanced security of the communication between the seal and the seal reader; Remote interrogation by an inspector or/and automatic for unattended systems or remote monitoring; Reusable after erasing the seal memory and replacement of the batteries

  2. Severe service sealing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, R.; Wensel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Successful sealing usually requires much more than initial leak-tightness. Friction and wear must also be acceptable, requiring a good understanding of tribology at the sealing interface. This paper describes various sealing solutions for severe service conditions. The CAN2A and CAN8 rotary face seals use tungsten carbide against carbon-graphite to achieve low leakage and long lifetime in nuclear main coolant pumps. The smaller CAN6 seal successfully uses tungsten carbide against silicon carbide in reactor water cleanup pump service. Where friction in CANDU fuelling machine rams must be essentially zero, a hydrostatic seal using two silicon carbide faces is the solution. In the NRU reactor moderator pumps, where pressure is much lower, eccentric seals that prevent boiling at the seal faces are giving excellent service. All these rotary face seals rely on supplementary elastomer seals between their parts. An integrated engineering approach to high performance sealing with O-rings is described. This is epitomized in critical Space Shuttle applications, but is increasingly being applied in CANDU plants. It includes gland design, selection and qualification of material, quality assurance, detection of defects and the effects of lubrication, surface finish, squeeze, stretch and volume constraints. In conclusion, for the severe service applications described, customized solutions have more than paid for themselves by higher reliability, lower maintenance requirements and reduced outage time. (author)

  3. High-Speed Coating Method for Photovoltaic Textiles with Closed-Type Die Coater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Takahiko; Shibayama, Norihisa; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Shiraishi, Kenji; Marumoto, Kazuhiro; Itoh, Toshihiro

    2013-06-01

    We developed a closed-type die-coating method to fabricate thin films for electronic devices. We succeeded in the die-coating of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) water dispersions and regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) solution to fabricate thin films of these organic materials with extremely high speeds of 5 and 20 m/min, respectively. The film thicknesses were evaluated by cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The deviations of the film thicknesses from our target values were less than 5%. We fabricated Al/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) textiles as an example of an application of the method, and the photovoltaic characteristic of the devices was confirmed.

  4. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Nakashima, Shouta; Kawazoe, Syuichi; Toma, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated on titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films has been developed to supplement the defects of both TiO 2 and HAp. Thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using HAp and HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that there are many small peaks of Ca 1 0(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 crystal, and no impurity other than HAp is detected in HAp films prepared using pure HAp target. The composition ratio of the film was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HAp coatings on TiO 2 thin films have been prepared using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. XRD and XPS measurements suggest that crystalline HAp + TiO 2 thin films are obtained by the PLD method using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 target

  5. One-Step Method for Preparation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla M. Gregorio-Jauregui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of magnetic nanoparticles coated with chitosan in one step by the coprecipitation method in the presence of different chitosan concentrations is reported here. Obtaining of magnetic superparamagnetic nanoparticles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscopy allowed to identify spheroidal nanoparticles with around 10-11 nm in average diameter. Characterization of the products by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated that composite chitosan-magnetic nanoparticles were obtained. Chitosan content in obtained nanocomposites was estimated by thermogravimetric analysis. The nanocomposites were tested in Pb2+ removal from a PbCl2 aqueous solution, showing a removal efficacy up to 53.6%. This work provides a simple method for chitosan-coated nanoparticles obtaining, which could be useful for heavy metal ions removal from water.

  6. The IRES electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourlez, P.; Funk, P.; Brochard, D.; Moreau, J.F.; Martin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the French Support Program for the IAEA Safeguards, the 'Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IPSN), developed an electronic seal called Integrated and Reusable Electronic Seal (IRES) that enables independent verification by different inspectorates (IAEA, Euratom, and National Inspectorate) Furthermore, a bilateral co-ordination between Euratom and French domestic safeguards takes place in some French facilities regarding a common approach concerning the seals especially in case of crisis situation. The seal can be remotely interrogated by radio frequency and integrated to other Containment/surveillance systems by serial line RS 485. Data are authenticated and the IRESMAG software manages in the seal reader all functionalities of the seal and records inspection data compatible with the IAEA's Seal Database

  7. High pressure shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinson, A.R.; Rogers, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    In relation to reactor primary coolant pumps, mechanical seal assembly for a pump shaft is disclosed which features a rotating seal ring mounting system which utilizes a rigid support ring loaded through narrow annular projections in combination with centering non-sealing O-rings which effectively isolate the rotating seal ring from temperature and pressure transients while securely positioning the ring to adjacent parts. A stationary seal ring mounting configuration allows the stationary seal ring freedom of motion to follow shaft axial movement up to 3/4 of an inch and shaft tilt about the pump axis without any change in the hydraulic or pressure loading on the stationary seal ring or its carrier. (author)

  8. Radioactive material package seal tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, M.M.; Humphreys, D.L.; Edwards, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    General design or test performance requirements for radioactive materials (RAM) packages are specified in Title 10 of the US Code of Federal Regulations Part 71 (US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 1983). The requirements for Type B packages provide a broad range of environments under which the system must contain the RAM without posing a threat to health or property. Seals that provide the containment system interface between the packaging body and the closure must function in both high- and low-temperature environments under dynamic and static conditions. A seal technology program, jointly funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), was initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. Experiments were performed in this program to characterize the behavior of several static seal materials at low temperatures. Helium leak tests on face seals were used to compare the materials. Materials tested include butyl, neoprene, ethylene propylene, fluorosilicone, silicone, Eypel, Kalrez, Teflon, fluorocarbon, and Teflon/silicone composites. Because most elastomer O-ring applications are for hydraulic systems, manufacturer low-temperature ratings are based on methods that simulate this use. The seal materials tested in this program with a fixture similar to a RAM cask closure, with the exception of silicone S613-60, are not leak tight (1.0 x 10 -7 std cm 3 /s) at manufacturer low-temperature ratings. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Importance of development factors in company dealing with cataphoresis coating method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of presented in this paper results is analysis of the most important factors in the company activity. The questionnaire test were carried among persons employed by the company, which mainstream is method of cataphoresis anti-corrosion coating. In the paper also validity of the Toyota roof elements were defined. Based on research as the most important factors of the company mission, indicated the quality factor.

  10. Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nunny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since the licensing system was put in place. While some license holders, notably fish farms, were using some non-lethal forms of deterrent to reduce seal-related damage, these were often used alongside seal shooting. Of the seals reported as shot to the Scottish Government, only a small percentage were also reported to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, despite this being a licensing requirement. Only 2.3% of the shot gray seals and 4.5% of the shot common seals were necropsied. There is evidence from these necropsies that some seals had not died instantly or had not been shot in the manner recommended by the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice. These preliminary results show that more carcasses need to be recovered and necropsied if the welfare implications of current seal shooting practice are to be properly assessed. The current legislation does not specify closed seasons to protect breeding seals and thirty-five per cent of necropsied seals were pregnant gray seals. Seals have also been shot during their lactation periods when pups are dependent on their mothers. This raises significant welfare concerns. The re-introduction of closed seasons specific to each species of seal is recommended along with greater effort to deploy non-lethal methods. Independent assessment of the number of seals being killed

  11. Fabrication of CIS Absorber Layers with Different Thicknesses Using A Non-Vacuum Spray Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chen Diao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM, was investigated to deposit the high-densified CuInSe2 absorber layers. The spray coating method developed in this study was a non-vacuum process, based on dispersed nano-scale CuInSe2 precursor and could offer a simple, inexpensive, and alternative formation technology for CuInSe2 absorber layers. After spraying on Mo/glass substrates, the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed at 550 °C by changing the annealing time from 5 min to 30 min in a selenization furnace, using N2 as atmosphere. When the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed, without extra Se or H2Se gas used as the compensation source during the annealing process. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of annealing time on the densification and crystallization of the CuInSe2 absorber layers to optimize the quality for cost effective solar cell production. The thickness of the CuInSe2 absorber layers could be controlled as the volume of used dispersed CuInSe2-isopropyl alcohol solution was controlled. In this work, X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall parameter measurements were performed in order to verify the quality of the CuInSe2 absorber layers obtained by the Spray Coating Method.

  12. The effect of immersion time to low carbon steel hardness and microstructure with hot dip galvanizing coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, A. A.; Rajagukguk, T. O.; Sumardi, S.

    2018-01-01

    Along with developing necessities of metal materials, these rise demands of quality improvements and material protections especially the mechanical properties of the material. This research used hot dip galvanizing coating method. The objectives of this research were to find out Rockwell hardness (HRb), layer thickness, micro structure and observation with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) from result of coating by using Hot Dip Galvanizing coating method with immersion time of 3, 6, 9, and 12 minutes at 460°C. The result shows that Highest Rockwell hardness test (HRb) was at 3 minutes immersion time with 76.012 HRb. Highest thickness result was 217.3 μm at 12 minutes immersion. Microstructure test result showed that coating was formed at eta, zeta, delta and gamma phases, while Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) showed Fe, Zn, Mn, Si and S elements at the specimens after coating.

  13. Flexible ring seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbes, Claude; Gournier, Andre; Rouaud, Christian; Villepoix, Raymond de.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a flexible metal ring seal, able to ensure a perfect seal between two bearings due to the crushing and elastic deformation properties akin to similar properties in elastomers. Various designs of seal of this kind are already known, particularly a seal made of a core formed by a helical wire spring with close-wound turns and with high axial compression ratio, closed on itself and having the shape of an annulus. This wire ring is surrounded by at least one envelope having at rest the shape of a toroidal surface of which the generating circle does not close on itself. In a particular design mode, the seal in question can include, around the internal spring, two envelopes of which one in contact with the spring is composed of a low ductility elastic metal, such as mild steel or stainless steel and the other is, on the contrary, made of a malleable metal, such as copper or nickel. The first envelope evenly distributes the partial crushing of the spring, when the seal is tightened, on the second envelope which closely fits the two surfaces between which the seal operates. The stress-crushing curve characteristic of the seal comprises two separate parts, the first with a relatively sharp slope corresponds to the start of the seal compression phase, enabling at least some of these curves to reach the requisite seal threshold very quickly, then, beyond this, a second part, practically flat, where the stress is appreciably constant for a wide operating bracket [fr

  14. MWTF jumper connector integral seal block development and leak testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, E.S.; Jordan, S.R.

    1995-01-01

    In fiscal year 1993, tests of an o-ring/tetraseal retainer designed to replace a gasket-type seal used in PUREX-type process jumper connectors encouraged the design of an improved seal block. This new seal block combines several parts into one unitized component called an integral seal block. This report summarizes development and leak testing of the new integral seal block. The integral seal block uses a standard o-ring nested in a groove to accomplish leak tightness. This seal block eliminates the need to machine acme threads into the lower skirt casting and seal retainers, eliminates tolerance stack-up, reduces parts inventory, and eliminates an unnecessary leak path in the jumper connector assembly. This report also includes test data on various types of o-ring materials subjected to heat and pressure. Materials tested included Viton, Kalrez, and fluorosilicone, with some incidental data on teflon coated silicone o-rings. Test experience clearly demonstrates the need to test each seal material for temperature and pressure in its intended application. Some materials advertised as being open-quotes betterclose quotes at higher temperatures did not perform up to expectations. Inspection of the fluorosilicone and Kalrez seals after thermal testing indicates that they are much more susceptible to heat softening than Viton

  15. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of PVD-Coated Cemented Carbide as Evaluated by a New Multipass Scratch-Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallqvist

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new test method based on multipass scratch testing has been developed for evaluating the mechanical and tribological properties of thin, hard coatings. The proposed test method uses a pin-on-disc tribometer and during testing a Rockwell C diamond stylus is used as the “pin” and loaded against the rotating coated sample. The influence of normal load on the number of cycles to coating damage is investigated and the resulting coating damage mechanisms are evaluated by posttest scanning electron microscopy. The present study presents the test method by evaluating the performance of Ti0.86Si0.14N, Ti0.34Al0.66N, and (Al0.7Cr0.32O3 coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation on cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the test method is quick, simple, and reproducible and can preferably be used to obtain relevant data concerning the fatigue, wear, chipping, and spalling characteristics of different coating-substrate composites. The test method can be used as a virtually nondestructive test and, for example, be used to evaluate the fatigue and wear resistance as well as the cohesive and adhesive interfacial strength of coated cemented carbide inserts prior to cutting tests.

  16. Passivation properties of alumina for multicrystalline silicon nanostructure prepared by spin-coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ye; Shen, Honglie; Yang, Wangyang; Zheng, Chaofan; Tang, Quntao; Yao, Hanyu; Raza, Adil; Li, Yufang; Huang, Chunlai

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we report passivation properties of inverted pyramidal nanostructure based multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) by Al2O3 films with spin-coating method. Precursors AlCl3 and Al(acac)3 for Al2O3 films were chosen for comparison. Al2O3/SiO x stacks were found to be able to passivate the nanostructured surface well. With the number of spin-coating up to five, the Al2O3 films could conformally attach the nanostructure. The weighted average reflectance values (ranging from 400-900 nm) of the passivated silicon surface could be reduced to 10.74% (AlCl3) and 11.12% (Al(acac)3), and the effective carrier lifetime could reach 7.84 and 16.98 μs, respectively. This work presented a potential process to fabricate low cost high efficiency mc-Si solar cells.

  17. New Method to Identify Field Joint Coating Failures Based on MFL In-Line Inspection Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianshuang Dai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Above ground indirect detections and random excavations that have applied the past years for buried long distance oil and gas pipelines can only identify some damaged coating locations. Hence, large number of field joint coating (FJC failures happen unconsciously until they lead to failures of the pipelines. Based on the analysis of magnetic flux leakage (MFL in-line inspection (ILI signals, combined with the statistical results of 414 excavations from two different pipeline sections, a new method to identify the failed FJC is established. Though it can only identify FJC failures when there are signs of corrosion on pipe body, it is much more efficient and cost-saving. The concluded identification rule still needs more validations and improvements to be more applicable and accuracy.

  18. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used...... capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters...... of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...

  19. Sealed source peer review plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Alexander; Leonard, Lee; Burns, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Sealed sources are known quantities of radioactive materials that have been encapsulated in quantities that produce known radiation fields. Sealed sources have multiple uses ranging from instrument calibration sources to sources that produce radiation fields for experimental applications. The Off-Site Source Recovery (OSR) Project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), created in 1999, under the direction of the Waste Management Division of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque has been assigned the responsibility to recover and manage excess and unwanted radioactive sealed sources from the public and private sector. LANL intends to ship drums containing qualified sealed sources to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for disposal. Prior to shipping, these drums must be characterized with respect to radiological content and other parameters. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires that ten radionulcides be quantified and reported for every container of waste to be disposed in the WIPP. The methods traditionally approved by the EPA include non-destructive assay (NDA) in accordance with Appendix A of the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (DOE, 2002) (CH WAC). However, because of the nature and pedigree of historical records for sealed sources and the technical infeasibility of performing NDA on these sources, LANL proposes to characterize the content of these waste drums using qualified existing radiological data in lieu of direct measurement. This plan describes the process and documentation requirements for the use of the peer review process to qualify existing data for sealed radiological sources in lieu of perfonning radioassay. The peer review process will be performed in accordance with criteria provided in 40 CFR (section) 194.22 which specifies the use of the NUREG 1297 guidelines. The plan defines the management approach, resources, schedule, and technical requirements

  20. New method for characterizing paper coating structures using argon ion beam milling and field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, C; Allem, R; Uesaka, T

    2011-02-01

    We have developed a new method for characterizing microstructures of paper coating using argon ion beam milling technique and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The combination of these two techniques produces extremely high-quality images with very few artefacts, which are particularly suited for quantitative analyses of coating structures. A new evaluation method has been developed by using marker-controlled watershed segmentation technique of the secondary electron images. The high-quality secondary electron images with well-defined pores makes it possible to use this semi-automatic segmentation method. One advantage of using secondary electron images instead of backscattered electron images is being able to avoid possible overestimation of the porosity because of the signal depth. A comparison was made between the new method and the conventional method using greyscale histogram thresholding of backscattered electron images. The results showed that the conventional method overestimated the pore area by 20% and detected around 5% more pores than the new method. As examples of the application of the new method, we have investigated the distributions of coating binders, and the relationship between local coating porosity and base sheet structures. The technique revealed, for the first time with direct evidence, the long-suspected coating non-uniformity, i.e. binder migration, and the correlation between coating porosity versus base sheet mass density, in a straightforward way. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Unification of reactor elastomeric sealing based on material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, N.K.; Raj, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    The unification of elastomeric sealing applications of Indian nuclear reactors based on a few qualified fluoroelastomer/perfluoroelastomer compounds and standardized approaches for finite element analysis (FEA) based design, manufacturing process and antifriction coatings is discussed. It is shown that the advance polymer architecture based Viton ® formulation developed for inflatable seals of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and its four basic variations can encompass other sealing applications of PFBR with minimum additional efforts on development and validation. Changing the blend ratio of Viton ® GBL 200S and 600S in inflatable seal formulation could extend its use to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The higher operating temperature of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) seals expands the choice to perfluoroelastomers. FEA based on plane-strain/axisymmetric modeling (with Mooney–Rivlin as the basic constitutive model), seal manufacture by cold feed extrusion and injection molding as well as plasma Teflon-like coating belonging to two variations obtained from the development of inflatable seals provide the necessary standardization for unification. The gains in simplification of design, development and operation of seals along with the enhancements of safety and reliability are expected to be substantial.

  2. Standard Test Method for Dust Erosion Resistance of Optical and Infrared Transparent Materials and Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the resistance of transparent plastics and coatings used in aerospace windscreens, canopies, and viewports to surface erosion as a result of dust impingement. This test method simulates flight through a defined particle cloud environment by means of independent control of particle size, velocity, impact angle, mass loading, and test duration. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The seals described are for use in a nuclear reactor where there are fuel assemblies in a vessel, an inlet and an outlet for circulating a coolant in heat transfer relationship with the fuel assemblies and a closure head on the vessel in a tight fluid relationship. The closure head comprises rotatable plugs which have mechanical seals disposed in the annulus around each plug while allowing free rotation of the plug when the seal is not actuated. The seal is usually an elastomer or copper. A means of actuating the seal is attached for drawing it vertically into the annulus for sealing. When the reactor coolant is liquid sodium, contact with oxygen must be avoided and argon cover gas fills the space between the bottom of the closure head and the coolant liquid level and the annuli in the closure head. (U.K.)

  4. Standard Test Method for Mechanical Hydrogen Embrittlement Evaluation of Plating/Coating Processes and Service Environments

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes mechanical test methods and defines acceptance criteria for coating and plating processes that can cause hydrogen embrittlement in steels. Subsequent exposure to chemicals encountered in service environments, such as fluids, cleaning treatments or maintenance chemicals that come in contact with the plated/coated or bare surface of the steel, can also be evaluated. 1.2 This test method is not intended to measure the relative susceptibility of different steels. The relative susceptibility of different materials to hydrogen embrittlement may be determined in accordance with Test Method F1459 and Test Method F1624. 1.3 This test method specifies the use of air melted AISI E4340 steel per SAE AMS-S-5000 (formerly MIL-S-5000) heat treated to 260 – 280 ksi (pounds per square inch x 1000) as the baseline. This combination of alloy and heat treat level has been used for many years and a large database has been accumulated in the aerospace industry on its specific response to exposure...

  5. Detection of seal contamination in heat-sealed food packaging based on active infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'huys, Karlien; Saeys, Wouter; De Ketelaere, Bart

    2015-05-01

    In the food industry packaging is often applied to protect the product from the environment, assuring quality and safety throughout shelf life if properly performed. Packaging quality depends on the material used and the closure (seal). The material is selected based on the specific needs of the food product to be wrapped. However, proper closure of the package is often harder to achieve. One problem possibly jeopardizing seal quality is the presence of food particles between the seal. Seal contamination can cause a decreased seal strength and thus an increased packaging failure risk. It can also trigger the formation of microchannels through which air and microorganisms can enter and spoil the enclosed food. Therefore, early detection and removal of seal-contaminated packages from the production chain is essential. In this work, a pulsed-type active thermography method using the heat of the sealing bars as an excitation source was studied for detecting seal contamination. The cooling profile of contaminated seals was recorded. The detection performance of four processing methods (based on a single frame, a fit of the cooling profile, pulsed phase thermography and a matched filter) was compared. High resolution digital images served as a reference to quantify contamination. The lowest detection limit (equivalent diameter of 0.63 mm) and the lowest processing time (0.42 s per sample) were obtained for the method based on a single frame. Presumably, practical limitations in the recording stage prevented the added value of active thermography to be fully reflected in this application.

  6. Seals in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The aim of this invention is the provision of improved seals for reactor vessels in which fuel assemblies are located together with inlets and outlets for the circulation of a coolant. The object is to provide a seal arrangement for the rotatable plugs of nuclear reactor closure heads which has good sealing capacities over a wide gap during operation of the reactor but which also permits uninhibited rotation of the plugs for maintenance. (U.K.)

  7. Compliant seal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    1993-10-01

    The compliant metallic seal combines the noncontact feature of the labyrinth seal, the low leakage of a mechanical seal, and the compliant nature of the brush seal. It consists of several thin metallic elements or leaves mounted within a ring which is press fit into the housing, and in form, sort of resembles a lip seal sections wiping the shaft. A second set of overlapping cover leaves are placed on top of the shaft riding leaves which reduces leakage and provides stiffness. The leaves can be straight or angle cut. The shaft riding fingers are designed with mismatched curvature to provide lift off similar to the Rayleigh lift pads in mechanical seals with leading edge clearances nearly twice those of the trailing edge as as shown by Fleming to be optimal for gas flows in convergent seal passages. Leading edge clearances range from 300 to 500 microinches. Balance pockets beneath the leaves provide fluid film feed to the 'Rayleigh lift' surface and the proper balance ratio (mechanical seal) when combined with the static pressure and film pressure. The leaves flex in the radial direction and accommodate thermomechanical behavior as well as axial motion and angular misalignment. In the static mode, there is a net closing force on the leaves. The seals were tested to 70 psi at speeds to 16,000 rpm or surface speeds to 330 fps and temperatures from ambient to 440 F. A slow cycle through the rig critical at 10,000 rpm induced a radial vibration response of 0.004 to 0.005 inch were accommodated by the seal. Preliminary performance data are encouraging demonstrating hydrodynamic liftoff and noncontacting operation at pressure and speeds typical of gas turbine engines. The leakage performance data are significantly better than commercial labyrinth and brush seals which should be expected as this design incorporates the features of the low leakage face or mechanical seal along with the flexibility of the brush configuration.

  8. Seal containment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugler, R.W.; Gerkey, K.S.; Kasner, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    An automated system for transporting nuclear fuel elements between fuel element assembly stations without contaminating the area outside the sealed assembly stations is described. The system comprises a plurality of assembly stations connected together by an elongated horizontal sealing mechanism and an automatic transport mechanism for transporting a nuclear fuel element in a horizontal attitude between the assembly stations while the open end of the fuel element extends through the sealing mechanism into the assembly station enclosure. The sealing mechanism allows the fuel element to be advanced by the transport mechanism while limiting the escape of radioactive particles from within the assembly station enclosure. 4 claims, 6 figures

  9. Grafting of HEMA onto dopamine coated stainless steel by 60Co-γ irradiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Wanqin; Yang, Liming; Yang, Wei; Chen, Bin; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) onto the surface of stainless steel (SS) was explored by using 60 Co-γ irradiation. The surface of SS was modified by coating of dopamine before radiation grafting. The grafting reaction was performed in a simultaneous irradiation condition. The chemical structures change of the surface before and after grafting was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The hydrophilicity of the samples was determined by water contact angle measurement in the comparison of the stainless steel in the conditions of pristine, dopamine coated and HEMA grafted. Surface morphology of the samples was characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The corrosion resistance properties of the samples were evaluated by Tafel polarization curve. The hemocompatibility of the samples were tested by platelet adhesion assay. - Highlights: • Poly-HEMA was grafted onto the surface of SS by 60 Co-γ-ray irradiation. • Pristine SS was coated by dopamine to form a dense poly-dopamine film before radiation grafting. • The biocompatibility and hydrophility of SS were improved after the grafting of HEMA

  10. Study on CexLa1-xO2 Buffer Layer used in Coated Conductors by Chemical Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yue; Suo, Hongli; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Developing multi-functional single buffer layer is one of the most important challenges for simplification of coated conductors configuration. Ladoped CeO2 films were prepared by chemical solution method. And surface morphology and texture quality of the La-doped CeO2 films were investigated...... method. It suggects that Ce0.9La0.1O2 film prepared by chemical solution route have a promising prospect for the simplification of coated conductors configuration....

  11. Hardness and Elastic Modulus of Titanium Nitride Coatings Prepared by Pirac Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siyuan; Wu, Shoujun; Zhang, Guoyun; Zhang, Weiguo

    In the present work, hardness and elastic modulus of a titanium nitride coatings prepared on Ti6Al4V by powder immersion reaction-assisted coating (PIRAC) are tested and comparatively studied with a physical vapor deposition (PVD) TiN coating. Surface hardness of the PIRAC coatings is about 11GPa, much lower than that of PVD coating of 22GPa. The hardness distribution profile from surface to substrate of the PVD coatings is steeply decreased from ˜22GPa to ˜4.5GPa of the Ti6Al4V substrate. The PIRAC coatings show a gradually decreasing hardness distribution profile. Elastic modulus of the PVD coating is about 426GPa. The PIRAC coatings show adjustable elastic modulus. Elastic modulus of the PIRAC coatings prepared at 750∘C for 24h and that at 800∘C for 8h is about 234 and 293GPa, respectively.

  12. Influence of deposition rate on the properties of tin coatings deposited on tool steels using arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, P.; Abbas, M.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material, was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapour deposition method. The study concentrated on cathodic arc physical vapour deposition (CAPVD), a technique used for the deposition of hard coatings for tooling applications, and which has many advantages. The main drawback of this technique, however, is the formation of macrodroplets (MD's) during deposition, resulting in films with rougher morphology. Various standard characterization techniques and equipment, such as electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, hardness testing machine, scratch tester and pin-on-disc machine, were used to analyze and quantify the following properties and parameters, surface morphology, thickness, hardness, adhesion and coefficient of friction (COF) of the deposited coatings. Surface morphology revealed that the MD's produced during the etching stage, protruded through the thin film, resulting in film with deteriorated surface features. Both coating thickness and indentation loads influenced the hardness of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared to those on D2 tool steel. Standard deviation indicates that the coating deposited with thickness around 6.7 macro m showed the most stable trend of COF versus sliding distance. (author)

  13. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  14. A new electrothermal-chemical method for metals, carbides, and ceramics hard coating: Experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoler, D.; Bruma, C.; Cuperman, S.

    1999-07-01

    A new method and an experimental device for powders of metals, carbides and ceramics coating of various substrates are presented. The powder-particles are accelerated and heated by a mixture of plasma and gases resulted from the burning of an energetic (propellant). The operating prototype already allows one to obtain coatings of metals, carbides and ceramics. Some of the coatings obtained, especially those by carbides powders, indicate even at the present stage of research, properties (as hardness, porosity) which are comparable to those provided by the presently industrial methods in use. The accelerating-heating agent in the device (the plasma-gas mixture) is characterized by very high densities (up to 120 kg/m{sup 3}), temperatures (up to 20,000 K) and velocities (more than 1,500 m/s). Due to these characteristics, the powder particles are accelerated to velocities significantly higher than those reached in other coating devices as, for example, the detonation (D) gun. Some preliminary experimental data show that the accelerated particle can reach velocities higher than 1,000 m/s. In parallel, in order to better understand the phenomena taking place inside the device and to determine the optimal process parameters leading to high quality coatings an appropriate theoretical model was developed. The model is able to describe the complex processes of plasma-gas-propellant interaction, gas flow and powder particles heating and acceleration. The model gives a detailed description of the gas, propellant and accelerated particle parameters, their spatial distribution and temporal evolution; predicts their dependence on the values of some input quantities such as: the plasma energy, propellant characteristics and accelerated particles type and geometry. The computational results the authors obtained show that, indeed, during the acceleration process the particles are heated, melted and eventually vaporized. One of the most interesting theoretical results is that the

  15. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals shall...

  16. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2016-07-14

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2•xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2•xH2O, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Thereby paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  17. The use of dual material seals for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.; Nichols, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The use of dual material seals, metal and elastomeric for a transportation package, provides a viable option for packages requiring high temperature seal capability. Allowing the seal area to go to higher temperatures then allowed for all elastomeric seal reduce the necessity of providing thermal protection during a postulated accident condition fire. It also increases the options for impact limiting features that do not also mitigate the affects of accident thermal events. Typically, high temperature seals require the use of metal O-rings. Only one seal (typically identified as the containment seal) needs to survive the hypothetical accident conditions, including the high temperatures that may occur during the prescribed hypothetical thermal event. However, to expedite the assembly leakage rate testing of radioactive material packages, a dual O-ring seal arrangement is often used to allow creation of a relatively small volume test cavity between the seals. For any package that is being used on a frequent basis, the total cost of seals can be significantly reduced by using an elastomeric seal as the secondary seal. The elastomeric seal is not the containment boundary seal and does not need to survive the high temperature condition. To get the dual material O-ring seals to seat properly, a different approach has to be taken than with closure of a radioactive material package that does not use metallic O-ring(s). A metal O-ring requires an application of a seating force while the elastomeric package requires a certain percentage of deformation. This is further complicated when the seating force is developed using a multi-bolt closure. Because of the nature of multi-bolt closures, elastic interaction prevents the equal application of force. This paper develops the methods involved in properly closing and establishing containment when using dual material seals with a multi-bolt closure. These methods were demonstrated in two production casks requiring testing leak

  18. A new formulation for orally disintegrating tablets using a suspension spray-coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Y; Irisawa, Y; Okimoto, K; Osawa, T; Yamashita, S

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design a new orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) that has high tablet hardness and a fast oral disintegration rate using a new preparation method. To obtain rapid disintegration granules (RDGs), a saccharide, such as trehalose, mannitol, or lactose, was spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch using a fluidized-bed granulator (suspension method). As an additional disintegrant, crospovidone, light anhydrous silicic acid, or hydroxypropyl starch was also included in the suspension. The RDGs obtained possessed extremely large surface areas, narrow particle size distribution, and numerous micro-pores. When tabletting these RDGs, it was found that the RDGs increased tablet hardness by decreasing plastic deformation and increasing the contact frequency between granules. In all tablets, a linear relationship was observed between tablet hardness and oral disintegration time. From each linear correlation line, a slope (D/H value) and an intercept (D/H(0) value) were calculated. Tablets with small D/H and D/H(0) values could disintegrate immediately in the oral cavity regardless of the tablet hardness and were considered to be appropriate for ODTs. Therefore, these values were used as key parameters to select better ODTs. Of all the RDGs prepared in this study, mannitol spray-coated with a suspension of corn starch and crospovidone (2.5:1 w/w ratio) showed most appropriate properties for ODTs; fast in vivo oral disintegration time, and high tablet hardness. In conclusion, this simple method to prepare superior formulations for new ODTs was established by spray-coating mannitol with a suspension of appropriate disintegrants.

  19. Methods to reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors with magnetic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, O. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: osami-t@ynu.ac.jp; Sekizawa, S.; Alamgir, A.K.M. [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Miyagi, D. [Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka, 1-Chome, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan)

    2007-10-01

    HTS coated conductors (CCs) have high potentials as low-cost and long length conductors. However, a question remains as to what influence the magnetic property of the substrates has on the AC losses. In this paper, the influence of magnetic property of substrates on the AC losses in HTS CCs is studied. Based on the study methods to reduce the AC transport current losses and magnetization losses in CCs with magnetic substrates are investigated. It is shown that the losses can be reduced to the same level of those in CCs with non-magnetic substrates.

  20. Methods to reduce AC losses in HTS coated conductors with magnetic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Sekizawa, S.; Alamgir, A.K.M.; Miyagi, D.

    2007-01-01

    HTS coated conductors (CCs) have high potentials as low-cost and long length conductors. However, a question remains as to what influence the magnetic property of the substrates has on the AC losses. In this paper, the influence of magnetic property of substrates on the AC losses in HTS CCs is studied. Based on the study methods to reduce the AC transport current losses and magnetization losses in CCs with magnetic substrates are investigated. It is shown that the losses can be reduced to the same level of those in CCs with non-magnetic substrates

  1. Resistivity behavior of optimized PbTiO3 thin films prepared by spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaya, Z.; Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D.; Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Th is study presents the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films which were prepared towards metal-insulator-metal capacitor device fabrication. The PbTiO3 thin films were prepared through sol-gel spin coating method that involved various deposition parameters that is (1) different molar concentration of PbTiO3 solutions, (2) various additional PbAc-content in PbTiO3 solutions, and (3) various annealing temperature on PbTiO3 thin films. Hence, an electrical measurement of current versus voltage was done to determine the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films.

  2. A simple method for the preparation of activated carbon fibers coated with graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Joo; Park, Soo-Jin

    2007-11-15

    A simple method is described for the preparation of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) coated with graphite nanofibers (GNFs). Low-pressure-plasma mixed-gas (Ar/O2) treatment of the ACFs led to the growth of GNFs on their surface. The growth was greater at higher power inputs, and from TEM observations the GNFs were seen to be of herringbone type. It was found that the N2 adsorption capacity of the ACFs did not sharply decrease, and that volume resistivity of the ACFs enhanced as a result of this treatment.

  3. The Infulence of Microarc Oxidation Method Modes on the Properties of Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Y. Dudareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental studies of the properties of the hardened surface layer, developed by the microarc oxidation method (MAO on the surface of Al-Si ingots from AK12D alloy have been presented here. The effect of concentration of the electrolyte components on the properties of the MAO coating, such as microhardness, thickness, porosity have been studied. The corresponding regression equations to estimate the influence of the process parameters on the quality of the developed MAO-layer, have been set up.

  4. Method and Apparatus for Thermal Spraying of Metal Coatings Using Pulsejet Resonant Pulsed Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An apparatus and method for thermal spraying a metal coating on a substrate is accomplished with a modified pulsejet and optionally an ejector to assist in preventing oxidation. Metal such as Aluminum or Magnesium may be used. A pulsejet is first initiated by applying fuel, air, and a spark. Metal is inserted continuously in a high volume of metal into a combustion chamber of the pulsejet. The combustion is thereafter controlled resonantly at high frequency and the metal is heated to a molten state. The metal is then transported from the combustion chamber into a tailpipe of said pulsejet and is expelled therefrom at high velocity and deposited on a target substrate.

  5. Inflatable Module Seal Interface Development and Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop a repeatable low permeable sealing interface evaluating O-ring, RTV bond and flowed RTV bond methods. Advanced Bladder materials (ArmorFlex, Nanoclay, etc)...

  6. Improved cryogenic shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, W. A., Jr.; Tellier, G. F.

    1976-01-01

    Seals are designed for use with liquid propellant ball valves at temperatures ranging from -400 F to 130 F and 8,000 psig. Seals are capable of sustaining 90 degree rotation, with substantial amount of lateral and axial play, caused by large pressure loads and differential thermal contraction.

  7. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  8. Synthesis and characterization of uniform silica nanoparticles on nickel substrate by spin coating and sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc Thi Le, Hien; Jeong, Hae Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Spin coating and sol-gel methods are proposed for the preparation of silica nanoparticles on a nickel substrate using silicon tetrachloride, 2-methoxyethanol, and four different types of alkaline solutions. The effects of the type of alkaline solution, concentration of silica solution, and speed of spin coating on the properties of silica nanoparticles are investigated systematically. Uniform spherical shape of silica nanoparticles on Ni with the smallest size are obtained with sodium carbonate among the alkaline solutions after stirring at 70 °C for 6 h and spin-coating at 7000 rpm. Physical and electrochemical properties of the silica particles are investigated.

  9. Improvement of a method for predicting failure rates of coated particles during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.

    1977-01-01

    A method for calculating the coating stress distribution resulting from the statistical spread of geometrical parameters in irradiated fuel particle batches has been developed by Gulden et al. The existing method utilizing coated particles is extended in two ways: 1. A more realistic treatment of the buffer layer is adopted, taking into account its physical properties. 2. A statistical distribution according to Weibull has been adopted for the silicon carbide layer strength. Calculations with both the new and the old assumptions were performed on one feed particle and one breed particle type. It is shown that the two modifications influence the results of the original method. It was found that the extension of the first assumption has no influence on the stress distribution and the fraction of breaking feed particles, but it changes the stress distribution of the breed particles significantly. The fraction of broken particles at end burnup is increased by a factor of approximately 10. The extension of the second assumption affects the fraction of broken feed as well as that of the breed particles. Depending on the Weibull parameter, m, the number of failed feed particles increases by a factor of 1.3 to 2; the corresponding factor for breed particles is between 3.5 and 60

  10. Determination of uranium in coated fuel particle compact by potassium fluoride fusion-gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Mitsuo; Iso, Shuichi; Hoshino, Akira; Suzuki, Shuichi.

    1992-03-01

    Potassium fluoride-gravimetric method has been developed for the determination of uranium in TRISO type-coated fuel particle compact. Graphite matrix in the fuel compact is burned off by heating it in a platinum crucible at 850degC. The coated fuel particles thus obtained are decomposed by fusion with potassium fluoride at 900degC. The melt was dissolved with sulfuric acid. Uranium is precipitated as ammonium diuranate, by passing ammonia gas through the solution. The resulting precipitate is heated in a muffle furnace at 850degC, to convert uranium into triuranium octoxide. Uranium in the triuranium octoxide was determined gravimetrically. Ten grams of caoted fuel particles were completely decomposed by fusion with 50 g of potassium fluoride at 900degC for 3 hrs. Analytical result for uranium in the fuel compact by the proposed method was 21.04 ± 0.05 g (n = 3), and was in good agreement with that obtained by non-destructive γ-ray measurement method : 21.01 ± 0.07 g (n = 3). (author)

  11. Rotary shaft seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing

  12. Sealing a conduit end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentz, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing or blocking conduits, such as the primary nozzles of a nuclear steam generator is described. It includes an annular bracket sealingly attached to the open end of the nozzle, the bracket having a plurality of threaded holes therein. Mounted atop the bracket is a generally circular nozzle dam for covering the opening. Interposed between the nozzle dam and the bracket is an extrusion-resistant seal member having a plurality of apertures therethrough for receiving each bolt. The seal member is configured to resist extrusion by having laminated layers of differing hardnesses, so that the seal member will not laterally extrude away from each bolt in a manner that enlarges the aperture surrounding each bolt as the nozzle dam is bolted to the bracket. (author)

  13. Reactor vessel sealing plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus is described for sealing a cold leg nozzle of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel from a remote location comprising: at least one sealing plug for mechanically sealing the nozzle from the inside of the reactor pressure vessel. The sealing plug includes a plate and a cone assembly having an end part receptive in the nozzle, the plate being axially moveable relative to the cone assembly. The plate and cone assembly have confronting bevelled edges defining an opening therebetween. A primary O-ring is disposed about the opening and is supported on the bevelled edges, the plate being guidably mounted to the cone assembly for movement toward the cone assembly to radially expand the primary O-ring into sealing engagement with the nozzle. A means is included for providing relative movement between the outer plate and the cone assembly

  14. A suggestion of a new method for the calculation of the coating thickness in continuous hot-dip galvanizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, C. M.; Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G. Y. [POSCO Technical Research laboratories, Gumgo-dong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    It is known that the distributions of the impinging pressure gradient and the shear stress at the strip surface play a decisive key role in the decision of the coating thickness in hot-dip galvanizing. So, to predict the exact coating thickness, it is essential that the distributions of the impinging wall jet pressure and the shear stress acting between the liquid film and jet stream are measured (or calculated) exactly for each specific coating condition. So far, to obtain the impinging wall jet pressure, it was assumed that the jet issuing from an air-knife is similar to the Hiemenz plane stagnation flow, and the wall shear stress could be predicted by an equation using the assumption of a non-negative Gaussian profile in impinging wall jet pressure in general, so that it cannot be reliable for some impinging wall jet regions and nozzle systems intrinsically. Nevertheless, one cannot find a suitable method to cope with the difficulties in measuring/calculating of the shear stress and the impinging wall jet pressure. Such a difficulty which will cause an inaccuracy in the coating thickness prediction. With these connections, in the present study, we suggest a new method named as a two-step calculation method to calculate the final coating thickness, which consists of the air jet analysis and coating thickness calculation. And, from the comparison of the results one may confirm the validation of the new suggested method.

  15. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  16. Application of hydrophilic magnetic fluid to oil seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. S.; Nakatsuka, K.; Fujita, T.; Atarashi, T.

    1999-07-01

    Bearing and gear are important components in machines. Lubricant for bearing or gear is usually confined in working space by rubber retainer or mechanical seal, and its lifetime which is determined by the friction wear of sealing material is important. In this report, the basic characteristics of magnetic fluid seal applied to lubricant retainer is studied. The fluid used for this purpose is ethyleneglycol-based magnetic fluid in which silica-coated iron particles are dispersed. The lubricant oil seal set consisting of six stages of pole piece and Nd-permanent magnets (4.0 Wb/m 2) in seal housing showed an excellent pressure resistance of 618 kPa under a rotating speed of 1800 rpm.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-Si-C-N nanocomposite coatings prepared by a filtered vacuum arc method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangavel, Elangovan, E-mail: t.elangophy@gmail.com [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Nano-Wear, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghun; Nam, Kee-Seok; Kim, Jong-Kuk [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do-Geun, E-mail: dogeunkim@kims.re.kr [Advanced Thin Film Research Group, Materials Processing Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preparation method was used as filtered vacuum arc (FVA) deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ternary coating obtained by using single carbon source with TMS gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detailed discussion of chemical nature for these coating by using XPS. - Abstract: Ti-Si-C-N nanocomposite coatings were synthesized by a filtered vacuum arc (FVA) technique. A metal organic precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS), was used as a source for silicon and carbon to deposit the Ti-Si-C-N nanocomposite coating with a Ti cathode source. The chemical and microstructural properties of the as-deposited coatings were systematically investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation and scratch tests were carried out to evaluate the mechanical and adhesion properties of the coatings. From the XPS analysis, it was found that the Si content in the coating increased from 2 to 16 at.% as the TMS flow rate was increased from 5 to 20 sccm. The TEM analysis clearly demonstrated that the coatings were composed of crystalline TiCN along with amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a secondary phase. From the XRD results, it was found that the crystallite size of TiCN increased with increasing Si content. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the TiSiCN coatings prepared by this method exhibited strong dependencies on the silicon content. A maximum hardness of 49 GPa and a coefficient of friction of 0.17 were obtained for the film with a silicon content of 3 at.%.

  18. Preparation of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys using cyclic electrochemical deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun-Sil [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yong-Hoon [Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Laboratory, Division of Orthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Choe, Han-Cheol, E-mail: hcchoe@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Dental Materials, Research Center of Nano-Interface Activation for Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, Chosun University (Korea, Republic of); Brantley, William A. [Division of Restorative Science and Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys, prepared using a cyclic electrochemical deposition method, have been investigated using a variety of surface analytical experimental methods. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings were prepared by electrolytic deposition in electrolytes containing Ca{sup 2+}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} and SiO{sub 3}{sup 2−} ions. The deposited layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a wettability test. Phase transformation from (α″ + β) to largely β occurred with increasing Ta content in the Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys, yielding larger grain size. The morphology of the Si-HA coatings was changed by increasing the number of deposition cycles, with the initial plate-like structures changing to mixed rod-like and plate-like shapes, and finally to a rod-like structure. From the ATR-FTIR spectra, Si existed in the form of SiO{sub 4}{sup 4−} groups in Si-HA coating layer. The lowest aqueous contact angles and best wettability were found for the Si-HA coatings prepared with 30 deposition cycles. - Highlights: • Electrochemically deposited Si-HA coatings on Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys were investigated. • The Si-HA coatings were initially precipitated along the martensitic structure. • The morphology of the Si-HA coating changed with the deposition cycles. • Si existed in the form of SiO{sub 4}{sup 4−} groups in the Si-HA coating.

  19. Preparation of silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys using cyclic electrochemical deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol; Brantley, William A.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti–30Nb–xTa alloys, prepared using a cyclic electrochemical deposition method, have been investigated using a variety of surface analytical experimental methods. The silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) coatings were prepared by electrolytic deposition in electrolytes containing Ca 2+ , PO 4 3− and SiO 3 2− ions. The deposited layers were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and a wettability test. Phase transformation from (α″ + β) to largely β occurred with increasing Ta content in the Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys, yielding larger grain size. The morphology of the Si-HA coatings was changed by increasing the number of deposition cycles, with the initial plate-like structures changing to mixed rod-like and plate-like shapes, and finally to a rod-like structure. From the ATR-FTIR spectra, Si existed in the form of SiO 4 4− groups in Si-HA coating layer. The lowest aqueous contact angles and best wettability were found for the Si-HA coatings prepared with 30 deposition cycles. - Highlights: • Electrochemically deposited Si-HA coatings on Ti –30Nb–xTa alloys were investigated. • The Si-HA coatings were initially precipitated along the martensitic structure. • The morphology of the Si-HA coating changed with the deposition cycles. • Si existed in the form of SiO 4 4− groups in the Si-HA coating

  20. The cutting properties and wear of the knives with DLC and W-DLC coatings, deposited by PVD methods, applied for wood and wood-based materials machining

    OpenAIRE

    M. Pancielejko; A. Czyżniewski; A. Gilewicz; V. Zavaleyev; W. Szymański

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Performance of DLC and W-DLC coated woodworking knives was investigated. The results of testing DLC and W-DLC coating properties as well as the results of life-time tests in the form of wear of HSS and HM knives with these coatings is presents.Design/methodology/approach: DLC coating was deposited by MCVA method, and W-DLC coating was deposited by pulsed RMS. Tests of knives coated with DLC and W-DLC as uncoated ones was made by machining: MDF board, pinewood slats and floorboard - u...

  1. Quantitative chemical method for the determination of the disordered carbon component in pyrocarbon coatings of fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfrum, E.A.; Nickel, H.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical behavior of the surface of pyrocarbon (PyC) coatings of nuclear fuel particles was investigated in aqueous suspension by reaction with oxygen at room temperature. The concentration of the disordered material component, which has a large internal surface, can be identified by means of a pH change. Using this fact, a chemical method was developed that can be used for the quantitative determination of the concentration of this carbon component in the PyC coating

  2. Development of Reliability Based Life Prediction Methods for Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashwin

    2001-01-01

    Literature survey related to the EBC/TBC (environmental barrier coating/thermal barrier coating) fife models, failure mechanisms in EBC/TBC and the initial work plan for the proposed EBC/TBC life prediction methods development was developed as well as the finite element model for the thermal/stress analysis of the GRC-developed EBC system was prepared. Technical report for these activities is given in the subsequent sections.

  3. Inkjet printing of Chitlac-nanosilver—a method to create functional coatings for non-metallic bone implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nganga, Sara; Moritz, Niko; Jakobsson, Kristina; Vallittu, Pekka K; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Nyman, Johan O; Sandler, Niklas; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Travan, Andrea; Donati, Ivan; Crosera, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites, based on bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate thermoset polymer matrix reinforced with E-glass fibers have been successfully used in cranial reconstructions and the material has been approved for clinical use. As a further refinement of these implants, antimicrobial, non-cytotoxic coatings on the composites were created by an immersion procedure driven by strong electrostatic interactions. Silver nanoparticles (nAg) were immobilized in lactose-modified chitosan (Chitlac) to prepare the bacteriostatic coatings. Herein, we report the use of inkjet technology (a drop-on-demand inkjet printer) to deposit functional Chitlac-nAg coatings on the thermoset substrates. Characterization methods included scanning electron microscopy, scanning white light interferometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Inkjet printing enabled the fast and flexible functionalization of the thermoset surfaces with controlled coating patterns. The coatings were not impaired by the printing process: the kinetics of silver release from the coatings created by inkjet printing and conventional immersion technique was similar. Further research is foreseen to optimize printing parameters and to tailor the characteristics of the coatings for specific clinical applications. (note)

  4. Inkjet printing of Chitlac-nanosilver--a method to create functional coatings for non-metallic bone implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga, Sara; Moritz, Niko; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Jakobsson, Kristina; Nyman, Johan O; Borgogna, Massimiliano; Travan, Andrea; Crosera, Matteo; Donati, Ivan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Sandler, Niklas

    2014-10-22

    Biostable fiber-reinforced composites, based on bisphenol-A-dimethacrylate and triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate thermoset polymer matrix reinforced with E-glass fibers have been successfully used in cranial reconstructions and the material has been approved for clinical use. As a further refinement of these implants, antimicrobial, non-cytotoxic coatings on the composites were created by an immersion procedure driven by strong electrostatic interactions. Silver nanoparticles (nAg) were immobilized in lactose-modified chitosan (Chitlac) to prepare the bacteriostatic coatings. Herein, we report the use of inkjet technology (a drop-on-demand inkjet printer) to deposit functional Chitlac-nAg coatings on the thermoset substrates. Characterization methods included scanning electron microscopy, scanning white light interferometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Inkjet printing enabled the fast and flexible functionalization of the thermoset surfaces with controlled coating patterns. The coatings were not impaired by the printing process: the kinetics of silver release from the coatings created by inkjet printing and conventional immersion technique was similar. Further research is foreseen to optimize printing parameters and to tailor the characteristics of the coatings for specific clinical applications.

  5. Optimization of sol-gel technique for coating of metallic substrates by hydroxyapatite using the Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourbaghi-Masouleh, M.; Asgharzadeh, H.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the Taguchi method of design of experiment (DOE) was used to optimize the hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on various metallic substrates deposited by sol-gel dip-coating technique. The experimental design consisted of five factors including substrate material (A), surface preparation of substrate (B), dipping/withdrawal speed (C), number of layers (D), and calcination temperature (E) with three levels of each factor. An orthogonal array of L18 type with mixed levels of the control factors was utilized. The image processing of the micrographs of the coatings was conducted to determine the percentage of coated area ( PCA). Chemical and phase composition of HA coatings were studied by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and EDS techniques. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the PCA of HA coatings was significantly affected by the calcination temperature. The optimum conditions from signal-to-noise ( S/N) ratio analysis were A: pure Ti, B: polishing and etching for 24 h, C: 50 cm min-1, D: 1, and E: 300 °C. In the confirmation experiment using the optimum conditions, the HA coating with high PCA of 98.5 % was obtained.

  6. Obtain ceramic porous alumina-zirconia by replica method calcium phosphate coated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.D.R.; Rigoli, W.R.; Osiro, Denise; Pallone, E.M.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Biomaterials used in bone replacement, including porous bioceramics, are often used as support structure for bone formation and repair. The porous bioceramics are used because present features as biocompatibility, high porosity and pore morphology that confer adequate mechanical strength and induce bone growth. In this work were obtained porous specimens of alumina containing 5% by inclusion of volume of zirconia produced by the replica method. The porous specimens had its surface chemically treated with phosphoric acid and were coated with calcium phosphate. The coating was performed using the biomimetic method during 14 days and an initial pH of 6.1. The porous specimens were characterized using the follow techniques: porosity, axial compression tests, microtomography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and pH measurements SBF solution. The results showed specimens with suitable pore morphology for application as biomaterial, and even a reduced time of incubation favored the calcium phosphate phases formation on the material surfaces. (author)

  7. Synthesis of active absorber layer by dip-coating method for perovskite solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rahul; Noor, I. M.; Singh, Pramod K.; Bhattacharya, B.; Arof, A. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop the hybrid perovskite-based n-i-p solar cell using a simple, fast and low-cost dip-coating method. Hot solution and the pre-annealed substrate are used for coating the perovskite thin film by this method this is further used for studying its structural and electrical properties. UV-vis spectroscopy is carried out for calculating the band gap of the hybrid perovskite layer which is ∼1.6 eV. X-ray spectroscopy confirms that the formation of hybrid perovskite layer. The profilometer is used to study the surface roughness and also for measuring the thickness of the perovskite layer with varying substrate temperature. The optimized sample was further used for cross-sectional SEM image to verify the thickness measured from the profiler. The electrical parameter of JV characteristic with varying temperature is tabulated in the table. Whereas, the perovskite sensitized solar cell exhibits highest short circuit current density, Jsc of 11 mA cm-2, open circuit voltage, Voc of 0.87 V, fill factor of 0.55 and efficiency, η of >5%.

  8. Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure and method of processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jr., Jesse J.; Hirschfeld, Deidre A.; Li, Tingkai

    1993-12-07

    Alkali corrosion resistant coatings and ceramic foams having superfine open cell structure are created using sol-gel processes. The processes have particular application in creating calcium magnesium zirconium phosphate, CMZP, coatings and foams.

  9. A Discovered Ducal Seal Does Not Belong to the Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow Solving the Mystery Using Genetic Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lech, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The Incorporation Charter for the city of Krakow, the former capital of Poland, is one of the most valuable documents stored in the National Archives in Krakow. The document, which was written in 1257 on parchment, grants Krakow the Magdeburg rights and regulates its legal, statutory, economic and settlement-related aspects. The Charter was placed in the National Register of the Memory of the World UNESCO programme in 2014. A ducal seal, considered to be the lost seal detached from the Incorp...

  10. Magnetic fluid seals for DWDM filter manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhixin

    2002-01-01

    Performance requirements of rotary magnetic fluid seals for thin film dense wavelength division multiplexing filter manufacturing are discussed. High speed, large diameter, tight tolerance for rotating accuracy and motion control are some of the technical challenges in this application. Analytical methods for studying these technical issues and experimental data are presented. Innovative design approaches are also discussed. It is shown that using the most advanced magnetic fluid technology and seal design technology, magnetic fluid seals can provide satisfactory performance in this challenging new application

  11. Analysis of end-face seals by FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraszek J.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The end face-seals joint simultaneously the function of seal, bearing and heat exchanger. In order to improve the design of end-face seals the analysis of this type of joint by means of finite element method, was developed. The temperature distribution is indispensable to the analysis of displacement and stress in this type of face seal. In this work the values of temperature and stress in end-face seals were calculated. The numerical results were confirmed by measurements in the laboratory.

  12. Selection of vacuum seals for EBT-P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillow, C.F.; Adlon, G.L.; Stubblefield, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    Elmo Bumpy Torus Proof of Principle (EBT-P) is a magnetic fusion RandD facility being constructed by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company - St. Louis Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). EBT-P is a truly unique fusion device requiring careful consideration in selecting both the primary vacuum seals on the toroidal vessel and the secondary vacuum seals in components such as vacuum pumps and and valves. The vacuum seal environment is described and the considerations in vacuum seal selection fully discussed. Methods for protecting vacuum seals in pumps and valves from the microwave environments are also presented

  13. A Discovered Ducal Seal Does Not Belong to the Incorporation Charter for the City of Krakow Solving the Mystery Using Genetic Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The Incorporation Charter for the city of Krakow, the former capital of Poland, is one of the most valuable documents stored in the National Archives in Krakow. The document, which was written in 1257 on parchment, grants Krakow the Magdeburg rights and regulates its legal, statutory, economic and settlement-related aspects. The Charter was placed in the National Register of the Memory of the World UNESCO programme in 2014. A ducal seal, considered to be the lost seal detached from the Incorporation Charter, was found in the sphragistic collection after nearly 500 years. Unfortunately, it was uncertain whether the seal in question was indeed the missing part of the document. The aim of the study presented below was to solve this mystery. For this purpose, the parchment on which the Incorporation Charter was written was compared with the fragment of the parchment attached to the discovered seal. The study involved the analysis of selected mitochondrial DNA sequences and additional analysis at the level of nuclear DNA using microsatellite markers in the form of 11 STR (Short Tandem Repeat) loci, to identify the species and individual whose skin had been used to make the parchment. This analysis revealed that seal and parchment was from different individuals and thereby discovered that the seal was never a part of the Incorporation Charter. The study is further an example of informative DNA preservation in cultural heritage objects.

  14. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J., E-mail: jacobo.hernandez@uam.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Climent-Font, A. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Microanálisis de Materiales (CMAM), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid 28049 (Spain); García-Ruiz, J.P. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Manso-Silvan, M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  15. Calcium phosphate/porous silicon biocomposites prepared by cyclic deposition methods: Spin coating vs electrochemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Montelongo, J.; Gallach, D.; Naveas, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Climent-Font, A.; García-Ruiz, J.P.; Manso-Silvan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) provides an excellent platform for bioengineering applications due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioresorbability. However, to promote its application as bone engineering scaffold, deposition of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in its hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase is in progress. In that sense, this work focuses on the synthesis of CaP/PSi composites by means of two different techniques for CaP deposition on PSi: Cyclic Spin Coating (CSC) and Cyclic Electrochemical Activation (CEA). Both techniques CSC and CEA consisted on alternate Ca and P deposition steps on PSi. Each technique produced specific morphologies and CaP phases using the same independent Ca and P stem-solutions at neutral pH and at room temperature. The brushite (BRU) phase was favored with the CSC technique and the hydroxyapatite (HAP) phase was better synthesized using the CEA technique. Analyses by elastic backscattering spectroscopy (EBS) on CaP/PSi structures synthesized by CEA supported that, by controlling the CEA parameters, an HAP coating with the required Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67 can be promoted. Biocompatibility was evaluated by bone-derived progenitor cells, which grew onto CaP/PSi prepared by CSC technique with a long-shaped actin cytoskeleton. The density of adhered cells was higher on CaP/PSi prepared by CEA, where cells presented a normal morphological appearance and active mitosis. These results can be used for the design and optimization of CaP/PSi composites with enhanced biocompatibility for bone-tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Proposed cyclic methods produce specific morphologies and CaP phases in biocomposites. • The brushite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Spin Coating. • The hydroxyapatite phase is favored in the biocomposite produced by Cyclic Electrochemical Activation. • The Ca/P atomic ratio of hydroxyapatite was validated by elastic backscattering spectroscopy. • Cells grown showed morphological and

  16. Reactor cavity seal ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    A hydrostatic seal is described for sealing an annular gap between two flat substantially horizontal coplanar surfaces comprising, in combination: a generally flat annular plate of a width sufficient to span a gap between two surfaces: compressible annular sealing means disposed on the bottom surface of the flat annular plate for sealingly engaging the two flat surfaces in response to a downward force exerted on the plate; and fastening means, distributed along the center line of the plate, for releasably fastening the plate in a position to span the gap to be sealed and exert a downward force on the plate, each fastening means including a pair of elongated members of a size to fit into the gap to be sealed, means for mounting the members on the bottom surface of the plate so that at least a portion of each member is radially moveable in a direction toward a respective one of the vertical side surfaces defining the gap to be sealed to engage same and so that the plate is moveable relative to the members in a downward direction in response to hydrostatic pressure applied to the upper surface of the plate when the members are engaging the vertical side surfaces of an annular gap, and an actuating means, mounted on the plate for movement therewith in response to hydrostatic pressure, for radially moving the members, the actuating means extending through a bore in the plate to the upper surface of the plate

  17. SEALING SIMULATED LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael A. Romano

    2004-09-01

    This report details the testing equipment, procedures and results performed under Task 7.2 Sealing Simulated Leaks. In terms of our ability to seal leaks identified in the technical topical report, Analysis of Current Field Data, we were 100% successful. In regards to maintaining seal integrity after pigging operations we achieved varying degrees of success. Internal Corrosion defects proved to be the most resistant to the effects of pigging while External Corrosion proved to be the least resistant. Overall, with limitations, pressure activated sealant technology would be a viable option under the right circumstances.

  18. A numerical method to estimate AC loss in superconducting coated conductors by finite element modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Z; Jiang, Q; Pei, R; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    A finite element method code based on the critical state model is proposed to solve the AC loss problem in YBCO coated conductors. This numerical method is based on a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable. The AC loss problems have been investigated both in self-field condition and external field condition. Two numerical approaches have been introduced: the first model is configured on the cross-section plane of the YBCO tape to simulate an infinitely long superconducting tape. The second model represents the plane of the critical current flowing and is able to simulate the YBCO tape with finite length where the end effect is accounted. An AC loss measurement has been done to verify the numerical results and shows a good agreement with the numerical solution.

  19. A vacuum thermogravimetric method for outgassing evaluations of silicone-coated fiberglass cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, L. B.; Mccauley, G. B.; Honma, M.; Hultquist, A. E.

    1972-01-01

    A method for evaluating outgassing characteristics of space-sensitive materials was devised by modifying a thermogravimetric balance so that a continual weight loss trace is obtained as a function of time at constant temperature and nearly constant pressure. In addition the apparatus is capable of collecting room temperature condensibles during the outgassing run. A series of silicone-coated glass cloth samples were evaluated by this method. The major advantage of the technique is that data presentation is developed in the form of a continuous trace. This data can then be utilized to develop the kinetics of weight loss. The technique has been shown to be a useful and valid one for indicating small differences between materials under vacuum and elevated temperature conditions.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer blend electrolyte thin films by spin-coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapi, Sharanappa; Niranjana, M.; Devendrappa, H., E-mail: dehu2010@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangothri - 574 199 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Solid Polymer blend electrolytes based on Polyethylene oxide (PEO) and poly vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) complexed with zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs; Synthesized by Co-precipitation method) thin films have prepared at a different weight percent using the spin-coating method. The complexation of the NPs with the polymer blend was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The variation in film morphology was examined by polarized optical micrographs (POMs). The thermal behavior of blends was investigated under non-isothermal conditions by differential thermal analyses (DTA). A single glass transition temperature for each blend was observed, which supports the existence of compatibility of such system. The obtained results represent that the ternary based thin films are prominent materials for battery and optoelectronic device applications.

  1. Coating applications for the molten carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigeaud, A.; Skok, A.J.; Patel, P.S.; Maru, H.C.

    1981-09-25

    The molten carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient low polluting fuel-to-electricity conversion device which is at present being developed for power plant and industrial use. Because the alkali carbonates at the operating temperature of 650/sup 0/C are corrosive and the methods employed for sealing the cell lead to certain electrochemical corrosion couples, different types of protective coatings are needed to minimize attack in a cost-effective manner. Besides protective purposes, other opportunities are also described where coating technology can be gainfully employed in this system.

  2. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Research Into Ni-Cr-Si-B Coating Sprayed Onto Aluminium Substrate Using the Method of Plasma Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Lukauskaitė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with Ni base coatings deposited on aluminium substrate applying the method of plasma spray. The purpose of the conducted research is to improve the physical and mechanical properties of coatings on the surface of aluminium alloy work pieces. Spraying on aluminium alloys encounters serious problems, and therefore this work analyses the ways to make the situation more favourable. Before spraying, the surfaces of substrates were modified employing chemical and mechanical pre-treatment methods. The aim of pre-treating aluminium alloys was to remove oxide layers from the aluminium surface. Coating microstructures and porosity were characterised applying optical microscopy. Differences in the roughness of pre-treated surfaces have been determined referring to profilometry. The paper investigates the influence of the adhesion of plasma spray coatings on aluminium surface pretreatment. Microhardness technique was applied for measuring the hardness of coatings. The study also describes and compares the mechanical properties of Ni base coatings deposited on different pre-treated aluminium substrates using plasma spray.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Glycosaminoglycan-resistant and pH-sensitive lipid-coated DNA complexes produced by detergent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Julia; Hyvönen, Zanna; Subrizi, Astrid; Bunjes, Heike; Urtti, Arto

    2008-10-21

    Cationic polymers are efficient gene delivery vectors in in vitro conditions, but these carriers can fail in vivo due to interactions with extracellular polyanions, i.e. glycosaminoglycans (GAG). The aim of this study was to develop a stable gene delivery vector that is activated at the acidic endosomal pH. Cationic DNA/PEI complexes were coated by 1,2-dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS) (3:2 mol/mol) using two coating methods: detergent removal and mixing with liposomes prepared by ethanol injection. Only detergent removal produced lipid-coated DNA complexes that were stable against GAGs, but were membrane active at low pH towards endosome mimicking liposomes. In relation to the low cellular uptake of the coated complexes, their transfection efficacy was relatively high. PEGylation of the coated complexes increased their cellular uptake but reduced the pH-sensitivity. Detergent removal was thus a superior method for the production of stable, but acid activatable, lipid-coated DNA complexes.

  5. Electrically resistive coating for remediation (regeneration) of a diesel particulate filter and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Amanda C [Malibu, CA; Kirby, Kevin K [Calabasas Hills, CA; Gregoire, Daniel J [Thousand Oaks, CA

    2012-02-14

    A resistively heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The resistively heated DPF includes a DPF having an inlet surface and at least one resistive coating on the inlet surface. The at least one resistive coating is configured to substantially maintain its resistance in an operating range of the DPF. The at least one resistive coating has a first terminal and a second terminal for applying electrical power to resistively heat up the at least one resistive coating in order to increase the temperature of the DPF to a regeneration temperature. The at least one resistive coating includes metal and semiconductor constituents.

  6. Characterization for Ceramic-coated magnets using E-beam and thermal annealing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyug Jong; Kim, Hee Gyu; Kang, In Gu; Kim, Min Wan; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Byung Cheol; Choi, Byung Ho

    2009-01-01

    Hard magnet was usually used by coating SiO 2 ceramic thick films followed by the thermal annealing process. In this work, the alternative annealing process for NdFeB magnets using e-beam sources(1∼2 MeV, 50∼400 kGy) was investigated. NdFeB magnets was coated with ceramic thick films using the spray method. The optimal annealing parameter for e-beam source reveals to be 1 MeV and 300 kGy. The sample prepared at 1 MeV and 300 kGy was characterized by the analysis of the surface morphology, film hardness, adhesion and chemical stability. The mechanical property of thick film, especially film hardness, is better than that of thermal annealed samples at 180 .deg. C. As a result, e-beam annealing process will be one of candidate and attractive heat treatment process. In future, manufacturing process will be carried out in cooperation with the magnet company

  7. Magneto-plasmonic Au-Coated Co nanoparticles synthesized via hot-injection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, João B., Jr.; Varanda, Laudemir C.

    2018-02-01

    A synthetic procedure is described for the obtaining of superparamagnetic Co nanoparticles (NPs) via hot-injection method in the presence of sodium borohydride. The Co NPs obtained have an average diameter of 5.3 nm and saturation magnetization of 115 emu g-1. A modified Langevin equation is fitted to the magnetization curves using a log-normal distribution for the particle diameter and an effective field to account for dipolar interactions. The calculated magnetic diameter of the Co NPs is 0.6 nm smaller than TEM-derived values, implying a magnetic dead layer of 0.3 nm. The magnetic core is coated with Au to prevent oxidation, resulting in water-stable magneto-plasmonic Co/Au core/shell NPs with saturation of 71.6 emu g-1. The coating adds a localized surface plasmon resonance property with absorbance in the so-called ‘therapeutic window’ (690-900 nm), suitable for biomedical applications. It is suggested that these multifunctional NPs are distinguished as a potential platform for applied and fundamental research.

  8. Performance of adsorbent-embedded heat exchangers using binder-coating method

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ang

    2016-01-01

    The performance of adsorption (AD) chillers or desalination cycles is dictated by the rates of heat and mass transfer of adsorbate in adsorbent-packed beds. Conventional granular-adsorbent, packed in fin-tube heat exchangers, suffered from poor heat transfer in heating (desorption) or cooling (adsorption) processes of the batch-operated cycles, with undesirable performance parameters such as higher footprint of plants, low coefficient of performance (COP) of AD cycles and higher capital cost of the machines. The motivation of present work is to mitigate the heat and mass "bottlenecks" of fin-tube heat exchangers by using a powdered-adsorbent cum binder coated onto the fin surfaces of exchangers. Suitable adsorbent-binder pairs have been identified for the silica gel adsorbent with pore surface areas up to 680 m2/g and pore diameters less than 6 nm. The parent silica gel remains largely unaffected despite being pulverized into fine particles of 100 μm, and yet maintaining its water uptake characteristics. The paper presents an experimental study on the selection and testing processes to achieve high efficacy of adsorbent-binder coated exchangers. The test results indicate 3.4-4.6 folds improvement in heat transfer rates over the conventional granular-packed method, resulting a faster rate of water uptake by 1.5-2 times on the suitable silica gel type. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 1 - FSW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purhonen, T.

    2014-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to gather together comprehensive information concerning FSW as an optional welding method for welding the nuclear waste copper canister at the disposal facility. This report discusses the current situation, knowledge of the process and information concerning results of the development and research work related to welding thick copper and the special needs of the disposal environment. Most of the research work and development work has been done by Posiva's Swedish partner SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. SKB chose FSW as their reference welding method in 2005. FSW (friction stir welding) is a solid-state welding method, invented in 1991, in which frictional heat is generated between the tool and the weld metal, causing the metal to soften, normally without reaching the melting point, and allowing the tool to traverse the joint line. Friction stir welding can be used for joining many types of materials and material combinations, if the tool materials and designs can be found which operate at the forging temperature of the workpiece. The general requirements for the copper canister weld and base material are presented in Posiva's VAHA-system, which sets the most critical values or demands concerning the short- and long-term properties or other needs. The sections in this report are set out in a similar way as in the VAHA-system. Concerning the results from the research and development work, it can be said that FS weld material fulfils the values set by VAHA. The quality of the welds fulfils the set demands for intact weld material and the welding process is robust using an automatic control system. There still remains work concerning the acceptance procedure for the welding process and other open issues which are described in this report. (orig.)

  10. State of the art of the welding method for sealing spent nuclear fuel canister made of copper. Part 1 - FSW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purhonen, T.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to gather together comprehensive information concerning FSW as an optional welding method for welding the nuclear waste copper canister at the disposal facility. This report discusses the current situation, knowledge of the process and information concerning results of the development and research work related to welding thick copper and the special needs of the disposal environment. Most of the research work and development work has been done by Posiva's Swedish partner SKB, Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. SKB chose FSW as their reference welding method in 2005. FSW (friction stir welding) is a solid-state welding method, invented in 1991, in which frictional heat is generated between the tool and the weld metal, causing the metal to soften, normally without reaching the melting point, and allowing the tool to traverse the joint line. Friction stir welding can be used for joining many types of materials and material combinations, if the tool materials and designs can be found which operate at the forging temperature of the workpiece. The general requirements for the copper canister weld and base material are presented in Posiva's VAHA-system, which sets the most critical values or demands concerning the short- and long-term properties or other needs. The sections in this report are set out in a similar way as in the VAHA-system. Concerning the results from the research and development work, it can be said that FS weld material fulfils the values set by VAHA. The quality of the welds fulfils the set demands for intact weld material and the welding process is robust using an automatic control system. There still remains work concerning the acceptance procedure for the welding process and other open issues which are described in this report. (orig.)

  11. Physicochemical Properties of Calcium Phosphate Based Coating on Gutta-Percha Root Canal Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Al-Haddad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Gutta-percha (GP is a polymer based standard root canal filling material that has been widely used in dentistry. However, it has an inadequate sealing ability and adhesion to root dentin. The aim of this study is to coat GP with a bioactive material to enhance its sealing ability and adhesion to the root sealer and subsequently to the root dentin. The choice of coating method is limited by the nature of GP as it requires a technique that is not governed by high temperatures or uses organic solvents. In this study, biomimetic coating technique using 1.5 Tas-simulated body fluids (SBF was employed to coat the treated GP cones. The coated samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM. The presence of hydroxyl, carbonate, and phosphate groups was detected by FTIR while the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA/calcium phosphate was confirmed with XRD. FESEM revealed uniform, thin, and crystalline HA calcium phosphate coating. The adhesion of the coating to the GP substrate was assessed with microscratch technique. It was viable with cohesive failure mode. In conclusion, Tas-SBF is able to coat pretreated GP cones with a crystalline apatitic calcium phosphate layer.

  12. Reactor coolant pump seal leakage monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, D.M.; Spencer, J.W.; Morris, D.J.; James, W.; Shugars, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Problems with reactor coolant pump seals have historically accounted for a large percentage of unscheduled outages. Studies performed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have shown that the replacement of coolant pump seals has been one of the leading causes of nuclear plant unavailability over the last ten years. Failures of coolant pump seals can lead to primary coolant leakage rates of 200-500 gallons per minute into the reactor building. Airborne activity and high surface contamination levels following these failures require a major cleanup effort and increases the time and personnel exposure required to refurbish the pump seals. One of the problems in assessing seal integrity is the inability to accurately measure seal leakage. Because seal leakage flow is normally very small, it cannot be sensed directly with normal flow instrumentation, but must be inferred from several other temperature and flow measurements. In operating plants the leakage rate has been quantified with a tipping-bucket gauge, a device which indicates when one quart of water has been accumulated. The tipping-bucket gauge has been used for most rainfall-intensity monitoring. The need for a more accurate and less expensive gauge has been addressed. They have developed a drop-counter precipitation sensor has been developed and optimized. The applicability of the drop-counter device to the problem of measuring seal leakage is being investigated. If a review of system specification and known drop-counter performance indicates that this method is feasible for measuring seal leak rates, a drop-counter gauge will be fabricated and tested in the laboratory. If laboratory tests are successful the gauge will be demonstrated in a pump test loop at Ontario Hydro and evaluated under simulated plant conditions. 3 references, 2 figures

  13. The formation of FHA coating on biodegradable Mg-Zn-Zr alloy using a two-step chemical treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, S.T.; Zhang, J.; Shun, S.Z.; Chen, M.F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Use a two-step chemical treatment method for formation of FHA coating on biodegradable Mg-Zn-Zr alloy;. • We reported the formation mechanism of FHA coating on Mg-Zn-Zr alloy and achieved optimum properties;. • The MgF_2 coating and FHA coating provide effective protection for the Mg alloy substrate and the FHA coating showed better corrosion resistance. - Abstract: To improve the corrosion resistance of the biomedical magnesium alloy, a two-step chemical treatment method has been employed to prepare an FHA coating on the alloy surface. Prior to forming an FHA layer, the samples of Mg-3 wt% Zn-0.5 wt% Zr alloy were soaked in HF with concentration of 20% (v/v) at 37 °C temperature for 2 h, and were then placed into an aqueous solution with 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO_3).4H_2O and 0.06 mol/L NH_4H_2PO_4 at 90 °C to prepare the Ca-P coating. The concentrations of Mg"2"+, F"− ions, and pH variation with immersing time in the solution were investigated to explore the growth mechanism of FHA. The surface morphologies and compositions of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the alloy surface treated with acid formed a layer of MgF_2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 0.7 μm. The corrosion resistance of coatings in SBF solution was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the substrate with FHA coating had good corrosion resistance. After immersing into the calcium phosphate solution, some small spherical particles were first formed on the surface; these then cover the surface completely after 20 min. Some clusters consisting of needle-like crystal were observed in the spherical particles covering the surface, and the Ca/P ratio of the needle-like crystal was 1.46, clearly growing along the c axis preferred orientation growth. After immersion for 60 min, the FHA coating with

  14. The formation of FHA coating on biodegradable Mg-Zn-Zr alloy using a two-step chemical treatment method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, S.T.; Zhang, J.; Shun, S.Z. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Chen, M.F., E-mail: mfchentj@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Display Materials and Photoelectric Device, Tianjin University of Technology , Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Use a two-step chemical treatment method for formation of FHA coating on biodegradable Mg-Zn-Zr alloy;. • We reported the formation mechanism of FHA coating on Mg-Zn-Zr alloy and achieved optimum properties;. • The MgF{sub 2} coating and FHA coating provide effective protection for the Mg alloy substrate and the FHA coating showed better corrosion resistance. - Abstract: To improve the corrosion resistance of the biomedical magnesium alloy, a two-step chemical treatment method has been employed to prepare an FHA coating on the alloy surface. Prior to forming an FHA layer, the samples of Mg-3 wt% Zn-0.5 wt% Zr alloy were soaked in HF with concentration of 20% (v/v) at 37 °C temperature for 2 h, and were then placed into an aqueous solution with 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO{sub 3}).4H{sub 2}O and 0.06 mol/L NH{sub 4}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} at 90 °C to prepare the Ca-P coating. The concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}, F{sup −} ions, and pH variation with immersing time in the solution were investigated to explore the growth mechanism of FHA. The surface morphologies and compositions of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the alloy surface treated with acid formed a layer of MgF{sub 2} nanoparticles with a thickness of 0.7 μm. The corrosion resistance of coatings in SBF solution was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the substrate with FHA coating had good corrosion resistance. After immersing into the calcium phosphate solution, some small spherical particles were first formed on the surface; these then cover the surface completely after 20 min. Some clusters consisting of needle-like crystal were observed in the spherical particles covering the surface, and the Ca/P ratio of the needle-like crystal was 1.46, clearly growing along the c axis preferred orientation growth. After

  15. Cover-gas seals: 11-LMFBR seal-test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, O.P. III; Horton, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the Cover Gas Seal Material Development Program is to perform the engineering development required to provide reliable seals for LMFBR application. Specific objectives are to verify the performance of commercial solid cross-section and inflatable seals under reactor environments including radiation, to develop advanced materials and configurations capable of achieving significant improvement in radioactive gas containment and seal temperature capabilities, and to optimize seal geometry for maximum reliability and minimal gas permeation

  16. Rotatable seal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, J.L.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an oring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers

  17. White blood cell fragments in platelet concentrates prepared by the platelet-rich plasma or buffy-coat methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra-Tiekstra, M. J.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Pietersz, R. N. I.; Reesink, H. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: White blood cell (WBC) fragments in platelet concentrates (PCs) may induce allo-immunization in the recipient. MATERIALS AND METHODS: As the level of WBC fragments can differ between PCs produced using different methods, we compared PCs prepared by using the buffy-coat

  18. Core disruptive accident margin seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for sealing the annulus defined within a substantially cylindrical rotatable riser assembly and plug combination of a nuclear reactor closure head is described. The apparatus comprises an inflatable sealing mechanism disposed in one portion of the riser assembly near the annulus such that upon inflation the sealing mechanism is radially actuated against the other portion of the riser assembly thereby sealing the annulus. The apparatus further comprises a connecting mechanism which places one end of the sealing mechanism in fluid communication with the reactor cover gas so that overpressurization of the reactor cover gas will increase the radial actuation of the sealing mechanism thus enhancing sealing of the annulus

  19. Self-acting shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    Self-acting seals are described in detail. The mathematical models for obtaining a seal force balance and the equilibrium operating film thickness are outlined. Particular attention is given to primary ring response (seal vibration) to rotating seat face runout. This response analysis reveals three different vibration models with secondary seal friction being an important parameter. Leakage flow inlet pressure drop and affects of axisymmetric sealing face deformations are discussed. Experimental data on self-acting face seals operating under simulated gas turbine conditions are given. Also a spiral groove seal design operated to 244 m/sec (800 ft/sec) is described.

  20. Sealing arrangement for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, I.L.S.; Sievwright, R.W.T.; Elliott, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A sealing arrangement for hermetically sealing two mating surfaces comprises two seals arranged to lie between the surfaces. Each seal provides hermetic sealing over a respective different temperature range and lie serially along the surfaces between the regions to be isolated. A main seal integrity test arrangement is provided in the form of a port and passage. This allows for the introduction of a fluid into or the evacuation of a region between the two seals to detect a leak. The port is also provided with at least two test port seals which seal with a plug. The plug is also provided with a test port to allow the integrity of the test port seal to be tested. (UK)

  1. Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of AlN/SiCN Nanocomposite Coatings Prepared By R.F.-Reactive Sputtering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakafushi Y.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FIn this work, AlN/SiCN composite coatings were deposited by r.f.-reactive sputtering method using a facing target-type sputtering (FTS apparatus with composite targets consisting of Al plate and SiC chips in a gaseous mixture of Ar and N2, and investigated their mechanical properties and microstructure. The indentation hardness (HIT of AlN/SiCN coatings prepared from composite targets consisting of 8 ~32 chips of SiC and Al plate showed the maximum value of about 29~32 GPa at a proper nitrogen gas flow rate. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns for the AlN/SiCN composite coatings indicated the presence of the only peeks of hexagonal (B4 structured AlN phase. AlN coatings clarified the columnar structure of the cross sectional view TEM observation. On the other hand, microstructure of AlN/SiCN composite coatings changed from columnar to equiaxed structure with increasing SiCN content. HR-TEM observation clarified that the composite coatings consisted of very fine equiaxial grains of B4 structured AlN phase and amorphous phase.

  2. The Method of Coating Fe₃O₄ with Carbon Nanoparticles to Modify Biological Properties of Oxide Measured in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Tomasz; Dudek, Mariusz; Dziekan, Natalia; Jaworski, Sławomir; Przewozik, Aleksandra; Soszka, Emilia; Koperkiewicz, Anna; Koczoń, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    The coating of nanoparticles on materials for medical application [e.g., the coating of Fe3O4 nanopowder (IONP) with a carbon nanolayer] serves to protect and modify the selected biological, physical, and chemical properties of the coated material. Increases in chemical stability, changes in biocompatibility, and a modified surface structure are examples of the effects caused by the formation of carbon coatings. In the current study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a carbon nanolayer (IONP@C) in a plasmochemical reactor (using radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods) under various experimental conditions. Based on data from X-ray diffraction, Raman, and IR spectroscopy, the best processing parameters were determined in order to produce a carbon coating that would not change the structure of the IONP. The materials with the best cover, i.e., a uniform carbon nanolayer, were used in cytotoxic tests to investigate their biological properties using the human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line and chicken embryo red blood cells as an in vitro model. The obtained results proved the low cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 micropowder and IONP in contrast to IONP@C, which reduced cell viability, increased hemolysis, and generally was more toxic than bare Fe3O4.

  3. Fe-based soft magnetic composites coated with NiZn ferrite prepared by a co-precipitation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Yuandong; Yi, Yi; Li, Liya; Ai, Hengyu; Wang, Xiaoxu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chen, Lulu [Jiangsu Eagle-globe Group Co., Ltd., Nantong 226600 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Fe powder was coated with NiZn ferrite by a co-precipitation method using chlorate as the raw material. Soft magnetic composites were manufactured via compaction and heat treatment of the coated powder. The coated powder and heat treated powder were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Their magnetic properties were determined using a Quantum Design-Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (QD-VSM). The composites were analysed with SEM and EDS. The permeability and magnetic loss of the composites were measured with a B-H curve analyzer. The results show that, using the co-precipitation method, the raw precipitate was successfully prepared and coated the pure Fe powder and turned into spinel NiZn ferrite treated at 600 ℃ for 1 h. After heat treatment at 500 ℃ under air, the insulation coating layer of soft magnetic composite (SMC) was not destroyed and containing Fe, Ni, Zn and oxygen. The permeabilities of the SMC are stable at edge of the 2–200 kHz frequency range and the total loss was lower. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Fe/(NiZn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} composite powder heated at 600 ℃ for 1 h. - Highlights: • Fe particles were coated with (NiZn)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} via a co-precipitation and calcined method. • Coating layers were uniform and dense. • The permeabilities of the SMC are stable at edge of the 2–200 kHz frequency range.

  4. A preparation method and effects of Al–Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jingwu; Lin, Min; Xia, Qingping

    2012-01-01

    A 50 μm Al–Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets was prepared through dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating at 300 °C. The morphology and composition of the Al–Cr coating were investigated with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al–Cr coating was analyzed by normal salt spray, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties were measured with a hysteresis loop tracer. The results show that the Al–Cr coating forms an overlapping structure and Al flakes lie nearly parallel to the substrate, which improves the anticorrosion and increases normal salt spray test from 10 to 100 h. The corrosion potential of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al–Cr coating moves positively from −0.67 to −0.48 V, which is in accordance with Nyquist and Bode plots. The Al–Cr coating has little influence on the magnetic properties of the NdFeB sintered magnets. - Highlights: ► The Al–Cr coating can be prepared by dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating. ► The coating morphology shows to be an intense overlapping structure. ► The barrier effect combines with passivation and cathodic protection. ► The anticorrosion abilities improve while magnetic properties change little. ► Compared with other surface treatments, this method is convenient and low cost.

  5. A preparation method and effects of Al-Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jingwu [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lin, Min, E-mail: linm@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, 519 Road Zhuangshi, District Zhenghai, Ningbo 315201, People' s Republic of China (China); Xia, Qingping [College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2012-11-15

    A 50 {mu}m Al-Cr coating on NdFeB sintered magnets was prepared through dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating at 300 Degree-Sign C. The morphology and composition of the Al-Cr coating were investigated with scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive spectrometer and X-ray diffraction. The corrosion resistance of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al-Cr coating was analyzed by normal salt spray, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The magnetic properties were measured with a hysteresis loop tracer. The results show that the Al-Cr coating forms an overlapping structure and Al flakes lie nearly parallel to the substrate, which improves the anticorrosion and increases normal salt spray test from 10 to 100 h. The corrosion potential of NdFeB sintered magnets with and without the Al-Cr coating moves positively from -0.67 to -0.48 V, which is in accordance with Nyquist and Bode plots. The Al-Cr coating has little influence on the magnetic properties of the NdFeB sintered magnets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Al-Cr coating can be prepared by dipping in solution, shaking dry and heating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coating morphology shows to be an intense overlapping structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barrier effect combines with passivation and cathodic protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The anticorrosion abilities improve while magnetic properties change little. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared with other surface treatments, this method is convenient and low cost.

  6. Annealing temperature effect on electrical properties of MEH-PPV thin film via spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, N. E. A.; Shariffudin, S. S.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Organic semiconductor has been discovered in different application devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). Poly [2-methoxy-5(2' -ethylhexyloxy)-1, 4-phenylenevinylene), MEH-PPV widely used in this device because its ability to produce a good optical quality films. The MEH-PPV was prepared on glass substrate by spin coating method. The thin film was investigated at different annealing temperatures. The scanning electron micrographs (SEM) revealed that sample annealed at 50°C showed uniformity and less aggregation on morphology polymer thin film. Optical properties showed the intensities of visible emission increased as temperatures increased. The current-voltage (I-V) measurement revealed that the temperature of 50°C showed high conductive and it is suitable for optoelectronic device.

  7. Magnetic properties of carbon-coated, ferromagnetic nanoparticles produced by a carbon-arc method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsman, E. M.; Sutton, R.; Bortz, E.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Midelfort, K.; Williams, J.; Smith, P.; McHenry, M. E.; Majetich, S. A.; Artman, J. O.; De Graef, M.; Staley, S. W.

    1994-05-01

    The Krätschmer-Huffman carbon-arc method of preparing fullerenes has been used to generate carbon-coated transition metal (TM) and TM-carbide nanocrystallites. The magnetic nanocrystallites were extracted from the soot with a magnetic gradient field technique. For TM=Co the majority of nanocrystals exist as nominally spherical particles, 0.5-5 nm in radius. Hysteretic and temperature-dependent magnetic response, in randomly and magnetically aligned powder samples frozen in epoxy, correspond to fine particle magnetism associated with monodomain TM particles. The magnetization exhibits a unique functional dependence on H/T, and hysteresis below a blocking temperature TB. Below TB, the temperature dependence of the coercivity can be expressed as Hc=Hc0[1-(T/TB)1/2], where Hc0 is the 0 K coercivity.

  8. Multi-Canister overpack sealing configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) position regarding the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) sealing configuration is to initially rely on an American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section III Subsection NB code compliant mechanical closure/sealing system to quickly and safely establish and maintain full confinement of radioactive materials prior to and during MCO fuel drying activities. Previous studies have shown the mechanical seal to be the preferred closure method, based on dose, cost, and schedule considerations. The cost and schedule impacts of redesigning the mechanical closure to a welded shield plug do not support changing the closure system. The SNF Project has determined that the combined mechanical/welded closure system meets or exceeds the regulatory requirements to provide redundant seals while accommodating key safety and schedule limitations that are unique to K Basins fuel removal effort

  9. Numerical analysis on the action of centrifuge force in magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jibin; Li, Xuehui; Lu, Yongping; Hu, Jianhui

    2002-11-01

    The magnetic fluid seal is suitable for high-speed rotating shaft seal applications. Centrifuge force will have evident influence on magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals. The seal capacity of the rotating shaft seal can be improved or increased by some measures. Through hydrodynamic analysis the moving status of the magnetic fluid is worked out. By numerical method, the magnetic field and the isobars in the magnetic fluid of a seal device are computed. Then the influence of the centrifuge force on the magnetic fluid seal is calculated quantitatively.

  10. Numerical analysis on the action of centrifuge force in magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Jibin; Li Xuehui; Lu Yongping; Hu Jianhui

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic fluid seal is suitable for high-speed rotating shaft seal applications. Centrifuge force will have evident influence on magnetic fluid rotating shaft seals. The seal capacity of the rotating shaft seal can be improved or increased by some measures. Through hydrodynamic analysis the moving status of the magnetic fluid is worked out. By numerical method, the magnetic field and the isobars in the magnetic fluid of a seal device are computed. Then the influence of the centrifuge force on the magnetic fluid seal is calculated quantitatively

  11. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, C.P.; Brown, D.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions is described. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates

  12. A study on the method for estimating the life time of O-rings made of NBR used in sealing air operating cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yuzo; Mitsuta, Yasumasa

    2003-01-01

    At nuclear power plants, a large number of O-rings made of rubber are attached to safety related machines and apparatus for sealing two metallic components. O-rings degrade during the long term exposure in environmental conditions in use, and finally lose the requested functions. Therefore it is important to exchange them in a proper period based on the precise life time estimation. This study aimed at to investigate the method for estimating the life time of O-rings made of NBR (acrylonitrile butadiene rubber) attached to the air cylinders which drive the dampers of ventilation systems in nuclear power plants. It has been conducted as follows: (1) After confirming that the main cause of degradation of O-rings is thermo-oxidation reaction, thermally accelerated aging tests were carried out for O-rings with three different temperatures. (2) It was certified that the elongation values of O-rings obtained by the tests could be fitted by the Arrhenius rule, and then the life time of O-rings was estimated using the Arrhenius rule. (3) In order to validate the reliability of this estimation, we measured the elongation values of the O-rings which had been actually used at nuclear power plants, and compared them to the predicted elongation values obtained by the above estimation. The average and standard deviation of the values which is calculated by the equation {(measured value-predicted value)/ predicted value} are 11% and 8%, respectively and there are small errors between the measured value and the predicted values. As a result we can judge that good estimation of life time of O-rings can be done by the above method. (author)

  13. Fabrication of titanium removable dental prosthesis frameworks with a 2-step investment coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Mari; Hummel, Susan K; Ball, John D; Okabe, Toru

    2012-06-01

    Although pure titanium is known to have good biocompatibility, a titanium alloy with better strength is needed for fabricating clinically acceptable, partial removable dental prosthesis (RDP) frameworks. The mechanical properties of an experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy cast with a 2-step investment technique were examined for RDP framework applications. Patterns for tests for various properties and denture frameworks for a preliminary trial casting were invested with a 2-step coating method using 2 types of mold materials: a less reactive spinel compound (Al(2)O(3)·MgO) and a less expensive SiO(2)-based material. The yield and tensile strength (n=5), modulus of elasticity (n=5), elongation (n=5), and hardness (n=8) of the cast Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy were determined. The external appearance and internal porosities of the preliminary trial castings of denture frameworks (n=2) were examined with a conventional dental radiographic unit. Cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy and commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) were used as controls. The data for the mechanical properties were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). The yield strength of the cast Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy was 851 MPa and the hardness was 356 HV. These properties were comparable to those of the cast Ti-6Al-4V and were higher than those of CP Ti (PAl-5Cu frameworks was found to have been incompletely cast. The cast biocompatible experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy exhibited high strength when cast with a 2-step coating method. With a dedicated study to determine the effect of sprue design on the quality of castings, biocompatible Ti-5Al-5Cu RDP frameworks for a clinical trial can be produced. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a resilient mechanical sealing solution to resist electro corrosion in ultrapure feedwater applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loenhout, Gerard van [Flowservice Flow Solutions Division, Etten-Leur (Netherlands); Enders, Klaus; Schmerberg, Rainer [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Peitz (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Ever since the introduction of mechanical seals on high speed boiler feed pumps in the sixties, mechanical seals have proven to be a reliable, cost effective sealing method. However, since the introduction of combined water treatment chemistry used in today's modern fossil-fuelled power stations, keeping mechanical seal reliability high, became a challenge. A pragmatic approach is presented. A resilient sealing solution was developed to resist electro corrosion for such critical feed water pumps. (orig.)

  15. Titanium nitride coatings synthesized by IPD method with eliminated current oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodun Rafał

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of elimination of current oscillations within the coaxial plasma accelerator during IPD deposition process on the morphology, phase structure and properties of synthesized TiN coatings. Current observations of waveforms have been made by use of an oscilloscope. As a test material for experiments, titanium nitride TiN coatings synthesized on silicon and high-speed steel substrates were used. The coatings morphology, phase composition and wear resistance properties were determined. The character of current waveforms in the plasma accelerator electric circuit plays a crucial role during the coatings synthesis process. Elimination of the current oscillations leads to obtaining an ultrafine grained structure of titanium nitride coatings and to disappearance of the tendency to structure columnarization. The coatings obtained during processes of a non-oscillating character are distinguished by better wear-resistance properties.

  16. Effect of coating parameters on the microstructure of cerium oxide conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Benedict Y.; Edington, Joe; O' Keefe, Matthew J

    2003-11-25

    The microstructure and morphology of cerium oxide conversion coatings prepared under different deposition conditions were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The coatings were formed by a spontaneous reaction between a water-based solution containing CeCl{sub 3} and aluminum alloy 7075-T6 substrates. Microstructural characterization was performed to determine the crystallinity of the coatings and to obtain a better understanding of the deposition parameters on coating microstructure. The results of TEM imaging and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the as-deposited coating was composed of nanocrystalline particles of a previously unreported cerium compound. The particles of the coatings produced using glycerol as an additive were found to be much finer than those of the coatings prepared in the absence of glycerol. This indicates that glycerol may act as a grain refiner and/or growth inhibitor during coating deposition. After deposition, the coated panels were treated for 5 min in a phosphate sealing solution. The sealing treatment converted the as-deposited coating into hydrated cerium phosphate. Panels coated from solutions containing no glycerol followed by phosphate sealing performed poorly in salt fog tests. With glycerol addition, the corrosion resistance of the coatings that were phosphate sealed improved considerably, achieving an average passing rate of 85%.

  17. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  18. Detection of smaller J{sub c} region and damage in YBCO coated conductors by using permanent magnet method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, K., E-mail: tey88221@st.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Saito, A. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Takano, Y.; Suzuki, T. [Tohoku Seiki Industries, Ltd., 3-1246, Tachiyagawa, Yamagata 990-2251 (Japan); Yamada, H.; Takayama, T.; Kamitani, A.; Ohshima, S. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamagata University, 4-3-16 Jonan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J{sub c}) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}). J{sub c} could be determined from the repulsive force (F{sub r}) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J{sub c} distribution. The measured F{sub r} when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. We developed a non-destructive method for measuring the critical current density (J{sub c}) in YBCO-coated conductors by using a permanent magnet (Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}). J{sub c} could be determined from the repulsive force (F{sub r}) generated between a permanent magnet and a coated conductor where shielding current flows. We tried to detect a smaller J{sub c} region in the coated conductor by using the system. The J{sub c} distribution could be determined without influence from the thick copper film on YBCO thin film. We also examined the influence of damage to the film on the J{sub c} distribution. The surface of the coated conductors was cut by using a knife. The measured F{sub r} when the permanent magnet approached the cut part was smaller than that of the undamaged area. This J{sub c} measurement technique will be useful for detecting smaller J{sub c} regions and defects in coated conductors.

  19. Upgrading inflatable door seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, T.M.; Metcalfe, R.; Welch, L.A.; Josefowich, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Inflatable door seals are used for airlocks in CANDU stations. They have been a significant source of unreliability and maintenance cost. A program is underway to improve their performance and reliability, backed by environmental qualification testing. Only commercial products and suppliers existed in 1993. For historical reasons, these 'existing products' did not use the most durable material then available. In hindsight, neither had they been adapted nor optimized to combat conditions often experienced in the plants-sagging doors, damaged sealing surfaces, and many thousands of openings and closings per year. Initial attempts to involve the two existing suppliers in efforts to upgrade these seals were unsuccessful. Another suitable supplier had therefore to be found, and a 'new,' COG-owned seal developed; this was completed in 1997. This paper summarizes its testing, along with that of the two existing products. Resistance to aging has been improved significantly. Testing has shown that an accident can be safely withstood after 10 years of service or 40,000 openings-closings, whichever comes first. AECL's Fluid Sealing Technology Unit (FSTU) has invested in the special moulds, test fixtures and other necessary tooling and documentation required to begin commercial manufacture of this new quality product. Accordingly, as with FSTU's other nuclear products such as pump seals, the long-term supply of door seals to CANDU plants is now protected from many external uncertainties-e.g., commercial products being discontinued, materials being changed, companies going out of business. Manufacturing to AECL's detailed specifications is being subcontracted to the new supplier. FSTU is performing the quality surveillance, inspection, testing, and customer service activities concomitant with direct responsibility for supply to the plants. (author)

  20. Towards seamlessly-integrated textile electronics: methods to coat fabrics and fibers with conducting polymers for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Linden; Hoxie, Steven; Andrew, Trisha L

    2017-06-29

    Traditional textile materials can be transformed into functional electronic components upon being dyed or coated with films of intrinsically conducting polymers, such as poly(aniline), poly(pyrrole) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). A variety of textile electronic devices are built from the conductive fibers and fabrics thus obtained, including: physiochemical sensors, thermoelectric fibers/fabrics, heated garments, artificial muscles and textile supercapacitors. In all these cases, electrical performance and device ruggedness is determined by the morphology of the conducting polymer active layer on the fiber or fabric substrate. Tremendous variation in active layer morphology can be observed with different coating or dyeing conditions. Here, we summarize various methods used to create fiber- and fabric-based devices and highlight the influence of the coating method on active layer morphology and device stability.

  1. Properties of nano structured Ag-TiO{sub 2} composite coating on stainless steel using RF sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, S. Abu; Jamuna-Thevi, K.; Abu, N.; Mohd Toff, M. R. [Advanced Materials Research Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi- Tech 2/3, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kulim (Malaysia)

    2012-07-02

    RF Sputtering system is one of the Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) methods that have been widely used to produce hard coating. This technique is used to deposit thin layers of metallic substrates such as stainless steel (SS). From this process, a good adhesiveness and wear resistance coating can be produced for biomedical applications. In this study, RF sputtering method was used to deposit TiO{sub 2}-Ag composite coatings via various deposition parameters. The parameters are RF power of 350W, gas composition (Ar: O{sub 2}) 50:5 and deposition time at 1, 2, 4 and 6 hours. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize surface area of coated samples. The formation of nanocrystalline thin film and the surface morphology were examined using SEM. The crystallite size of TiO{sub 2}-Ag composite coatings were estimated between 20-60 nm based on XRD analysis using Scherer equation and SEM evaluation. The Raman and XRD results suggested that the structure of the TiO{sub 2}-Ag consist of anatase and rutile phases. It also showed that the intensity of anatase peaks increased after samples undergone annealing process at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  2. Characterization of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al films by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareso, P. L., E-mail: pgareso@gmail.com; Rauf, N., E-mail: pgareso@gmail.com; Juarlin, E., E-mail: pgareso@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Hasanuddin University, Makassar 90245 (Indonesia); Sugianto,; Maddu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Bogor Institute of Culture, IPB Bogor (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    Nanocrystalline ZnO films doped with aluminium by sol-gel spin coating method have been investigated using optical transmittance UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction (X-RD) measurements. ZnO films were prepared using zinc acetate dehydrate (Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}@@‡2H{sub 2}O), ethanol, and diethanolamine (DEA) as a starting material, solvent, and stabilizer, respectively. For doped films, AlCl{sub 3} was added to the mixture. The ZnO:Al films were deposited on a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) substrate using spin coating technique at room temperature with a rate of 3000 rpm in 30 sec. The deposited films were annealed at various temperatures from 400°C to 600°C during 60 minutes. The transmittance UV-Vis measurement results showed that after annealing at 400°C, the energy band gap profile of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al film was a blue shift. This indicated that the band gap of ZnO:Al increased after annealing due to the increase of crystalline size. As the annealing temperature increased the bandgap energy was a constant. In addition to this, there was a small oscillation occurring after annealing compared to the as–grown samples. In the case of X-RD measurements, the crystalinity of the films were amorphous before annealing, and after annealing the crystalinity became enhance. Also, X-RD results showed that structure of nanocrystalline ZnO:Al films were hexagonal polycrystalline with lattice parameters are a = 3.290 Å and c = 5.2531 Å.

  3. Iron-based soft magnetic composites with Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles coating obtained by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Fuqiang; Logan, Philip; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on iron-based soft magnetic composites which were synthesized by utilizing Mn–Zn ferrite nanoparticles to coat iron powder. The nanocrystalline iron powders, with an average particle diameter of 20 nm, were obtained via the sol–gel method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of Mn–Zn ferrites. Mn–Zn ferrite uniformly coated the surface of the powder particles, resulting in a reduced imaginary permeability, increased electrical resistivity and a higher operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. Mn–Zn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability and lower magnetic loss when compared with the non-magnetic epoxy resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 33.5% when compared with the epoxy resin coated samples at 10 kHz. The effects of heat treatment temperature on crystalline phase formation and on the magnetic properties of the Mn–Zn ferrite were investigated via X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Ferrites decomposed to FeO and MnO after annealing above 400 °C in nitrogen; thus it is the optimum annealing temperature to attain the desired permeability. - Highlights: ► Uniformly coated Mn–Zn ferrite powder increased the operating frequency of SMCs. ► Compared with epoxy coated, the permeability of SMCs increased by 33.5% at 10 kHz. ► 400 °C is the optimum annealing temperature to attain the desired permeability.

  4. Development and Implementation of Methods and Means for Achieving a Uniform Functional Coating Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishlov, A. V.; Sagatelyan, G. R.; Shashurin, V. D.

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model is proposed to calculate the growth rate of the thin-film coating thickness at various points in a flat substrate surface during planetary motion of the substrate, which makes it possible to calculate an expected coating thickness distribution. Proper software package is developed. The coefficients used for computer simulation are experimentally determined.

  5. Measurement of interfacial shear mechanical properties in thermal barrier coating systems by a barb pullout method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.Q.; Mumm, D.R.; Karlsson, A.M.; Kagawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A test technique has been developed to facilitate evaluation of the fracture characteristics of coatings and interfaces in thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems. The methodology has particular application in analyzing delamination crack growth, where crack propagation occurs under predominantly mode II loading. The technique has been demonstrated by quantitatively measuring the effective delamination fracture resistance of an electron-beam physical vapor deposition TBC

  6. Coated air-stable cobalt--rare earth alloy particles and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeggil, J.C.; Charles, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A process is described for producing novel air-stable coated particles of a magnetic transition metal-rare earth alloys. An organometallic compound which decomposes at a temperature below 500 0 C is heated to produce a metal vapor which is contacted with particles of a transition metal-rare earth alloy to deposit a metal coating on the particles. (U.S.)

  7. THz Imaging as a Method to Detect Defects of Aeronautical Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, I.; Soldovieri, F.; Mazzola, L.; Toscano, C.

    2017-10-01

    Ice adhesion over critical aircraft surfaces is a serious potential hazard that runs the risk of causing accidents. To face this issue, the design and diagnostics of new multifunctional coatings with icephobic and aesthetical properties are demanded. In particular, diagnostic tools, capable of characterizing coating surface finishing and its defects, are needed. In this paper, terahertz (THz) imaging is considered as a high-resolution diagnostic tool useful for contactless surveys providing information on surface defects and material inner structure. Therefore, two composite specimens, one covered by a classical commercial livery coating and the other one by a new multifunctional coating with icephobic properties, are investigated by THz surveys carried out in normal environmental conditions of pressure and temperature. The results, obtained by processing the raw data properly, corroborate that THz imaging allows us to detect variations of the coating thickness, to localize hidden anomalies as well as to characterize surface defects at millimetric scale.

  8. Metal matrix coated fiber composites and the methods of manufacturing such composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, J.K. Jr.; Gensse, C.

    1993-09-14

    A fiber coating which allows ceramic or metal fibers to be wetted by molten metals is disclosed. The coating inhibits degradation of the physical properties caused by chemical reaction between the fiber and the coating itself or between the fiber and the metal matrix. The fiber coating preferably includes at least a wetting layer, and in some applications, a wetting layer and a barrier layer between the fiber and the wetting layer. The wetting layer promotes fiber wetting by the metal matrix. The barrier layer inhibits fiber degradation. The fiber coating permits the fibers to be infiltrated with the metal matrix resulting in composites having unique properties not obtainable in pure materials. 8 figures.

  9. Seal for turnable lids on nuclear reactors. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansing, W; Roehrs, H; Rothfuss, H

    1977-08-04

    This seal guarantees greatest leak-proofness even when turning the turn-lid and keeps off abrasion and dirt from the interior of the reactor vessel. This is caused by various individual seals in the space above the horizontal flange which closes the vessel at the top. An outer ring is removably supported on an outer diameter of this flange with the narrow side of its polygonal cross-section. An inner ring turns within this body with its narrow side on spheres of a support. The turn-lid is centred with its largest diameter in this inner ring and is supported by a part of the same body protruding it by means of screws. The vertical ring gap between the two ring bodies is sealed by two inflatable hollow seals; they are coated with PTE.

  10. Temporal sealing material of tritium-contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Wei; Dan Guiping; Zhang Dong; Qiu Yongmei; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Tritium can be released from the exterior of tritium-contaminated stainless steel by slight stirring while decontaminating and disassembling. In order to avoid secondary tritium contamination to environment and operators, it is necessary to cover with an effective coating to tritium on the exterior of tritium-contaminated stainless steel and fill an effective substance to tritium inside. The results of tritium sealed experiments show that sealing efficiency of neutral silicone rubber is more than 85% for condition of static state and more than 99% for foam concrete condition of dynamic state. Neutral silicone rubber and foam concrete which have finer sealing efficiency can be used as temporal sealed material for the decontamination and disassembly of tritium-contaminated stainless steel. (authors)

  11. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  12. An inexpensive and fast method for infiltration coating of complex geometry matrices for ISOL production target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Bilheux, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    An inexpensive, fast, and close to universal infiltration coating technique has been developed for fabricating fast diffusion-release ISOL targets. Targets are fabricated by deposition of finely divided (∼1μm) compound materials in a paint-slurry onto highly permeable, complex structure reticulated-vitreous-carbon-foam (RVCF) matrices, followed by thermal heat treatment. In this article, we describe the coating method and present information on the physical integrity, uniformity of deposition, and matrix adherence of SiC, HfC and UC 2 targets, destined for on-line use as targets at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF)

  13. Microstructure analysis of zirconium carbide layer on pyrocarbon-coated particles prepared by zirconium chloride vapor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongsheng; Liu Bing; Zhang Kaihong; Tang Chunhe

    2012-01-01

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) layer on pyrocarbon-coated particles was successfully prepared in a fluidized bed coater furnace by chemical vapor deposition using a zirconium chloride (ZrCl 4 ) vapor method and quantitative controlling of the Zr-source through a ZrCl 4 powder feeder. The crystal phase, microstructure and chemical composition of ZrC-coating layer were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical metallographical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show that the deposited ZrC-coating layer has smooth and compact surface, no obvious holes, clear interface with dense pyrocarbon layer, and a thickness of 35 μm. The main phase of ZrC-coating layer is fcc-ZrC crystal, which is composed of small grains with the size of 20–50 nm. The grain size increases monotonously with the deposition temperature increasing. The main elements of ZrC-coating layer are Zr and C, and the Zr/C molar ratio is close to 1:1. The analysis of composition and crystal structure suggest that a stoichiometric fcc-ZrC crystal was obtained and no obvious preferred orientation of the grains was found.

  14. Iron-based soft magnetic composites with Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles coating obtained by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zhang, Qian; Zhai, Fuqiang; Logan, Philip; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper focuses on iron-based soft magnetic composites which were synthesized by utilizing Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles to coat iron powder. The nanocrystalline iron powders, with an average particle diameter of 20 nm, were obtained via the sol-gel method. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of Mn-Zn ferrites. Mn-Zn ferrite uniformly coated the surface of the powder particles, resulting in a reduced imaginary permeability, increased electrical resistivity and a higher operating frequency of the synthesized magnets. Mn-Zn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability and lower magnetic loss when compared with the non-magnetic epoxy resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 33.5% when compared with the epoxy resin coated samples at 10 kHz. The effects of heat treatment temperature on crystalline phase formation and on the magnetic properties of the Mn-Zn ferrite were investigated via X-ray diffraction and a vibrating sample magnetometer. Ferrites decomposed to FeO and MnO after annealing above 400 °C in nitrogen; thus it is the optimum annealing temperature to attain the desired permeability.

  15. Abrasive Wear Resistance of the Iron- and WC-based Hardfaced Coatings Evaluated with Scratch Test Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vencl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abrasive wear is one of the most common types of wear, which makesabrasive wear resistance very important in many industries. Thehard facing is considered as useful and economical way to improve theperformance of components submitted to severe abrasive wear conditions, with wide range of applicable filler materials. The abrasive wear resistance of the three different hardfaced coatings (two iron‐based and one WC‐based, which were intended to be used for reparation of the impact plates of the ventilation mill, was investigated and compared. Abrasive wear tests were carried‐out by using the scratch tester under the dry conditions. Three normal loads of 10, 50 and 100 N and the constant sliding speed of 4 mm/s were used. Scratch test was chosen as a relatively easy and quick test method. Wear mechanism analysis showed significant influence of the hardfaced coatings structure, which, along with hardness, has determined coatings abrasive wear resistance.

  16. Formation of a hydrophobic and corrosion resistant coating on magnesium alloy via a one-step hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianxu; Hu, Yaobo; Zhang, Yuxin; Pan, Fusheng

    2017-11-01

    A hydrophobic coating was fabricated on the surface of magnesium alloy using a simple one-step hydrothermal method with the use of environmentally friendly agent. Scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle test were used to characterize the surfaces. Corrosion behavior in a 3.5wt.% NaCl solution was evaluated using OCP time curves test, potentiodynamic polarization test and EIS analysis. The findings show that the substrate is covered by the coating of magnesium hydroxide and magnesium stearate, reaching a contact angle of around 146°. Corrosion behavior show huge improvement, the progress with increase of treatment time could be related to the increased growth rate of coating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of Microwave Methods for Characterization of NEG Coatings and Obstacle Detection in Accelerator Beam-pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Seebacher, David

    2009-01-01

    In many particle accelerators, including the LHC at the European Organization for Nuclear Research CERN, NEG coatings are used to improve vacuum performance. In other particle accelerators there have been hints that those coatings could have a relevant impact on the beam coupling impedance, however the data available is contradictory. To clarify the possible impact of NEG coatings the electromagnetic properties have been measured. The measurements have been carried out by means of cavity perturbation method. The second part of this thesis deals with the microwave waveguide reflectometer developed at CERN several years ago, which is used as part of the quality assurance test program for the LHC assembly. To ensure optimum operation and to avoid an expensive removal of any foreign object from inside the LHC beam-screen after its completion, microwave reflectometry is performed. Until now several objects have been found by means of reflectometry, but so far neither precise data about the reflections of different...

  18. Influence of Deposition Conditions on Fatigue Properties of Martensitic Stainless Steel with Tin Film Coated by Arc Ion Plating Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Satoshi; Yonekura, Daisuke; Murakami, Ri-Ichi

    The surface properties like roughness etc. strongly influence the fatigue strength of high-tensile steel. To investigate the effect of surface condition and TiN coating on the fatigue strength of high-strength steel, four-point bending fatigue tests were carried out for martensitic stainless steel with TiN film coated using arc ion plating (AIP) method. This study, using samples that had been polished under several size of grind particle, examines the influence of pre-coating treatment on fatigue properties. A 2-µm-thick TiN film was deposited onto the substrate under three kinds of polishing condition. The difference of the hardness originated in the residual stress or thin deformation layer where the difference of the size of grinding particle of the surface polishing. And it leads the transformation of the interface of the substrate and the TiN film and improves fatigue limit.

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  20. 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System Workshop. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Delgado, Irebert

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 NASA Seal/Secondary Air System workshop covered the following topics: (i) Overview of NASA's new Orion project aimed at developing a new spacecraft that will fare astronauts to the International Space Station, the Moon, Mars, and beyond; (ii) Overview of NASA's fundamental aeronautics technology project; (iii) Overview of NASA Glenn s seal project aimed at developing advanced seals for NASA's turbomachinery, space, and reentry vehicle needs; (iv) Reviews of NASA prime contractor, vendor, and university advanced sealing concepts, test results, experimental facilities, and numerical predictions; and (v) Reviews of material development programs relevant to advanced seals development. Turbine engine studies have shown that reducing seal leakage as well as high-pressure turbine (HPT) blade tip clearances will reduce fuel burn, lower emissions, retain exhaust gas temperature margin, and increase range. Turbine seal development topics covered include a method for fast-acting HPT blade tip clearance control, noncontacting low-leakage seals, intershaft seals, and a review of engine seal performance requirements for current and future Army engine platforms.

  1. Development of high-temperature superconducting coated conductor by MOCVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Jun, Byung Hyuk; Jung, Choung Hwan

    2004-07-01

    To fabricate the second generation superconductor wire, coated conductor, we selected MOCVD (Metal organic chemical vapor deposition) method which is commercially available and whose growth rate is very high. The first buffer layer CeO 2 was successfully deposited on the Ni tape. The thick Y-stabilized ZrO 2 layer was thus inserted between two CeO 2 layers by MOCVD method. The c-axis growth of the first CeO 2 , the inserted YSZ and top CeO 2 layer was achieved by optimized the deposition condition for the three buffers. It was found that the YBCO deposition was fairly dependant on the depostion temperature, time, oxygen partial pressure, amount of the source supplied. Especially the thickness of the YBCO films was linearly dedendant on the deposition temperature and time, but current properties was not linearly dependant on the film thickness. The critical current (Ic) of the YBCO film grown on SrTiO 3 and IBAD template were over 100 A/cm-width and 50 A/cm-width at 77 K and 0 field. To establish the MOCVD process, collaboration work with several organizations was made

  2. Development method for measuring thickness of nuclei and coating of fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Junior, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important components of a nuclear reactor is the Nuclear Fuel. Currently, the most advanced commercial fuel, whose applicability in Brazilian reactors has been developed by IPEN since 1985, is the silicide U 3 Si 2 . This is formed by fuel plates with nuclei dispersion (where the fissile material (U 3 Si 2 ) is homogeneously dispersed in a matrix of aluminum) coated aluminum. This fuel is produced in Brazil with developed technology, the result of the efforts made by the group of manufacturing nuclear fuel (CCN - Center of Nuclear Fuel) of IPEN. Considering the necessity of increasing the power of the IEA- R1 and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Building (RMB), for the production of radioisotopes - mainly for the area of medicine - there will be significant increase in the production of nuclear fuel at IPEN. Given this situation, if necessary, make the development of more modern and automated classification techniques. Aiming at this goal, this work developed a new computational method for measuring thickness of core and cladding of fuel plates, which are able to perform such measurements in less time and with more meaningful statistical data when compared with the current method of measurement. (author)

  3. Doped indium nitride thin film by sol-gel spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hui San; Ng, Sha Shiong; Yam, Fong Kwong

    2017-12-01

    In this study, magnesium doped indium nitride (InN:Mg) thin films grown on silicon (100) substrate were prepared via sol-gel spin coating method followed by nitridation process. A custom-made tube furnace was used to perform the nitridation process. Through this method, the low dissociation temperature issue of InN:Mg thin films can be solved. The deposited InN:Mg thin films were investigated using various techniques. The X-rays diffraction results revealed that two intense diffraction peaks correspond to wurtzite structure InN (100), and InN (101) were observed at 29° and 33.1° respectively. Field emission scanning electron microscopy images showed that the surface of the films exhibits densely packed grains. The elemental composition of the deposited thin films was analyzed using energy dispersive X-rays spectroscopy. The detected atomic percentages for In, N, and Mg were 43.22 %, 3.28 %, and 0.61 % respectively. The Raman spectra showed two Raman- and infrared-active modes of E2 (High) and A1 (LO) of the wurtzite InN. The band gap obtained from the Tauc plot showed around 1.74 eV. Lastly, the average surface roughness measured by AFM was around 0.133 µm.

  4. Dye filled security seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1982-01-01

    A security seal for providing an indication of unauthorized access to a sealed object includes an elongate member to be entwined in the object such that access is denied unless the member is removed. The elongate member has a hollow, pressurizable chamber extending throughout its length that is filled with a permanent dye under greater than atmospheric pressure. Attempts to cut the member and weld it together are revealed when dye flows through a rupture in the chamber wall and stains the outside surface of the member

  5. [The influence of the different polishing methods on the marginal sealing property of the computer aided design and computer aided manufacture zirconium dioxide full crown].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianying; Deng, Jiupeng; Li, Jinyuan; Wang, Jide; Shen, Baolian

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of different polishing methods on marginal microleakage of zirconium dioxide full crown. Thirty extracted premolars were selected and randomly divided into three groups, A, B and C, with 10 in each group. Group A was prepared with MANI TF-13 bur completely without the treatment of shoulder. The shoulder of group B was polished with MANI TR13-EF bur after the preparation using MANI TF-13. The shoulder of group C was polished with the dental pneumatic ultrasonic hand-piece of KaVo SONICflex after the preparation using MANI TF-13 bur. Five specimens after preparation were selected in each group. Fifteen CAD/CAM zirconium dioxide full crowns have been made. The crowns were bonded using PULPDENT resin cement, and the root canals were sealed using nail polish, and apical foramen were closed using flow resin. The test-pieces have been immersed in a 3% solution of methylene blue for 24 h. The condition of shoulder marginal microleakage was observed using light stereomicroscopy and evaluated in classification index. The remaining specimens in each group were used for roughness test and scanning electron microscope(SEM) experiment. The marginal microleakage situations of specimens in three groups was analyzed by SPSS 17.0. The enamel surface of different polishing methods was observed using SEM. The specimens in group C demonstrated the least marginal microleakage, and those in group B showed an intermediate level of marginal microleakage, and those in group A characterized the most serious marginal microleakage (total, χ2=44.610, P<0.01; among the different groups, P<0.05). The roughness experiment showed that specimens in group C achieve the smoothest results ([0.27±0.03] μm). Preparation shoulder polished using the dental pneumatic ultrasonic hand-piece demonstrated the best result under the SEM among the three groups. The anti-microleakage effectiveness of dental pneumatic ultrasonic hand-piece in shoulder refinement is better than ordinary

  6. Study on the method of predicting service life of coated steel sheets, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshima, Eiki; Kawano, Toshinori; Takamura, Hisao; Awa, Katsumasa

    1983-01-01

    Study was made of the coating effect of chrome yellow when applied as a coloring pigment for a polyvinyl chloride resin film and also of the applicability of an X-ray radiation test as an accelerated deterioration test of polyvinyl chloride resin. The results show that: (1) As compared with the non-coating chrome yellow not subjected to coating treatment, the heavy-coating chrome yellow with the surface coated with alumina and silica is chemically stable. The coating effect is evaluated by the generation of coating crack, discoloring, decomposition of the chrome yellow and generation of lead chloride in the X-ray radiation test and the dew cycle weatherometer test. (2) In the X-ray radiation test, dew cycle weatherometer test and outdoor weathering test, the decomposition of polyvinyl chloride resing changed with time exponentially, indicating a correlation among them. In the X-ray radiation test, the polyvinyl chloride resin decomposed at a rate 10 4 times higher than in the outdoor weathering test, which indicates that it is possible by the X-ray radiation test of a very short time to estimate the decomposition rate of polyvinyl chloride resin in the dew cycle weatherometer test or outdoor weathering test. (author)

  7. A two-step sealing-and-reinforcement SU8 bonding paradigm for the fabrication of shallow microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboudi, Aryan; Yeom, Junghoon

    2018-03-01

    Adhesive bonding is a key technique to create microfluidic devices when two separate substrates are used to form microchannels. Among many adhesives explored in microchannel fabrication, SU8 has been widely used as an adhesive layer for sealing the microchannel sidewalls. The majority of the available SU8-based bonding methods, however, suffer from the difficulties associated with sealing of two important types of the microchannel architecture: (1) shallow microchannels with small patterns on a large area, and (2) microchannels with ultra-low aspect ratios (e.g. 6 mm in width and 2~μ m in height). In this paper, a new bonding paradigm based upon the low-temperature and low-pressure SU8 bonding, consisting of two steps of sealing using a thin-SU8-coated PET film and bonding reinforcement using a SU8-coated glass slide, is proposed to resolve the aforementioned difficulties. Since it does not need complicated instruments such as a wafer bonding machine and a lamination device, the developed bonding paradigm is convenient and economical. We successfully demonstrate the compatibility of the proposed bonding paradigm with the two microchannel fabrication approaches based on the glass wet etching and the SU8 photo-lithography, where small microchannels with the innermost surfaces fully made of SU8 are obtained. A theoretical model is employed to better investigate the flow characteristics and the structural behavior of the microchannel including the PET film deformation, strain and von Mises stress distributions, bonding strength, etc. Moreover, we demonstrate the fabrication of the multi-height deep-shallow microchannel sidewalls and their sealing using the SU8-coated PET film. Finally, as a proof-of-concept device, a microfluidic filter consisting of the double-height deep-shallow microchannel is fabricated for separation of 3 µm and 10 µm particles.

  8. Cost saving synergistic shaft seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Strom, T. N.

    1976-01-01

    Segmented carbon rings, used to replace elastomeric seal lip, provide resistance to high temperatures generated in lubricating film. Machining and close manufacturing tolerances of conventional segmented seal are avoided by mounting segmented rings in elastomeric flex section.

  9. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  10. Magnetically Actuated Seal, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FTT proposes development of a magnetically actuated dynamic seal. Dynamic seals are used throughout the turbopump in high-performance, pump-fed, liquid rocket...

  11. Development of sealing plug for sweep gas line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Taiji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Saitoh, Takashi; Nakamichi, Masaru; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2004-03-01

    On the irradiation capsule for neutron irradiation test of the tritium breeder, the sealing plug is necessary to prevent a leak of tritium gas when the tritium breeder is picked up from the irradiation capsule after irradiation test. However, the general valve and plug cannot apply to sealing of the sweep gas line because of the following factors, the neutron irradiation effect, limited space in the irradiation capsule, high sealing efficiency, simple method and operation for control. Therefore, the sealing plug for sweep gas line has to be developed. This paper reports the development of the sealing plug for sweep gas line and the operating procedure of the sealing plug in the irradiation capsule. (author)

  12. Enclosed mechanical seal face design for brittle materials copyright

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsi, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal carbides are widely used as seal face material due to their hardness and wear resistance. Silicon carbide (SiC) has excellent performance as a seal face material, but it is relatively brittle and may break due to accidental overloads outside the boundary of normal operating conditions. In mechanical seals for nuclear primary coolant pumps, the shattered SiC pieces can get into the reactor system and cause serious damage. The conventional method of containing an SiC seal face is to shrink-fit it in a holder, which may lead the seal designer to contend with unwanted seal face deflections. This paper presents a successful, tested design which does not rely on shrink-fits. 5 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Field Trial of an Aerosol-Based Enclosure Sealing Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, Curtis [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report presents the results from several demonstrations of a new method for sealing building envelope air leaks using an aerosol sealing process developed by the Western Cooling Efficiency Center at UC Davis. The process involves pressurizing a building while applying an aerosol sealant to the interior. As air escapes through leaks in the building envelope, the aerosol particles are transported to the leaks where they collect and form a seal that blocks the leak. Standard blower door technology is used to facilitate the building pressurization, which allows the installer to track the sealing progress during the installation and automatically verify the final building tightness. Each aerosol envelope sealing installation was performed after drywall was installed and taped, and the process did not appear to interrupt the construction schedule or interfere with other trades working in the homes. The labor needed to physically seal bulk air leaks in typical construction will not be replaced by this technology.

  14. Intratracheal Seal Disc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karen J; Moeslund, Niels; Lauridsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    . The device consisted of an intratracheal silicone seal disc fixated by a cord through the stoma to an external part. At day 14, computed tomography (CT) was performed before the device was extracted. With the pulling of a cord, the disc unraveled into a thin thread and was extracted through the stoma. At day...

  15. GOLD PRESSURE VESSEL SEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A.E.

    1963-11-26

    An improved seal between the piston and die member of a piston-cylinder type pressure vessel is presented. A layer of gold, of sufficient thickness to provide an interference fit between the piston and die member, is plated on the contacting surface of at least one of the members. (AEC)

  16. ArF photo resist pattern sample preparation method using FIB without protective coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okushima, Hirohisa; Onozuka, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Yasushi; Yaguchi, Toshie; Umemura, Kaoru; Tamochi, Ryuichiro; Watanabe, Kenji; Hasegawa, Norio; Kawata, Isao; Rijpers, Bart

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method of FIB (FIB: focused ion beam) sample preparation to accurately evaluate critical dimensions and profiles of ArF photo resist patterns without the use of a protective coating on the photo resist. In order to accomplish this, the FIB micro-sampling method that is one of effective FIB milling and fabrication method was employed. First a Si cap is picked up from a silicon wafer and fixed to ArF photo resist patterns to protect against ion beam irradiation. Then, a micro-sample, a piece of Si-capped ArF photo resist, was extracted from the bulk ArF photo resist. In this procedure, this silicon cap always protects ArF photo resist patterns against ion beam irradiation. For the next step, the micro-sample is fixed to a needle stub of the FIB-STEM (STEM: scanning transmission electron microscopy) compatible rotation holder. This sample on the needle stub was rotated 180 degrees and milled from the side of Si substrate. Lastly, the sample is milled to the thickness of 2μm. In this process, the ion beam is irradiating from the silicon substrate side to minimize the ion beam irradiation damages on the ArF photo resist patterns. EDX (EDX: Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) analysis proved that no gallium ions were detected on the surface of the ArF photo resist patterns. The feasibility of high accelerating voltage observation of STEM to observe line edge roughness of a thick sample like 2μm without shrinkage has been demonstrated.

  17. Carbon-coated copper nanoparticles prepared by detonation method and their thermocatalysis on ammonium perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chongwei; Ding, Penghui; Ye, Baoyun; Geng, Xiaoheng; Wang, Jingyu

    2017-03-01

    Carbon-coated copper nanoparticles (CCNPs) were prepared by initiating a high-density charge pressed with a mixture of microcrystalline wax, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and copper nitrate hydrate (Cu(NO3)2.3H2O) in an explosion vessel filled with nitrogen gas. The detonation products were characterized by transmission electron microcopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microcopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of CCNPs on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) were also investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Results indicated that the detonation products were spherical, 25-40 nm in size, and had an apparent core-shell structure. In this structure, the carbon shell was 3-5 nm thick and mainly composed of graphite, C8 (a kind of carbyne), and amorphous carbon. When 5 wt.% CCNPs was mixed with 95 wt.% AP, the high-temperature decomposition peak of AP decreased by 95.97, 96.99, and 96.69 °Cat heating rates of 5, 10, and 20 °C/min, respectively. Moreover, CCNPs decreased the activation energy of AP as calculated through Kissinger's method by 25%, which indicated outstanding catalysis for the thermal decomposition of AP.

  18. Carbon-coated copper nanoparticles prepared by detonation method and their thermocatalysis on ammonium perchlorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon-coated copper nanoparticles (CCNPs were prepared by initiating a high-density charge pressed with a mixture of microcrystalline wax, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX, and copper nitrate hydrate (Cu(NO32·3H2O in an explosion vessel filled with nitrogen gas. The detonation products were characterized by transmission electron microcopy (TEM, high resolution transmission electron microcopy (HRTEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of CCNPs on thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP were also investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. Results indicated that the detonation products were spherical, 25-40 nm in size, and had an apparent core-shell structure. In this structure, the carbon shell was 3-5 nm thick and mainly composed of graphite, C8 (a kind of carbyne, and amorphous carbon. When 5 wt.% CCNPs was mixed with 95 wt.% AP, the high-temperature decomposition peak of AP decreased by 95.97, 96.99, and 96.69 °Cat heating rates of 5, 10, and 20 °C/min, respectively. Moreover, CCNPs decreased the activation energy of AP as calculated through Kissinger’s method by 25%, which indicated outstanding catalysis for the thermal decomposition of AP.

  19. Preparation of catalyst coated membrane by modified decal transfer method for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyati; Irmawati, Y.; Prihandoko, B.

    2017-07-01

    A new catalyst coated membrane (CCM) was prepared by modified decal transfer method. A structure of ionomer/catalyst/carbon/substrate was used to facilitate the transfer of catalyst layer from decal substrate to the membrane at quite low hot-pressing temperature (120 °C) for 8 min. Several decal substrates were tested to select a proper substrate, namely PTFE cloth, PTFE film, aluminium foil, and OHP transparent sheet. The transfer degree of catalyst layer was estimated. Elemental analysis and SEM-mapping were performed to evaluate the residue, whereas contact angle measurement was conducted to characterize the hydrophobicity of decal substrates. The results showed that PTFE cloth and PFTE film transferred approximately 90% of catalyst layer onto the membrane, while the other two substrates were around 70%. Furthermore, the elemental analysis of the residue on the substrate revealed that it was mainly composed of carbon and fluorine for PTFE cloth and PTFE film. This result supports other findings that PTFE cloth and PTFE film are suitable as decal substrate at low temperature hot pressing for fabricating CCM.

  20. Colour-Value Based Method for Polydopamine Coating-Stability Characterization on Polyethersulfone Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Thomas; Clodt, Juliana I; Grabowski, Andrej; Hein, Martin; Filiz, Volkan

    2017-12-16

    Porous polyethersulfone membranes as used in oenology were investigated in order to evaluate temperature-dependent permeances in a temperature range from 10 to 35 °C. A temperature correction factor was determined for this type of membrane to get accurate and comparable results for further developments. Moreover, the membranes were modified with a bio-inspired polydopamine coating in order to reduce fouling. The performance of the membranes could be increased with respect to permeance and flux recovery under cross-flow conditions. In order to test the applicability and stability of the coating layer, they were treated with basic and acidic cleaning agents as used in industry for fouled membranes. The chemical stability of the coating layer was studied under basic and acidic conditions, by systematic observation of the colour change of the coated membranes over treatment time.

  1. Development of carbon nanotubes reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings on titanium by electrodeposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, D.; Shinyjoy, E.; Sekar, M.; Surendiran, M.; Kavitha, L.; Sampath Kumar, T.S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Successful development of CNTs reinforced HAP coating on Ti by electrodeposition. •CNTs as a reinforcing material imparts strength and toughness to HAP. •Incorporating CNTs improves crystallinity, morphology, biological properties of HAP. •CNTs–HAP coating on Ti is bioresistive, better candidate for implant applications. -- Abstract: Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are outstanding reinforcement material for imparting strength and toughness to brittle hydroxyapatite (HAP). This work reports the electrodeposition of CNTs reinforced HAP on titanium substrate at −1.4 V vs. SCE during 30 min with the functionalised CNTs concentration ranging from 0 to 2 wt.%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), mechanical and biological studies were used to characterise the coatings. Also, the corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by electrochemical techniques in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

  2. Nondestructive method to coat thickness measurements through X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, F.

    1986-01-01

    It's described a system that permits thickness measurement and composition of Sn-Pb alloys to simultaneous measurement of Au over Ni over any base, beyond convestionals measurements, including flash coats or touch. (C.M.) [pt

  3. Radioisotope albedo method for measuring thickness of polymers coatings on metal basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapranov, B.I.; Myakin'kova, L.V.; Shaverin, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of albedo thickness measuring of polymer coating-metal composite has been made and experimental studies of the range of tested thicknesses of polymer coating when different metal bases and radiation sources are used have been conducted. It is shown that the thickness of polymer coating on metal can be measured using backscattered γ-radiation in the energy range of 20-120 keV at the error 0.15-0.8 mm, at that, for thickness up to 23 mm the use of 147 Pm isotope can be defined as the optimum one; for thicknesses up to 40 mm 241 Am should be used; at thicknesses up to 60 mm - 57 Co. The AGAT-1 albedo gamma thickness gage, designed for measuring thickness of fiber glass coating up to 20 mm on metal base, is described

  4. Sealed radionuclide sources - new technical specifications and current practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brabec, D

    1987-03-01

    Basic technical specifications are discussed valid in Czechoslovakia for sealed radionuclide sources, based on international ISO and CMEA standards. Described are the standardization of terminology, relationships of tests, testing methods, types of sealed sources and their applications, relations to Czechoslovak regulations on radiation protection and to IAEA specifications for radioactive material shipment, etc. Practical impact is shown of the introduction of the new standards governing sealed sources on the national economy, and the purpose is explained of various documents issued with sealed sources. (author). 2 figs., 45 refs.

  5. Ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwave heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1985-01-01

    A method for producing a ceramic-glass-metal seal by microwaving mixes a slurry of glass sealing material and coupling agent and applies same to ceramic and metal workpieces. The slurry and workpieces are then insulated and microwaved at a power, time and frequency sufficient to cause a liquid phase reaction in the slurry. The reaction of the glass sealing material forms a chemically different seal than that which would be formed by conventional heating because it is formed by diffusion rather than by wetting of the reactants.

  6. The formation of FHA coating on biodegradable Mg-Zn-Zr alloy using a two-step chemical treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S. T.; Zhang, J.; Shun, S. Z.; Chen, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of the biomedical magnesium alloy, a two-step chemical treatment method has been employed to prepare an FHA coating on the alloy surface. Prior to forming an FHA layer, the samples of Mg-3 wt% Zn-0.5 wt% Zr alloy were soaked in HF with concentration of 20% (v/v) at 37 °C temperature for 2 h, and were then placed into an aqueous solution with 0.1 mol/L Ca(NO3).4H2O and 0.06 mol/L NH4H2PO4 at 90 °C to prepare the Ca-P coating. The concentrations of Mg2+, F- ions, and pH variation with immersing time in the solution were investigated to explore the growth mechanism of FHA. The surface morphologies and compositions of the coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results showed that the alloy surface treated with acid formed a layer of MgF2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 0.7 μm. The corrosion resistance of coatings in SBF solution was evaluated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization. The results showed that the substrate with FHA coating had good corrosion resistance. After immersing into the calcium phosphate solution, some small spherical particles were first formed on the surface; these then cover the surface completely after 20 min. Some clusters consisting of needle-like crystal were observed in the spherical particles covering the surface, and the Ca/P ratio of the needle-like crystal was 1.46, clearly growing along the c axis preferred orientation growth. After immersion for 60 min, the FHA coating with completely uniform growth was obtained on the Mg-Zn-Zr alloy surface with its thickness reaching about 120 μm.

  7. Shaft Seal Compensates for Cold Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. N.; Hein, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    Seal components easy to install. Ring seal for rotating or reciprocating shafts spring-loaded to compensate for slow yielding (cold flow) of sealing material. New seal relatively easy to install because components preassembled, then installed in one piece.

  8. Implementation and Development of the Incremental Hole Drilling Method for the Measurement of Residual Stress in Thermal Spray Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T.; Bartuli, C.; Sebastiani, M.; Loreto, A.

    2005-12-01

    The experimental measurement of residual stresses originating within thick coatings deposited by thermal spray on solid substrates plays a role of fundamental relevance in the preliminary stages of coating design and process parameters optimization. The hole-drilling method is a versatile and widely used technique for the experimental determination of residual stress in the most superficial layers of a solid body. The consolidated procedure, however, can only be implemented for metallic bulk materials or for homogeneous, linear elastic, and isotropic materials. The main objective of the present investigation was to adapt the experimental method to the measurement of stress fields built up in ceramic coatings/metallic bonding layers structures manufactured by plasma spray deposition. A finite element calculation procedure was implemented to identify the calibration coefficients necessary to take into account the elastic modulus discontinuities that characterize the layered structure through its thickness. Experimental adjustments were then proposed to overcome problems related to the low thermal conductivity of the coatings. The number of calculation steps and experimental drilling steps were finally optimized.

  9. WC-Co coatings deposited by the electro-thermal chemical spray method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Faculty of Engineering; Wald, S.; Rabani, L.; Zoler, D. [Propulsion Physics Division, SOREQ NRC, 81800, Yavne (Israel); Factor, M.; Roman, I. [School of Applied Sciences, The Hebrew University, 91904, Jerusalem (Israel); Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, 69978, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2000-10-02

    A novel thermal spray technology - an electro-thermal chemical spray (ETCS) for producing hard coatings is presented. The experimental coating apparatus consists of a machine gun barrel, a cartridge containing the coating material in powder form, a solid propellant, and a plasma ignition system. The plasma ignition system produces plasma in pulsed mode to ignite the solid propellant. On ignition, the drag force exerted by the combustion gases accelerates the powder particles towards the substrate. Using the ETCS technique, the process of single-shot WC-Co coating deposition on stainless steel substrate was studied. The influence of process parameters (plasma energy, mass of the solid propellant and the coated powder, distance between the gun muzzle and the substrate) on the coating structure and some of its properties were investigated. It was shown that ECTS technique effectively deposited the WC-Co coating with deposition thicknesses of 100-200 {mu}m per shot, while deposition yield of {proportional_to}70% was attained. The WC-Co coatings consisted of carbide particles distributed in amorphous matrix. The powder particle velocity was found to depend on the solid propellant mass and was weakly dependent on the plasma energy, while the particle processing temperature was strongly dependent on the plasma energy and almost independent of the solid propellant mass. Whilst increasing the solid propellant mass from 5 to 7 g, the deposition rate and yield correspondingly increased. When increasing the plasma energy, the temperature of the powder particles increased, the average carbide particle size decreased and their shape became more rounded. The deposition yield and microhardness at first increased and then achieved saturation by increasing the plasma energy. (orig.)

  10. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating of additively manufactured porous CoCr implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, Carl [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Xia, Wei, E-mail: wei.xia@angstrom.uu.se [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Engineering Sciences, Ångstrom Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Snis, Anders [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Arcam AB, Krokslätts Fabriker 27 A, SE-431 37 Mölndal (Sweden); Lausmaa, Jukka [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås (Sweden); Palmquist, Anders [BIOMATCELL Vinn Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • A route for coating complex shaped electron beam melted implants is presented. • Biomimetic HA coatings were deposited on CoCr alloys using a solution method. • Deposited biomimetic coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient. • Coating morphology was plate-like with crystallites forming roundish flowers. • Present coating procedure could be useful for porous implants made by EBM. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the feasibility to use a biomimetic method to prepare biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on CoCr substrates with short soaking times and to characterize the properties of such coatings. A second objective was to investigate if the coatings could be applied to porous CoCr implants manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM). The coating was prepared by immersing the pretreated CoCr substrates and EBM implants into the phosphate-buffered solution with Ca{sup 2+} in sealed plastic bottles, kept at 60 °C for 3 days. The formed coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient and composed of plate-like crystallites forming roundish flowers in the size range of 300–500 nm. Cross-section imaging showed a thickness of 300–500 nm. In addition, dissolution tests in Tris–HCl up to 28 days showed that a substantial amount of the coating had dissolved, however, undergoing only minor morphological changes. A uniform coating was formed within the porous network of the additive manufactured implants having similar thickness and morphology as for the flat samples. In conclusion, the present coating procedure allows coatings to be formed on CoCr and could be used for complex shaped, porous implants made by additive manufacturing.

  11. Biomimetic calcium phosphate coating of additively manufactured porous CoCr implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Carl; Xia, Wei; Engqvist, Håkan; Snis, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Palmquist, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A route for coating complex shaped electron beam melted implants is presented. • Biomimetic HA coatings were deposited on CoCr alloys using a solution method. • Deposited biomimetic coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient. • Coating morphology was plate-like with crystallites forming roundish flowers. • Present coating procedure could be useful for porous implants made by EBM. - Abstract: The aim of this work was to study the feasibility to use a biomimetic method to prepare biomimetic hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings on CoCr substrates with short soaking times and to characterize the properties of such coatings. A second objective was to investigate if the coatings could be applied to porous CoCr implants manufactured by electron beam melting (EBM). The coating was prepared by immersing the pretreated CoCr substrates and EBM implants into the phosphate-buffered solution with Ca"2"+ in sealed plastic bottles, kept at 60 °C for 3 days. The formed coating was partially crystalline, slightly calcium deficient and composed of plate-like crystallites forming roundish flowers in the size range of 300–500 nm. Cross-section imaging showed a thickness of 300–500 nm. In addition, dissolution tests in Tris–HCl up to 28 days showed that a substantial amount of the coating had dissolved, however, undergoing only minor morphological changes. A uniform coating was formed within the porous network of the additive manufactured implants having similar thickness and morphology as for the flat samples. In conclusion, the present coating procedure allows coatings to be formed on CoCr and could be used for complex shaped, porous implants made by additive manufacturing.

  12. Effect of CrO3 Sealing Time on Anodized A12024-T3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Akhmad A.; Hidayat, R. Z.

    2016-08-01

    The effect of CrO3 sealing time on anodized aluminum alloy has been investigated. A1 2024-T3 were used as substrate. Anodizing was carried out using chromic acid. CrO3 sealing was conducted in CrO3 solution for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. As comparison, other specimens were also prepared as anodized and boiled water sealing. Thickness of the coating was observed by optical microscope. Anodized and sealing layer was analyzed by X- ray diffraction. The hardness of as anodized, boiled water sealing and CrO3 sealing were compared. The highest hardness is achieved by CrO3 sealed specimen and followed by boiled water sealing and as anodized specimens. The longer the processes of CrO3 sealing the higher layer thickness and therefore the higher hardness of the oxide layer. The best resistance to electrolyte penetration is achieved by the CrO3 sealed specimen followed by boiled water sealed and as anodized specimens. The higher thickness of oxide layer, the higher the resistance against electrolyte penetration.

  13. Effect of CrO_3 Sealing Time on Anodized A12024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korda, Akhmad A; Hidayat, R Z

    2016-01-01

    The effect of CrO_3 sealing time on anodized aluminum alloy has been investigated. A1 2024-T3 were used as substrate. Anodizing was carried out using chromic acid. CrO_3 sealing was conducted in CrO_3 solution for 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 minutes. As comparison, other specimens were also prepared as anodized and boiled water sealing. Thickness of the coating was observed by optical microscope. Anodized and sealing layer was analyzed by X- ray diffraction. The hardness of as anodized, boiled water sealing and CrO_3 sealing were compared. The highest hardness is achieved by CrO_3 sealed specimen and followed by boiled water sealing and as anodized specimens. The longer the processes of CrO3 sealing the higher layer thickness and therefore the higher hardness of the oxide layer. The best resistance to electrolyte penetration is achieved by the CrO_3 sealed specimen followed by boiled water sealed and as anodized specimens. The higher thickness of oxide layer, the higher the resistance against electrolyte penetration. (paper)

  14. Fiber Optic Safeguards Sealing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    8217 or trade names does not constitute an official indorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not...an intergrity check of a seal than to photograph the seal’s fingerprints and to match positive/negative overlays. The seal identification time and

  15. Ultrasonic dip seal maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poindexter, A.M.; Ricks, H.E.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for removing impurities from the surfaces of liquid dip seals and for wetting the metal surfaces of liquid dip seals in nuclear components. The system comprises an ultrasonic transducer that transmits ultrasonic vibrations along an ultrasonic probe to the metal and liquid surfaces of the dip seal thereby loosening and removing those impurities

  16. Radial lip seals, thermal aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stakenborg, M.J.L.; van Ostaijen, R.A.J.; Dowson, D.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the influence of temperature on tne seal-snarc contact is studied, using coupled temperature-stress FEH analysis. A thermal network model is used to calculate the seal-shaft contact temperature for steady-state and transient conditions. Contact temperatures were measured under the seal

  17. Cover gas seals: FFTF-LMFBR seal test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzeka, W.; Oliva, R.; Welch, T.S.; Shimazaki, T.

    1974-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to: (1) conduct static and dynamic tests to demonstrate or determine the mechanical performance of full-size (cross section) FFTF fuel transfer machine and reactor vessel head seals intended for use in a sodium vapor-inert gas environment, (2) demonstrate that these FFTF seals or new seal configurations provide acceptable fission product and cover gas retention capabilities at Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) operating environmental conditions other than radiation, and (3) develop improved seals and seal technology for the CRBRP to support the national objective to reduce all atmospheric contaminations to low levels

  18. Improvement of Silicide Coating Method as Diffusion Barrier for U-Mo Dispersion Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ji Min; Kim, Sunghwan; Lee, Kyu Hong; Park, Jong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The excessive interaction between the U-Mo alloys and their surrounding Al matrix lead to excessive local swelling called 'pillowing'. For this reason, KAERI suggested several remedies such as alloying U-Mo with Ti, or Al matrix with Si. In addition, silicide or nitride coatings on the surface of U-Mo particles have also been proposed to hinder the growth of the interaction layer. In this study, centrifugally atomized U-Mo-Ti alloy powders were coated with silicide layers. The coating process was improved when compared to the previous coating in terms of the ball milling and heat treatment conditions. Subsequently, silicide coated U-Mo-Ti powders and pure aluminum powders were mixed and made into a compact for the annealing test. The compacts were annealed at 550 .deg. C for 2hr, and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). 1. Uniform, homogeneous, thickness controllable silicide layers were successfully coated on the surface of U-7wt%Mo-1wt%Ti powders. 2. U{sub 3}Si, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} silicide layers formed on the surface of U-7wt%Mo-1wt%Ti powders, and were identified by XRD and EDS analyses.

  19. Evaluation of superparamagnetic and biocompatible properties of mesoporous silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via microwave modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibshahian, M. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaee, O., E-mail: O_mirzaee@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourbakhsh, M.S. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nano particles were synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method and calcined at 700 °C in electrical and microwave furnace. The microwave calcined sample was coated with mesoporous silica by hydrothermal method. Characterization was performed by XRD, FESEM, TEM, VSM, BET and FTIR analysis. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay with 3T3 fibroblast cells. The XRD and FTIR results confirmed spinal formation in both cases and verified the formation of silica coating on the nanoparticles. For microwave calcination, The XRD and SEM results demonstrated smaller and flat adhesion forms of nanoparticles with the average size of 15 nm. The VSM results demonstrated nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles with significant saturation magnetization equal to 64 emu/g. By coating, saturation magnetization was decreased to 36 emu/g. Moreover, the BET results confirmed the formation of mesoporous coating with the average pore diameters of 2.8 nm and average pore volume of 0.82 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. Microwave calcined nanoparticles had the best structural and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using the microwave modified Pechini method. • The Effect of calcination route and silica coating on NPs properties was studied. • The nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles were achieved by microwave calcination. • MFC NPs had the best magnetic properties and MTT assay showed no toxicity for MFC-MSC NPs. • A useful scheme was designed to achieve biological superparamagnetic core/shell NPs.

  20. Development and validation of dissolution method for carvedilol compression-coated tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Shah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development and validation of a dissolution method for carvedilol compression-coated tablets. Dissolution test was performed using a TDT-06T dissolution apparatus. Based on the physiological conditions of the body, 0.1N hydrochloric acid was used as dissolution medium and release was monitored for 2 hours to verify the immediate release pattern of the drug in acidic pH, followed by pH 6.8 in citric-phosphate buffer for 22 hours, to simulate a sustained release pattern in the intestine. Influences of rotation speed and surfactant concentration in medium were evaluated. Samples were analysed by validated UV visible spectrophotometric method at 286 nm. 1% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS was found to be optimum for improving carvedilol solubility in pH 6.8 citric-phosphate buffer. Analysis of variance showed no significant difference between the results obtained at 50 and 100 rpm. The discriminating dissolution method was successfully developed for carvedilol compression-coated tablets. The conditions that allowed dissolution determination were USP type I apparatus at 100 rpm, containing 1000 ml of 0.1N HCl for 2 hours, followed by pH 6.8 citric-phosphate buffer with 1% SLS for 22 hours at 37.0 ± 0.5 ºC. Samples were analysed by UV spectrophotometric method and validated as per ICH guidelines.O presente estudo descreve o desenvolvimento e a validação de método de dissolução para comprimidos revestidos de carvedilol. O teste de dissolução foi efetuado utilizando-se o aparelho para dissolução TDT-06T. Com base nas condições fisiológicas do organismo, utilizou-se ácido clorídrico 0,1 N como meio de dissolução e a liberação foi monitorada por 2 horas para se verificar o padrão de liberação imediata do fármaco em condições de pH baixo, seguidas por pH 6,8 em tampão cítrico-fosfato por 22 horas, para simular o padrão de liberação controlada no intestino. Avaliou-se a influência da velocidade de