WorldWideScience

Sample records for seabirds compass rafts

  1. Use of social information in seabirds: compass rafts indicate the heading of food patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimerskirch, Henri; Bertrand, Sophie; Silva, Jaime; Marques, Jose Carlos; Goya, Elisa

    2010-03-29

    Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis). Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the most colonial seabirds, Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii) and Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata). Both species breed together and feed on the same prey. They do return to the same feeding zone from one trip to the next indicating high unpredictability in the location of food resources. We found that the Guanay cormorants use social information to select their bearing when departing the colony. They form a raft at the sea surface whose position is continuously adjusted to the bearing of the largest returning columns of cormorants. As such, the raft serves as a compass signal that gives an indication on the location of the food patches. Conversely, Peruvian boobies rely mainly on personal information based on memory to take heading at departure. They search for food patches solitarily or in small groups through network foraging by detecting the white plumage of congeners visible at long distance. Our results show that information transfer does occur and we propose a new mechanism of information transfer based on the use of rafts off colonies. The use of rafts for information transfer may be common in central place foraging colonial seabirds that exploit short lasting and/or unpredictably distributed food patches. Over the past decades Guanay cormorants have declined ten times whereas Peruvian boobies have remained relatively stable. We suggest that the decline of the cormorants could be related to reduced social information opportunities and that social behaviour and search strategies have the potential to play an important role in the population dynamics of colonial animals.

  2. Use of social information in seabirds: compass rafts indicate the heading of food patches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Weimerskirch

    Full Text Available Ward and Zahavi suggested in 1973 that colonies could serve as information centres, through a transfer of information on the location of food resources between unrelated individuals (Information Centre Hypothesis. Using GPS tracking and observations on group movements, we studied the search strategy and information transfer in two of the most colonial seabirds, Guanay cormorants (Phalacrocorax bougainvillii and Peruvian boobies (Sula variegata. Both species breed together and feed on the same prey. They do return to the same feeding zone from one trip to the next indicating high unpredictability in the location of food resources. We found that the Guanay cormorants use social information to select their bearing when departing the colony. They form a raft at the sea surface whose position is continuously adjusted to the bearing of the largest returning columns of cormorants. As such, the raft serves as a compass signal that gives an indication on the location of the food patches. Conversely, Peruvian boobies rely mainly on personal information based on memory to take heading at departure. They search for food patches solitarily or in small groups through network foraging by detecting the white plumage of congeners visible at long distance. Our results show that information transfer does occur and we propose a new mechanism of information transfer based on the use of rafts off colonies. The use of rafts for information transfer may be common in central place foraging colonial seabirds that exploit short lasting and/or unpredictably distributed food patches. Over the past decades Guanay cormorants have declined ten times whereas Peruvian boobies have remained relatively stable. We suggest that the decline of the cormorants could be related to reduced social information opportunities and that social behaviour and search strategies have the potential to play an important role in the population dynamics of colonial animals.

  3. Tokamak COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řípa, Milan; Křenek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2011), s. 32-34 ISSN 1210-4612 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : fusion * tokamak * Compass * Golem * Institute of Plasma Physics AVCR v.v * NBI * diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Life raft stabilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Barnett, J. H., Jr.; Harrison, F. L.; Marak, R. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An improved life raft stabilizer for reducing rocking and substantially precluding capsizing is discussed. The stabilizer may be removably attached to the raft and is defined by flexible side walls which extend a considerable depth downwardly to one another in the water. The side walls, in conjunction with the floor of the raft, form a ballast enclosure. A weight is placed in the bottom of the enclosure and water port means are provided in the walls. Placement of the stabilizer in the water allows the weighted bottom to sink, producing submerged deployment thereof and permitting water to enter the enclosure through the port means, thus forming a ballast for the raft.

  5. Self Righting Life Raft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Givens Buoy Raft was designed and manufactured for inventor Jim Givens of Givens Marine Survival Co. Inc., by RPR Industries, Inc. The Raft consists of a canopied topside and an underwater hemispheric ballast chamber. It has a heavy ballast stabilization system, adopted from NASA technology, which negates the capsizing problem. A "flapper valve" admits large amounts of water to the hemisphere chamber providing ballast to keep the center of gravity constant; stabilization system compensates for changes in wave angle and weight shifting of raft occupants. Mr. Givens has an exclusive patent license for use of the NASA technology. Produced in various sizes, capacities range from six to 20 persons. Raft is housed in a canister, available in several configurations. A pull on a line triggers the automatic inflation process, which takes 12 seconds. The raft has been credited with saving 230 lives in the last five years. It has found wide acceptance with operators of fishing boats, pleasure craft and other vessels. The Coast Guard is purchasing the rafts for use on its rescue helicopters and the Navy has a development program to adapt the system. The Coast Guard last year announced a proposed amendment of its regulations that would require large ballast chambers on inflatable life rafts.

  6. Sinking a Granular Raft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protière, Suzie; Josserand, Christophe; Aristoff, Jeffrey M.; Stone, Howard A.; Abkarian, Manouk

    2017-03-01

    We report experiments that yield new insights on the behavior of granular rafts at an oil-water interface. We show that these particle aggregates can float or sink depending on dimensionless parameters taking into account the particle densities and size and the densities of the two fluids. We characterize the raft shape and stability and propose a model to predict its shape and maximum length to remain afloat. Finally we find that wrinkles and folds appear along the raft due to compression by its own weight, which can trigger destabilization. These features are characteristics of an elastic instability, which we discuss, including the limitations of our model.

  7. Seabird Colonies in Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.; Falk, K.

    About 1 million seabirds (indvs) breed in 1032 colonies distributed along the coasts of western Greenland (Fig. 1). However, this figure does not include the little auk colonies in Avanersuaq. These colonies are roughly estimated to hold about 20 mill. pairs. All the basic information on seabird...... colonies in Greenland is compiled in a database maintained by NERI-AE. This report presents data on distribution, population numbers and population trends of 19 species of breeding colonial seabirds in western Greenland. Distributions are depicted on maps in Fig. 18-39. It is apparent that the major...... colonies are found in the northern part of the region, viz. Upernavik and Avanersuaq. The numbers of birds recorded in the database for each species are presented in Tab. 4, and on the basis of these figures estimates of the populations in western Greenland are given (Tab. 5). The most numerous species...

  8. RaftProt: mammalian lipid raft proteome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup; Chen, David; Boda, Akash R; Foster, Leonard J; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    RaftProt (http://lipid-raft-database.di.uq.edu.au/) is a database of mammalian lipid raft-associated proteins as reported in high-throughput mass spectrometry studies. Lipid rafts are specialized membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids thought to act as dynamic signalling and sorting platforms. Given their fundamental roles in cellular regulation, there is a plethora of information on the size, composition and regulation of these membrane microdomains, including a large number of proteomics studies. To facilitate the mining and analysis of published lipid raft proteomics studies, we have developed a searchable database RaftProt. In addition to browsing the studies, performing basic queries by protein and gene names, searching experiments by cell, tissue and organisms; we have implemented several advanced features to facilitate data mining. To address the issue of potential bias due to biochemical preparation procedures used, we have captured the lipid raft preparation methods and implemented advanced search option for methodology and sample treatment conditions, such as cholesterol depletion. Furthermore, we have identified a list of high confidence proteins, and enabled searching only from this list of likely bona fide lipid raft proteins. Given the apparent biological importance of lipid raft and their associated proteins, this database would constitute a key resource for the scientific community. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. RAFT polymerization mediated bioconjugation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmuş, Volga

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to highlight the use of RAFT polymerization in the synthesis of polymer bioconjugates. It covers two main bioconjugation strategies using the RAFT process: (i) post-polymerization bioconjugations using pre-synthesized reactive polymers, and (ii) bioconjugations via in situ polymerization using biomolecule-modified monomers or chain transfer agents. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  11. Larger Angles For COMPASS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    A new magnet at CERN is going to allow COMPASS (Common Muon Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy) maximum acceptance. Thanks to the 5 tonne, 2.5 m long magnet, which arrived last December, many more events are expected compared to the previous data-taking.

  12. Compassion and Curiosity - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Kim, M.D., is motivated by two things: compassion and curiosity. Dr. Kim has taken these dual motivations and created a career in which he cares directly for patients and spearheads research that may lead to improved treatment options.

  13. [Benevolence and compassion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Río Villegas, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Ed Pellegrino understands the virtues within the dynamics of an action that does not follow the principles but comes from a way of reasonable knowledge that recognizes the very purpose of good to steer correctly makes a good agent. One of the characteristic action of the physician is the compassion that is a trait of his character, unifying psychological, cultural, sociological, ethnic and intellectuals who channels the cognitive aspect of healing and in particular the reality of a particular patient. Most own medical compassion is what Pellegrino calls its intellectual dimension, which is a form of integrated understanding that enables the achievement of all levels at which the patient is well defined. It is the usual choice, grasp, handle and weigh the uniqueness with which the patient lives the disease. The need for compassion, and the rest of the medical profession's own virtues, returns us once again to the need for the formation of a subject capable and unity between all virtues. A prudent management rightful virtue of compassion toward the end of a successful life that is emerging in an ideal health to be achieved.

  14. COMPASS Status Report 2010

    CERN Document Server

    COMPASS Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the setup and the performance of the COMPASS experiment during the 2009 hadron beam run and describes the preparation and startup of the 2010 muon beam run with the polarised target. The status of analysis is presented both for the hadron and muon data with emphasis on the 2008/2009 hadron data.

  15. [Responsibility, compassion and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of responsibility and compassion are fundamental in ethics. These notions help to safeguard humaneness, especially in the field of health care and notably in palliative care. These concepts can be put into practice by caregivers and applied to daily practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. AFSC/REFM: Seabird Necropsy dataset of North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The seabird necropsy dataset contains information on seabird specimens that were collected under salvage and scientific collection permits primarily by...

  17. 78 FR 35073 - Compass Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... Balanced Fund, Compass EMP Multi-Asset Growth Fund, Compass EMP Alternative Strategies Fund, Compass EMP Balanced Volatility Weighted Fund, Compass EMP Growth Volatility Weighted Fund, and Compass EMP... Efficient Model Portfolios, LLC and Compass EMP Funds Trust; Notice of Application June 4, 2013. AGENCY...

  18. An updated assessment of the seabird populations breeding at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Príncipe Autonomous Region is recognised as a marine biodiversity hotspot, although little is known about the status of its marine fauna. It holds most breeding seabirds of the tropical eastern Atlantic Ocean. Based on anecdotal accounts of increased fishing and seabird harvesting, regular monitoring of seabird ...

  19. 'The research compass'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Charlotte; Hodges, Brian; Scherpbier, Albert

    2011-01-01

    by the complexity of the field. Next is a section on how to move from an idea or problem to a research question by placing a concrete idea or problem within a conceptual, theoretical framework. The following sections are structured around an overview model of approaches to medical education research, 'The research...... compass'. Core to the model is the conceptual, theoretical framework that is the key to any direction. The compass depicts four main categories of research approaches that can be applied when studying medical education phenomena, 'Explorative studies'; 'Experimental studies'; 'Observational studies......This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to research in medical education. It is intended for those who are contemplating conducting research in medical education but are new to the field. The Guide is structured around the process of transforming ideas and problems into researchable questions...

  20. Baryon spectroscopy in COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austregesilo, Alexander; Chung, Suh-Urk; Ketzer, Bernhard; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN SPS which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. During in total 9 weeks in 2008 and 2009, a 190 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a liquid hydrogen target has been used primarily to study the production of exotic mesons and glueball candidates at central rapidities. As no bias on the rapidity was introduced by the trigger system, the data also yield the unique possibility to study diffractive dissociation of the beam proton while an inert target is assumed. To this end exclusive events with three charged particles including one proton in the final state have been extracted. We report on the status of the event selection studies and discuss the prospect of using partial wave analysis techniques, which have been successfully applied for diffractive dissociation reactions of pions in COMPASS.

  1. Hadron multiplicities at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Fresne von Hohenesche, Nicolas [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, Johann-Joachim-Becher-Weg 45, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    Quark fragmentation functions (FF) D{sub q}{sup h}(z,Q{sup 2}) describe final-state hadronization of quarks q into hadrons h. The FFs can be extracted from hadron multiplicities produced in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering. The COMPASS collaboration has recently measured charged hadron multiplicities for identified pions and kaons using a 160 GeV/c muon beam impinging on an iso-scalar target. The data cover a large kinematical range and provide an important input for global QCD analyses of world data at NLO, aiming at the determination of FFs in particular in the strange quark sector. The newest results from COMPASS on pion and kaon multiplicities will be presented.

  2. Microscale magnetic compasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Zhang, Desai; Eisterer, Michael; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas; McCartney, Martha R.; Smith, David J.

    2017-09-01

    Microscale magnetic compasses have been synthesized with high yield. These ferromagnetic iron carbide nano-particles, which are encapsulated in a pair of parallel carbon needles, change their orientation in response to an external magnetic field. Electron holography reveals magnetic fields confined to the vicinity of the bicone-shaped particles, which are composed of only a few ferromagnetic domains. Aligned magnetically and encapsulated in an acrylate polymer matrix, these micro-compasses exhibit anisotropic bulk magnetic permeability with an easy axis normal to the needle direction that can be understood as a result of the anisotropic demagnetizing field of a non-spherical single-domain particle. This novel type of material with orthogonal magnetic and structural axes could be highly useful as magnetic components in electromagnetic wave absorbent materials and magnetorheological fluids.

  3. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Bradbury

    Full Text Available We present a Geographic Information System (GIS tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool, to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  4. Mapping seabird sensitivity to offshore wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Gareth; Trinder, Mark; Furness, Bob; Banks, Alex N; Caldow, Richard W G; Hume, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    We present a Geographic Information System (GIS) tool, SeaMaST (Seabird Mapping and Sensitivity Tool), to provide evidence on the use of sea areas by seabirds and inshore waterbirds in English territorial waters, mapping their relative sensitivity to offshore wind farms. SeaMaST is a freely available evidence source for use by all connected to the offshore wind industry and will assist statutory agencies in assessing potential risks to seabird populations from planned developments. Data were compiled from offshore boat and aerial observer surveys spanning the period 1979-2012. The data were analysed using distance analysis and Density Surface Modelling to produce predicted bird densities across a grid covering English territorial waters at a resolution of 3 km×3 km. Coefficients of Variation were estimated for each grid cell density, as an indication of confidence in predictions. Offshore wind farm sensitivity scores were compiled for seabird species using English territorial waters. The comparative risks to each species of collision with turbines and displacement from operational turbines were reviewed and scored separately, and the scores were multiplied by the bird density estimates to produce relative sensitivity maps. The sensitivity maps reflected well the amassed distributions of the most sensitive species. SeaMaST is an important new tool for assessing potential impacts on seabird populations from offshore development at a time when multiple large areas of development are proposed which overlap with many seabird species' ranges. It will inform marine spatial planning as well as identifying priority areas of sea usage by marine birds. Example SeaMaST outputs are presented.

  5. COMPASS spins in new directions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is preparing for a new phase in its physics programme: COMPASS-II. Due to start in 2014, COMPASS-II will bring a powerful new look at the building blocks of protons: quarks and gluons.     The COMPASS installation.   It’s an exciting and busy time for COMPASS. As one of the few experiments in the world capable of studying the internal structure of protons with high precision, COMPASS uses secondary beams from the SPS accelerator to study a variety of quark and gluon properties. This includes their distribution within nucleons, their contribution to nucleon spin and the way they form hadrons when pulled out from the nucleon - all properties that may also improve the understanding of proton collisions in the LHC. In 2014, a new chapter will begin for the COMPASS collaboration. “We have two new phases planned for COMPASS-II,” explains Fabienne Kunne, COMPASS co-spokesperson. “The first will begin in 2014, collidi...

  6. Seabird Nesting Colonies in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LSU (1997) [seabirds_LSU_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for seabird nesting colonies derived from GPS locations in the field. The attributes of the habitat points are based upon visual assessment...

  7. UNUSUAL BREEDING BY SEABIRDS AT MARION ISLAND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1997/98, breeding at subantarctic Marion Island was exceptionally good for five species of seabirds capable of foraging over wide areas and for a tern. The number of king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus chicks surviving to the start of spring in 1997 was considerably more than previously recorded. Greater numbers of ...

  8. Care of oiled seabirds: A veterinary perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, F.S.

    1993-01-01

    The primary effects of oil contamination on seabirds include hypothermia, dehydration, gastrointestinal problems, pneumonia, and hemolytic anemia. Other direct effects include skin and corneal irritation as well as an impact on reproductive organs. Secondary problem related to prolonged captive husbandry include various infectious diseases, pododermatitis, joint swellings, and keel lesions. Current methods of prevention and treatment of these effects, including nutritional support, are presented

  9. Spin Physics at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schill, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is a fixed target experiment at the CERN SPS using muon and hadron beams for the investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon and hadron spectroscopy. The main objective of the muon physics program is the study of the spin of the nucleon in terms of its constituents, quarks and gluons. COMPASS has accumulated data during 6 years scattering polarized muons off longitudinally or transversely polarized deuteron ( 6 LiD) or proton (NH 3 ) targets. Results for the gluon polarization are obtained from longitudinal double spin cross section asymmetries using two different channels, open charm production and high transverse momentum hadron pairs, both proceeding through the photon-gluon fusion process. Also, the longitudinal spin structure functions of the proton and the deuteron were measured in parallel as well as the helicity distributions for the three lightest quark flavours. With a transversely polarized target, results were obtained with proton and deuteron targets for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons as well as for identified kaons and pions. The Collins asymmetry is sensitive to the transverse spin structure of the nucleon, while the Sivers asymmetry reflects correlations between the quark transverse momentum and the nucleon spin. Recently, a new proposal for the COMPASS II experiment was accepted by the CERN SPS which includes two new topics: Exclusive reactions like DVCS and DVMP using the muon beam and a hydrogen target to study generalized parton distributions and Drell-Yan measurements using a pion beam and a polarized NH 3 target to study transverse momentum dependent distributions.

  10. THE ADVANCED STELLAR COMPASS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  11. GPD program at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N

    2010-01-01

    The study of exclusive reactions like Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production is one major part of the future COMPASS program1 in order to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows to measure the $x_{B}$-dependence of the $t$-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. The use of positive and negative polarised muon beams allows to determine the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the real part of the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H.

  12. A comparative study on the raft chemical properties of various alginate antacid raft-forming products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmar, Peter W; Gil-Gonzalez, Diana; Fisher, Jeanine; Flint, Lucy; Rainforth, Daniel; Moreno-Herrera, Antonio; Potts, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Research to measure the chemical characterization of alginate rafts for good raft performance and ascertain how formulation can affect chemical parameters. A selection of alginate formulations was investigated all claiming to be proficient raft formers with significance between products established and ranked. Procedures were selected which demonstrated the chemical characterization allowing rafts to effectively impede the reflux into the esophagus or in severe cases to be refluxed preferentially into the esophagus and exert a demulcent effect, with focus of current research on methods which complement previous studies centered on physical properties. The alginate content was analyzed by a newly developed HPLC method. Methods were used to determine the neutralization profile and the acid neutralization within the raft determined along with how raft structure affects neutralization. Alginate content of Gaviscon Double Action (GDA) within the raft was significantly superior (p raft acid neutralization capacity were GDA and Rennie Duo, the latter product not being a raft former. Raft structure was key and GDA had the right level of porosity to allow for longer duration of neutralization. Alginate formulations require three chemical reactions to take place simultaneously: transformation to alginic acid, sodium carbonate reacting to form carbon dioxide, calcium releasing free calcium ions to bind with alginic acid providing strength to raft formation. GDA was significantly superior (p <.0001) to all other comparators.

  13. Chemical driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-15

    Full Text Available The author provides a brief overview of the chemical driving forces for rafting in superalloys. Until recently, all theories of the driving force for rafting have considered the compositions of the two phases to be fixed, although accepting...

  14. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer has a good acceptance for charged as well as neutral particles over a wide kinematic range and thus allows to access a wide range of reactions. Light mesons are studied with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The spectrum of light mesons is investigated in various final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions at squared four-momentum transfers to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to search for new states. Among these is a new resonance-like signal, t...

  15. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2016-11-29

    The goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is to study the structure and dynamics of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer used by the experiment has large acceptance and covers a wide kinematic range for charged as well as neutral particles and can therefore measure a wide range of reactions. The spectroscopy of light mesons is performed with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer $t$ to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 $(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^-\\pi^+$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently world's largest data sample. These data not only allow to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to observe new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the $a_1(1420)$, with unusual properties. Novel analysis techniques have been...

  16. RAFT polymerization and some of its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moad, Graeme; Rizzardo, Ezio; Thang, San H

    2013-08-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) is one of the most robust and versatile methods for controlling radical polymerization. With appropriate selection of the RAFT agent for the monomers and reaction conditions, it is applicable to the majority of monomers subject to radical polymerization. The process can be used in the synthesis of well-defined homo-, gradient, diblock, triblock, and star polymers and more complex architectures, which include microgels and polymer brushes. In this Focus Review we describe how the development of RAFT and RAFT application has been facilitated by the adoption of continuous flow techniques using tubular reactors and through the use of high-throughput methodology. Applications described include the use of RAFT in the preparation of polymers for optoelectronics, block copolymer therapeutics, and star polymer rheology control agents. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Compassion Satisfaction and Compassion Fatigue Among Critical Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Tara L; Ciurzynski, Susan M; Harvey, Megan Elizabeth; Ingersoll, Gail L

    2015-08-01

    Although critical care nurses gain satisfaction from providing compassionate care to patients and patients' families, the nurses are also at risk for fatigue. The balance between satisfaction and fatigue is considered professional quality of life. To establish the prevalence of compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue in adult, pediatric, and neonatal critical care nurses and to describe potential contributing demographic, unit, and organizational characteristics. In a cross-sectional design, nurses were surveyed by using a demographic questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life Scale to measure levels of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction. Nurses (n = 221) reported significant differences in compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue on the basis of sex, age, educational level, unit, acuity, change in nursing management, and major systems change. Understanding the elements of professional quality of life can have a positive effect on work environment. The relationship between professional quality of life and the standards for a healthy work environment requires further investigation. Once this relationship is fully understood, interventions to improve this balance can be developed and tested. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  18. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  19. Compassion Fatigue in Pediatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jill; Polivka, Barbara; Smoot, Elizabeth Ann; Owens, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Compassion fatigue in nursing has been shown to impact the quality of patient care and employee satisfaction and engagement. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and severity of compassion fatigue among pediatric nurses and variations in prevalence based on respondent demographics using a cross-sectional survey design. Nurses under 40 years of age, with 6-10 years of experience and/or working in a medical-surgical unit had significantly lower compassion satisfaction and higher levels of burnout. Secondary traumatic stress from caring for children with severe illness or injury or end of life was a key contributor to compassion fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Durham Neighborhood Compass Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  1. COMPASS: getting ready to go !

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment in building 888 has started running, after several tests made last year. It will basically investigate the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons and is scheduled to run beyond the start of the LHC.

  2. Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to constituent q q(bar) pair configurations, four quark states or gluonic excitations like hybrids or glueballs are also expected to contribute to the mesonic spectrum. The most promising way to identify such states allowed by QCD is the search for J PC quantum number combinations which are forbidden in the constituent quark model. The fixed target COMPASS experiment at CERN offers the opportunity to search for such states in the light quark sector with an unprecedented statistics. First studies of diffractive reactions of 190 GeV/c ions were carried out by COMPASS during a pilot run in 2004. In a first analysis, the three charged pion final state was studied. A Partial Wave Analysis (PWA) with 42 waves including acceptance corrections through a phase-space Monte Carlo simulation of the spectrometer was performed. The exotic π1 (1600) meson with quantum numbers J PC 1 -+ has been clearly established in the ρ-π decay channel with a mass of 1660 ± 0.010(stat) MeV and a width of 0.269 ± 0.021(stat) MeV. The final state with 5 charged pions was also investigated. Results from that study will also be presented. The improved detectors performance in 2008 allows us to study besides these channels further diffractively and centrally produced resonances, neutral ones as well as charged ones. First results of the ongoing analysis of the 2008 data taking period, using a 190 GeV/c pion beam on a hydrogen target will be given. (author)

  3. New COMPASS DAQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yunpeng; Konorov, Igor

    2015-07-01

    This contribution focuses on the deployment and first results of the new FPGA-based data acquisition system (DAQ) of the COMPASS experiment. Since 2002, the number of channels increased to approximately 300000, trigger rate increased to 30 kHz; the average event size remained roughly 35 kB. In order to handle the increased data rates, the new DAQ system with custom FPGA based data handling cards (DHC) had been decided to replace the event building network. The DHCs are equipped with 16 high speed serial links, 2GB of DDR3 memory with bandwidth of 6 GB/s, Gigabit Ethernet connection, and COMPASS Trigger Control System. It uses two different firmware versions: multiplexer and switch. The multiplexer DHC can combine 15 incoming links into one outgoing, whereas the switch combines 8 data streams from multiplexers and using information from look-up table sends the full events to the readout engine servers equipped by spillbuffer PCI-Express cards that receive the data. Both types of DHC can buffer data which allows to distribute the load over the cycle of accelerator. For the purposes of configuration, run control, and monitoring, software tools are developed. Communication between processes in the system is implemented using the DIM library. The DAQ is fully configurable from the web interface. New DAQ system has been deployed for the pilot run starting from the September 2014. In the poster, the preliminary performance and stability results of the new DAQ are presented and compared with the original system in more detail.

  4. Adding the ocean to the study of seabirds: A brief history of at-sea seabird research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Woehler, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    We review the history of how research directed towards marine ornithology has led to an appreciation of seabirds as highly specialized marine organisms. Beginning with R. C. Murphy (Pacific), V. C. Wynne-Edwards (Atlantic), and associates in the early 1900s, the research approach grew from an emphasis on seabird single-species ecology to an appreciation of interacting species assemblages and finally to seabirds being considered as important components of marine food webs. After a slow, drawn-out beginning, the initial main impetus for developing the field was a need to map seabird abundance and distribution tied to understanding impacts of continental shelf resource exploitation. Coalescing during the 1970s to 1980s to facilitate this line of research were 6 factors: (1) ability to identify birds at sea; (2) standardization of techniques to quantify abundance; (3) resources and techniques for mapping; (4) appreciation of how scale affects seabird relationships to hydrographic features and patchy prey; (5) development of computing power and appropriate statistics; and (6) seabird biologists becoming embedded in, as well as organizing, multidisciplinary marine research projects. Future advances in understanding the role of seabirds in marine food webs will be made by seabird biologists participating in multidisciplinary projects using grid-like surveys relative to oceanographic features in combination with instrumentation that reveals the finer details of seabird foraging behaviors.

  5. Raft River Geothermal Aquaculture Experiment. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Rose, F.L.; Kent, J.C.; Watson, L.R.; Sullivan, J.F.

    1979-08-01

    Channel catfish, tilapia and Malaysian prawns were cultured directly in geothermal water for approximately seven months at the Department of Energy, Raft River Geothermal Site, to evaluate the organisms throughout a grow-out cycle. Parameters evaluated included survival, growth, bioaccumulation of metals and fluoride, collagen synthesis, and bone calcium levels. Growth at Raft River was slightly lower than at a companion commercial facility at Buhl, Idaho, but was attributed to facility differences rather than an adverse impact of geothermal water. No significant differences were recorded between Raft River and Buhl fish for bone calcium or collagen concentrations. No significant accumulation of heavy metals by fish or prawns was recorded.

  6. HC-130 Wing Life Raft Replacement Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scher, Bob

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) uses HC-130 aircraft for search and rescue (SAR) and other missions. The aircraft are presently equipped with two to four 20 person inflatable life rafts, stowed in cells in the wings...

  7. Assessing the nature of lipid raft membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Perttu S; Ollila, Samuli; Hyvönen, Marja T

    2007-01-01

    of highly ordered lateral domains rich in sphingomyelin and cholesterol (CHOL). These domains, called functional lipid rafts, have been suggested to take part in a variety of dynamic cellular processes such as membrane trafficking, signal transduction, and regulation of the activity of membrane proteins......-scale simulations to elucidate the properties of ternary raft mixtures with CHOL, palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM), and palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine. We simulate two bilayers of 1,024 lipids for 100 ns in the liquid-ordered phase and one system of the same size in the liquid-disordered phase. The studies provide...... heterogeneity more difficult. The findings reveal aspects of the role of favored (specific) lipid-lipid interactions within rafts and clarify the prominent role of CHOL in altering the properties of the membrane locally in its neighborhood. Also, we show that the presence of PSM and CHOL in rafts leads...

  8. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswanto, Arya Bagus Boedi; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2017-04-03

    A bstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD), which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs) is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC), which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS) and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs). In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft-processed PDC.

  9. The global distribution of ammonia emissions from seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, S. N.; Dragosits, U.; Blackall, T. D.; Daunt, F.; Wanless, S.; Sutton, M. A.

    2012-08-01

    Seabird colonies represent a significant source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) in remote maritime systems, producing a source of nitrogen that may encourage plant growth, alter terrestrial plant community composition and affect the surrounding marine ecosystem. To investigate seabird NH3 emissions on a global scale, we developed a contemporary seabird database including a total seabird population of 261 million breeding pairs. We used this in conjunction with a bioenergetics model to estimate the mass of nitrogen excreted by all seabirds at each breeding colony. The results combined with the findings of mid-latitude field studies of volatilization rates estimate the global distribution of NH3 emissions from seabird colonies on an annual basis. The largest uncertainty in our emission estimate concerns the potential temperature dependence of NH3 emission. To investigate this we calculated and compared temperature independent emission estimates with a maximum feasible temperature dependent emission, based on the thermodynamic dissociation and solubility equilibria. Using the temperature independent approach, we estimate global NH3 emissions from seabird colonies at 404 Gg NH3 per year. By comparison, since most seabirds are located in relatively cold circumpolar locations, the thermodynamically dependent estimate is 136 Gg NH3 per year. Actual global emissions are expected to be within these bounds, as other factors, such as non-linear interactions with water availability and surface infiltration, moderate the theoretical temperature response. Combining sources of error from temperature (±49%), seabird population estimates (±36%), variation in diet composition (±23%) and non-breeder attendance (±13%), gives a mid estimate with an overall uncertainty range of NH3 emission from seabird colonies of 270 [97-442] Gg NH3 per year. These emissions are environmentally relevant as they primarily occur as "hot-spots" in otherwise pristine environments with low anthropogenic

  10. Laughter and compassion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available L’article passe d’abord en revue plusieurs types de rire dans la littérature, dont le rire fondé sur le mépris des défauts humains, élément essentiel de la comédie classique; le rire fou, véritable explosion d’énergie comique, spécialité de Rabelais; le rire gracieux de la pastorale et de la comédie élégante; et le rire complice des clowns qui contournent les obstacles.  À ces genres de rire, il faut ajouter le rire compatissant, lequel, à partir du 19e siècle, allie la mise en évidence de défauts ridicules des personnages avec une certaine sympathie pour leur humanité.  L’essor de l’égalité de principe entre les êtres humains, trait spécifique des temps récents, rend possible ce type d’humour qui modère le mépris et le rejet de nos semblables au nom de la compassion et de la pitié.

  11. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  12. Lipid Raft: A Floating Island Of Death or Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Kimberly S.; Wu, Shiyong

    2012-01-01

    Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, and play an important role in the initiation of many pharmacological agent-induced signaling pathways and toxicological effects. The structure of lipid rafts is dynamic, resulting in an ever-changing content of both lipids and proteins. Cholesterol, as a major component of lipid rafts, is critical for the formation and configuration of lipid rafts microdomains, which provide signaling platforms capable of activating both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. A change of cholesterol level can result in lipid rafts disruption and activate or deactivate raft-associated proteins, such as death receptor proteins, protein kinases, and calcium channels. Several anti-cancer drugs are able to suppress growth and induce apoptosis of tumor cells through alteration of lipid raft contents via disrupting lipid raft integrity. PMID:22289360

  13. Multiblock copolymers synthesized in aqueous dispersions using multifunctional RAFT agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussels, R.; Bergman-Göttgens, C.M.; Meuldijk, J.; Koning, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Triblock copolymers were synthesized in aqueous dispersions in two polymerization steps using a low molar mass difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent, and in merely one polymerization step using a macromolecular difunctional dithiocarbamate-based RAFT agent. Segmented block copolymers

  14. Regulation of AMPA receptor localization in lipid rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingming; Huang, Yunfei; Amato, Stephen; Snyder, Solomon H.; Huganir, Richard L.; Man, Heng-Ye

    2009-01-01

    Lipid rafts are special microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and certain proteins, and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including signal transduction and protein trafficking. We report that in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons the distribution of lipid rafts is development-dependent. Lipid rafts in mature neurons exist on the entire cell-surface and display a high degree of mobility. AMPA receptors co-localize and associate with lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. The association of AMPARs with rafts is under regulation; through the NOS–NO pathway, NMDA receptor activity increases AMPAR localization in rafts. During membrane targeting, AMPARs insert into or at close proximity of the surface raft domains. Perturbation of lipid rafts dramatically suppresses AMPA receptor exocytosis, resulting in significant reduction in AMPAR cell-surface expression. PMID:18411055

  15. Oceanic rafting by a coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Ceridwen I; Nikula, Raisa; Waters, Jonathan M

    2011-03-07

    Oceanic rafting is thought to play a fundamental role in assembling the biological communities of isolated coastal ecosystems. Direct observations of this key ecological and evolutionary process are, however, critically lacking. The importance of macroalgal rafting as a dispersal mechanism has remained uncertain, largely owing to lack of knowledge about the capacity of fauna to survive long voyages at sea and successfully make landfall and establish. Here, we directly document the rafting of a diverse assemblage of intertidal organisms across several hundred kilometres of open ocean, from the subantarctic to mainland New Zealand. Multispecies analyses using phylogeographic and ecological data indicate that 10 epifaunal invertebrate species rafted on six large bull kelp specimens for several weeks from the subantarctic Auckland and/or Snares Islands to the Otago coast of New Zealand, a minimum distance of some 400-600 km. These genetic data are the first to demonstrate that passive rafting can enable simultaneous trans-oceanic transport and landfall of numerous coastal taxa.

  16. Erythropoietin Receptor Signaling Is Membrane Raft Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kathy L.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Johnson, Joseph O.; Clark, Justine A.; Caceres, Gisela C.; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Upon erythropoietin (Epo) engagement, Epo-receptor (R) homodimerizes to activate JAK2 and Lyn, which phosphorylate STAT5. Although recent investigations have identified key negative regulators of Epo-R signaling, little is known about the role of membrane localization in controlling receptor signal fidelity. Here we show a critical role for membrane raft (MR) microdomains in creation of discrete signaling platforms essential for Epo-R signaling. Treatment of UT7 cells with Epo induced MR assembly and coalescence. Confocal microscopy showed that raft aggregates significantly increased after Epo stimulation (mean, 4.3±1.4(SE) vs. 25.6±3.2 aggregates/cell; p≤0.001), accompanied by a >3-fold increase in cluster size (p≤0.001). Raft fraction immunoblotting showed Epo-R translocation to MR after Epo stimulation and was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy in Epo stimulated UT7 cells and primary erythroid bursts. Receptor recruitment into MR was accompanied by incorporation of JAK2, Lyn, and STAT5 and their activated forms. Raft disruption by cholesterol depletion extinguished Epo induced Jak2, STAT5, Akt and MAPK phosphorylation in UT7 cells and erythroid progenitors. Furthermore, inhibition of the Rho GTPases Rac1 or RhoA blocked receptor recruitment into raft fractions, indicating a role for these GTPases in receptor trafficking. These data establish a critical role for MR in recruitment and assembly of Epo-R and signal intermediates into discrete membrane signaling units. PMID:22509308

  17. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Bagus Boedi Iswanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD, which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC, which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs. In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft–processed PDC.

  18. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  19. Regulation of AMPA receptor localization in lipid rafts

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Qingming; Huang, Yunfei; Amato, Stephen; Snyder, Solomon H.; Huganir, Richard L.; Man, Heng-Ye

    2008-01-01

    Lipid rafts are special microdomains enriched in cholesterol, sphingolipids and certain proteins, and play important roles in a variety of cellular functions including signal transduction and protein trafficking. We report that in cultured cortical and hippocampal neurons the distribution of lipid rafts is development-dependent. Lipid rafts in mature neurons exist on the entire cell-surface and display a high degree of mobility. AMPA receptors co-localize and associate with lipid rafts in the...

  20. Seabird tissue archival and monitoring project: Protocol for collecting and banking seabird eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-York, Geoff; Porter, Barbara J.; Pugh, Rebecca S.; Roseneau, David G.; Simac, Kristin S.; Becker, Paul R.; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Archiving biological and environmental samples for retrospective analysis is a major component of systematic environmental monitoring. The long-term storage of carefully selected, representative samples in an environmental specimen bank is an important complement to the real-time monitoring of the environment. These archived samples permit:The use of subsequently developed innovative analytical technology that was not available at the time the samples were archived, for clear state-of-art identification an~ quantification of analytes of interest,The identification and quantification of analytes that are of subsequent interest but that were not of interest at the time the samples were archived, andThe comparison of present and past analytical techniques and values, providing continued credibility of past analytical values, and allowing flexibility in environmental monitoring programs.Seabirds, including albatrosses, pelicans, cormorants, terns, kittiwakes, murres, guillemots, and puffins spend most of their lives at sea and have special adaptations for feeding in the marine environment, including the ability to excrete the excess salt obtained from ingesting seawater. Many species nest in dense groups (colonies) on steep, precipitous sea-cliffs and headlands.Seabirds are long-lived and slow to mature. They occupy high positions in the marine food web and are considered sensitive indicators for the marine environment (prey includes krill, small fish, and squid). Breeding success, timing of nesting, diets, and survival rates may provide early indications of changing environmental conditions (e.g., see Hatch et aI., 1993). Chemical analysis of seabird tissues, including egg contents, can be particularly useful in determining whether contaminants (and potential biological effects) associated with human industrial activities, such as offshore petroleum and mineral exploration and development, are accumulating in marine environments. The collection and archival of seabird

  1. JET and COMPASS asymmetrical disruptions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gerasimov, S.N.; Abreu, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Drozdov, V.; Dvornova, A.; Havlíček, Josef; Hender, T.C.; Hronová-Bilyková, Olena; Kruezi, U.; Li, X.; Markovič, Tomáš; Pánek, Radomír; Rubinacci, G.; Tsalas, M.; Ventre, S.; Villone, F.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2015), s. 113006-113006 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * asymmetrical disruption * JET * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.040, year: 2015

  2. Exclusive meson production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc

    1999-01-01

    We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.

  3. Na/K-ATPase regulates bovine sperm capacitation through raft- and non-raft-mediated signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanickam, Gayathri D; Kastelic, John P; Thundathil, Jacob C

    2017-11-01

    Highly dynamic lipid microdomains (rafts) in the sperm plasma membrane contain several signaling proteins that regulate sperm capacitation. Na/K-ATPase isoforms (testis-specific isoform ATP1A4 and ubiquitous isoform ATP1A1) are abundant in bovine sperm plasma membrane. We previously reported that incubation of bovine sperm with ouabain, a specific Na/K-ATPase ligand, induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several sperm proteins during capacitation. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of lipid rafts and non-rafts in Na/K-ATPase enzyme activity and signaling during bovine sperm capacitation. Content of ATP1A4 and, to a lesser extent, ATP1A1 was increased in raft and non-raft fractions of capacitated sperm, although non-raft enzyme activities of both isoforms were higher than the corresponding activities in rafts from capacitated sperm. Yet, ATP1A4 was the predominant isoform responsible for total Na/K-ATPase activity in both rafts and non-rafts. A comparative increase in phosphorylation of signaling molecules was observed in both raft (CAV1) and non-raft (EGFR and ERK1/2) membrane fractions during capacitation. Although SRC was phosphorylated in both membrane fractions, the non-raft fraction possessed more of this activated form. We also inferred, by immunoprecipitation, that ATP1A4 interacted with CAV1 and EGFR in the raft fraction, whereas interactions of ATP1A4 with SRC, EGFR, and ERK1/2 occurred in the non-raft fraction of ouabain-capacitated sperm; conversely, ATP1A1 interacted only with CAV1 in both fractions of uncapacitated and capacitated sperm. In conclusion, both raft and non-raft cohorts of Na/K-ATPase isoforms contributed to phosphorylation of signaling molecules during bovine sperm capacitation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified....... To protect seabirds, a rapid removal of oil is crucial and in situ burning could be an efficient method. In the present work exposure effects of oil and burn residue in different doses was studied on seabird feathers from legally hunted Common eider (Somateria mollissima) by examining changes in total weight...... of the feather and damages on the microstructure (Amalgamation Index) of the feathers before and after exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that burn residues from in situ burning of an oil spill have similar or larger fouling and damaging effects on seabird feathers, as compared to fresh oil....

  5. The transboundary nature of seabird ecology: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodice, Patrick G.R.; Suryan, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    The term ‘seabird’ is generally applied to avian species that forage in the marine environment over open water. Seabirds typically nest in colonies and are long-lived species with low annual reproductive rates. Seabird breeding sites typically occur on islands or along coasts and as such are often at the boundaries of ecological or political zones. During the breeding season, seabirds cross a very distinct terrestrial/marine ecological boundary on a regular basis to forage. Even relatively ‘local’ species cross multiple jurisdictions within a day (e.g., state lands and waters, and federal waters) while pelagic species may transit through international waters on a daily, weekly, or monthly time-frame. Seabird life-histories expose individuals and populations to environmental conditions affecting both terrestrial and marine habitats. The wide-ranging and transboundary nature of seabird ecology also exposes these species to various environmental and anthropogenic forces such as contamination, commercial fisheries and climate forcing that also are transboundary in nature. Therefore, wherever conservation of seabirds or the management of their populations is the goal, consideration must be given to ecosystem dynamics on land and at sea. Because the jurisdiction of agencies does not cross the land-sea boundary in the same manner as the seabirds they are managing, these efforts are facilitated by multi-agency communication and collaboration. By their very nature and by the nature of the systems that they must function within, seabirds embody the complexity of wildlife ecology and conservation in the twenty-first century.

  6. Factors that influence the development of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in emergency department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsaker, Stacie; Chen, Hsiu-Chin; Maughan, Dale; Heaston, Sondra

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in emergency department nurses throughout the United States and (b) to examine which demographic and work-related components affect the development of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in this nursing specialty. This was a nonexperimental, descriptive, and predictive study using a self-administered survey. Survey packets including a demographic questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5 (ProQOL 5) were mailed to 1,000 selected emergency nurses throughout the United States. The ProQOL 5 scale was used to measure the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses. Multiple regression using stepwise solution was employed to determine which variables of demographics and work-related characteristics predicted the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. The α level was set at .05 for statistical significance. The results revealed overall low to average levels of compassion fatigue and burnout and generally average to high levels of compassion satisfaction among this group of emergency department nurses. The low level of manager support was a significant predictor of higher levels of burnout and compassion fatigue among emergency department nurses, while a high level of manager support contributed to a higher level of compassion satisfaction. The results may serve to help distinguish elements in emergency department nurses' work and life that are related to compassion satisfaction and may identify factors associated with higher levels of compassion fatigue and burnout. Improving recognition and awareness of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses may prevent emotional exhaustion and help identify interventions that will help nurses remain empathetic and

  7. Wrinkles, folds, and plasticity in granular rafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon-Puillet, Etienne; Josserand, Christophe; Protière, Suzie

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the mechanical response of a compressed monolayer of large and dense particles at a liquid-fluid interface: a granular raft. Upon compression, rafts first wrinkle; then, as the confinement increases, the deformation localizes in a unique fold. This characteristic buckling pattern is usually associated with floating elastic sheets, and as a result, particle laden interfaces are often modeled as such. Here, we push this analogy to its limits by comparing quantitative measurements of the raft morphology to a theoretical continuous elastic model of the interface. We show that, although powerful to describe the wrinkle wavelength, the wrinkle-to-fold transition, and the fold shape, this elastic description does not capture the finer details of the experiment. We describe an unpredicted secondary wavelength, a compression discrepancy with the model, and a hysteretic behavior during compression cycles, all of which are a signature of the intrinsic discrete and frictional nature of granular rafts. It suggests also that these composite materials exhibit both plastic transition and jamming dynamics.

  8. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate three evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering, distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization...

  9. The COMPASS Hadron Spectroscopy Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Austregesilo, A

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS for the investigation of the structure and the dynamics of hadrons. The experimental setup features a large acceptance and high momentum resolution spectrometer including particle identification and calorimetry and is therefore ideal to access a broad range of different final states. Following the promising observation of a spin-exotic resonance during an earlier pilot run, COMPASS focused on light-quark hadron spectroscopy during the years 2008 and 2009. A data set, world leading in terms of statistics and resolution, has been collected with a 190GeV/c hadron beam impinging on either liquid hydrogen or nuclear targets. Spin-exotic meson and glueball candidates formed in both diffractive dissociation and central production are presently studied. Since the beam composition includes protons, the excited baryon spectrum is also accessible. Furthermore, Primakoff reactions have the potential to determine radiative widths of the resonances and to probe chiral pe...

  10. AFSC/REFM: Seabird food habits dataset of the North Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The seabird food habits dataset contains information on the stomach contents from seabird specimens that were collected under salvage and scientific collection...

  11. Environmental Predictors of Seabird Wrecks in a Tropical Coastal Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Castro Tavares

    Full Text Available Beached bird surveys have been widely used to monitor the impact of oil pollution in the oceans. However, separating the combined effects of oil pollution, environmental variables and methodological aspects of beach monitoring on seabird stranding patterns is a challenging task. The effects of a comprehensive set of oceanographic and climatic variables and oil pollution on seabird strandings in a tropical area of Brazil were investigated herein, using two robust and innovative methods: Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Structural Equation Modeling. We assessed strandings of four resident seabird species along 480 km of beaches divided into 11 sampling areas, between November 2010 and September 2013. We found that increasing the distance from the nearest breeding island reduce the seabird stranding events. Storm activity and biological productivity were the most important factors affecting the stranding events of brown boobies Sula leucogaster, Cabot's terns Thalasseus acuflavidus and kelp gulls Larus dominicanus. These species are also indirectly affected by warm tropical waters, which reduce chlorophyll-a concentrations. Beach surveys are, thus, useful to investigate the mortality rates of resident species near breeding sites, where individuals are more abundant and exposed to local factors associated with at-sea mortality. In contrast, conservation actions and monitoring programs for far-ranging seabird species are needed in more distant foraging areas. Furthermore, beach monitoring programs investigating the impact of oil pollution on seabirds need to account for the effects of environmental factors on stranding patterns. The present study also demonstrated that seabirds inhabiting tropical coastal waters are sensitive to climate conditions such as adverse weather, which are expected to increase in frequency and intensity in next decades.

  12. 50 CFR Table 19 to Part 679 - Seabird Avoidance Gear Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seabird Avoidance Gear Codes 19 Table 19... ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 19 Table 19 to Part 679—Seabird Avoidance Gear Codes VESSEL LOGBOOK CODE SEABIRD AVOIDANCE GEAR OR METHOD. 1 Paired Streamer Lines: Used during deployment of hook-and-line gear to prevent...

  13. A catalog of Louisiana's nesting seabird colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, William R.; Cardiff, Steve W.; DeMay, Richard A.; Dittmann, Donna L.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Jeske, Clinton W.; Lorenz, Nicole; Michot, Thomas C.; Purrington, Robert Dan; Seymour, Michael; Vermillion, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing his colonial nesting waterbird survey experiences along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico in a paper presented to the Colonial Waterbird Group of the Waterbird Society (Portnoy 1978), bird biologist John W. Portnoy stated, “This huge concentration of nesting waterbirds, restricted almost entirely to the wetlands and estuaries of southern Louisiana, is unmatched in all of North America; for example, a 1975 inventory of wading birds along the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Florida [Custer and Osborn, in press], tallied 250,000 breeding [waterbirds] of 14 species, in contrast with the 650,000 birds of 15 species just from Sabine Pass to Mobile Bay.” The “650,000 birds” to which Portnoy referred, were tallied by him in a 1976 survey of coastal Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (see below, under “Major Surveys” section). According to the National Atlas of Coastal Waterbird Colonies in the Contiguous United States: 1976-82 (Spendelow and Patton 1988), the percentages of the total U.S. populations of Laughing Gull (11%), Forster's Tern (52%), Royal Tern (16%), Sandwich Tern (77%), and Black Skimmer (44%) which annually nest in Louisiana are significant – perhaps crucially so in the cases of Forster's Tern, Sandwich Tern, and Black Skimmer. Nearly three decades after Spendelow and Patton's determinations above, coastal Louisiana still stands out as the major center of colonial wading bird and seabird nesting in all of the United States. Within those three intervening decades, however, the

  14. Self-Compassion and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of self-compassion and internet addiction. Participants were 261 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Self-compassion Scale and the Online Cognition Scale. The hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. In correlation analysis,…

  15. Lipid rafts and B cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neetu; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2007-10-01

    B cells comprise an essential component of the humoral immune system. They are equipped with the unique ability to synthesize and secrete pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and share with professional antigen presenting cells the ability to internalize foreign antigens, and process them for presentation to helper T cells. Recent evidence indicates that specialized cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-rich microdomains in the plasma membrane commonly referred to as lipid rafts, serve to compartmentalize key signaling molecules during the different stages of B cell activation including B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-initiated signal transduction, endocytosis of BCR-antigen complexes, loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC class II molecules, MHC-II associated antigen presentation to helper T cells, and receipt of helper signals via the CD40 receptor. Here we review the recent literature arguing for a role of lipid rafts in the spatial organization of B cell function.

  16. Using stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon to study seabird ecology: applications in the Mediterranean seabird community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela G. Forero

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of the stable isotope technique to ecological studies is becoming increasingly widespread. In the case of seabirds, stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon have been mainly used as dietary tracers. This approach relieson the fact that food web isotopic signatures are reflected in the tissues of the consumer. In addition to the study of trophic ecology, stable isotopes have been used to track the movement of seabirds across isotopic gradients, as individuals moving between isotopically distinct foodwebs can carry with them information on the location of previous feeding areas. Studies applying the stable isotope methodology to the study of seabird ecology show a clear evolution from broad and descriptive approaches to detailed and individual-based analyses. The purpose of this article is to show the different fields of application of stable isotopes to the study of the seabird ecology. Finally, we illustrate the utility of this technique by considering the particularities of the Mediterranean seabird community, suggesting different ecological questions and conservation problems that could be addressed by using the stable isotope approach in this community.

  17. COMPASS Simulation for PHEBUS FPT-3 Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Kim, Jongtae; Park, Rae-Jun; Son, Donggun; Kim, Dong Ha [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The objective of this paper is to assess the core degradation modeling in COMPASS code by simulating the PHEBUS FPT3 experiment. For the comparison purpose, the numerical simulation by using MELCOR 2.1 have also conducted for the FPT3 experiment. Consequently, COMPASS results of PHEBUS FPT3 have been compared with the experimental data and MELCOR results. For the purpose of COMPASS code validation, the numerical simulation for PHEBUS FPT3 experiment has been conducted. The temperature of the main component has been secured by using COMPASS code for a fuel, cladding, control rod and surrounding structure. And they are compared with that of experimental data as well as MELCOR simulation results. MELCOR are showing that an oxidational reaction starts a little bit earlier time and has the slightly higher value of the accumulated hydrogen mass, while COMPASS code predicts the slightly lower value of the accumulated hydrogen mass.

  18. Seabird biomass and food consumption in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furness, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    Calculations presented by Bourne contain some order-of-magnitude errors, and give the misleading impression that estimates of fish consumption by seabirds in the North Sea may be as low as 0.25%, or as high as 48%, of fish production, depending on the method of calculation. It is likely that the true figure is closer to 20% once the errors in Bourne's calculations are corrected, but several areas of uncertainty require further study; particularly seabird diets and foraging ranges, fish distribution and movements. Studies from other parts of the world show that seabird numbers can dramatically alter in response to changes in food abundance. Some changes result from natural perturbations and others from effects of overexploitation of fish stocks by man. Effects of overfishing seem likely to be potentially, at least as serious, as effects of oil or chemical pollution in many regions, possibly including the North Sea. 48 references.

  19. Lipid raft involvement in yeast cell growth and death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollinedo, Faustino, E-mail: fmollin@usal.es [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer, Centro de Investigación del Cáncer, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas - Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)

    2012-10-10

    The notion that cellular membranes contain distinct microdomains, acting as scaffolds for signal transduction processes, has gained considerable momentum. In particular, a class of such domains that is rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, termed as lipid rafts, is thought to compartmentalize the plasma membrane, and to have important roles in survival and cell death signaling in mammalian cells. Likewise, yeast lipid rafts are membrane domains enriched in sphingolipids and ergosterol, the yeast counterpart of mammalian cholesterol. Sterol-rich membrane domains have been identified in several fungal species, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as well as the pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Yeast rafts have been mainly involved in membrane trafficking, but increasing evidence implicates rafts in a wide range of additional cellular processes. Yeast lipid rafts house biologically important proteins involved in the proper function of yeast, such as proteins that control Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and pH homeostasis, which influence many cellular processes, including cell growth and death. Membrane raft constituents affect drug susceptibility, and drugs interacting with sterols alter raft composition and membrane integrity, leading to yeast cell death. Because of the genetic tractability of yeast, analysis of yeast rafts could be an excellent model to approach unanswered questions of mammalian raft biology, and to understand the role of lipid rafts in the regulation of cell death and survival in human cells. A better insight in raft biology might lead to envisage new raft-mediated approaches to the treatment of human diseases where regulation of cell death and survival is critical, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Lipid raft involvement in yeast cell growth and death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollinedo, Faustino

    2012-01-01

    The notion that cellular membranes contain distinct microdomains, acting as scaffolds for signal transduction processes, has gained considerable momentum. In particular, a class of such domains that is rich in sphingolipids and cholesterol, termed as lipid rafts, is thought to compartmentalize the plasma membrane, and to have important roles in survival and cell death signaling in mammalian cells. Likewise, yeast lipid rafts are membrane domains enriched in sphingolipids and ergosterol, the yeast counterpart of mammalian cholesterol. Sterol-rich membrane domains have been identified in several fungal species, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as well as the pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Yeast rafts have been mainly involved in membrane trafficking, but increasing evidence implicates rafts in a wide range of additional cellular processes. Yeast lipid rafts house biologically important proteins involved in the proper function of yeast, such as proteins that control Na + , K + , and pH homeostasis, which influence many cellular processes, including cell growth and death. Membrane raft constituents affect drug susceptibility, and drugs interacting with sterols alter raft composition and membrane integrity, leading to yeast cell death. Because of the genetic tractability of yeast, analysis of yeast rafts could be an excellent model to approach unanswered questions of mammalian raft biology, and to understand the role of lipid rafts in the regulation of cell death and survival in human cells. A better insight in raft biology might lead to envisage new raft-mediated approaches to the treatment of human diseases where regulation of cell death and survival is critical, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Synthesis Using RAFT Polymerisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormack, P.A.G.; Faizatul Shimal Mehamod; Faizatul Shimal Mehamod

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and characterisation of caffeine-imprinted polymers are described. The polymers were prepared in monolithic form via both reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerisation and conventional free radical polymerisation, using methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the functional monomer and crosslinking agent, respectively. The potential benefits in applying RAFT polymerisation techniques towards the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are explored and elucidated. The pore structures of the polymers produced were characterised by nitrogen sorption porosimetry and the molecular recognition properties of representative products were evaluated in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mode. Molecular imprinting effects were confirmed by analysing the relative retentions of analytes on imprinted and non-imprinted HPLC stationary phases. It was found that a caffeine-imprinted polymer synthesised by RAFT polymerisation was superior to a polymer prepared using a conventional synthetic approach; the imprinting factor and column efficiency were found to be higher for the former material. (author)

  2. Raft river geoscience case study, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, M. R.; Hull, L. C.; Mizell, S. A.; Russell, B. F.; Skiba, P. A.; Strawn, J. A.; Tullis, J. A.; Garber, R.

    1981-11-01

    The Raft River Geothermal Site has been evaluated over the past eight years by the United States Geological Survey and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory as a moderate-temperature geothermal resource. The geoscience data gathered in the drilling and testing of seven geothermal wells suggest that the Raft River thermal reservoir is: (1) produced from fractures found at the contact metamorphic zone apparently the base of detached normal faulting from the Bridge and Horse Well Fault zones of the Jim Sage Mountains; (2) anisotropic, with the major axis of hydraulic conductivity coincident to the Bridge Fault Zone; (3) hydraulically connected to the shallow thermal fluid of the Crook and BLM wells based upon both geochemistry and pressure response; (4) controlled by a mixture of diluted meteoric water recharging from the northwest and a saline sodium chloride water entering from the southwest. Although the hydrogeologic environment of the Raft River geothermal area is very complex and unique, it is typical of many Basin and Range systems.

  3. Cluster storage for COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Písačka, Jan; Hron, Martin; Janky, Filip; Pánek, Radomír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 12 (2012), s. 2238-2241 ISSN 0920-3796. [IAEA Technical Meeting on Control, Data Acquisition, and Remote Participation for Fusion Research/8./. San Francisco, 20.06.2011-24.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : COMPASS * Tokamak * Codac * Cluster * GlusterFS * Storage Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fusengdes.2012.09.006

  4. Sass and compass in action

    CERN Document Server

    Netherland, Wynn; Eppstein, Chris; Mathis, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Wynn Netherland is a full stack web creative. When he's not shipping awesome at GitHub, he co-hosts The Changelog Podcast and speaks at industry conferences.Nathan Weizenbaum is the creator and the lead developer of Sass. He's currently a software engineer working on Gmail at Google.Chris Eppstein has more than ten years of experience building web sites. An active member of the Ruby community, he's the creator of Compass, a member of the Sass core team, and maintains or contributes to dozens of open source projects.

  5. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  6. Can cat predation help competitors coexist in seabird communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontier, Dominique; Fouchet, David; Bried, Joël

    2010-01-07

    On oceanic islands, nest site availability can be an important factor regulating seabird population dynamics. The potential for birds to secure a nest to reproduce can be an important component of their life histories. The dates at which different seabird species arrive at colonies to breed will have important consequences for their relative chances of success. Early arrival on the island allows birds to obtain nests more easily and have higher reproductive success. However, the presence of an introduced predator may reverse this situation. For instance, in the sub-Antarctic Kerguelen archipelago, early arriving birds suffer heavy predation from introduced cats. Cats progressively switch from seabirds to rabbits, since the local rabbit population starts to peak after early arriving seabird species have already returned to the colony. When late-arriving birds arrive, cat predation pressure on seabirds is thus weaker. In this paper, we investigate the assumption that the advantage of early nest mnopolization conferred to early arriving birds may be counterbalanced by the cost resulting from predation. We develop a mathematical model representing a simplified situation in which two insular seabird species differ only in their arrival date at the colony site and compete for nesting sites. We conclude that predation may ensure the coexistence of the two bird species or favor the late-arriving species, but only when seasonal variations in predation pressure are large. Interestingly, we conclude that arriving early is only favorable until a given level where high reproductive success no longer compensates for the long exposure to strong predation pressure. Our work suggests that predation can help to maintain the balance between species of different phenologies.

  7. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonta, Barbara; Minichiello, Liliana

    2013-10-18

    Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signaling, plasticity, and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signaling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk) and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signaling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signaling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  8. Synaptic membrane rafts: traffic lights for local neurotrophin signalling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eZonta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid rafts, cholesterol and lipid rich microdomains, are believed to play important roles as platforms for the partitioning of transmembrane and synaptic proteins involved in synaptic signalling, plasticity and maintenance. There is increasing evidence of a physical interaction between post-synaptic densities and post-synaptic lipid rafts. Localization of proteins within lipid rafts is highly regulated, and therefore lipid rafts may function as traffic lights modulating and fine-tuning neuronal signalling. The tyrosine kinase neurotrophin receptors (Trk and the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR are enriched in neuronal lipid rafts together with the intermediates of downstream signalling pathways, suggesting a possible role of rafts in neurotrophin signalling. Moreover, neurotrophins and their receptors are involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Cholesterol is an important component of lipid rafts and its depletion leads to gradual loss of synapses, underscoring the importance of lipid rafts for proper neuronal function. Here, we review and discuss the idea that translocation of neurotrophin receptors in synaptic rafts may account for the selectivity of their transduced signals.

  9. Membrane raft association is a determinant of plasma membrane localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Rohrer, Blanca B; Levental, Kandice R; Simons, Kai; Levental, Ilya

    2014-06-10

    The lipid raft hypothesis proposes lateral domains driven by preferential interactions between sterols, sphingolipids, and specific proteins as a central mechanism for the regulation of membrane structure and function; however, experimental limitations in defining raft composition and properties have prevented unequivocal demonstration of their functional relevance. Here, we establish a quantitative, functional relationship between raft association and subcellular protein sorting. By systematic mutation of the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of a model transmembrane protein, linker for activation of T-cells (LAT), we generated a panel of variants possessing a range of raft affinities. These mutations revealed palmitoylation, transmembrane domain length, and transmembrane sequence to be critical determinants of membrane raft association. Moreover, plasma membrane (PM) localization was strictly dependent on raft partitioning across the entire panel of unrelated mutants, suggesting that raft association is necessary and sufficient for PM sorting of LAT. Abrogation of raft partitioning led to mistargeting to late endosomes/lysosomes because of a failure to recycle from early endosomes. These findings identify structural determinants of raft association and validate lipid-driven domain formation as a mechanism for endosomal protein sorting.

  10. Desmosome Assembly and Disassembly Are Membrane Raft-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundez, Victor; Koval, Michael; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Strong intercellular adhesion is critical for tissues that experience mechanical stress, such as the skin and heart. Desmosomes provide adhesive strength to tissues by anchoring desmosomal cadherins of neighboring cells to the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. Alterations in assembly and disassembly compromise desmosome function and may contribute to human diseases, such as the autoimmune skin blistering disease pemphigus vulgaris (PV). We previously demonstrated that PV auto-antibodies directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) cause loss of adhesion by triggering membrane raft-mediated Dsg3 endocytosis. We hypothesized that raft membrane microdomains play a broader role in desmosome homeostasis by regulating the dynamics of desmosome assembly and disassembly. In human keratinocytes, Dsg3 is raft associated as determined by biochemical and super resolution immunofluorescence microscopy methods. Cholesterol depletion, which disrupts rafts, prevented desmosome assembly and adhesion, thus functionally linking rafts to desmosome formation. Interestingly, Dsg3 did not associate with rafts in cells lacking desmosomal proteins. Additionally, PV IgG-induced desmosome disassembly occurred by redistribution of Dsg3 into raft-containing endocytic membrane domains, resulting in cholesterol-dependent loss of adhesion. These findings demonstrate that membrane rafts are required for desmosome assembly and disassembly dynamics, suggesting therapeutic potential for raft targeting agents in desmosomal diseases such as PV. PMID:24498201

  11. Two-dimensional Forster resonance energy transfer (2-D FRET) and the membrane raft hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Acasandrei, Maria; Dale, Robert; VAN DE VEN, Martin; AMELOOT, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    A model for analyzing Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) data in relation to the cell plasma membrane raft hypothesis is developed to take into account: (a) the distribution of FRET donors and acceptors at the surface of probing antibody fragments specific for a putative raft component; (b) partitioning of the raft component between raft and non-raft areas of the membrane; and (c) the dependence of the raft partition on the expression level of the considered component. Analysis of relev...

  12. Effects of food stress on survival and reproductive performance of seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Kitaysky, Sasha

    2001-01-01

    Traditional field methods of assessing effects of fluctuations in food supply on the survival and reproductive performance of seabirds may give equivocal results. In this project we applied an additional tool: The measure of stress hormones in free-ranging seabirds. Food stress can be quantified by measuring base levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone in the blood of seabirds, or the rise in blood levels of corticosterone in response to a standardized stressor: capture, handling and restraint. We applied these techniques to seabirds breeding in Lower Cook Inlet and also used captive birds for controlled experiments. This study provided a unique opportunity for a concurrent field and captive study of the behavioral and physiological consequences of stress in seabirds. Moreover, this study provides the basis for management of seabird populations in the areas affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill, which will have broader applications for seabird monitoring programs. This year represents production of a synthesis of the project.

  13. Celestial moderation of tropical seabird behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pinet

    Full Text Available Most animals, including birds, have cyclic life histories and numerous studies generally conducted on captive animals have shown that photoperiod is the main factor influencing this periodicity. Moon cycles can also affect periodic behavior of birds. Few studies have investigated the influence of these environmental cues in natural settings, and particularly in tropical areas where the change in photoperiod is slight and some bird species keep cyclic behaviors. Using miniaturized light sensors, we simultaneously investigated under natural conditions the influence of photoperiod and moon phases on the migration dates and at-sea activity of a tropical seabird species, the Barau's petrel, throughout its annual cycle. Firstly, we found that birds consistently started their pre- and post-breeding migrations at precise dates corresponding in both cases to a day-duration of 12.5 hours, suggesting a strong influence of the photoperiod in the regulation of migration behavior. We also found that mean population arrival dates to the colony changed from year to year and they were influenced by moon phases. Returns at their colonies occurred around the last full moon of the austral winter, suggesting that moon cycle is used by birds to synchronize their arrival. Secondly, variations of day-time activity were sinusoidal and correlated to seasonal changes of daylength. We thus hypothesize that the photoperiod could directly affect the behavior of the birds at sea. Night-time at-sea activity exhibited a clear cycle of 29.2 days, suggesting that nocturnal foraging was highly regulated by moon phase, particularly during the non-breeding season. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a mixed regulation of the behavior of a wild bird by photoperiod and moon phases throughout its annual cycle.

  14. Pediatric novice nurses: examining compassion fatigue as a mediator between stress exposure and compassion satisfaction, burnout, and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rika M L; Li, Angela; Klaristenfeld, Jessica; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether compassion fatigue mediated associations between nurse stress exposure and job satisfaction, compassion satisfaction, and burnout, controlling for pre-existing stress. The Life Events Checklist was administered to 251 novice pediatric nurses at the start of the nurse residency program (baseline) and 3 months after to assess pre-existing and current stress exposure. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout were assessed 3 months after baseline and job satisfaction 6 months after. Stress exposure significantly predicted lower compassion satisfaction and more burnout. Compassion fatigue partially mediated these associations. Results demonstrate a need for hospitals to prevent compassion fatigue in healthcare providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hard Exclusive Processes at COMPASS and COMPASS-II

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hose, N

    2012-01-01

    A major part of the future COMPASS program [1] is dedicated to the study of Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Meson Production (DVMP) to investigate nucleon structure through Generalised Parton Distributions (GPD). The high energy of the muon beam allows us to measure the xB-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. In a first phase the use of positive and negative polarised muon beams and of an unpolarised proton target allow measurements of the Beam Charge and Spin Difference of the DVCS cross sections to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H. In a second phase we consider to use a transversely polarized proton target to constrain the GPD E.

  16. Feasibility studies for GPD's measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Marroncle, J

    2004-01-01

    Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering is a clean way to access the Generalized Parton Distributions of the proton. This paper deals with a possibility to perform such an experiment with the COMPASS apparatus which allows to access a large rang in $x_{Bj}$(0.03 to 0.25) and $Q^{2}$(1.5 to 7.5 GeV$^{2}$). A possible design for a recoil detector which is necessary to complement the COMPASS setup, is presented. Preliminary results on exclusive $]rho^{0}$ production from the COMPASS 2002 run are given. They look promising for future studies of deep $\\rho^{0}$ production.

  17. Synchrony in the life-history parameters of different seabirds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    Southern Ocean may elucidate how climatic perturbations operating at a global scale impact seabirds in the region. ... Marine & Coastal Management, Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Private Bag ..... (Harris 1979), dark-rumped petrel Pterodroma phae- ... later were significantly negatively related before the.

  18. Seabird bycatch in the demersal longline fishery off southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Differences in catch rates between trips were investigated and moon phase, area and gear type were all found to be significant. All birds were caught using light gear, which sank significantly slower than heavier gear. The South African hake longline fishery has a relatively small impact on pelagic seabird populations ...

  19. conserving surface-nesting seabirds at the prince edward islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa's subantarctic Prince Edward Islands support substantial proportions of the global populations of a number of surface-nesting seabirds. Populations of most of these have decreased at the islands since the 1980s and 12 of 16 species are regarded as Threatened or Near Threatened regionally or internationally.

  20. Offshore Seabird Distributions during Summer and Autumn at West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.; Mosbech, A.

    . During the autumn the numbers of seabirds increase as migrants from local and international populations of mainly thick-billed murre and little auk arrive to spend the winter in West Greenland waters. Huge concentrations of thick-billed murres, common eiders and king-eiders may occur then...

  1. Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis , 1983–2005. ... In addition, oiling has a long-term negative impact on the breeding productivity and cost of reproduction in de-oiled birds. The primary ...

  2. Effects of oil and oil burn residues on seabird feathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Linnebjerg, Jannie Fries; Sørensen, Martin X.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known, that in case of oil spill, seabirds are among the groups of animals most vulnerable. Even small amounts of oil can have lethal effects by destroying the waterproofing of their plumage, leading to loss of insulation and buoyancy. In the Arctic these impacts are intensified...

  3. The human influence on seabird nesting success: Conservation implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.W.; Keith, J.O.

    1980-01-01

    Based on studies of brown pelicans Pelecanus occidentalis californicus and Heermann's gulls Larus heermanni, disturbances by recreationists, educational groups, local fishermen and scientists alike can be seriously disruptive and damaging to breeding seabirds in the Gulf of California and off the west coast of Baja California. Similar instances have been identified throughout the world?the problem is not difficult to document, but it is difficult to eliminate. The increasing human-seabird contacts on islands in the Gulf of California and along the west coast of Baja California raise serious questions and immediate concern about the continued preservation of nesting colonies of marine birds in those areas. Conservation measures must consider the extreme sensitivity of many seabirds to the inter- and intraspecific behavioural imbalances created by human disturbances. In some cases, total exclusion of humans may be required; in others, limited access might be possible under closely managed conditions at certain times of the year. A symbiotic relationship between seabird conservation, legitimate research and tourism should be the desired goal.

  4. 50 CFR 665.815 - Pelagic longline seabird mitigation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stern of the vessel; (ii) The mainline and branch lines must be set from the port or the starboard side... (v) Feathers are dry. (9) Any seabird that is released in accordance with paragraph (b)(8) of this... immediately upon the vessel's return to port. Do not give the bird food or water; and (11) Complete the short...

  5. Spatial variogram estimation from temporally aggregated seabird count data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez-Lapena, Blanca; Wijnberg, Kathelijne Mariken; Stein, A.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Seabird abundance is an important indicator for assessing impact of human activities on the marine environment. However, data collection at sea is time consuming and surveys are carried out over several consecutive days for efficiency reasons. This study investigates the validity of aggregating

  6. Synthesis and characterization of telechelic polymethacrylates via RAFT polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, V.G.R.; Jiang, X.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Klumperman, B.; Linde, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    The reversible addn.-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymn. technique has been employed to synthesize linear a,w -telechelic polymers with either hydroxyl or carboxyl end groups. Me methacrylate, Bu methacrylate, and Bu acrylate were polymd. with RAFT polymn. The polymns. exhibited the usual

  7. Synthesis and characterization of telechelic polymers prepared by RAFT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, V.G.R.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; Klumperman, B.; Benthem - van Duuren, van A.M.G.; Linde, van der R.

    2003-01-01

    The reversible addn.-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymn. technique was employed to synthesize telechelic polymers. Me methacrylate, Bu methacrylate were polymd. using RAFT polymn. The polymns. exhibit the usual characteristics of living processes, and were followed by a two-step chain-end

  8. Attendance of scavenging seabirds at trawler discards off Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Valeiras

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of scavenger seabirds at fishing trawlers was studied off Galicia, Spain. A total of 9,368 seabirds of 23 species were recorded during 92 fishing operations in 1998 and 1999. The most common species were the yellow-legged and lesser black-backed gull (Larus cachinnans and L. fuscus, Sabine´s gull (L. sabini, the northern gannet (Morus bassanus, the great shearwater (Puffinus gravis, sooty shearwater (P. griseus, the Manx and Balearic shearwater (P. puffinus and P. mauretanicus, the great skua (Catharacta skua and terns (mainly Sterna hirundo and S. paradisaea. Other species occurred in small numbers: Leach´s petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa, the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus, the little shearwater (Puffinus assimilis, Cory´s shearwater (Calonectris diomedea, the parasitic skua (Stercorarius parasiticus, the pomarine skua (S. pomarinus, the black-headed gull (Larus ridibundus, the glaucous gull (L. hyperboreus, the kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla, the sandwich tern (Sterna sandvicensis, the black tern (Chlidonias niger, the guillemot (Uria aalge and the little auk (Alle alle. The maximum number of seabirds recorded at a haul was 320. The maximum number of a particular species ranged from 120 great shearwaters to 250 yellow-legged/lesser black-backed gulls during a single haul. The differences in ship-follower species abundance are related to migratory movements but fisheries could also have a strong influence at a smaller scale on the distribution of seabirds off Galicia. The degree to which seabirds rely on fishery discards as food was not quantified, but may be important for several species.

  9. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-11-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g{sup -1} wet weight). The highest {sigma}DDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g{sup -1}). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g{sup -1}), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines ({sigma}OHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile.

  10. Seabird eggs as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cifuentes, Jacqueline Munoz; Becker, Peter H.; Sommer, Ute; Pacheco, Patricia; Schlatter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    Seabird eggs are proposed as biomonitors of chemical contamination in Chile. - Seabird eggs were used as bioindicators of chemical contamination in Chile. Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis), Kelp Gull (Larus dominicanus), Trudeau's Tern (Sterna trudeaui), Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus), and Pink-footed Shearwater (Puffinus creatopus) eggs were sampled at different breeding sites during the 1990s. Mercury and organochlorines (PCBs, DDT, HCB, HCH, and PCP) were quantified to reveal the interspecific differences, spatial and temporal trends in contamination levels. Trudeau's Tern displayed the highest levels of mercury (486 ng g -1 wet weight). The highest ΣDDT concentrations were measured in Brown-hooded Gulls (726 ng g -1 ). PCB levels were similar among the species (102-236 ng g -1 ), but the composition of the PCB mixture was different in Pink-footed Shearwaters. With the exception of the Brown-hooded Gull, all species studied presented similar and low levels of organochlorines (ΣOHa). Residues of PCB and related compounds were not detected in any of the seabird eggs analyzed in Chile. Geographical variation was low, although levels of industrial chemicals were slightly higher in eggs from Concepcion Bay, and agricultural chemicals in eggs from Valdivia. Also interannual variation was low, but some evidence was found of decreasing levels in gull eggs throughout the time of the study. The causes of the low levels and small variability in space and time of environmental chemicals in Chilean seabirds are discussed. We propose the use of seabirds in future monitoring of the development of chemical contamination in Chile

  11. Ombuds’ corner: Ethics and compassion

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2013-01-01

    We can all agree that efficiency leads excellent results; this is a cornerstone in research and organisational matters. However, people may not unanimously point to which method of management and leadership is best for achieving such a goal.   Some believe in an authoritarian approach, pushing people to their maximum potentials; others advocate a softer approach, making close friends with everyone; and some have no strategy for workplace relationships, and only consider due dates and deliverables. All of these methods can be very effective, but none is completely perfect. Beyond such methods, at the source of working relationships, ethics and compassion should “shine like a lighthouse over the ocean of the tasks to undertake”. Why? When hearing “ethics” and “compassion” linked together, people may think: “Oh! We do not need to like each other; we just have to work together!” But we are the creators of our environ...

  12. Pion polarizabilities measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of pions is probed in $\\pi^{−}+(A,Z) \\rightarrow\\pi^{−}+(A,Z)+\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric ($\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}}$) and the magnetic ($\\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}}$) polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of pointlike pions with the measured cross section. The pion polarizability measurement was performed with a $\\pi^{-}$ beam of 190 GeV. The high beam intensity, the good spectrometer resolution, the high rate capability, the high acceptance and the possibility to use pion and muon beams, unique to the COMPASS experiment, provide the tools to measure precisely the pion polarizabilities in the Primakoff reaction.

  13. Overview of the COMPASS diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weinzettl, Vladimír; Pánek, Radomír; Hron, Martin; Stöckel, Jan; Žáček, František; Havlíček, Josef; Bílková, Petra; Naydenkova, Diana; Háček, Pavel; Zajac, Jaromír; Dejarnac, Renaud; Horáček, Jan; Adámek, Jiří; Mlynář, Jan; Janky, Filip; Aftanas, Milan; Böhm, Petr; Brotánková, Jana; Šesták, David; Ďuran, Ivan; Melich, Radek; Jareš, Daniel; Anda, B.; Veres, G.; Szappanos, A.; Zoletnik, S.; Berta, M.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Scannell, R.; Walsh, D.; Müller, H. W.; Igochine, V.; Silva, A.; Manso, M.; Gomes, R.; Popov, Tsv.; Sarychev, D.; Kiselov, V.K.; Nanobashvili, S.; Ghosh, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 86, 6-8 (2011), s. 1227-1231 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium of Fusion Technology (SOFT-26). Porto, 27.09.2010-01.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA ČR GD202/08/H057; GA AV ČR KJB100430901; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma diagnostics * tokamak * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379610005594

  14. Exploring the compassion deficit debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Ion, Robin; Roxburgh, Michelle; Devitt, Patric Ffrench; Smith, Stephen D M

    2016-04-01

    Several recent high profile failures in the UK health care system have promoted strong debate on compassion and care in nursing. A number of papers articulating a range of positions within this debate have been published in this journal over the past two and a half years. These articulate a diverse range of theoretical perspectives and have been drawn together here in an attempt to bring some coherence to the debate and provide an overview of the key arguments and positions taken by those involved. In doing this we invite the reader to consider their own position in relation to the issues raised and to consider the impact of this for their own practice. Finally the paper offers some sense of how individual practitioners might use their understanding of the debates to ensure delivery of good nursing care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The COMPASS Experiment at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alekseev, M.G.; Amoroso, A.; Angerer, H.; Anosov, V.A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Becker, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Berglund, P.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bosteels, M.; Bradamante, F.; Braem, A.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Bytchkov, V.N.; Chalifour, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; Cristaudo, P.; Dafni, T.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; d'Ambrosio, C.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Delagnes, E.; De Masi, R.; Deck, P.; Dedek, N.; Demchenko, D.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dibiase, N.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Dolgopolov, A.V.; Donati, A.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Durand, D.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Fratnik, F.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchs, U.; Garfagnini, R.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gheller, J.M.; Giganon, A.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Gougnaud, F.; Grabmuller, S.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grunemaier, A.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hagemann, R.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Horn, I.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanchin, I.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kang, D.; Karstens, F.; Kastaun, W.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kiefer, J.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konoplyannikov, A.K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, D.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Krivokhizhin, G.V.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kubart, J.; Kuhn, R.; Kukhtin, V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kuzmin, N.A.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leberig, M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levinski, V.; Levorato, S.; Lyashenko, V.I; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Manuilov, I.V.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Masek, L.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Matthia, D.; Maximov, A.N.; Menon, G.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Molinie, F.; Mota, F.; Mutter, A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Niebuhr, M.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nozdrin, A.A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Parsamyan, B.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz, B.; Pereira, H.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piedigrossi, D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Platzer, K.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.-F.; Ramos, S.; Razaq, I.; Rebourgeard, P.; Reggiani, D.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Rousse, J.Y.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samartsev, A.G.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Merce, M.Sans; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sauli, F.; Savin, Igor A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, H.; Schmitt, L.; Schonmeier, P.; Schroeder, W.; Seeharsch, D.; Seimetz, M.; Setter, D.; Shaligin, A.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Shishkin, A.A.; Siebert, H.-W.; Silva, L.; Simon, F.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sora, D.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tarte, G.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Thers, D.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Toeda, T.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Trippel, S.; Urban, J.; Valbuena, R.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Vossen, A.; Wagner, M.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Wiedner, U.; Wiesmann, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Ziembicki, M.; Zlobin, Y.L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment makes use of the CERN SPS high-intensitymuon and hadron beams for the investigation of the nucleon spin structure and the spectroscopy of hadrons. One or more outgoing particles are detected in coincidence with the incoming muon or hadron. A large polarized target inside a superconducting solenoid is used for the measurements with the muon beam. Outgoing particles are detected by a two-stage, large angle and large momentum range spectrometer. The setup is built using several types of tracking detectors, according to the expected incident rate, required space resolution and the solid angle to be covered. Particle identification is achieved using a RICH counter and both hadron and electromagnetic calorimeters. The setup has been successfully operated from 2002 onwards using a muon beam. Data with a hadron beam were also collected in 2004. This article describes the main features and performances of the spectrometer in 2004; a short summary of the 2006 upgrade is also given.

  16. COMPASS hadron multiplicity measurements and fragmentation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolarski, M.

    2016-01-01

    COMPASS is an experiment located at CERN SPS accelerator. For the results presented in this paper a 160 GeV positive muon beam was impinging on 6 LiD target. The COMPASS spectrometer was designed to reconstruct scattered muons and charged hadrons in a wide kinematic range. COMPASS preliminary results on hadron, pion and kaon multiplicities are presented. The hadron and pion data show a good agreement with (N)LO QCD expectations and some of these preliminary data have been already successfully incorporated in the global NLO QCD fits to world data. However, the results for kaon multiplicities, are different from the expectations of the DSS fit. There is also a tension between COMPASS and HERMES results, the only other experiment which measured kaon multiplicities in Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic scattering

  17. PanDA for COMPASS at JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, A. Sh.

    2016-09-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis System) is a workload management system, widely used for data processing at experiments on Large Hadron Collider and others. COMPASS is a high-energy physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Data processing for COMPASS runs locally at CERN, on lxbatch, the data itself stored in CASTOR. In 2014 an idea to start running COMPASS production through PanDA arose. Such transformation in experiment's data processing will allow COMPASS community to use not only CERN resources, but also Grid resources worldwide. During the spring and summer of 2015 installation, validation and migration work is being performed at JINR. Details and results of this process are presented in this paper.

  18. Compass 2008 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The Compass Annual Report is issued each year to communicate the condition of Wisconsins state highway network : and to demonstrate accountability for maintenance expenditures. The primary audience for this report includes : Maintenance Supervisor...

  19. Compass 2009 data analysis and reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Compass Reports created in this project are issued annually to provide information on the maintenance condition of Wisconsins highways. The information in these reports is being used to help understand trends and conditions, prioritize resourc...

  20. Compass 2010 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The Compass Reports created in this project are issued annually to provide information on the maintenance condition of : Wisconsins highways. The information in these reports is being used to help understand trends and conditions, : prioritize res...

  1. Compass 2011 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Past efforts include data analysis and reporting performance and outcomes for signs, pavement, shoulders, roadsides, drainage, traffic, and bridges. In : the 2005 Compass report, measures for bridge inspection and maintenance were added, and historic...

  2. Compass 2012 data analysis and reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Past efforts include data analysis and reporting performance and outcomes for signs, pavement, shoulders, roadsides, drainage, traffic, and bridges. In : the 2005 Compass report, measures for bridge inspection and maintenance were added, and historic...

  3. Light-Activated Magnetic Compass in Birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Greiner, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss the suggest......Migrating birds fly thousand miles without having a map, or a GPS unit. But they may carry their own sensitive navigational tool, which allows them "see" the Earth’s magnetic field. Here we review the important physical and chemical constraints on a possible compass sensor and discuss...... the suggestion that radical pairs in a photoreceptor cryptochrome might provide a biological realization for a magnetic compass. Finally, we review the current evidence supporting a role for radical pair reactions in the magnetic compass of birds....

  4. Raft tectonics in northern Campos Basin; Tectonica de jangada (raft tectonics) na area norte da Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Marilia R. de [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil)]|[PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Bacia de Campos; Fugita, Adhemar M. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP

    2004-07-01

    In the northern area of Campos Basin salt gliding/spreading processes promoted the break-up and transport of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks overlying the evaporites. This process is known as raft tectonics, and it represents the most extreme form of thin-skinned extension above the salt decollement surface. Three distinct geotectonic domains were recognized that formed in response to the raft tectonics. The first one, confined to the shallower shelf portion of the basin, is characterized by minor extension (pre-raft domain), probably because of small salt thickness and low gradient. In the second domain (or disorganized rafts domain), located in distal platformal and slope areas, seismic sections show the occurrence of blocks or rafts with angular shapes, sometimes imbricated and frequently discontinuous. In the third domain, or domain of organized rafts, located in bacinal region, seismic sections show a more continuous raft pattern, often folded because of salt compression in the distal portions of the basin. The main purposes of this work is to characterize these three tectonic domains distinguished by raft tectonics, as well as their importance in hydrocarbon accumulations in calcarenites. (author)

  5. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2013-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces...... functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs), was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither...... major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was present...

  6. Compassion for Others and Self-Compassion : Levels, Correlates, and Relationship with Psychological Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Angelica; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Schroevers, Maya J.

    Compassion for others and self-compassion are assumed to be closely related concepts. Yet, as they have been mostly studied separately, little is known about their relationship and to what extent they differ or resemble each other with respect to their correlates. This cross-sectional study aimed to

  7. Trophic ecology drives contaminant concentrations within a tropical seabird community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiano, Manrico; Bustamante, Paco; Eulaers, Igor; Malarvannan, Govindan; Mendez-Fernandez, Paula; Churlaud, Carine; Blévin, Pierre; Hauselmann, Antoine; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel; Costantini, David; Chastel, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    To support environmental management programs, there is an urgent need to know about the presence and understand the dynamics of major contaminants in seabird communities of key marine ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and trophodynamics of trace elements in six seabird species and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in three seabird species breeding on Grand Connétable Island (French Guiana), an area where the increase in human population and mining activities has raised concerns in recent years. Red blood cell Hg concentrations in adults were the highest in Magnificent frigatebirds Fregata magnificens (median: 5.6 μg g -1 dw; range: 3.8-7.8 μg g -1 dw) and lowest in Sooty terns Onychoprion fuscatus (median: 0.9 μg g -1 dw; range: 0.6-1.1 μg g -1 dw). Among POPs, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the most abundant compound in plasma of Cayenne terns Thalasseus sandvicensis (median: 1100 pg g -1 ww; range: 160 ± 5100 pg g -1 ww), while polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the most abundant compound class in plasma of Magnificent frigatebirds (median: 640 pg g -1 ww; range 330 ± 2700 pg g -1 ww). While low intensity of POP exposure does not appear to pose a health threat to this seabird community, Hg concentration in several adults Laughing gulls Leucophaeus atricilla and Royal terns Thalasseus maximus, and in all Magnificent frigatebirds was similar or higher than that of high contaminated seabird populations. Furthermore, nestling red blood cells also contained Hg concentrations of concern, and further studies should investigate its potential health impact in this seabird community. Differences in adult trophic ecology of the six species explained interspecific variation in exposure to trace element and POPs, while nestling trophic ecology provides indications about the diverse feeding strategies adopted by the six species, with the consequent variation in exposure to contaminants. Copyright

  8. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction Among Oncology Nurses in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Stacey; Singh-Carlson, Savitri; Odell, Annie; Reynolds, Grace; Su, Yuhua

    2016-07-01

    To examine the experiences of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses in the United States and Canada. 
. Quantitative, descriptive, nonexperimental.
. Online survey with members from the Canadian Association of Nursing Oncology and the Oncology Nursing Society.
. 486 American and 63 Canadian practicing oncology nurses.
. The Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) scale, version 5, and modified Abendroth Demographic Questionnaire were administered through FluidSurveys™, an online data collection instrument. Chi-square tests of independence were used to investigate associations between demographic characteristics, health, personal stressors, and work-related characteristics to experiences of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Compassion fatigue was measured using the subscales of secondary traumatic stress and burnout. 
. Compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.
. Demographic characteristics were similar in American and Canadian participants, and both cohorts reported comparable levels of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction. Perception of team cohesiveness within the workplace environment was found to be significant for both groups, as indicated by significant relationships in all three subscales of secondary traumatic stress, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in the ProQOL.
. Healthy and supportive work environments are imperative to nurses' health, well-being, and satisfaction. Improvements in the workplace can help prevent negative sequelae, as well as improve health outcomes for patients and nurses, decrease nurse turnover, and reduce healthcare expenditures. 
. Findings can be used to implement institutional changes, such as creating policies and guidelines for the development of preventive interventions and psychosocial support for nurses.

  9. Analysis of lipid raft molecules in the living brain slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Norihiro; Nakano, Takanari; Ida, Yui; Ito, Rina; Hashizume, Miki; Yamaguchi, Arisa; Seo, Makoto; Araki, Tomoyuki; Hojo, Yasushi; Honke, Koichi; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2017-08-24

    Neuronal plasma membrane has been thought to retain a lot of lipid raft components which play important roles in the neural function. Although the biochemical analyses of lipid raft using brain tissues have been extensively carried out in the past 20 years, many of their experimental conditions do not coincide with those of standard neuroscience researches such as neurophysiology and neuropharmacology. Hence, the physiological methods for lipid raft analysis that can be compatible with general neuroscience have been required. Herein, we developed a system to physiologically analyze ganglioside GM1-enriched lipid rafts in brain tissues using the "Enzyme-Mediated Activation of Radical Sources (EMARS)" method that we reported (Kotani N. et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 105, 7405-7409 (2008)). The EMARS method was applied to acute brain slices prepared from mouse brains in aCSF solution using the EMARS probe, HRP-conjugated cholera toxin subunit B, which recognizes ganglioside GM1. The membrane molecules present in the GM1-enriched lipid rafts were then labeled with fluorescein under the physiological condition. The fluorescein-tagged lipid raft molecules called "EMARS products" distributed differentially among various parts of the brain. On the other hand, appreciable differences were not detected among segments along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus. We further developed a device to label the lipid raft molecules in acute hippocampal slices under two different physiological conditions to detect dynamics of the lipid raft molecules during neural excitation. Using this device, several cell membrane molecules including Thy1, known as a lipid raft resident molecule in neurons, were confirmed by the EMARS method in living hippocampal slices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of RAFT Agent on the Selective Approach of Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Asman, Saliza; Mohamad, Sharifah; Sarih, Norazilawati

    2015-01-01

    Two types of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer molecularly imprinted polymers (RAFT-MIPs) were synthesized using different monomers, which were methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-β-CD) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate functionalized β-cyclodextrin (HEMA-β-CD), via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and were represented as RAFT-MIP(MAA-β-CD) and RAFT-MIP(HEMA-β-CD), respectively. Both RAFT-MIPs were systematically characterize...

  11. Seabirds as a subsistence and cultural resource in two remote Alaskan communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C. Young

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Small rural Alaskan communities face many challenges surrounding rapid social and ecological change. The role of local subsistence resources may change over time because of changes in social perception, economic need, and cultural patterns of use. We look at the Bering Sea's Pribilof Islands, comprising two very small communities, and investigate the relationship between the local residents and seabirds as a natural resource. Seabirds may strengthen ties to older ways of life and have potential for future economic opportunities, or modernization may direct interest away from seabirds as a cultural and economic resource. We conducted a survey and interviews of residents of the two Pribilof Island communities, St. Paul and St. George, to assess opinions toward seabirds and harvest levels. Seabirds were generally regarded as important both to individuals and the wider community. However, current levels of subsistence harvest are low, and few people continue to actively harvest or visit seabird colonies. Respondents expressed desire for greater knowledge about seabirds and also concerns about the current economy of the islands and a lack of future development prospects. Despite the challenging economic conditions, the villages retain a strong sense of community and place value on their environment and on seabirds. Surveys indicated an interest in developing eco-tourism based around local resources, including seabirds, as a way to improve the economy.

  12. Functional Proteomic Analysis of Lipid Raft Kinase Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    0.0 623 + + + + + IPI00219425 PVR Isoform Beta of Poliovirus receptor precursor Non-raft 9 86/372 + + + + + 19.0 1.5 12.7 17 3 5.7 21 0 70.0 1st EXP...Counts No. Prob. Both Acc.Number Gene Symbol Description Fraction Uni. Pep. IPI00219425 PVR Isoform Beta of Poliovirus receptor precursor Raft 2 25...372 + + 1.0 0.0 3.3 1 0 3.3 1 0 3.3 624 + + + + + IPI00022661 PVRL2 Isoform Delta of Poliovirus receptor-related protein 2 precursor Non-raft 7 92/538

  13. Seabird colonies in the Melville Bay, Northwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, David; Huffeldt, Nicholas Per

    This report describes the results of a survey for breeding and colonial seabirds in a hitherto un-surveyed area of Northwest Greenland - the Melville Bay. The results shall be included as background data for oil spill sensitivity mapping, preparation of environmental impact assessments of petroleum...... activities in Baffin Bay and for the regulation (by the Greenland government) of petroleum activities. The survey showed, that compared to other coasts of West Greenland, the Melville Bay holds only few breeding colonies and low numbers of breeding seabirds. The most widespread and numerous species...... is the black guillemot followed by the glaucous gull. However, one colony is of national significance – Sabine Øer, with high numbers of breeding Arctic terns and Sabine’s gulls. Other noteworthy observations were puffins on Thom Ø and many new Iceland gull colonies that extended the known northern breeding...

  14. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Michael Danielsen

    Full Text Available The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs, was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs, implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination.

  15. Generation of stable lipid raft microdomains in the enterocyte brush border by selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2013-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border has an unusually high proportion of glycolipids which promote the formation of lipid raft microdomains, stabilized by various cross-linking lectins. This unique membrane organization acts to provide physical and chemical stability to the membrane that faces multiple deleterious agents present in the gut lumen, such as bile salts, digestive enzymes of the pancreas, and a plethora of pathogens. In the present work, we studied the constitutive endocytosis from the brush border of cultured jejunal explants of the pig, and the results indicate that this process functions to enrich the contents of lipid raft components in the brush border. The lipophilic fluorescent marker FM, taken up into early endosomes in the terminal web region (TWEEs), was absent from detergent resistant membranes (DRMs), implying an association with non-raft membrane. Furthermore, neither major lipid raft-associated brush border enzymes nor glycolipids were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy in subapical punctae resembling TWEEs. Finally, two model raft lipids, BODIPY-lactosylceramide and BODIPY-GM1, were not endocytosed except when cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) was present. In conclusion, we propose that constitutive, selective endocytic removal of non-raft membrane acts as a sorting mechanism to enrich the brush border contents of lipid raft components, such as glycolipids and the major digestive enzymes. This sorting may be energetically driven by changes in membrane curvature when molecules move from a microvillar surface to an endocytic invagination.

  16. Pion polarizabilities measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    The electromagnetic structure of pions is probed in $\\pi^{−} + (A,Z)\\rightarrow\\pi^{−} + (A,Z) +\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric $(\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}})$ and the magnetic $(\\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}})$ polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of pointlike pions with the measured cross section. The pion polarizability measurement was performed with $a \\pi^{−}$ beam of 190 GeV. The high beam intensity, the good spectrometer resolution, the high rate capability, the high acceptance and the possibility to use pion and muon beams, unique to the COMPASS experiment, provide the tools to measure precisely the pion polarizabilities in the Primakoff reaction. The preliminary result for pion polarizabilities under the assumption of $\\bar{\\alpha_{\\pi}} + \\bar{\\beta_{\\pi}} =$ 0 is $\\ba...

  17. Gluon Polarisation Measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Luís

    2012-01-01

    One of the missing keys in the present understanding of the spin structure of the nucleon is the contribution from the gluons: the so-called gluon polarisation. This quantity can be determined in DIS through the photon-gluon fusion process, in which two analysis methods may be used: (i) identifying open charm events or (ii) selecting events with high $p_{T}$ hadrons. The data used in the present work were collected in the COMPASS experiment, where a 160 GeV/c naturally polarised muon beam, impinging on a polarised nucleon fixed target is used. Preliminary results for the gluon polarisation from high $p_{T}$ and open charm analyses are presented. The gluon polarisation result for high $p_{T}$ hadrons is divided, for the first time, into three statistically independent measurements at LO. The result from open charm analysis is obtained at LO and NLO. In both analyses a new weighted method based on a neural network approach is used.

  18. Prevalence of blood parasites in seabirds - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quillfeldt Petra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction While blood parasites are common in many birds in the wild, some groups seem to be much less affected. Seabirds, in particular, have often been reported free from blood parasites, even in the presence of potential vectors. Results From a literature review of hemosporidian prevalence in seabirds, we collated a dataset of 60 species, in which at least 15 individuals had been examined. These data were included in phylogenetically controlled statistical analyses of hemosporidian prevalence in relation to ecological and life-history parameters. Haemoproteus parasites were common in frigatebirds and gulls, while Hepatozoon occurred in albatrosses and storm petrels, and Plasmodium mainly in penguins. The prevalence of Haemoproteus showed a geographical signal, being lower in species with distribution towards polar environments. Interspecific differences in Plasmodium prevalence were explained by variables that relate to the exposure to parasites, suggesting that prevalence is higher in burrow nesters with long fledgling periods. Measures of Plasmodium, but not Haemoproteus prevalences were influenced by the method, with PCR-based data resulting in higher prevalence estimates. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that, as in other avian taxa, phylogenetic, ecological and life-history parameters determine the prevalence of hemosporidian parasites in seabirds. We discuss how these relationships should be further explored in future studies.

  19. Effects of oil pollution on seabirds in the northeast Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.E.; Fry, D.M.

    1993-01-01

    A review is presented of the sources and impacts of oil pollution affecting seabirds in the eastern North Pacific. The numbers and volume of oil spills in this region increased markedly between 1974 and 1989 along with the increasing industrialization of the Pacific Rim coupled with major oil developments such as the Alaska North Slope. Spills that killed significant numbers of seabirds include those of the Exxon Valdez, the Apex Houston, and the Nestucca. Beached bird surveys have demonstrated that small-volume, chronic oil pollution is an ongoing source of mortality in coastal regions. Experiments and models used in the North Pacific show that ocean currents, wind, seabird distribution, and the persistence of oiled carcasses at sea and ashore can all affect the assessments of mortality from major spills. Experimental releases of carcasses and drift blocks at sea indicate that few birds killed by spills are likely to come ashore. Effects of oil on the plumage and physiology of birds include loss of insulation of the bird's feathers and toxic effects of ingested oil (intestinal irritation, anemia, gland enlargement, liver and kidney damage, reproductive failure, and suppression of immunity). The long-term efficiency of rehabilitation programs is assessed and suggestions for future research are made. 99 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  1. Passion and Compassion Represent Dualities for Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the impact of passion and compassion on innovation and growth and, in this way, add to the current knowledge on organising growth in the context of networking small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/appro......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to enhance the understanding of the impact of passion and compassion on innovation and growth and, in this way, add to the current knowledge on organising growth in the context of networking small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design....../methodology/approach – The research was conducted in three networks with a sample of 55 separate SMEs. Through a quantitative study, the anticipated positive impact of passion and compassion on growth and on intermediate innovation issues were tested. Findings – The analyses reveal no direct significant impacts of passion (own......-profitability and interest) and compassion (other-profitability and interest) on growth. However, compassion had a very significant positive impact on manager ideas, which in turn had a positive impact on growth. Passion also had a positive impact, but this was proportionally much smaller. Moreover, the ability to organise...

  2. Hadron Spectroscopy with COMPASS – Newest Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerling Frank

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS investigates the structure and spectrum of hadrons by scattering high energetic hadrons and polarised muons off various fixed targets. During the years 2002–2007, COMPASS focused on nucleon spin physics using 160 GeV/c polarised µ+ beams on polarised deuteron and proton targets, including measurements of the gluon contribution to the nucleon spin using longitudinal target polarisation as well as studies of transverse spin effects in the nucleon on a transversely polarised target. One major goal of the physics programme using hadron beams is the search for new states, in particular the search for JPC exotic states and glue-balls. COMPASS measures not only charged but also neutral final-state particles, allowing for investigation of new objects in different reactions and decay channels. In addition COMPASS can measure low-energy QCD constants like, e.g. the electromagnetic polarisability of the pion. Apart from a few days pilot run data taken in 2004 with a 190 GeV/c π− beam on a Pb target, showing a significant spin-exotic JPC = 1−+ resonance at around 1660 MeV/c2, COMPASS collected high statistics with negative and positive 190 GeV/c hadron beams on a proton (H2 and nuclear (Ni, Pb targets in 2008 and 2009. We give a selected overview of the newest results and discuss the status of various ongoing analyses.

  3. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  4. Self-Compassion and the Dynamics of Investigating Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serri, Conchita Franco

    2006-01-01

    What role does compassion play in one's work? In the author's organization, the word "compassion" has been mostly linked to their values, mission, and programs. She has generally understood the concept of compassion as a deep feeling of empathy that flows from oneself towards others during certain situations and conditions. In her mind, "having…

  5. Understanding the Transformation of Compassion in Nurses Who Become Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucino, Carrie L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how nurses who become patients learn compassion toward patients in their professional practice, and examine the role of empathy in the process of learning compassion. The process of learning compassion represents a significant change in the way nurses perceive this aspect of practice. Therefore,…

  6. The development of fears of compassion scale Japanese version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Kenichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Ishimura, Ikuo; Lin, Shuzhen; Matsumoto, Yuki; Miyata, Haruko; Kotera, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Eiji; Gilbert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Cultivation of compassion is a useful way to treat mental problems, but some individuals show resistance. Fears of compassion can be an obstacle for clinicians when providing psychotherapy, and for clients when engaging in interpersonal relationships. Despite its importance, a Japanese version of fears of compassion scales (for others, from others, and for self) has not yet been developed. This study developed a Japanese version of the Fears of Compassion Scales and tested its reliability and validity. Design This study used a cross-sectional design, and a self-report procedure for collecting data. Methods A total of 485 students (121 males and 364 females) answered self-report questionnaires, including the draft Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version. Results There were distinctive factor structures for fear of compassion from others, and for self. The fear of compassion from others scale consisted of concern about compassion from others and avoidance of compassion from others. All scales had good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, face validity, and construct validity. Discrimination and difficulty were also calculated. Conclusions These results indicate that the Fears of Compassion Scales—Japanese version is a well-constructed and useful measure to assess fears of compassion and the existence of cultural differences in fears of compassion. PMID:29023461

  7. Compassion Fatigue among Social Work Students in Field Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Cynthia; Moore, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study, conducted with BSW and MSW field students at a public university in Southwestern United States, explored the psychological effect of compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction on social work students in field placements. Results from the Professional Quality of Life Scale's compassion satisfaction and fatigue subscales…

  8. Nursing on empty: compassion fatigue signs, symptoms, and system interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Chelsia; Griffin, Mary T Quinn

    2015-01-01

    Few healthcare organizations acknowledge, discuss, or provide interventions for assisting with compassion fatigue. Yet, it is an important concept due to its individual, professional, and financial costs. This article defines compassion fatigue, differentiates it from burnout, and offers system interventions for supporting nurses and reducing compassion fatigue.

  9. optimizing conventional des concrete raft ng conventional design

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    concrete cross section area of raft slab foundation ... accurately modeling boundary cond never be ... the design of reinforced concrete flat ... undation and soil layer configuration adopted for the finite element analy .... After the application of.

  10. The neurobiological link between compassion and love

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Tobias; Stefano, George B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Love and compassion exert pleasant feelings and rewarding effects. Besides their emotional role and capacity to govern behavior, appetitive motivation, and a general ‘positive state’, even ‘spiritual’ at times, the behaviors shown in love and compassion clearly rely on neurobiological mechanisms and underlying molecular principles. These processes and pathways involve the brain’s limbic motivation and reward circuits, that is, a finely tuned and profound autoregulation. This capacity to self-regulate emotions, approach behaviors and even pair bonding, as well as social contact in general, i.e., love, attachment and compassion, can be highly effective in stress reduction, survival and overall health. Yet, molecular biology is the basis of interpersonal neurobiology, however, there is no answer to the question of what comes first or is more important: It is a cybernetic capacity and complex circuit of autoregulation that is clearly ‘amazing’. PMID:21358615

  11. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  12. Exploring Magnetic Fields with a Compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunk, Brandon; Beichner, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A compass is an excellent classroom tool for the exploration of magnetic fields. Any student can tell you that a compass is used to determine which direction is north, but when paired with some basic trigonometry, the compass can be used to actually measure the strength of the magnetic field due to a nearby magnet or current-carrying wire. In this paper, we present a series of simple activities adapted from the Matter & Interactions textbook for doing just this. Interestingly, these simple measurements are comparable to predictions made by the Bohr model of the atom. Although antiquated, Bohr's atom can lead the way to a deeper analysis of the atomic properties of magnets. Although originally developed for an introductory calculus-based course, these activities can easily be adapted for use in an algebra-based class or even at the high school level.

  13. Overview of the COMPASS CODAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hron, M.; Janky, F.; Pipek, J.; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Vondracek, P.; Cahyna, P.; Urban, J.; Paprok, R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) on the COMPASS tokamak. • Set-up of CODAC hardware, software implementation, and communication tools. • Feedback control of COMPASS plasma using the MARTe framework. • Actuators, data sources, and data acquisition systems employed on COMPASS. • Communication links and protocols used within the COMPASS CODAC. - Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) at the COMPASS tokamak: the hardware set-up, software implementation, and communication tools are described. The diagnostics and the data acquisition are tailored for high spatial and temporal resolution required by the COMPASS physics programme, which aims namely at studies of the plasma edge, pedestal, and Scrape-off-Layer (SOL). Studies of instabilities and turbulence are also an integral part of the programme. Therefore, the data acquisition consists of more than 1000 channels, sampled at rates from 500 kS/s up to 2 GS/s. Presently, the feedback system controls the plasma position and shape, plasma current, and density and it includes 32 analogue input channels as well as 1 digital input/output channel and 8 analogue outputs. The feedback control runs within the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) framework with two threads, a 500 μs cycle to control slow systems and a 50 μs cycle to control the fast feedback power supplies for plasma position control. In this paper, special attention is paid to the links between the systems, to the hardware and software connections, and to the communication. The hardware part is described, the software framework is addressed, and the particular implementation – the dedicated software modules, communication protocols, and links to the database are described

  14. Overview of the COMPASS CODAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M., E-mail: mhron@seznam.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Janky, F. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Pipek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Vondracek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Cahyna, P.; Urban, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Paprok, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 182 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) on the COMPASS tokamak. • Set-up of CODAC hardware, software implementation, and communication tools. • Feedback control of COMPASS plasma using the MARTe framework. • Actuators, data sources, and data acquisition systems employed on COMPASS. • Communication links and protocols used within the COMPASS CODAC. - Abstract: This paper presents an overview of the Control, Data Acquisition, and Communication system (CODAC) at the COMPASS tokamak: the hardware set-up, software implementation, and communication tools are described. The diagnostics and the data acquisition are tailored for high spatial and temporal resolution required by the COMPASS physics programme, which aims namely at studies of the plasma edge, pedestal, and Scrape-off-Layer (SOL). Studies of instabilities and turbulence are also an integral part of the programme. Therefore, the data acquisition consists of more than 1000 channels, sampled at rates from 500 kS/s up to 2 GS/s. Presently, the feedback system controls the plasma position and shape, plasma current, and density and it includes 32 analogue input channels as well as 1 digital input/output channel and 8 analogue outputs. The feedback control runs within the Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) framework with two threads, a 500 μs cycle to control slow systems and a 50 μs cycle to control the fast feedback power supplies for plasma position control. In this paper, special attention is paid to the links between the systems, to the hardware and software connections, and to the communication. The hardware part is described, the software framework is addressed, and the particular implementation – the dedicated software modules, communication protocols, and links to the database are described.

  15. Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Erin

    2017-01-01

    NICU nurses have seen a dramatic increase in cases of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). The care needs of infants with NAS are highly demanding and can lead to feelings of frustration and emotional exhaustion among NICU nurses. Although studies have examined the experiences of nurses caring for NAS patients, none have specifically addressed the risk for compassion fatigue and burnout. Nurses need practical strategies to reduce their risk for compassion fatigue and burnout when caring for these patients. Improved education and implementation of self-care measures can help nurses more effectively manage stress and positively impact care of these infants and their families.

  16. Stellar compass for the Clementine Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A CCD sensor with 42 x 28 degrees FOV and 576 x 384 pixels was built by the Advanced Technology Program (ATP) in the Physics Department at LLNL. That sensor, called the StarTracker camera, is used on the Clementine Lunar Mapping mission between January and May, 1994. Together with the Stellar Compass software, the StarTracker camera provided a way of identifying its orientation to within about 150 microradians in camera body pitch and yaw. This presentation will be an overview of basically how the Stellar Compass software works, along with showing some of its performance results.

  17. Love and compassion meditation: a nondual perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josipovic, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    This paper discusses meditation from the unique perspective of the nondual approach and explores the possible relevance of this approach to applications of love and compassion meditation in clinical settings. It contrasts the nondual approach with the better known gradual or goal-oriented, dualistic view of meditation. This paper also introduces one of the central ideas of the nondual approach-that love and compassion, like other positive qualities that are ordinarily considered as goals of meditation practice, can be found to be already present within oneself as innate dimensions of one's authentic being. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Compartmentalized cAMP Signaling Associated With Lipid Raft and Non-raft Membrane Domains in Adult Ventricular Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh R; Gratwohl, Jackson; Cozad, Mia; Yang, Pei-Chi; Clancy, Colleen E; Harvey, Robert D

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Confining cAMP production to discrete subcellular locations makes it possible for this ubiquitous second messenger to elicit unique functional responses. Yet, factors that determine how and where the production of this diffusible signaling molecule occurs are incompletely understood. The fluid mosaic model originally proposed that signal transduction occurs through random interactions between proteins diffusing freely throughout the plasma membrane. However, it is now known that the movement of membrane proteins is restricted, suggesting that the plasma membrane is segregated into distinct microdomains where different signaling proteins can be concentrated. In this study, we examined what role lipid raft and non-raft membrane domains play in compartmentation of cAMP signaling in adult ventricular myocytes. Methods and Results: The freely diffusible fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor Epac2-camps was used to measure global cytosolic cAMP responses, while versions of the probe targeted to lipid raft (Epac2-MyrPalm) and non-raft (Epac2-CAAX) domains were used to monitor local cAMP production near the plasma membrane. We found that β-adrenergic receptors, which are expressed in lipid raft and non-raft domains, produce cAMP responses near the plasma membrane that are distinctly different from those produced by E-type prostaglandin receptors, which are expressed exclusively in non-raft domains. We also found that there are differences in basal cAMP levels associated with lipid raft and non-raft domains, and that this can be explained by differences in basal adenylyl cyclase activity associated with each of these membrane environments. In addition, we found evidence that phosphodiesterases 2, 3, and 4 work together in regulating cAMP activity associated with both lipid raft and non-raft domains, while phosphodiesterase 3 plays a more prominent role in the bulk cytoplasmic compartment. Conclusion: These results suggest that different membrane

  19. Interspecies and spatial trends in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscales, Jose L.; Gonzalez-Solis, Jacob; Calabuig, Pascual; Jimenez, Begona

    2011-01-01

    PAHs were analyzed in the liver of 5 species of pelagic seabirds (Procellariiformes) from the northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean. The main objective was to assess the trophic and geographic trends of PAHs in seabirds to evaluate their suitability as bioindicators of chronic marine pollution by these compounds. Although higher levels of PAHs have been described in the Mediterranean compared to other oceanic regions, we did not find significant spatial patterns and observed only minor effects of the geographic origin on seabird PAHs. However, we found significant higher PAH levels in petrel compared to shearwater species, which could be related to differences in their exploitation of mesopelagic and epipelagic resources, respectively, and the vertical dynamic of PAHs in the water column. Overall, although this study enhances the need of multi-species approaches to show a more comprehensive evaluation of marine pollution, seabirds emerged as poor indicators of pelagic chronic PAH levels. - Highlights: → PAHs in pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology. → Geographic origin shows a minor effect over PAH levels in pelagic seabirds. → Pelagic seabirds seem to be poor indicators of chronic PAH levels. - PAH levels in Atlantic and Mediterranean pelagic seabirds show specific inter-species patterns related to trophic ecology but a minor influence of their geographic origin.

  20. The depth of the honeybee's backup sun-compass systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Katelyn M; Kemfort, Jordan R; Towne, William F

    2013-06-01

    Honeybees have at least three compass mechanisms: a magnetic compass; a celestial or sun compass, based on the daily rotation of the sun and sun-linked skylight patterns; and a backup celestial compass based on a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the landscape. The interactions of these compass systems have yet to be fully elucidated, but the celestial compass is primary in most contexts, the magnetic compass is a backup in certain contexts, and the bees' memory of the sun's course in relation to the landscape is a backup system for cloudy days. Here we ask whether bees have any further compass systems, for example a memory of the sun's movements over time in relation to the magnetic field. To test this, we challenged bees to locate the sun when their known celestial compass systems were unavailable, that is, under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes. We measured the bees' knowledge of the sun's location by observing their waggle dances, by which foragers indicate the directions toward food sources in relation to the sun's compass bearing. We found that bees have no celestial compass systems beyond those already known: under overcast skies in unfamiliar landscapes, bees attempt to use their landscape-based backup system to locate the sun, matching the landscapes or skylines at the test sites with those at their natal sites as best they can, even if the matches are poor and yield weak or inconsistent orientation.

  1. The co-distribution of seabirds and their juvenile fish prey in Baffin Bay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LeBlanc, Mathieu; Mosbech, Anders; Fortier, Louis

    documented. We test the hypothesis that the abundance and biomass of juvenile fish, especially at the sea-ice edge, influence the distribution and composition of the seabird assemblage. Hydroacoustic data were recorded continuously during the CCGS Amundsen GreenEdge 2016 cruise in southern Baffin Bay, using...... cod (Boreogadus saida), the main pelagic forage fish, plays a key role by transferring energy from the zooplankton to the upper trophic levels, including seabirds. The interactions between fish and seabirds at the sea-ice edge, an environment increasingly common in the warming Arctic, are poorly...... a hull-mounted EK60 multi-frequency echosounder. Pelagic nets were deployed to document the fish assemblage and to validate the acoustic echoes. Seabird observations during transit periods and seabird sampling in Greenland waters were completed. This study will provide insights in the predator...

  2. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  3. Predictors of Compassion Fatigue and Compassion Satisfaction in Acute Care Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Lesly; Runge, Jody; Spencer, Christina

    2015-11-01

    To examine compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in acute care nurses across multiple specialties in a hospital-based setting. A cross-sectional electronic survey design was used to collect data from direct care nurses in a 700-bed, quaternary care, teaching facility in the southwestern United States. A total of 491 direct care registered nurses completed a survey measuring their professional quality of life (burnout, secondary traumatic stress, and compassion satisfaction). Analysis was conducted to assess for differences between demographics, specialties, job satisfaction, and intent to leave their current position. Significant predictors of burnout included lack of meaningful recognition, nurses with more years of experience, and nurses in the "Millennial" generation (ages 21-33 years). Receiving meaningful recognition, higher job satisfaction, nurses in the "Baby Boomer" generation (ages 50-65 years), and nurses with fewer years of experience significantly predicted compassion satisfaction. No significant differences were noted across nurse specialties, units, or departments. This study adds to the literature the impact meaningful recognition may have on compassion satisfaction and fatigue. Our findings provide a potential explanation for the lack of retention of nurses in the millennial generation who leave their positions with limited years of experience. Based on our research, meaningful recognition may increase compassion satisfaction, positively impact retention, and elevate job satisfaction. Compassion fatigue in nurses has clear implications for nursing retention and the quality of care. Organizations willing to invest in reducing compassion fatigue have the potential to improve financial savings by reducing turnover and adverse events associated with burnout. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  4. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: phase 2 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Vicki; Craigie, Mark; Francis, Karen; Aoun, Samar; Hegney, Desley G

    2014-05-01

    This is the first two-phase Australian study to explore the factors impacting upon compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress and to describe the strategies nurses use to build compassion satisfaction into their working lives. Compassion fatigue has been found to impact on job satisfaction, the quality of patient care and retention within nursing. This study provides new knowledge on the influences of anxiety, stress and depression and how they relate to compassion satisfaction and compassion fatigue. In Phase 2 of the study, 10 nurses from Phase 1 of the study participated in individual interviews and a focus group. A semi-structured interview schedule guided the conversations with the participants. Data analysis resulted in seven main themes: social networks and support;infrastructure and support; environment and lifestyle; learning; leadership; stress; and suggestions to build psychological wellness in nurses. Findings suggest that a nurse’s capacity to cope is enhanced through strong social and collegial support, infrastructure that supports the provision of quality nursing care and positive affirmation. These concepts are strongly linked to personal resilience. for nursing management These findings support the need for management to develop appropriate interventions to build resilience in nurses.

  5. Practical compassions: repertoires of practice and compassion talk in acute mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brian; Crawford, Paul; Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean; Gale, Corinne

    2014-03-01

    This article reports an exploratory study of the concept of compassion in the work of 20 mental health practitioners in a UK Midlands facility. Using notions of practice derived from phenomenology and Bourdieusian sociology and notions of emotional labour we identify two contrasting interpretive repertoires in discussions of compassion. The first, the practical compassion repertoire, evokes the practical, physical and bodily aspects of compassion. It involves organising being with patients, playing games, anticipating disruption and taking them outside for cigarettes. Practitioners described being aware that these practical, bodily activities could lead to patients 'opening up', disclosing their interior concerns and enabling practical, compassionate mental health work to take place. In contrast, the second, organisational repertoire, concerns organisational constraints on compassionate practice. The shortage of staff, the record-keeping and internal processes of quality control were seen as time-greedy and apt to detract from contact with patients. The findings are discussed in relation to Bourdieu and Merleau-Ponty's phenomenological accounts of practice and habit and set in context in the growing interest in placing compassion centrally in healthcare. We also explore how the exercise of compassion in the way our participants describe it can afford the more effective exercise of medical power. © 2013 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2013 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Down-regulation of lipid raft-associated onco-proteins via cholesterol-dependent lipid raft internalization in docosahexaenoic acid-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jeong; Yun, Un-Jung; Koo, Kyung Hee; Sung, Jee Young; Shim, Jaegal; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Kyeong-Man; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2014-01-01

    Lipid rafts, plasma membrane microdomains, are important for cell survival signaling and cholesterol is a critical lipid component for lipid raft integrity and function. DHA is known to have poor affinity for cholesterol and it influences lipid rafts. Here, we investigated a mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effects of DHA using a human breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231. We found that DHA decreased cell surface levels of lipid rafts via their internalization, which was partially reversed by cholesterol addition. With DHA treatment, caveolin-1, a marker for rafts, and EGFR were colocalized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker, in a cholesterol-dependent manner, indicating that DHA induces raft fusion with lysosomes. DHA not only displaced several raft-associated onco-proteins, including EGFR, Hsp90, Akt, and Src, from the rafts but also decreased total levels of those proteins via multiple pathways, including the proteasomal and lysosomal pathways, thereby decreasing their activities. Hsp90 overexpression maintained its client proteins, EGFR and Akt, and attenuated DHA-induced cell death. In addition, overexpression of Akt or constitutively active Akt attenuated DHA-induced apoptosis. All these data indicate that the anti-proliferative effect of DHA is mediated by targeting of lipid rafts via decreasing cell surface lipid rafts by their internalization, thereby decreasing raft-associated onco-proteins via proteasomal and lysosomal pathways and decreasing Hsp90 chaperone function. © 2013.

  7. Evaluation of Social Studies Curriculum on Compassion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of social studies curriculum on the affective dispositions of students of Colleges of Education in North-West Zone of Nigeria. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of NCE I and NCE III students' affective dispositions in the area of compassion. One research question and one ...

  8. Compassion: How Do You Teach It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler-Evans, Patty; Barnes, Candice Dowd

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a correlation between the violent images and stories we view through media and the effects those stories have on children and young adults, namely the suppression of compassion. With so much emphasis on academic standards, sometimes social emotional skills are grossly neglected. Students are being taught how to…

  9. InCompass Best Practice Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.; Trip, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    This ‘Toolkit’ presents the outcomes of the INTERREG IVC project InCompass: Regional policy improvement for financially sustainable creative business incubator units. Its main target group are local and regional policy-makers. It therefore aims: - to identity practices to improve the financial

  10. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  11. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  12. Summary of the Advanced Stellar Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The current version of the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC) is an improved implementation of the instrument developed for the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite Ørsted. The Ørsted version was successfully tested in space on the NASA sounding rocket "Thunderstorm III", that was launched September 2...

  13. Generation of organotypic raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Daniel; Moody, Cary

    2012-02-22

    The development of organotypic epithelial raft cultures has provided researchers with an efficient in vitro system that faithfully recapitulates epithelial differentiation. There are many uses for this system. For instance, the ability to grow three-dimensional organotypic raft cultures of keratinocytes has been an important milestone in the study of human papillomavirus (HPV)(1). The life cycle of HPV is tightly linked to the differentiation of squamous epithelium(2). Organotypic epithelial raft cultures as demonstrated here reproduce the entire papillomavirus life cycle, including virus production(3,4,5). In addition, these raft cultures exhibit dysplastic lesions similar to those observed upon in vivo infection with HPV. Hence this system can also be used to study epithelial cell cancers, as well as the effect of drugs on epithelial cell differentiation in general. Originally developed by Asselineau and Prunieras(6) and modified by Kopan et al.(7), the organotypic epithelial raft culture system has matured into a general, relatively easy culture model, which involves the growth of cells on collagen plugs maintained at an air-liquid interface (Figure 1A). Over the course of 10-14 days, the cells stratify and differentiate, forming a full thickness epithelium that produces differentiation-specific cytokeratins. Harvested rafts can be examined histologically, as well as by standard molecular and biochemical techniques. In this article, we describe a method for the generation of raft cultures from primary human keratinocytes. The same technique can be used with established epithelial cell lines, and can easily be adapted for use with epithelial tissue from normal or diseased biopsies(8). Many viruses target either the cutaneous or mucosal epithelium as part of their replicative life cycle. Over the past several years, the feasibility of using organotypic raft cultures as a method of studying virus-host cell interactions has been shown for several herpesviruses, as

  14. High temperature initiator-free RAFT polymerization of methyl methacrylate in a microwave reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, R.M.; Becer, C.R.; Hoogenboom, R.; Schubert, U.S.

    2009-01-01

    The reversible additionfragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) was investigated under microwave irradiation. At first, a comparison was made between microwave and thermal heating for the RAFT polymerization of MMA with azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN) as

  15. Involvement of glycosphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts in inflammatory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are membrane components consisting of hydrophobic ceramide and hydrophilic sugar moieties. GSLs cluster with cholesterol in cell membranes to form GSL-enriched lipid rafts. Biochemical analyses have demonstrated that GSL-enriched lipid rafts contain several kinds of transducer molecules, including Src family kinases. Among the GSLs, lactosylceramide (LacCer, CDw17) can bind to various microorganisms, is highly expressed on the plasma membranes of human phagocytes, and forms lipid rafts containing the Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn. LacCer-enriched lipid rafts mediate immunological and inflammatory reactions, including superoxide generation, chemotaxis, and non-opsonic phagocytosis. Therefore, LacCer-enriched membrane microdomains are thought to function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed on microorganisms. LacCer also serves as a signal transduction molecule for functions mediated by CD11b/CD18-integrin (αM/β2-integrin, CR3, Mac-1), as well as being associated with several key cellular processes. LacCer recruits PCKα/ε and phospholipase A2 to stimulate PECAM-1 expression in human monocytes and their adhesion to endothelial cells, as well as regulating β1-integrin clustering and endocytosis on cell surfaces. This review describes the organizational and inflammation-related functions of LacCer-enriched lipid rafts.

  16. RAFT: a computer program for fault tree risk calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seybold, G.D.

    1977-11-01

    A description and user instructions are presented for RAFT, a FORTRAN computer code for calculation of a risk measure for fault tree cut sets. RAFT calculates release quantities and a risk measure based on the product of probability and release quantity for cut sets of fault trees modeling the accidental release of radioactive material from a nuclear fuel cycle facility. Cut sets and their probabilities are supplied as input to RAFT from an external fault tree analysis code. Using the total inventory available of radioactive material, along with release fractions for each event in a cut set, the release terms are calculated for each cut set. Each release term is multiplied by the cut set probability to yield the cut set risk measure. RAFT orders the dominant cut sets on the risk measure. The total risk measure of processed cut sets and their fractional contributions are supplied as output. Input options are available to eliminate redundant cut sets, apply threshold values on cut set probability and risk, and control the total number of cut sets output. Hash addressing is used to remove redundant cut sets from the analysis. Computer hardware and software restrictions are given along with a sample problem and cross-reference table of the code. Except for the use of file management utilities, RAFT is written exclusively in FORTRAN language and is operational on a Control Data, CYBER 74-18--series computer system. 4 figures

  17. Tunable, Quantitative Fenton-RAFT Polymerization via Metered Reagent Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothling, Mitchell D; McKenzie, Thomas G; Reyhani, Amin; Qiao, Greg G

    2018-05-10

    A continuous supply of radical species is a key requirement for activating chain growth and accessing quantitative monomer conversions in reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In Fenton-RAFT, activation is provided by hydroxyl radicals, whose indiscriminate reactivity and short-lived nature poses a challenge to accessing extended polymerization times and quantitative monomer conversions. Here, an alternative Fenton-RAFT procedure is presented, whereby radical generation can be finely controlled via metered dosing of a component of the Fenton redox reaction (H 2 O 2 ) using an external pumping system. By limiting the instantaneous flux of radicals and ensuring sustained radical generation over tunable time periods, metered reagent addition reduces unwanted radical "wasting" reactions and provides access to consistent quantitative monomer conversions with high chain-end fidelity. Fine tuning of radical concentration during polymerization is achieved simply via adjustment of reagent dose rate, offering significant potential for automation. This modular strategy holds promise for extending traditional RAFT initiation toward more tightly regulated radical concentration profiles and affords excellent prospects for the automation of Fenton-RAFT polymerization. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Research status of wave energy conversion (WEC) device of raft structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianguo; Gao, Jingwei; Tao, Liang; Zheng, Peng

    2017-10-01

    This paper has briefly described the concept of wave energy generation and six typical conversion devices. As for raft structure, detailed analysis is provided from its development process to typical devices. Taking the design process and working principle of Plamis as an example, the general principle of raft structure is briefly described. After that, a variety of raft structure models are introduced. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages, and development trend of raft structure are pointed out.

  19. Organochlorine contaminants in seven species of Arctic seabirds from northern Baffin Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Norstrom, Ross J.; Hobson, Keith A.; Karnovsky, Nina J.; Duffe, Jason; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined in liver and fat of seven species of seabirds (Alle alle, Uria lomvia, Cepphus grylle, Rissa tridactyla, Pagophila eburnea, Larus hyperboreus, and Fulmaris glacialis) collected in May/June 1998 from the Northwater Polynya in northern Baffin Bay. OC concentrations ranged over an order of magnitude between seabird species and OC groups, with PCBs having the highest concentrations followed by DDT, chlordane, HCH and ClBz. Positive relationships between δ 15 N (estimator of trophic level) and OC concentrations (lipid basis) were found for all OC groups, showing that trophic position and biomagnification significantly influence OC concentrations in Arctic seabirds. Concentrations of a number of OCs in particular species (e.g., HCH in P. eburnean) were lower than expected based on δ 15 N and was attributed to biotransformation. P. eburnea and F. glacialis, which scavenge, and R. tridactyla, which migrate from the south, were consistently above the δ 15 N-OC regression providing evidence that these variables can elevate OC concentrations. Stable isotope measurements in muscle may not be suitable for identifying past scavenging events by seabirds. OC relative proportions were related to trophic position and phylogeny, showing that OC biotransformation varies between seabird groups. Trophic level, migration, scavenging and biotransformation all play important roles in the OCs found in Arctic seabirds. - Concentrations of organochlorides in high Arctic seabirds are influenced by trophic level, migration, scavenging and biotransformation

  20. An isotopic investigation of mercury accumulation in terrestrial food webs adjacent to an Arctic seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, Emily S.; Gauthier, Martine; Mallory, Mark L.; Smol, John P.; Douglas, Marianne S.V.; Lean, David; Blais, Jules M.

    2010-01-01

    At Cape Vera (Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada), a seabird colony of northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) congregates and releases nutrients through the deposition of guano to the coastal terrestrial environment, thus creating nutrient-fertilized habitats important to insects, birds, and mammals. Here we determined whether mercury was similarly enriched in various terrestrial food web components in this High Arctic coastal ecosystem due to seabird inputs. Stable isotopes (δ 15 N, δ 13 C) were used to identify trophic linkages and possible routes of contaminant transfer in the food web. Values of δ 15 N were significantly higher in lichens and certain plants collected closer to the bird colony, demonstrating a gradient of seabird influence, and were higher at Cape Vera than our reference site at Cape Herschel, on eastern Ellesmere Island, an area relatively unaffected by seabirds. In contrast, δ 13 C showed little variation among terrestrial species, suggesting minimal influence by seabirds. Concentrations of total mercury (THg) in primary producers and phyto/zooplankton were not significantly correlated with distance from the seabird colony or δ 15 N values, and were similar to other taxa from the High Arctic. Our results provide novel data on THg in several Arctic taxa where concentrations have not been reported previously. Moreover, the analyses indicate that δ 15 N is significantly enriched in the adjacent environment by guano fertilization, but our study was unable to show an enrichment of THg and δ 13 C in the terrestrial food web near the seabird colony.

  1. Predation on seabirds by red foxes at Shaiak Island, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Two Red Foxes (Vulpes fulva) that invaded Shaiak Island before the 1976 nesting season had a marked impact on the nesting success of five of seven species of seabirds breeding on the island that year. Common Eiders (Somateria mollissima), Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens), and Common Murres (Uria aalge), that nest in areas accessible to foxes, did not raise any young to fledging. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) were only slightly more successful; 13 (4.3%) of 300 pairs raised one or more young to fledging. Evidence suggested that 21 (35.6%) of 62 pairs of Tufted Puffins (Lunda cirrhata) lost eggs or chicks to foxes, and foxes killed at least 13 (8.3%) of 156 adult puffins on ten sample plots. Conversely, Black-Legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Pelagic Cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus), which nested primarily on cliffs inaccessible to foxes, lost very few nests. There was no apparent change in general nest site selections by seabirds the following year, when foxes were no longer present. Any avoidance by birds of areas vulnerable to fox predation would probably be discernible only after several years of continuous predation.

  2. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  3. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  4. Global phenological insensitivity to shifting ocean temperatures among seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogan, Katharine; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah; Phillips, Richard A.; Walling, Craig A.; Agnew, Philippa; Ainley, David G.; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Ballard, Grant; Barrett, Robert T.; Barton, Kerry J.; Bech, Claus; Becker, Peter; Berglund, Per-Arvid; Bollache, Loïc; Bond, Alexander L.; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell W.; Burr, Zofia M.; Camphuysen, Kees; Catry, Paulo; Chiaradia, Andre; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Signe; Cuthbert, Richard; Dehnhard, Nina; Descamps, Sébastien; Diamond, Tony; Divoky, George; Drummond, Hugh; Dugger, Katie M.; Dunn, Michael J.; Emmerson, Louise; Erikstad, Kjell Einar; Fort, Jérôme; Fraser, William; Genovart, Meritxell; Gilg, Olivier; González-Solís, Jacob; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Grémillet, David; Hansen, Jannik; Hanssen, Sveinn A.; Harris, Mike; Hedd, April; Hinke, Jefferson; Igual, José Manuel; Jahncke, Jaime; Jones, Ian; Kappes, Peter J.; Lang, Johannes; Langset, Magdalene; Lescroël, Amélie; Lorentsen, Svein-Hâkon; Lyver, Phil O'B.; Mallory, Mark; Moe, Børge; Montevecchi, William A.; Monticelli, David; Mostello, Carolyn; Newell, Mark; Nicholson, Lisa; Nisbet, Ian; Olsson, Olof; Oro, Daniel; Pattison, Vivian; Poisbleau, Maud; Pyk, Tanya; Quintana, Flavio; Ramos, Jaime A.; Ramos, Raül; Reiertsen, Tone Kirstin; Rodríguez, Cristina; Ryan, Peter; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana; Schmidt, Niels M.; Shannon, Paula; Sittler, Benoit; Southwell, Colin; Surman, Christopher; Svagelj, Walter S.; Trivelpiece, Wayne; Warzybok, Pete; Watanuki, Yutaka; Weimerskirch, Henri; Wilson, Peter R.; Wood, Andrew G.; Phillimore, Albert B.; Lewis, Sue

    2018-04-01

    Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity1, and is often sensitive to climatic conditions2. Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between the resource requirements of predators and their prey3. This is of particular concern for higher-trophic-level organisms, whose longer generation times confer a lower rate of evolutionary rescue than primary producers or consumers4. However, the disconnection between studies of ecological change in marine systems makes it difficult to detect general changes in the timing of reproduction5. Here, we use a comprehensive meta-analysis of 209 phenological time series from 145 breeding populations to show that, on average, seabird populations worldwide have not adjusted their breeding seasons over time (-0.020 days yr-1) or in response to sea surface temperature (SST) (-0.272 days °C-1) between 1952 and 2015. However, marked between-year variation in timing observed in resident species and some Pelecaniformes and Suliformes (cormorants, gannets and boobies) may imply that timing, in some cases, is affected by unmeasured environmental conditions. This limited temperature-mediated plasticity of reproductive timing in seabirds potentially makes these top predators highly vulnerable to future mismatch with lower-trophic-level resources2.

  5. Stress hormones link food availability and population processes in seabirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Catastrophic population declines in marine top predators in the northern Pacific have been hypothesized to result from nutritional stress affecting reproduction and survival of individuals. However, empirical evidence for food-related stress in wild animals is frequently lacking or inconclusive. We used a field endocrinology approach to measure stress, identify its causes, and examine a link between stress and population processes in the common murre Uria aalge. We tested the empirical relationship between variations in the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT) and food abundance, reproduction, and persistence of individuals at declining and increasing colonies in Cook Inlet, Alaska, from 1996 to 2001. We found that CORT secretion in murres is independent of colony, reproductive stage effects, and gender of individuals, but is directly negatively correlated with abundance of their food. Baseline CORT reflected current food abundance, whereas acute stress-induced CORT reflected food abundance in the previous month. As food supply diminished, increased CORT secretion predicted a decrease in reproductive performance. At a declining colony, increased baseline levels of CORT during reproduction predicted disappearance of individuals from the population. Persistence of individuals in a growing colony was independent of CORT during reproduction. The obtained results support the hypothesis that nutritional stress during reproduction affects reproduction and survival in seabirds. This study provides the first unequivocal evidence for CORT secretion as a mechanistic link between fluctuations in food abundance and population processes in seabirds. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  6. Recovery of seabirds following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, over 35,000 dead birds were retrieved and overall mortality was estimated in the hundreds of thousands. These observations led to concerns about persistent impacts on seabirds, especially murres (Uria spp.). Surveys of attendance by murres at breeding colonies in the spill path in 1991, however, indicated no overall differences from prespill attendance levels. Investigations of habitat occupancy conducted shortly after the spill in 1989 showed that, of the 47 bird species examined, the majority were using areas of oil-affected habitats by late 1991, although a few species did not show clear signs of recovery at the end of the study. These species were primarily wintering and resident forms. Because habitat use by other ecologically similar species was not affected by the spill or they recovered rapidly, prospects for recovery of the species that continued to show evidence of oiling impacts on habitat use in late 1991 would seem to be good. Collectively, these studies indicate that concerns about long-term impacts of the Exxon Valdez oil spill on seabirds may not be justified, and that recovery in the use of habitats by many bird species and in colony attendance by murres appeared to be well advanced by late 1991

  7. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

    2012-08-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. Conservation Biology ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology. No claim to original

  8. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick-Evans, Victoria C; Atkinson, Philip W; Robinson, Leonie A; Green, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  9. Predictive Modelling to Identify Near-Shore, Fine-Scale Seabird Distributions during the Breeding Season.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Warwick-Evans

    Full Text Available During the breeding season seabirds are constrained to coastal areas and are restricted in their movements, spending much of their time in near-shore waters either loafing or foraging. However, in using these areas they may be threatened by anthropogenic activities such as fishing, watersports and coastal developments including marine renewable energy installations. Although many studies describe large scale interactions between seabirds and the environment, the drivers behind near-shore, fine-scale distributions are not well understood. For example, Alderney is an important breeding ground for many species of seabird and has a diversity of human uses of the marine environment, thus providing an ideal location to investigate the near-shore fine-scale interactions between seabirds and the environment. We used vantage point observations of seabird distribution, collected during the 2013 breeding season in order to identify and quantify some of the environmental variables affecting the near-shore, fine-scale distribution of seabirds in Alderney's coastal waters. We validate the models with observation data collected in 2014 and show that water depth, distance to the intertidal zone, and distance to the nearest seabird nest are key predictors in the distribution of Alderney's seabirds. AUC values for each species suggest that these models perform well, although the model for shags performed better than those for auks and gulls. While further unexplained underlying localised variation in the environmental conditions will undoubtedly effect the fine-scale distribution of seabirds in near-shore waters we demonstrate the potential of this approach in marine planning and decision making.

  10. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  11. Inhibition of Akt signaling by exclusion from lipid rafts in normal and transformed epidermal keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calay, Damien; Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Frankart, Aurelie

    2010-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich plasma membrane domains that regulate signal transduction. Because our earlier work indicated that raft disruption inhibited proliferation and caused cell death, we investigated here the role of membrane cholesterol, the crucial raft constituent, in the regulation...

  12. 78 FR 17087 - Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; New River Raft Race, New River; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard... on the New River in Fort Lauderdale, Florida during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft... States during the Rotary Club of Fort Lauderdale New River Raft Race. On March 23, 2013, Fort Lauderdale...

  13. Radiation-induced controlled polymerization of acrylic acid by RAFT and RAFT-MADIX methods in protic solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sütekin, S. Duygu; Güven, Olgun

    2018-01-01

    The kinetic investigation of one-pot synthesis of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) prepared via gamma radiation induced controlled polymerization was reported. PAA homopolymers were prepared by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerization in the presence of trithiocarbonate-based chain transfer agent (CTA) 2-(Dodecylthiocarbonothioylthio)-2-methylpropionic acid (DDMAT) and also by Reversible Addition-Fragmentation/Macromolecular Design by Inter-change of Xanthates (RAFT/MADIX) polymerization in the presence of a xanthate based CTA O-ethyl-S-(1-methoxycarbonyl) ethyl dithiocarbonate (RA1). The polymerizations were performed at room temperature by the virtue of ionizing radiation. Protic solvents were used for the RAFT polymerization of AA considering environmental profits. The linear first-order kinetic plot, close control of molecular weight by the monomer/CTA molar ratio supported that the polymerization proceeds in a living fashion. The linear increase in molecular weight with conversion monitored by Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) is another proof of controlling of polymerization. [Monomer]/[RAFT] ratio and conversion was controlled to obtain PAA in the molecular weight range of 6900-35,800 with narrow molecular weight distributions. Reaction kinetics and effect of the amount of RAFT agent were investigated in detail. Between two different types of CTA, trithiocarbonate based DDMAT was found to be more efficient in terms of low dispersity (Đ) and linear first-order kinetic behavior for the radiation induced controlled synthesis of PAA homopolymers.

  14. Raft-like membrane domains in pathogenic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnoud, Amir M; Toledo, Alvaro M; Konopka, James B; Del Poeta, Maurizio; London, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane is thought to be compartmentalized by the presence of lipid-protein microdomains. In eukaryotic cells, microdomains composed of sterols and sphingolipids, commonly known as lipid rafts, are believed to exist, and reports on the presence of sterol- or protein-mediated microdomains in bacterial cell membranes are also appearing. Despite increasing attention, little is known about microdomains in the plasma membrane of pathogenic microorganisms. This review attempts to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of lipid rafts in pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The current literature on characterization of microdomains in pathogens is reviewed, and their potential role in growth, pathogenesis, and drug resistance is discussed. Better insight into the structure and function of membrane microdomains in pathogenic microorganisms might lead to a better understanding of their pathogenesis and development of raft-mediated approaches for therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid, long-distance dispersal by pumice rafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Bryan

    Full Text Available Pumice is an extremely effective rafting agent that can dramatically increase the dispersal range of a variety of marine organisms and connect isolated shallow marine and coastal ecosystems. Here we report on a significant recent pumice rafting and long-distance dispersal event that occurred across the southwest Pacific following the 2006 explosive eruption of Home Reef Volcano in Tonga. We have constrained the trajectory, and rate, biomass and biodiversity of transfer, discovering more than 80 species and a substantial biomass underwent a >5000 km journey in 7-8 months. Differing microenvironmental conditions on the pumice, caused by relative stability of clasts at the sea surface, promoted diversity in biotic recruitment. Our findings emphasise pumice rafting as an important process facilitating the distribution of marine life, which have implications for colonisation processes and success, the management of sensitive marine environments, and invasive pest species.

  16. With or without rafts? Alternative views on cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcsik, Eva; Schütz, Gerhard J

    2016-02-01

    The fundamental mechanisms of protein and lipid organization at the plasma membrane have continued to engage researchers for decades. Among proposed models, one idea has been particularly successful which assumes that sterol-dependent nanoscopic phases of different lipid chain order compartmentalize proteins, thereby modulating protein functionality. This model of membrane rafts has sustainably sparked the fields of membrane biophysics and biology, and shifted membrane lipids into the spotlight of research; by now, rafts have become an integral part of our terminology to describe a variety of cell biological processes. But is the evidence clear enough to continue supporting a theoretical concept which has resisted direct proof by observation for nearly twenty years? In this essay, we revisit findings that gave rise to and substantiated the raft hypothesis, discuss its impact on recent studies, and present alternative mechanisms to account for plasma membrane heterogeneity. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  17. RAFT technology for the production of advanced photoresist polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Michael T.; Farnham, William B.; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Sounik, James R.; Clark, George

    2008-03-01

    Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) technology has been developed for use in producing high yield low polydispersity (PD) polymers for many applications. RAFT technology is being used to produce low PD polymers and to allow control of the polymer architecture. A variety of polymers are being synthesized for use in advanced photoresists using this technique. By varying the RAFT reagent used we can modulate the system reactivity of the RAFT reagent and optimize it for use in acrylate or methacrylate monomer systems (193 and 193i photoresist polymers) or for use in styrenic monomer systems (248 nm photoresist polymers) to achieve PD as low as 1.05. RAFT polymerization technology also allows us to produce block copolymers using a wide variety of monomers. These block copolymers have been shown to be useful in self assembly polymer applications to produce unique and very small feature sizes. The mutual compatibilities of all the components within a single layer 193 photoresist are very important in order to achieve low LWR and low defect count. The advent of immersion imaging demands an additional element of protection at the solid/liquid interface. We have used RAFT technology to produce block copolymers comprising a random "resist" block with composition and size based on conventional dry photoresist materials, and a "low surface energy" block for use in 193i lithography. The relative block lengths and compositions may be varied to tune solution behavior, surface energy, contact angles, and solubility in developer. The use of this technique will be explored to produce polymers used in hydrophobic single layer resists as well as additives compatible with the main photoresist polymer.

  18. Generic sorting of raft lipids into secretory vesicles in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surma, Michal A; Klose, Christian; Klemm, Robin W

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has showed that ergosterol and sphingolipids become sorted to secretory vesicles immunoisolated using a chimeric, artificial raft membrane protein as bait. In this study, we have extended this analysis to three populations of secretory vesicles isolated using natural yeast plasma...... a complete lipid overview of the yeast late secretory pathway. We could show that vesicles captured with different baits carry the same cargo and have almost identical lipid compositions; being highly enriched in ergosterol and sphingolipids. This finding indicates that lipid raft sorting is a generic...

  19. Choreographing Compassion: A Clinical Adventure of Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopst, Charles George

    2015-06-01

    Compassion is a primary catalyst motivating positive human relationships, especially of those less fortunate. Our rhythms Expand-Contract of our own non-verbal body joints movements and of the law of counter-balance, enable us to identify which of nine innate affects-emotions is directing the body's movements. With this reading, a trained person can synchronize choreography of these into fully authentic compassion between two or more persons. Primary references for this are the late Silvan S. Tomkins's four volumes "Affect Imagery Consciousness," and choreographers the late Rudolf Laban, Warren Lamb, Irmgard Bartenieff, and Marian Chace. Professionals, clinicians, and laity counselors can all use these. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Truth as Humility Nourishing Compassion Through Wisdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John L

    2018-03-01

    Among the strengths of forensic psychiatry as a profession is its ability to support lively discussion of critical questions, such as how to characterize its own essence and whether it belongs to the practice of medicine. The American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law is fortunate that Michael Norko has taken the occasion of his presidential address to describe in depth the results of the advanced stage of his probing on a truly spiritual level the fundamental place of compassion in the practice of forensic psychiatry. In so doing, he casts inevitable light on the seamless connections binding forensic psychiatry and medicine, particularly the importance for both of practicing compassion in our search for truth. © 2018 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  1. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, M; Baum, G; Doshita, N; Finger, M Jr; Gautheron, F; Goertz, St; Hasegawa, T; Heckmann, J; Hess, Ch; Horikawa, N; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kisselev, Y; Koivuniemi, J; Kondo, K; Le Goff, J-M; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Reicherz, G; Srnka, A

    2006-01-01

    The spin structure of the nucleons is investigated in deep inelastic scattering of a polarized muon beam and a polarized nucleon target in the COMPASS experiment at CERN since 2001. To achieve high luminosities a large solid polarized target is used. The COMPASS polarized target consists of a high cooling power $^{3}$He/$^{4}$He dilution refrigerator capable to maintain working temperature of the target material at about 50mK, a superconducting solenoid and dipole magnet system for longitudinal and transversal magnetic field on the target material, respectively, target cells containing polarizable material, microwave cavities and high power microwave radiation systems for dynamic nuclear polarization and the nuclear magnetic resonance system for nuclear spin polarization measurements. During 2001–2004 experiments superconducting magnet system with opening angle $\\pm$69 mrad, polarized target holder with two target cells and corresponding microwave and NMR systems have been used. For the data taking from 200...

  2. Investigation of diffractive pion dissociation at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, Quirin; Austregesilo, Alexander; Dinkelbach, Anna-Maria; Friedrich, Jan; Gerassimov, Sergei; Grabmueller, Stefanie; Haas, Florian; Hoeppner, Christian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Konorov, Igor; Kraemer, Markus; Kuhn, Roland; Mann, Alexander; Nagel, Thiemo; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Chung, Suh-Urk [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany)]|[Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Ryabchikov, Dmitri [Institute for High Energy Physics, 142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at the CERN SPS, which investigates the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. In 2004, a first run with a 190 GeV/c {pi}{sup -} beam took place, using nuclear targets. Diffractive reactions in COMPASS provide clean access to meson resonances with masses below 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2}, where candidates for spin-exotic states (e. g. 1{sup -+}) have been reported in the past. Within a few days of data taking, a competitive number of events on lead with {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +} final states were recorded. In this talk we report on the results of a first partial wave analysis of this data set.

  3. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rajotte, J F

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for...

  4. Conceptual design of the COMPASS upgrade tokamak.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Radomír; Markovič, Tomáš; Cahyna, Pavel; Dejarnac, Renaud; Havlíček, Josef; Horáček, Jan; Hron, Martin; Imríšek, Martin; Junek, Pavel; Komm, Michael; Šesták, David; Urban, Jakub; Varju, Jozef; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Adámek, Jiří; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Dimitrova, Miglena; Háček, Pavel; Kovařík, Karel; Krbec, Jaroslav; Mlynář, Jan; Podolník, Aleš; Seidl, Jakub; Stöckel, Jan; Tomeš, Matěj; Zajac, Jaromír; Mitošinková, Klára; Peterka, Matěj; Vondráček, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, October (2017), s. 11-16 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : COMPASS-U * Closed divertor * High magnetic field * Snowflake divertor Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617302053

  5. Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Wolf-Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.

  6. Progress in diagnostics of the COMPASS tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzettl, V.; Adamek, J.; Berta, M.; Bilkova, P.; Bogar, O.; Bohm, P.; Cavalier, J.; Dejarnac, R.; Dimitrova, M.; Ficker, O.; Fridrich, D.; Grover, O.; Hacek, P.; Havlicek, J.; Havranek, A.; Horacek, J.; Hron, M.; Imrisek, M.; Komm, M.; Kovarik, K.; Krbec, J.; Markovic, T.; Matveeva, E.; Mitosinkova, K.; Mlynar, J.; Naydenkova, D.; Panek, R.; Paprok, R.; Peterka, M.; Podolnik, A.; Seidl, J.; Sos, M.; Stockel, J.; Tomes, M.; Varavin, M.; Varju, J.; Vlainic, M.; Vondracek, P.; Zajac, J.; Zacek, F.; Stano, M.; Anda, G.; Dunai, D.; Krizsanoczi, T.; Refy, D.; Zoletnik, S.; Silva, A.; Gomes, R.; Pereira, T.; Popov, Tsv.; Sarychev, D.; Ermak, G. P.; Zebrowski, J.; Jakubowski, M.; Rabinski, M.; Malinowski, K.; Nanobashvili, S.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Devitre, A.

    2017-12-01

    The COMPASS tokamak at IPP Prague is a small-size device with an ITER-relevant plasma geometry and operating in both the Ohmic as well as neutral beam assisted H-modes since 2012. A basic set of diagnostics installed at the beginning of the COMPASS operation has been gradually broadened in type of diagnostics, extended in number of detectors and collected channels and improved by an increased data acquisition speed. In recent years, a significant progress in diagnostic development has been motivated by the improved COMPASS plasma performance and broadening of its scientific programme (L-H transition and pedestal scaling studies, magnetic perturbations, runaway electron control and mitigation, plasma-surface interaction and corresponding heat fluxes, Alfvenic and edge localized mode observations, disruptions, etc.). In this contribution, we describe major upgrades of a broad spectrum of the COMPASS diagnostics and discuss their potential for physical studies. In particular, scrape-off layer plasma diagnostics will be represented by a new concept for microsecond electron temperature and heat flux measurements - we introduce a new set of divertor Langmuir and ball-pen probe arrays, newly constructed probe heads for reciprocating manipulators as well as several types of standalone probes. Among optical tools, an upgraded high-resolution edge Thomson scattering diagnostic for pedestal studies and a set of new visible light and infrared (plasma-surface interaction investigations) cameras will be described. Particle and beam diagnostics will be covered by a neutral particle analyzer, diagnostics on a lithium beam, Cherenkov detectors (for a direct detection of runaway electrons) and neutron detectors. We also present new modifications of the microwave reflectometer for fast edge density profile measurements.

  7. Magnetic Compass Orientation in the European Eel

    OpenAIRE

    Durif, Caroline M. F.; Browman, Howard I.; Phillips, John B.; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; V?llestad, L. Asbj?rn; Stockhausen, Hans H.

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at ge...

  8. Valuing compassion through definition and measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Belinda; Pullin, Simon; Tocheris, Ria

    2011-02-01

    The Leadership in Compassionate Care programme aims to embed compassionate care in practice and education. This article describes a project within the programme that explores with staff, patients and families the meaning of compassion and how this can be measured. The project has involved developing practice statements from noticing the aspects of compassionate care that work well. Staff were provided with support to consider, develop and implement actions that would help ensure consistency in developing compassionate care.

  9. Sandwich veto detector at COMPASS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Calcutta-COMPASS group

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the newly build Sandwich Detector for 190 GeV hadron run of COMPASS Experiment at CERN. The technical details and the testing procedures are included to highlight the physics objective of the installation. Single electron detection techniques has been developed and used to scale the performance of the detector. This analysis can predict the number of single electrons per MIP at the scintillation detector. (author)

  10. Has Microfinance Lost its Moral Compass?

    OpenAIRE

    David Hulme; Mathilde Maitrot

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that microfinance in South Asia, like mainstream finance in North America and Europe, "has lost its moral compass". Our particular concern is with microloans to vulnerable clients. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have increasingly focussed on financial performance and have neglected their declared social mission of poverty reduction and empowerment. Loans officers in the field are under enormous pressure to achieve individual financial targets and now routinely mis...

  11. Recent results from COMPASS and HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnell, Gunar [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Deep-inelastic lepton scattering has for a long time been a valuable tool to examine the structure of nucleons. Both the COMPASS and the HERMES collaborations have followed up on this long tradition by scattering charged leptons from polarized and unpolarized targets. The recent results from both experiments are reviewed and, when applicable, compared; with emphasis given to polarized quark distributions and 3D nucleon tomography.

  12. Women's empowerment: Finding strength in self-compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Olivia; Allen, Ashley Batts

    2017-03-01

    Empowerment is often a desired outcome for health programs; however, it is rarely evaluated. One way to increase empowerment may be through self-compassion. The authors of the current study aimed to determine whether self-compassion and empowerment were positively related. Two hundred and five women (ages 18 to 48 years) were recruited from a pool of undergraduate students at a university in the southeastern United States in the summer/fall of 2012. Participants completed the study using Qualtrics, an online survey system. Participants wrote about a fight in a romantic relationship and were randomly assigned to write about the fight either self-compassionately or generally. Empowerment and perceptions of the fight were assessed as dependent measures. Hierarchical regression analyses investigated the relation of self-compassion, manipulated self-compassion, and their interaction with empowerment. A significant positive relationship was found between self-compassion and empowerment. However, manipulated self-compassion was not significantly related to empowerment. These findings suggested that self-compassion and empowerment were strongly related, but using a short-term self-compassion intervention may not be strong enough to influence empowerment. Empowerment-based practitioners may find empowerment increases more easily in women who are self-compassionate. If self-compassion is incorporated into empowerment settings, a long-term intervention may be necessary.

  13. COMPASS polarized Drell-Yan experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Doshita, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    The COMPASS II started at 2012 that includes polarized Drell-Yan program with a polarized solid target. The availability of pion beam provides an access to the Drell-Yan physics throughout the process where quark(target)-antiquark(beam) pair annihilates electromagnetically with a production of dilepton pair. Study of angular dependencies of the Drell-Yan process cross-section allows us to access to parton distribution functions (PDFs) or, more precisely, a convolutions of various PDFs. The transversely polarized target together with negative pion beam is an important feature of the COMPASS Drell-Yan experiment, that provides us with unique data on transverse momentum dependent (TMD) PDFs. After a plot run in 2014, the experiment has just started in 2015. The role of the Drell-Yan experiment at COMPASS in TMD PDFs study, with a comparison to semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering experiment, is described. The experimental set-up, the status of the data taking in 2015 and preliminary analysis results in the 2...

  14. Development of optimum design from static response of pile–raft interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghavi Ghalesari, A; Barari, Amin; Fardad Amini, P

    2015-01-01

    Piled raft foundations are among the most commonly used support structures for offshore projects. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, piles may be added to improve the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this study, design...... for the piled raft were highly influenced by the number of piles and the raft thickness. Optimal design configurations of piles for cohesive soils are discussed. Increasing the pile spacing decreased the pile butt load ratio by allowing for a more uniform load distribution between the piles....

  15. Does self-compassion mitigate the relationship between burnout and barriers to compassion? A cross-sectional quantitative study of 799 nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Vinayak; Fernando, Antonio T; Lim, Anecita Gigi; Consedine, Nathan S

    2018-05-01

    Burnout has numerous negative consequences for nurses, potentially impairing their ability to deliver compassionate patient care. However, the association between burnout and compassion and, more specifically, barriers to compassion in medicine is unclear. This article evaluates the associations between burnout and barriers to compassion and examines whether dispositional self-compassion might mitigate this association. Consistent with prior work, the authors expected greater burnout to predict greater barriers to compassion. We also expected self-compassion - the ability to be kind to the self during times of distress - to weaken the association between burnout and barriers to compassion among nurses. Registered nurses working in New Zealand medical contexts were recruited using non-random convenience sampling. Following consent, 799 valid participants completed a cross-sectional survey including the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, the Barriers to Physician Compassion scale, and a measure of dispositional self-compassion. As expected, greater burnout predicted greater barriers to compassion while self-compassion predicted fewer barriers. However, self-compassion mitigated the association between burnout and burnout related barriers to compassion (but not other barriers). The interaction suggested that suggested that the association was stronger (rather than weaker) among those with greater self-compassion. Understanding the lack of compassion and the effects of burnout in patient care are priorities in health. This report extends evidence on the association between burnout and compassion-fatigue to show that burnout also predicts the experience of specific barriers to compassion. While self-compassion predicted lower burnout and barriers, it may not necessarily reduce the extent to which burnout contributes to the experience of barriers to compassion in medicine. Implications for understanding how burnout manifests in barriers to clinical compassion, interventions

  16. Seabird, fish, marine mammal and oceanography coordinated investigations (SMMOCI) in the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, July 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — We conducted a survey of seabirds, fishes, marine mammals and oceanographic conditions near the Pribilof Islands, Alaska (Fig. 1) from the M/V Tiˆglaˆx during 20-26...

  17. Marine distribution of arctic seabirds over six decades: changes and conservation applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, SNP; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Lieske, DJ

    Climate change is causing rapid changes in Arctic marine ecosystems and understanding its impacts on wildlife is critical for conservation management, especially as the decline in sea ice leads to increased development and vessel traffic. The Arctic supports hundreds of millions of seabirds, which...... collected from 1988 to 2015 and covering a combined 185,000 linear km, we examined the marine distribution of seabirds in sub-arctic and Arctic waters between Canada and Greenland, an area covering over 5,000,000 km2. We developed a predictive model to investigate how ice cover and ocean processes influence...... the distribution of arctic seabirds in summer and autumn and identified existing areas of high density. Comparing these results to at-sea surveys conducted in the same waters from 1966 - 1987, we examined how seabird distribution has changed over the last six decades. Understanding how changes in the marine...

  18. 77 FR 73989 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... National Seashore, plan to conduct the proposed activities for one year. We determined the application... colonies; observing seabird nesting habitat; restoring nesting burrows; observing breeding elephant seals... (Zalophus californianus), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina), northern elephant seals (Mirounga...

  19. Biomedical applications of polymers derived by reversible addition - fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Benjamin D; Gunatillake, Pathiraja A; Meagher, Laurence

    2015-08-30

    RAFT- mediated polymerization, providing control over polymer length and architecture as well as facilitating post polymerization modification of end groups, has been applied to virtually every facet of biomedical materials research. RAFT polymers have seen particularly extensive use in drug delivery research. Facile generation of functional and telechelic polymers permits straightforward conjugation to many therapeutic compounds while synthesis of amphiphilic block copolymers via RAFT allows for the generation of self-assembled structures capable of carrying therapeutic payloads. With the large and growing body of literature employing RAFT polymers as drug delivery aids and vehicles, concern over the potential toxicity of RAFT derived polymers has been raised. While literature exploring this complication is relatively limited, the emerging consensus may be summed up in three parts: toxicity of polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents is observed at high concentrations but not with polymers generated with trithiocarbonate RAFT agents; even for polymers generated with dithiobenzoate RAFT agents, most reported applications call for concentrations well below the toxicity threshold; and RAFT end-groups may be easily removed via any of a variety of techniques that leave the polymer with no intrinsic toxicity attributable to the mechanism of polymerization. The low toxicity of RAFT-derived polymers and the ability to remove end groups via straightforward and scalable processes make RAFT technology a valuable tool for practically any application in which a polymer of defined molecular weight and architecture is desired. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The Lipid Raft Proteome of African Trypanosomes Contains Many Flagellar Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aabha I; Olson, Cheryl L; Engman, David M

    2017-08-24

    Lipid rafts are liquid-ordered membrane microdomains that form by preferential association of 3-β-hydroxysterols, sphingolipids and raft-associated proteins often having acyl modifications. We isolated lipid rafts of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei and determined the protein composition of lipid rafts in the cell. This analysis revealed a striking enrichment of flagellar proteins and several putative signaling proteins in the lipid raft proteome. Calpains and intraflagellar transport proteins, in particular, were found to be abundant in the lipid raft proteome. These findings provide additional evidence supporting the notion that the eukaryotic cilium/flagellum is a lipid raft-enriched specialized structure with high concentrations of sterols, sphingolipids and palmitoylated proteins involved in environmental sensing and cell signaling.

  1. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, C; Van Sebille, E; Hardesty, BD

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a rapidly emerging global environmental concern, with high concentrations (up to 580,000 pieces per km2) and a global distribution, driven by exponentially increasing production. Seabirds are particularly vulnerable to this type of pollution and are widely observed to ingest floating plastic. We used a mixture of literature surveys, oceanographic modeling, and ecological models to predict the risk of plastic ingestion to 186 seabird species globally. Impacts ...

  2. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France

    OpenAIRE

    Aaziz, R.; Gourlay, P.; Vorimore, F.; Sachse, K.; Siarkou, V. I.; Laroucau, K.

    2015-01-01

    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantit...

  3. Effectiveness of combinations of raft foundation with aprons as a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B A Vijayasree

    2018-03-10

    Mar 10, 2018 ... bridge projects vary from exposed hard rock to pure sand for a considerable .... arrangements were made to dissipate the energy during inletting of water .... This endorsed the fact that the use of raft foundation in Case 2 reduced the ... at the downstream side, which extended to the wake region of horseshoe ...

  4. Direct surface PEGylation of nanodiamond via RAFT polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yingge; Liu, Meiying; Wang, Ke; Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing; Tao, Lei; Fu, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Wei, Yen

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we describe an efficient, practical and novel method to modify ND via direct immobilization of chain transfer agent for RAFT polymerization. - Highlights: • Surface PEGylation of ND via RAFT polymerization. • ND with high water dispersibility and excellent biocompatibility. • Controlled living polymerization. - Abstract: Nanodiamond (ND) is a novel class of carbon nanomaterials, which has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications because of its small size, high surface area and excellent biocompatibility. However, the biomedical applications of unmodified ND are still largely restricted because of their poor dispersibility in both aqueous and organic medium. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the surface modification of ND via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. For preparation of the PEGylated ND (pPEGMA-ND), chain transfer agent (CTA) was immobilized onto ND through reaction between the hydroxyl group of ND and the carboxyl group of CTA, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The successful preparation of pPEGMA-ND was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis in detail. Results demonstrated that pPEGMA-ND exhibited enhanced water dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility, making it promising for biomedical applications.

  5. Toward a Value for Guided Rafting on Southern Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; Donald B.K. English; Jason A. Donovan

    1996-01-01

    This study examines per trip consumer surplus associated with guided whitewater rafting on two southern rivers. First, household recreation demand functions are estimated based on the individual travel cost model using truncated count data regression methods and alternative price specifications. Findings show mean per trip consumer surplus point estimates between $89...

  6. Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Handley, Herbert M.

    A report is given of the development and progress of the Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) project, developed at Mississippi State University. Based upon research findings relative to effective teaching and effective schooling, five curriculum modules were prepared and implemented in instruction. In the second year of the project the…

  7. NMR spectroscopy in the optimization and evaluation of RAFT agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, B.; McLeary, J.B.; van den Dungen, E.; Pound, G.

    2007-01-01

    The selection of a suitable mediating agent in Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) mediated polymerization is crucial to the degree of control that can be achieved. An overview of work from the Stellenbosch group is presented in which the use of NMR spectroscopy as a tool for

  8. Radical-induced oxidation of RAFT agents : a kinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Changxi; He, Junpo; Zhou, Yanwu; Gu, Yuankai; Yang, Yuliang

    2011-01-01

    Radical-induced oxidn. of reversible addn.-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agents is studied with respect to the effect of mol. structure on oxidn. rate. The radicals are generated by homolysis of either azobisisobutyronitrile or alkoxyamine and transformed in situ immediately into peroxy

  9. Direct surface PEGylation of nanodiamond via RAFT polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yingge [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Liu, Meiying [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Ke [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Huang, Hongye; Wan, Qing [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Tao, Lei [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fu, Lihua [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang, Xiaoyong, E-mail: xiaoyongzhang1980@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry and Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory of New Energy Chemistry, Nanchang University, 999 Xuefu Avenue, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wei, Yen, E-mail: weiyen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and the Tsinghua Center for Frontier Polymer Research, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, we describe an efficient, practical and novel method to modify ND via direct immobilization of chain transfer agent for RAFT polymerization. - Highlights: • Surface PEGylation of ND via RAFT polymerization. • ND with high water dispersibility and excellent biocompatibility. • Controlled living polymerization. - Abstract: Nanodiamond (ND) is a novel class of carbon nanomaterials, which has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications because of its small size, high surface area and excellent biocompatibility. However, the biomedical applications of unmodified ND are still largely restricted because of their poor dispersibility in both aqueous and organic medium. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the surface modification of ND via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. For preparation of the PEGylated ND (pPEGMA-ND), chain transfer agent (CTA) was immobilized onto ND through reaction between the hydroxyl group of ND and the carboxyl group of CTA, which was used as the initiator for surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. The successful preparation of pPEGMA-ND was characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra and thermal gravimetric analysis in detail. Results demonstrated that pPEGMA-ND exhibited enhanced water dispersibility and desirable biocompatibility, making it promising for biomedical applications.

  10. Lipid rafts and their roles in T-cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hořejší, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2005), s. 310-316 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : lipid rafts * T- cell * immunoreceptor signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.154, year: 2005

  11. The roles of membrane microdomains (rafts) in T cell activation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hořejší, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 191, - (2003), s. 148-164 ISSN 0105-2896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) J1116W24Z Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : membrane microdomain * raft * T cell Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 7.052, year: 2003

  12. Modifying Lipid Rafts Promotes Regeneration and Functional Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardos G. Tassew

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ideal strategies to ameliorate CNS damage should promote both neuronal survival and axon regeneration. The receptor Neogenin promotes neuronal apoptosis. Its ligand prevents death, but the resulting repulsive guidance molecule a (RGMa-Neogenin interaction also inhibits axonal growth, countering any prosurvival benefits. Here, we explore strategies to inhibit Neogenin, thus simultaneously enhancing survival and regeneration. We show that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and RGMa-dependent recruitment of Neogenin into lipid rafts requires an interaction between RGMa and Neogenin subdomains. RGMa or Neogenin peptides that prevent this interaction, BMP inhibition by Noggin, or reduction of membrane cholesterol all block Neogenin raft localization, promote axon outgrowth, and prevent neuronal apoptosis. Blocking Neogenin raft association influences axonal pathfinding, enhances survival in the developing CNS, and promotes survival and regeneration in the injured adult optic nerve and spinal cord. Moreover, lowering cholesterol disrupts rafts and restores locomotor function after spinal cord injury. These data reveal a unified strategy to promote both survival and regeneration in the CNS.

  13. Astronaut Tamara Jernigan deploys life raft during WETF training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Tamara E. Jernigan, STS-67 payload commander, deploys a life raft during a session of emergency bailout training. The training took place in the 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). Jernigan was joined by her crew mates for the training session. Several SCUBA-equipped divers who assisted in the training can be seen in this photograph.

  14. Global phenological insensitivity to shifting ocean temperatures among seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogan, Katharine; Daunt, Francis; Wanless, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Reproductive timing in many taxa plays a key role in determining breeding productivity 1 , and is often sensitive to climatic conditions 2 . Current climate change may alter the timing of breeding at different rates across trophic levels, potentially resulting in temporal mismatch between...... the resource requirements of predators and their prey 3 . This is of particular concern for higher-trophic-level organisms, whose longer generation times confer a lower rate of evolutionary rescue than primary producers or consumers 4 . However, the disconnection between studies of ecological change in marine...... systems makes it difficult to detect general changes in the timing of reproduction 5 . Here, we use a comprehensive meta-analysis of 209 phenological time series from 145 breeding populations to show that, on average, seabird populations worldwide have not adjusted their breeding seasons over time (−0...

  15. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  16. Compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, anxiety, depression and stress in registered nurses in Australia: study 1 results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegney, Desley G; Craigie, Mark; Hemsworth, David; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Aoun, Samar; Francis, Karen; Drury, Vicki

    2014-05-01

    To explore compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction with the potential contributing factors of anxiety, depression and stress. To date, no studies have connected the quality of work-life with other contributing and co-existing factors such as depression, anxiety and stress. A self-report exploratory cross sectional survey of 132 nurses working in a tertiary hospital. The reflective assessment risk profile model provides an excellent framework for examining the relationships between the professional quality of work factors and contributing factors within the established risk profiles. The results show a definite pattern of risk progression for the six factors examined for each risk profile. Additionally, burnout and secondary traumatic stress were significantly related to higher anxiety and depression levels. Higher anxiety levels were correlated with nurses who were younger, worked full-time and without a postgraduate qualification. Twenty percent had elevated levels of compassion fatigue: 7.6% having a very distressed profile. At-risk nurses' stress and depression scores were significantly higher than nurses with higher compassion satisfaction scores. The employed nurse workforce would benefit from a psychosocial capacity building intervention that reduces a nurse's risk profile, thus enhancing retention. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Proton Testing of Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta; Denver, Troelz; Jørgensen, Finn E

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.......The Advanced Stellar Compass Digital Processing Unit was radiation tested with 300 MeV protons at Proton Irradiation Facility (PIF), Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland....

  18. The Advanced Stellar Compass onboard the Oersted satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Eisenman, Allan R.; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1997-01-01

    In 1997 the first Danish satellite will be launched. The primarily scientific objective of the satellite is to map the magnetic field of the Earth. The attitude of the satellite is determined by an advanced stellar compass (star tracker). An advanced stellar compass consists of a CCD camera...

  19. Perception of Suffering and Compassion Experience: Brain Gender Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadillo, Roberto E.; Diaz, Jose Luis; Pasaye, Erick H.; Barrios, Fernando A.

    2011-01-01

    Compassion is considered a moral emotion related to the perception of suffering in others, and resulting in a motivation to alleviate the afflicted party. We compared brain correlates of compassion-evoking images in women and men. BOLD functional images of 24 healthy volunteers (twelve women and twelve men; age=27 [plus or minus] 2.5 y.o.) were…

  20. International study on nurses' views and experiences of compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, I; Zorba, A; Koulouglioti, C; Ali, S; Aagard, M; Akman, O; Alpers, L-M; Apostolara, P; Biles, J; Martín-García, Á; González-Gil, T; Kouta, C; Krepinska, R; Kumar, B N; Lesińska-Sawicka, M; Lopez, L; Malliarou, M; Nagórska, M; Nissim, S; Nortvedt, L; Oter-Quintana, C; Ozturk, C; Pangilinan, S B; Papp, K; Eldar Regev, O; Rubiano, F O; Tolentino Diaz, M Y; Tóthová, V; Vasiliou, M

    2016-09-01

    Compassion is considered the cornerstone of nursing practice. However, the recent failures in delivering high-quality compassionate nursing care in the UK's National Health Service have brought the topic of compassion to the attention of the public, service providers, policy makers and academics. The aim of this study was to explore the nurses' views and experiences of a number of compassion-related issues in nursing and describe similarities and differences at an international level as well as from the different nursing roles of the participating nurses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study, using the International Online Compassion Questionnaire. A total of 1323 nurses from 15 countries completed the questionnaire. The majority of participants (59.5%) defined compassion as "Deep awareness of the suffering of others and wish to alleviate it" but definitions of compassion varied by country. Of participants, 69.6% thought compassion was very important in nursing and more than half (59.6%) of them argued that compassion could be taught. However, only 26.8% reported that the correct amount and level of teaching is provided. The majority of the participants (82.6%) stated that their patients prefer knowledgeable nurses with good interpersonal skills. Only 4.3% noted that they are receiving compassion from their managers. A significant relationship was found between nurses' experiences of compassion and their views about teaching of compassion. Our study is unique in identifying the views and experiences of nurses from 15 different countries worldwide. The findings reveal that compassion is neither addressed adequately in nursing education nor supported in the practice environment by managers. Self-report bias was inherent to our survey study design. Furthermore, the individual cultural differences and similarities in the findings are difficult to extrapolate owing to the fact that our analysis was at country level, as well as at the level of the

  1. Compassion Fatigue in Psychiatric Nursing: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Uslu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a systematic compilation study which aimed to determine whether psychiatry nurses were fatigue of compassion, or not. The screening of several databases revealed four articles fulfilling inclusion criteria of the study. While three of the articles examined were descriptive; one was in cross-sectional pattern. Along the inclusion criterions, no any Turkish article was determined regarding the subject. In these articles, compassion fatigue concept has usually been considered with “compassion satisfaction and burnout” concepts. According to the findings of aforesaid articles, it was determined that compassion satisfaction of psychiatry nurses was at low level; that their compassion fatigue and burnout levels were high; and as well that they showed post-traumatic stress symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 421-420

  2. An Improved Version of the Fluxgate Compass Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petrucha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite based navigation systems (GPS are widely used for ground, air and marine navigation. In the case of a malfunction or satellite signal inaccessibility, some back-up navigation system is needed. An electronic compass can provide this function. The compass module described in this paper is designed for precise navigation purposes. The compass module is equipped with electronic tilt error compensation, and includes everything in one package – electronics with digital output, sensors. A typical application of this compass is in underground drilling. A critical parameter in this application is heading accuracy. A reading error of 1 degree can cause a displacement of 1.8 metres in the target area (length of tunnel 100 m. This is not acceptable in an urban conglomeration, and therefore a more accurate heading sensing device must be used. An improved version of this electronic compass is being finished. 

  3. Best practices for assessing forage fish fisheries-seabird resource competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Anker-Nilssen, Tycho; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Bennison, Ashley; Bertrand, Sophie; Boersch-Supan, Philipp; Boyd, Charlotte; Bransome, Nicole C.; Crawford, Robert J.M.; Daunt, Francis; Furness, Robert W.; Gianuca, Dimas; Gladics, Amanda; Koehn, Laura; Lang, Jennifer W.; Loggerwell, Elizabeth; Morris, Taryn L.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Provencher, Jennifer; Punt, André E..; Saraux, Claire; Shannon, Lynne; Sherley, Richard B.; Simeone, Alejandro; Wanless, Ross M.; Wanless, Sarah; Zador, Stephani

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide, in recent years capture fisheries targeting lower-trophic level forage fish and euphausiid crustaceans have been substantial (∼20 million metric tons [MT] annually). Landings of forage species are projected to increase in the future, and this harvest may affect marine ecosystems and predator-prey interactions by removal or redistribution of biomass central to pelagic food webs. In particular, fisheries targeting forage fish and euphausiids may be in competition with seabirds, likely the most sensitive of marine vertebrates given limitations in their foraging abilities (ambit and gape size) and high metabolic rate, for food resources. Lately, apparent competition between fisheries and seabirds has led to numerous high-profile conflicts over interpretations, as well as the approaches that could and should be used to assess the magnitude and consequences of fisheries-seabird resource competition. In this paper, we review the methods used to date to study fisheries competition with seabirds, and present “best practices” for future resource competition assessments. Documenting current fisheries competition with seabirds generally involves addressing two major issues: 1) are fisheries causing localized prey depletion that is sufficient to affect the birds? (i.e., are fisheries limiting food resources?), and 2) how are fisheries-induced changes to forage stocks affecting seabird populations given the associated functional or numerical response relationships? Previous studies have been hampered by mismatches in the scale of fisheries, fish, and seabird data, and a lack of causal understanding due to confounding by climatic and other ecosystem factors (e.g., removal of predatory fish). Best practices for fisheries-seabird competition research should include i) clear articulation of hypotheses, ii) data collection (or summation) of fisheries, fish, and seabirds on matched spatio-temporal scales, and iii) integration of observational and experimental

  4. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M F Durif

    Full Text Available European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C, their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C, eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations. These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.

  5. Magnetic compass orientation in the European eel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durif, Caroline M F; Browman, Howard I; Phillips, John B; Skiftesvik, Anne Berit; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn; Stockhausen, Hans H

    2013-01-01

    European eel migrate from freshwater or coastal habitats throughout Europe to their spawning grounds in the Sargasso Sea. However, their route (~ 6000 km) and orientation mechanisms are unknown. Several attempts have been made to prove the existence of magnetoreception in Anguilla sp., but none of these studies have demonstrated magnetic compass orientation in earth-strength magnetic field intensities. We tested eels in four altered magnetic field conditions where magnetic North was set at geographic North, South, East, or West. Eels oriented in a manner that was related to the tank in which they were housed before the test. At lower temperature (under 12°C), their orientation relative to magnetic North corresponded to the direction of their displacement from the holding tank. At higher temperatures (12-17°C), eels showed bimodal orientation along an axis perpendicular to the axis of their displacement. These temperature-related shifts in orientation may be linked to the changes in behavior that occur between the warm season (during which eels are foraging) and the colder fall and winter (during which eels undertake their migrations). These observations support the conclusion that 1. eels have a magnetic compass, and 2. they use this sense to orient in a direction that they have registered moments before they are displaced. The adaptive advantage of having a magnetic compass and learning the direction in which they have been displaced becomes clear when set in the context of the eel's seaward migration. For example, if their migration is halted or blocked, as it is the case when environmental conditions become unfavorable or when they encounter a barrier, eels would be able to resume their movements along their old bearing when conditions become favorable again or when they pass by the barrier.

  6. The COMPASS Tokamak Plasma Control Software Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcarcel, Daniel F.; Neto, André; Carvalho, Ivo S.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Fernandes, Horácio; Sousa, Jorge; Janky, Filip; Havlicek, Josef; Beno, Radek; Horacek, Jan; Hron, Martin; Panek, Radomir

    2011-08-01

    The COMPASS tokamak has began operation at the IPP Prague in December 2008. A new control system has been built using an ATCA-based real-time system developed at IST Lisbon. The control software is implemented on top of the MARTe real-time framework attaining control cycles as short as 50 μs, with a jitter of less than 1 μs. The controlled parameters, important for the plasma performance, are the plasma current, position of the plasma current center, boundary shape and horizontal and vertical velocities. These are divided in two control cycles: slow at 500 μs and fast at 50 μs. The project has two phases. First, the software implements a digital controller, similar to the analog one used during the COMPASS-D operation in Culham. In the slow cycle, the plasma current and position are measured and controlled with PID and feedforward controllers, respectively, the shaping magnetic field is preprogrammed. The vertical instability and horizontal equilibrium are controlled with the faster 50-μs cycle PID controllers. The second phase will implement a plasma-shape reconstruction algorithm and controller, aiming at optimized plasma performance. The system was designed to be as modular as possible by breaking the functional requirements of the control system into several independent and specialized modules. This splitting enabled tuning the execution of each system part and to use the modules in a variety of applications with different time constraints. This paper presents the design and overall performance of the COMPASS control software.

  7. Lipid raft association restricts CD44-ezrin interaction and promotion of breast cancer cell migration.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donatello, Simona

    2012-12-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration.

  8. Who is at risk for compassion fatigue? An investigation of genetic counselor demographics, anxiety, compassion satisfaction, and burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Whiwon; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; MacFarlane, Ian M; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2015-04-01

    Compassion fatigue is a state of detachment and isolation experienced when healthcare providers repeatedly engage with patients in distress. Compassion fatigue can hinder empathy and cause extreme tension. Prior research suggests 73.8 % of genetic counselors are at moderate to high risk for compassion fatigue and approximately 1 in 4 have considered leaving the field as a result Injeyan et al. (Journal of Genetic Counseling, 20, 526-540, 2011). Empirical data to establish a reliable profile of genetic counselors at risk for compassion fatigue are limited. Thus the purpose of this study was to establish a profile by assessing relationships between state and trait anxiety, burnout, compassion satisfaction, selected demographics and compassion fatigue risk in practicing genetic counselors. Practicing genetic counselors (n = 402) completed an anonymous, online survey containing demographic questions, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Professional Quality of Life scale. Multiple regression analysis yielded four significant predictors which increase compassion fatigue risk (accounting for 48 % of the variance): higher levels of trait anxiety, burnout, and compassion satisfaction, and ethnicity other than Caucasian. Additional findings, study limitations, practice implications, and research recommendations are provided.

  9. Hadron physics at the COMPASS experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krinner Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The Compass experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron has acquired large data sets, which allow to study light-quark meson and baryon spectra in unprecedented detail. The presented overview of the first results from this data set focuses in particular on the light meson sector and presents a detailed analysis of three-pion final states. A new JPC = 1++ state, the a1(1420, is observed with a mass and width in the ranges m = 1412 − 1422MeV/c2 and Γ = 130 − 150MeV/c2.

  10. Observation of $X(3872)$ muoproduction at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Aghasyan, M.; The COMPASS collaboration; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N.V.; Anosov, V.; Antoshkin, A.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C.D.R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtsev, V.E.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chumakov, A.G.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Dünnweber, W.; Dusaev, R.R.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; jr.,M.Finger; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giarra, J.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grasso, A.; Gridin, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Kerbizi, A.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.M.; Kral, Z.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Kuznetsov, I.I.; Kveton, A.; Lednev, A.A.; Levchenko, E.A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mamon, S.A.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Pešková, M.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Rogacheva, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thiel, A.; Tomsa, J.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vauth, A.; Veloso, J.; Vidon, A.; Virius, M.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.

    2017-01-01

    We have observed exclusive production of the exotic $X(3872)$ hadron in the reaction $\\mu^+~N \\rightarrow \\mu^+ (J\\!/\\!\\psi\\pi^+\\pi^-)\\pi^{\\pm}~N'$ using COMPASS data collected with incoming muons of 160~GeV/$c$ and 200~GeV/$c$ momentum. The statistical significance of the $X(3872)$ signal is 6$\\sigma$. The shape of the two-pion mass distribution shows disagreement with previous observations. The product of cross section and branching fraction of the $X(3872)$ decay into $J\\!/\\!\\psi\\pi\\pi$ is determined to be 71$\\pm$28(stat)$\\pm$39(syst)~pb.

  11. COMPASS mirror wall of RICH 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment uses ring imaging Cherenkov (RICH) counters to identify particles produced in high-energy muon collisions, to better understand the spin structure of the nucleon. Charged particles moving faster than the speed of light in the medium through which they are travelling emit a cone of Cherenkov radiation in the direction of their motion. The light in this cone is reflected from these mirrors onto a photo detector so that the size of the cone can be measured, which gives the energy of the particle.

  12. The Advanced Stellar Compass, Development and Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Liebe, Carl Christian

    1996-01-01

    The science objective of the Danish Geomagnetic Research Satellite "Ørsted" is to map the magnetic field of the Earth, with a vector precision of a fraction of a nanotesla. This necessitates an attitude reference instrument with a precision of a few arcseconds onboard the satellite. To meet...... this demand the Advanced Stellar Compass (ASC), a fully autonomous miniature star tracker, was developed. This ASC is capable of both solving the "lost in space" problem and determine the attitude with arcseconds precision. The development, principles of operation and instrument autonomy of the ASC...

  13. Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zulueta, Paquita C

    2015-01-01

    'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2018-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  15. Fast Photon Detection for COMPASS RICH1

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dibiase, N; Dafni, T; Dalla Torre, S; Diaz, V; Duic, v; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, D; Kunne, F; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Neyret, D; Nerling, F; Pagano, P; Paul, S; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Pesaro, G; Pizzolotto, C; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Rocco, E; Robinet, F; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schoenmeier, P; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Steiger, L; Sozzi, F; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2006-01-01

    The new photon detection system for COMPASS RICH-1 has been designed to cope with the demanding requests of operation at high beam intensity and at high trigger rates. The detection technique in the central region of RICH-1 has been changed with a system based on multianode photomultipliers coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and to a fast, almost dead time free readout system based on the MAD-4 amplifier-discriminator and the F1 TDC-chip. The new photon detection system design and construction are described, as well as its first response in the experiment.

  16. The gluon Sivers asymmetry measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Szabelski, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The Sivers function describes the correlation between the transverse spin of a nucleon and the transverse motion of its partons. As such, a nonzero Sivers effect for gluons could be a signature of their nonzero orbital angular momentum inside the nucleon. COMPASS has collected data of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering by impinging 160 GeV/$c$ muons on transversely polarised proton and deuteron targets. The gluon Sivers asymmetry is extracted from a high-$p_T$ hadron pair sample with the use of monte carlo simulations and the a neural network approach. The results of a similar analysis for a Collins-like asymmetry for gluons will also be given.

  17. Available: lead plate from COMPASS experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    The COMPASS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The COMPASS collaboration would like to offer the possibility to take over a large and thick lead plate, since it is not required anymore in the spectrometer.   It has the following dimensions: thickness 100 mm, width 4.4 m and height 2.0 m, with a square hole in the middle with dimensions of 40 cm x 40 cm. The measured weight including the metal frame it is housed in is 10,180 kg. The CERN stores reference is 44.13.30.100.9. Please contact Erwin Bielert (erwin.bielert@cern.ch or 160539) for further information and details.

  18. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejarnac, Renaud; Corre, Y.; Vondráček, Petr; Gardarein, J.-L.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Horáček, Jan; Hron, Martin; Komm, Michael; Pánek, Radomír; Pitts, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, August (2017), s. 1374-1378 ISSN 2352-1791. [PSI 2016 - 22nd International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices/22./. Roma, 30.05.2016-03.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak * COMPASS Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352179116300187

  19. Overview of the COMPASS CODAC system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hron, Martin; Janky, Filip; Pipek, Jan; Sousa, J.; Carvalho, B.B.; Fernandes, H.; Vondráček, Petr; Cahyna, Pavel; Urban, Jakub; Papřok, Richard; Mikulín, Ondřej; Aftanas, Milan; Pánek, Radomír; Havlíček, Josef; Fortunato, J.; Batista, A.J.N.; Santos, B.A.; Duarte, A.; Pereira, T.; Valcárcel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2014), s. 177-185 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021; GA ČR GAP205/11/2470; GA ČR GP13-38121P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : tokamak * COMPASS * CODAC * Real-time control * MARTe * Experiment control Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.152, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379613006613#

  20. Lenalidomide induces lipid raft assembly to enhance erythropoietin receptor signaling in myelodysplastic syndrome progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Kathy L; Basiorka, Ashley A; Johnson, Joseph O; Clark, Justine; Caceres, Gisela; Padron, Eric; Heaton, Ruth; Ozawa, Yukiyasu; Wei, Sheng; Sokol, Lubomir; List, Alan F

    2014-01-01

    Anemia remains the principal management challenge for patients with lower risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS). Despite appropriate cytokine production and cellular receptor display, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) signaling is impaired. We reported that EpoR signaling is dependent upon receptor localization within lipid raft microdomains, and that disruption of raft integrity abolishes signaling capacity. Here, we show that MDS erythroid progenitors display markedly diminished raft assembly and smaller raft aggregates compared to normal controls (p = 0.005, raft number; p = 0.023, raft size). Because lenalidomide triggers raft coalescence in T-lymphocytes promoting immune synapse formation, we assessed effects of lenalidomide on raft assembly in MDS erythroid precursors and UT7 cells. Lenalidomide treatment rapidly induced lipid raft formation accompanied by EpoR recruitment into raft fractions together with STAT5, JAK2, and Lyn kinase. The JAK2 phosphatase, CD45, a key negative regulator of EpoR signaling, was displaced from raft fractions. Lenalidomide treatment prior to Epo stimulation enhanced both JAK2 and STAT5 phosphorylation in UT7 and primary MDS erythroid progenitors, accompanied by increased STAT5 DNA binding in UT7 cells, and increased erythroid colony forming capacity in both UT7 and primary cells. Raft induction was associated with F-actin polymerization, which was blocked by Rho kinase inhibition. These data indicate that deficient raft integrity impairs EpoR signaling, and provides a novel strategy to enhance EpoR signal fidelity in non-del(5q) MDS.

  1. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal

  2. Self-Compassion among College Counseling Center Clients: An Examination of Clinical Norms and Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockard, Allison J.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Neff, Kristin; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mental health benefits of self-compassion. This study was designed to establish norms on the Self-Compassion Scale-Short Form, a popular measure of self-compassion for individuals seeking counseling, and to examine group differences in self-compassion based on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation,…

  3. COMPASS magnetic field coils and structure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, R.T.; Booth, J.A.; Hayward, R.J.; Keogh, P.; Pratt, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    COMPASS is a new experimental toroidal assembly of compact design and with a wide range of physics objectives. It is required to operate either as a Tokamak or as a Reversed Field Pinch with interchangeable circular and dee-section vacuum vessels. The Toroidal field is produced by 16 rectangular coils of 4 turns with tapered conductors on the inside which nest together to form a vault to resist the centering forces. The coils are designed to produce a maximum field on axis of 2.1T which requires a current of 91 kA per turn. Two central solenoids and five pairs of coils symmetrically positioned above and below the machine equator provide the poloidal field. Both coil systems are supported form a mechanical support structure which surrounds the machine. This is primarily designed to resist out-of-plane forces on the TF coils but also acts as the base support for the PF coils and vacuum vessels. An illustration of the COMPASS Load Assembly is given and shows the D-shaped vacuum vessel, the major components and the various field windings

  4. Recent Results on Spectroscopy from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Grube, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) is a multi-purpose fixed-target experiment at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) aimed at studying the structure and spectrum of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer has a good acceptance for charged as well as neutral particles over a wide kinematic range and is thus able to measure a wide range of reactions. Light mesons are studied with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of 190 GeV/$c$. The light-meson spectrum is investigated in various final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions at squared four-momentum transfers to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 (GeV/$c$)$^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently largest data sample. These data not only allow for measuring the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also for searching for new states. Among these is a new resonance-like signal, t...

  5. Light-Meson Spectroscopy at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the COMPASS experiment at CERN is to study the structure and spectroscopy of hadrons. The two-stage spectrometer has large acceptance and covers a wide kinematic range for charged as well as neutral particles allowing to access a wide range of reactions. Light mesons are studied with negative (mostly $\\pi^-$) and positive ($p$, $\\pi^+$) hadron beams with a momentum of $190\\,\\text{GeV}/c$. The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer $t$ to the target between $0.1$ and $1.0\\,(\\text{GeV}/c)^2$. The flagship channel is the $\\pi^-\\pi^+\\pi^-$ final state, for which COMPASS has recorded the currently world's largest data sample. These data not only allow us to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to search for new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the $a_1(1420)$, with unusual properties. The findings are confirmed by the analysis of the $\\pi^-\\pi^0\\pi^...

  6. Compassion Fatigue: Description, Causes and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Hicdurmaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, paralel to prolonging life time, illness experience can change life of everyone who takes care of the individual directly or indirectly. Prolonging of this time for patient, simultaneously causes prolonging of the time for the care and treatment providers and them to be with the patient more during illness and suffering process. Caring for chronically ill individuals by getting aware of that they won't be able to recover completely, causes them to experience various problems called compassion fatigue. Compasion fatigue is described as the natural feeling and behaviour arising from knowing the traumatizing events which a significant other has experienced; as the stress arising from helping or wanting to help a traumatized individual. The aim of this review is to describe compassion fatigue, explain the concepts with which it is related, and by this way to increase the awareness of professionals who work in helping professions. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 295-303

  7. Inhibition of Akt signaling by exclusion from lipid rafts in normal and transformed epidermal keratinocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calay, Damien; Vind-Kezunovic, Dina; Frankart, Aurelie

    2010-01-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich plasma membrane domains that regulate signal transduction. Because our earlier work indicated that raft disruption inhibited proliferation and caused cell death, we investigated here the role of membrane cholesterol, the crucial raft constituent, in the regulation...... of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Raft disruption was achieved in normal human keratinocytes and precancerous (HaCaT) or transformed (A431) keratinocytes by cholesterol extraction or inactivation with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, filipin III, or 5-cholestene-5-beta-ol. Lipid raft disruption did not affect...... in deactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin, activation of FoxO3a, and increased sensitivity to apoptosis stimuli. Lipid raft disruption abrogated the binding of Akt and the major Akt kinase, phosphatidylinositol-dependent kinase 1, to the membrane by pleckstrin-homology domains. Thus, the integrity of lipid...

  8. Study on design method and vibration reduction characteristic of floating raft with periodic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yanyan; Xia, Zhaowang

    2018-03-01

    The noise level is getting higher with the development of high-power marine power plant. Mechanical noise is one of the most obvious noise sources which not only affect equipment reliability, riding comfort and working environment, but also enlarge underwater noise. The periodic truss type device which is commonly applied in fields of aerospace and architectural is introduced to floating raft construction in ship. Four different raft frame structure are designed in the paper. The vibration transmissibility is taken as an evaluation index to measure vibration isolation effect. A design scheme with the best vibration isolation effect is found by numerical method. Plate type and the optimized periodic truss type raft frame structure are processed to experimental verify vibration isolation effect of the structure of the periodic raft. The experimental results demonstrate that the same quality of the periodic truss floating raft has better isolation effect than that of the plate type floating raft.

  9. Lipid rafts generate digital-like signal transduction in cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2012-06-01

    Lipid rafts are meso-scale (5-200 nm) cell membrane domains where signaling molecules assemble and function. However, due to their dynamic nature, it has been difficult to unravel the mechanism of signal transduction in lipid rafts. Recent advanced imaging techniques have revealed that signaling molecules are frequently, but transiently, recruited to rafts with the aid of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and/or lipid-lipid interactions. Individual signaling molecules within the raft are activated only for a short period of time. Immobilization of signaling molecules by cytoskeletal actin filaments and scaffold proteins may facilitate more efficient signal transmission from rafts. In this review, current opinions of how the transient nature of molecular interactions in rafts generates digital-like signal transduction in cell membranes, and the benefits this phenomenon provides, are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect analysis of geometric parameters of floating raft on isolation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shangda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper focuses on the effects of the geometric parameters of a floating raft on isolation performance.[Methods] Based on the idea that the weight of a floating raft remains constant, a parametric finite element model is established using geometric parameters, and the effects of the geometric parameters when isolation performance is measured by vibration level difference are discussed.[Results] The effects of the geometric parameters of a floating raft on isolation performance are mainly reflected in the middle and high frequency areas. The most important geometric parameters which have an impact on isolation performance are the raft's height, length to width ratio and number of ribs. Adjusting the geometric parameters of the raft is one effective way to avoid the vibration frequency of mechanical equipment.[Conclusions] This paper has some practical value for the engineering design of floating raft isolation systems.

  11. Tissue Engineering the Cornea: The Evolution of RAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levis, Hannah J.; Kureshi, Alvena K.; Massie, Isobel; Morgan, Louise; Vernon, Amanda J.; Daniels, Julie T.

    2015-01-01

    Corneal blindness affects over 10 million people worldwide and current treatment strategies often involve replacement of the defective layer with healthy tissue. Due to a worldwide donor cornea shortage and the absence of suitable biological scaffolds, recent research has focused on the development of tissue engineering techniques to create alternative therapies. This review will detail how we have refined the simple engineering technique of plastic compression of collagen to a process we now call Real Architecture for 3D Tissues (RAFT). The RAFT production process has been standardised, and steps have been taken to consider Good Manufacturing Practice compliance. The evolution of this process has allowed us to create biomimetic epithelial and endothelial tissue equivalents suitable for transplantation and ideal for studying cell-cell interactions in vitro. PMID:25809689

  12. Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ziaie Moayed; B. Mohammadi-Haji

    2016-01-01

    Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of ...

  13. The foundation mass concrete construction technology of Hongyun Building B tower raft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Yin, Suhua; Wu, Yanli; Zhao, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The foundation of Hongyun building B tower is made of raft board foundation which is 3300mm in the thickness and 2800mm beside side of the core tube. It is researched that the raft foundation mass concrete construction technology is expatiated from temperature and cracks of the raft foundation and the temperature control and monitoring of the concrete base slab construction and concrete curing.

  14. Effect of modeling of super-structure on the behaviour of reactor building raft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, A.; Singh, A.K.; Roy, Raghupati; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of the reactor building raft was studied when the stiffness of the super-structural elements is included in the analysis as compared to the results of conventional analysis ignoring the stiffness of the super-structural elements. The effect of the stiffness of the super-structures on the loss of contact of the raft under seismic environment was also investigated. In order to study the effect of horizontal springs on the behaviour of the raft particularly near the stressing gallery under seismic environment, a separate study has been carried out considering a 3D model consisting of solid elements supported on both horizontal and vertical springs. The model was analysed for all the forces applied at the top of the raft and the analysis results were compared with those of shell model. The following conclusions are drawn: (i) Idealisation of the reactor building raft using shell elements is adequate for estimating the design forces/moments on the raft. The design forces/moments obtained from FE model consisting of solid elements closely matches with those obtained from FE model with shell elements. Idealisation of the RB raft using shell elements will also reduce the problem size and the related computational efforts. (ii) The stiffness of the super-structure has significant effect on the behaviour of the raft. Consideration of the stiffness of the super structure reduces the design forces/moments significantly and hence, modelling of the stiffness of the super structure is necessary for economical design. (iii) Modelling of horizontal stiffness of the raft in terms of horizontal springs at the interface of the raft and the rock does not have significant effect on the behaviour of the raft and as such, is not required to be considered in the FE model. However, it is necessary to ensure adequate factor of safety against the overall stability of the raft

  15. An empirical examination of the factor structure of compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jenny; Cavanagh, Kate; Baer, Ruth; Strauss, Clara

    2017-01-01

    Compassion has long been regarded as a core part of our humanity by contemplative traditions, and in recent years, it has received growing research interest. Following a recent review of existing conceptualisations, compassion has been defined as consisting of the following five elements: 1) recognising suffering, 2) understanding the universality of suffering in human experience, 3) feeling moved by the person suffering and emotionally connecting with their distress, 4) tolerating uncomfortable feelings aroused (e.g., fear, distress) so that we remain open to and accepting of the person suffering, and 5) acting or being motivated to act to alleviate suffering. As a prerequisite to developing a high quality compassion measure and furthering research in this field, the current study empirically investigated the factor structure of the five-element definition using a combination of existing and newly generated self-report items. This study consisted of three stages: a systematic consultation with experts to review items from existing self-report measures of compassion and generate additional items (Stage 1), exploratory factor analysis of items gathered from Stage 1 to identify the underlying structure of compassion (Stage 2), and confirmatory factor analysis to validate the identified factor structure (Stage 3). Findings showed preliminary empirical support for a five-factor structure of compassion consistent with the five-element definition. However, findings indicated that the 'tolerating' factor may be problematic and not a core aspect of compassion. This possibility requires further empirical testing. Limitations with items from included measures lead us to recommend against using these items collectively to assess compassion. Instead, we call for the development of a new self-report measure of compassion, using the five-element definition to guide item generation. We recommend including newly generated 'tolerating' items in the initial item pool, to determine

  16. Compassion, Mindfulness, and the Happiness of Healthcare Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Roberto P; Kirsch, Janae L; Nelson, Carlie

    Decreased well-being of healthcare workers expressed as stress and decreased job satisfaction influences patient safety, patient satisfaction, and cost containment. Self-compassion has garnered recent attention due to its positive association with well-being and happiness. Discovering novel pathways to increase the well-being of healthcare workers is essential. This study sought to explore the influence of self-compassion on employee happiness in healthcare professionals. A total of 400 participants (mean age = 45 ± 14, 65% female) healthcare workers at a large teaching hospital were randomly asked to complete questionnaires assessing their levels of happiness and self-compassion, life conditions, and habits. Participants completed the Happiness Scale and Self-Compassion Scales, the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire as well as variables associated with well-being: relationship status, the number of hours spent exercising a week, attendance at a wellness facility, and engagement in a regular spiritual practice. Self-compassion was significantly and independently associated with perceived happiness explaining 39% of its variance after adjusting for age, marital status, gender, time spent exercising, and attendance to an exercise facility. Two specific subdomains of self-compassion from the instrument used, coping with isolation and mindfulness, accounted for 95% of the self-compassion effect on happiness. Self-compassion is meaningfully and independently associated with happiness and well-being in healthcare professionals. Our results may have practical implications by providing specific self-compassion components to be targeted in future programs aimed at enhancing well-being in healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chlamydiaceae in North Atlantic Seabirds Admitted to a Wildlife Rescue Center in Western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaziz, R; Gourlay, P; Vorimore, F; Sachse, K; Siarkou, V I; Laroucau, K

    2015-07-01

    Birds are the primary hosts of Chlamydia psittaci, a bacterium that can cause avian chlamydiosis in birds and psittacosis in humans. Wild seabirds are frequently admitted to wildlife rescue centers (WRC) at European Atlantic coasts, for example, in connection with oil spills. To investigate the extent of chlamydial shedding by these birds and the resulting risk for animals in care and the medical staff, seabirds from a French WRC were sampled from May 2011 to January 2014. By use of a quantitative PCR (qPCR), 195 seabirds belonging to 4 orders, 5 families and 13 species were examined, of which 18.5% proved to be Chlamydiaceae positive. The highest prevalence of shedders was found in northern gannets (Morus bassanus) (41%), followed by European herring gulls (Larus argentatus) (14%) and common murres (Uria aalge) (7%). Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of qPCR-positive northern gannet samples revealed two variants of a strain closely related to C. psittaci. In European herring gulls and in one common murre, strains showing high sequence similarity to the atypical Chlamydiaceae-like C122 previously found in gulls were detected. Our study shows that seabirds from the northeastern Atlantic Ocean carry several chlamydial organisms, including C. psittaci-related strains. The staff in WRCs should take protective measures, particularly in the case of mass admissions of seabirds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Seabird colonies as important global drivers in the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Xosé Luis; De La Peña-Lastra, Saul; Pérez-Alberti, Augusto; Ferreira, Tiago Osorio; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2018-01-23

    Seabirds drastically transform the environmental conditions of the sites where they establish their breeding colonies via soil, sediment, and water eutrophication (hereafter termed ornitheutrophication). Here, we report worldwide amounts of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) excreted by seabirds using an inventory of global seabird populations applied to a bioenergetics model. We estimate these fluxes to be 591 Gg N y -1 and 99 Gg P y -1 , respectively, with the Antarctic and Southern coasts receiving the highest N and P inputs. We show that these inputs are of similar magnitude to others considered in global N and P cycles, with concentrations per unit of surface area in seabird colonies among the highest measured on the Earth's surface. Finally, an important fraction of the total excreted N (72.5 Gg y -1 ) and P (21.8 Gg y -1 ) can be readily solubilized, increasing their short-term bioavailability in continental and coastal waters located near the seabird colonies.

  19. Healthcare and Compassion: Towards an Awareness of Intersubjective Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Kate

    2015-01-01

    How to instill compassion in a healthcare organization? In this article, I respond to Marianna Fotaki’s proposals in her piece,‘Why and how is compassion necessary to provide good quality healthcare?’ by drawing on insights from organization studies. Following Fotaki, I argue that to instill targets and formal measures for assessing compassion would be problematic. I conclude by drawing on psychoanalytic and feminist theories to introduce alternatives, specifically proposing an approach that is grounded in a shared sense of a common, embodied precarity, which necessitates our commitment to preserving the conditions in which life might flouris PMID:26340496

  20. Seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and Macaronesian waters: a review and a way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cooper

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A country-by-country review of seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and in Macaronesian waters shows a paucity of data. Of 12 Mediterranean countries known to undertake longlining, seabird mortality is only reported for six: France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Spain and Tunisia. Seabird mortality from longlining has been reported from the Azores (Portugal but not from the other Macaronesian Islands. Only for one country, Spain, is information on the levels of mortality available, suggesting that 4-6% of the local breeding population of Cory´s shearwater Calonectris diomedea may be killed annually, a level considered unsustainable for the long-term persistence of colonies. Cory´s shearwater is the most commonly affected species, although a number of Larus gull species are also being caught. There is insufficient knowledge to conclude whether any seabird species is at conservation risk within the region, but concern is expressed for Cory´s shearwater. It is recommended that Mediterranean and Macaronesian countries conduct assessments of their longline fisheries and seabird mortality in terms of the Food and Agriculture Organization´s International Plan of Action - Seabirds. Regional fishery organisations, such as ICCAT and GFCM, should commence the collection of seabird mortality data. A longline action plan for the affected seabird species should be produced.

  1. Lipid alterations in lipid rafts from Alzheimer's disease human brain cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Virginia; Fabelo, Noemí; Santpere, Gabriel; Puig, Berta; Marín, Raquel; Ferrer, Isidre; Díaz, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains intimately associated with cell signaling. These biochemical microstructures are characterized by their high contents of sphingolipids, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Here, we have purified lipid rafts of human frontal brain cortex from normal and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized their biochemical lipid composition. The results revealed that lipid rafts from AD brains exhibit aberrant lipid profiles compared to healthy brains. In particular, lipid rafts from AD brains displayed abnormally low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA, mainly 22:6n-3, docosahexaenoic acid) and monoenes (mainly 18:1n-9, oleic acid), as well as reduced unsaturation and peroxidability indexes. Also, multiple relationships between phospholipids and fatty acids were altered in AD lipid rafts. Importantly, no changes were observed in the mole percentage of lipid classes and fatty acids in rafts from normal brains throughout the lifespan (24-85 years). These indications point to the existence of homeostatic mechanisms preserving lipid raft status in normal frontal cortex. The disruption of such mechanisms in AD brains leads to a considerable increase in lipid raft order and viscosity, which may explain the alterations in lipid raft signaling observed in AD.

  2. Formulation and optimisation of raft-forming chewable tablets containing H2 antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Shailesh T; Mehta, Anant P; Modhia, Ishan P; Patel, Chhagan N

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this research work was to formulate raft-forming chewable tablets of H2 antagonist (Famotidine) using a raft-forming agent along with an antacid- and gas-generating agent. Tablets were prepared by wet granulation and evaluated for raft strength, acid neutralisation capacity, weight variation, % drug content, thickness, hardness, friability and in vitro drug release. Various raft-forming agents were used in preliminary screening. A 2(3) full-factorial design was used in the present study for optimisation. The amount of sodium alginate, amount of calcium carbonate and amount sodium bicarbonate were selected as independent variables. Raft strength, acid neutralisation capacity and drug release at 30 min were selected as responses. Tablets containing sodium alginate were having maximum raft strength as compared with other raft-forming agents. Acid neutralisation capacity and in vitro drug release of all factorial batches were found to be satisfactory. The F5 batch was optimised based on maximum raft strength and good acid neutralisation capacity. Drug-excipient compatibility study showed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Stability study of the optimised formulation showed that the tablets were stable at accelerated environmental conditions. It was concluded that raft-forming chewable tablets prepared using an optimum amount of sodium alginate, calcium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate could be an efficient dosage form in the treatment of gastro oesophageal reflux disease.

  3. Surface chemistry of lipid raft and amyloid Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Garima; Pao, Christine; Micic, Miodrag; Johnson, Sheba; Leblanc, Roger M

    2011-10-15

    Lipid rafts being rich in cholesterol and sphingolipids are considered to provide ordered lipid environment in the neuronal membranes, where it is hypothesized that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) to Aβ (1-40) and Aβ (1-42) takes place. It is highly likely that the interaction of lipid raft components like cholesterol, sphingomylein or GM1 leads to nucleation of Aβ and results in aggregation or accumulation of amyloid plaques. One has investigated surface pressure-area isotherms of the lipid raft and Aβ (1-40) Langmuir monolayer. The compression-decompression cycles and the stability of the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer are crucial parameters for the investigation of interaction of Aβ (1-40) with the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. It was revealed that GM1 provides instability to the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer. Adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing neutral (POPC) or negatively charged phospholipid (DPPG) was examined. The adsorption isotherms revealed that the concentration of cholesterol was important for adsorption of Aβ (1-40) onto the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing POPC whereas for the lipid raft Langmuir monolayer containing DPPG:cholesterol or GM1 did not play any role. In situ UV-vis absorption spectroscopy supported the interpretation of results for the adsorption isotherms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipid raft integrity affects GABAA receptor, but not NMDA receptor modulation by psychopharmacological compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurfter, Caroline; Tanasic, Sascha; Di Benedetto, Barbara; Uhr, Manfred; Wagner, Eva-Maria; Gilling, Kate E; Parsons, Chris G; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Rupprecht, Rainer; Rammes, Gerhard

    2013-07-01

    Lipid rafts have been shown to play an important role for G-protein mediated signal transduction and the function of ligand-gated ion channels including their modulation by psychopharmacological compounds. In this study, we investigated the functional significance of the membrane distribution of NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits in relation to the accumulation of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DMI) and the benzodiazepine diazepam (Diaz). In the presence of Triton X-100, which allowed proper separation of the lipid raft marker proteins caveolin-1 and flotillin-1 from the transferrin receptor, all receptor subunits were shifted to the non-raft fractions. In contrast, under detergent-free conditions, NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits were detected both in raft and non-raft fractions. Diaz was enriched in non-raft fractions without Triton X-100 in contrast to DMI, which preferentially accumulated in lipid rafts. Impairment of lipid raft integrity by methyl-β-cyclodextrine (MβCD)-induced cholesterol depletion did not change the inhibitory effect of DMI at the NMDA receptor, whereas it enhanced the potentiating effect of Diaz at the GABAA receptor at non-saturating concentrations of GABA. These results support the hypothesis that the interaction of benzodiazepines with the GABAA receptor likely occurs outside of lipid rafts while the antidepressant DMI acts on ionotropic receptors both within and outside these membrane microdomains.

  5. Self-Compassion Online: A Pilot Study of an Internet-Based Self-Compassion Cultivation Program for Psychology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay-Jones, Amy; Kane, Robert; Rees, Clare

    2017-07-01

    The current study sought to conduct a preliminary investigation of the effectiveness and feasibility of a novel, self-guided online self-compassion training for reducing psychological distress and increasing self-compassion and happiness among psychology trainees. A 6-week online self-compassion cultivation program was developed and delivered to Australian psychology trainees (n = 37), and a pre-experimental repeated-measures design was used to collect change data on self-compassion, happiness, perceived stress, emotion regulation difficulties as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants reported significant increases in self-compassion and happiness and significant decreases in depression, stress, and emotion regulation difficulties between pretest and posttest, with the majority of changes maintained at 3-month follow up.  This study provides preliminary evidence supporting the effectiveness and acceptability of online self-compassion training as a positive, integrated, and meaningful way of reducing distress and promoting self-compassion and happiness among trainee psychologists. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Seabirds, gyres and global trends in plastic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franeker, Jan A. van; Law, Kara Lavender

    2015-01-01

    Fulmars are effective biological indicators of the abundance of floating plastic marine debris. Long-term data reveal high plastic abundance in the southern North Sea, gradually decreasing to the north at increasing distance from population centres, with lowest levels in high-arctic waters. Since the 1980s, pre-production plastic pellets in North Sea fulmars have decreased by ∼75%, while user plastics varied without a strong overall change. Similar trends were found in net-collected floating plastic debris in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre, with a ∼75% decrease in plastic pellets and no obvious trend in user plastic. The decreases in pellets suggest that changes in litter input are rapidly visible in the environment not only close to presumed sources, but also far from land. Floating plastic debris is rapidly “lost” from the ocean surface to other as-yet undetermined sinks in the marine environment. - Highlights: • Seabirds are effective biological monitors of floating plastic marine debris. • Plastics in fulmar stomachs and in the North Atlantic gyre show similar trends. • Pre-production plastic pellets show strong decreases in fulmars and in the gyre. • These data show that floating plastics rapidly disappear from the ocean surface. - Long term studies give evidence that reduced input of plastic debris into the ocean becomes rapidly visible. Floating plastics disappear to as-yet undetermined sinks

  7. Seabird species vary in behavioural response to drone census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson-Curadeau, Émile; Bird, David; Burke, Chantelle; Fifield, David A; Pace, Paul; Sherley, Richard B; Elliott, Kyle H

    2017-12-20

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide an opportunity to rapidly census wildlife in remote areas while removing some of the hazards. However, wildlife may respond negatively to the UAVs, thereby skewing counts. We surveyed four species of Arctic cliff-nesting seabirds (glaucous gull Larus hyperboreus, Iceland gull Larus glaucoides, common murre Uria aalge and thick-billed murre Uria lomvia) using a UAV and compared censusing techniques to ground photography. An average of 8.5% of murres flew off in response to the UAV, but >99% of those birds were non-breeders. We were unable to detect any impact of the UAV on breeding success of murres, except at a site where aerial predators were abundant and several birds lost their eggs to predators following UAV flights. Furthermore, we found little evidence for habituation by murres to the UAV. Most gulls flew off in response to the UAV, but returned to the nest within five minutes. Counts of gull nests and adults were similar between UAV and ground photography, however the UAV detected up to 52.4% more chicks because chicks were camouflaged and invisible to ground observers. UAVs provide a less hazardous and potentially more accurate method for surveying wildlife. We provide some simple recommendations for their use.

  8. Modelling seabird collision risk with off-shore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Maria; Arroyo, Gonzalo Munoz; Rosario, Jose Juan Alonso del

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent concern about the adverse effects of collision mortality of avian migrants at wind farms has highlighted the need to understand bird-wind turbine interactions. Here, a stochastic collision model, based on data of seabird behaviour collected on- site, is presented, as a flexible and easy to take tool to assess the collisions probabilities of off-shore wind farms in a pre-construction phase. The collision prediction model considering the wind farm area as a risk window has been constructed as a stochastic model for avian migrants, based on Monte Carlo simulation. The model calculates the probable number of birds collided per time unit. Migration volume, wind farm dimensions, vertical and horizontal distribution of the migratory passage, flight direction and avoidance rates, between other variables, are taken into account in different steps of the model as the input variables. In order to assess the weighted importance of these factors on collision probability predictions, collision probabilities obtained from the set of scenarios resulting from the different combinations of the input variables were modelled by using Generalised Additive Models. The application of this model to a hypothetical project for erecting a wind farm at the Strait of Gibraltar showed that collision probability, and consequently mortality rates, strongly depend on the values of the avoidance rates taken into account, and the distribution of birds into the different altitude layers. These parameters should be considered as priorities to be addressed in post-construction studies. (Author)

  9. GPS tracking for mapping seabird mortality induced by light pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Airam; Rodríguez, Beneharo; Negro, Juan J

    2015-06-02

    Light pollution and its consequences on ecosystems are increasing worldwide. Knowledge on the threshold levels of light pollution at which significant ecological impacts emerge and the size of dark refuges to maintain natural nocturnal processes is crucial to mitigate its negative consequences. Seabird fledglings are attracted by artificial lights when they leave their nest at night, causing high mortality. We used GPS data-loggers to track the flights of Cory's shearwater Calonectris diomedea fledglings from nest-burrows to ground, and to evaluate the light pollution levels of overflown areas on Tenerife, Canary Islands, using nocturnal, high-resolution satellite imagery. Birds were grounded at locations closer than 16 km from colonies in their maiden flights, and 50% were rescued within a 3 km radius from the nest-site. Most birds left the nests in the first three hours after sunset. Rescue locations showed radiance values greater than colonies, and flight distance was positively related to light pollution levels. Breeding habitat alteration by light pollution was more severe for inland colonies. We provide scientific-based information to manage dark refuges facilitating that fledglings from inland colonies reach the sea successfully. We also offer methodological approaches useful for other critically threatened petrel species grounded by light pollution.

  10. Descriptive study of burnout, compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary education institution in KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina T. Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: As shown in the study, some of the undergraduate students are experiencing compassion fatigue and burnout, associated with relieving suffering of others. Therefore, knowledge of compassion fatigue and burnout and the coping strategies should be part of nursing training.

  11. Analysis of detergent-free lipid rafts isolated from CD4+ T cell line: interaction with antigen presenting cells promotes coalescing of lipid rafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Colleen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid rafts present on the plasma membrane play an important role in spatiotemporal regulation of cell signaling. Physical and chemical characterization of lipid raft size and assessment of their composition before, and after cell stimulation will aid in developing a clear understanding of their regulatory role in cell signaling. We have used visual and biochemical methods and approaches for examining individual and lipid raft sub-populations isolated from a mouse CD4+ T cell line in the absence of detergents. Results Detergent-free rafts were analyzed before and after their interaction with antigen presenting cells. We provide evidence that the average diameter of lipid rafts isolated from un-stimulated T cells, in the absence of detergents, is less than 100 nm. Lipid rafts on CD4+ T cell membranes coalesce to form larger structures, after interacting with antigen presenting cells even in the absence of a foreign antigen. Conclusions Findings presented here indicate that lipid raft coalescence occurs during cellular interactions prior to sensing a foreign antigen.

  12. Measuring relationships between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, burnout and well-being in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists: a quantitative survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Elaine.; Durkin, Mark.; Hollins Martin, Caroline J.; Carson, Jerome.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged deficiency in self-care strategies puts counsellors and psychotherapists at risk of burnout and compassion fatigue. Aim: To measure associations between self-compassion, compassion fatigue, wellbeing and burnout in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists. Method: A quantitative survey using four validated data collection instruments: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental We...

  13. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses compared with nurses in other selected inpatient specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Crystal; Craig, Janet; Janvrin, David R; Wetsel, Margaret A; Reimels, Elaine

    2010-09-01

    Today the proportion of acute patients entering the health care system through emergency departments continues to grow, the number of uninsured patients relying primarily on treatment in the emergency department is increasing, and patients' average acuities are rising. At the same time, support resources are constrained, while reimbursement and reputation depends increasingly on publicly available measures of patient satisfaction. It is important to understand the potential effect of these pressures on direct care staff. This study explores the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue among emergency nurses and nurses in other selected inpatient specialties. Emergency nurses and nurses from 3 other specialty units self-selected participation in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed a sociodemographic profile and the Professional Quality of Life: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales, R-IV. Scale scores were summed for compassion satisfaction, burnout, and compassion fatigue for emergency nurses and compared with those of nurses in other specialties. Approximately 82% of emergency nurses had moderate to high levels of burnout, and nearly 86% had moderate to high levels of compassion fatigue. Differences between emergency nurses and those working in 3 other specialty areas, that is, oncology, nephrology, and intensive care, on the subscales for compassion satisfaction, burnout, or compassion fatigue did not reach the level of statistical significance. However, the scores of emergency nurses evidenced a risk for less compassion satisfaction, while intensive care nurses demonstrated a higher risk for burnout and oncology nurses reflected a risk for higher compassion fatigue. ED nurse managers, along with other nurse leaders, are faced with the competing demands of managing the satisfaction of patients, recruitment and retention of experienced nurses, and provision of quality and safe care customized to patients' needs

  14. Seabird data collected by the Grand Banks offshore hydrocarbon industry 1999-2002 : results, limitations and suggestions for improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, S.M.; Robertson, G.J.; Wiese, F.K.

    2005-01-01

    Offshore oil operations attract and concentrate migratory seabirds through an artificially enhanced food supply and lights. In order to understand the vulnerability of seabirds near offshore oil facilities, the degree of association of seabirds with these sites must be determined. Offshore oil and gas exploration on Newfoundland's Grand Banks began in the early 1980s, with first oil produced in 1997 at the Hibernia fixed platform. Additional production followed in 2002 from the Terra Nova Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel. As the Grand Banks oil industry grows, seismic surveys continue to be conducted and an estimated 30,000 litres of crude oil and synthetic based drilling fluids have been spilled from exploration drilling, development drilling and production oil operations between 1997 and 2002. Most of the spills occurred in winter when the number of seabirds on the Grand Banks are highest and most vulnerable to oil pollution. This report presents an evaluation of the current Grand Banks offshore oil and gas development seabird monitoring programs. It focuses mostly on seabird monitoring on fixed platforms. The objective was to assess the scientific quality of seabird-related industry programs by compiling and summarizing all available spatial and temporal seabird abundance data and deck stranded birds associated with Grand Banks offshore oil platforms from 1997 to 2002. Data on seabird distributions at sea and stranded bird encounters was collected from 8 offshore hydrocarbon sites on the northeastern Grand Banks. It was recommended that a standardized seabird monitoring and observer training program for the offshore operations in the Grand Banks region be implemented. 43 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs., 3 appendices

  15. Light-Meson Spectroscopy at Compass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krinner Fabian

    2017-01-01

    The light-meson spectrum is measured in different final states produced in diffractive dissociation reactions with squared four-momentum transfer t to the target between 0.1 and 1.0 (GeV/c2. The flagship channel is the π−π+π− final state, for which Compass has recorded the currently world’s largest data sample. These data not only allow us to measure the properties of known resonances with high precision, but also to search for new states. Among these is a new axial-vector signal, the a1(1420, with unusual properties. The findings are confirmed by the analysis of the π−π0π0 final state.

  16. Charged pions polarizability measurement at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Guskov, A

    2010-01-01

    The pion electromagnetic structure can be probed in $\\pi^{−}+(A,Z)\\rightarrow\\pi^{-}+(A,Z)+\\gamma$ Compton scattering in inverse kinematics (Primakoff reaction) and described by the electric $(\\alpha_{\\pi})$ and the magnetic $(\\beta_{\\pi})$ polarizabilities that depend on the rigidity of pion’s internal structure as a composite particle. Values for pion polarizabilities can be extracted from the comparison of the differential cross section for scattering of point-like pions with the measured cross section. The opportunity to measure pion polarizability via the Primakoff reaction at the COMPASS experiment was studied with $a$ $\\pi^{-}$ beam of 190 GeV during pilot run 2004. The obtained results were used for preparation of the new data taking which was performed in 2009.

  17. The compass rose pattern in electricity prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Jonathan A; Hamada, Mahmoud

    2009-12-01

    The "compass rose pattern" is known to appear in the phase portraits, or scatter diagrams, of the high-frequency returns of financial series. We first show that this pattern is also present in the returns of spot electricity prices. Early researchers investigating these phenomena hoped that these patterns signaled the presence of rich dynamics, possibly chaotic or fractal in nature. Although there is a definite autoregressive and conditional heteroscedasticity structure in electricity returns, we find that after simple filtering no pattern remains. While the series is non-normal in terms of their distribution and statistical tests fail to identify significant chaos, there is evidence of fractal structures in periodic price returns when measured over the trading day. The phase diagram of the filtered returns provides a useful visual check on independence, a property necessary for pricing and trading derivatives and portfolio construction, as well as providing useful insights into the market dynamics.

  18. Compass 2007 data analysis and reporting : operational report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The "Compass" program collects rating data each year to help the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) : understand current infrastructure conditions and trends. The data also helps WisDOT managers set reasonable : maintenance targets that ...

  19. Predicting seasonal variations in coastal seabird habitats in the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgili, A.; Lambert, C.; Pettex, E.; Dorémus, G.; Van Canneyt, O.; Ridoux, V.

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds, like all animals, have to live in suitable habitats to fulfil their energetic needs for both somatic and reproductive growth and maintenance. Apart from migration trips, all coastal seabirds are linked to the coast, because they need to return daily to land for resting or breeding. Their use of marine habitats strongly depends on their biology, but also on environmental conditions, and can be described using habitat models. This study aimed to: (1) identify the processes that mostly influence seabird distributions along the coasts of the English Channel and the Bay of Biscay; (2) determine seasonal variations of these processes, (3) provide prediction maps that describe the species distributions. We collected data of coastal seabird sightings from aerial surveys carried out in the English Channel and the eastern North Atlantic in the winter 2011-2012 and summer 2012. We classified seabirds into morphological groups and described their habitats using physiographic and oceanographic variables in Generalised Additive Models (GAMs). Finally, we produced maps of predicted distributions by season for each group. The distributions of coastal seabirds were essentially determined by the distance to the nearest coast, with a weaker influence of oceanographic variables. The nature of the substrate, sand or rock, combined with the timing of reproduction, also contributed to determine seasonal at-sea distributions for some species. The highest densities were predicted near the coast, particularly in bays and estuaries for strictly coastal species with possible variations depending on the season. From this study, we were able to predict the seasonal distribution of the studied species according to varying environmental parameters that changed over time, allowing us to understand better their behaviour and ecology.

  20. Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central California's National Marine Sanctuaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer McGowan

    Full Text Available Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in California. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied California Current Ecosystem Studies Program (ACCESS from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis, common murre (Uria aalge, Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus, rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus. The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of current human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the California Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine

  1. Proteomic Analysis of Lipid Raft-Like Detergent-Resistant Membranes of Lens Fiber Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L

    2015-12-01

    Plasma membranes of lens fiber cells have high levels of long-chain saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and sphingolipids-key components of lipid rafts. Thus, lipid rafts are expected to constitute a significant portion of fiber cell membranes and play important roles in lens biology. The purpose of this study was to characterize the lens lipid raft proteome. Quantitative proteomics, both label-free and iTRAQ methods, were used to characterize lens fiber cell lipid raft proteins. Detergent-resistant, lipid raft membrane (DRM) fractions were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation. To confirm protein localization to lipid rafts, protein sensitivity to cholesterol removal by methyl-β-cyclodextrin was quantified by iTRAQ analysis. A total of 506 proteins were identified in raft-like detergent-resistant membranes. Proteins identified support important functions of raft domains in fiber cells, including trafficking, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal organization. In cholesterol-sensitivity studies, 200 proteins were quantified and 71 proteins were strongly affected by cholesterol removal. Lipid raft markers flotillin-1 and flotillin-2 and a significant fraction of AQP0, MP20, and AQP5 were found in the DRM fraction and were highly sensitive to cholesterol removal. Connexins 46 and 50 were more abundant in nonraft fractions, but a small fraction of each was found in the DRM fraction and was strongly affected by cholesterol removal. Quantification of modified AQP0 confirmed that fatty acylation targeted this protein to membrane raft domains. These data represent the first comprehensive profile of the lipid raft proteome of lens fiber cells and provide information on membrane protein organization in these cells.

  2. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Helen Y; Fox, Andrew S; Hessenthaler, Heather C; Stodola, Diane E; Davidson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1) witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2) had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a) help the victim or (b) punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion) was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  3. The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Y Weng

    Full Text Available Compassion, the emotional response of caring for another who is suffering and that results in motivation to relieve suffering, is thought to be an emotional antecedent to altruistic behavior. However, it remains unclear whether compassion enhances altruistic behavior in a uniform way or is specific to sub-types of behavior such as altruistic helping of a victim or altruistic punishment of a transgressor. We investigated the relationship between compassion and subtypes of altruistic behavior using third-party paradigms where participants (1 witnessed an unfair economic exchange between a transgressor and a victim, and (2 had the opportunity to either spend personal funds to either economically (a help the victim or (b punish the transgressor. In Study 1, we examined whether individual differences in self-reported empathic concern (the emotional component of compassion was associated with greater altruistic helping or punishment behavior in two independent samples. For participants who witnessed an unfair transaction, trait empathic concern was associated with greater helping of a victim and had no relationship to punishment. However, in those who decided to punish the transgressor, participants who reported greater empathic concern decided to punish less. In Study 2, we directly enhanced compassion using short-term online compassion meditation training to examine whether altruistic helping and punishment were increased after two weeks of training. Compared to an active reappraisal training control group, the compassion training group gave more to help the victim and did not differ in punishment of the transgressor. Together, these two studies suggest that compassion is related to greater altruistic helping of victims and is not associated with or may mitigate altruistic punishment of transgressors.

  4. Characterization of (241)Pu occurrence, distribution, and bioaccumulation in seabirds from northern Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents unique data of plutonium (241)Pu study in seabirds from northern Eurasia, permanently or temporally living at the southern Baltic Sea coast. Together, ten marine birds species were examined, as follows: three species that permanently reside at the southern Baltic, four species of wintering birds, and three species of migrating birds; 366 samples were analyzed. The obtained results indicated plutonium was non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest (241)Pu content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the lowest in muscles. Also, the internal radiation doses from (241)Pu were evaluated.

  5. Effects of changes in sandeel availability on the reproductive output of seabirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, S.; Harris, M.P.

    2000-01-01

    The lesser sandeel Ammodytes marinus is a key prey species for many marine birds in the North Sea. This fish is currently the target of the largest single species fishery in the area, and this has led to concern about the potential impact of the fishery on seabirds. There are 2 critical issues...... productivity, breeding effort and diet in 3 species of seabird with contrasting foraging and dietary characteristics (common guillemot Uria aalge, black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, and European shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis) and an index of availability of 1 group and older sandeels derived from catch...

  6. Self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Mary; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; Sister Rita McNulty; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2010-08-01

    Nurses often provide care for patients and families who are suffering and where emotions are heightened. Compassion is an essential component of the care that nurses provide. Emotions play an important role in the relationship and communication between nurses, patients and families. Self-compassion is the ability to be compassionate to oneself, without this ability nurses might not be prepared to be compassionate to patients. Emotionally intelligent persons perceive themselves as confident, better able to understand, control and manage their emotions. The purpose of this descriptive, correlational study was to examine the relationship between self-compassion and emotional intelligence. Participants were 135 nurses. The setting for this study was a health system with hospitals located in Queens, Nassau and Suffolk counties of New York, USA. Three of the hospitals in the study are located in Queens and/or the Queens/Nassau border. Queens is the most culturally diverse community in the USA. The patients served, as well as the nursing staff, are reflective of this cultural and religious diversity. Results indicated a positive correlation between self-compassion and emotional intelligence (r = 0.55). Recommendations for future research include: exploration of self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses, and identification of the benefits of enhancing self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses.

  7. Against compassion: in defence of a "hybrid" concept of empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Alastair

    2017-07-01

    In this article, I argue that the recent emphasis on compassion in healthcare practice lacks conceptual richness and clarity. In particular, I argue that it would be helpful to focus on a larger concept of empathy rather than compassion alone and that compassion should be thought of as a component of this larger concept of empathy. The first part of the article outlines a critique of the current discourse of compassion on three grounds. This discourse naturalizes, individualizes, and reifies compassion leading to a decontextualized and simplified understanding of failures in healthcare practice. The second part uses resources from phenomenology and contemporary moral philosophy to construct a "hybrid" concept of empathy that includes both pre-reflective/intuitive and cognitive/imaginative components. This "hybrid" concept of empathy leads to a more complex understanding of the multiple responses to others' distress. I conclude that there are no straightforward normative naturalistic responses to others' distress. Rather than conceptualizing compassion as a naturalistic impulse or a character-based trait, we need to consider the complexity of our empathic recognition of vulnerable others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Self-compassion: a potential resource for young women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosewich, Amber D; Kowalski, Kent C; Sabiston, Catherine M; Sedgwick, Whitney A; Tracy, Jessica L

    2011-02-01

    Self-compassion has demonstrated many psychological benefits (Neff, 2009). In an effort to explore self-compassion as a potential resource for young women athletes, we explored relations among self-compassion, proneness to self-conscious emotions (i.e., shame, guilt-free shame, guilt, shame-free guilt, authentic pride, and hubristic pride), and potentially unhealthy self-evaluative thoughts and behaviors (i.e., social physique anxiety, obligatory exercise, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation). Young women athletes (N = 151; Mage = 15.1 years) participated in this study. Self-compassion was negatively related to shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, social physique anxiety, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. In support of theoretical propositions, self-compassion explained variance beyond self-esteem on shame proneness, guilt-free shame proneness, shame-free guilt proneness, objectified body consciousness, fear of failure, and fear of negative evaluation. Results suggest that, in addition to self-esteem promotion, self-compassion development may be beneficial in cultivating positive sport experiences for young women.

  9. Class and compassion: socioeconomic factors predict responses to suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Manzo, Vida M; Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    Previous research indicates that lower-class individuals experience elevated negative emotions as compared with their upper-class counterparts. We examine how the environments of lower-class individuals can also promote greater compassionate responding-that is, concern for the suffering or well-being of others. In the present research, we investigate class-based differences in dispositional compassion and its activation in situations wherein others are suffering. Across studies, relative to their upper-class counterparts, lower-class individuals reported elevated dispositional compassion (Study 1), as well as greater self-reported compassion during a compassion-inducing video (Study 2) and for another person during a social interaction (Study 3). Lower-class individuals also exhibited heart rate deceleration-a physiological response associated with orienting to the social environment and engaging with others-during the compassion-inducing video (Study 2). We discuss a potential mechanism of class-based influences on compassion, whereby lower-class individuals' are more attuned to others' distress, relative to their upper-class counterparts.

  10. Monitoring Seabirds and Marine Mammals by Georeferenced Aerial Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G.; Weidauer, A.; Coppack, T.

    2016-06-01

    The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer) flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines) have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC) and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD) of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by purpose-programmed software

  11. MONITORING SEABIRDS AND MARINE MAMMALS BY GEOREFERENCED AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of anthropogenic impacts on the marine environment is challenged by the accessibility, accuracy and validity of biogeographical information. Offshore wind farm projects require large-scale ecological surveys before, during and after construction, in order to assess potential effects on the distribution and abundance of protected species. The robustness of site-specific population estimates depends largely on the extent and design of spatial coverage and the accuracy of the applied census technique. Standard environmental assessment studies in Germany have so far included aerial visual surveys to evaluate potential impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds and marine mammals. However, low flight altitudes, necessary for the visual classification of species, disturb sensitive bird species and also hold significant safety risks for the observers. Thus, aerial surveys based on high-resolution digital imagery, which can be carried out at higher (safer flight altitudes (beyond the rotor-swept zone of the wind turbines have become a mandatory requirement, technically solving the problem of distant-related observation bias. A purpose-assembled imagery system including medium-format cameras in conjunction with a dedicated geo-positioning platform delivers series of orthogonal digital images that meet the current technical requirements of authorities for surveying marine wildlife at a comparatively low cost. At a flight altitude of 425 m, a focal length of 110 mm, implemented forward motion compensation (FMC and exposure times ranging between 1/1600 and 1/1000 s, the twin-camera system generates high quality 16 bit RGB images with a ground sampling distance (GSD of 2 cm and an image footprint of 155 x 410 m. The image files are readily transferrable to a GIS environment for further editing, taking overlapping image areas and areas affected by glare into account. The imagery can be routinely screened by the human eye guided by

  12. The Cost of Caring: An Exploration of Compassion Fatigue, Compassion Satisfaction, and Job Satisfaction in Pediatric Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, Linda Nancy; Acri, Mary C

    The purpose of this study was to describe levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and job satisfaction among pediatric nurses in the United States and determine if there was a relationship among these constructs. All members Society of Pediatric Nurses were sent an electronic invitation to participate, and those who consented received three measures; a demographic questionnaire, the Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) and the Professional Quality of Life (ProQOL) measure. Three hundred eighteen (10.6%) of members of the Society of Pediatric Nurses participated in the study: Over three quarters (245, 76%) of the sample had another career before nursing. The sample's mean job satisfaction level was 149.8 (SD=29.74), which was significantly higher than published reported means for nurses. Bivariate analyses revealed a significant relationship between gender and the compassion satisfaction, in that women were more likely to evidence compassion satisfaction than men (t=1.967, p=.05, df=298). No other significant relationships were found. The majority of nurses had high levels of compassion satisfaction and job satisfaction; further, female gender was associated with higher levels of compassion satisfaction. This current study had a very high response from second-career nurses (n=245, 76.8%) and overall, the sample had higher levels of compassion satisfaction. It is possible that second career nurses are better equipped in some way that helps them mediate negative responses of caring as a pediatric nurse and future research should explore this. Due to the significant financial costs to institutions of having nurses who have low levels of job satisfaction and high levels on compassion fatigue, it is imperative for hospital administrators to develop infrastructures to support employees. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukai, Atsushi [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan); Kurisaki, Tomohiro [Department of Growth Regulation, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Sato, Satoshi B. [Research Center for Low Temperature and Material Sciences, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, Toshihide [Lipid Biology Laboratory, Discovery Research Institute, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kondoh, Gen [Laboratory of Animal Experiments for Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Shogoin-Kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hashimoto, Naohiro, E-mail: nao@nils.go.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, National Institute for Longevity Sciences, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 36-3 Gengo, Morioka, Oobu, Aichi 474-8522 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, {beta}-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  14. Lipid raft microdomains: key sites for Coxsackievirus A9 infectious cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantafilou, Kathy; Triantafilou, Martha

    2003-01-01

    Lipid rafts have an important property to preferentially concentrate some proteins, while excluding others. Lipid rafts can also act as functional platforms for multiple signalling and trafficking processes. Several reports have shown that lipid rafts play a crucial role in the assembly of several enveloped viruses and possibly their cell entry. In this study we investigated the importance of lipid raft formation in Coxsackievirus A9 (CAV-9) entry and cell infection. Here by using a variety of biochemical and biophysical methods, we report that receptor molecules integrin αvβ3 and GRP78, which are implicated in CAV-9 infection as well as accessory molecules such as MHC class I, are accumulated in increased concentrations in lipid rafts following CAV-9 infection. In addition our studies revealed that raft integrity is essential for this virus since CAV-9 activates the Raf/MAPK signalling pathway within the raft and raft-disrupting drugs such as nystatin and MCD can successfully inhibit CAV-9 infection

  15. Lipid raft organization and function in the small intestinal brush border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge

    2008-01-01

    proteinases, are protected from untimely release into the gut lumen. Finally, anti-glycosyl antibodies, synthesized by plasma cells locally in the gut, are deposited on the brush border glycolipid rafts, protecting the epithelium from lumenal pathogens that exploit lipid rafts as portals for entry...... to the organism....

  16. Characterization of Z-RAFT star polymerization of butyl acrylate by size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschmann, D.; Edam, R.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Vana, P.

    2009-01-01

    Z-RAFT star polymerization of butyl acrylate using multifunctional trithiocarbonate-type RAFT agents carrying methyl propionate as the leaving group were used to form star polymers having 3, 4, and 6 arms. The polymerizations showed well controlled behavior up to high monomer conversions. By using a

  17. Are lipid rafts involved in ABC transporter-mediated drug resistance of tumor cells?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jan Willem; Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Sietsma, Hannie; Meszaros, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Since their discovery, lipid rafts have been implicated in several cellular functions, including protein transport in polarized cells and signal transduction. Also in multidrug resistance lipid rafts may be important with regard to the localization of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these

  18. Dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to fusion competence of myogenic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Atsushi; Kurisaki, Tomohiro; Sato, Satoshi B.; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Kondoh, Gen; Hashimoto, Naohiro

    2009-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the leading edge of lamellipodia of myogenic cells (myoblasts and myotubes) contains presumptive fusion sites, yet the mechanisms that render the plasma membrane fusion-competent remain largely unknown. Here we show that dynamic clustering and dispersion of lipid rafts contribute to both cell adhesion and plasma membrane union during myogenic cell fusion. Adhesion-complex proteins including M-cadherin, β-catenin, and p120-catenin accumulated at the leading edge of lamellipodia, which contains the presumptive fusion sites of the plasma membrane, in a lipid raft-dependent fashion prior to cell contact. In addition, disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depletion directly prevented the membrane union of myogenic cell fusion. Time-lapse recording showed that lipid rafts were laterally dispersed from the center of the lamellipodia prior to membrane fusion. Adhesion proteins that had accumulated at lipid rafts were also removed from the presumptive fusion sites when lipid rafts were laterally dispersed. The resultant lipid raft- and adhesion complex-free area at the leading edge fused with the opposing plasma membrane. These results demonstrate a key role for dynamic clustering/dispersion of lipid rafts in establishing fusion-competent sites of the myogenic cell membrane, providing a novel mechanistic insight into the regulation of myogenic cell fusion.

  19. Separation of actin-dependent and actin-independent lipid rafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Hummel, Ina; Kok, Jan Willem

    2013-01-01

    Lipid rafts have been isolated on the basis of their resistance to various detergents and more recently by using detergent-free procedures. The actin cytoskeleton is now recognized as a dynamic regulator of lipid raft stability. We carefully analyzed the effects of the cortical actin-disrupting

  20. 33 CFR 100.102 - Great Connecticut River Raft Race, Middletown, CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Connecticut River Raft Race, Middletown, CT. 100.102 Section 100.102 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Raft Race, Middletown, CT. (a) Regulated Area. That section of the Connecticut River between Dart...

  1. Probing the RAFT process using a model reaction between alkoxyamine and dithioester

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2012-01-01

    A small-molecular model reaction was designed to probe the reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) process. In this reaction, alkoxyamine releases radicals that react in situ with dithioester through the RAFT process, generating new radicals through the fragmentation of the

  2. Research Note 2: Egg raft density and feeding preference of Culex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... useful for estimating the number of eggs in a culicine egg raft, making a decision on larvae food preference and using the easily available table sugar instead of the more expensive sucrose in adult rearing. Keywords:mosquito eggs, mosquito larvae, culicine mosquito, egg raft density. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  3. Economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting: a study of five rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; J. Michael Bowker

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the statewide economic impacts of guided whitewater rafting on five rivers in six states: the Nantahala (North Carolina), Gauley (West Virginia), Kennebec (Maine), Middle Fork of the Salmon (Idaho), and Chattooga (Georgia-South Carolina). Except for the Chattooga and Middle Fork, rafting is dependent on upstream dam releases. Guide fees...

  4. RAFTing with Raptors: Connecting Science, English Language Arts, and the Common Core State Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Gary J.; McMurtrie, Deborah H.; Coleman, Bridget K.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores using the RAFT strategy (Role, Audience, Format, Topic) for writing in science classes. The framework of the RAFT strategy will be explained, and connections with Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for ELA/Literacy will be discussed. Finally, there will be a discussion of a professional learning experience for teachers in…

  5. The raft foundation reinforcement construction technology of Hongyun Building B tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Yin, Suhua; Wu, Yanli; Zhao, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The foundation of Hongyun building B tower is made of raft board foundation which is 3300mm in the thickness include four kinds of reinforcement Φ32, Φ28, Φ12 and 12 steel grade two, in respective. It is researched that the raft foundation mass concrete construction technology is expatiated from temperature and cracks of the raft foundation and the temperature control and monitoring of the concrete base slab construction and concrete curing. According to the characteristics with large volume and thickness of the engineering of raft foundation, the construction of the reinforced force was calculated and the quality control measures were used to the reinforcement binding and connection, so it is success that Hongyun Building B tower raft foundation reinforced construction.

  6. Lipid rafts exist as stable cholesterol-independent microdomains in the brush border membrane of enterocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Immerdal, Lissi; Thorsen, Evy

    2001-01-01

    Glycosphingolipid/cholesterol-rich membranes ("rafts")can be isolated from many types of cells, but their existence as stable microdomains in the cell membrane has been elusive. Addressing this problem, we studied the distribution of galectin-4, a raft marker, and lactase, a protein excluded from...... rafts, on microvillar vesicles from the enterocyte brush border membrane. Magnetic beads coated with either anti-galectin-4 or anti-lactase antibodies were used for immunoisolation of vesicles followed by double immunogold labeling of the two proteins. A morphometric analysis revealed subpopulations...... of raft-rich and raft-poor vesicles by the following criteria: 1) the lactase/galectin-4 labeling ratio/vesicle captured by the anti-lactase beads was significantly higher (p

  7. Aminopeptidase N/CD13 is associated with raft membrane microdomains in monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete Santos, A; Roentsch, J; Danielsen, E M

    2000-01-01

    as in adhesion and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report for the first time that aminopeptidase N/CD13 in monocytes is partially localized in detergent-insoluble membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol, glycolipids, and glycosylphosphoinositol-anchored proteins, referred to as "rafts." Raft fractions...... of monocytes were characterized by the presence of GM1 ganglioside as raft marker molecule and by the high level of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. Furthermore, similar to polarized cells, rafts in monocytic cells lack Na(+), K(+)-ATPase. Cholesterol depletion of monocytes by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin greatly...... reduces raft localization of aminopeptidase N/CD13 without affecting ala-p-nitroanilide cleaving activity of cells....

  8. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajotte, Jean-Francois

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for hadron production from polarized muon-nucleon interaction for COMPASS. It is based on these differences that the polarized parton distributions can be measured. In this context, it is important to first compare predictions with the gross features of the measured unpolarized semi-inclusive differential cross sections or the closely related differential multiplicities. In order to determine cross sections, the data has to be corrected for the acceptance of the spectrometer. In this thesis, a multidimensional acceptance correction method, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is developed and applied to the data measured in 2004. The method is first used to determine the inclusive muon-nucleon cross section which is compared with a global fit to world data. This serves as a test of the acceptance correction method and to verify if the results from previous experiments can be reproduced. Then, unpolarized differential multiplicities as a function of transverse momentum

  9. Hadron muoproduction at the COMPASS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajotte, Jean-Francois

    2010-09-30

    The COMPASS Collaboration has two main fields of interest: to improve our knowledge of the nucleon spin structure and to study hadrons through spectroscopy. These goals require a multipurpose universal spectrometer such as the COmmon Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy, COMPASS. In its first years of data taking (2002-2007), the nucleon spin structure was studied with a polarized muon beam scattering off a polarized target. These studies resumed in 2010 and will continue until at least 2011. The years 2008 and 2009 were dedicated to hadron spectroscopy using hadron beams. In the case of the nucleon structure studies, it is crucial to detect with high precision the incoming beam muon (160 GeV), the scattered muon and the produced hadrons. The large amount of high quality data accumulated provides access to the unpolarized and polarized parton distributions of the nucleon and the hadronization process. Subtle differences (asymmetries) between polarized cross sections have been predicted for hadron production from polarized muon-nucleon interaction for COMPASS. It is based on these differences that the polarized parton distributions can be measured. In this context, it is important to first compare predictions with the gross features of the measured unpolarized semi-inclusive differential cross sections or the closely related differential multiplicities. In order to determine cross sections, the data has to be corrected for the acceptance of the spectrometer. In this thesis, a multidimensional acceptance correction method, based on Monte Carlo simulation, is developed and applied to the data measured in 2004. The method is first used to determine the inclusive muon-nucleon cross section which is compared with a global fit to world data. This serves as a test of the acceptance correction method and to verify if the results from previous experiments can be reproduced. Then, unpolarized differential multiplicities as a function of transverse momentum

  10. Compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction in neonatologists in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, A S; Geithner, E M; Stroustrup, A; Waldman, E D

    2016-11-01

    Compassion fatigue (CF) is distress experienced by caregivers from ongoing contact with patients who are suffering. Burnout (BO) is occupational stress directly related to dissonance between job demands and available resources. Compassion satisfaction (CS) is professional fulfillment experienced through helping others. CF in physicians is not well studied. Neonatologists may be at particular risk for CF by virtue of recurrent exposure to distress in patients and their families. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of CF, BO and CS, and to identify potential predictors for these phenomena in neonatologists. A modified Compassion Fatigue and Satisfaction Self-Test and a questionnaire of professional details and personal characteristics were distributed electronically to neonatologists nationally. Multivariable logistic and linear regression models for CF, BO and CS as a function of potential predictors were constructed. The survey response rate was 47%. The prevalence of CF, BO and CS was 15.7, 20.8 and 21.9%, respectively. Female gender, emotional depletion, distress from 'a clinical situation', 'co-workers', 'personal health issues' and 'not talking about distressing issues' were each significant determinants of CF. Emotional depletion, distress from the 'physical work environment' and 'co-workers', and 'not talking about distressing issues' were significant determinants of BO. Self-identification as Hispanic; 'not currently feeling distressed'; talking about distressing issues; and utilization of pediatric palliative care services were significant determinants of higher CS. CF and BO may impact emotional well-being and professional performance of neonatologists. Enhancement of CS is a potential target for intervention.

  11. Role of compassion competence among clinical nurses in professional quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y; Seomun, G

    2016-09-01

    The study aimed to explore measurable compassion competence among nurses and to examine the relationships between nurses' compassion competence and levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress. Compassion is a vital asset in the nursing profession. It is necessary to explore whether compassion competence is a factor influencing professional quality of life. This study utilized a multicenter descriptive cross-sectional survey. Data were collected from 680 nurses. Professional quality of life based on nurses' general characteristics showed a significant difference in the subjects' age, marital status, education, and total clinical experience. In addition, compassion competence had a significant positive correlation with compassion satisfaction and STS, whereas it had a significant negative correlation with burnout. Compassion competence was a factor influencing compassion satisfaction and burnout in professional quality of life. Our study included nurses with at least 1 year of clinical experience in a single cultural area, which limits its widespread applicability. To improve generalizability, future studies should include clinical nurses of various races, working in diverse cultural areas and with various levels of experience (including entry-level nurses and nursing students). Compassion competence of clinical nurses was a predictive factor for professional quality of life. Hospital administrators, nurse leaders and policy makers should develop and adopt nurse-retaining strategies that focus on improving nurses' compassion competence in order to reduce their burnout. We recommend the development of educational programmes to improve nurses' compassion competence and thereby enhance their professional quality of life. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  12. Docosahexaenoic acid alters Gsα localization in lipid raft and potentiates adenylate cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhuoran; Tan, Zhoubin; Li, Yan; Luo, Hongyan; Hu, Xinwu; Tang, Ming; Hescheler, Jürgen; Mu, Yangling; Zhang, Lanqiu

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), recently has become popular for the amelioration of depression; however the molecular mechanism of DHA action remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the antidepressant effect of DHA by evaluating Gsα localization in lipid raft and the activity of adenylate cyclase in an in vitro glioma cell model. Lipid raft fractions from C6 glioma cells treated chronically with DHA were isolated by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The content of Gsα in lipid raft was analyzed by immunoblotting and colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was subjected to confocal microscopic analysis. The intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level was determined by cAMP immunoassay kit. DHA decreased the amount of Gsα in lipid raft, whereas whole cell lysate Gsα was not changed. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that colocalization of Gsα with lipid raft was decreased, whereas DHA increased intracellular cAMP accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, we found that DHA increased the lipid raft level, instead of disrupting it. The results of this study suggest that DHA may exert its antidepressant effect by translocating Gsα from lipid raft and potentiating the activity of adenylate cyclase. Importantly, the reduced Gsα in lipid raft by DHA is independent of disruption of lipid raft. Overall, the study provides partial preclinical evidence supporting a safe and effective therapy using DHA for depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Lipid Raft Association Restricts CD44-Ezrin Interaction and Promotion of Breast Cancer Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donatello, Simona; Babina, Irina S.; Hazelwood, Lee D.; Hill, Arnold D.K.; Nabi, Ivan R.; Hopkins, Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell migration is an early event in metastasis, the main cause of breast cancer-related deaths. Cholesterol-enriched membrane domains called lipid rafts influence the function of many molecules, including the raft-associated protein CD44. We describe a novel mechanism whereby rafts regulate interactions between CD44 and its binding partner ezrin in migrating breast cancer cells. Specifically, in nonmigrating cells, CD44 and ezrin localized to different membranous compartments: CD44 predominantly in rafts, and ezrin in nonraft compartments. After the induction of migration (either nonspecific or CD44-driven), CD44 affiliation with lipid rafts was decreased. This was accompanied by increased coprecipitation of CD44 and active (threonine-phosphorylated) ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) proteins in nonraft compartments and increased colocalization of CD44 with the nonraft protein, transferrin receptor. Pharmacological raft disruption using methyl-β-cyclodextrin also increased CD44-ezrin coprecipitation and colocalization, further suggesting that CD44 interacts with ezrin outside rafts during migration. Conversely, promoting CD44 retention inside lipid rafts by pharmacological inhibition of depalmitoylation virtually abolished CD44-ezrin interactions. However, transient single or double knockdown of flotillin-1 or caveolin-1 was not sufficient to increase cell migration over a short time course, suggesting complex crosstalk mechanisms. We propose a new model for CD44-dependent breast cancer cell migration, where CD44 must relocalize outside lipid rafts to drive cell migration. This could have implications for rafts as pharmacological targets to down-regulate cancer cell migration. PMID:23031255

  14. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  15. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  16. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  17. Comparison of trends in abundance of guano-producing seabirds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The abundant guano-producing seabirds in Peru and southern Africa feed mainly on the large populations of anchovy Engraulis spp. and sardine Sardinops sagax supported by the Humboldt and Benguela upwelling systems. Numbers of guanay cormorants Phalacrocorax bougainvillii in Peru and the breeding population ...

  18. Positive Interactions among Foraging Seabirds, Marine Mammals and Fishes and Implications for Their Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Veit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing recognition of the importance of “positive interactions” among species in structuring communities. For seabirds, an important kind of positive interaction is the use of birds of the same species, birds of other species, and other marine predators such as cetaceans, seals and fishes as cues to the presence of prey. The process by which a single bird uses, say, a feeding flock of birds as a cue to the presence of prey is called “local enhancement” or “facilitation.” There are subtly different uses of each of these terms, but the issue we address here is the ubiquity of positive interactions between seabirds and other marine predators when foraging at sea, and whether as a result of their associations the feeding success, and therefore presumably the fitness, of individual seabirds is increased. If this contention is true, then it implies that conservation of any one species of seabird must take into consideration the status and possible conservation of those species that the focal species uses as a cue while foraging. For example, conservation of great shearwaters (Ardenna gravis, which often feed over tuna (e.g., Thunnus schools, should take in to consideration conservation of tuna. Ecosystem management depends on understanding the importance of such processes; the loss of biodiversity, and the consequent threat to foraging success, may be a substantial threat to the stability of marine ecosystems.

  19. Increasing frequency of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.; Wohl, Kenton D.

    1995-01-01

    We examined gut contents of 1799 seabirds comprising 24 species collected in 1988-1990 to assess the types and quantities of plastic particles ingested by seabirds in the subarctic waters of Alaska. Of the 15 species found to ingest plastic, most were surface-feeders (shearwaters, petrels, gulls) or plankton-feeding divers (auklets, puffins). Of 4417 plastic particles examined, 76% were industrial pellets and 21% were fragments of ‘user’ plastic. Ingestion rates varied geographically, but no trends were evident and rates of plastic ingestion varied far more among species within areas than within species among areas. Comparison with similar data from 1968 seabirds comprising 37 species collected in 1969-1977 revealed that plastic ingestion by seabirds has increased significantly during the 10–15-year interval between studies. This was demonstrated by: (i) an increase in the total number of species ingesting plastic; (ii) an increase in the frequency of occurrence of plastic particles within species that ingested plastic; and, (iii) an increase in the mean number of plastic particles ingested by individuals of those species.

  20. Bibliography of seabirds in the waters of Southern Africa, the Prince Edward and Tristan groups

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, J

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available The titles of 2 088 publications are given which refer to seabirds in the waters of southern Africa, the Prince Edward Islands, the Tristan da Cunha group and Gough Island. An index lists the relevant publications by number for 117 species...

  1. Front affecting the distribution of seabirds in the northern Bering Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Nancy M.; L Hunt Jr., George; Cooney, Robert T.

    1990-01-01

    We observed seabirds aggregated at a front marking the boundary between two water masses in the Bering Sea. Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla) were most abundant at the front; surface-feeding species including Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis), Black-legged Kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla) and Red Phalaropes (Phalaropusfuscus) were also present.

  2. The most common diet results in low reproduction in a generalist seabird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Donk, S.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Shamoun-Baranes, J.; van der Meer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary specialization has been described across a wide range of taxa in the animal kingdom. Fitness consequences are, however, not well documented. We examined the reproductive consequences of different dietary specializations in the herring gull Larus argentatus, an omnivorous seabird, using an

  3. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km2 and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat. PMID:26324886

  4. Contribution of Arctic seabird-colony ammonia to atmospheric particles and cloud-albedo radiative effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B.; Wentworth, G. R.; Martin, R. V.; Leaitch, W. R.; Murphy, J. G.; Murphy, B. N.; Kodros, J. K.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Pierce, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic region is vulnerable to climate change and able to affect global climate. The summertime Arctic atmosphere is pristine and strongly influenced by natural regional emissions, which have poorly understood climate impacts related to atmospheric particles and clouds. Here we show that ammonia from seabird-colony guano is a key factor contributing to bursts of newly formed particles, which are observed every summer in the near-surface atmosphere at Alert, Nunavut, Canada. Our chemical-transport model simulations indicate that the pan-Arctic seabird-influenced particles can grow by sulfuric acid and organic vapour condensation to diameters sufficiently large to promote pan-Arctic cloud-droplet formation in the clean Arctic summertime. We calculate that the resultant cooling tendencies could be large (about −0.5 W m−2 pan-Arctic-mean cooling), exceeding −1 W m−2 near the largest seabird colonies due to the effects of seabird-influenced particles on cloud albedo. These coupled ecological–chemical processes may be susceptible to Arctic warming and industrialization. PMID:27845764

  5. Threat of plastic pollution to seabirds is global, pervasive, and increasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Chris; Van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2015-09-22

    Plastic pollution in the ocean is a global concern; concentrations reach 580,000 pieces per km(2) and production is increasing exponentially. Although a large number of empirical studies provide emerging evidence of impacts to wildlife, there has been little systematic assessment of risk. We performed a spatial risk analysis using predicted debris distributions and ranges for 186 seabird species to model debris exposure. We adjusted the model using published data on plastic ingestion by seabirds. Eighty of 135 (59%) species with studies reported in the literature between 1962 and 2012 had ingested plastic, and, within those studies, on average 29% of individuals had plastic in their gut. Standardizing the data for time and species, we estimate the ingestion rate would reach 90% of individuals if these studies were conducted today. Using these results from the literature, we tuned our risk model and were able to capture 71% of the variation in plastic ingestion based on a model including exposure, time, study method, and body size. We used this tuned model to predict risk across seabird species at the global scale. The highest area of expected impact occurs at the Southern Ocean boundary in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, which contrasts with previous work identifying this area as having low anthropogenic pressures and concentrations of marine debris. We predict that plastics ingestion is increasing in seabirds, that it will reach 99% of all species by 2050, and that effective waste management can reduce this threat.

  6. Seabird aggregative patterns: a new tool for offshore wind energy risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christel, Isadora; Certain, Grégoire; Cama, Albert; Vieites, David R; Ferrer, Xavier

    2013-01-15

    The emerging development of offshore wind energy has raised public concern over its impact on seabird communities. There is a need for an adequate methodology to determine its potential impacts on seabirds. Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) are mostly relying on a succession of plain density maps without integrated interpretation of seabird spatio-temporal variability. Using Taylor's power law coupled with mixed effect models, the spatio-temporal variability of species' distributions can be synthesized in a measure of the aggregation levels of individuals over time and space. Applying the method to a seabird aerial survey in the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean Sea, we were able to make an explicit distinction between transitional and feeding areas to define and map the potential impacts of an offshore wind farm project. We use the Ebro Delta study case to discuss the advantages of potential impacts maps over density maps, as well as to illustrate how these potential impact maps can be applied to inform on concern levels, optimal EIA design and monitoring in the assessment of local offshore wind energy projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 78 FR 66686 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    .... Researchers would conduct occasional, intermittent visits during the rest of the year. A majority of the... immature seals and adult females return to molt. During the time they are onshore they are fasting (NPS.... Landing--403. ANI Seabird Monitoring 68 1 Other Areas--12...... Other Areas--816. ANI Intermittent...

  8. 76 FR 46724 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Seabird and Pinniped Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Nuevo Island, and Point Reyes National Seashore in central California (CA) for one year. PRBO, along... research activities for one year. NMFS reviewed PRBO's application and identified a number of issues...; observing seabird nesting habitat; restoring nesting burrows; observing breeding elephant seals, and...

  9. Pulau Ling: an important seabird hotspot on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmaula Hamza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulau Ling is a small rocky island located to the south of Pulau Redang, forming with other southeast small islands, the Redang Archipelago, in the state of Terengganu, Malaysia. The island was highlighted in the early 1950s as an important seabird site, although little was then known on the status of seabirds on the island. Field visits were made between May 2015 and September 2015 to assess the importance of this small island to seabird species. Four tern species were identified: two of them, black-naped tern Sterna sumatrana and bridled tern Onychoprion anaethetus, were found to breed there, while the other two species, great crested tern Thalasseus bergii and roseate tern Sterna dougallii were found to use the island as a stopover site without any evidence of breeding. Furthermore, the Pacific Eastern Reef egret Egretta sacra (the black morph, was also found to breed on the island. Other species encountered included white-bellied sea eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (recorded once in June 2015, soaring over the island. These preliminary data show the importance of such small rocky outcrops for tropical breeding and migrating seabirds, where food availability and lack of disturbance may be the two main drivers for diversity and survival.

  10. Microvillar membrane microdomains exist at physiological temperature. Role of galectin-4 as lipid raft stabilizer revealed by "superrafts"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccia, Anita; Villani, Maristella; Immerdal, Lissi

    2003-01-01

    rafts prepared by the two protocols were morphologically different but had essentially similar profiles of protein- and lipid components, showing that raft microdomains do exist at 37 degrees C and are not "low temperature artifacts." We also employed a novel method of sequential detergent extraction...... and the transmembrane aminopeptidase N, whereas the peripheral lipid raft protein annexin 2 was essentially absent. In conclusion, in the microvillar membrane, galectin-4, functions as a core raft stabilizer/organizer for other, more loosely raft-associated proteins. The superraft analysis might be applicable to other...

  11. “We feel deep compassion for patients...” | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Medical Mysteries “We feel deep compassion for patients...” Past Issues / Spring 2011 ... hope and maybe even relief. As doctors, we feel deep compassion for patients who have been without ...

  12. AT89S52 Microcontroller Based Digital Compass With Voice Output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmi Fardiyan Arief

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the design of digital compass with voice output is described, so that the blind can also use it. The digital compass is designed based on up-graded conventional compass. In the axis direction of conventional compass be added a disc as source of wind direction information, and phototransistor as sensor. The digital compass system is designed, based on AT89S52 microcontroller, as control of all interfaces and read sensor. The LCD component is used as display and ISD 2590 IC as voice recorder. The IC can record with maximum capacity 90 seconds. The voices output of compass is divided into 8 direction from the north, southwest, west and the next. The result showed that the design of digital compass work as like conventional compass completely by voice feature.

  13. Power deposition on misaligned edges in COMPASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dejarnac

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If the decision is made not to apply a toroidal chamfer to tungsten monoblocks at ITER divertor vertical targets, exposed leading edges will arise as a result of assembly tolerances between adjacent plasma-facing components. Then, the advantage of glancing magnetic field angles for spreading plasma heat flux on top surfaces is lost at the misaligned edges with an interaction occurring at near normal incidence, which can drive melting for the expected inter-ELM heat fluxes. A dedicated experiment has been performed on the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study power deposition on misaligned edges using inner-wall limited discharges on a special graphite tile presenting gaps and leading edges directly viewed by a high resolution infra-red camera. The parallel power flux deducted from the unperturbed measurement far from the gap is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edge, respecting the power balance. All the power flowing into the gap is deposited at the leading edge and no mitigation factor is required to explain the thermal response. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the ion Larmor smoothing effect is weak and that the power deposition on misaligned edges is well described by the optical approximation because of an electron dominated regime associated with non-ambipolar parallel current flow.

  14. Highlights from COMPASS in hadron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Krinner, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Since Quantum Choromdynamics allows for gluon self-coupling, quarks and gluons cannot be observed as free particles, but only their bound states, the hadrons. This so-called confinement phenomenon is responsible for $98\\%$ of the mass in the visible universe. The measurement of the hadron excitation spectra therefore gives valuable input for theory and phenomenology to quantitatively understand this phenomenon. One simple model to describe hadrons is the Constituent Quark Model (CQM), which knows two types of hadrons: mesons, consisting of a quark and an antiquark, and baryons, which are made out of three quarks. More advanced models, which are inspired by QCD as well as calculations within Lattice QCD predict the existence of other types of hadrons, which may be e.g. described solely by gluonic excitations (glueballs) or mixed quark and gluon excitations (hybrids). In order to search for such states, the COMPASS experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN has collected large data sets, which allow to ...

  15. Hadron spectroscopy with COMPASS - First results

    CERN Document Server

    Nerling, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at CERN is dedicated to light hadron spectroscopy with emphasis on the detection of new states, in particular the search for spin exotic states and glueballs. After a short pilot run in 2004 (190 GeV/c $\\pi^{-}$ beam, Pb target) showing significant production strength of an exotic $J^{PC}=1^{-+}$ state at 1.66\\,GeV/${\\rm c^2}$, we have collected data with 190 GeV/c hadron beams on a liquid hydrogen target in 2008/09. The spectrometer features good coverage by calorimetry and our data provide excellent opportunity for simultaneous observation of new states in different decay modes. The diffractively produced $(3\\pi)^{-}$ system for example can be studied in both modes $\\pi^{-}p \\rightarrow \\pi^{-}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}p$ and $\\pi^{-}~p \\rightarrow \\pi^{-}\\pi^{0}\\pi^{0}~p$. Reconstruction of charged and neutral mode rely on completely different parts of the apparatus. Observation of new st ates in both modes provides important checks. The results on diffractive dissociation into 3$\\pi$ final stat...

  16. COMPASS polarized target for Drell-Yan

    CERN Document Server

    Pešek, M

    2014-01-01

    In the COMPASS Drell–Yan experiment the pion beam with momen tum of 190 GeV/ c and in- tensity up to 10 8 pions/s will interact with transversely polarized proton t arget producing muon pair via Drell–Yan process. The solid-state NH 3 will be polarized by dynamic nuclear polar- ization. Maximum polarization reached during data taking i s expected to be up to 90%. The non-interacting beam and other particles produced inside t he target will be stopped in the hadron absorber after the target. Two target cells, sepparated by a 20 cm gap in between, each 55 cm long and 4 cm in diameter give the target material volume about 691 cm 3 . The target platform needs to be moved by 2.3 m in upstream dire ction from the position used in previous experiments in order to accomodate the absorber. D uring the beam time higher radiation is expected in the area of the control room. Thus a new target r emote control system is needed. The target magnet is undergoing a substantial upgrade. Drell–Yan data taking is expected t...

  17. COMPASS Final Report: Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Communications Terminal (LCT) COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) session designed a terminal to provide communications between lunar South Pole assets, communications relay to/from these assets through an orbiting Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and navigation support. The design included a complete master equipment list, power requirement list, configuration design, and brief risk assessment and cost analysis. The Terminal consists of a pallet containing the communications and avionics equipment, surrounded by the thermal control system (radiator), an attached, deployable 10-m tower, upon which were mounted locally broadcasting and receiving modems and a deployable 1 m diameter Ka/S band dish which provides relay communications with the lunar relay satellites and, as a backup, Earth when it is in view. All power was assumed to come from the lunar outpost Habitat. Three LCT design options were explored: a stand-alone LCT servicing the manned outpost, an integrated LCT (into the Habitat or Lunar Lander), and a mini-LCT which provides a reduced level of communication for primarily robotic areas dealing as in situ resource utilization (ISRU) and remote science. Where possible all the designs assumed single fault tolerance. Significant mass savings were found when integrating the LCT into the Habitat or Lander but increases in costs occurred depending upon the level of man rating required for such designs.

  18. The desired moral attitude of the physician: (II) compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Petra

    2012-11-01

    Professional medical ethics demands of health care professionals in addition to specific duties and rules of conduct that they embody a responsible and trustworthy personality. In the public discussion, different concepts are suggested to describe the desired implied attitude of physicians. In a sequel of three articles, a set of three of these concepts is presented in an interpretation that is meant to characterise the morally emotional part of this attitude: "empathy", "compassion" and "care". In the first article of the series, "empathy" has been developed as a mainly cognitive and morally neutral capacity of understanding. In this article, the emotional and virtuous core of the desired professional attitude-compassion-is elaborated. Compassion is distinguished from sympathy, empathy and pity. Several problems of compassion as a spontaneous, warm emotion for being a professional virtue are discussed: especially questions of over-demand, of justice and of concerns because of a possible threat to the patient's dignity and autonomy. An interpretation of compassion as processed and learned professional attitude, that founds dignity on the general idea of man as a sentient being and on solidarity, not on his independence and capacities, is developed. It is meant to rule out the possible side effects and to make compassion as a professional attitude and as professional virtue attractive, teachable and acquirable. In order to reach the adequate warmth and closeness for the particular physician-patient-relation, professional compassion has to be combined with the capacity of empathy. If appropriate, the combination of both empathy and compassion as "empathic compassion" can demand a much warmer attitude towards the patient than each of the elements alone, or the simple addition of them can provide. The concept of "care" that will be discussed in a forthcoming article of this sequel is a missing necessary part to describe the active potential of the desired moral

  19. Thermal Stability of Magnetic Compass Sensor for High Accuracy Positioning Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Van-Tang PHAM; Dinh-Chinh NGUYEN; Quang-Huy TRAN; Duc-Trinh CHU; Duc-Tan TRAN

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic compass sensors in angle measurements have a wide area of application such as positioning, robot, landslide, etc. However, one of the most phenomenal that affects to the accuracy of the magnetic compass sensor is the temperature. This paper presents two thermal stability schemes for improving performance of a magnetic compass sensor. The first scheme uses the feedforward structure to adjust the angle output of the compass sensor adapt to the variation of the temperature. The se...

  20. Teaching Compassion in Prison: A Key to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Em Strang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a project with long-term prisoners at HMP Dumfries, Scotland, tutors and students explore the notion and application of compassion, focusing in particular on the ways in which understanding compassion enables learning – not just the learning of academic subjects but also of interpersonal skills and emotional intelligence. The project highlights the benefits of teaching a so-called extracurricular subject, at the same time as revealing its centrality to learning in the first place. A lack of adequate teaching time in prison, and the fact that compassion is not considered a core subject in education, are both cited as obstacles in consolidating the work of the project. The benefits of teaching compassion - emotional, intellectual and spiritual - was made clear through written and verbal student feedback. Three short workshops highlighted the enormous potential in developing and establishing compassion as both subject and practice in prison education. It is hoped that practitioners and researchers will support the expansion of this work throughout prisons.

  1. SIDIS transverse spin azimuthal asymmetries at COMPASS: Multidimensional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    Exploration of transverse spin structure of the nucleon via study of the spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) and Drell-Yan (DY) reactions is one of the main aspects of the broad physics program of the COMPASS experiment (CERN, Switzerland). In past decade COMPASS has collected a considerable amount of polarized deuteron and proton SIDIS data while 2014 and 2015 runs were dedicated to the Drell-Yan measurements. Results on SIDIS azimuthal effects provided so far by COMPASS play an important role in general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon. Giving access to the entire "twist-2" set of transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions (PDFs) and fragmentation functions (FFs) COMPASS data are being widely used in phenomenological analyses and experimental data fits. Recent unique and first ever x-$Q^{2}$-z-pT multidimensional results for transverse spin asymmetries obtained by COMPASS serve as a direct and unprece...

  2. New results on transverse spin asymmetries from COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Parsamyan, Bakur

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of the COMPASS experiment is the exploration of transverse spin structure of nucleon via spin (in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering (SIDIS) of polarized leptons (and soon also Drell-Yan (DY) reactions with $\\pi^-$) off transversely polarized target. For this purpose a series of measurements were made in COMPASS, using 160 GeV/c longitudinally polarized muon beam and polarized $^6LiD$ and $NH_3$ targets and are foreseen with 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam on polarized $NH_3$. The experimental results obtained by COMPASS for azimuthal effects in SIDIS play an important role in the general understanding of the three-dimensional nature of the nucleon and are widely used in theoretical analyses and global data fits. Future first ever polarized DY-data from COMPASS compared with SIDIS results will open a new chapter probing general principles of QCD TMD-formalism. In this review main focus will be given to the very recent COMPASS results obtained for...

  3. Integrative Analysis of Subcellular Quantitative Proteomics Studies Reveals Functional Cytoskeleton Membrane-Lipid Raft Interactions in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anup D; Inder, Kerry L; Shah, Alok K; Cristino, Alexandre S; McKie, Arthur B; Gabra, Hani; Davis, Melissa J; Hill, Michelle M

    2016-10-07

    Lipid rafts are dynamic membrane microdomains that orchestrate molecular interactions and are implicated in cancer development. To understand the functions of lipid rafts in cancer, we performed an integrated analysis of quantitative lipid raft proteomics data sets modeling progression in breast cancer, melanoma, and renal cell carcinoma. This analysis revealed that cancer development is associated with increased membrane raft-cytoskeleton interactions, with ∼40% of elevated lipid raft proteins being cytoskeletal components. Previous studies suggest a potential functional role for the raft-cytoskeleton in the action of the putative tumor suppressors PTRF/Cavin-1 and Merlin. To extend the observation, we examined lipid raft proteome modulation by an unrelated tumor suppressor opioid binding protein cell-adhesion molecule (OPCML) in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. In agreement with the other model systems, quantitative proteomics revealed that 39% of OPCML-depleted lipid raft proteins are cytoskeletal components, with microfilaments and intermediate filaments specifically down-regulated. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction network and simulation analysis showed significantly higher interactions among cancer raft proteins compared with general human raft proteins. Collectively, these results suggest increased cytoskeleton-mediated stabilization of lipid raft domains with greater molecular interactions as a common, functional, and reversible feature of cancer cells.

  4. Descriptive study of burnout, compassion fatigue and compassion satisfaction in undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary education institution in KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Christina T; Wentzel, Dorien L

    2017-09-22

    Studies have investigated burnout and compassion fatigue among nurses and effects in the nursing profession. However, there are limited investigations of burnout and compassion fatigue among undergraduate nursing students in South Africa, as nursing students may experience distressful situations during their nursing education course, which may have an impact during their training and in their profession as they graduate. The purpose of this descriptive study was to describe compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary nursing institution. A quantitative descriptive study was conducted to describe compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and burnout among undergraduate nursing students at a tertiary nursing institution in KwaZulu-Natal. Convenience sampling was used. Sixty-seven undergraduate students (26 third-year and 41 fourth-year nursing students) took the self-test Professional Quality of Life Scale (ProQOL). The study results indicate that undergraduate students experienced average levels of compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction. As shown in the study, some of the undergraduate students are experiencing compassion fatigue and burnout, associated with relieving suffering of others. Therefore, knowledge of compassion fatigue and burnout and the coping strategies should be part of nursing training.

  5. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Relationship between fenestrations, sieve plates and rafts in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Svistounov

    Full Text Available Fenestrations are transcellular pores in endothelial cells that facilitate transfer of substrates between blood and the extravascular compartment. In order to understand the regulation and formation of fenestrations, the relationship between membrane rafts and fenestrations was investigated in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells where fenestrations are grouped into sieve plates. Three dimensional structured illumination microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to study liver sinusoidal endothelial cells isolated from mice. There was an inverse distribution between sieve plates and membrane rafts visualized by structured illumination microscopy and the fluorescent raft stain, Bodipy FL C5 ganglioside GM1. 7-ketocholesterol and/or cytochalasin D increased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane, while Triton X-100 decreased both fenestrations and lipid-disordered membrane. The effects of cytochalasin D on fenestrations were abrogated by co-administration of Triton X-100, suggesting that actin disruption increases fenestrations by its effects on membrane rafts. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF depleted lipid-ordered membrane and increased fenestrations. The results are consistent with a sieve-raft interaction, where fenestrations form in non-raft lipid-disordered regions of endothelial cells once the membrane-stabilizing effects of actin cytoskeleton and membrane rafts are diminished.

  7. Rumination and Avoidance as Mediators of the Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Depression in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Start, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Background This study sought to investigate the mediating effects of rumination and cognitivebehavioural avoidance in the relationship between self-compassion and depression amongst adolescents. Method Ninety nonclinical adolescents completed self-report measures of self-compassion, depressive symptomatology, rumination (reflection and brooding subtypes) and cognitive-behavioural avoidance. Results Results showed that for the relationship between self-compassion and...

  8. Citrulline diet supplementation improves specific age-related raft changes in wild-type rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet-de Rougé, Perrine; Clamagirand, Christine; Facchinetti, Patricia; Rose, Christiane; Sargueil, Françoise; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Cynober, Luc; Moinard, Christophe; Allinquant, Bernadette

    2013-10-01

    The levels of molecules crucial for signal transduction processing change in the brain with aging. Lipid rafts are membrane microdomains involved in cell signaling. We describe here substantial biophysical and biochemical changes occurring within the rafts in hippocampus neurons from aging wild-type rats and mice. Using continuous sucrose density gradients, we observed light-, medium-, and heavy raft subpopulations in young adult rodent hippocampus neurons containing very low levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and almost no caveolin-1 (CAV-1). By contrast, old rodents had a homogeneous age-specific high-density caveolar raft subpopulation containing significantly more cholesterol (CHOL), CAV-1, and APP. C99-APP-Cter fragment detection demonstrates that the first step of amyloidogenic APP processing takes place in this caveolar structure during physiological aging of the rat brain. In this age-specific caveolar raft subpopulation, levels of the C99-APP-Cter fragment are exponentially correlated with those of APP, suggesting that high APP concentrations may be associated with a risk of large increases in beta-amyloid peptide levels. Citrulline (an intermediate amino acid of the urea cycle) supplementation in the diet of aged rats for 3 months reduced these age-related hippocampus raft changes, resulting in raft patterns tightly close to those in young animals: CHOL, CAV-1, and APP concentrations were significantly lower and the C99-APP-Cter fragment was less abundant in the heavy raft subpopulation than in controls. Thus, we report substantial changes in raft structures during the aging of rodent hippocampus and describe new and promising areas of investigation concerning the possible protective effect of citrulline on brain function during aging.

  9. Lipid raft disarrangement as a result of neuropathological progresses: a novel strategy for early diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, R; Rojo, J A; Fabelo, N; Fernandez, C E; Diaz, M

    2013-08-15

    Lipid rafts are the preferential site of numerous membrane signaling proteins which are involved in neuronal functioning and survival. These proteins are organized in multiprotein complexes, or signalosomes, in close contact with lipid classes particularly represented in lipid rafts (i.e. cholesterol, sphingolipids and saturated fatty acids), which may contribute to physiological responses leading to neuroprotection. Increasing evidence indicates that alteration of lipid composition in raft structures as a consequence of neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), causes a dramatic increase in lipid raft order. These phenomena may correlate with perturbation of signalosome activities, likely contributing to neurodegenerative progression. Interestingly, significant disruption of stable raft microenvironments has been already observed in the first stages of either AD or PD, suggesting that these alterations may represent early events in the neuropathological development. In this regard, the search for biochemical markers, such as specific metabolic products altered in the brain at the first steps of the disease, presently represents an important challenge for early diagnostic strategies. Alterations of these biomarkers may be reflected in either plasma or cerebrospinal fluid, thus representing a potential strategy to predict an accurate diagnosis. We propose that pathologically-linked lipid raft markers may be interesting candidates to be explored at this level, although it has not been studied so far to what extent alteration of different signalosome components may be reflected in peripheral fluids. In this mini-review, we will discuss on relevant aspects of lipid rafts that contribute to the modulation of neuropathological events related to AD and PD. An interesting hypothesis is that anomalies on raft biomarkers measured at peripheral fluids might mirror the lipid raft pathology observed in early stages of AD and PD. Copyright

  10. Myo1c regulates lipid raft recycling to control cell spreading, migration and Salmonella invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Hemma; Kendrick-Jones, John; Buss, Folma

    2012-04-15

    A balance between endocytosis and membrane recycling regulates the composition and dynamics of the plasma membrane. Internalization and recycling of cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts is an actin-dependent process that is mediated by a specialized Arf6-dependent recycling pathway. Here, we identify myosin1c (Myo1c) as the first motor protein that drives the formation of recycling tubules emanating from the perinuclear recycling compartment. We demonstrate that the single-headed Myo1c is a lipid-raft-associated motor protein that is specifically involved in recycling of lipid-raft-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked cargo proteins and their delivery to the cell surface. Whereas Myo1c overexpression increases the levels of these raft proteins at the cell surface, in cells depleted of Myo1c function through RNA interference or overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant, these tubular transport carriers of the recycling pathway are lost and GPI-linked raft markers are trapped in the perinuclear recycling compartment. Intriguingly, Myo1c only selectively promotes delivery of lipid raft membranes back to the cell surface and is not required for recycling of cargo, such as the transferrin receptor, which is mediated by parallel pathways. The profound defect in lipid raft trafficking in Myo1c-knockdown cells has a dramatic impact on cell spreading, cell migration and cholesterol-dependent Salmonella invasion; processes that require lipid raft transport to the cell surface to deliver signaling components and the extra membrane essential for cell surface expansion and remodeling. Thus, Myo1c plays a crucial role in the recycling of lipid raft membrane and proteins that regulate plasma membrane plasticity, cell motility and pathogen entry.

  11. Glypican-1 mediates both prion protein lipid raft association and disease isoform formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Taylor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In prion diseases, the cellular form of the prion protein, PrP(C, undergoes a conformational conversion to the infectious isoform, PrP(Sc. PrP(C associates with lipid rafts through its glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor and a region in its N-terminal domain which also binds to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs. We show that heparin displaces PrP(C from rafts and promotes its endocytosis, suggesting that heparin competes with an endogenous raft-resident HSPG for binding to PrP(C. We then utilised a transmembrane-anchored form of PrP (PrP-TM, which is targeted to rafts solely by its N-terminal domain, to show that both heparin and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C can inhibit its association with detergent-resistant rafts, implying that a GPI-anchored HSPG targets PrP(C to rafts. Depletion of the major neuronal GPI-anchored HSPG, glypican-1, significantly reduced the raft association of PrP-TM and displaced PrP(C from rafts, promoting its endocytosis. Glypican-1 and PrP(C colocalised on the cell surface and both PrP(C and PrP(Sc co-immunoprecipitated with glypican-1. Critically, treatment of scrapie-infected N2a cells with glypican-1 siRNA significantly reduced PrP(Sc formation. In contrast, depletion of glypican-1 did not alter the inhibitory effect of PrP(C on the beta-secretase cleavage of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein. These data indicate that glypican-1 is a novel cellular cofactor for prion conversion and we propose that it acts as a scaffold facilitating the interaction of PrP(C and PrP(Sc in lipid rafts.

  12. A comparison of two seabird communities on opposite coasts of the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Paracuellos

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the seabird communities at two sites of the southern and northern shores of the Alborán Sea in the Western Mediterranean (Melilla and Adra respectively during a whole year. Similarities and differences in environmental characteristics of the two study sites were caused by a set of geographical, physical and socio-economic human factors. Sampling was performed weekly during two-hour periods by counting seabirds crossing a given point of the coast. We found similarities in the composition and seasonality of the species between Melilla and Adra. However, there were differences between the two sites in the number of species and individuals, which were usually higher on the southern shore. In this area, seabirds depending on marine trophic resources were more abundant, whereas on the northern shore the most abundant seabird species were those whose feeding habits were not so dependent on sea resources.

  13. A multi-scale problem arising in a model of avian flu virus in a seabird colony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, C F; O'Callaghan, M J A; Kelly, T C

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of epidemics of novel pathogens such as the H5N1 strain of avian influenza is of crucial importance to public and veterinary health as well as wildlife ecology. We model the effect of a new virus on a seabird colony, where no pre-existing Herd Immunity exists. The seabirds in question are so-called K-strategists, i.e. they have a relatively long life expectancy and very low reproductive output. They live in isolated colonies which typically contain tens of thousands of birds. These densely populated colonies, with so many birds competing for nesting space, would seem to provide perfect conditions for the entry and spread of an infection. Yet there are relatively few reported cases of epidemics among these seabirds. We develop a SEIR model which incorporates some of the unusual features of seabird population biology and examine the effects of introducing a pathogen into the colony

  14. NOAA ESRI Grid - predictions of seabird diversity in the New York offshore planning area made by the NOAA Biogeography Branch

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents seabird diversity predictions from spatial models developed for the New York offshore spatial planning area. This raster was derived from...

  15. Jagiellonian University Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Longo, R

    2017-01-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment operating on north area of SPS (M2 beamline) at CERN. An important part of the physics programme of the experiment is the exploration of the transverse spin structure of the nucleon via measurements of spin-(in)dependent azimuthal asymmetries in the semi-inclusive DIS and, recently, also in Drell-Yan processes. Drell-Yan measurements with a 190 GeV/c $\\pi^-$ beam impinging on a transversely polarized NH3 target started in the year 2015 (18 weeks data taking) and will be continued in 2018. The measurement of the Sivers and other azimuthal asymmetries in polarized SIDIS and Drell-Yan performed by COMPASS provides a unique possibility to test (pseudo-)universal features of transverse momentum-dependent parton distribution functions, predicted in QCD. In this review, results of the first ever measurements of the polarized Drell-Yan reaction performed by COMPASS are presented.

  16. Compassion for others, self-compassion, quality of life and mental well-being measures and their association with compassion fatigue and burnout in student midwives: A quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Elaine; Durkin, Mark; Hollins Martin, Caroline J; Carson, Jerome

    2016-03-01

    compassion fatigue and burnout can impact on the performance of midwives, with this quantitative paper exploring the relationship between self-compassion, burnout, compassion fatigue, self-judgement, self-kindness, compassion for others, professional quality of life and well-being of student midwives. a quantitative survey measured relationships using questionnaires: (1) Professional Quality of Life Scale; (2) Self-Compassion Scale; (3) Short Warwick and Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale; (4) Compassion For Others Scale. a purposive and convenience sample of student midwives (n=103) studying at university participated in the study. just over half of the sample reported above average scores for burnout. The results indicate that student midwives who report higher scores on the self-judgement sub-scale are less compassionate towards both themselves and others, have reduced well-being, and report greater burnout and compassion fatigue. Student midwives who report high on measures of self-compassion and well-being report less compassion fatigue and burnout. student midwives may find benefit from 'being kinder to self' in times of suffering, which could potentially help them to prepare for the emotional demands of practice and study. developing, creating and cultivating environments that foster compassionate care for self and others may play a significant role in helping midwives face the rigours of education and clinical practice during their degree programme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A long-term retrospective study on rehabilitation of seabirds in Gran Canaria Island, Spain (2003-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Montesdeoca

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the causes of morbidity and mortality in a large population of seabirds admitted to the Tafira Wildlife Rehabilitation Center (TWRC in Gran Canaria Island, Spain, from 2003 to 2013, and to analyze the outcomes of the rehabilitation process.We included 1,956 seabirds (133 dead on admission and 1,823 admitted alive in this study. Causes of morbidity were classified into nine categories: light pollution (fallout, fishing gear interaction, crude oil, poisoning/intoxication, other traumas, metabolic/nutritional disorder, orphaned young birds, other causes, and unknown/undetermined. The crude and stratified (by causes of admission rates of the three final disposition categories (euthanasia Er, unassisted mortality Mr, and release Rr, the time until death, and the length of stay were also studied for the seabirds admitted alive.Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis was the species most frequently admitted (46.52%, followed by Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis (20.09%. The most frequent causes of morbidity were light pollution (fallout (25.81%, poisoning/intoxication (24.69%, and other traumas (18.14%. The final disposition rates were: Er = 15.35%, Mr = 16.29%, and Rr = 68.34%. The highest Er was observed in the 'other traumas' category (58.08%. Seabirds admitted due to metabolic/nutritional disorder had the highest Mr (50%. The highest Rr was observed in the light pollution (fallout category (99.20%.This survey provides useful information for the conservation of several seabird species. We suggest that at least the stratified analysis by causes of admission of the three final disposition rates, and the parameters time until death and length of stay at the center should be included in the outcome research of the rehabilitation of seabirds. The high release rate for seabirds (68.34% achieved at the TWRC emphasizes the importance of wildlife rehabilitation centers for the conservation of seabirds.

  18. Neoclassical islands on COMPASS-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Lloyd, B.; Morris, A.W.; McArdle, G.; O'Brien, M.R.; Valovic, M.; Warrick, C.D.; Wilson, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical magnetic islands are observed to limit the achievable β in COMPASS-D low collisionality single null divertor tokamak plasmas with ITER-like geometry (R 0 = 0.56 m, B 0 1.2 T, I p = 120-180 kA, κ = 1.6, ε = 0.3). The limiting β is typically well below that expected from ideal instabilities with maximum βN in the range of 1.6 to 2.1. The plasma is heated with up to 1.8 MW of 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) at the second harmonic with X mode polarization. The time history of the measured island width is compared with the predictions of neoclassical tearing mode theory, with good agreement between theory and experiment. The measured islands have a threshold width below which the mode will not grow. The density scaling of the point of onset of the measured instabilities is compared with two theories that predict a threshold island width for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes. Applied resonant helical error fields are used to induce islands in collisionality regimes wherein the neoclassical islands do not occur naturally, allowing the study of the behaviour of neoclassical tearing modes in this regime. The critical β for the onset of neoclassical tearing modes is seen to be ∼3 times higher in the naturally stable region. This observation is compared with the predictions of both threshold theories. A simple expression for the q scaling of the maximum achievable β N in the presence of neoclassical tearing modes is derived on the basis of the assumption of a maximum allowable island width. The predicted q scaling of this β limit is compared with data from a q scan, and the results are in good agreement. (author)

  19. Selective association of outer surface lipoproteins with the lipid rafts of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Alvaro; Crowley, Jameson T; Coleman, James L; LaRocca, Timothy J; Chiantia, Salvatore; London, Erwin; Benach, Jorge L

    2014-03-11

    Borrelia burgdorferi contains unique cholesterol-glycolipid-rich lipid rafts that are associated with lipoproteins. These complexes suggest the existence of macromolecular structures that have not been reported for prokaryotes. Outer surface lipoproteins OspA, OspB, and OspC were studied for their participation in the formation of lipid rafts. Single-gene deletion mutants with deletions of ospA, ospB, and ospC and a spontaneous gene mutant, strain B313, which does not express OspA and OspB, were used to establish their structural roles in the lipid rafts. All mutant strains used in this study produced detergent-resistant membranes, a common characteristic of lipid rafts, and had similar lipid and protein slot blot profiles. Lipoproteins OspA and OspB but not OspC were shown to be associated with lipid rafts by transmission electron microscopy. When the ability to form lipid rafts in live B. burgdorferi spirochetes was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), strain B313 showed a statistically significant lower level of segregation into ordered and disordered membrane domains than did the wild-type and the other single-deletion mutants. The transformation of a B313 strain with a shuttle plasmid containing ospA restored the phenotype shared by the wild type and the single-deletion mutants, demonstrating that OspA and OspB have redundant functions. In contrast, a transformed B313 overexpressing OspC neither rescued the FRET nor colocalized with the lipid rafts. Because these lipoproteins are expressed at different stages of the life cycle of B. burgdorferi, their selective association is likely to have an important role in the structure of prokaryotic lipid rafts and in the organism's adaptation to changing environments. IMPORTANCE Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich clusters within the membranes of cells. Lipid rafts contain proteins that have functions in sensing the cell environment and transmitting signals. Although selective proteins are present in

  20. EMC effect in the Drell-Yan process at COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Evgenii

    2018-04-01

    The EMC effect or a modification of parton distributions in bound nucleons as compared to free ones, has been extensively studied during the last 30 years but its full understanding is still lacking. The COMPASS experiment at CERN will provide new results on the EMC effect, originating from the Drell-Yan process and studied in the 190 GeV=c π- beam scattering on the ammonia and tungsten targets. The present understanding of the EMC effect and experimental possibilities of COMPASS in this context are discussed.

  1. COMPASS: A source term code for investigating capillary barrier performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wei; Apted, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A computer code COMPASS based on compartment model approach is developed to calculate the near-field source term of the High-Level-Waste repository under unsaturated conditions. COMPASS is applied to evaluate the expected performance of Richard's (capillary) barriers as backfills to divert infiltrating groundwater at Yucca Mountain. Comparing the release rates of four typical nuclides with and without the Richard's barrier, it is shown that the Richard's barrier significantly decreases the peak release rates from the Engineered-Barrier-System (EBS) into the host rock

  2. Fast photon-detection for COMPASS RICH-1

    CERN Document Server

    Chiosso, Michela; Alexeev, M; Angerer, H; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Dafni, T; Dalla Torre, S; Delagnes, E; Denisov, O; Deschamps, H; Diaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger Jr, M; Fisher, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; von Harrac, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, D; Kunne, F; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Neyret, D; Nerling, F; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Pizzolotto, C; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, P; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schoenmaier, W; Schröder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2008-01-01

    A fast photon-detection system for the detector RICH-1 of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS is in operation since the 2006 run. It is based on the use of Multi-Anode Photomultipliers (MAPMTs) coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and fast read-out electronics. It has been designed taking into account the high photon flux in the central region of the detector and the high rate requirements of the COMPASS Experiment. We present the photon-detection design and construction, together with its characterization and measured performances based on the data collected in 2006.

  3. The COMPASS trigger for Drell-Yan measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veit, Benjamin [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In 2014/15 the COMPASS experiment measured double-muon-production in the reaction of negative pions of 190 GeV/c with a polarised ammonia target. This process is called Drell-Yan process. The final state consists of two muons and a hadronic state. The hadrons and remaining beam pions were removed by an absorber directly behind the target, the remaining muon pairs were detected in the double stage COMPASS spectrometer. For a symmetric acceptance for positive and negative muons, the single muon trigger system had to be modified. The necessary modifications on the single muon trigger and the performance of the new trigger are presented.

  4. The large size straw drift chambers of the COMPASS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, V N; Dünnweber, W; Faessler, Martin A; Fischer, H; Franz, J; Geyer, R; Gousakov, Yu V; Grünemaier, A; Heinsius, F H; Ilgner, C; Ivanchenko, I M; Kekelidze, G D; Königsmann, K C; Livinski, V V; Lysan, V M; Marzec, J; Matveev, D A; Mishin, S V; Mialkovski, V V; Novikov, E A; Peshekhonov, V D; Platzer, K; San, M; Schmid, T; Shokin, V I; Sissakian, A N; Viriasov, K S; Wiedner, U; Zaremba, K; Zhukov, I A; Zlobin, Y L; Zvyagin, A

    2005-01-01

    Straw drift chambers are used for the Large Area Tracking (LAT) of the Common Muon and Proton Apparatus for Structure and Spectroscopy (COMPASS) at CERN. An active area of 130 m2 in total is covered by 12 440 straw tubes, which are arranged in 15 double layers. The design has been optimized with respect to spatial resolution, rate capability, low material budget and compactness of the detectors. Mechanical and electrical design considerations of the chambers are discussed as well as new production techniques. The mechanical precision of the chambers has been determined using a CCD X-ray scanning apparatus. Results about the performance during data taking in COMPASS are described.

  5. Bio-Physical Coupling of Seabirds and Prey with a Dynamic River Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, E. M.; Horne, J. K.; Zamon, J. E.; Adams, J.

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater plumes and plume density fronts are important regions of bio-physical coupling. On the west coast of North America, discharge from the Columbia River into the northern California Current creates a large, dynamic plume and multiple plume fronts. These nutrient-rich, productive waters fuel primary and secondary production, supporting a wide variety of small pelagic prey fish, large populations of Pacific salmon, seabirds, and marine mammals. To determine the influence of the Columbia River plume on marine predators, we analyzed at-sea seabird counts, in situ environmental data, surface trawl densities of prey fish, and acoustic backscatter measurements collected from research vessels in May and June 2010-2012. Concurrent distribution patterns of satellite-tagged sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus) and common murres (Uria aalge) were compared with seabird counts from ship surveys. To evaluate plume use by satellite-tagged birds, daily surface salinity values from SELFE hindcast models were extracted at each tag location. Both seabird species occurred in plume waters disproportionate to the total surveyed area, concentrating in the river plume when river flow and plume volume decreased. Murres were consistently within 20 km of the geographic mean center of the river plume. In contrast, shearwaters consistently occurred 100 km to the north of the plume center, where high densities of prey fish occur. Although acoustically detected prey also occurred in greater densities within the plume when volume decreased, surface catches of prey in the plume did not vary with changing plume conditions. Geographic indices of colocation (GIC) were low between murres and prey species caught in surface trawls, whereas GICs were >0.5 between shearwaters and prey species including squid (Loligo opalescens), juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho (O. kisutch) salmon. We conclude that the river plume and associated fronts are identifiable, predictable, and

  6. Will the Effects of Sea-Level Rise Create Ecological Traps for Pacific Island Seabirds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H Reynolds

    Full Text Available More than 18 million seabirds nest on 58 Pacific islands protected within vast U.S. Marine National Monuments (1.9 million km2. However, most of these seabird colonies are on low-elevation islands and sea-level rise (SLR and accompanying high-water perturbations are predicted to escalate with climate change. To understand how SLR may impact protected islands and insular biodiversity, we modeled inundation and wave-driven flooding of a globally important seabird rookery in the subtropical Pacific. We acquired new high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and used the Delft3D wave model and ArcGIS to model wave heights and inundation for a range of SLR scenarios (+0.5, +1.0, +1.5, and +2.0 m at Midway Atoll. Next, we classified vegetation to delineate habitat exposure to inundation and identified how breeding phenology, colony synchrony, and life history traits affect species-specific sensitivity. We identified 3 of 13 species as highly vulnerable to SLR in the Hawaiian Islands and quantified their atoll-wide distribution (Laysan albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis; black-footed albatross, P. nigripes; and Bonin petrel, Pterodroma hypoleuca. Our models of wave-driven flooding forecast nest losses up to 10% greater than passive inundation models at +1.0 m SLR. At projections of + 2.0 m SLR, approximately 60% of albatross and 44% of Bonin petrel nests were overwashed displacing more than 616,400 breeding albatrosses and petrels. Habitat loss due to passive SLR may decrease the carrying capacity of some islands to support seabird colonies, while sudden high-water events directly reduce survival and reproduction. This is the first study to simulate wave-driven flooding and the combined impacts of SLR, groundwater rise, and storm waves on seabird colonies. Our results highlight the need for early climate change planning and restoration of higher elevation seabird refugia to prevent low-lying protected islands from becoming ecological traps in the

  7. Contrasted structuring effects of mesoscale features on the seabird community in the Mozambique Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, S.; Ternon, J. F.; Kaehler, S.; Thiebot, J. B.; Dyer, B.; Bemanaja, E.; Marteau, C.; Le Corre, M.

    2014-02-01

    The Mozambique Channel (western Indian Ocean) is a dynamic environment characterised by strong mesoscale features, which influence all biological components of the pelagic ecosystem. We investigated the distribution, abundance and feeding behaviour of seabirds in the Mozambique Channel in relation to physical and biological environmental variables, with a specific interest in mesoscale features. Seabird censuses were conducted in summer and winter during 7 cruises in the southern and northern Mozambique Channel. Tropical species accounted for 49% of the 37 species identified and 97% of the individuals, and species from the sub-Antarctic region constituted 30% of the identifications. The typically tropical sooty tern (Onychoprion fuscata) was the dominant species during all cruises, and overall accounted for 74% of the species observations and 85% of counted birds. Outputs of Generalised Linear Models at the scale of the Mozambique Channel suggested that higher densities of flying and feeding birds occurred in areas with lower sea surface temperatures and lower surface chlorophyll a concentrations. Most of the flocks of feeding birds did not associate with surface schools of fish or marine mammals, but when they did, these flocks were larger, especially when associated with tuna. While tropical species seemed to favour cyclonic eddies, frontal and divergence zones, non-tropical species were more frequently recorded over shelf waters. Sooty terns foraged preferentially in cyclonic eddies where zooplankton, micronekton and tuna schools were abundant. Among other major tropical species, frigatebirds (Fregata spp.) predominated in frontal zones between eddies, where tuna schools also frequently occurred and where geostrophic currents were the strongest. Red-footed boobies (Sula sula) concentrated in divergence zones characterised by low sea level anomalies, low geostrophic currents, and high zooplankton biomass close to the surface. Our results highlight the importance

  8. Differential association of the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of adaptor proteins with the raft- and the non-raft brush border membrane fractions of NHE3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Ayesha; Luo, Min; Yu, Qin; Riederer, Brigitte; Xia, Weiliang; Chen, Mingmin; Lissner, Simone; Gessner, Johannes E; Donowitz, Mark; Yun, C Chris; deJonge, Hugo; Lamprecht, Georg; Seidler, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Trafficking, brush border membrane (BBM) retention, and signal-specific regulation of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3 is regulated by the Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor (NHERF) family of PDZ-adaptor proteins, which enable the formation of multiprotein complexes. It is unclear, however, what determines signal specificity of these NHERFs. Thus, we studied the association of NHE3, NHERF1 (EBP50), NHERF2 (E3KARP), and NHERF3 (PDZK1) with lipid rafts in murine small intestinal BBM. Detergent resistant membranes ("lipid rafts") were isolated by floatation of Triton X-incubated small intestinal BBM from a variety of knockout mouse strains in an Optiprep step gradient. Acid-activated NHE3 activity was measured fluorometrically in BCECF-loaded microdissected villi, or by assessment of CO2/HCO3(-) mediated increase in fluid absorption in perfused jejunal loops of anethetized mice. NHE3 was found to partially associate with lipid rafts in the native BBM, and NHE3 raft association had an impact on NHE3 transport activity and regulation in vivo. NHERF1, 2 and 3 were differentially distributed to rafts and non-rafts, with NHERF2 being most raft-associated and NHERF3 entirely non-raft associated. NHERF2 expression enhanced the localization of NHE3 to membrane rafts. The use of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, which have altered membrane lipid as well as lipid raft composition, allowed us to test the validity of the lipid raft concept in vivo. The differential association of the NHERFs with the raft-associated and the non-raft fraction of NHE3 in the brush border membrane is one component of the differential and signal-specific NHE3 regulation by the different NHERFs. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Accelerated Combinatorial High Throughput Star Polymer Synthesis via a Rapid One-Pot Sequential Aqueous RAFT (rosa-RAFT) Polymerization Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosson, Steffen; Danial, Maarten; Saint-Amans, Julien Rosselgong; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2017-04-01

    Advanced polymerization methodologies, such as reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT), allow unprecedented control over star polymer composition, topology, and functionality. However, using RAFT to produce high throughput (HTP) combinatorial star polymer libraries remains, to date, impracticable due to several technical limitations. Herein, the methodology "rapid one-pot sequential aqueous RAFT" or "rosa-RAFT," in which well-defined homo-, copolymer, and mikto-arm star polymers can be prepared in very low to medium reaction volumes (50 µL to 2 mL) via an "arm-first" approach in air within minutes, is reported. Due to the high conversion of a variety of acrylamide/acrylate monomers achieved during each successive short reaction step (each taking 3 min), the requirement for intermediary purification is avoided, drastically facilitating and accelerating the star synthesis process. The presented methodology enables RAFT to be applied to HTP polymeric bio/nanomaterials discovery pipelines, in which hundreds of complex polymeric formulations can be rapidly produced, screened, and scaled up for assessment in a wide range of applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Atom-scale molecular interactions in lipid raft mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemelä, Perttu S; Hyvönen, Marja T; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    We review the relationship between molecular interactions and the properties of lipid environments. A specific focus is given on bilayers which contain sphingomyelin (SM) and sterols due to their essential role for the formation of lipid rafts. The discussion is based on recent atom-scale molecular...... dynamics simulations, complemented by extensive comparison to experimental data. The discussion is divided into four sections. The first part investigates the properties of one-component SM bilayers and compares them to bilayers with phosphatidylcholine (PC), the focus being on a detailed analysis...... examples of this issue. The third part concentrates on the specificity of intermolecular interactions in three-component mixtures of SM, PC and cholesterol (CHOL) under conditions where the concentrations of SM and CHOL are dilute with respect to that of PC. The results show how SM and CHOL favor one...

  11. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck, S. L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene salt lake formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the salt lake formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 50 on top of metamorphosed precambrian and lower paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 500 and 700. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 100 to 200 and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field.

  12. Prion protein accumulation in lipid rafts of mouse aging brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Agostini

    Full Text Available The cellular form of the prion protein (PrP(C is a normal constituent of neuronal cell membranes. The protein misfolding causes rare neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases. These maladies can be sporadic, genetic or infectious. Sporadic prion diseases are the most common form mainly affecting aging people. In this work, we investigate the biochemical environment in which sporadic prion diseases may develop, focusing our attention on the cell membrane of neurons in the aging brain. It is well established that with aging the ratio between the most abundant lipid components of rafts undergoes a major change: while cholesterol decreases, sphingomyelin content rises. Our results indicate that the aging process modifies the compartmentalization of PrP(C. In old mice, this change favors PrP(C accumulation in detergent-resistant membranes, particularly in hippocampi. To confirm the relationship between lipid content changes and PrP(C translocation into detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs, we looked at PrP(C compartmentalization in hippocampi from acid sphingomyelinase (ASM knockout (KO mice and synaptosomes enriched in sphingomyelin. In the presence of high sphingomyelin content, we observed a significant increase of PrP(C in DRMS. This process is not due to higher levels of total protein and it could, in turn, favor the onset of sporadic prion diseases during aging as it increases the PrP intermolecular contacts into lipid rafts. We observed that lowering sphingomyelin in scrapie-infected cells by using fumonisin B1 led to a 50% decrease in protease-resistant PrP formation. This may suggest an involvement of PrP lipid environment in prion formation and consequently it may play a role in the onset or development of sporadic forms of prion diseases.

  13. #fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women’s body image, self-compassion, and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Slater, A.; Varsani, N.; Diedrichs, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    This study experimentally examined the impact of exposure to fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes on social media on young women’s body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and negative mood. Female undergraduate students (N = 160) were randomly assigned to view either Instagram images of fitspiration, self-compassion quotes, a combination of both, or appearance-neutral images. Results showed no differences between viewing fitspiration images compared to viewing neutral...

  14. How are compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction affected by quality of working life? Findings from a survey of mental health staff in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cetrano, Gaia; Tedeschi, Federico; Rabbi, Laura; Gosetti, Giorgio; Lora, Antonio; Lamonaca, Dario; Manthorpe, Jill; Amaddeo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality of working life includes elements such as autonomy, trust, ergonomics, participation, job complexity, and work-life balance. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate if and how quality of working life affects Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction among mental health practitioners.METHODS: Staff working in three Italian Mental Health Departments completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale, measuring Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compas...

  15. Mechanism and kinetics of dithiobenzoate-mediated RAFT polymerization. I. The current situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barner-Kowollik, C.; Buback, M.; Charleux, B.; Coote, M.L.; Drache, M.; Fukuda, T.; Goto, A.; Klumperman, B.; Lowe, A.B.; McLeary, J.B.; Moad, G.; Monteiro, M.J.; Sanderson, R.D.; Tonge, M.P.; Vana, P.

    2006-01-01

    Investigations into the kinetics and mechanism of dithiobenzoate-mediated Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) polymerizations, which exhibit nonideal kinetic behavior, such as induction periods and rate retardation, are comprehensively reviewed. The appreciable uncertainty in the

  16. Lipid raft proteome reveals that oxidative phosphorylation system is associated with the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bong-Woo; Lee, Chang Seok; Yi, Jae-Sung; Lee, Joo-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Won; Choo, Hyo-Jung; Jung, Soon-Young; Kim, Min-Sik; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Myung-Shik; Yoon, Gyesoon; Ko, Young-Gyu

    2010-12-01

    Although accumulating proteomic analyses have supported the fact that mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes are localized in lipid rafts, which mediate cell signaling, immune response and host-pathogen interactions, there has been no in-depth study of the physiological functions of lipid-raft OXPHOS complexes. Here, we show that many subunits of OXPHOS complexes were identified from the lipid rafts of human adipocytes, C2C12 myotubes, Jurkat cells and surface biotin-labeled Jurkat cells via shotgun proteomic analysis. We discuss the findings of OXPHOS complexes in lipid rafts, the role of the surface ATP synthase complex as a receptor for various ligands and extracellular superoxide generation by plasma membrane oxidative phosphorylation complexes.

  17. FEM analysis of foundation raft for 500 MWe pressurized heavy water reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, N.N.; Goray, J.S.; Joshi, M.H.; Paramasivam, V.

    1989-01-01

    Foundation raft supports the containment structure and internals for 500 MWe PHW reactor building. It also serves as bottom envelop of the containment structure. In view of this, the design of foundation raft assumes great importance. The foundation raft is subjected to various load, most significant of them are dead load of structure, equipment loads transferred through a system of floors, walls and structural steel columns, pressure load during accident conditions, seismic loads, earth pressure, uplift due to buoyancy loads, foundation reaction etc. In order to achieve optimum design, the detailed structural analysis is required to be performed methodically and in most realistic manner. Finite element methods which have come in vogue with the developments in digital computers can be successfully applied in this area. The paper describes the above methods in detail for the analysis of foundation raft for the various load combinations required to be considered for safe and optimum design

  18. Intermediate Radical Termination Theory in Elucidation of RAFT Kinetics and Comparison to Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Baqeri-Jagharq

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In current work a comprehensive mechanism based on intermediate radical termination theory is assumed for RAFT polymerization of styrene over cumyl dithiobenzoate as RAFT agent. Rate constants for addition (ka and fragmentation reactions (kf are set to 6×106 and 5×104 respectively, which lead to an equilibrium constant value of K = ka/kf = 1.2 x 102. Moment equations method was used to model this mechanism and the results were compared to experimental data to verify modeling. The effects of changing RAFT agent concentration on conversion, molecular weight and polydispersity index of the final product were investigated through the modeling. According to the results, the likelihood of living polymerization increases with raising RAFT agent concentration which leads to linearity of conversion and molecular weight curves and therefore lowering the polydispersity index and narrowing the molecular weight distribution.

  19. Phase diagrams of lipid mixtures relevant to the study of membrane rafts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goni, Felix; Alonso, Alicia; Bagatolli, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reviews the phase properties of phosphatidylcholine-sphingomyelin-cholesterol mixtures, that are often used as models for membrane "raft" microdomains. The available data based on X-ray, microscopic and spectroscopic observations, surface pressure and calorimetric measurements, ...

  20. Final Technical Resource Confirmation Testing at the Raft River Geothermal Project, Cassia County, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaspey, Douglas J.

    2008-01-30

    Incorporates the results of flow tests for geothermal production and injection wells in the Raft River geothermal field in southern Idaho. Interference testing was also accomplished across the wellfield.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Towing Resistance of the Innovative Pneumatic Life Raft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burciu Zbigniew

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the experimental and numerical investigations of a novel design of a pneumatic life raft in calm water conditions. Two main issues were considered: the life raft performance under tow and its resistance in calm water conditions. The experiment and CFD simulations were performed by using the full scale prototype to eliminate the scale effect. The towing tank tests confirmed the results of numerical computations. The compatibility of the results of numerical and experimental tests was high mainly because the new life raft does not deform under the hydrodynamic and aerodynamic loads. The characteristics similar to rigid body behaviour result mainly from a new construction and materials used for manufacturing the life raft.

  2. Well-Defined Macromolecules Using Horseradish Peroxidase as a RAFT Initiase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Alex P; Bailey-Van Kuren, Dylan; Lucius, Melissa E; Makaroff, Katherine; Williams, Cameron; Page, Richard C; Berberich, Jason A; Konkolewicz, Dominik

    2016-02-01

    Enzymatic catalysis and control over macromolecular architectures from reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) are combined to give a new method of making polymers. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is used to catalytically generate radicals using hydrogen peroxide and acetylacetone as a mediator. RAFT is used to control the polymer structure. HRP catalyzed RAFT polymerization gives acrylate and acrylamide polymers with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions. The polymerization is rapid, typically exceeding 90% monomer conversion in 30 min. Complex macromolecular architectures including a block copolymer and a protein-polymer conjugate are synthesized using HRP to catalytically initiate RAFT polymerization. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Application of a movable active vibration control system on a floating raft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Mak, Cheuk Ming

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of an inertial actuator connected to an accelerometer by a local feedback loop for active vibration control on a floating raft. On the criterion of the minimum power transmission from the vibratory machines to the flexible foundation in the floating raft, the best mounting positions for the inertial actuator on the intermediate mass of the floating raft are investigated. Simulation results indicate that the best mounting positions for the inertial actuator vary with frequency. To control time-varying excitations of vibratory machines on a floating raft effectively, an automatic control system based on real-time measurement of a cost function and automatically searching the best mounting position of the inertial actuator is proposed. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that an automatic control system is proposed to move an actuator automatically for controlling a time-varying excitation.

  4. Self-Compassion in Relation to Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy and Demographical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Karine de Souza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated relationships between self-compassion, self-efficacy, and self-esteem, as well as age and sex differences and other sociodemographic variables in relation to self-compassion. Four-hundred and thirty-two Brazilian adults (50% women from nearly all country states participated in the study filling out a sociodemographic survey and three scales: self-compassion, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Comparisons of means between self-compassion and pairs of groups designed by sociodemographic data showed higher self-compassion in men, people aged from 31 to 66 years-old, not under psychiatric medication, without a job, and with children. Results also showed that self-compassion is highly correlated with self-esteem and self-efficacy. We highlight that results are sample dependent and further studies on self-compassion need to be conducted in Brazil.

  5. Status of breeding seabirds on the Northern Islands of the Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobrak, Mohammed Y; Aloufi, Abdulhadi A

    2014-07-01

    We undertook breeding surveys between 2010 and 2011 to assess the status of breeding birds on 16 islands in the northern Saudi Arabia. Sixteen bird species were found breeding at three different seasons; i.e. winter (Osprey), spring (Caspian and Saunder's Terns), and summer (Lesser Crested, White-cheeked, Bridled Terns). It is postulated that food availability is an important factor influencing the breeding of seabirds in the northern Saudi Arabian Red Sea. Several species laid eggs earlier in northern parts of the Red Sea than in southern parts. The predicted increases in temperatures (Ta ) could have a negative effect on species survival in the future, especially on those whose nests that are in the open. Finally, disturbance, predation and egg collection were probably the main immediate threats affecting the breeding seabird species in the northern Red Sea.

  6. Winter temperature affects the prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Descamps

    Full Text Available The Arctic is rapidly warming and host-parasite relationships may be modified by such environmental changes. Here, I showed that the average winter temperature in Svalbard, Arctic Norway, explained almost 90% of the average prevalence of ticks in an Arctic seabird, the Brünnich's guillemot Uria lomvia. An increase of 1°C in the average winter temperature at the nesting colony site was associated with a 5% increase in the number of birds infected by these ectoparasites in the subsequent breeding season. Guillemots were generally infested by only a few ticks (≤5 and I found no direct effect of tick presence on their body condition and breeding success. However, the strong effect of average winter temperature described here clearly indicates that tick-seabird relationships in the Arctic may be strongly affected by ongoing climate warming.

  7. Plastic debris in great skua (Stercorarius skua) pellets corresponds to seabird prey species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, S; Nager, R G; Johnson, P C D; Furness, R W; Provencher, J F

    2016-02-15

    Plastic is a common item in marine environments. Studies assessing seabird ingestion of plastics have focused on species that ingest plastics mistaken for prey items. Few studies have examined a scavenger and predatory species that are likely to ingest plastics indirectly through their prey items, such as the great skua (Stercorarius skua). We examined 1034 regurgitated pellets from a great skua colony in the Faroe Islands for plastics and found approximately 6% contained plastics. Pellets containing remains of Northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) had the highest prevalence of plastic. Our findings support previous work showing that Northern fulmars have higher loads of plastics than other sympatric species. This study demonstrates that marine plastic debris is transferred from surface feeding seabird species to predatory great skuas. Examination of plastic ingestion in species that do not ingest plastics directly can provide insights into how plastic particles transfer vertically within the food web. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...... was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life-history strategies, the benefits of coloniality and the evolution of adoption behaviour in the species.......The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  9. Characterization of the functions and proteomes associated with membrane rafts in chicken sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Ushiyama

    Full Text Available Cellular membranes are heterogeneous, and this has a great impact on cellular function. Despite the central role of membrane functions in multiple cellular processes in sperm, their molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Membrane rafts are specific membrane domains enriched in cholesterol, ganglioside GM1, and functional proteins, and they are involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular functions. Studies of the functional characterization of membrane rafts in mammalian sperm have demonstrated roles in sperm-egg binding and the acrosomal reaction. Recently, our biochemical and cell biological studies showed that membrane rafts are present and might play functional roles in chicken sperm. In this study, we isolated membrane rafts from chicken sperm as a detergent-resistant membranes (DRM floating on a density gradient in the presence of 1% Triton X-100, and characterized the function and proteomes associated with these domains. Biochemical comparison of the DRM between fresh and cryopreserved sperm demonstrated that cryopreservation induces cholesterol loss specifically from membrane rafts, indicating the functional connection with reduced post-thaw fertility in chicken sperm. Furthermore, using an avidin-biotin system, we found that sperm DRM is highly enriched in a 60 KDa single protein able to bind to the inner perivitelline layer. To identify possible roles of membrane rafts, quantitative proteomics, combined with a stable isotope dimethyl labeling approach, identified 82 proteins exclusively or relatively more associated with membrane rafts. Our results demonstrate the functional distinctions between membrane domains and provide compelling evidence that membrane rafts are involved in various cellular pathways inherent to chicken sperm.

  10. Proteomic analysis of BmN cell lipid rafts reveals roles in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Min; Liang, Zi; Kumar, Dhiraj; Chen, Fei; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Xue, Renyu; Cao, Guangli; Gong, Chengliang

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of how Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) enters cells is unknown. The primary components of membrane lipid rafts are proteins and cholesterol, and membrane lipid rafts are thought to be an active region for host-viral interactions. However, whether they contribute to the entry of BmNPV into silkworm cells remains unclear. In this study, we explored the membrane protein components of lipid rafts from BmN cells with mass spectrometry (MS). Proteins and cholesterol were investigated after establishing infection with BmNPV in BmN cells. In total, 222 proteins were identified in the lipid rafts, and Gene Ontology (GO) annotation analysis showed that more than 10% of these proteins had binding and catalytic functions. We then identified proteins that potentially interact between lipid rafts and BmNPV virions using the Virus Overlay Protein Blot Assay (VOPBA). A total of 65 proteins were analyzed with MS, and 7 were predicted to be binding proteins involved in BmNPV cellular invasion, including actin, kinesin light chain-like isoform X2, annexin B13, heat-shock protein 90, barrier-to-autointegration factor B-like and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 1 A-like. When the cholesterol of the lipid rafts from the membrane was depleted by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), BmNPV entry into BmN cells was blocked. However, supplying cholesterol into the medium rescued the BmNPV infection ability. These results show that membrane lipid rafts may be the active regions for the entry of BmNPV into cells, and the components of membrane lipid rafts may be candidate targets for improving the resistance of the silkworm to BmNPV.

  11. Interlock System for the COMPASS Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hron, M.; Adamek, J.; Pisacka, J.; Panek, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Sova, J.; Siba, J.; Kovarj, J. [Department of Control Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: The COMPASS tokamak (R=0.56 m, a=0.18 - 0.23 m) is starting operation presently at Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR in Prague. An important issue of the operation is the safety of the personnel and machine protection against faults, presented in this contribution. The personnel protection is based on a restricted access into the experimental hall during the operation of potentially dangerous systems. A tokamak hall access system, based on Honeywell WIN-PAK (tm) 2005, allows to set the status of the experimental area (open/closed) and to control the in and out movement of persons using access cards. On top of this, a check of the whole experimental area by the operator is enforced before the hall enclosure. A hardware interlock then interprets the experimental hall status and controls the operation of key systems accordingly. The permit for operation is granted and the real status of the systems is reported by hard wired potential less contacts. The control procedure is based on a PLC MicroPEL M66. This PLC provides HW interface between Actuators (Relays and switches) and it is connected on PESNET bus. Its programming is done using language Simple v.2 in Winstudio IDE. Second site of personnel protection system is created on PC where runs a .NET application on MSWindows XP or 2000. This PC is connected with PLC via PESNET bus (on RS485 layer) and it generates all control signals to PLC from the operator. Simultaneously, the PC receives all warning and alarm signals from the PLC. This signals are displayed on a screen of the PC in real-time, this way the GUI provides visualization of the controlled process. Except for this fact the operator is informed about the status of the system and individual subsystems on a PC via an operator's panel. Further we will describe the machine protection which uses similar system for checking conditions for the start of a shot. Fast key processes which have to be checked during the shot are

  12. The motivation and limits of compassion | Cornelius | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What motivates people to serve others? Why do we help those in need, the poor, the sick, the lonely, orphans and widows? Is compassion for humans a natural instinct or is it a learnt response? In the biblical tradition, it is a clear imperative to show one's faith in God in one's behaviour by reaching out to others.

  13. Abortion and human rights: Towards an ethics of compassion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contends that abortion is not easy nor safe as the pro-abortionists and medical experts woul want us believe. Given the natue of this work, we employed the analytic and existential method of philosophizing to draw a conclusion that, as humans we should always have compassion for the weakest member of the ...

  14. Avian magnetic compass: Its functional properties and physical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roswitha WILTSCHKO, Wolfgang WILTSCHKO

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The avian magnetic compass was analyzed in bird species of three different orders – Passeriforms, Columbiforms and Galliforms – and in three different behavioral contexts, namely migratory orientation, homing and directional conditioning. The respective findings indicate similar functional properties: it is an inclination compass that works only within a functional window around the ambient magnetic field intensity; it tends to be lateralized in favor of the right eye, and it is wavelength-dependent, requiring light from the short-wavelength range of the spectrum. The underlying physical mechanisms have been identified as radical pair processes, spin-chemical reactions in specialized photopigments. The iron-based receptors in the upper beak do not seem to be involved. The existence of the same type of magnetic compass in only very distantly related bird species suggests that it may have been present already in the common ancestors of all modern birds, where it evolved as an all-purpose compass mechanism for orientation within the home range [Current Zoology 56 (3: 265–276, 2010].

  15. Charm and strangeness production at COMPASS and HESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.

    2001-01-01

    We present the characteristics of charm production in deep inelastic scattering and in hadronic interactions. Besides of the underlying processes we also present the physics which will be addressed using these reactions in the high energy spectrometer COMPASS currently being built up at CERN and at a future p-storage ring at GSI. (orig.)

  16. Psychiatric caregiver stress: clinical implications of compassion fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franza, Francesco; Del Buono, Gianfranco; Pellegrino, Ferdinando

    2015-09-01

    The capacity to work productively is a key component of health and emotional well-being. People who work in health care can be exposed to the fatigue of care. Compassion fatigue has been described as an occupational hazard specific to clinical work related severe emotional distress. In our study, we have evaluated compassion fatigue in a mental health group (47 psychiatric staff) and its relationship with inpatients (237 inpatients) affected by some psychiatric disorders. At baseline, the more significant data indicate a high percentage of Job Burnout and Compassion Fatigue in psychiatric nurses (respectively, 39.28%, 28.57%). Significant Compassion Fatigue percentage is present also in psychologist group (36.36%). Finally, in psychiatrists, the exposure to patients increased vicarious trauma (28.57%), but not job burnout. After a year of participation in Balint Groups, the psychiatric staff presented an overall reduction in total mean score in any administered scale (CBI: pfatigue causes concern among mental health professionals, and Balint Groups may represent a therapeutic strategy to help health professionals to face difficulties in challenging work environments.

  17. Double spin asymmetry in exclusive rho(0) muoproduction at COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alekseev, M.; Alexakhin, V. Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Arbuzov, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Barth, J.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Chapiro, A.; Chiosso, M.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gazda, R.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A. M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Jasinski, P.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kravchuk, N.; Kral, A.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Lednev, A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Mutter, M.; Nähle, O.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.; Rapatsky, V.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Robinet, F.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schönmeier, P.; Schröder, W.; Shevchenko, O.; Siebert, H.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Vossen, A.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2007), s. 255-265 ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : double spin asymmetry * polarized deuterons * scattering * COMPASS Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.255, year: 2007

  18. Monitoring of absolute mirror alignment at COMPASS RICH-1 detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexeev, M.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Chiosso, M.; Ciliberti, P.; Dalla Torre, S.; Denisov, O.; Duic, V.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Gayde, J. Ch; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Levorato, S.; Maggiora, A.; Martin, A.; Menon, G.; Panzieri, D.; Pesaro, G.; Polak, J.; Rocco, E.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Slunecka, M.; Sozzi, F.; Steiger, L.; Sulc, M.; Takekawa, S.; Tessarotto, F.

    2014-01-01

    The gaseous COMPASS RICH-1 detector uses two spherical mirror surfaces, segmented into 116 individual mirrors, to focus the Cherenkov photons onto the detector plane. Any mirror misalignment directly affects the detector resolution. The on-line Continuous Line Alignment and Monitoring (CLAM)

  19. Compassion and Caring: Missing Concepts in Social Studies Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliner, Pearl

    1979-01-01

    Current social studies programs do not include the study of prosocial behaviors such as altruism, generosity, and compassion. This omission legitimizes the view that human behaviors are self-serving. Curriculum developers should fashion programs which provide prosocial models and opportunities for students to conceptualize such behaviors and…

  20. The experience of building and operating COMPASS RICH-1

    CERN Document Server

    Birsa, R; Rocco, E; Schiavon, P; Kramer, D; Schroder, W; Dafni, T; Tessarotto, F; Bressan, A; Schill, C; Deschamps, H; Mann, A; Sozzi, F; Colantoni, M; Dibiase, N; Abbon, P; Svec, M; Delagnes, E; Ketzer, B; Joosten, R; Steiger, L; Ciliberti, P; Konigsmann, K; Maggiora, A; Kolosov, V N; Giorgi, M; Sbrizzai, G; Nahle, O; Kunne, F; Sulc, M; Teufel, A; Paul, S; Neyret, D; Rebourgeard, P; Menon, G; Dalla Torre, S; Hagemann, R; Slunecka, M; Martin, A; Magnon, A; Takekawa, S; Finger, M; Bradamante, F; Heinsius, F H; Nerling, F; Gerassimov, S; Polak, J; Alexeev, M; Pizzolotto, C; Chiosso, M; Gobbo, B; Angerer, H; Denisov, O; Ferrero, A; Baum, G; Franco, C; Lehmann, A; Bordalo, P; Duic, V; Konorov, I; Mutter, A; Levorato, S; Robinet, F; von Harrach, D; Fischer, H; Schoenmeier, P; Pesaro, G; Wollny, H; Panzieri, D

    2011-01-01

    COMPASS RICH-1 is a large size gaseous Imaging Cherenkov Detector providing hadron identification in the range from 3 to 55 GeV/c, in the wide acceptance spectrometer of the COMPASS Experiment at CERN SPS. It uses a 3 m long C(4)F(10) radiator, a 21 m(2) large VUV mirror surface and two kinds of photon detectors: MAPMTs and MWPCs with CsI photocathodes, covering a total of 5.5 m(2). It is in operation since 2002 and its performance has increased in time thanks to progressive optimization and mostly to a major upgrade which was implemented in 2006. The main characteristics of COMPASS RICH-1 components are described and some specific aspects related to the radiator gas system, the mirror alignment, the MWPC electrical stability and the readout electronics are discussed. Some key features of the event reconstruction and the PID analysis are presented together with results from the COMPASS RICH-1 performance characterization study. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Calibrating One's Moral Compass: How Principal Preparation Shapes School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Donald E.; Derrington, Mary Lynne

    2012-01-01

    No textbook that an aspiring principal encounters in preparing for the role of school leader discusses what steps to follow when a member--or members--of the school staff challenge standards of professional judgment and moral rectitude. Instead, the most reliable guide at the principal's disposal may be the "moral compass" upon which the…

  2. Surfactant-Free RAFT Emulsion Polymerization of Styrene Using Thermoresponsive macroRAFT Agents: Towards Smart Well-Defined Block Copolymers with High Molecular Weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Eggers

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT and emulsion polymerization has recently attracted much attention as a synthetic tool for high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their micellar nano-objects. Up to recently, though, the use of thermoresponsive polymers as both macroRAFT agents and latex stabilizers was impossible in aqueous media due to their hydrophobicity at the usually high polymerization temperatures. In this work, we present a straightforward surfactant-free RAFT emulsion polymerization to obtain thermoresponsive styrenic block copolymers with molecular weights of around 100 kDa and their well-defined latexes. The stability of the aqueous latexes is achieved by adding 20 vol % of the cosolvent 1,4-dioxane (DOX, increasing the phase transition temperature (PTT of the used thermoresponsive poly(N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PAPy macroRAFT agents above the polymerization temperature. Furthermore, this cosolvent approach is combined with the use of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-block-poly(N-acryloylpiperidine-co-N-acryloylpyrrolidine (PDMA-b-P(APi-co-APy as the macroRAFT agent owning a short stabilizing PDMA end block and a widely adjustable PTT of the P(APi-co-APy block in between 4 and 47 °C. The temperature-induced collapse of the latter under emulsion polymerization conditions leads to the formation of RAFT nanoreactors, which allows for a very fast chain growth of the polystyrene (PS block. In dynamic light scattering (DLS, as well as cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryoTEM, moreover, all created latexes indeed reveal a high (temperature stability and a reversible collapse of the thermoresponsive coronal block upon heating. Hence, this paper pioneers a versatile way towards amphiphilic thermoresponsive high-molecular-weight block copolymers and their nano-objects with tailored corona switchability.

  3. Regionalizing indicators for marine ecosystems: Bering Sea–Aleutian Island seabirds, climate, and competitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Piatt, John F.; García-Reyes, Marisol; Zador, Stephani; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Romano, Marc; Renner, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Seabirds are thought to be reliable, real-time indicators of forage fish availability and the climatic and biotic factors affecting pelagic food webs in marine ecosystems. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that temporal trends and interannual variability in seabird indicators reflect simultaneously occurring bottom-up (climatic) and competitor (pink salmon) forcing of food webs. To test this hypothesis, we derived multivariate seabird indicators for the Bering Sea–Aleutian Island (BSAI) ecosystem and related them to physical and biological conditions known to affect pelagic food webs in the ecosystem. We examined covariance in the breeding biology of congeneric pelagic gulls (kittiwakes Rissa tridactyla and R. brevirostris) andauks (murres Uria aalge and U. lomvia), all of whichare abundant and well-studiedinthe BSAI. At the large ecosystem scale, kittiwake and murre breeding success and phenology (hatch dates) covaried among congeners, so data could be combined using multivariate techniques, but patterns of responsedifferedsubstantially betweenthe genera.Whiledata fromall sites (n = 5)inthe ecosystemcould be combined, the south eastern Bering Sea shelf colonies (St. George, St. Paul, and Cape Peirce) provided the strongest loadings on indicators, and hence had the strongest influence on modes of variability. The kittiwake breeding success mode of variability, dominated by biennial variation, was significantly related to both climatic factors and potential competitor interactions. The murre indicator mode was interannual and only weakly related to the climatic factors measured. The kittiwake phenology indicator mode of variability showed multi-year periods (“stanzas”) of late or early breeding, while the murre phenology indicator showed a trend towards earlier timing. Ocean climate relationships with the kittiwake breeding success indicator suggestthat early-season (winter–spring) environmental conditions and the abundance of pink salmon affect the

  4. The evolution of seabirds in the Humboldt Current: new clues from the Pliocene of Central Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Chávez Hoffmeister

    Full Text Available During the last decade, new Neogene fossil assemblages from South America have revealed important clues about the evolution of seabird faunas in one of the major upwelling systems of the world: the Humboldt Current. However, most of this record comes from arid Northern Chile and Southern Peru and, in consequence, our knowledge of the evolutionary history of seabirds in the temperate transitional zone is negligible. A new Late Pliocene assemblage of fossil birds from the coastal locality of Horcon in Central Chile offers a unique opportunity to fill this gap.Isolated bones of a medium-sized penguin are the most abundant bird remains. Morphological and cladistic analyses reveal that these specimens represent a new species of crested penguin, Eudyptes calauina sp. nov. Eudyptes is a penguin genus that inhabit temperate and subantarctic regions and currently absent in central Chile. Additionally, a partial skeleton of a small species of cormorant and a partial tarsometatarsus of a sooty shearwater have been identified.The Horcon fossils suggest the existence of a mixed avifauna in central Chile during the Pliocene in concordance with the latitudinal thermal gradient. This resembles the current assemblages from the transitional zone, with the presence of species shared with Northern Chile and Southern Peru and a previously unrecorded penguin currently absent from the Humboldt System but present in the Magellanic region. Comparison of Pliocene seabird diversity across the Pacific coast of South America shows that the Horcon avifauna represents a distinctive assemblage linking the living faunas with the Late Miocene ones. A comparison with the fossil record near the Benguela Current (west coast of southern Africa suggests that the thermic gradient could play an important role in the preservation of a higher diversity of cold/temperate seabirds in the Humboldt Current.

  5. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Arctic seabirds: influence of dietary exposure and congener biotransformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borga, Katrine; Wolkers, Hans; Skaare, Janneche U.; Hop, Haakon; Muir, Derek C.G.; Gabrielsen, Geir W.

    2005-01-01

    Four seabird species and their prey (zooplankton or fish) were collected in the Barents Sea to determine how dietary exposure, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities and sex influenced their hepatic PCB concentrations and accumulation patterns. Five males and five females from each seabird species (little auk (Alle alle), Bruennich's guillemot (Uria lomvia), black guillemot (Cepphus grylle) and black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla)) were analysed. PCB concentrations could not be explained directly by carbon source (δ 13 C) or trophic position (δ 15 N), but by a combination of dietary parameters (δ 13 C, δ 15 N, migratory pattern, age) and contaminant metabolism. Contrary to previous studies, the PCB pattern differed among seabirds, with a higher proportion of persistent congeners (% of PCB-153, R PCB-153 ) in black-legged kittiwake than in auks. The PCB pattern also differed among auks, with little auk as the most efficient biotransformer (highest R PCB-153 values of persistent congeners). Based on high R PCB-153 values, Bruennich's guillemot poorly metabolised ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners, whereas black guillemot poorly metabolised meta-para unsubstituted congeners. Species-specific differences in PCB biotransformation were confirmed by metabolic indices, where PCB patterns in seabirds were adjusted for PCB pattern in prey. The relative contribution of ortho-meta-unsubstituted congeners to ΣPCBsdecreased with increasing EROD activity. There were no differences in PCB concentrations, PCB patterns or cytochrome P450 enzyme activities between males and females. CYP P450 activities (CYP1A- and CYP2B/3A-like: EROD and testosterone 6β-hydroxylation, respectively) were low and did not correlate with concentrations of non- or mono-ortho Cl-substituted PCBs (NO- and MO-PCBs), or with total toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQs) for dioxin-like effects of NO- and MO-PCBs. - Contaminant patterns is linked to phylogeny and species-specific differences in

  6. Drivers of time-activity budget variability during breeding in a pelagic seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin M Rishworth

    Full Text Available During breeding, animal behaviour is particularly sensitive to environmental and food resource availability. Additionally, factors such as sex, body condition, and offspring developmental stage can influence behaviour. Amongst seabirds, behaviour is generally predictably affected by local foraging conditions and has therefore been suggested as a potentially useful proxy to indicate prey state. However, besides prey availability and distribution, a range of other variables also influence seabird behavior, and these need to be accounted for to increase the signal-to-noise ratio when assessing specific characteristics of the environment based on behavioural attributes. The aim of this study was to use continuous, fine-scale time-activity budget data from a pelagic seabird (Cape gannet, Morus capensis to determine the influence of intrinsic (sex and body condition and extrinsic (offspring and time variables on parent behaviour during breeding. Foraging trip duration and chick provisioning rates were clearly sex-specific and associated with chick developmental stage. Females made fewer, longer foraging trips and spent less time at the nest during chick provisioning. These sex-specific differences became increasingly apparent with chick development. Additionally, parents in better body condition spent longer periods at their nests and those which returned later in the day had longer overall nest attendance bouts. Using recent technological advances, this study provides new insights into the foraging behaviour of breeding seabirds, particularly during the post-guarding phase. The biparental strategy of chick provisioning revealed in this study appears to be an example where the costs of egg development to the female are balanced by paternal-dominated chick provisioning particularly as the chick nears fledging.

  7. Estimating population size of a nocturnal burrow-nesting seabird using acoustic monitoring and habitat mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Oppel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Population size assessments for nocturnal burrow-nesting seabirds are logistically challenging because these species are active in colonies only during darkness and often nest on remote islands where manual inspections of breeding burrows are not feasible. Many seabird species are highly vocal, and recent technological innovations now make it possible to record and quantify vocal activity in seabird colonies. Here we test the hypothesis that remotely recorded vocal activity in Cory’s shearwater (Calonectris borealis breeding colonies in the North Atlantic increases with nest density, and combined this relationship with cliff habitat mapping to estimate the population size of Cory’s shearwaters on the island of Corvo (Azores. We deployed acoustic recording devices in 9 Cory’s shearwater colonies of known size to establish a relationship between vocal activity and local nest density (slope = 1.07, R2 = 0.86, p < 0.001. We used this relationship to predict the nest density in various cliff habitat types and produced a habitat map of breeding cliffs to extrapolate nest density around the island of Corvo. The mean predicted nest density on Corvo ranged from 6.6 (2.1–16.2 to 27.8 (19.5–36.4 nests/ha. Extrapolation of habitat-specific nest densities across the cliff area of Corvo resulted in an estimate of 6326 Cory’s shearwater nests (95% confidence interval: 3735–10,524. This population size estimate is similar to previous assessments, but is too imprecise to detect moderate changes in population size over time. While estimating absolute population size from acoustic recordings may not be sufficiently precise, the strong positive relationship that we found between local nest density and recorded calling rate indicates that passive acoustic monitoring may be useful to document relative changes in seabird populations over time.

  8. Analysis of raft foundations for spent fuel pool in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, K.V.; Kashikar, A.V.; Nath, C.; Shintre, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Foundation rafts are analysed as a plate on elastic foundation with the representation of the foundation media using the Winkler idealisation i.e. series of linear uncoupled springs. The elastic constant of the Winkler springs is derived using the sub-grade modulus. However, the Winkler approach has limitations due to incompatibility of the deflections at raft-soil interface. The deflection of the raft at the point of contact and the deformation of the foundation media at this point of contact are incompatible in this approach. This particularly influences flexible rafts and further if the foundation media is soil. This paper discusses the analysis of raft, in general, and the analysis of the foundation raft for a Spent Fuel pool facility using 'variable k approach' where deformations at a node and influencing nodes are computed using Boussinesq's theory. The limitations stated above are overcome in this approach. Some studies on the sensitivity of parameters were carried out in the form of variation of moduli of elasticity of concrete and deformation modulus of soil. Analysis is also performed with conventional method using 'Winkler' soil springs. It is concluded that the Winkler model does not correctly predict the behaviour of the mat both qualitatively and quantitatively and could lead to underestimation of soil pressures leading to unconservative design. The approach involving soil structure interaction like the one presented here is hence recommended for important structures like those involved in Nuclear facilities. (authors)

  9. The shedding activity of ADAM17 is sequestered in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Edwige; Canault, Matthias; Rebsomen, Laure; Bonardo, Bernadette; Juhan-Vague, Irene; Nalbone, Gilles; Peiretti, Franck

    2006-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) converting enzyme (ADAM17) is a metalloprotease-disintegrin responsible for the cleavage of several biologically active transmembrane proteins. However, the substrate specificity of ADAM17 and the regulation of its shedding activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report that during its transport through the Golgi apparatus, ADAM17 is included in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) where its prodomain is cleaved by furin. Consequently, ADAM17 shedding activity is sequestered in lipid rafts, which is confirmed by the fact that metalloproteinase inhibition increases the proportion of ADAM17 substrates (TNF and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2) in lipid rafts. Membrane cholesterol depletion increases the ADAM17-dependent shedding of these substrates demonstrating the importance of lipid rafts in the control of this process. Furthermore, ADAM17 substrates are present in different proportions in lipid rafts, suggesting that the entry of each of these substrates in these particular membrane microdomains is specifically regulated. Our data support the idea that one of the mechanisms regulating ADAM17 substrate cleavage involves protein partitioning in lipid rafts

  10. Constitutive modeling of creep behavior in single crystal superalloys: Effects of rafting at high temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Ya-Nan, E-mail: fanyn12@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Shi, Hui-Ji, E-mail: shihj@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Qiu, Wen-Hui

    2015-09-17

    Rafting and creep modeling of single crystal superalloys at high temperatures are important for the safety assessment and life prediction in practice. In this research, a new model has been developed to describe the rafting evolution and incorporated into the Cailletaud single crystal plasticity model to simulate the creep behavior. The driving force of rafting is assumed to be the relaxation of the strain energy, and it is calculated with the local stress state, a superposition of the external and misfit stress tensors. In addition, the isotropic coarsening is introduced by the cube root dependence of the microstructure periodicity on creep time based on Ostwal ripening. Then the influence of rafting on creep deformation is taken into account as the Orowan stress in the single crystal plasticity model. The capability of the proposed model is validated with creep experiments of CMSX-4 at 950 °C and 1050 °C. It is able to predict the rafting direction at complex loading conditions and evaluate the channel width during rafting. For [001] tensile creep tests, good agreement has been shown between the model predictions and experimental results at different temperatures and stress levels. The creep acceleration can be captured with this model and is attributed to the microstructure degradation caused by the precipitate coarsening.

  11. Mesoscale organization of domains in the plasma membrane - beyond the lipid raft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Stella M; Fairn, Gregory D

    2018-04-01

    The plasma membrane is compartmentalized into several distinct regions or domains, which show a broad diversity in both size and lifetime. The segregation of lipids and membrane proteins is thought to be driven by the lipid composition itself, lipid-protein interactions and diffusional barriers. With regards to the lipid composition, the immiscibility of certain classes of lipids underlies the "lipid raft" concept of plasmalemmal compartmentalization. Historically, lipid rafts have been described as cholesterol and (glyco)sphingolipid-rich regions of the plasma membrane that exist as a liquid-ordered phase that are resistant to extraction with non-ionic detergents. Over the years the interest in lipid rafts grew as did the challenges with studying these nanodomains. The term lipid raft has fallen out of favor with many scientists and instead the terms "membrane raft" or "membrane nanodomain" are preferred as they connote the heterogeneity and dynamic nature of the lipid-protein assemblies. In this article, we will discuss the classical lipid raft hypothesis and its limitations. This review will also discuss alternative models of lipid-protein interactions, annular lipid shells, and larger membrane clusters. We will also discuss the mesoscale organization of plasmalemmal domains including visible structures such as clathrin-coated pits and caveolae.

  12. Cholesterol, sphingolipids, and glycolipids: What do we know about their role in raft-like membranes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids rafts are considered to be functional nanoscale membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, characteristic in particular of the external leaflet of cell membranes. Lipids, together with membrane-associated proteins, are therefore considered to form nanoscale units with pote......Lipids rafts are considered to be functional nanoscale membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, characteristic in particular of the external leaflet of cell membranes. Lipids, together with membrane-associated proteins, are therefore considered to form nanoscale units...... with potential specific functions. Although the understanding of the structure of rafts in living cells is quite limited, the possible functions of rafts are widely discussed in the literature, highlighting their importance in cellular functions. In this review, we discuss the understanding of rafts that has...... emerged based on recent atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation studies on the key lipid raft components, which include cholesterol, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and the proteins interacting with these classes of lipids. The simulation results are compared to experiments when possible...

  13. Direct access to dithiobenzoate RAFT agent fragmentation rate coefficients by ESR spin-trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Kayte; Delaittre, Guillaume; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Junkers, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The β-scission rate coefficient of tert-butyl radicals fragmenting off the intermediate resulting from their addition to tert-butyl dithiobenzoate-a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent-is estimated via the recently introduced electron spin resonance (ESR)-trapping methodology as a function of temperature. The newly introduced ESR-trapping methodology is critically evaluated and found to be reliable. At 20 °C, a fragmentation rate coefficient of close to 0.042 s(-1) is observed, whereas the activation parameters for the fragmentation reaction-determined for the first time-read EA = 82 ± 13.3 kJ mol(-1) and A = (1.4 ± 0.25) × 10(13) s(-1) . The ESR spin-trapping methodology thus efficiently probes the stability of the RAFT adduct radical under conditions relevant for the pre-equilibrium of the RAFT process. It particularly indicates that stable RAFT adduct radicals are indeed formed in early stages of the RAFT poly-merization, at least when dithiobenzoates are employed as controlling agents as stipulated by the so-called slow fragmentation theory. By design of the methodology, the obtained fragmentation rate coefficients represent an upper limit. The ESR spin-trapping methodology is thus seen as a suitable tool for evaluating the fragmentation rate coefficients of a wide range of RAFT adduct radicals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Requirement of transmembrane domain for CD154 association to lipid rafts and subsequent biological events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir Benslimane

    Full Text Available Interaction of CD40 with CD154 leads to recruitment of both molecules into lipid rafts, resulting in bi-directional cell activation. The precise mechanism by which CD154 is translocated into lipid rafts and its impact on CD154 signaling remain largely unknown. Our aim is to identify the domain of CD154 facilitating its association to lipid rafts and the impact of such association on signaling events and cytokine production. Thus, we generated Jurkat cell lines expressing truncated CD154 lacking the cytoplasmic domain or chimeric CD154 in which the transmembrane domain was replaced by that of transferrin receptor I, known to be excluded from lipid rafts. Our results show that cell stimulation with soluble CD40 leads to the association of CD154 wild-type and CD154-truncated, but not CD154-chimera, with lipid rafts. This is correlated with failure of CD154-chimera to activate Akt and p38 MAP kinases, known effectors of CD154 signaling. We also found that CD154-chimera lost the ability to promote IL-2 production upon T cell stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 and soluble CD40. These results demonstrate the implication of the transmembrane domain of CD154 in lipid raft association, and that this association is necessary for CD154-mediated Akt and p38 activation with consequent enhancement of IL-2 production.

  15. INTRAVENOUS REGIONAL ANTIBIOTIC PERFUSION THERAPY AS AN ADJUNCTIVE TREATMENT FOR DIGITAL LESIONS IN SEABIRDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V

    2017-03-01

    Foot infections are a common problem among seabirds in wildlife rehabilitation. Pododermatitis and digital infections are often challenging to treat because of the presence of suboptimal substrates, abnormal weight-bearing due to injuries, and suboptimal nutritional or health status. Seabirds represent the majority of animals requiring rehabilitation after oil spills, and foot problems are a common reason for euthanasia among these birds. Antibiotic intravenous regional perfusion therapy is frequently used in humans and other species to treat infections of the distal extremities, but it has not been evaluated in seabirds. During the 2015 Refugio oil spill response, four birds with foot lesions (pododermatitis, osteomyelitis, or both) were treated with ampicillin/sulbactam administered intravenously to the affected limb(s) in addition to systemic antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Three of the birds, all brown pelicans ( Pelecanus occidentalis ) recovered rapidly and were released. Two of these birds had acute pododermatitis and were treated once with intravenous regional perfusion. They were released approximately 3 wk after the perfusion therapy. The third pelican had osteomyelitis of a digit. It was treated twice with intravenous regional perfusion and was released about 1 mo after the initial perfusion therapy. The fourth bird, a Pacific loon ( Gavia pacifica ), was treated once with perfusion therapy but did not respond to treatment and was euthanatized. No serious adverse effects were observed. This technique should be explored further in avian species.

  16. Study on elements concentrations on seabird feathers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theophilo, Carolina Y.S.; Moreira, Edson G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Colabuono, Fernanda I., E-mail: carolina.theophilo@gmail.com, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br, E-mail: rfigueira@usp.br, E-mail: ficolabuono@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanográfico

    2017-07-01

    Seabirds are very sensitive to environmental changes and because of their large longevity they are also sensitive to cumulative impacts. These birds usually occupy the higher trophic levels. White-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) are Procellariiformes, which is a seabird order, composed of 4 families. In the last years, researches are being done and actions are being taken to reduce the mortality of albatrosses and petrels caused by human activities. Due to the great ecological importance of these birds and the developed work with Procellariiformes, this study purpose is to quantify the Br, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V elements in white-chinned petrel and black-browed albatross feathers. Bird specimens were killed accidentally by pelagic longline fisheries operating off southern Brazil. Feathers were cleaned with acetone and then milled in a cryogenic mill. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for quantification of the element concentrations and measurements of induced activities were performed in a HPGe detector for gamma ray spectrometry. The obtained results on feathers showed that concentrations in these birds are not higher than others studies with the same species and, with exception of Br, there are no significant differences between elements mean concentrations in the two seabirds. (author)

  17. Abundance and breeding distribution of seabirds in the northern part of the Danco Coast, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Juáres

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seabird abundances and breeding distribution have the potential to serve as ecological indicators. The western Antarctic Peninsula is one of the three sites in the world with the greatest increases in local temperature during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to monitor the distribution and abundance of breeding populations of seabirds in the northern sector of the Danco Coast, north-west of the Antarctic Peninsula, during the breeding season 2010/11. The birds were the Wilson′s storm petrel (Oceanites oceanicus, South Polar skua (Stercorarius maccormicki, kelp gull (Larus dominicanus, Antarctic tern (Sterna vittata, snowy sheathbill (Chionis alba, chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica, southern giant petrel (Macronectes giganteus, gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua, Cape petrel (Daption capense and Antarctic shag (Phalacrocorax bransfieldensis. Annual breeding population growth increased in pygoscelids, southern giant petrel and sheathbill, and for the remaining species, breeding population trends were stable. Given that seabird populations can provide valuable information on the conditions of their feeding and nesting environments, this study highlights the need to maintain basics monitoring studies.

  18. Tracking Cairns: Biologging Improves the Use of Seabirds as Sentinels of the Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Brisson-Curadeau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1987, David Cairns proposed that a gradient of colony-based measures on seabirds could be used to assess food supply in the ocean. Measures closely tied to the ocean, such as foraging trip duration, would be sensitive to small declines in food supply while measures more closely tied with the nest site, such as reproductive success, would be sensitive to large declines in food supply. The continual refinement of tracking devices holds the potential to clearly link variables measured via seabirds to food supply, possibly extending Cairns' hypothesis. Here, we review the various tests of Cairns' hypothesis, and demonstrate that those tests have had variable success, partly because of the complex and nonlinear relationships between food supply and colony-based measures. We summarize the metrics available from biologgers and argue that such devices can provide a more direct proxy of food supply. We conclude that Cairns' hypothesis can be extended to biologger-derived parameters and that seabird behavior can be used as an early warning signal for declining food supply.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase activity in seabirds affected by the Prestige oil spill on the Galician coast (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oropesa, Ana-Lourdes; Perez-Lopez, Marcos; Hernandez, David; Soler, Francisco [Toxicology Area, Faculty of Veterinary Science (UEX), Avda. de la Universidad s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain); Garcia, Jesus-Pablo [Toxicology Area, National Centre of Environmental Health, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); Fidalgo, Luis-Eusebio; Lopez-Beceiro, Ana [Rof Codina Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science (USC), Estrada de Granxa s/n. 27003 Lugo (Spain)

    2007-01-01

    In November 2002, the tanker Prestige broke in two and sank at the bottom of the ocean spilling about 70,000 t of fuel oil, which reached the coast of Galicia. It was considered the largest spill in maritime history, greatly affecting marine and related avian species. The spilled fuel oil contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many species were affected and were found dead, although ongoing research is still being carried out on the sublethal effects. In this sense, little is known about the action of PAHs on Cholinesterase activity in seabirds. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to provide more information on the neurotoxicity of fuel oil on the seabirds most affected by the Prestige accident: common guillemot, Atlantic puffin and razorbill. On the other hand, data on normal values of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were obtained to supply non-exposed values in seabirds. The oil spill produced a clear inhibitory effect on brain AChE activity in common guillemot (16%, p {<=} 0.01) and razorbill (22%, p {<=} 0.01), but not in Atlantic puffin (4%). Physiological levels of brain AChE, expressed in nmol acetylcholine hydrolysed min{sup -} {sup 1} mg{sup -} {sup 1} protein were similar in non-exposed common guillemot (388.6 {+-} 95.0) and Atlantic puffin (474.0 {+-} 60.7), however, razorbill values were higher (644.6 {+-} 66.9). (author)

  20. Oceanographic drivers and mistiming processes shape breeding success in a seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Catalán, Ignacio A; Oro, Daniel; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana

    2016-03-16

    Understanding the processes driving seabirds' reproductive performance through trophic interactions requires the identification of seasonal pulses in marine productivity. We investigated the sequence of environmental and biological processes driving the reproductive phenology and performance of the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus) in the Western Mediterranean. The enhanced light and nutrient availability at the onset of water stratification (late winter/early spring) resulted in annual consecutive peaks in relative abundance of phytoplankton, zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. The high energy-demanding period of egg production and chick rearing coincided with these successive pulses in food availability, pointing to a phenological adjustment to such seasonal patterns with important fitness consequences. Indeed, delayed reproduction with respect to the onset of water stratification resulted in both hatching and breeding failure. This pattern was observed at the population level, but also when confounding factors such as individuals' age or experience were also accounted for. We provide the first evidence of oceanographic drivers leading to the optimal time-window for reproduction in an inshore seabird at southern European latitudes, along with a suitable framework for assessing the impact of environmentally driven changes in marine productivity patterns in seabird performance. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Foraging segregation and genetic divergence between geographically proximate colonies of a highly mobile seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Anne E.; Welch, Andreanna J.; Ostrom, P.H.; James, Helen F.; Stricker, C.A.; Fleischer, R.C.; Gandhi, H.; Adams, J.; Ainley, D.G.; Duvall, F.; Holmes, N.; Hu, D.; Judge, S.; Penniman, J.; Swindle, K.A.

    2012-01-01

    Foraging segregation may play an important role in the maintenance of animal diversity, and is a proposed mechanism for promoting genetic divergence within seabird species. However, little information exists regarding its presence among seabird populations. We investigated genetic and foraging divergence between two colonies of endangered Hawaiian petrels (Pterodroma sandwichensis) nesting on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai using the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene and carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen isotope values (?? 13C, ?? 15N and ??D, respectively) of feathers. Genetic analyses revealed strong differentiation between colonies on Hawaii and Kauai, with ?? ST = 0. 50 (p Feather ??D varied from -69 to 53???. This variation cannot be related solely to an isotopically homogeneous ocean water source or evaporative water loss. Instead, we propose the involvement of salt gland excretion. Our data demonstrate the presence of foraging segregation between proximately nesting seabird populations, despite high species mobility. This ecological diversity may facilitate population coexistence, and its preservation should be a focus of conservation strategies. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  2. Remotely sensed wind speed predicts soaring behaviour in a wide-ranging pelagic seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Rory; Shoji, Akiko; Fayet, Annette L; Perrins, Chris M; Guilford, Tim; Freeman, Robin

    2017-07-01

    Global wind patterns affect flight strategies in many birds, including pelagic seabirds, many of which use wind-powered soaring to reduce energy costs during at-sea foraging trips and migration. Such long-distance movement patterns are underpinned by local interactions between wind conditions and flight behaviour, but these fine-scale relationships are far less well understood. Here we show that remotely sensed ocean wind speed and direction are highly significant predictors of soaring behaviour in a migratory pelagic seabird, the Manx shearwater ( Puffinus puffinus ). We used high-frequency GPS tracking data (10 Hz) and statistical behaviour state classification to identify two energetic modes in at-sea flight, corresponding to flap-like and soar-like flight. We show that soaring is significantly more likely to occur in tailwinds and crosswinds above a wind speed threshold of around 8 m s -1 , suggesting that these conditions enable birds to reduce metabolic costs by preferentially soaring over flapping. Our results suggest a behavioural mechanism by which wind conditions may shape foraging and migration ecology in pelagic seabirds, and thus indicate that shifts in wind patterns driven by climate change could impact this and other species. They also emphasize the emerging potential of high-frequency GPS biologgers to provide detailed quantitative insights into fine-scale flight behaviour in free-living animals. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Study on elements concentrations on seabird feathers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theophilo, Carolina Y.S.; Moreira, Edson G.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Colabuono, Fernanda I.

    2017-01-01

    Seabirds are very sensitive to environmental changes and because of their large longevity they are also sensitive to cumulative impacts. These birds usually occupy the higher trophic levels. White-chinned petrel (Procellaria aequinoctialis) and black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophris) are Procellariiformes, which is a seabird order, composed of 4 families. In the last years, researches are being done and actions are being taken to reduce the mortality of albatrosses and petrels caused by human activities. Due to the great ecological importance of these birds and the developed work with Procellariiformes, this study purpose is to quantify the Br, Cl, Cu, K, Mg, Mn, Na and V elements in white-chinned petrel and black-browed albatross feathers. Bird specimens were killed accidentally by pelagic longline fisheries operating off southern Brazil. Feathers were cleaned with acetone and then milled in a cryogenic mill. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for quantification of the element concentrations and measurements of induced activities were performed in a HPGe detector for gamma ray spectrometry. The obtained results on feathers showed that concentrations in these birds are not higher than others studies with the same species and, with exception of Br, there are no significant differences between elements mean concentrations in the two seabirds. (author)

  4. Genotype-induced changes in biophysical properties of frontal cortex lipid raft from APP/PS1 transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario L Diaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in the lipid composition of lipid rafts have been demonstrated both in human brain and transgenic mouse models, and it has been postulated that aberrant lipid composition in lipid rafts is partly responsible for neuronal degeneration. In order to assess the impact of lipid changes on lipid raft functional properties, we have aimed at determining relevant physicochemical modifications in lipid rafts purified from frontal cortex of wild type (WT and APP/PS1 double transgenic mice. By means of steady-state fluorescence anisotropy analyses using two lipid soluble fluorescent probes, TMA-DPH (1-[(4-trimethyl-aminophenyl]-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and DPH (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, we demonstrate that cortical lipid rafts from WT and APP/PS1 animals exhibit different biophysical behaviours, depending on genotype but also on age. Thus, aged APP/PS1 animals exhibited slightly more liquid-ordered lipid rafts than WT counterparts. Membrane microviscosity napp analyses demonstrate that WT lipid rafts are more fluid than APP/PS1 animals of similar age, both at the aqueous interface and hydrophobic core of the membrane. napp in APP/PS1 animals was higher for DPH than for TMA-DPH under similar experimental conditions, indicating that the internal core of the membrane is more viscous than the raft membrane at the aqueous interface. The most dramatic changes in biophysical properties of lipid rafts were observed when membrane cholesterol was depleted with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. Overall, our results indicate that APP/PS1 genotype strongly affects physicochemical properties of lipid raft. Such alterations appear not to be homogeneous across the raft membrane axis, but rather are more prominent at the membrane plane. These changes correlate with aberrant proportions of sphingomyelin, cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, measured in lipid rafts from frontal cortex in this familial model of

  5. Prevalence and predictors of compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction among oncology nurses: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hairong; Jiang, Anli; Shen, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. Given the complexity of caring work, recent studies have focused on the professional quality of life of oncology nurses. China, the world's largest developing country, faces heavy burdens of care for cancer patients. Chinese oncology nurses may be encountering the negative side of their professional life. However, studies in this field are scarce, and little is known about the prevalence and predictors of oncology nurses' professional quality of life. To describe and explore the prevalence of predictors of professional quality of life (compassion fatigue, burnout and compassion satisfaction) among Chinese oncology nurses under the guidance of two theoretical models. A cross-sectional design with a survey. Ten tertiary hospitals and five secondary hospitals in Shanghai, China. A convenience and cluster sample of 669 oncology nurses was used. All of the nurses worked in oncology departments and had over 1 year of oncology nursing experience. Of the selected nurses, 650 returned valid questionnaires that were used for statistical analyses. The participants completed the demographic and work-related questionnaire, the Chinese version of the Professional Quality of Life Scale for Nurses, the Chinese version of the Jefferson Scales of Empathy, the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire, the Perceived Social Support Scale, and the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory brief version. Descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, simple and multiple linear regressions were used to determine the predictors of the main research variables. Higher compassion fatigue and burnout were found among oncology nurses who had more years of nursing experience, worked in secondary hospitals and adopted passive coping styles. Cognitive empathy, training and support from organizations were identified as significant protectors, and 'perspective taking' was the strongest predictor of compassion satisfaction, explaining 23.0% of

  6. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: compassion and vagal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellar, Jennifer E; Cohen, Adam; Oveis, Christopher; Keltner, Dacher

    2015-04-01

    Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we recorded physiological measures, including heart rate, respiration, skin conductance, and a measure of vagal activity called respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). Participants exhibited greater RSA during the compassion induction compared with a neutral control (Study 1), another positive emotion (Study 2), and a prosocial emotion lacking appraisals of another person's suffering (Study 3). Greater RSA during the experience of compassion compared with the neutral or control emotion was often accompanied by lower heart rate and respiration but no difference in skin conductance. In Study 4, increases in RSA during compassion positively predicted an established composite of compassion-related words, continuous self-reports of compassion, and nonverbal displays of compassion. Compassion, a core affective component of empathy and prosociality, is associated with heightened parasympathetic activity. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Antidepressants Accumulate in Lipid Rafts Independent of Monoamine Transporters to Modulate Redistribution of the G Protein, Gαs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Samuel J; Schappi, Jeffrey M; Rasenick, Mark M

    2016-09-16

    Depression is a significant public health problem for which currently available medications, if effective, require weeks to months of treatment before patients respond. Previous studies have shown that the G protein responsible for increasing cAMP (Gαs) is increasingly localized to lipid rafts in depressed subjects and that chronic antidepressant treatment translocates Gαs from lipid rafts. Translocation of Gαs, which shows delayed onset after chronic antidepressant treatment of rats or of C6 glioma cells, tracks with the delayed onset of therapeutic action of antidepressants. Because antidepressants appear to specifically modify Gαs localized to lipid rafts, we sought to determine whether structurally diverse antidepressants accumulate in lipid rafts. Sustained treatment of C6 glioma cells, which lack 5-hydroxytryptamine transporters, showed marked concentration of several antidepressants in raft fractions, as revealed by increased absorbance and by mass fingerprint. Closely related molecules without antidepressant activity did not concentrate in raft fractions. Thus, at least two classes of antidepressants accumulate in lipid rafts and effect translocation of Gαs to the non-raft membrane fraction, where it activates the cAMP-signaling cascade. Analysis of the structural determinants of raft localization may both help to explain the hysteresis of antidepressant action and lead to design and development of novel substrates for depression therapeutics. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Lipid raft regulates the initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells by modulating β1 integrin clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruifei; Bi, Jiajia; Ampah, Khamal Kwesi; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Ziyi; Jiao, Yang; Wang, Xiaoru; Ba, Xueqing; Zeng, Xianlu

    2013-08-01

    Cell adhesion and spreading require integrins-mediated cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Integrins function through binding to extracellular matrix and subsequent clustering to initiate focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. Lipid raft, a liquid ordered plasma membrane microdomain, has been reported to play major roles in membrane motility by regulating cell surface receptor function. Here, we identified that lipid raft integrity was required for β1 integrin-mediated initial spreading of melanoma A375 cells on fibronectin. We found that lipid raft disruption with methyl-β-cyclodextrin led to the inability of focal adhesion formation and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by preventing β1 integrin clustering. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism by which lipid raft regulates β1 integrin clustering and demonstrated that intact lipid raft could recruit and modify some adaptor proteins, such as talin, α-actinin, vinculin, paxillin and FAK. Lipid raft could regulate the location of these proteins in lipid raft fractions and facilitate their binding to β1 integrin, which may be crucial for β1 integrin clustering. We also showed that lipid raft disruption impaired A375 cell migration in both transwell and wound healing models. Together, these findings provide a new insight for the relationship between lipid raft and the regulation of integrins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rotavirus infectious particles use lipid rafts during replication for transport to the cell surface in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadras, Mariela A.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2003-01-01

    The pathway by which rotavirus is released from the cell is poorly understood but recent work has shown that, prior to cell lysis, rotavirus is released almost exclusively from the apical surface of the infected cell. By virtue of their unique biochemical and physical properties, viruses have exploited lipid rafts for host cell entry and/or assembly. Here we characterized the association of rhesus rotavirus (RRV) with lipid rafts during the rotavirus replication cycle. We found that newly synthesized infectious virus associates with rafts in vitro and in vivo. RRV proteins cosegregated with rafts on density gradients. Viral infectivity and genomic dsRNA also cosegregated with the raft fractions. Confocal microscopic analysis of raft and RRV virion proteins demonstrated colocalization within the cell. In addition, cholesterol depletion interfered with the association of RRV particles with rafts and reduced the release of infectious particles from the cell. Furthermore, murine rotavirus associates with lipid rafts in intestinal epithelial cells during a natural infection in vivo. Our results confirm the association of rotavirus infectious particles with rafts during replication in vitro and in vivo and strongly support the conclusion that this virus uses these microdomains for transport to the cell surface during replication

  10. #fitspo or #loveyourself? The impact of fitspiration and self-compassion Instagram images on women's body image, self-compassion, and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Amy; Varsani, Neesha; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2017-09-01

    This study experimentally examined the impact of exposure to fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes on social media on young women's body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and negative mood. Female undergraduate students (N=160) were randomly assigned to view either Instagram images of fitspiration, self-compassion quotes, a combination of both, or appearance-neutral images. Results showed no differences between viewing fitspiration images compared to viewing neutral images, except for poorer self-compassion among those who viewed fitspiration images. However, women who viewed self-compassion quotes showed greater body satisfaction, body appreciation, self-compassion, and reduced negative mood compared to women who viewed neutral images. Further, viewing a combination of fitspiration images and self-compassion quotes led to positive outcomes compared to viewing only fitspiration images. Trait levels of thin-ideal internalisation moderated some effects. The findings suggest that self-compassion might offer a novel avenue for attenuating the negative impact of social media on women's body satisfaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between tetrodotoxin resistant channels and lipid rafts regulates sensory neuron excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pristerà

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs play a key role in the initiation and propagation of action potentials in neurons. Na(V1.8 is a tetrodotoxin (TTX resistant VGSC expressed in nociceptors, peripheral small-diameter neurons able to detect noxious stimuli. Na(V1.8 underlies the vast majority of sodium currents during action potentials. Many studies have highlighted a key role for Na(V1.8 in inflammatory and chronic pain models. Lipid rafts are microdomains of the plasma membrane highly enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts tune the spatial and temporal organisation of proteins and lipids on the plasma membrane. They are thought to act as platforms on the membrane where proteins and lipids can be trafficked, compartmentalised and functionally clustered. In the present study we investigated Na(V1.8 sub-cellular localisation and explored the idea that it is associated with lipid rafts in nociceptors. We found that Na(V1.8 is distributed in clusters along the axons of DRG neurons in vitro and ex vivo. We also demonstrated, by biochemical and imaging studies, that Na(V1.8 is associated with lipid rafts along the sciatic nerve ex vivo and in DRG neurons in vitro. Moreover, treatments with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD and 7-ketocholesterol (7KC led to the dissociation between rafts and Na(V1.8. By calcium imaging we demonstrated that the lack of association between rafts and Na(V1.8 correlated with impaired neuronal excitability, highlighted by a reduction in the number of neurons able to conduct mechanically- and chemically-evoked depolarisations. These findings reveal the sub-cellular localisation of Na(V1.8 in nociceptors and highlight the importance of the association between Na(V1.8 and lipid rafts in the control of nociceptor excitability.

  13. Altered dynamics of a lipid raft associated protein in a kidney model of Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labilloy, Anatália; Youker, Robert T; Bruns, Jennifer R; Kukic, Ira; Kiselyov, Kirill; Halfter, Willi; Finegold, David; do Monte, Semiramis Jamil Hadad; Weisz, Ora A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) and other neutral glycosphingolipids with galactosyl residues is the hallmark of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α-gal A). These lipids are incorporated into the plasma membrane and intracellular membranes, with a preference for lipid rafts. Disruption of raft mediated cell processes is implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, but little is known about the effects of the accumulation of glycosphingolipids on raft dynamics in the context of Fabry disease. Using siRNA technology, we have generated a polarized renal epithelial cell model of Fabry disease in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These cells present increased levels of Gb3 and enlarged lysosomes, and progressively accumulate zebra bodies. The polarized delivery of both raft-associated and raft-independent proteins was unaffected by α-gal A knockdown, suggesting that accumulation of Gb3 does not disrupt biosynthetic trafficking pathways. To assess the effect of α-gal A silencing on lipid raft dynamics, we employed number and brightness (N&B) analysis to measure the oligomeric status and mobility of the model glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein GFP-GPI. We observed a significant increase in the oligomeric size of antibody-induced clusters of GFP-GPI at the plasma membrane of α-gal A silenced cells compared with control cells. Our results suggest that the interaction of GFP-GPI with lipid rafts may be altered in the presence of accumulated Gb3. The implications of our results with respect to the pathogenesis of Fabry disease are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Educational NASA Computational and Scientific Studies (enCOMPASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess

    2013-01-01

    Educational NASA Computational and Scientific Studies (enCOMPASS) is an educational project of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center aimed at bridging the gap between computational objectives and needs of NASA's scientific research, missions, and projects, and academia's latest advances in applied mathematics and computer science. enCOMPASS achieves this goal via bidirectional collaboration and communication between NASA and academia. Using developed NASA Computational Case Studies in university computer science/engineering and applied mathematics classes is a way of addressing NASA's goals of contributing to the Science, Technology, Education, and Math (STEM) National Objective. The enCOMPASS Web site at http://encompass.gsfc.nasa.gov provides additional information. There are currently nine enCOMPASS case studies developed in areas of earth sciences, planetary sciences, and astrophysics. Some of these case studies have been published in AIP and IEEE's Computing in Science and Engineering magazines. A few university professors have used enCOMPASS case studies in their computational classes and contributed their findings to NASA scientists. In these case studies, after introducing the science area, the specific problem, and related NASA missions, students are first asked to solve a known problem using NASA data and past approaches used and often published in a scientific/research paper. Then, after learning about the NASA application and related computational tools and approaches for solving the proposed problem, students are given a harder problem as a challenge for them to research and develop solutions for. This project provides a model for NASA scientists and engineers on one side, and university students, faculty, and researchers in computer science and applied mathematics on the other side, to learn from each other's areas of work, computational needs and solutions, and the latest advances in research and development. This innovation takes NASA science and

  15. Self-compassion training for binge eating disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Allison C; Carter, Jacqueline C

    2015-09-01

    The present pilot study sought to compare a compassion-focused therapy (CFT)-based self-help intervention for binge eating disorder (BED) to a behaviourally based intervention. Forty-one individuals with BED were randomly assigned to 3 weeks of food planning plus self-compassion exercises; food planning plus behavioural strategies; or a wait-list control condition. Participants completed weekly measures of binge eating and self-compassion; pre- and post-intervention measures of eating disorder pathology and depressive symptoms; and a baseline measure assessing fear of self-compassion. Results showed that: (1) perceived credibility, expectancy, and compliance did not differ between the two interventions; (2) both interventions reduced weekly binge days more than the control condition; (3) the self-compassion intervention reduced global eating disorder pathology, eating concerns, and weight concerns more than the other conditions; (4) the self-compassion intervention increased self-compassion more than the other conditions; and (5) participants low in fear of self-compassion derived significantly more benefits from the self-compassion intervention than those high in fear of self-compassion. Findings offer preliminary support for the usefulness of CFT-based interventions for BED sufferers. Results also suggest that for individuals to benefit from self-compassion training, assessing and lowering fear of self-compassion will be crucial. Individuals with BED perceive self-compassion training self-help interventions, derived from CFT, to be as credible and as likely to help as behaviourally based interventions. The cultivation of self-compassion may be an effective approach for reducing binge eating, and eating, and weight concerns in individuals with BED. Teaching individuals with BED CFT-based self-help exercises may increase their self-compassion levels over a short period of time. It may be important for clinicians to assess and target clients' fear of self-compassion

  16. Seabirds maintain offspring provisioning rate despite fluctuations in prey abundance: A multi-species functional response for guillemots in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smout, Sophie; Rindorf, Anna; Wanless, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    1. Seabirds that consume more than one prey type may adjust their foraging to maintain provisioning rates for their chicks. How energetically effective are these strategies, and what are the implications for the management of seabirds and their marine habitat? 2. A multi-species functional respon...

  17. How are compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction affected by quality of working life? Findings from a survey of mental health staff in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetrano, Gaia; Tedeschi, Federico; Rabbi, Laura; Gosetti, Giorgio; Lora, Antonio; Lamonaca, Dario; Manthorpe, Jill; Amaddeo, Francesco

    2017-11-21

    Quality of working life includes elements such as autonomy, trust, ergonomics, participation, job complexity, and work-life balance. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate if and how quality of working life affects Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction among mental health practitioners. Staff working in three Italian Mental Health Departments completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale, measuring Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction, and the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire. The latter was used to collect socio-demographics, occupational characteristics and 13 indicators of quality of working life. Multiple regressions controlling for other variables were undertaken to predict Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction. Four hundred questionnaires were completed. In bivariate analyses, experiencing more ergonomic problems, perceiving risks for the future, a higher impact of work on life, and lower levels of trust and of perceived quality of meetings were associated with poorer outcomes. Multivariate analysis showed that (a) ergonomic problems and impact of work on life predicted higher levels of both Compassion Fatigue and Burnout; (b) impact of life on work was associated with Compassion Fatigue and lower levels of trust and perceiving more risks for the future with Burnout only; (c) perceived quality of meetings, need of training, and perceiving no risks for the future predicted higher levels of Compassion Satisfaction. In order to provide adequate mental health services, service providers need to give their employees adequate ergonomic conditions, giving special attention to time pressures. Building trustful relationships with management and within the teams is also crucial. Training and meetings are other important targets for potential improvement. Additionally, insecurity about the future should be addressed as it can affect both Burnout and Compassion Satisfaction. Finally

  18. How are compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction affected by quality of working life? Findings from a survey of mental health staff in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Cetrano

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of working life includes elements such as autonomy, trust, ergonomics, participation, job complexity, and work-life balance. The overarching aim of this study was to investigate if and how quality of working life affects Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction among mental health practitioners. Methods Staff working in three Italian Mental Health Departments completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale, measuring Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction, and the Quality of Working Life Questionnaire. The latter was used to collect socio-demographics, occupational characteristics and 13 indicators of quality of working life. Multiple regressions controlling for other variables were undertaken to predict Compassion Fatigue, Burnout, and Compassion Satisfaction. Results Four hundred questionnaires were completed. In bivariate analyses, experiencing more ergonomic problems, perceiving risks for the future, a higher impact of work on life, and lower levels of trust and of perceived quality of meetings were associated with poorer outcomes. Multivariate analysis showed that (a ergonomic problems and impact of work on life predicted higher levels of both Compassion Fatigue and Burnout; (b impact of life on work was associated with Compassion Fatigue and lower levels of trust and perceiving more risks for the future with Burnout only; (c perceived quality of meetings, need of training, and perceiving no risks for the future predicted higher levels of Compassion Satisfaction. Conclusions In order to provide adequate mental health services, service providers need to give their employees adequate ergonomic conditions, giving special attention to time pressures. Building trustful relationships with management and within the teams is also crucial. Training and meetings are other important targets for potential improvement. Additionally, insecurity about the future should be addressed as it can

  19. Self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediate the effects of parental indifference on psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Maren; Leahy, Robert L; Pala, Andrea Norcini; Wupperman, Peggilee

    2016-08-30

    This study investigated whether self-compassion and emotional invalidation (perceiving others as indifferent to one's emotions) may explain the relationship of childhood exposure to adverse parenting and adult psychopathology in psychiatric outpatients (N=326). Path analysis was used to investigate associations between exposure to adverse parenting (abuse and indifference), self-compassion, emotional invalidation, and mental health when controlling for gender and age. Self-compassion was strongly inversely associated with emotional invalidation, suggesting that a schema that others will be unsympathetic or indifferent toward one's emotions may affect self-compassion and vice versa. Both self-compassion and emotional invalidation mediated the relationship between parental indifference and mental health outcomes. These preliminary findings suggest the potential utility of self-compassion and emotional schemas as transdiagnostic treatment targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Increase Self-Compassion: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavaia, James E; Hayes, Steven C; Vilardaga, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Self-compassion has been shown to be related to several types of psychopathology, including traumatic stress, and has been shown to improve in response to various kinds of interventions. Current conceptualizations of self-compassion fit well with the psychological flexibility model, which underlies acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). However, there has been no research on ACT interventions specifically aimed at self-compassion. This randomized trial therefore compared a 6-hour ACT-based workshop targeting self-compassion to a wait-list control. From pretreatment to 2-month follow-up, ACT was significantly superior to the control condition in self-compassion, general psychological distress, and anxiety. Process analyses revealed psychological flexibility to be a significant mediator of changes in self-compassion, general psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and stress. Exploratory moderation analyses revealed the intervention to be of more benefit in terms of depression, anxiety, and stress to those with greater trauma history.

  1. Self-Compassion: Association with Psychological Symptoms and Usage in Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Korkmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-compassion is defined by Neff as approaching to the self without judgment, criticism or punishment, sharing the stressful experiences with other people without isolation and holding the painful emotions and thoughts in mindful awareness without over identification. The studies showed that self-compassion has positive relationship with psychological well-being; has negative relationships with depression, anxiety, eating disorders, trauma and other psychological problems. Also, the findings from psychotherapy studies that try to strength self-compassion attracted a great deal of attention. The main aims of this article were reviewing the self-compassion concept toward the literature, summarizing the empirical findings in the context of self-compassion and discussing the usage of self-compassion in psychotherapy.

  2. Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors From Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-Lipid Raft Microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San

    2016-04-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of ethanol has important health benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Overindulgence can cause many diseases, particularly alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms by which ethanol causes both beneficial and harmful effects on human health are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ethanol enhances TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity with a maximum of 0.5-1% (v/v) in Mv1Lu cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene containing Smad2-dependent elements. In Mv1Lu cells, 0.5% ethanol increases the level of P-Smad2, a canonical TGF-β signaling sensor, by ∼ 2-3-fold. Ethanol (0.5%) increases cell-surface expression of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II) by ∼ 2-3-fold from its intracellular pool, as determined by I(125) -TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence staining analyses reveal that ethanol (0.5% and 1%) also displaces cell-surface TβR-I and TβR-II from lipid rafts/caveolae and facilitates translocation of these receptors to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. These results suggest that ethanol enhances canonical TGF-β signaling by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain localization of the TGF-β receptors. Since TGF-β plays a protective role in ASCVD but can also cause ALD, the TGF-β enhancer activity of ethanol at low and high doses appears to be responsible for both beneficial and harmful effects. Ethanol also disrupts the location of lipid raft/caveolae of other membrane proteins (e.g., neurotransmitter, growth factor/cytokine, and G protein-coupled receptors) which utilize lipid rafts/caveolae as signaling platforms. Displacement of these membrane proteins induced by ethanol may result in a variety of pathologies in nerve, heart and other tissues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Development of a new anti-cancer agent for targeted radionuclide therapy: β- radiolabeled RAFT-RGD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitprin, A.

    2013-01-01

    β-emitters radiolabeled RAFT-RGD as new agents for internal targeted radiotherapy. The αvβ3 integrin is known to play an important role in tumor-induced angiogenesis, tumor proliferation, survival and metastasis. Because of its overexpression on neo-endothelial cells such as those present in growing tumors, as well as on tumor cells of various origins, αvβ3 integrin is an attractive molecular target for diagnosis and therapy of the rapidly growing and metastatic tumors. A tetrameric RGD-based peptide, regioselectively addressable functionalized template-(cyclo-[RGDfK])4 (RAFT-RGD), specifically targets integrin αvβ3 in vitro and in vivo. RAFT-RGD has been used for tumor imaging and drug targeting. This study is the first to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the β-emitters radiolabeled tetrameric RGD peptide RAFT-RGD in a Nude mouse model of αvβ3 -expressing tumors. An injection of 37 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RGD or 177 Lu-RAFT-RGD in mice with αvβ3 -positive tumors caused a significant growth delay as compared with mice treated with 37 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RAD or 177 Lu-RAFT-RAD or untreated mice. In comparison, an injection of 30 MBq of 90 Y-RAFT-RGD had no efficacy for the treatment of αvβ3 -negative tumors. 90 Y-RAFT-RGD and 177 Lu-RAFT-RGD are potent αvβ3 -expressing tumor targeting agents for internal targeted radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Lipid composition of membrane rafts, isolated with and without detergent, from the spleen of a mouse model of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, Kathryn J; Hein, Leanne K; Fuller, Maria

    2013-12-06

    Biological membranes are composed of functionally relevant liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains that coexist. Within the liquid-ordered domains are low-density microdomains known as rafts with a unique lipid composition that is crucial for their structure and function. Lipid raft composition is altered in sphingolipid storage disorders, and here we determined the lipid composition using a detergent and detergent-free method in spleen tissue, the primary site of pathology, in a mouse model of the sphingolipid storage disorder, Gaucher disease. The accumulating lipid, glucosylceramide, was 30- and 50-fold elevated in the rafts with the detergent and detergent-free method, respectively. Secondary accumulation of di- and trihexosylceramide resided primarily in the rafts with both methods. The phospholipids distributed differently with more than half residing in the rafts with the detergent-free method and less than 10% with the detergent method, with the exception of the fully saturated species that were primarily in the rafts. Individual isoforms of sphingomyelin correlated with detergent-free extraction and more than half resided in the raft fractions. However, this correlation was not seen with the detergent extraction method as sphingomyelin species were spread across both the raft and non-raft domains. Therefore caution must be exercised when interpreting phospholipid distribution in raft domains as it differs considerably depending on the method of isolation. Importantly, both methods revealed the same lipid alterations in the raft domains in the spleen of the Gaucher disease mouse model highlighting that either method is appropriate to determine membrane lipid changes in the diseased state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AFM of the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of lipid-raft-disrupted and/or cold-treated endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li; Huang, Jie; Yu, Xiaoxue; Zhou, Xiaoqing; Gan, Chaoye; Li, Ming; Chen, Yong

    2014-02-01

    The nonionic detergent extraction at 4 °C and the cholesterol-depletion-induced lipid raft disruption are the two widely used experimental strategies for lipid raft research. However, the effects of raft disruption and/or cold treatment on the ultrastructural and mechanical properties of cells are still unclear. Here, we evaluated the effects of raft disruption and/or cold (4 °C) treatment on these properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At first, the cholesterol-depletion-induced raft disruption was visualized by confocal microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in combination with fluorescent quantum dots. Next, the cold-induced cell contraction and the formation of end-branched filopodia were observed by confocal microscopy and AFM. Then, the cell-surface ultrastructures were imaged by AFM, and the data showed that raft disruption and cold treatment induced opposite effects on cell-surface roughness (a significant decrease and a significant increase, respectively). Moreover, the cell-surface mechanical properties (stiffness and adhesion force) of raft-disrupted- and/or cold-treated HUVECs were measured by the force measurement function of AFM. We found that raft disruption and cold treatment induced parallel effects on cell stiffness (increase) or adhesion force (decrease) and that the combination of the two treatments caused dramatically strengthened effects. Finally, raft disruption was found to significantly impair cell migration as previously reported, whereas temporary cold treatment only caused a slight but nonsignificant decrease in cell migration performed at physiological temperature. Although the mechanisms for causing these results might be complicated and more in-depth studies will be needed, our data may provide important information for better understanding the effects of raft disruption or cold treatment on cells and the two strategies for lipid raft research.

  6. Identification of Novel Raft Marker Protein, FlotP in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somani, Vikas K; Aggarwal, Somya; Singh, Damini; Prasad, Tulika; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Lipid rafts are dynamic, nanoscale assemblies of specific proteins and lipids, distributed heterogeneously on eukaryotic membrane. Flotillin-1, a conserved eukaryotic raft marker protein (RMP) harbor SPFH (Stomatin, Prohibitin, Flotillin, and HflK/C) and oligomerization domains to regulate various cellular processes through its interactions with other signaling or transport proteins. Rafts were thought to be absent in prokaryotes hitherto, but recent report of its presence and significance in physiology of Bacillus subtilis prompted us to investigate the same in pathogenic bacteria (PB) also. In prokaryotes, proteins of SPFH2a subfamily show highest identity to SPFH domain of Flotillin-1. Moreover, bacterial genome organization revealed that Flotillin homolog harboring SPFH2a domain exists in an operon with an upstream gene containing NFeD domain. Here, presence of RMP in PB was initially investigated in silico by analyzing the presence of SPFH2a, oligomerization domains in the concerned gene and NfeD domain in the adjacent upstream gene. After investigating 300 PB, four were found to harbor RMP. Among them, domains of Bas0525 (FlotP) of Bacillus anthracis (BA) showed highest identity with characteristic domains of RMP. Considering the global threat of BA as the bioterror agent, it was selected as a model for further in vitro characterization of rafts in PB. In silico and in vitro analysis showed significant similarity of FlotP with numerous attributes of Flotillin-1. Its punctate distribution on membrane with exclusive localization in detergent resistant membrane fraction; strongly favors presence of raft with RMP FlotP in BA. Furthermore, significant effect of Zaragozic acid (ZA), a raft associated lipid biosynthesis inhibitor, on several patho-physiological attributes of BA such as growth, morphology, membrane rigidity etc., were also observed. Specifically, a considerable decrease in membrane rigidity, strongly recommended presence of an unknown raft associated

  7. Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect

    OpenAIRE

    Arimitsu, Kohki; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that self-compassion is related to numerous facets of mental health, but the role of cognitions in this relationship remains unknown. To examine the mediating role of cognitions in the relationship between self-compassion and anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction when controlling for self-esteem in Japanese people, we conducted two studies. Study 1 (N = 231) examined the relationship between self-compassion and affect by modeling negative automatic thoughts as a ...

  8. Educational simulator app and web page for exploring Nuclear and Compass Magnetic Resonance

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Lars G.

    2016-01-01

    A graphical app and browser-based simulator, CompassMR, was developed for initial Magnetic Resonance (MR) education. It is available at http://drcmr.dk/CompassMR/ and executes directly in most browsers with no further need for software. Easy access and a simple user interface invite student experimentation that improves understanding of basic MR phenomena. The simulator is used to introduce and explore electromagnetism, magnetic dipoles, static and radiofrequency fields, Compass MR, the free ...

  9. Affective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: Compassion and vagal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Stellar, JE; Cohen, A; Oveis, C; Keltner, D

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Psychological Association. Compassion is an affective response to another's suffering and a catalyst of prosocial behavior. In the present studies, we explore the peripheral physiological changes associated with the experience of compassion. Guided by long-standing theoretical claims, we propose that compassion is associated with activation in the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system through the vagus nerve. Across 4 studies, participants witnessed others suffer while we r...

  10. Measurement of the charged-pion polarisability at COMPASS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    For more than a decade, COMPASS has been tackling the measurement of the electromagnetic polarizability of the charged pion, which describes the stiffness of the pion against deformation in electromagnetic fields. Previous experiments date back to the 1980's in Serpukhov (Russia), where the Primakoff method for realizing interactions of charged pions with quasi-real photons was first employed. Later also other techniques in photon-nucleon and photon-photon collisions were carried out at different machines. The COMPASS measurement demonstrates that the charged-pion polarizability is significantly smaller than the previous results, roughly by a factor two, with the smallest uncertainties realized so far. The pion polarisability is of fundamental interest in the low-energy sector of quantum chromodynamics. It is directly linked to the quark-gluon substructure and dynamics of the pion, the lightest bound system of strong interaction.

  11. Online analysis during the 2016 COMPASS data taking

    CERN Document Server

    Tuybens, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment is one of the few experiments in the world capable of studying the internal structure of protons with high precision. In 2016 the experiment will use the 160 GeV high energy positive and negative muon beams and a new liquid-hydrogen target. One of the main goals is the study of the virtual Compton scattering on the proton when a high energy muon scatters on a proton to produce a single photon. The analysis of the cross section and angular distributions will provide a 3 dimensional structure of the proton by determining the correlations between position and momentum of the elementary quarks and gluons inside the proton. The COMPASS experiment comprises a high resolution forward spectrometer with many trackers for charged particles, detectors for particle identification as three electromagnetic calorimeters and a recoil proton detector around the target.

  12. New pixelized Micromegas detector for the COMPASS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyret, D; Anfreville, M; Bedfer, Y; Burtin, E; D'Hose, N; Giganon, A; Kunne, F; Magnon, A; Marchand, C; Paul, B; Platchkov, S; Vandenbroucke, M; Ketzer, B; Konorov, I

    2009-01-01

    New Micromegas (Micro-mesh gaseous detectors) are being developed in view of the future physics projects planned by the COMPASS collaboration at CERN. Several major upgrades compared to present detectors are being studied: detectors standing five times higher luminosity with hadron beams, detection of beam particles (flux up to a few hundred of kHz/mm 2 , 10 times larger than for the present detectors) with pixelized read-out in the central part, light and integrated electronics, and improved robustness. Studies were done with the present detectors moved in the beam, and two first pixelized prototypes are being tested with muon and hadron beams in real conditions at COMPASS. We present here this new project and report on two series of tests, with old detectors moved into the beam and with pixelized prototypes operated in real data taking condition with both muon and hadron beams.

  13. Diffractive dissociation into 3 pion final states at COMPASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Suh-Urk [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Friedrich, Jan; Grabmueller, Stefanie; Haas, Florian; Ketzer, Bernhard; Neubert, Sebastian; Paul, Stephan; Weitzel, Quirin [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ryabchikov, Dimitry [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E18, 85748 Garching (Germany); Institute for High Energy Physics, 142284 Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Diffractive dissociation reactions at the COMPASS experiment, CERN, provide access to the meson resonance spectrum. During a pilot run in 2004, using a pion beam on a lead target, a competitive number of {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup -} {pi}{sup +} final state events with masses below 2.5 GeV/c{sup 2} were recorded. After COMPASS had finished its muon program in 2007, it used in 2008 again a pion beam, but now a liquid hydrogen target, and gathered during several weeks a unique high statistics. A full partial wave analysis of the 2004 data has been performed, with the focus on the kinematic range of a large momentum transfer (0.1 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2} {<=} t' {<=} 1.0 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}). In addition first results of the adjacent analysis with 2008 data are presented.

  14. Fast front-end electronics for COMPASS MWPCs

    CERN Document Server

    Colantoni, M L; Ferrero, A; Frolov, V; Grasso, A; Heinz, S; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M G; Panzieri, D; Popov, A; Tchalyshev, V

    2000-01-01

    In the COMPASS experiment, under construction at CERN, about 23000 channels of MWPCs will be used. The very high rate of the muon and hadron beams, and the consequently high trigger rate, require front- end electronics with innovative conceptual design. A new MWPC front- end electronics that fulfills the main COMPASS requirement to have a fast DAQ with a minimum dead-time has been designed. The general concept of the front-end cards is described; the comparative tests of two front-end chips, and different fast gas mixtures, are also shown. The commissioning of the experiment will start in the summer 2000, and production running, using the muon beam, is foreseen for the year 2001. (8 refs).

  15. Fast photon detection for the COMPASS RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Alekseev, M; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dalla Torre, S; Dafni, T; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Díaz, V; Dibiase, N; Duic, V; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K C; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, Daniel; Kunne, Fabienne; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nahle, O; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Pagano, P; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Paul, S; Pesaro, G; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Schiavon, Paolo; Schroder, W; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Sozzi, F; Steiger, L; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2007-01-01

    The COMPASS experiment at the SPS accelerator at CERN uses a large scale Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) to identify pions, kaons and protons in a wide momentum range. For the data taking in 2006, the COMPASS RICH has been upgraded in the central photon detection area (25% of the surface) with a new technology to detect Cherenkov photons at very high count rates of several 10^6 per second and channel and a new dead-time free read-out system, which allows trigger rates up to 100 kHz. The Cherenkov photons are detected by an array of 576 visible and ultra-violet sensitive multi-anode photomultipliers with 16 channels each. The upgraded detector showed an excellent performance during the 2006 data taking.

  16. GPD physics with polarized muon beams at COMPASS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Andrea [CEA-Saclay, DSM/Irfu/SpHN, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    A major part of the future COMPASS program is dedicated to the investigation of the nucleon structure through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). COMPASS will measure DVCS and DVMP reactions with a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV and a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target surrounded by a new TOF system. The availability of muon beams with high energy and opposite charge and polarization will allow to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H and to study the x{sub B}-dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. Projections on the achievable accuracies and preliminary results of pilot measurements will be presented.

  17. Measuring nursing care and compassion: the McDonaldised nurse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, A

    2009-08-01

    In June 2008 the UK government, supported by the Royal College of Nursing, stated that nursing care would be measured for compassion. This paper considers the implications of this statement by critically examining the relationship of compassion to care from a variety of perspectives. It is argued that the current market-driven approaches to healthcare involve redefining care as a pale imitation, even parody, of the traditional approach of the nurse as "my brother's keeper". Attempts to measure such parody can only measure artificial techniques and give rise to a McDonald's-type nursing care rather than heartfelt care. The arguments of this paper, although applied to nursing, also apply to medicine and healthcare generally.

  18. GPD physics with polarized muon beams at COMPASS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A major part of the future COMPASS program is dedicated to the investigation of the nucleon structure through Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) and Deeply Virtual Meson Production (DVMP). COMPASS will measure DVCS and DVMP reactions with a high intensity muon beam of 160 GeV and a 2.5 m-long liquid hydrogen target surrounded by a new TOF system. The availability of muon beams with high energy and opposite charge and polarization will allow to access the Compton form factor related to the dominant GPD H and to study the x B -dependence of the t-slope of the pure DVCS cross section and to study nucleon tomography. Projections on the achievable accuracies and preliminary results of pilot measurements will be presented.

  19. Cryogenic control system of the large COMPASS polarized target

    CERN Document Server

    Gautheron, F; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Doshita, N; Görtz, S; Gustafsson, K K; Horikawa, N; Kisselev, Yu V; Koivuniemi, J H; Kondo, K; Meyer, Werner T; Reicherz, G

    2004-01-01

    The dilution refrigerator used to cool the large COMPASS polarized target is monitored through a PC running LabVIEW trademark 6.1 under Windows 2000 trademark . About 60 parameters of the target (temperatures, pressures, flow rates) are continuously plotted and checked. They are periodically recorded in an Oracle trademark database and in a data file. An alarm for every parameter can be individually activated and optionally connected to a GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) delivery message system. A web server receives and publishes the online status of the target with online tables and graphics on a dedicated COMPASS polarized target information web site. A Siemens programmable logic controller (PLC) powered by an uninterruptable source keeps the cryogenic system safe and stable during the long beam periods by controlling valves and interlocks. This safety feature protects the dilution refrigerator against potential damages in case of power failure.

  20. Juvenile-onset loss of lipid-raft domains in attractin-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azouz, Abdallah; Gunn, Teresa M.; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Mutations at the attractin (Atrn) locus in mice result in altered pigmentation on an agouti background, higher basal metabolic rate and juvenile-onset hypomyelination leading to neurodegeneration, while studies on human immune cells indicate a chemotaxis regulatory function. The underlying biochemical defect remains elusive. In this report we identify a role for attractin in plasma membrane maintenance. In attractin's absence there is a decline in plasma membrane glycolipid-enriched rafts from normal levels at 8 weeks to a complete absence by 24 weeks. The structural integrity of lipid rafts depends upon cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and can be identified by partitioning within of ganglioside GM 1 . Despite a significant fall in cellular cholesterol with maturity, and a lesser fall in both membrane and total cellular GM 1 , these parameters lag behind raft loss, and are normal when hypomyelination/neurodegeneration has already begun thus supporting consequence rather than cause. These findings can be recapitulated in Atrn-deficient cell lines propagated in vitro. Further, signal transduction through complex membrane receptor assemblies is not grossly disturbed despite the complete absence of lipid rafts. We find these results compatible with a role for attractin in plasma membrane maintenance and consistent with the proposal that the juvenile-onset hypomyelination and neurodegeneration represent a defect in attractin-mediated raft-dependent myelin biogenesis

  1. Improvement of Aconitum napellus micropropagation by liquid culture on floating membrane rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watad, A A; Kochba, M; Nissim, A; Gaba, V

    1995-03-01

    An efficient method was developed using floating membrane rafts (Liferaft(™)) for the micropropagation of Aconitum napellus (Ranunculaceae), a cut flower crop with a low natural propagation rate. This was achieved by introducing shoot tips into culture on Murashige and Skoog's (1962) solid medium, or liquid medium-supported rafts, supplemented by different levels of benzyl adenine (BA). Optimum shoot proliferation on solid medium required 4mg/l BA, whereas for expiants supported on rafts optimal proliferation was achieved at 0.25mg/l BA. Maximum shoot proliferation was found using the floating rafts (propagation ratio of 4.2 per month), 45% higher than the maximum value on solid medium. A similar value could be obtained on solid medium after a period of 2 months. The optimal response to BA was similar for fresh weight gain and shoot length. Growth in a shallow layer of liquid in shake flasks gives a similar shoot multiplication rate to that on floating rafts; however, submerged leaves brown and die.

  2. Intercalation and structural aspects of macroRAFT agents into MgAl layered double hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessislava Kostadinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention has been devoted to the design of layered double hydroxide (LDH-based hybrid materials. In this work, we demonstrate the intercalation by anion exchange process of poly(acrylic acid (PAA and three different hydrophilic random copolymers of acrylic acid (AA and n-butyl acrylate (BA with molar masses ranging from 2000 to 4200 g mol−1 synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization, into LDH containing magnesium(II and aluminium(III intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3 LDH. At basic pH, the copolymer chains (macroRAFT agents carry negative charges which allowed the establishment of electrostatic interactions with the LDH interlayer and their intercalation. The resulting hybrid macroRAFT/LDH materials displayed an expanded interlamellar domain compared to pristine MgAl-NO3 LDH from 1.36 nm to 2.33 nm. Depending on the nature of the units involved into the macroRAFT copolymer (only AA or AA and BA, the intercalation led to monolayer or bilayer arrangements within the interlayer space. The macroRAFT intercalation and the molecular structure of the hybrid phases were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR and solid-state 13C, 1H and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopies to get a better description of the local structure.

  3. A novel biotinylated lipid raft reporter for electron microscopic imaging of plasma membrane microdomains[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krager, Kimberly J.; Sarkar, Mitul; Twait, Erik C.; Lill, Nancy L.; Koland, John G.

    2012-01-01

    The submicroscopic spatial organization of cell surface receptors and plasma membrane signaling molecules is readily characterized by electron microscopy (EM) via immunogold labeling of plasma membrane sheets. Although various signaling molecules have been seen to segregate within plasma membrane microdomains, the biochemical identity of these microdomains and the factors affecting their formation are largely unknown. Lipid rafts are envisioned as submicron membrane subdomains of liquid ordered structure with differing lipid and protein constituents that define their specific varieties. To facilitate EM investigation of inner leaflet lipid rafts and the localization of membrane proteins therein, a unique genetically encoded reporter with the dually acylated raft-targeting motif of the Lck kinase was developed. This reporter, designated Lck-BAP-GFP, incorporates green fluorescent protein (GFP) and biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) modules, with the latter allowing its single-step labeling with streptavidin-gold. Lck-BAP-GFP was metabolically biotinylated in mammalian cells, distributed into low-density detergent-resistant membrane fractions, and was readily detected with avidin-based reagents. In EM images of plasma membrane sheets, the streptavidin-gold-labeled reporter was clustered in 20–50 nm microdomains, presumably representative of inner leaflet lipid rafts. The utility of the reporter was demonstrated in an investigation of the potential lipid raft localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor. PMID:22822037

  4. Clomipramine counteracts lipid raft disturbance due to short-term muscle disuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndina, Irina G; Shalagina, Maria N; Sekunov, Alexey V; Zefirov, Andrei L; Petrov, Alexey M

    2018-01-18

    Disuse-induced skeletal muscle dysfunction is a serious consequence of long-term spaceflight, numerous diseases and conditions for which treatment possibilities are still strictly limited. We have previously shown that acute hindlimb suspension (HS)-mediated disuse disrupts membrane lipid rafts in the unloaded muscle. Here, we investigated whether pretreatment of rats with the inhibitor of acid sphingomyelinase, clomipramine (1.25mg/g/day, intramuscularly, for 5days before HS), is able to hinder the loss in lipid raft integrity in response to 12h of HS. Clomipramine pretreatment significantly counteracted the decrease in labeling of the plasma membranes with lipid raft markers (fluorescent cholera toxin B subunit and bodipy-GM1-ganglioside) specifically in the junctional regions of the suspended soleus muscle. This was associated with: a) enhancing raft disrupting potential of exogenous sphingomyelinase in the junctional membranes; b) prevention of both ceramide accumulation and cholesterol loss; c) prevention of decline in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor labeling in the unloaded muscle. Our data suggest that sphingomyelinase-mediated raft disturbance serves as one of the earlier events in HS effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Clathrin to Lipid Raft-Endocytosis via Controlled Surface Chemistry and Efficient Perinuclear Targeting of Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-09-17

    Nanoparticle interacts with live cells depending on their surface chemistry, enters into cell via endocytosis, and is commonly trafficked to an endosome/lysozome that restricts subcellular targeting options. Here we show that nanoparticle surface chemistry can be tuned to alter their cell uptake mechanism and subcellular trafficking. Quantum dot based nanoprobes of 20-30 nm hydrodynamic diameters have been synthesized with tunable surface charge (between +15 mV to -25 mV) and lipophilicity to influence their cellular uptake processes and subcellular trafficking. It is observed that cationic nanoprobe electrostatically interacts with cell membrane and enters into cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. At lower surface charge (between +10 mV to -10 mV), the electrostatic interaction with cell membrane becomes weaker, and additional lipid raft endocytosis is initiated. If a lipophilic functional group is introduced on a weakly anionic nanoparticle surface, the uptake mechanism shifts to predominant lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. In particular, the zwitterionic-lipophilic nanoprobe has the unique advantage as it weakly interacts with anionic cell membrane, migrates toward lipid rafts for interaction through lipophilic functional group, and induces lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. While predominate or partial clathrin-mediated entry traffics most of the nanoprobes to lysozome, predominate lipid raft-mediated entry traffics them to perinuclear region, particularly to the Golgi apparatus. This finding would guide in designing appropriate nanoprobe for subcellular targeting and delivery.

  6. Highest PBDE levels (max 63 ppm) yet found in biota measured in seabird eggs from San Francisco Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Tanner, M.; Sharp, M.; Hooper, K. [Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley, CA (United States). Hazardous Materials Lab.; Adelsbach, T. [Environmental Contaminants Division, Sacramento Fish and Wildlife Office, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    High levels of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) have been found in humans and wildlife from the San Francisco Bay Area, with levels in women among the highest in the world, and levels in piscivorous seabird eggs at the ppm level. Seabirds are useful for monitoring and assessing ecosystem health at various times and places because they occupy a high trophic level in the marine food web, are long-lived, and are generally localized near their breeding and non-breeding sites. In collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Services (USFWS), we are carrying out a three-year investigation of dioxin, PCB and PBDE levels in eggs from fish-eating seabirds. Year 1 (2002) PBDE measurements from 73 bird eggs were reported at Dioxin2003. Year 2 (2003) PBDE measurements from 45 samples are presented in this report. The highest PBDE level measured in eggs was 63 ppm, lipid, which is the highest PBDE level, yet reported in biota.

  7. Biogeography of seabirds within a high-latitude ecosystem: Use of a data-assimilative ocean model to assess impacts of mesoscale oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Eisner, Lisa B.; Kuletz, Kathy J.; Ladd, Carol; Renner, Martin; Hunt, George L., Jr.

    2018-02-01

    We assessed the biogeography of seabirds within the Bering Sea Large Marine Ecosystem (LME), a highly productive and extensive continental shelf system that supports important fishing grounds. Our objective was to investigate how physical ocean conditions impact distribution of seabirds along latitudinal gradients. We tested the hypothesis that seabird biogeographic patterns reflect differences in ocean conditions relating to the boundary between northern and southern shelf ecosystems. We used a grid-based approach to develop spatial means (1975-2014) of summertime seabird species' abundance, species' richness, and a multivariate seabird assemblage index to examine species composition. Seabird indices were linked to ocean conditions derived from a data-assimilative oceanographic model to quantify relationships between physics (e.g., temperature, salinity, and current velocity), bathymetry and seabirds along latitudinal gradients. Species assemblages reflected two main sources of variation, a mode for elevated richness and abundance, and a mode related to partitioning of inner/middle shelf species from outer shelf-slope species. Overall, species richness and abundance increased markedly at higher latitudes. We found that latitudinal changes in species assemblages, richness and abundance indicates a major shift around 59-60°N within inner and middle shelf regions, but not in the outer shelf. Within the middle shelf, latitudinal shifts in seabird assemblages strongly related to hydrographic structure, as opposed to the inner and outer shelf waters. As expected, elevated species richness and abundance was associated with major breeding colonies and within important coastal foraging areas. Our study also indicates that seabird observations supported the conclusion that the oceanographic model captured mesoscale variability of ocean conditions important for understanding seabird distributions and represents an important step for evaluating modeling and empirical studies

  8. Design and engineering of optical diagnostics for COMPASS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, David; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Bílková, Petra; Böhm, Petr; Aftanas, Milan; Naydenkova, Diana; Stöckel, Jan; Ďuran, Ivan; Walsh, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 84, 7-11 (2009), s. 1755-1758 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology(SOFT-25) /25th./. Rostock, 15.09.2008-19.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD202/08/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : COMPASS * tokamak * optical diagnostic * Thomson scattering Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.122, year: 2009

  9. Validation of equilibrium tools on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Jakub; Appel, L.C.; Artaud, J.; Faugeras, B.; Havlíček, Josef; Komm, Michael; Lupelli, I.; Peterka, Matěj

    96-97, October (2015), s. 998-1001 ISSN 0920-3796. [Symposium on Fusion Technology 2014(SOFT-28)/28./. San Sebastián, 29.09.2014-03.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-38121P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Equilibrium * COMPASS Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.301, year: 2015

  10. Lithium beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anda, G.; Bencze, A.; Berta, Miklós; Dunai, D.; Háček, Pavel; Krbec, Jaroslav; Réfy, D.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Bató, S.; Ilkei, T.; Kiss, I.G.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 108, October (2016), s. 1-6 ISSN 0920-3796 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011021 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : BES * Plasma diagnostics * COMPASS tokamak Plasma density profile Plasma current fluctuations * Plasma density profile * Plasma current fluctuations Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379616303131

  11. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A

    2017-05-01

    Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients' perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients' understandings, experiences, and preferences of "sympathy," "empathy," and "compassion" in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual's suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients' perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research.

  12. EFSUMB COMPASS for Rheumatologists dissemination and implementation--an international survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janta, Iustina; Terslev, Lene; Ammitzbøll-Danielsen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    was to evaluate how the EFSUMB COMPASS has been disseminated and implemented and to assess the potential obstacles encountered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and distributed by e-mail to all rheumatologists certified as EFSUMB level 3. RESULTS: Seventeen (85%) rheumatologists considered...... that the EFSUMB COMPASS is useful for training MSUS. The majority of them (17; 85%) had informed their colleagues or national rheumatology societies about the EFSUMB COMPASS. The most common obstacle encountered for the implementation of the COMPASS was the lack of time for supervision of the trainees (9; 45...

  13. Do neotropical migrant butterflies navigate using a solar compass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira; Srygley; Dudley

    1998-12-01

    Many tropical butterfly species are well-known for their migratory behaviour. Although these insects can maintain a constant direction throughout the day, the physiological mechanisms of orientation are unknown. It has been argued that tropical migrant butterflies must use a time-compensated sun compass to accomplish their journey, but the crucial experimental manipulations to test this hypothesis have not been conducted. This study reports the results of clock-shift experiments performed with two species of migrating butterflies (Pieridae: Aphrissa statira and Phoebis argante) captured during flight across Lake Gatun, Panama. The observed constant flight bearing of natural controls suggests that these species are capable of performing time-compensated celestial navigation. Our clock-shift experiments suggest that a sun compass is involved. Individuals submitted to a 4 h advance shift took significantly different mean orientations on release compared with control butterflies. The direction of this difference was consistent with the use of a sun compass. The magnitude was approximately half the predicted value if the vanishing bearing of released butterflies was used as the variable to evaluate the effect of time-shifting and approximately three-quarters of that predicted if the estimated heading was the variable used. Mean vanishing bearings of control and experimental butterflies did not correspond to predicted values. This difference can be attributed largely to the combined effects of wind and handling.

  14. 'Have a nice day': consumerism, compassion and health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, David

    Plans to implement a quality measurement framework that will rate nurses according to the level of care and compassion they demonstrate have been proposed and discussed in a number of Department of Health documents. From September 2010 degree-level nursing students in Wales will receive regular feedback on their communication skills and whether they are exhibiting sufficient levels of compassion. This article examines the reasons why there have been such moves by both politicians and health professionals to demonstrate, in quantifiable terms, that they are able to measure something that is frequently contextual and subject to individual interpretation. It explores how these moves have been influenced by the disclosure of unacceptable standards of care by the Patients Association report and the enquiry into Mid-Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust. It also discusses how the adoption of targets to evaluate care and compassion seems to reflect a market-driven and bureaucratic approach to health care that has resulted in a system in which measurability and outcome are considered the most important indicator of quality.

  15. Upgrade of the COMPASS tokamak real-time control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janky, F., E-mail: filip.janky.work@gmail.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Havlicek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Batista, A.J.N. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kudlacek, O.; Seidl, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Neto, A.C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pipek, J.; Hron, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Mikulin, O. [Institute of Plasma Physics, AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Za Slovankou 3, 18200 Prague (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • An upgrade of the COMPASS real-time system has been made to generally improve the plasma performance. • Stability of discharges in SNT configuration has been increased. • Plasma flat-top phase length has been extended. • Central solenoid protection has been developed. • Plasma position estimation has been improved. - Abstract: The COMPASS plasma control system is based on the MARTe real-time framework. Thanks to MARTe modularity and flexibility new algorithms have been developed for plasma diagnostic (plasma position calculation), control (shaping field control), and protection systems (central solenoid protection). Moreover, the MARTe framework itself was modified to broaden the communication capabilities via Aurora. This paper presents the recent upgrades and improvements made to the COMPASS real-time plasma control system, focusing on the issues related to precision of the real-time calculations, and discussing the improvements in terms of discharge parameters and stability. In particular, the new real-time system has given the possibility to analyze and to minimize the transport delays of each control loop.

  16. Future exploration of the nucleon structure at COMPASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, COMPASS experiment essentially focussed, in it's program with muon beams, on studying aspects of the longitudinal momentum structure of the nucleon in the collinear approximation, like Δq(x) and ΔG/G(x). However, quarks can also have intrinsic transverse momentum in the nucleon, which give rise to a new class of Transverse Momentum Distribution (TMD) Parton Distribution Functions. As an example, Sievers function has been measured by both COMPASS and HERMES to be non zero on the proton, paving thus the way for more precise investigations. It is precisely the goal of the new COMPASS phase II proposal to investigate in more detail new transverse description of the nucleon structure. Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) will allow studies in the transverse space via Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs). Transverse Mometum Dependent PDFs will essentially be studied in Drell-Yan (DY) reaction and SIDIS, and some universality arguments in QCD imply different signs for Sievers and Boer-Mulders functions in DY and SIDIS.

  17. Exploring compassion: implications for contemporary nursing. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughair, Collette

    A range of contemporary political and professional literature endorse the principle of compassion in nursing as a core and underpinning philosophy fundamental to the profession. However, despite pledges to ensure that compassion lies at the heart of nursing, the concept has not been clearly defined. It is evident that uncovering the true meaning is complex and challenging owing to its subjective nature. In light of this, several implications must be considered. Effective student nurse recruitment is essential to ensure that the most appropriate individuals are selected. Contemporary marketing campaigns must be implemented, and recruitment strategies developed, which consider specific values and attitudes. Service user involvement in recruitment and selection, curriculum planning and learning and teaching strategies, and post-qualification education, can enhance nurses' understanding of the patient perspective and make headway in embedding compassion as a core nursing value. Additionally, effective role modelling in practice which demonstrates high-quality compassionate nursing care is essential. Nurses must be adequately supported in the clinical environment to facilitate compassionate behaviours and clinical leadership at all levels must uphold political and professional pledges to achieve this. Consideration of these implications for practice is essential to ensure that nurses are able to respond to patients with humanity and kindness, and deliver high-quality, compassionate care to all.

  18. UbiCompass: An IoT Interaction Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Alce

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lately, different wearable form factors have reached the consumer domain. Wearables enable at-a-glance access to information and can continually sense the surrounding environment. Internet of Things (IoT researchers have focused on the main enabling factors: the integration of several technologies and communication solutions. Less effort has been devoted to exploring how not-so-tech-savvy end users can discover and directly interact with the numerous connected things predicted by the IoT vision. This paper presents a novel IoT interaction concept called UbiCompass. A functional, smartwatch face prototype of the UbiCompass was developed and integrated with an existing smart home system, in which five different connected devices could be controlled using simple interaction. It was then compared to a traditional smartphone mobile application in a controlled experiment. The results show statistically significant differences in favor of the proposed concept. This highlights the potential the UbiCompass has as an IoT interaction concept.

  19. Lipid Raft Size and Lipid Mobility in Non-raft Domains Increase during Aging and Are Exacerbated in APP/PS1 Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease. Predictions from an Agent-Based Mathematical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Guido; Díaz, Mario; Torres, Néstor V.

    2016-01-01

    A connection between lipid rafts and Alzheimer's disease has been studied during the last decades. Mathematical modeling approaches have recently been used to correlate the effects of lipid composition changes in the physicochemical properties of raft-like membranes. Here we propose an agent based model to assess the effect of lipid changes in lipid rafts on the evolution and progression of Alzheimer's disease using lipid profile data obtained in an established model of familial Alzheimer's disease. We have observed that lipid raft size and lipid mobility in non-raft domains are two main factors that increase during age and are accelerated in the transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse model. The consequences of these changes are discussed in the context of neurotoxic amyloid β production. Our agent based model predicts that increasing sterols (mainly cholesterol) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) (mainly DHA, docosahexaenoic acid) proportions in the membrane composition might delay the onset and progression of the disease. PMID:27014089

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartu, S.; Angelier, F.; Bustnes, J.O.; Moe, B.; Hanssen, S.A.; Herzke, D.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Verboven, N.; Verreault, J.; Labadie, P.; Budzinski, H.; Wingfield, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑ 7 PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - Highlights: • Relationships between PCBs and stress hormones (CORT) are not well known in birds. • We measured blood PCBs, baseline and stress-induced CORT in seven seabird species. • ∑PCB was positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT in three species. • ∑PCBs was negatively linked to stress-induced CORT in the most contaminated species. • The nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - In polar seabird species, the relationship between PCB and CORT concentrations may be related to the levels of contamination