WorldWideScience

Sample records for sea pollution resulting

  1. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  2. Pollution around Malta's sea

    OpenAIRE

    Formosa, Nicolette

    2014-01-01

    Marine littering is a global concern and every single year tons of litter end up in the ocean all around the globe. It has become such a problem that the waste has amalgamated into huge ‘islands’ floating in the world’s oceans. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/pollution-around-maltas-sea/

  3. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  4. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2014-01-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  5. What is the pollution status of North Sea sediments?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, P.M.; Heip, C.; Cofino, W.

    1993-01-01

    A March 1990 international sea-going workshop in Bremerhaven, Germany provided the opportunity to conduct detailed sediment toxicity testing in concert with studies of fish histopathology, bioaccumulation, benthic community structure, and sediment chemical contamination in the North Sea. Two gradients of sediment chemical contamination were tested, one from an abandoned oil platform and the other from the mouth of the Elbe River northward to the Dogger Bank. Using a preponderance of evidence approach, it was determined that sediments nearest the Elbe are moderately polluted (pollution is defined as contamination, toxicity, and community alteration) and that sediments offshore and at the Dogger Bank are unpolluted. Sediments nearest the oil platform showed evidence for a low level of pollution, but there was no evidence of pollution 125 m from the platform. The results suggest the testable hypothesis that North Sea sediments away from point sources of pollution such as coastal areas and drilling platforms are presently not polluted. 46 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Topical problems related to the pollution of the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report sums up the current state of knowledge on the pollution of the Baltic Sea as an aquatic system. Mineral oil hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and radionuclides are pinpointed as the main causes of pollution. Furthermore, the work presents the results of investigations carried through for several years on the contamination of salt-water fishes. The causes and consequences of nutrient accumulation in the Baltic Sea are discussed. (VT) [de

  7. Factors affecting metal and radionuclide pollution in the Baltic sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lodenius

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available External pollution load in the Baltic Sea originates from urban, agricultural and industrial sources. Emissions of heavy metals have decreased substantially in the catchment area but the temporal trends are not always significant and differ with sample, area and pollutant. The most significant source of anthropogenic radioactivity in the Baltic Sea is fallout from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Many factors affect the future development of pollutant concentrations including anthropogenic emissions, political decisions and changes in salinity, temperature and water currents, in eutrophication and oxygen status, in fisheries and in atmospheric deposition of pollutants. Large scale changes like eutrophication and climate change affect ecosystems in many ways, directly and indirectly, causing biological and abiotic effects. These factors are interrelated and difficult to predict. Measures aiming to enhance the ecological status of the Baltic Sea will certainly give positive results but this will take at least several decades.

  8. Air pollution related to sea transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massin, J.M.; Hertz, O.

    1993-01-01

    Sea transportation contributes only 1-2% of world CO 2 emissions. Owing to the sulphur concentration in the bunker fuels, this transportation mode represents over 4% of the world SO 2 emissions. In addition, NO x emissions are likely to exceed 7% of the world emissions. SO 2 emissions in the North Sea and the Channel account for 15% of the whole French emissions, NO x emissions for about 10% and CO 2 emissions for about 3%. There are several potential measures to reduce the emissions of ship engines - propelling engines or generator driving engines - improvement of fuel quality, by desulphurizing and prohibiting the use of noxious additives such as PCB; use of alternative fuels; engine optimizing; exhaust gas processing; use of new propelling systems. A new organisation of world marketing of fuels with low or high sulphur levels could also be set up. The Sea Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) discussed this problem during its meeting in 1990. The 73/78 MARPOL convention provides the IMO with an international juridical tool, especially designed for the preclusion of pollution due to sea transportation. It can address the issue of air pollution which requires a concerted approach between seaside countries and the drawing up of international regulations relating to the protection of the sea world. Fuel quality is already controlled by international standards drawn up by ISO. These standards should be improved to reduce air pollution due to sea transportation

  9. The pollution of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the North Sea and its rivers; the uses of the North Sea (shipping; exploitation of oil and gas; fishing; recreation; land reclamation; industrial islands; waste dumping); the nature of the dumping problem (nuclear waste; organic chemicals; inorganic chemicals; oil; sewage; rubble and dredged spoils; ash); pollution legislation; Greenpeace activities in the North Sea (the nuclear campaigns (Windscale; Cap de la Hague; Atlantic waste dumping); the chemical campaigns); what is needed in the future; references; the Oslo Convention. (U.K.)

  10. Monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D; Orós, Jorge; López, Pedro; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2014-05-15

    Despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 11 inorganic elements (Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, As, Al, Hg and Se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (Chelonia mydas and Eretmochelys imbricata). Only five of the 18 analyzed OCPs were detected in both species. The average total OCP concentration was higher in green turtles than in hawksbills (0.33 ng/ml versus 0.20 ng/ml). Higher concentrations of individual congeners and total PCBs were also detected in green turtles than in hawksbills (∑PCBs=0.73ng/ml versus 0.19 ng/ml), and different PCB contamination profiles were observed in these two species. Concerning PAHs, we also observed a different contamination profile and higher levels of contamination in green turtles (∑PAHs=12.06 ng/ml versus 2.95 ng/ml). Di- and tri-cyclic PAHs were predominant in both populations, suggesting a petrogenic origin, rather than urban sources of PAHs. Additionally, all of the samples exhibited detectable levels of the 11 inorganic elements. In this case, we also observed relevant differences between both species. Thus, Zn was the most abundant inorganic element in hawksbills (an essential inorganic element), whereas Ni, a well-known toxicant, was the most abundant inorganic element in green turtles. The presence of contaminants is greater in green turtles relative to hawksbill turtles, suggesting a greater exposure to hazardous chemical contaminants for green turtles. These results provide baseline data for these species that can serve for future monitoring purposes outlined in the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental pollution of the Black Sea: A search for answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabry, V.; Osvath, I.; Froehlich, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Black Sea region governments have initiated a regional approach to the management and protection of the marine environment supported by research at national and international levels. Environmental problems in the Black Sea are serious. The Sea's shallow, mixed surface waters receive river discharges which are heavily loaded with nutrients containing nitrogen and phosphorus and contaminated with industrial and mining wastes. In addition, coastal industries appear to discharge wastes directly into the sea with little or no treatment. Thus the water quality of the life-supporting surface layer has seriously deteriorated. Eutrophication (an enrichment in nutrients) presently prevails in many parts of the Black Sea. It has dramatically changed the marine food chain, thus contributing to the demise of the Black Sea fishery and, especially in the northwestern region, to its diminished amenity value. Other factors also are at work, including changes in the hydrological balance, overfishing, and chemical pollution. Following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, riparian countries further identified radioactive pollution as having a high priority. This article looks at major aspects of the state of the Black Sea's environment, and outlines the potential of, and first results derived from, the use of isotope tracers in Black Sea studies. It further discusses IAEA initiatives to join concerted international actions directed towards rehabilitation of the Black Sea environment. 1 fig., 3 tabs, 2 maps

  12. Pollution of the sea (mediterranean)

    CERN Multimedia

    Vicente,N

    1980-01-01

    Le Prof. Nardi Vicente travaille au laboratoire et est Prof. de biologie marine de l'Université de Marseille. Il participe à plusieurs missions, notamment avec le Prof. Coustaud. La conférence est agrémenté d'un film qui a obtenu la palme d'or à Rio de Janeiro. La pollution de la mer méd. provient pour 75% de l'intérieur de terre et les fleuves sont résponsables pour une grande partie et notamment le Rhône qui abouti en Méditerranée.

  13. Metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szefer

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This overview presents in detail the state of knowledge of the abilities of various components of the Baltic Sea environment to accumulate trace elements and radionuclides. Particular components of the Baltic ecosystem (abiotic and biotic are considered as potential monitors of pollutants. The use of seaweeds, e.g. Fucus vesiculosus or Zostera marina is recommended, also molluscs, e.g. Mytilus edulis, for biomonitoring surveys of metal pollutants and radionuclides in the Baltic Sea. However, several requirements need to be met if results are to be reliable. Since metal levels and radionuclide activities in the growing tips of F. vesiculosus reflect exclusively the levels of their dissolved species in the ambient seawater, this alga is very useful for monitoring dissolved species of metal pollutants and radioisotopes in the Baltic ecosystem. In contrast, M. edulis, a filter feeder is an appropriate tool for monitoring trace elements occurring in both chemical forms, i.e. dissolved and suspended species. Therefore, full information on the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals (depending on their chemical speciation as pollutants of the Baltic Sea can be obtained if at least two biomonitoring organisms are applied simultaneously, e.g. F. vesiculosus and M. edulis. Moreover, the data matrix can be interpreted more accurately if not only trace element but also macroelement concentrations (Ca, Mg, Na, K in these two representatives of Baltic phyto- and zoobenthos are taken into consideration; this point requires special attention. Two coastal species of fish, i.e. Zoarces viviparus and Perca fluviatilis, are good biomonitors of metallic contaminants, so their use as sentinels is recommended. The budgets of chemical elements and the ecological status of the Baltic Sea are presented. Several "black spots", e.g. large estuaries and seaport towns, heavily polluted by trace elements, are identified in the Baltic Sea and other enclosed seas such the

  14. Distribution of pollutants in the Russian sector of the Black Sea coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kos'yan, R.D.; Yesin, N.V.

    1999-01-01

    For the latest 30-40 years the Black Sea pollution by various pollutants is observed. It is the result of economical activity intensification on the shore and of slow growth of cleaning system capacity. In the coastal zone concentration of pollutants depends on the pollutant amount brought from the source and the process of their distribution and transport to the open sea. Within the Krasnodar region towns of Novorossiisk, Gelendzhik, Tuapse, Sochi and the ports of Novorossiisk and Tuapse are the main sources of pollutants

  15. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L. M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  16. THE POLLUTION OF THE BOTTOM SEDIMENTSIN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA HYDROCARBONS AND PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The pollution of the bottom sediments in the north-western part of the Caspian sea hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants. Location.Caspian Sea. Methods. The materials for this article is based on the results of monitoring conducted in 2012-2013 years. Results. Sediments in the north-western part of the Caspian Sea as a whole slightly contaminated YV and SOZ, although localized areas of high pollution are marked, especially characteristic of the Middle Caspian. Mainconclusions.The studies were showed, PAY in the sediments are mixed genesis, but most of them, in all probability, were petroleum origin. The not weathered hydrocarbons are presented in sediments, which indicates to the presence of the local sources of the fresh oil pollution on the surveyed area.

  17. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  18. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  19. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5). An executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Pyhala, M.; Kotilainen, P.; Bartnicki, J.; Knuuttila, S.; Durkin, M.

    2012-07-01

    This report summarizes and combines the main results of the Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (HELCOM 2011) which covers waterborne loads to the sea and data on atmospheric loads which are submitted by countries to the co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long range transmission of air pollutants in Europe (EMEP), which subsequently compiles and reports this information to HELCOM.

  20. Oil pollution of the sea – global and regional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Begányi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Transport of oil is very important for the world economic and industry. Oil is transported to the countries and states, where it is transformed for the industry. The oil transport is connected with some advantages and disadvantages. One of the disadvantages is the pollution of seas. The pollution is very dangerous for everything and everyone. Transport companies of oil must stop the pollution with new, safety and effective transport technologies.

  1. Occurrence, effects, and fate of oil polluting the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZoBell, C E

    1963-01-01

    A major source of oil polluting the sea is ships which use their cargo or fuel tanks alternately for carrying different kinds of oil and salt water ballast. Wash waters, wrecks, bilge water, and accidental spills account for large volumes of oils being discharged into the sea. Recreational beaches and sea birds are most adversely affected by oil pollution. Oysters and other shellfish in certain beds are injured by oil. Only at its worst does oil pollution appear to be injurious to animal and plant life in the sea. The movement, modification, and persistence of oil in the sea or on its shores are influenced by the properties of the oil, its dispersion in water, ocean currents, wind, sunlight, and many other factors. Most beached oils and tars become mixed with or smeared on solids to be buried, decomposed, or carried back into the sea by the tidal currents and the backwash of waves. Virtually all kinds of oils are susceptible to microbial oxidation, which is most rapid at temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 degrees C. In the marine environment oil persists only when protected from bacterial action. 78 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. A prototype statistical approach of oil pollution in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventikos, N.P.; Psaraftis, H.N.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed statistical survey of oil pollution in the greater area of the Mediterranean Sea (with a preference in the Greek Seas: eg. the Aegean Sea or the Ioanian Sea and the respective Greek fleet). The Mediterranean Sea exhibits a noticeable increase of oil pollution within the last 15 years as documented by data that is presented within this work. A new electronic data base tool with a multitude of operational capabilities that utilizes data from the REMPEC Organization in raw format is introduced. We further present a statistical analysis of the data which differentiates each incident according to the volume of spilled oil and we conclude with some interesting results and comments. (author)

  3. Pollution of the seas around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; SenGupta, R.; Kureishy, T.W.

    The state of marine pollution along the 7000 km long coastline and 2.015 x 106km exclusive economic zone of India is summarized. The coastal water receives 4.1 km3 of domestic sewage and 0.41 km3 of industrial wastes. Nearly 447 million tonnes...

  4. Microplastic pollution in deep-sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Cauwenberghe, Lisbeth; Vanreusel, Ann; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    Microplastics are small plastic particles ( 3 was observed. •The depths from where these microplastics were recovered range from 1176 to 4843 m. •The sizes of the particles range from 75 to 161 μm at their largest cross-section. -- Here, we demonstrate that microplastics have invaded the marine environment to an extent that they appear to even be present in the remote deep sea

  5. ANALYSIS OF SEA WATER POLLUTION IN COASTAL MARINE DISTRICT TUBAN TO THE QUALITY STANDARDS OF SEA WATER WITH USING STORET METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdana Ixbal Spanton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The sea water is a component that interacts with the terrestrial environment, where sewage from the land will lead to the sea. Waste containing these pollutants will enter into coastal waters and marine ecosystems. Partially soluble in water, partially sinks to the bottom and was concentrated sediment, and partly into the body tissues of marine organisms. This study was conducted to determine the level of pollution of sea water on the coast in the district of Tuban. This research was conducted in the Coastal Water Tuban, East Java. The main material used in research on Analysis of Water Pollution in Coastal Sea on Tuban. The method used in this research is using storet method and compared to the quality standards of the Environment Decree No. 51 in 2004. Based on the analysis of testing at five sampling point’s seawater around Bodies Tuban, obtained by sea water quality measurement results either in physics, chemistry, and microbiology varied. The level of pollution of sea water around Coastal Tuban obtained by using Storet Method average value of analysis is -4.2 included in class B are lightly blackened, while using values obtained Pollution Index average pollution index of 3.60 is included in the category lightly blackened. Keywords: Analysis of the pollution level of seawater on the coast in Tuban, Quality Standards of Sea Water, Storet Method.

  6. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias, Volker, E-mail: volker.matthias@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bewersdorff, Ines [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Aulinger, Armin, E-mail: armin.aulinger@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Quante, Markus, E-mail: markus.quante@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased. - Ship emissions lead to significantly enhanced air pollution by secondary inorganic aerosols in North Sea coastal areas.

  7. Sea salt and pollution inputs over the continental United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.-H.

    1992-01-01

    The average deposition rate of sea salt chloride over the world continents is about 10 meq m -2 yr -1 . Only about 14±1% of chloride in the pollution-corrected world average river is contributed by sea salt aerosols and the rest from the dissolution of evaporites. The significant increase of the ion concentrations in the Mississippi river from the year 1905 to 1987 was caused by anthropogenic inputs such as fossil fuel burning, common salt consumption, and dissolution of carbonate and silicate rocks by acids derived from acid precipitation. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Effect of pollutant oscillations on oil spreading on the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, T.M.; Amakiri, J.O.; Bestman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical solutions for oil spreading on the sea are deduced when the pollutant source fluctuates with time for a simple rectangular geometry. Both asymmetrical and symmetrical solutions in the direction perpendicular to the uniform tidal stream are derived. The asymmetrical solution, though ad hoc, sheds light on the necessary adjustment to the simpler symmetric problem. Only a micro computer is necessary to simulate these solutions. (Author)

  9. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  10. Chronic oil pollution in the Bosphorus, Sea of Marmara and Dardanelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, K.C.; Unlu, S.; Okus, E.; Dogan, E.

    1999-01-01

    Oil pollution was measured at the entrance and exit of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles monthly and seasonally at two stations in the Black Sea and four stations in the Sea of Marmara in 1995-1996. In 1996, the oil level increased; in the Bosphorus, in the surface water, 4.8 times at the entrance, 2.9 times at the exit, in 10 m 3.2 times in the entrance, 9.2 times in exit, in the Sea of Marmara 2.8 times in the surface water, 42.9 times in 10 m. In the Dardanelles 8.3 times at entrances and 7.7 times at the exit and in 10 m 2.5 times at the entrance and 5.3 times at the exit. The results showed that the pollution has increased in the Turkish Straits throughout the years. (author)

  11. Mapping of pollutants in sediments of the German Wadden Sea - June, 1989 to June, 1992. Final report January 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopmann, C.; Faller, J.; Bernem, K.H. van; Prange, A.; Mueller, A.

    1994-01-01

    From June 1989 to June 1992 a mapping of inorganic and organic pollutants in the sediments from the entire German Wadden Sea has been carried out. Following the guidelines of the national (Bund/Laender-Messprogramm) and international monitoring programmes for the North Sea (Joint Monitoring Programme) distribution patterns of pollutants according to their type and concentration have been determined in the course of this investigation and the main pollution areas have been established. Based on the results of the mapping of pollutants, as well as on the first findings of the biological mapping, a concept for the monitoring of pollutants in eulittoral sediments of the German Wadden Sea has been developed. (orig.) [de

  12. Sea ice production and transport of pollutants in Laptev Sea, 1979 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigor, I.; Colony, R.

    1995-01-01

    About 900,000 km 2 of the polar pack ice is transferred annually from the Arctic Basin to the North Atlantic. The largest portion of this exported ice cover is created by the large scale divergence within the ice pack, but a significant portion of the ice cover originates in the marginal seas, either by fall freezing of the seasonally ice free waters or by wintertime advection away from the coast. The main objective of this study was to estimate the annual production of ice in the Laptev Sea and to determine its ultimate fate. The study was motivated by the possibility that ice formed in the Laptev Sea may be an agent for the long range transport of pollutants such as radionuclides. The authors have attempted to characterize the mean and interannual variability of ice production by investigating the winter production and subsequent melt of ice in the Laptev Sea from 1979 through 1992. The general approach was to associate pollution transport with the net exchange of ice area from the Laptev Sea to the perennial ice pack. The primary data sets supporting the study were ice charts, ice motion and geostrophic wind. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Water pollution monitoring in Tirrenian Sea 1991-1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scipioni, A.; Napoli, M.; Cavolo, F.

    1996-01-01

    A marine environmental research programme is in course of carrying out for some years in a definite coastal zone of the southern Tirrenian Sea in order to point out possible significant pollutions, identify their origin and study the appropriate preventive and protective measures. In the first stage of the programme the analysis of the actual water quality was done, by evaluation of several indicators (temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity and suspended sediments, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nutrients concentration, bacteriological parameters) at three different distances from the shore: 50 m, 500 m and 1 mile. The analysis of the collected values shows that the actual water quality is on the whole quite satisfactory, except for some restricted areas in which a bacteriological pollution, due to high concentrations of coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis, has been pointed out

  14. Environmental pollution by sea-going vessels. Review for 2010; Milieuvervuiling door zeeschepen. Terugblik 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    This review study looks at what has happened with the recommendations of the Dutch Court of Audit report on Environmental pollution by sea-going vessels of 2001. A closer look has been taken at the promises made by the Dutch Ministers of Transport and Justice. These recommendations were related to the bottlenecks that were observed in the efforts to prevent pollution by sea-going vessels, resulting from cleaning up pollution at sea and in the prosecution of parties causing pollution. [Dutch] In dit terugblikonderzoek zijn we nagegaan wat er is gebeurd met de aanbevelingen uit het Rekenkamerrapport Milieuvervuiling door zeeschepen van 2001. We hebben gekeken hoe het staat met de toezeggingen die indertijd zijn gedaan door de ministers van Verkeer en Waterstaat (VenW) en van Justitie. Onze aanbevelingen hadden betrekking op knelpunten die wij hadden gesignaleerd bij de inspanningen ter voorkoming van vervuiling door zeeschepen, bij het opruimen van verontreinigingen op zee en bij de vervolging van de veroorzakers van vervuiling.

  15. Influence of oil pollution to the total biological productivity of the Caspian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmanov, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : As a result of a numerous researches it was defined that among all the species of pollutants polluting water reservoirs, oil and its components has a leading role. In this respect the Caspian Sea is in a special condition, as it exists as an isolated water reservoirs it had a direct relation with oil and oil products earlier than others and more than the rest. For this reason the oil in the Caspian Sea in its turn has become a permanent substrate. The main reservoirs of contamination of environmental medium of the Caspian Sea by oil and oil products are oil industries, oil pipelines, oil processing ventures, oil transportation, oil-gas service and oil drilling. At the same time oil components due to dried lands appear in the sea by river floods that are a heavy showers. Oil is a complex environmental compound of carbohydrogenes and distributed in environmental medium. Its characteristic that no other pollutant as dangerous it hasn't been and cannot be compared with oil according to the range of distribution, amount of pollutant resources and range of pressure to all the compounds of environmental medium. During the involvement of oil in the hydrosphere deep, often inattentive changes of its chemical, physiological and microbiological features and even reconstruction of all the hydrospheric profile take place. Being dynamic and mobile it penetrates toxic metals increasing their emigrational ability, subsides to the bottom and oppresses benthofauna. At the same time oil products in water reservoirs in common negatively influence to the balance of oxygen and position of biocenoses in the surface layers of sea water. In the given information the results of many years and monitoring character of researches about the influence of pollution in the base of total biological productivity of the Caspian Sea are presented (as well as oil pollution). It was defined that in the basins of the North (Makachkala - from Berbash, Bautina, Shevchenko fleet), Middle (Sand

  16. Human waste: An underestimated source of nutrient pollution in coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-05-15

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in many nutrient models. We quantify nutrient export by large rivers to coastal seas of Bangladesh, India and Pakistan, and the associated eutrophication potential in 2000 and 2050. Our new estimates for N and P inputs from human waste are one to two orders of magnitude higher than earlier model calculations. This leads to higher river export of nutrients to coastal seas, increasing the risk of coastal eutrophication potential (ICEP). The newly calculated future ICEP, for instance, Godavori river is 3 times higher than according to earlier studies. Our modeling approach is simple and transparent and can easily be applied to other data-poor basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The assessment of sublethal effects of pollutants in the sea. Review of the problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldichuk, M

    1979-08-08

    Sublethal effects of pollution may be significant to survival of a stock of marine fish or even a species. Such effects sometimes lead to reproductive failure and have been identified so far only in freshwater systems. Atlantic salmon have disappeared from many streams in Europe and eastern North America, partly as a result of pollution in their freshwater spawning areas and in their estuarine nursing grounds. Reductions in populations of marine fishes due to pollution solely have not yet been demonstrated. However, Baltic Sea seals, where reproductive failure is apparently associated with high concentrations of DDT and polychlorinated biphenyl in the blubber, may have suffered a decline owing to the presence of these organochlorines. Sublethal effects of pollutants have been studied in the laboratory, essentially under four categories: (1) physiology (growth, swimming performance, respiration, circulation); (2) biochemistry/cell structure (blood chemistry, enzyme activity, endocrinology, histochemistry); (3) behaviour/neurophysiology; and (4) reproduction. Not all pollutants elicit meaningful responses in all categories, and a response is not always linear with pollutant concentration. For application to survival of populations the response has to be ultimately related to a healthy progression through a full life cycle, including successful reproduction. In recent time, physiological studies have moved into polluted marine environments with mobile laboratories having continuous sampling capability, to observe effects of pollutants in situ on marine organisms. The Controlled Ecosystem Pollution Experiment (Cepex) in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, endeavours to investigate the effects of low concentrations of pollutants on marine organisms in large plastic silos having a slow replacement of water.

  18. Tracer investigations of natural and polluted sea sediment movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruszak, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Results of tracer investigations and bottom sediment movement analysis (natural and polluted) performed world-wide have been shown. Polish investigations have been compared to these results. A critical estimation and analysis of particular elements of sediment movement: thickness of the drag layer and various characteristics of bottom transport evaluated in different time-space scales has been performed. 14 refs, 9 figs

  19. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in the Yellow Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xin; Teng, Ankang; Xu, Wenzhe; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments at 56 stations during two cruises in the Yellow Sea in summer and winter, 2011 were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The pollution status was assessed via the Geoaccumulation index and Hankanson potential ecological risk index. Higher concentrations of heavy metals (except for Mn) were found in the central Southern Yellow Sea and the western Northern Yellow Sea. The higher contents of Mn were much closer to Shandong Peninsula. Correlation analyses indicated that Pb, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Co probably had the same origin and were controlled by grain size and total organic carbon. Pollution assessment showed that most areas of the Yellow Sea were not or lowly contaminated with the exception of the northwest and south parts of the Southern Yellow Sea showing Cd-contamination. The pollution status of the Yellow Sea in summer was worse than that in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botello, Alfonso V; Villanueva F, Susana [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia

    1996-07-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  1. Status of the petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botello, Alfonso V.; Villanueva F, Susana

    1996-01-01

    In 1976, the IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region and noted that petroleum pollution was of region-wide concern and recommended to initiate a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. Actually, the Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas; USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are: production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading operations and accidental spills. About 5 million of barrels are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 millions barrels/year. The results of the CARIPOL Regional Programme conducted between 1980-1987 pointed out that a significant levels of petroleum pollution exists throughout the Wider Caribbean and include serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major currents system and very high levels of dissolved/dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major effects of this petroleum pollution include: high tar level on many beaches that either prevent recreational use or require very expensive clean-up operations, distress and death to marine life and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tissues of important economic species have been reported with its potential carcinogenic effects. (author)

  2. Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis resulting from environment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, B.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews different ways of environmental contamination with natural and artificial harmful substances (chemical and radioactive) and their role in the processes of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The recent studies of the mechanism of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to environmental pollution are discussed

  3. Sea Urchin Embryogenesis as Bioindicators of Marine Pollution in Impact Areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea and the Sea of Okhotsk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanova, Olga N; Zhuravel, Elena V; Chulchekov, Denis N; Mazur, Andrey A

    2017-08-01

    The embryogenesis of the sea urchin sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis was used as bioindicators of seawater quality from the impact areas of the Sea of Japan/East Sea (Peter the Great Bay) and the Sea of Okhotsk (northwestern shelf of Sakhalin Island and western shelf of Kamchatka Peninsula). Fertilization membrane formation, first cleavage, blastula formation, gastrulation, and 2-armed and 4-armed pluteus formation have been analyzed and a number of abnormalities were calculated. Number of embryogenesis anomalies in sand dollar larvae exposed to sea water from different stations in Peter the Great Bay corresponds to pollution level at each area. The Sea of Okhotsk is the main fishing area for Russia. Anthropogenic impact on the marine ecosystem is caused by fishing and transport vessels mainly. But two shelf areas are considered as "hot spots" due to oil and gas drilling. Offshore oil exploitation on the northeastern Sakhalin Island has been started and at present time oil is being drill on oil-extracting platforms continuously. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are prospected on western Kamchatka shelf, and exploitation drilling in this area was intensified in 2014. A higher number of abnormalities at gastrula and pluteus stages (19-36%) were detected for the stations around oil platforms near Sakhalin Island. On the western Kamchatka shelf number of abnormalities was 7-21%. Such anomalies as exogastrula, incomplete development of pairs of arms were not observed at all; only the delay of development was registered. Eggs, embryos, and larvae of sea urchins are the suitable bioindicators of early disturbances caused by marine pollution in impact ecosystems.

  4. Using remote sensing imagery to monitoring sea surface pollution cause by abandoned gold-copper mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, H. M.; Ren, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    2010-08-01

    The Chinkuashih Benshen mine was the largest gold-copper mine in Taiwan before the owner had abandoned the mine in 1987. However, even the mine had been closed, the mineral still interacts with rain and underground water and flowed into the sea. The polluted sea surface had appeared yellow, green and even white color, and the pollutants had carried by the coast current. In this study, we used the optical satellite images to monitoring the sea surface. Several image processing algorithms are employed especial the subpixel technique and linear mixture model to estimate the concentration of pollutants. The change detection approach is also applied to track them. We also conduct the chemical analysis of the polluted water to provide the ground truth validation. By the correlation analysis between the satellite observation and the ground truth chemical analysis, an effective approach to monitoring water pollution could be established.

  5. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Possible effects of water pollution on the community structure of Red Sea corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loya, Y

    1975-02-28

    The community structure and species diversity of hermatypic corals was studied during 1969 to 1973, in 2 reef flats in the northern Gulf of Eilat, Red Sea: the reef flat of the mature reserve at Eilat, which is chronically polluted by oil and minerals, and a control reef, located 5 km further S, which is free of oil pollution. In 1969, the nature reserve and the control reef had similar coral community structure. In Sept. 1970, both reefs suffered approximately 90 percent mortality of corals, as a result of an unexpected and extremely low tide. In 1973 the control reef was blooming with a highly diverse coral community, while almost no signs of coral recolonization have been observed at the nature reserve, and it is significantly lower in diversity. Phosphate eutrophication and chronic oil pollution are probably the major man-made disturbances that interfere with coral colonization of the reef flat at the nature reserve. Although no direct evidence is provided that oil damages hermatypic corals, the data strongly suggest that chronic oil spills prevent normal settlement and development of coral larvae. Chronic oil pollution results in either one or a combination of the following: damage to the reproductive system of corals, decreased viability of coral larvae, or changes in some physical properties of the reef flat which interfere with normal settlement of coral larvae.

  7. Estimation of Heavy Elements Pollution in Sea Plants (Algae) by Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ghondi, A. A.; El-Mismary, Y. A.; Etwir, R. H.; Machiouf, M. A.; Ben Shaban, Y.; Abia, R.

    2007-01-01

    The total content of trace elements were determined in 50 samples of sea plants (macro algae) collected from Tripoli coast area (Tajura, El schab, Dat Elemad ) in Libya. The samples were investigated as an indication of heavy elements pollution. In this paper, the total amounts of Zn, Sc, Fe, Co, Cr, Ba, Cs, Sb, Rb, and Hf concentration were determined by using Neutron Activation Analysis in Tajura research center. High levels of Zn and Cr and slightly increasing in amount of Co and Fe are considered as normal values comparing with polluted area particularly with Fe and Co in investigated samples. Statistical calculation of the results have shown a positive relationship between the contents of Ba, Sc, Hf, Cr and Fe-Sb but no relation with Zn and other investigated trace elements contents. Further investigation should be carried out to confirm these findings and correlate them to source attribution.

  8. South African legislation with respect to the control of pollution of the sea

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rabie, MA

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available This document is a compilation of South African legislation relating to the control of pollution of the sea within the jurisdiction of the Republic of South Africa. Legislation is considered as it deals with a) the source of pollution, b) the effect...

  9. Bioaccumulation of persistent and emerging pollutants in wild sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A Cristina; Camacho, Carolina; Eljarrat, Ethel; Peris, Andrea; Aminot, Yann; Readman, James W; Boti, Vasiliki; Nannou, Christina; Marques, António; Nunes, Maria Leonor; Almeida, C Marisa

    2018-02-01

    Marine pollution has been increasing as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. The preservation of marine ecosystems, as well as the safety of harvested seafood, are nowadays a global concern. Here, we report for the first time the contamination levels of a large set of 99 emerging and persistent organic contaminants (butyltins (BTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides including pyrethroids, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PCPs) and flame retardants) in roe/gonads of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Sea urchins are a highly prized worldwide delicacy, and the harvesting of this seafood has increased over the last decades, particularly in South West Atlantic coast, where this organism is harvested mainly for exportation. Sampling was performed in three harvesting sites of the NW Portuguese coast subjected to distinct anthropogenic pressures: Carreço, Praia Norte and Vila Chã, with sea urchins being collected in the north and south areas of each site. Butyltins and pharmaceuticals were not found at measurable levels. Several PAHs, four pyrethroids insecticides, four PCPs and eleven flame retardants were found in roe/gonads of sea urchins, though in general at low levels. Differences among harvesting sites and between areas within each site were found, the lowest levels of contaminants being registered in Carreço. The accumulation of contaminants in sea urchins' roe/gonads seemed to reflect the low anthropogenic pressure felt in the sampling sites. Nevertheless, taking into account the low accumulated levels of chemicals, results indicate that sea urchins collected in South West Atlantic coast are safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. SENTINEL-1 RESULTS: SEA ICE OPERATIONAL MONITORING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toudal Pedersen, Leif; Saldo, Roberto; Fenger-Nielsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production.......In the present paper we demonstrate the capabilities of the Sentinel-1 SAR data for operational sea-ice and iceberg monitoring. Most of the examples are drawn from the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) production....

  11. Application of Radioactive and Stable Isotopes to Trace Anthropogenic Pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Valiulis, D.; Remeikaitė-Nikienė, N.; Barisevičiūtė, R.; Stankevičius, A.; Kulakauskaitė, I.; Mažeika, J.; Petrošius, R.; Jokšas, K.; Li, H.-C.; Garnaga, G.; Povinec, P.

    2015-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is one of the seas most contaminated by various pollutants including the chemical munitions dumped after the Second World War. Pu isotopes, Δ 14 C and δ 13 C of total organic carbon (TOC) as well as lipid and phospholipids (PL) fractions of the sediments were applied to study sources of pollutants including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The compound-specific δ 13 C analysis, PL–derived fatty acid biomarkers and an end-member mixing model were used to estimate a relative contribution of the marine, terrestrial and fossil as well as petroleum hydrocarbons (measured directly) sources to organic carbon in the sediments, to assess a possible effect of petroleum hydrocarbon contamination on radiocarbon signatures and to elucidate a possible leakage of CWA at the Gotland Deep dumpsite. Data on spatial distribution of As, Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, Cd, Cu and Pb concentrations as well as 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the surface sediments indicated the highest concentrations of Pb with their different pattern of distribution and insignificant variations of 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios. The obtained data revealed the possible application of the Chernobyl-derived Pu to trace the pollutants of the terrestrial origin. Wide TOC variations with the strong impact of the terrestrial and fresh waters in the coastal areas were observed. Variations of Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values with the most depleted values of the Δ 14 C TOC (-453%) and Δ 14 C of total lipid extracts (-812.4%) at the CWA dumpsite were found. An excess (after subtracting the petroleum hydrocarbon) of fossil sources at the CWA dumpsite as compared to those at other stations in the Baltic Sea was detected. The obtained results indicated a possible effect of CWA on depleted Δ 14 C and δ 13 C values. This study was supported by the Research Council of Lithuania, contract No. MIP-080/2012. (author)

  12. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  13. State of oil pollution in the northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf oil spill

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sengupta, R.; Fondekar, S.P.; Alagarsamy, R.

    stream_size 30182 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mar_Pollut_Bull_27_85.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Marine Pollution... Bulletin, Volume 27, pp. 85-91, 1993. 0025-326X/93 $6.00+0.00 Printed in Great Britain. O 1993 Pergamon Press Ltd State of Oil Pollution in the Northern Arabian Sea after the 1991 Gulf Oil Spill R. SEN GUPTA, S. P. FONDEKAR and R. ALAGARSAMY National...

  14. Marine Pollution and the Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Arthur E., III

    1975-01-01

    Despite a rising tide of contamination, effective controls of marine pollution appear dubious because of conflicting national and economic interests. Since countries can not agree on problems such as national sovereignty, dispute settlement, jurisdiction over oil on the Continental Shelf and international seabed sources, marine pollution will…

  15. The sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus immunological response to chemical pollution exposure: The case of lindane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, Loredana; Pagliara, Patrizia

    2015-09-01

    In the marine environment organochlorine insecticides can be broadly detected in water, sediments, and biota. These pollutants may have major ecological consequences since they may affect marine organisms and endanger organismal growth, reproduction or survival. In this study we investigated the modification of some sea urchin immunological parameters in response to subchronic lindane (γ-HCH) exposure. Adult specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were exposed to two different concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 mg L(-1)) of lindane. After 24 and 48h of treatment, we examined the lindane influence on coelomocytes vitality and enumeration as well on some humoral parameters. Our results showed that the presence of the pesticide affected both cellular and humoral components of the immune system. In particular, P. lividus coelomocytes vitality did not change but a decrease of the total cell number and an increase of the red cells was recorded. Haemolytic and lysozyme-like activities as well as antibacterial activity on Vibrio alginolyticus of treated animals decreased. Sea urchin immunological competence modifications might represent a tool for monitoring disease susceptibility thus providing biological criteria for the implementation of water quality standards to protect marine organisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF of sea areas polluted by oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Otremba

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the possibilities of modelling the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF in sea areas polluted by oil. Three sea basin models are considered: a coastal one free of oil, one polluted by an oil film and one polluted by an oil emulsion. The following concentrations of oil were compared: for the film, 1 cm3 of oil per 1 m2 water surface, for the emulsion 1 cm3 of oil in 1 m3 of water. The optical properties of Romashkino crude oil were taken into consideration, as were various angles of incident solar light. The conversion of BRDFs into a directional distribution of the optical contrast of polluted areas is demonstrated.

  17. Investigation about the presence of organochlorine pollutants in mussels from the Black Sea, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides (HCB, DDT and its metabolites and HCBD in mussels from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis are aquatic organisms which are immobile so that the concentration of pollutants should primarily be considered as an indication of local levels of organochlorine compounds. Samples were collected from three areas of Black Sea coast of Bulgaria in summer 2015.

  18. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of heavy metal pollution on foraminifers in the Marmara Sea (Balıkesir-Canakkale-Tekirdag, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal Yumun, Zeki

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT This study aims to investigate the effects of heavy metal pollution on Holocene foraminiferal assemblages in the sediments of Marmara Sea (Balikesir-Canakkale-Tekirdag, Turkey). For this purpose four drilling samples, one from Bandirma (Balikesir/Turkey), two from Erdek Bay (Erdek-Bandirma/Turkey) and one from Tekirdag (Turkey) have been taken. Additionally core samples taken from 43 different locations in the Western Marmara Sea also have been examined. Foraminiferal assemblages were identified and changes in heavy metal concentrations were determined (spatially) in the vertical direction by means of drilling samples; in the vertical direction for geochronology and in the horizontal direction by the areal distribution of the core samples. In this research an average value defined as Pollution Index (PI) was used for the first time in order to summarize the results of geochemical analyses. Within the scope of this method, the pollution index value is obtained by dividing the sum of average value ratios of heavy metal measurement values by the number of measurements. It was observed that the number of individuals and species decreased where the heavy metal measured values (MV) were higher than the pollution index and increased where the heavy metal values were lower than the pollution index when obtained index value was correlated separately with the numbers of foraminifer individuals and species. It was also observed that foraminifera were completely absent in some locations where PI was less than MV. Morphological changes were observed in three foraminifer species, Elphidium crispum, Massilina secans, and Ammonia compacta, in the core samples taken in areas where industrial wastes are discharged into the southern parts of the Marmara Sea. At some locations, between Misakca-Denizkent, and Erdek-Balikesir, Turkey, where the heavy metal density was high it haven't been any foraminifer species were achieved. The pollution index (PI) value measured in this

  20. Total maximum allocated load calculation of nitrogen pollutants by linking a 3D biogeochemical-hydrodynamic model with a programming model in Bohai Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Aiquan; Li, Keqiang; Ding, Dongsheng; Li, Yan; Liang, Shengkang; Li, Yanbin; Su, Ying; Wang, Xiulin

    2015-12-01

    The equal percent removal (EPR) method, in which pollutant reduction ratio was set as the same in all administrative regions, failed to satisfy the requirement for water quality improvement in the Bohai Sea. Such requirement was imposed by the developed Coastal Pollution Total Load Control Management. The total maximum allocated load (TMAL) of nitrogen pollutants in the sea-sink source regions (SSRs) around the Bohai Rim, which is the maximum pollutant load of every outlet under the limitation of water quality criteria, was estimated by optimization-simulation method (OSM) combined with loop approximation calculation. In OSM, water quality is simulated using a water quality model and pollutant load is calculated with a programming model. The effect of changes in pollutant loads on TMAL was discussed. Results showed that the TMAL of nitrogen pollutants in 34 SSRs was 1.49×105 ton/year. The highest TMAL was observed in summer, whereas the lowest in winter. TMAL was also higher in the Bohai Strait and central Bohai Sea and lower in the inner area of the Liaodong Bay, Bohai Bay and Laizhou Bay. In loop approximation calculation, the TMAL obtained was considered satisfactory for water quality criteria as fluctuation of concentration response matrix with pollutant loads was eliminated. Results of numerical experiment further showed that water quality improved faster and were more evident under TMAL input than that when using the EPR method

  1. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  2. Air pollution impacts due to petroleum extraction in the Norwegian Sea during the ACCESS aircraft campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tuccella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from oil/gas extraction activities in the Arctic are already important in certain regions and may increase as global warming opens up new opportunities for industrial development. Emissions from oil/gas extraction are sources of air pollutants, but large uncertainties exist with regard to their amounts and composition. In this study, we focus on detailed investigation of emissions from oil/gas extraction in the Norwegian Sea combining measurements from the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign in July 2012 and regional chemical transport modeling. The goal is to (1 evaluate emissions from petroleum extraction activities and (2 investigate their impact on atmospheric composition over the Norwegian Sea. Numerical simulations include emissions for permanently operating offshore facilities from two datasets: the TNO-MACC inventory and emissions reported by Norwegian Environment Agency (NEA. It was necessary to additionally estimate primary aerosol emissions using reported emission factors since these emissions are not included in the inventories for our sites. Model runs with the TNO-MACC emissions are unable to reproduce observations close to the facilities. Runs using the NEA emissions more closely reproduce the observations although emissions from mobile facilities are missing from this inventory. Measured plumes suggest they are a significant source of pollutants, in particular NOx and aerosols. Sensitivities to NOx and NMVOC emissions show that, close to the platforms, O3 is sensitive to NOx emissions and is much less sensitive to NMVOC emissions. O3 destruction, via reaction with NO, dominates very close to the platforms. Far from the platforms, oil/gas facility emissions result in an average daytime O3 enhancement of +2% at the surface. Larger enhancements are predicted at noon ranging from +7% at the surface to +15% at 600 m. Black carbon is the aerosol species most strongly influenced by petroleum extraction emissions. The results highlight

  3. Changes in pollution load and environmental trends in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Janet

    1998-12-01

    This publication relates to the quality of the marine environment in the North Sea. Changes in pollution load and environmental trends are analysed. Main themes discussed cover chemical contaminants, temporal trends contaminants in biota, inputs of contaminants to the marine environment, and biological effects of contaminants and biological monitoring. 14 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Atmosferic pollution due to sea traffic. An overview on international legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landri, G.; Prati, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Only recently the attention for the injuries to human and environmental health due to vehicular pollutant emission has been enlarged to the sea traffic. Consequently, technologies and local and international actions has been developed to control the phenomenon. In this paper the activities undertaken in the marine field, comparing the two types of traffic with references to the relevant legislations, are shown [it

  5. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    2011-01-01

    sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  6. Black Sea ecology. Pollution research in Turkey of the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topcuoglu, Sayhan

    2000-01-01

    Scientific research is leading to answers that can help protect the Black Sea marine environment. Through projects supported by the IAEA and other cooperative channels, countries in the Black Sea region are applying their expertise and capabilities to expand scientific knowledge of chemical and radioactive pollution. Turkey stands among the countries engaged in studies of the Black Sea, for a number of reasons related to environmental, economic, and health issues. Our scientific knowledge of pollution problems in the marine environment promises to expand in years ahead. Advances in the integration of biokinetic, ecotoxicology and risk analysis with environmental monitoring studies could make it possible to eventually determine the sensitivity to pollutants of human populations and marine organisms. Such integrated studies are being conducted by the Radioecology Laboratory of Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (CNAEM) in Turkey. The Laboratory has gained considerable experience over the years, including through its collaboration since 1970 with the IAEA's Marine Environment Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco. Agency technical cooperation projects and research programmes additionally have benefited the laboratory. This article highlights selected Turkish studies of the Black Sea related to both radioactive and chemical pollution

  7. TBT pollution and effects in molluscs at US Virgin Islands, Caribbean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Jakob; Jørgensen, Anne; Tairova, Zhanna

    2009-01-01

    Thais deltoidea, Thais rustica and Purpura patula all seem to have potential as suitable and sensitive bioindicators for assessing levels and effects of TBT pollution in coastal areas including coral reefs in the Caribbean Sea. However, considerable interspecies differences in especially accumulation...

  8. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g. Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution.

  9. Emerging Persistent Organic Pollutants in Chinese Bohai Sea and Its Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Pan, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have widely aroused public concern in recent years. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorooctane sulfonyl fluoride/perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (POSF/PFOS) had been newly listed in Stockholm Convention in 2009, and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) were listed as candidate POPs. Bohai Sea is located in the arms of numbers of industrial cities, the semienclosed location of which makes it an ideal sink of emerging pollutants. In the present paper, latest contamination status of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea was reviewed. According to the literature data, Bohai Sea areas are not heavily contaminated by emerging POPs (PBDE: 0.01–720 ng/g; perfluorinated compounds: 0.1–304 ng/g; SCCPs: 64.9–5510 ng/g; HBCDs: nd-634 ng/g). Therefore, humans are not likely to be under serious risk of emerging POPs exposure through consuming seafood from Bohai Sea. However, the ubiquitous occurrence of emerging POPs in Bohai Sea region might indicate that more work should be done to expand the knowledge about potential risk of emerging POPs pollution. PMID:24688410

  10. Deep-sea disposal: Scientific bases to control pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, A.

    1986-01-01

    The IAEA's responsibilities are to define high-level radioactive waste that is prohibited from being dumped and make recommendations for the dumping of other radioactive waste. The IAEA had set up a series of scientific meetings and also had requested the scientific group GESAMP to advise it on suitable models for calculating concentrations of radionuclides above which sea-dumping would be prohibited. The NEA/OECD had established in 1981 a Coordinated Research and Environmental Surveillance Programme CRESP relevant to sea disposal for an initial period of 4 years. This article presents improving the scientific basis, summary of major issues and CRESP review covering five subject areas: model development, physical oceanography, geochemistry, biology, and radiological surveillance

  11. Exploring the Hg pollution in global marginal seas by trophic biomagnification in demersal fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C. M.; Hsieh, Y. C.; Chiang, C. Y.; Lamborg, C. H.; Chang, N. N.; Shiao, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Limited knowledge still exists concerning the effects of size composition and trophic level (TL) on mercury levels in the demersal fishes associated with human activities in the marginal seas. In this study, we found evidence of strong control of TL on the Hg in fish and its biomagnification via food webs in the ECS. Total Hg in seven selected fish species, collected during the cruise OR1- 890 in July 2009, ranged from 2.6 and 256.2 ng g-1 (n=72). There were good linear relationships between Hg concentrations and fish body length (R2 = 0.79) and weight (R2 = 0.82), respectively, other than environmental variables (R2 = 0 0.03). It indicates that the Hg concentration in fish is mainly controlled by the growth mechanism of the fish itself through food chain transfer. In order to investigate how Hg levels in fish through trophic magnification associated with environmental changes, we hence developed the empirical method to calculate Hg accumulation rate (MAR) via the relationship of Hg concentration with the fish age for each fish species. The results further showed a significantly positive correlation of MAR with trophic levels, which relationship is Ln MAR =6.1 TL-15.8 (R2 = 0.89) in the ECS shelf. The magnitude of the slope (δMAR/δTL) as a biomagnification index of demersal fish shall provide the feasibility to compare Hg pollution situation among different marine ecosystems. Globally, the biomagnification indicator in the demersal fishes of the ECS is much greater than those in other marginal seas, suggesting high regional Hg pollution impacts from Mainland China.

  12. MODELING OF OIL POLLUTION OF ARTIC SEA COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the elastic filtration oil drive of oil in a layer based on the estimation of risks of environmental oil pollution because of accidental releases. The model of oil spillage and resorption by the precoat is based on continuity equation and Darcy rule as well as on equations of state taking into account fluid compressibility due to pressure. Filtering area is a line between the precoat and air. Oil filtering area is limited by soil surface below and by free surface above, its equation is known beforehand and is to be defined. The case of soil pollution from the point source, which is the point of fracture of pipeline or borehole, is considered. Upper and approximate estimates of the oil pollution radius due to different types of underlying terrains and to oil characteristics as well as to environmental conditions. The dynamics of oil free sur- face depending on spillage radii is calculated and presented. The estimates of temporary duration of oil filtering by the pre- coat in terms of light ends and soil type are made. The thickness of the oil film and the square of the spill upon condition of constant speed of oil spillage, horizontal position of underlying terrain and the proximity of pressure to normal are deter- mined. For the numerical implementation of the model different cases of oil spillage were considered. Under given values of air temperature, soil porosity and filtration speed the pollution radii according to light end, the time from the moment of accident till the leakage suppression and the speed of oil spillage was calculated.

  13. Chromatographic determination of the rate and extent of absorption of air pollutants by sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolakaki, S.; Vassilakos, C.; Katsanos, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    A simple chromatographic method is developed to determine the rate constant for expulsion of an air pollutant from water or its diffusion parameter in the liquid, the rate constant for chemical reaction of the pollutant with water, its mass transfer coefficient in the liquid, and the partition coefficient between liquid water and air. From these physicochemical parameters, the absorption rate by sea water and, therefore, the depletion rate of a polluting substance from the air can be calculated, together with the equilibrium state of this absorption. The method has been applied to nitrogen dioxide being absorbed by triple-distilled water and by sea water, at various temperatures. From the temperature variation of the reaction rate constant and of the partition coefficient, the activation energy for the reaction and the differential heat of solution were determined. (orig.)

  14. Ozone pollution around a coastal region of South China Sea: interaction between marine and continental air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lyu, Xiaopu; Guo, Hai; Wang, Yu; Zou, Shichun; Ling, Zhenhao; Wang, Xinming; Jiang, Fei; Zeren, Yangzong; Pan, Wenzhuo; Huang, Xiaobo; Shen, Jin

    2018-03-01

    Marine atmosphere is usually considered to be a clean environment, but this study indicates that the near-coast waters of the South China Sea (SCS) suffer from even worse air quality than coastal cities. The analyses were based on concurrent field measurements of target air pollutants and meteorological parameters conducted at a suburban site (Tung Chung, TC) and a nearby marine site (Wan Shan, WS) from August to November 2013. The observations showed that the levels of primary air pollutants were significantly lower at WS than those at TC, while the ozone (O3) value was greater at WS. Higher O3 levels at WS were attributed to the weaker NO titration and higher O3 production rate because of stronger oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. However, O3 episodes were concurrently observed at both sites under certain meteorological conditions, such as tropical cyclones, continental anticyclones and sea-land breezes (SLBs). Driven by these synoptic systems and mesoscale recirculations, the interaction between continental and marine air masses profoundly changed the atmospheric composition and subsequently influenced the formation and redistribution of O3 in the coastal areas. When continental air intruded into marine atmosphere, the O3 pollution was magnified over the SCS, and the elevated O3 ( > 100 ppbv) could overspread the sea boundary layer ˜ 8 times the area of Hong Kong. In some cases, the exaggerated O3 pollution over the SCS was recirculated to the coastal inshore by sea breeze, leading to aggravated O3 pollution in coastal cities. The findings are applicable to similar mesoscale environments around the world where the maritime atmosphere is potentially influenced by severe continental air pollution.

  15. Invertebrate shells (mollusca, foraminifera) as pollution indicators, Red Sea Coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed; Madkour, Hashem; Mansour, Abbas; Alharbi, Wedad; El-Taher, Atef

    2017-09-01

    To assess the degree of pollution and its impact on the environment along the Red Sea Coast, the most abundant nine species of recent benthic foraminifera and three species of molluscan shells have been selected for the analysis of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, and Cd concentrations. The selected foraminiferal species are: Textularia agglutinans, Amphispsorus hemprichii, Sorites marginalis, Peneroplis planatus, Borelis schlumbergeri, Amphistegina lessonii, Ammonia beccarii, Operculina gaimairdi, and Operculinella cumingii. The selected molluscan shells are: Lambis truncata and Strombus tricornis (gastropods) and Tridacana gigas (bivalves). The inorganic material analysis of foraminifera and molluscs from the Quseir and Safaga harbors indicates that foraminifera tests include higher concentrations of heavy metals such as Fe and Mn than molluscan shells. These results are supported by the black tests of porcelaneous foraminifera and reflect iron selectivity. The Cd and Pb concentrations in molluscan shells are high in the El Esh Area because of oil pollution at this site. The Cu, Zn, and Ni concentrations in the studied invertebrates are high at Quseir Harbor and in the El Esh Area because of the strong influence of terrigenous materials that are rich in these metals. The heavy metal contamination is mostly attributed to anthropogenic sources.

  16. Intestinal alterations in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to microplastics: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedà, Cristina; Caccamo, Letteria; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Gai, Francesco; Andaloro, Franco; Genovese, Lucrezia; Perdichizzi, Anna; Romeo, Teresa; Maricchiolo, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates, for the first time, the intestinal responses of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax chronically exposed to microplastics through ingestion. Fish (n = 162) were fed with 3 different treatment diets for 90 days: control, native polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polluted polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pellets. Intestines were fixed and processed for histological analysis using standard techniques. Histopathological alterations were examined using a score value (from 0 to 4). The distal part of intestine in all samples proved to be the most affected by pathological alterations, showing a gradual change varying from moderate to severe related to exposure times. The histological picture that characterizes both groups especially after 90 days of exposure, suggests that the intestinal functions can be in some cases totally compromised. The worst condition is increasingly evident in the distal intestine of fish fed with polluted PVC pellets respect to control groups (p < 0.05) to different exposure times. These first results underline the need to assess the impact of increasing microplastics pollution on the marine trophic web. - Highlights: • Data on microplastics ingestion in European sea bass are reported. • After 60 and 90 days severe histological changes in distal intestine were observed. • Results suggest that the ingestion of microplastics alters intestinal tissues. • Plastics ingestion in fish represents a hazard for the effects on marine ecosystem. - Alterations in intestines of European sea bass exposed to microplastics.

  17. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards.

  18. Microbial pollution indicators and culturable heterotrophic bacteria in a Mediterranean area (Southern Adriatic Sea Italian coasts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabili, L.; Cavallo, R. A.

    2011-05-01

    In the present study we evaluated the degree of microbial water pollution along the coast line between Brindisi and Santa Maria di Leuca (Southern Adriatic Sea) as well as the culturable heterotrophic bacteria abundances and biodiversity in relation to the microbiological quality of the water. A total of 3773 colonies were isolated, subcultured and identified by several morphological, cultural and biochemical methods including the standardized API 20 E and API 20 NE tests. Along the examined coastal tract the microbial pollution indicators were always below the tolerance limits for bathing waters defined by the CEE directive, suggesting a good sanitary quality. Concerning culturable heterotrophic bacteria, different temporal density trends were observed in the four sites in relation to their geographical position. A positive relationship between the bacterial abundances and the temperature was observed in S. Cataldo and Otranto. The culturable bacterial community was mainly composed of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Photobacterium and Flavobacterium. The Enterobacteriaceae family represented a conspicuous component of the bacterial community too. Bacilli were predominant among the Gram-positive bacteria. Of interest is the isolation of yeasts (2% at the surface and 1% at the bottom) taking into account their capability of biodegradation of various materials. Because of the low level of microbial pollution recorded, our results are indicative of the natural variation and diversity of the culturable bacterial community in such an oligotrophic ecosystem and could represent a good point of comparison with other ecosystems as well as a baseline for long term studies aimed to evaluate the effects of environmental fluctuations and human impacts on this aspect of biodiversity in coastal areas.

  19. The results of artificial radionuclides monitoring in the Baltic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrauskiene, N.; Lukinskiene, M; Zemaitiene, G.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term radionuclides volume activity (v.a.) monitoring (1976-1990) data showed that measurement results obtained in steady observation station give reliable information of the coastal area of the Baltic sea radioactive equilibrium between atmosphere and surface water was observed in the coastal zone. Chernobyl Power Plant accident influenced upon the Baltic sea coastal water by radionuclides 137 Cs and 144 Ce. Radionuclide 90 Sr volume activity was practically unchangerable. The mechanism of radionuclides fallout from atmosphere are various. lt can be illustrated by 137 Cs and 144 Ce a.v. structure field variations in open sea and coastal zone near Juodkrante. The Baltic sea inhomogeneous contamination by radionuclide 137 Cs in 1988-1990 leads to equalization of 137 Cs v.a. in the surface waters and it causes v.a. increase in coastal waters. (author)

  20. Hydrographic structure and variability of the Kara Sea: Implications for pollutant distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. K.; Pfirman, S. L.

    Nuclear activity on land and dumping of waste in the Siberian shelf seas mean that the Kara Sea is most likely to experience inputs of radioactivity. Industrial and other anthropogenic activities in the expansive Ob' and Yenisey watersheds also contribute organochlorines, heavy metals and oil to this region. Contaminant fate is influenced by the distribution of the river discharge and processes associated with ice formation and ocean currents. Although average conditions are important in the transport of pollutants, events such as storms and iceberg gouging may be critical in deciding the ultimate fate of dumped and released contaminants.

  1. Potential adverse health effects of persistent organic pollutants on sea turtles: evidences from a cross-sectional study on Cape Verde loggerhead sea turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, María; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; López Jurado, Luis F; Medina, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    The Cape Verde nesting population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) is the third largest population of this species in the world. For conservation purposes, it is essential to determine how these reptiles respond to different types of anthropogenic contaminants. We evaluated the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plasma of adult nesting loggerheads from Boa Vista Island, Cape Verde, and studied the effects of the contaminants on the health status of the turtles using hematological and biochemical parameters. All turtles had detectable levels of non-dioxin like PCBs, whereas dioxin-like congeners (DL-PCBs) were detected in only 30% of the turtles. Packed cell volume decreased with higher concentrations of PCBs, which suggests that PCB exposure could result in anemia in sea turtles. In addition, a negative association between some OCPs and white blood cells (WBC) and thrombocyte estimate was noted. The DDT-metabolite, p,p'-DDE was negatively correlated with the Na/K ratio and, additionally, a number of correlations between certain PAHs and electrolyte balances were found, which suggest that exposure to these environmental contaminants could affect the kidneys and salt glands in sea turtles. Additionally, several correlations were observed between these environmental pollutants (OCPs and PAHs) and enzyme activity (GGT, ALT, ALP and amylase) and serum protein levels, pointing to the possibility that these contaminants could induce adverse metabolic effects in sea turtles. Our results indicate that anthropogenic pollutants are present in the Cape Verde loggerhead turtle nesting population and could exert negative effects on several health parameters. Because of the importance of this loggerhead nesting population, protective regulations at national and international levels as well as international action are necessary for assuring the conservation of this population

  2. Transport of pollutants and sediment in the area of the Wave Hub (Celtic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Huntley, David

    2010-05-01

    consequences. This paper presents some preliminary modelling results of a baseline study focussed on hind-cast and now-cast simulation of the 3D structure of temperature, salinity and current velocity in the area immediately adjacent to the location of the Wave Hub. Of the range of available 3D numerical models for shelf sea hydrodynamics, we have selected the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Modelling System (POLCOMS). The POLCOMS has successfully been used in a number of coastal/shelf sea regions to simulate circulation of coastal waters. Modelling is carried out in the region of approximately 200x 200 km with the variable vertical resolution typically less than 2 m. Such parameters allow resololution of the formation of coastal density fronts both within and outside the wave shadow zone, expected to be of the order of tens of kilometres. The meteorological parameters are obtained from the publicly available NCEP re-analyses data base. These parameters include components of the wind velocity and the surface heat fluxes, air pressure at sea level; temperature and humidity in the low troposphere; precipitation and cloudiness. In this study, the transport of pollution is simulated by a number of passive drifters located at a certain depth at a number of locations including the central point of the Wave Hub. Sediment transport is modelled using the Engelund-Hansen algorithm taking the current velocities produced by the POLCOMS as an input parameter. The Celtic sea is a tidally dominated region, and the modelling is run both in full-forcing and in tide-only modes in order to assess effects of density fronts on the residual (tidally averaged) circulation pattern. The results show that the pollution pathways are very sensitive to the formation of temperature fronts. In some cases the passive traces move in nearly opposite directions when the effect of temperature fronts is disregarded. Sediment transport is highly non-uniform spatially with some four areas along the

  3. Oil Pollution in the Southeastern Baltic Sea in 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavrova O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available From January 2009 to April 2012 a satellite survey of the central and southeastern parts of the Baltic Sea was carried out by the Space Radar Laboratory at the Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS. The main attention was focused on the detection of oil pollution as well as biogenic and anthropogenic surfactant films. The basic data are high resolution radar images obtained by advanced synthetic aperture radar (ASAR on board of the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Remotely sensed data in visual and infrared (IR bands acquired by sensors MERIS Envisat, MODIS-Terra and -Aqua, and AVHRR NOAA nearly simultaneously with the ASAR images, were processed and analysed in order to facilitate the discrimination between different types of surface pollutants, to understand a comprehensive features of meteorological and hydrodynamic processes in the sea area of investigation, and to reveal factors determining pollutants spread and drift. The regions of the most intense oil pollution are outlined.

  4. Ocean pollution from land-based sources: East China Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoji; Daler, Dag

    2004-02-01

    The environment of East China Sea (ECS) has been faced by huge stresses from anthropogenic activities and population growth in the Yangtze River drainage basin and the areas along the coasts. Improper use of natural resources and short-term economic objectives have resulted in severe environmental degradation in a fairly short time frame and the degradation has now reached a level where the health and well being of the coastal populations are threatened. The main pollutants are inorganic nitrogen, phosphate, oil hydrocarbons, organic matters and heavy metals. Nutrients cause eutrophication of the coastal waters and the estuarine area and very often stimulate the occurrence of red tides. The environmental pollution of Yangtze River basin directly impact on the state of the marine environment in the ECS. The ecosystem stability is maintained by a steady water discharge from the river, that mixes with the marine salty water in the estuary, and the sediment loads from the river that balance ocean erosion in the delta and its adjacent coastal area. The large-scale water transfer and dam constructions in the Yangtze River basin will change this basis. For the ECS the challenge is to reverse the negative processes taking place and to restore ecosystem balance. The main challenge is to integrate socioeconomic and environmental decision making in order to promote sustainable development. A better understanding of the driving forces in society that cause these environmental pressures is required in order to overcome these obstacles. International cooperation may be an important contributor to the progress and in particular provide access to financial, technological, scientific and human resource assistance.

  5. Foehn-induced effects on local dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Savir, Amit; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Despite the long history of investigation of foehn phenomena, there are few studies of the influence of foehn winds on air pollution and none in the Dead Sea valley. For the first time the foehn phenomenon and its effects on local dust pollution, frontal cloudiness and surface solar radiation were analyzed in the Dead Sea valley, as it occurred on 22 March 2013. This was carried out using both numerical simulations and observations. The foehn winds intensified local dust emissions, while the foehn-induced temperature inversion trapped dust particles beneath this inversion. These two factors caused extreme surface dust concentration in the western Dead Sea valley. The dust pollution was transported by west winds eastward, to the central Dead Sea valley, where the speed of these winds sharply decreased. The transported dust was captured by the ascending airflow contributing to the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the central Dead Sea valley. On the day under study, the maximum surface dust concentration did not coincide with the maximum AOD: this being one of the specific effects of the foehn phenomenon on dust pollution in the Dead Sea valley. Radar data showed a passage of frontal cloudiness through the area of the Dead Sea valley leading to a sharp drop in noon solar radiation. The descending airflow over the downwind side of the Judean Mountains led to the formation of a cloud-free band followed by only the partial recovery of solar radiation because of the extreme dust pollution caused by foehn winds.

  6. Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-based emissions of air pollutants in Europe have steadily decreased over the past two decades, and this decrease is expected to continue. Within the same time span emissions from shipping have increased in EU ports and in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, defined as SECAs (sulfur emission control areas, although recently sulfur emissions, and subsequently particle emissions, have decreased. The maximum allowed sulfur content in marine fuels in EU ports is now 0.1%, as required by the European Union sulfur directive. In the SECAs the maximum fuel content of sulfur is currently 1% (the global average is about 2.4%. This will be reduced to 0.1% from 2015, following the new International Maritime Organization (IMO rules. In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations with the EMEP air pollution model have been made on a 1/4° longitude × 1/8° latitude resolution, using ship emissions in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea that are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLLs have been calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions in the two sea areas. In 2010 stricter regulations for sulfur emissions were implemented in the two sea areas, reducing the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from 1.5 to 1%. In addition ships were required to use fuels with 0.1 % sulfur in EU harbours. The calculations have been made with emissions representative of 2009 and 2011, i.e. before and after the implementation of the stricter controls on sulfur emissions from 2010. The calculations with present emissions show that per person, an additional 0.1–0.2 years of life lost is estimated in areas close to the major ship tracks with current emission levels. Comparisons of model calculations with emissions before and after the implementation of stricter

  7. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    utilizes an upwelling diffusion energy balance model and focuses on the thermosteric part of sea-level rise. Example GSP results are 244, 15 and 278 for BC, CH4 and N2O for a time horizon of 100 years. Compare GWP and GTP values of 405, 24 and 288 as well as 62, 4.5 and 252. The main result of the study is that no climate forcer is in any absolute sense short lived when it comes to Sea Level impacts. All of the examined climate forcers have considerable influence on the thermosteric SLR, and the closely linked ocean heat content, on the time scale of centuries. The reason for this is that heat, once it has been induced by the climate drivers and warmed the surface ocean, is transported down into the slowly mixing oceans. References: Shindell, D. et al. Simultaneously mitigating near-term climate change and improving human health and food security. Science 335, 183-189 (2012). Bond, T. C. et al. Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 118 5380-5552 (2013). Hu, A., Xu, Y., Tebaldi, C., Washington, W. M. & Ramanathan, V. Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants slows sea-level rise. Nature Climate Change 3, 730-734 (2013).

  8. The Siberian High and Arctic Sea Ice: Long-term Climate Change and Impacts on Air Pollution during Wintertime in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, X.; Zhao, S.; Feng, T.; Tie, X.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    China has undergone severe air pollution during wintertime as national industrialization and urbanization have been increasingly developed in the past three decades. It has been suggested that high emission and adverse weather patterns contribute to wintertime air pollution. Recent studies propose that climate change and Arctic sea ice loss likely lead to extreme haze events in winter. Here we use two reanalysis and observational datasets to present the trends of Siberian High (SH) intensity over Eurasia, and Arctic temperature and sea ice. The results show the Arctic region of Asia is becoming warming accompanied by a rapid decline of sea ice while Eurasia is cooling and SH intensity is gradually enhancing. Wind patterns induced by these changes cause straight westerly prevailing over Eurasia at the year of weak SH while strengthened northerly winds at the year of strong SH. Therefore, we utilize regional dynamical and chemical WRF-Chem model to determine the impact of SH intensity difference on wintertime air pollution in China. As a result, enhancing northerly winds at the year of strong SH rapidly dilute and transport air pollution, causing a decline of 50 - 400 µg m-3 PM2.5 concentrations relative to that at the year of weak SH. We also assess the impact of emission reduction to half the current level on air pollution. The results show that emission reduction by 50% has an equivalent impact as the variability of SH intensity. This suggests that climate change over Eurasia has largely offset the negative impact of emission on air pollution and it is urgently needed to take measures to mitigate air pollution. In view of current high emission scenario in China, it will be a long way to effectively mitigate, or ultimately prevent wintertime air pollution.

  9. Maternal antioxidant provisioning mitigates pollutant-induced oxidative damage in embryos of the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus

    OpenAIRE

    Lister, Kathryn N.; Lamare, Miles D.; Burritt, David J.

    2017-01-01

    One mechanism of pollution resistance in marine populations is through transgenerational plasticity, whereby offspring capacity to resist pollution reflects parental exposure history. Our study aimed to establish correlations between oxidative stress biomarkers and key reproductive fitness parameters in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus following exposure to dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAH-exposed adults exhibited total gonad tissue concentrations of PAHs in ...

  10. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xianxiang; Fan, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the monitoring results of four heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg at 10 sampling stations in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou Bay in November 2008 were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the steam channel and estuary are higher than those in the adjacent sea, and the metal concentrations were below the standard for I class of marine sediment quality, excepting the station 2 in the steam channel and station 5 in the estuary. The assessment of the single-factor pollution index showed that the overall pollution level of the study area was relatively low, but there was serious pollution phenomenon in individual station. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediments was generally at a low level, and Hg had the highest potential risk.

  11. Preliminary results on the distribution of some pollutants in the Baltic 1980 and 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruegmann, L.; Rohde, K.H.

    1981-01-01

    In September/October 1980 complex field studies on the distribution of heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbon and radionuclides were carried out on 24 stations in the Baltic Sea. Samples of different compartments of the marine environment were taken. The analyses for some heavy metals in water were performed directly on board. First results including mean values and concentration ranges for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Sr-90 and Cs-137 in Baltic waters and for petroleum hydrocarbons, PCBs, DDT metabolites, HCB, α-HCH and γ-HCH in water and surface film samples are given. In most cases the data confirm recently published results. Relatively low concentrations were found for mercury. The investigations were repeated in May/June 1981 covering the Baltic Sea and parts of the North Atlantic. The resultant data for heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons agree widely with the results from 1980. An estimation of the relative pollutant burden of the Baltic Sea related to the investigated parts of the North Atlantic is given. (author)

  12. Hydrocarbon pollution in the sediment from the Jarzouna-Bizerte coastal area of Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrafi-Nouira, I; Khedir-Ghenim, Z; Zrafi, F; Bahri, R; Cheraeif, I; Rouabhia, M; Saidane-Mosbahi, D

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the presence and origin of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found near the Jarzouna (Bizerte, Tunisia) oil refinery. Analyses of surface sediments (layer 1) and deep sediments (layer 2) showed that Total Hydrocarbon (TH) concentrations ranged from 602 +/- 7.638 microg/g in layer-1 to 1270 +/- 2.176 microg/g in layer-2. The results suggest that the deeper the sediment, the higher the level of total hydrocarbon found. The sedimentary Non Aromatic Hydrocarbon (NAH) and Aromatic Hydrocarbon (AH) concentrations ranged from 66.22 +/- 1.516 to 211.82 +/- 10.670 microg/g for NAH, and from 13.84 +/- 0.180 to 115.60 +/- 2.479 microg/g for AH. The high variability of these concentrations was associated with the location of the sediment collection sites. Aliphatic biomarker analysis revealed petroleum contamination close to the refinery rejection site, and biogenic sources further away. Petroleum contamination may be associated with increased industrial activity in the area of Jarzouna-Bizerte in the Mediterranean Sea.

  13. Lead pollution and its sources along the Turkish coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. UNSAL

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Lead pollution and its sources have been investigated in the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea. Surficial sediments and mussels were collected in different seasons of the year from the south-eastern and south-western Black Sea and analysed for their lead contents. In the south-eastern Black Sea sediments from the easternmost and from the central stations contained the highest lead concentrations. Sediments contained 8 to 10 times the lead concentrations of sediments from the south-west. Samples taken from rivers, streams and effluents had especially high lead concentrations. The highest lead concentrations were found in sediments collected in October and December. Lead concentrations in mussels from the south-eastern coast were comparatively lower compared to those from the south-western coast. The highest average values occurred in December and in October. In the south-western Black Sea, the highest lead concentrations in sediments were obtained in those from Inebolu, followed by those from around Zonguldak. The concentrations increased from the middle to the west of the southern Black Sea coast, possibly due to the effect of the Danube River. Sediments taken in September had the highest lead concentrations, followed by samples taken in December. Very high lead concentrations (> 10 μ g g-1 were observed in mussels from those stations where the sediments also contained high concentrations. Mussels had their highest lead concentrations in January and April.

  14. SeaNine 211 as antifouling biocide: A coastal pollutant of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W

    2017-11-01

    SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) being the biocidal ingredient, is a widely-used antifouling agent to deter the undesirable biofouling phenomenon. It is commercially promoted as an environmentally acceptable antifoulant mainly due to its claimed rapid degradation in marine environment. However, increasing researches document varying degradative kinetics in different environments, proving that SeaNine 211 is actually not degraded equally fast around the world (half-life between antifouling coatings has also caused global contamination of marine environment in various compartments. For example, accumulation of SeaNine 211 is detected as high as 3700ng/L in Spanish seawater and 281ng/g dry weight in Korean sediment. Considering that SeaNine 211 is highly toxic against non-target marine organisms, environmental risk assessment finds that most marine organisms are endangered by SeaNine 211 in worst-case scenario. Its endocrine disrupting and reproductive impairing effects at environmentally worst-case concentrations further constitute a long-term threat to the maintenance of population stability. Therefore, in the light of the varying degradability, environmental pollution and high toxicity, especially the endocrine disruption, SeaNine 211 as an antifouling agent is likely to cause non-negligible damages to the marine ecosystem. There is an urgency to perform a systematic ecological risk assessment of SeaNine 211 to prevent the potential impacts on the health of marine environment. A regular monitoring also becomes necessary to place the usage of antifouling biocides under control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremar, Björn; Haglund, Karin; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km × 50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for the marine environment are largely unknown

  16. Morphological deformities of benthic foraminifera in response to nearshore pollution of the Red Sea, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kahawy, R; El-Shafeiy, M; Helal, S A; Aboul-Ela, N; El-Wahab, M Abd

    2018-04-28

    The Red Sea encompasses a wide range of tropical marine habitats that are stressed due to anthropogenic activities. The main anthropogenic activities are hydrocarbon exploration and important trading harbors. This work aims to assess the influence of the Red Sea coastal heavy metal contamination on the marine meiofauna along three sites (Ras Gharib, Safaga, and Quseir). Eight heavy metal (Cu, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mn) contents are considered in four benthic foraminiferal species (Elphidium striatopunctatum, Amphistegina lobifera, Amphisorus hemprichii, and Ammonia beccarii). Quseir Harbor showed the highest level of pollution followed by Safaga and Ras Gharib sites. The analyzed benthic foraminiferal tests displayed noteworthy high concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Pb in Quseir Harbor which could be attributed to the anthropogenic activities in the nearshore areas. Some foraminiferal tests exhibited abnormalities in their apertures, coiling, and shape of chambers. A comparison between normal and deformed foraminiferal tests revealed that the deformed ones are highly contaminated with elevated heavy metal contents such as Fe, Mn, Ni, and Cd. Statistics in addition to geo-accumulation and pollution load indices reveal a whistling alarm for the Quseir harbor. The present data are necessary to improve conservation and management of the Red Sea ecosystem in the near future.

  17. Botanical environmental monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Botanical samples were used as monitors for zinc pollution resulting from vehicular traffic. Euphorbia terracina and Calotropis procera were the botanical monitors used in this work. Zinc concentrations were reported alongside a motorway stretch of 50 km. Variations in concentration with respect to the perpendicular distance from the roadside were also reported. The effect of wind turbulence and the wind direction on the concentrations is discussed. In addition, differences between open areas and confined areas with respect to the elemental uptake were also discussed. INAA, using reactor neutrons, was employed for the determination of Zn concentrations in the samples. (author)

  18. Numerical Analysis of Surge Phenomena, Currents, and Pollution Transport in the Sea of Azov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. A.; Shul'ga, T. Ya.

    2018-04-01

    Dynamic processes and features of transformation of pollution in the Sea of Azov, caused by the action of a real wind and atmospheric pressure in the presence of stationary currents, are studied using a three-dimensional nonlinear hydrodynamic model. On the basis of numerical calculations, conclusions are reached about the influence of the velocities of stationary background currents on maximal deviations and the velocities of nonstationary currents generated by wind fields in the SKIRON model. It is shown that the combined effect of the constant wind and wind in the SKIRON atmospheric model leads to a significant expansion of the polluted area and to a longer dispersion time compared to the effects of solely stationary currents.

  19. Dimorphic transition in Yarrowia lipolytica isolated from oil-polluted sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinjarde, Smita S.; Pant, Aditi; Deshpande, Mukund V.

    1998-01-01

    Fungal cultures from oil-polluted sea water near Mumbai, India have been studies for their capability to degrade crude oil. A yeast isolate identified as Yarrowia lipolytica was further investigated with respect to its dimorphic behaviour and alkane degradation. Y. lipolytica NCIM 3589 in the yeast form degraded the aliphatic fraction of crude oil and also pure alkanes (20-60% within 48h) under aerobic conditions. Unlike most Y. lipolytica strains, our isolate required partial anaerobiosis for mycelium formation. Studies with two isolates suggested that mycelium to yeast transition may be the prerequisite for effective alkane degradation. (author)

  20. Numerical analysis of air pollution in a combined field of land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, T.; Igarashi, K.; Owada, M.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution in the presence of two types of local flows (i.e., land/sea breeze and mountain/valley wind) was studies by advection simulation of the cluster of hypothetical fluid particles, and transport/chemistry calculation employing a three-dimensional Eulerian model for 20 advected species and about 90 chemical reactions. Three-dimensional flow fields over the River Yahagi basin in Japan were estimated for 48 h using an objective method with routine wind observations. Those obtained showed characteristics of the combined local flows such that in the daytime sea breeze and valley wind tend to form one united flow with substantial wind velocity in the whole region and, in contrast, land breeze and mountain wind during the nighttime form two separated circulating flows with a clear weak-wind area between the two local flow regimes. The results of the advection simulation of fluid particles and the transport/chemistry calculation using those flows as inputs elucidated how the features found in the diurnally varying, complex local flows contribute to produce characteristic time-variations of the concentrations of both primary and secondary pollutants. Among others, dynamics of NO 2 , HNO 3 , PAN, O 3 , SO 2 , and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are discussed

  1. Reconstruction of the pollution history of alkylphenols (4-tert-octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol) in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graca, Bożena; Staniszewska, Marta; Zakrzewska, Danuta; Zalewska, Tamara

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the pollution history of 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in the Baltic Sea. Alkylphenols are endocrine-disrupting compound and therefore toxic to aquatic organisms. Sediment cores were collected from regions with relatively stable sedimentation conditions. The cores were dated by the (210)Pb method. The OP and NP were determined using HPLC-FL. The highest inventory of these compounds was observed in the Gotland Deep (610 μg m(2) of NP and 47 μg m(2) of OP) and the lowest-on the slope of the Gdansk Deep (24 μg m(2) of NP and 16 μg m(2) of OP). Such spatial distribution was probably, among other factors, the result of the uplift of the sea floor. The pollution trends of OP and NP in sediments coincided with the following: (1) the beginnings of eutrophication (1960s/1970s of the twentieth century) and (2) strong increase in the areal extent and volume of hypoxia and anoxia in the Baltic (present century).

  2. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Romania

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, O A; Frontasyeva, M V; Steinnes, E

    2000-01-01

    Results from the next stage of the project "Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Rural and Urban Areas of Romania Studied by the Moss Biomonitoring Technique Employing Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques", carried out under the auspieces of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, are reported. A total of 70 moss samples (Hypnum Cupressiforme) were collected from highly polluted areas in the north-eastern part of Transylvania during the summer of 1999. The samples were analyzed by epithermal neutron activation analysis at the pulsed fast reactor IBR-2 at JINR, Dubna, for a wide range of elements including heavy metals and rare earths (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni ((n,p) reaction), Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Sn, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Nb, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). IAEA certified reference materials were used to ensure the quality of the measurements. The regional extent of pollution patterns of specific metals was determined. Like another stro...

  3. Sea ice and pollution-modulated changes in Greenland ice core methanesulfonate and bromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maselli, Olivia J.; Chellman, Nathan J.; Grieman, Mackenzie; Layman, Lawrence; McConnell, Joseph R.; Pasteris, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael H.; Saltzman, Eric; Sigl, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of past changes in Arctic sea ice extent may be critical for understanding its future evolution. Methanesulfonate (MSA) and bromine concentrations preserved in ice cores have both been proposed as indicators of past sea ice conditions. In this study, two ice cores from central and north-eastern Greenland were analysed at sub-annual resolution for MSA (CH3SO3H) and bromine, covering the time period 1750-2010. We examine correlations between ice core MSA and the HadISST1 ICE sea ice dataset and consult back trajectories to infer the likely source regions. A strong correlation between the low-frequency MSA and bromine records during pre-industrial times indicates that both chemical species are likely linked to processes occurring on or near sea ice in the same source regions. The positive correlation between ice core MSA and bromine persists until the mid-20th century, when the acidity of Greenland ice begins to increase markedly due to increased fossil fuel emissions. After that time, MSA levels decrease as a result of declining sea ice extent but bromine levels increase. We consider several possible explanations and ultimately suggest that increased acidity, specifically nitric acid, of snow on sea ice stimulates the release of reactive Br from sea ice, resulting in increased transport and deposition on the Greenland ice sheet.

  4. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Bohai Sea, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Shoufeng; Wang, Juying; Wang, Yan; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Ping; Lin, Xinzhen; Ma, Deyi

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics in aquatic environments is of particular concern because these pollutants represent an increasing threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. An identification of the patterns of microplastic distribution will help to understand the scale of their potential effect on the environment and on organisms. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the Bohai Sea are reported for the first time. We sampled floating microplastics at 11 stations in the Bohai Sea using a 330 μm trawling net in August 2016. The abundance, composition, size, shape and color of collected debris samples were analyzed after pretreatment. The average microplastic concentration was 0.33 ± 0.34 particles/m 3 . Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the main types of microplastics were polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene. As the size of the plastics decreased, the percentage of polypropylene increased, whereas the percentages of polyethylene and polystyrene decreased. Plastic fragments, lines, and films accounted for most of the collected samples. Accumulation at some stations could be associated with transport and retention mechanisms that are linked to wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well as different sources of the plastics. - Highlights: • First evaluation of microplastic in the surface water of the Bohai Sea. • The microplastics in Bohai is at medium-low level in contrast to other sea regions. • With the size of the plastics decreased, the proportion of polypropylene gradually increased. - This research indicates that microplastics are distributed widely in the Bohai Sea. As the size of the plastics decreased, the percentage of polypropylene increased.

  5. Organohalogen pollutants in herring from the northern Baltic Sea: Concentrations, congener profiles and explanatory factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koistinen, Jaana; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojaervi, Paeivi; Parmanne, Raimo; Verta, Matti; Hallikainen, Anja; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2008-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants were investigated in Baltic herring caught from three catchment areas in the Baltic Sea, off the coasts of Finland. Pools of both small and large herring were analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, naphthalenes, camphenes (toxaphene), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the pesticide DDT and its metabolites. PCB concentrations per fresh weight in small herring were at the same level in all catchment areas, i.e. the Bothnian Bay, the Bothnian Sea and the Gulf of Finland, revealing no hot spots and reflecting most likely long term emissions and atmospheric deposition. Differences in the levels and/or congener profiles of other contaminants between catchment areas may be explained by point sources. Similar concentrations in small and large herring in the Gulf of Finland were possibly due to their common nutrition. In the other areas, differences between small and large herring most likely reflected their different food sources. - Sources of pollutants are reflected in levels and congener profiles of pollutants in Baltic herring

  6. On the use of the polarization method of remote indication of oil pollutants on the sea surface under different hydrometerological conditions and at different altitudes of the sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buznikov, A A; Lakhtanov, G A

    1980-01-01

    Results of experimental investigations of water areas of the Caspian sea with the aid of a specially developed shipboard polarimeter. Interpretation of the remote measurements was carried out by laboratory analysis of the thickness of the oil film and the amount of dissolved oil in samples gathered from the surface of the sea. Analysis of the influence of weather conditions and of the composition of the petroleum products on the results of remote indications made it possible to formulate concrete methodical recommendations for achieving optimum results in remote assessment of oil pollutants of seawater areas. The effectiveness of the polarization method under different hydrometerological conditions makes it possible to regard it as a good supplementation to the traditional visual and instrumental methods of monitoring pollution of bodies of water.

  7. IOC-UNEP review meeting on oceanographic processes of transport and distribution of pollutants in the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The IOC-UNEP Review Meeting on Oceanographic Processes of Transfer and Distribution of Pollutants in the Sea was opened at the Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia on Monday, 15 May 1989. Papers presented at the meeting dealt with physical and geochemical processes in sea-water and sediment in transport mixing and dispersal of pollutants. The importance of mesoscale eddies and gyres in the open sea, wind-driven currents and upwelling events in the coastal zone, and thermohaline processes in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries was recognized. There is strong evidence that non-local forcing can drive circulation in the coastal area. Concentrations, horizontal and vertical distributions and transport of pollutants were investigated and presented for a number of coastal areas. Riverine and atmospheric inputs of different pollutants to the western Mediterranean were discussed. Reports on two on-going nationally/internationally co-ordinated projects (MEDMODEL, EROS 2000) were presented. Discussions during the meeting enabled an exchange of ideas between specialists in different disciplines to be made. It is expected that this will promote the future interdisciplinary approach in this field. The meeting recognized the importance of physical oceanographic studies in investigating the transfer and distribution of pollutants in the sea and in view of the importance of the interdisciplinary approach and bilateral and/or multilateral co-operation a number of recommendations were adopted

  8. Detection and treatment of hyperthyroidism in sea coastal areas and chemically polluted areas in Gujarat, (western part) India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Om Prakash; Mayank, M.; Rachh, S.; Patel, N.; Patel, K.M.; Soni, M.K.; Bhatt, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Thyrotoxicosis results from a high level of thyroid hormone in blood. 131 I therapy for this is very safe treatment. Surgery is not acceptable in youngsters because of cosmetic point of view. Objective: In India most of thyrotoxicosis occurs in sea coastal region and hypothyroidism in Himalayan region. The main objective of this study to evaluate, the effect of geographical distribution and chemical pollution on thyroid. To calculate exact dose based on gland size. Materials and Methods: 160 patients of primary hyperthyroidism were selected. Age group range between 15-65 yrs. All patients from Gujarat (India) it is located in western part of India. It's sea coast is approx. 1600 km long. Here Asia's largest chemical zone is situated. Method: 5ml of blood collected from each patient. T3,T4 and TSH test done by RIA and IRMA techniques. After that 99m TcO 4 - Scintigraphy done by gamma camera (GE infinia) 15 days before administration of 131 I all iodine containing food and drugs had been stopped, even iodized salts also. 20 patients got fixed dose of 131 I 10 mci per patient. 140 patients got 120 micro curie per gram of thyroid tissues weight. Follow up study done after 6 months of 131 I administration. Thyroid function test and scintigraphy done to evaluate pre and post therapy changes. Result: 60% of treated patients from sea coastal area, 25% from chemical and 15% from planes. The patients who got fixed dose 10 mci 131 I, of them 35% became hypothyroid and 3% got 2nd dose (13-15 mci) other group who got 120 micro curie 131 I per gram of thyroid tissue of them only 10% became hypothyroid but 5.4% had been treated with 20% more 131 I than primary dose. In the age group of 50-65 yrs on ECG cardiac arrhythmia detected. Conclusion: In treatment of thyrotoxic patients 120 micro curie/gram group shows better result than fixed dose 10 mCi. 60% of treated patients were from sea coastal range, but 25% patients were from chemically polluted zone is guiding us to

  9. Investigation of enhanced cross-city transport and trapping of air pollutants by coastal and urban land-sea breeze circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Jeff C. F.; Lau, Alexis K. H.; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Chen, Fei

    2006-07-01

    Recent satellite observations show that a layer of haze perpetually hangs over the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and surface observations show numerous violations of the Hong Kong Air Quality Objective. This layer of haze mostly concentrates in the Pearl River Estuary and a narrow (20 km wide) band along the shoreline, in particular during weak wind situations. Although researchers suspect the land-sea breeze (LSB) circulations "concentrate" or "trap" various pollutants in this region, the physical mechanism of the phenomenon has never been fully explained or quantified. In this paper, a mesoscale atmospheric model (MM5) coupled with the Noah land surface model (LSM), which has bulk urban land use treatments along with a detailed Pearl River Delta land use map, is used to investigate the unique feature and mechanism of this land-sea breeze effect and the temporal evolution. A three-dimensional particle trajectory model is used to understand its associated pollutant transport, trapping and accumulation. A conceptual model is then developed for the perpetual air pollution phenomenon in the region. Further sensitivity experiments are used to illustrate the impact of urbanization and large-scale winds on the pollution processes. Results show that urbanization enhances the pollutant trapping and therefore contributes to the overall poor air quality in the region.

  10. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using mussels as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Apraiz, Itxaso [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Soto, Manu [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Univ. del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2007-07-15

    With the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollution along three gradients of pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea, a biomonitoring survey was implemented using a battery of biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lysosomal structural changes, metallothionein (MT) induction and peroxisome proliferation) in mussels over a period of two years as part of the EU-funded BEEP project. Mussels from the most impacted zones (Fos, Genova and Barcelona harbours) showed enlarged lysosomes accompanied by reduced labilisation period of lysosomal membranes, indicating disturbed health. MT levels did not reveal significant differences between stations and were significantly correlated with gonad index, suggesting that they were influenced by gamete development. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was significantly inhibited in polluted stations possibly due to interactions among mixtures of pollutants. In conclusion, the application of a battery of effect and exposure biomarkers provided relevant data for the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea. - The biomarker approach is suitable for assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using mussels as sentinel organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Apraiz, Itxaso; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Orbea, Amaia; Cancio, Ibon; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2007-01-01

    With the aim of assessing the biological effects of pollution along three gradients of pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea, a biomonitoring survey was implemented using a battery of biomarkers (lysosomal membrane stability, lysosomal structural changes, metallothionein (MT) induction and peroxisome proliferation) in mussels over a period of two years as part of the EU-funded BEEP project. Mussels from the most impacted zones (Fos, Genova and Barcelona harbours) showed enlarged lysosomes accompanied by reduced labilisation period of lysosomal membranes, indicating disturbed health. MT levels did not reveal significant differences between stations and were significantly correlated with gonad index, suggesting that they were influenced by gamete development. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was significantly inhibited in polluted stations possibly due to interactions among mixtures of pollutants. In conclusion, the application of a battery of effect and exposure biomarkers provided relevant data for the assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea. - The biomarker approach is suitable for assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea

  12. POLLUTION AND SEA WATER IN THALASSOTHERAPY CENTERS OF TUNISIA (SW MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia BOUCHOUICHA-SMIDA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of thalassotherapy in Tunisia has been possible while applying statement of Decree 92-129 published July 13, 1992 setting standards and conditions for implementation and exploitation of thalassotherapy centers (TCs, modified and replaced by Decree 2001-1081 of May 14, 2001 and Decree 2006-3174 published November 30, 2006 according to Tunisian standard 126.05 (2007. Recently, this Tunisian standard was origin of the international standard ISO 17680. Concerning quality of seawater used by TCs, these standards require the assay: trace metals (cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, selenium (Se and chromium (Cr, total hydrocarbons (THC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, surface active substances to the methylene blue. The legislation (ISO 17680 cited limits concentration not exceeded. Concerning sewage sea water, Decree 3174-2006 of 30 November 2006 requires that seawater discharged into the marine environment, complies with the Tunisian standard NT 106 002 on liquid discharges in the receiving environment. In part, through the application of these standards, Tunisia was, after France, second destination for thalassotherapy. Thus, to maintain this privileged position and even more advanced in this field, the National Office of Thermalism and Hydrotherapy (NOTH applied standards ISO 17680 and monitored pollutants concentrations of sea water, which is the main tool for working thalassotherapy centers (TCs. Hence, this study is the first, nationally and internationally, assessing the impact of anionic detergents, heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Se and Cr, total hydrocarbons (THC and detergents (anionic substances on seawater quality used by six TCs situated in four coastal regions from north to south (Hammamet, Sousse, Monastir and Mehdia during four months (from May to September 2014. The pollutants concentrations monitored varying among TCs and months. Indeed, Cd concentrations ranged from 1 to 5.10-3 mg.l-1, Pb

  13. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  14. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamans, Anna C.; Boluda, Rafael; Picazo, Antonio; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Tejedo, Pablo; Pertierra, Luis R.; Benayas, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica). This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins’ faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa dominance in the

  15. Soil features in rookeries of Antarctic penguins reveal sea to land biotransport of chemical pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Santamans

    Full Text Available The main soil physical-chemical features, the concentrations of a set of pollutants, and the soil microbiota linked to penguin rookeries have been studied in 10 selected sites located at the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula (Maritime Antarctica. This study aims to test the hypothesis that biotransport by penguins increases the concentration of pollutants, especially heavy metals, in Antarctic soils, and alters its microbiota. Our results show that penguins do transport certain chemical elements and thus cause accumulation in land areas through their excreta. Overall, a higher penguin activity is associated with higher organic carbon content and with higher concentrations of certain pollutants in soils, especially cadmium, cooper and arsenic, as well as zinc and selenium. In contrast, in soils that are less affected by penguins' faecal depositions, the concentrations of elements of geochemical origin, such as iron and cobalt, increase their relative weighted contribution, whereas the above-mentioned pollutants maintain very low levels. The concentrations of pollutants are far higher in those penguin rookeries that are more exposed to ship traffic. In addition, the soil microbiota of penguin-influenced soils was studied by molecular methods. Heavily penguin-affected soils have a massive presence of enteric bacteria, whose relative dominance can be taken as an indicator of penguin influence. Faecal bacteria are present in addition to typical soil taxa, the former becoming dominant in the microbiota of penguin-affected soils, whereas typical soil bacteria, such as Actinomycetales, co-dominate the microbiota of less affected soils. Results indicate that the continuous supply by penguin faeces, and not the selectivity by increased pollutant concentrations is the main factor shaping the soil bacterial community. Overall, massive penguin influence results in increased concentrations of certain pollutants and in a strong change in taxa

  16. Shift of the circumstances in effluent pollutant loads and water pollution in the Seto Inland Sea; Setonaikai ni okeru odaku fukaryo to suishitsu no hensen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T. [Hiroshima Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environment, Hiroshima (Japan); Komai, Y. [Hyogo Prefectural Institute of Environmental Science, Kobe (Japan); Koyama, T. [Wakayama Prefectural Research Center of Environment and Public Health, Wakayama (Japan); Nagafuchi, O. [Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environment Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Hino, Y. [Kagawa Prefecture Environmental Research Center, Kagawa (Japan); Murakami, K. [Okayama Prefectural Institute for Environmental and Public Health, Okayama (Japan)

    1998-11-10

    The relationship between the shift of the amount of effluent pollutant loads and the quality of water in and after the 1970s is studied for the verification of the effect of wastewater control and pollution measures for the Seto Inland Sea. The pollution loads are analyzed using the population, sewerage system diffusion rate, industrial production amount, number of farm animals, etc., gathered from existing data, and the quality of water is analyzed using the surface layer data collected at 124 sites. Although population as the source of pollutant loads has enlarged, the enlargement does not bring about a significant change in the loads, this partly due to the diffusion of sewerage systems. The rates of reduction in the 1979-1994 period of COD (chemical oxygen demand), T-N (total nitrogen), and T-P (total phosphorus) are 25.2%, 5.3%, and 30.3%, respectively. COD has returned to the previous level, but transparency has turned poorer. T-N and T-P worsened in the 1985-1989 period, and have not yet returned to the levels of 1980-1984. Pollution is in progress in Osaka Bay, Hiroshima Bay, and some others. In some sea areas, transparency is improving, with COD and Chl.a on the increase. From the nutrient salt and Chl.a scatter diagrams, the potential of algal growth relative to the concentration of nutrient salts may be estimated. Organic pollution is affected by algal growth. The organic matters produced in the inland sea are approximately 20 times as much as the organic matters produced on land. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of Pollution Level in Zolotoy Rog Bay (Peter the Great Gulf, the Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkova, Y.; Lazareva, L.; Petukhov, V.

    2017-11-01

    The results of the hydrochemical research of water and bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay in July 2015 are presented below. It is shown that, as a result of a large amount of polluted sewage entering The Zolotoy Rog Bay, the concentrations of organic substances (BOD5) and petroleum hydrocarbons in the water exceed the MPC. The concentrations of heavy metals in soils exceed both the background level and the level of permissible values. As a result of the calculation of the bottom accumulation (CBA) coefficient for oil hydrocarbons, the situation in the Zolotoy Rog Bay can be classified as an ecological disaster. According to the total pollution index (Zc) of heavy metals, the bottom sediments of the Zolotoy Rog Bay are characterized as strongly and very strongly polluted.

  18. Assessment of oil pollution as consequence of the oil leaks from seabed pipeline in the Bohai Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.; Li, X.; Goncharov, V.K.; Klementieva, N.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Although oil leaks from pipelines are less dangerous than a blowout of oil as a result of a pipeline break, the presence of oil in the ocean can have a devastating affect on the marine environment, particularly as oil leaks are difficult to detect and can occur over long periods of time. This paper discussed oil pollution in the Bohai Sea. Most of the crude oil in the Bohai oil fields is heavy and contains both paraffin and sand, both of which contribute to greater incidences of cracks and corrosion wormholes in pipes. The Main Points of Model for Assessment of Environmental Consequence of the Oil Leaks from Marine Pipeline (MAECOLMP) is based on the assumption that oil leaks from wormholes on seabed pipelines generate separate oil drops which float up to create a plume in the water. After their emergence on the sea surface, an oil slick forms, which has the shape of a serpentine strip extending along the surface in the direction of the current. The main parameters that define environmental oil pollution are: the dimensions of oil drops in the water; the dimension of the oil slick on the sea surface; and the carryover of crude oil on the coastline. According to the model, the assessment of environmental effects of the oil leaks from the sea bed consist of the following stages: selection of the probable position of wormholes in the pipeline and their size; calculation of the rate of the oil leak from the wormhole for selected sizes and positions; estimation of probable average sizes of oil drops for the selected diameter of wormhole; calculation of boundaries of the plume; calculation of the width and extension of the oil slicks for each selected position of the wormhole; and estimation of the volume of crude oil that can be carried over to the coastline in each case and detection of the most dangerous accident variant. This model permits the use of the Lagrangian description in order to take into account the difference in the velocities of emerging oil drops. It

  19. Use of the sea hare (Aplysia fasciata) in marine pollution biomonitoring of harbors and bays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirrigl, Frank J; Badaoui, Zachariah; Tamez, Carlos; Vitek, Christopher J; Parsons, Jason G

    2017-10-27

    Our study evaluated heavy metal concentrations in soft tissues of sea hare, Aplysia fasciata, from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas. Heavy metals in tissues followed Se>As>Pb>Cd. Concentrations ranged As (BDL-28.08), Cd (BDL-5.50), Pb (BDL-12.85) and Se (4.25-93.43ppm). Median As, Cd, Pb, and Se tissue levels exceeded exposure levels. Significant relationships occurred in metal-metal (AsCd, AsPb, CdPb, CdSe, and PbSe), metal-tissue (significant Se uptake by inhalant and exhalant siphons and As in the hepatopancreas), and metal-metal within tissue (AsPb in the hepatopancreas and CdPb in the digestive cecum) analyses (pmarine pollution in harbors and bays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindler, Richard; Renberg, Ingemar; Rydberg, Johan; Andrén, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren--Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th-18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  1. Organic Matter Contents and Paleoproductivity Variation Within Late Pleistocene Japan Sea/East Sea Sediments: Results from IODP Expedition 346

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, H. D.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Inorganic and organic matter concentrations as well as the stable isotopes of nitrogen and organic carbon are presented for continuous sedimentary sequences collected during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 346 in the Japan Sea/East Sea in 2013. During major glacioeustatic sea level changes, the paleoceanographic conditions within the Japan Sea/East Sea widely vary due to the shallow, narrow straights connecting the sea to surrounding waters limiting an influx of oceanic currents. During glacial sea level low-stands the sea can be nearly isolated, creating a highly-stratified water column and hypoxic to anoxic bottom water conditions. Meanwhile during sea level high-stands, the Tsushima Warm Current (TWC) flows into the sea bringing warmer, nutrient-rich inputs, leading to vertical mixing and oxic conditions. This study aims to better understand the role of orbital cycling within the organic matter and stable isotope contents of these Late Pleistocene sediments. A total of 192 samples were analyzed each for %CaCO3, %TOC, δ13C, %N, and δ15N from two Expedition 346 sampling sites (U1426 and U1427) during the last 430,000 years and statistical analyses were completed using wavelet and time series analyses. Carbonate concentration ranges from 0-44.3%, total organic carbon 0.2 to 6.4%, δ13C -25.8 to -19.6‰, %N 0.04 to 0.4%, and δ15N 3.8 to 13.1‰. These results are well correlated with b* color values of the sediment and generally show increased productivity during interglacial periods, likely through increased vertical mixing and deepwater ventilation, when compared to glacial periods within the Japan Sea/East Sea when the sea may be partially isolated.

  2. Pollutant tracking for 3 Western North Atlantic sea grasses by remote sensing: Preliminary diminishing white light responses of Thalassia testudinum, Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhaug, Anitra; Berlyn, Graeme P.; Poulos, Helen M.; Goodale, Uromi M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sea grass accessory pigments are more important than Chl at medium to low light intensity. • Partial absorption changes in Thalassia and also in Halodule at low intensity visible light ranges. • NDVI and chlNDI do not detect these changes or low light responses of sea grasses. • Intertidal sea grasses are less stressed than the subtidal species at low and high light. • Chl b is an important photosynthetic pigment in tropical/subtropical species. - Abstract: Sea grasses are foundation species for estuarine ecosystems. The available light for sea grasses diminishes rapidly during pollutant spills, effluent releases, disturbances such as intense riverine input, and tidal changes. We studied how sea grasses’ remote-sensing signatures and light-capturing ability respond to short term light alterations. In vivo responses were measured over the entire visible-light spectra to diminishing white-light on whole-living-plants’ spectral reflectance, including 6 h of full oceanic-light fluences from 10% to 100%. We analyzed differences by various reflectance indices. We compared the sea grasses species responses of tropical vs. temperate and intertidals (Halodule wrightii, and Zostera marina) vs. subtidal (Thalassia testudinum). Reflectance diminished with decreasing light intensity that coincided with greater accessory pigment stimulation (anthocyanin, carotenoids, xanthins). Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b differed significantly among species (Thalassia vs. Halodule). Photosynthetic efficiency diminished at high light intensities. The NDVI index was inadequate to perceive these differences. Our results demonstrate the leaf-level utility of data to remote sensing for mapping sea grass and sea grass stress

  3. POLLUTION OF SHOKARSKI STORMWATER CANAL AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE QUALITY OF THE VARNA BLACK SEA COASTAL AREA, BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Simeonova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollution of Shokarski stormwater canal and its influence on the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria. In the present study was investigated the pollution of Shokаrski stormwater canal, discharging its water into the Varna Black Sea coastal area. Monitoring was carried out during 2011 year at 5 sites along the canal water flow. The pollution was determined by organoleptic and physico- chemical characteristics, nutrients concentrations and the organic load. Critical levels of dissolved oxygen were measured at some of the monitoring sites ranging from 0,65 to 2,79 mg/dm3. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations were above the threshold limits at all sites. The phosphates’ concentrations varied very dynamically ranging from 0,18 to 11,8 mg/dm3 and in most of the cases exceeded the threshold limit. Very high levels of biochemically degradable organic pollutants were determined with biochemical oxygen demand values reaching- 68,96 mg/dm3. The Shokarski canal pollution could be considered as a tremendous thread for the quality of the Varna Black Sea coastal area, Bulgaria.

  4. Modelling of circulation and dispersion of radioactive pollutants in the Japan sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetina, M.; Rajar, R.; Povinec, P.

    2000-01-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste was deposited in the Japan Sea, at a depth of about 3 000 m by the former Soviet Union. Research was carried out to determine to what extent the surface waters could be contaminated by possible leakage from the dumped containers. A three-dimensional, non-linear, baro-clinic model was used to determine the circulation and pollutant dispersion. The computations were carried out in the diagnostic mode, taking into account data on winter and summer temperature and salinity distribution. Thermohaline forcing due to strong temperatures and salinity gradients is the main forcing factor influencing the bottom circulation. Wind forcing and the inflow/outflow surface currents were also taken into account. The simulated velocity fields show relatively good agreement with observed surface currents and with some measurements of bottom currents. The simulated hydrodynamic field is in visibly closer agreement with the observed surface circulation when topographic stress is taken into account. After the release of radionuclides at the sea bottom, the first very small contamination would reach the surface layers after 3 years. The maximum concentrations of about 10 -3 Bq m -3 would be attained after 30 years. But everywhere the predicted radionuclide concentrations would be about two orders of magnitude smaller than the background values, caused by global fallout from nuclear weapons tests. Therefore, it will be impossible to determine the effect of leakage of wastes from the dumping sites over the present background levels. (authors)

  5. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Zhang, Shoufeng; Wang, Juying; Wang, Yan; Mu, Jingli; Wang, Ping; Lin, Xinzhen; Ma, Deyi

    2017-12-01

    The ubiquitous presence and persistency of microplastics in aquatic environments is of particular concern because these pollutants represent an increasing threat to marine organisms and ecosystems. An identification of the patterns of microplastic distribution will help to understand the scale of their potential effect on the environment and on organisms. In this study, the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the Bohai Sea are reported for the first time. We sampled floating microplastics at 11 stations in the Bohai Sea using a 330 μm trawling net in August 2016. The abundance, composition, size, shape and color of collected debris samples were analyzed after pretreatment. The average microplastic concentration was 0.33 ± 0.34 particles/m 3 . Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the main types of microplastics were polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene. As the size of the plastics decreased, the percentage of polypropylene increased, whereas the percentages of polyethylene and polystyrene decreased. Plastic fragments, lines, and films accounted for most of the collected samples. Accumulation at some stations could be associated with transport and retention mechanisms that are linked to wind and the dynamics of the rim current, as well as different sources of the plastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of oil spill pollution in sea water using locally available materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisuddin, S.; Al-Hashar, Naseer A.; Tahseen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Oil spill pollution, a severe environmental problem, which persists in marine environment or in inland water across the world, has grown to an alarming magnitude with increased levels of oil production and transport. The causes oil pollution are categorized as either accidental or operational, wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used on the surface of sea or land. Hence, it is almost impossible for marine life to be freed from the adverse affects of oil spill, through the discharge of oil is controlled by an international convention. Prime concern for the health of marine life has created an instinct for undertaking this study by authors. Objectives of the present work include testing of four different local materials in separating oil from having different oil concentrations, and their efficiency of removal. The work also focuses on effect of time of contact and dosage of materials used for oil removal. Corchorus depressus locally available has proved to be more effective when compared to other materials utilized in addressing oil-spill related problems. At the same time its byproducts do not give rise to unwanted hazards to marine life. (author)

  7. Analysis of Polluted Oily Water Management in Klaipėda Sea Port Klaipėda sea port contaminated oily water management analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goda Zobėlaitė; Jolanta Dvarionienė; Gediminas Stonkus

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution with bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste on board of ships and its wash overboard..
    Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda Sea Port has estimated that oil waste comprises about 74 % of the whole collected waste amount. The analysis o...

  8. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Claremar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km  ×  50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for

  9. Identification of the Parameters of the Instantaneous Point Pollution Source in the Azov Sea Based on the Adjoint Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Kochergin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The passive admixture transport model in the Azov Sea is considered. The problem of cartelistic impulse local source identification at the sea surface based on adjoint method is solving by integration of independent series of adjoint tasks. Simultaneous solution of this problem at the parallel mode is realized by the aforementioned approach. The efficiency of the algorithm optimal value power of source search agreed with the data measurements is shown in the test example. The measurement data assimilation algorithm in the passive admixture transfer model is implemented applying variational methods of filtration for optimal estimate retrieval. The retrieval is carried out by means of the method of adjoint equations and solving of linear systems. On the basis of the variational filtration method of data assimilation, the optimal estimate retrieval algorithm for pollution source power identification is constructed. In application of the algorithm, the integration of the main, linked and adjoint problems is implemented. Integration problems are solved using TVD approximations. For the application of the procedure, the Azov current fields and turbulent diffusion coefficients are obtained using the sigma coordinate ocean model (POM under the eastern wind stress conditions being dominant at the observed time period. Furthermore, the results can be used to perform numerical data assimilation on loads of suspended matter.

  10. Sediment pollution by heavy metals in the Strymonikos and Ierissos Gulfs, North Aegean Sea, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Nikolaos; Ioannidouw, Despina; Christoforidis, Achilleas; Koutrakis, Emmanouil

    2002-11-01

    Surface sediment samples from Strymonikos and Ierissos Gulfs were analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni. The results showed that the sediment of Ierissos Gulf is more polluted with Cu, Pb, and Zn as compared to that of Strymonikos Gulf. The benthal area located off the load-out facility of the mining operations in the town of Stratoni, in Ierissos Gulf is established as the most polluted region. The distribution of Cr and Ni in both gulfs indicates the natural origin of these metals with the weathering of Strymon River and of other smaller rivers rocks being responsible for their enrichment.

  11. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Alhaija, Rana Abu; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the "Integrated Biological Responses version 2" index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  12. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine

    2015-09-23

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  13. Biochemical biomarker responses to pollution in selected sentinel organisms across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Moschino, Vanessa; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Coatu, Valentina; Ramšak, Andreja; Abu Alhaija, Rana; Carvalho, Susana; Felline, Serena; Kosyan, Alisa; Lazarou, Yiota; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Oros, Andra; Tiganus, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Pollution effects were assessed by means of biochemical biomarkers (catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and metallothioneins content) in five species at selected coastal sites across the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, a well-established sentinel species, was investigated in the Adriatic Sea, Aegean Sea, and Black Sea. The mussel Brachidontes pharaonis and the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus were used in the Levantine Sea where M. galloprovincialis is not present. The white seabream Diplodus sargus sargus and the gastropod Rapana venosa were additionally sampled in the Adriatic and the Black Sea, respectively. Mussels showed catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholinesterase responses to pollution in most geographical areas while the response of metallothioneins was restricted to a few sites. R. venosa showed marked responses of catalase and metallothioneins whereas both fish species did not generally exhibit variations in biomarker values among sites. The approach based on the reference deviation concept using the “Integrated Biological Responses version 2” index was useful for the interpretation of overall biomarker responses.

  14. [Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area, China ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Yan-wen; Ma, Ying-qun; Zhao, Yan-min; Shi, Yao

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the pollution level of heavy metals in the tidal reach and its adjacent sea estuary of Daliaohe area. The contents and spatial distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ph and Zn in surface water, suspended solids and surface sediments were analyzed respectively. The integrated pollution index and geoaccumulation index were used to evaluate the contamination degree of heavy metals in surface water and surface sediments respectively. The results indicated that the contents of heavy metals in surface water was in the order of Pb heavy metal contents in surface water increased from river to sea. Compared with the contents of heavy metals in surface water of the typical domestic estuary in China, the overall contents of heavy metals in surface water were at a higher level. The contents of heavy metals in suspended solids was in the order of Cd heavy metals in surface sediments was in the order of Cd heavy metals in water, suspended solids and sediment. In particular, the effects of salinity and suspended solids matter were most significant. The integrated pollution index assessment showed that the water quality was good except individual stations. The geoaccumulation index assessment showed that As was the major pollution element in surface sediments.

  15. Time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in East China Seas: Response to the booming of PBDE pollution industry in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Lin, Tian; Hu, Limin; Feng, Jialiang; Guo, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The East China Seas (ECSs) are the receptors of the land-based persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) mainly from China through atmospheric deposition driven by the East Asian winter monsoon and fluvial discharge (e.g., Yangtze River and Yellow River), making the offshore sediments to be a good proxy to reconstruct history of those pollutants in China. In this work, four well-placed sediment cores were extracted from the mud areas in the ECSs, and the (210)Pb-dated cores were analyzed to yield historical concentration profiles of PBDEs in the area. The results showed that there was a persistent increase from 1970s and almost no clear sign in the decline of PBDEs until recently in China. More importantly, there was a faster increase of PBDEs from 1990s in China; while this period was just shown as gradually leveling off or even declining trends in developed countries. The persistently increasing trend of PBDEs in China since 1990s could be largely due to the booming of the manufacturing industry and unexpectedly transfer of PBDE pollution from developed countries to China. Besides, the relative high concentrations and fluxes of PBDEs in the core from coastal ECS located near a well-known electrical/electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area suggests an important contribution of PBDE emissions from recycling centers of e-waste in China. Although efforts in environmental monitoring of PBDE contamination have been substantially increased over the last decade, China is still lagging behind in terms of nationwide regulation of PBDE usage and treatment of disposal PBDE-containing products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Water Pollution Search Results Help - TRI | ECHO | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  17. Air pollution "holiday effect" resulting from the Chinese New Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Liang, Jing-Yi; Chou, Charles C.-K.; Shiu, Chein-Jung

    Our study was an attempt to conduct a comprehensive and systematical examination of the holiday effect, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Hourly and daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from thirteen air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods were used. We documented evidence of a "holiday effect", where air pollutant concentrations were significantly different between holidays (CNY) and non-holidays (NCNY), in the Taipei metropolitan area over the past thirteen years (1994-2006). The concentrations of NO x, CO, NMHC, SO 2 and PM 10 were lower in the CNY than in the NCNY period, while the variation in the concentration of O 3 was reversed, which was mainly due to the NO titration effect. Similar differences in these six air pollutants between the CNY and NCNY periods were also found in the diurnal cycle and in the interannual variation. For the diurnal cycle, a common traffic-related double-peak variation was observed in the NCNY period, but not in the CNY period. Impacts of dust storms were also observed, especially on SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period. In the 13-year period of 1994-2006, decreasing trends of NO x and CO in the NCNY period implied a possible reduction of local emissions. Increasing trends of SO 2 and PM 10 in the CNY period, on the other hand, indicated a possible enhancement of long-range transport. These two mechanisms weakened the holiday effect.

  18. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany); Storch, H. von [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik

    2000-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling for the North Sea is presented. The numerical model used for the study is the coupled ice-ocean model OPYC. In a hindcast of the years 1979 to 1993 it was forced with atmospheric forcing of the ECMWF reanalysis. The models capability in simulating the observed mean state and variability in the North Sea is demonstrated by the hindcast. Two time scale ranges, from weekly to seasonal and the longer-than-seasonal time scales are investigated. Shorter time scales, for storm surges, are not captured by the model formulation. The main modes of variability of sea level, sea-surface circulation, sea-surface temperature, and sea-surface salinity are described and connections to atmospheric phenomena, like the NAO, are discussed. T106 ''time-slice'' simulations with a ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' horizon are used to estimate the effects of a changing climate on the shelf sea ''North Sea''. The ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' changes in the surface forcing are accompanied by changes in the lateral oceanic boundary conditions taken from a global coupled climate model. For ''2 x CO{sub 2}'' the time mean sea level increases up to 25 cm in the German Bight in the winter, where 15 cm are due to the surface forcing and 10 cm due to thermal expansion. This change is compared to the ''natural'' variability as simulated in the ECMWF integration and found to be not outside the range spanned by it. The variability of sea level on the weekly-to-seasonal time-scales is significantly reduced in the scenario integration. The variability on the longer-than-seasonal time-scales in the control and scenario runs is much smaller then in the ECMWF integration. This is traced back to the use of ''time-slice'' experiments. Discriminating between locally forced changes and changes induced at the lateral oceanic boundaries of the model in the circulation and

  19. Source apportionment of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere over the Northern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Qi, J. H.; Shi, J. H.; Chen, X. J.; Gao, H. W.

    2013-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected over the Northern Yellow Sea of China during the years of 2006 and 2007, in which the Total Carbon (TC), Cu, Pb, Cd, V, Zn, Fe, Al, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, and K+ were measured. The principle components analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor models were used to identify the sources of particulate matter. The results indicated that seven factors contributed to the atmospheric particles over the Northern Yellow Sea, i.e., two secondary aerosols (sulfate and nitrate), soil dust, biomass burning, oil combustion, sea salt, and metal smelting. When the whole database was considered, secondary aerosol formation contributed the most to the atmospheric particle content, followed by soil dust. Secondary aerosols and soil dust consisted of 65.65% of the total mass of particulate matter. The results also suggested that the aerosols over the North Yellow Sea were heavily influenced by ship emission over the local sea area and by continental agricultural activities in the northern China, indicating by high loading of V in oil combustion and high loading of K+ in biomass burning. However, the contribution of each factor varied greatly over the different seasons. In spring and autumn, soil dust and biomass burning were the dominant factors. In summer, heavy oil combustion contributed the most among these factors. In winter, secondary aerosols were major sources. Backward trajectories analysis indicated the 66% of air mass in summer was from the ocean, while the air mass is mainly from the continent in other seasons.

  20. Exploring scenarios of light pollution from coastal development reaching sea turtle nesting beaches near Cabo Pulmo, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Verutes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available New coastal development may offer economic benefits to resort builders and even local communities, but these projects can also impact local ecosystems, key wildlife, and the draw for tourists. We explore how light from Cabo Cortés, a proposed coastal development in Baja California Sur, Mexico, may alter natural light cues used by sea turtle hatchlings. We adapt a viewshed approach to model exterior light originating from the resort under plausible zoning scenarios. This spatially explicit information allows stakeholders to evaluate the likely impact of alternative development options. Our model suggests that direct light’s ability to reach sea turtle nesting beaches varies greatly by source location and height—with some plausible development scenarios leading to significantly less light pollution than others. Our light pollution maps can enhance decision-making, offering clear guidance on where to avoid elevated lamps or when to recommend lighting restrictions. Communities can use this information to participate in development planning to mitigate ecological, aesthetic and economic impacts from artificial lighting. Though tested in Mexico, our approach and free, open-source software can be applied in other places around the world to better understand and manage the threats of light pollution to sea turtles. Keywords: Artificial light, Viewshed analysis, Sea turtle conservation, Coastal resort management, InVEST

  1. Coccolithophores from the central Arabian Sea: Sediment trap results

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    35.8 E were analyzed for temporal variation of coccolithophore fluxes from Octo- ber 1993 to ... production in the central Arabian Sea due to southward extent of nutrients from the northeast ... increases its residence period in the water column.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Changes in Air Pollution Along the Gulf Coast Observed During BRACE: A Case Study of the Land-Sea Breeze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, D.; Luke, W.; Arnold, J.; Watson, T.; Gunter, L.

    2003-12-01

    NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory conducted airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosols in the Bay Region Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (BRACE) using the NOAA Twin Otter. The Twin Otter flew more than 90 hours in 21 flights in and around the Tampa metropolitan region in May, 2002, at altitudes of 60-3000 m MSL. Flights were conducted over rural and suburban areas, over the centers of Tampa and St. Petersburg, and over Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. One objective of the aircraft flights was to investigate the role of the sea breeze circulation in determining patterns of nutrient deposition and pollutant loads in the Tampa Bay watershed. Results will be presented from a May 8 flight designed to investigate the effect of the sea breeze recirculation upon Tampa's air quality. The Twin Otter took off at 1425 UTC and after performing a spiral ascent over the Sydney ground site, proceeded to fly north, at 200 feet above mean sea level (MSL) just off the Gulf coast, west of St. Petersburg. Back trajectory analysis suggested the dominance of a northerly rotation in the sea breeze; thus, air sampled over the Gulf passed some hours earlier to the south of the Tampa metropolitan area, in an area largely devoid of major pollution sources, before being advected eastward in the afternoon return flow. Ozone levels in this air mass ranged from 40 to 50 ppbv. Farther north the Twin Otter encountered the advected urban plume from Tampa, displaced to the north by the combination of southeasterly sea breeze flow and westerly return flow, and tracked this plume inland. Ozone levels quickly jumped to 60 ppbv, and increased to as high as 90 ppbv as photochemical processing continued in the advected plume. Nitric acid levels, which approached 4 ppbv in the aged urban air at the coast, dropped rapidly to as low as 1 ppbv inland. A final flight leg to the east of downtown Tampa encountered fresh anthropogenic pollution from the afternoon rush hour; ozone was rapidly produced in the

  3. Foehn-induced effects on dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The significant drying up of the Dead Sea over the past 40 years has led to an increase in an exposed area contributing to local dust pollution. Measurements show that, sometimes, in the Dead Sea valley, dust pollution can reach extreme concentrations up to several thousands of micrograms per cubic meters. Our analysis of a meteorological situation shows that a foehn phenomenon can be a causal factor for the aforementioned extreme local dust concentration. This foehn phenomenon creates strong warm and dry winds, which are accompanied by air turbulence and temperature inversion. In our study, foehn-induced effects on dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation were analyzed over the Judean Mountains ( 1000 m) and over the Dead Sea valley (-420 m), using high-resolution numerical simulations and in-situ observations at meteorological stations located across the mountain ridge. An extreme dust episode occurring on March 22, 2013, was analyzed, which was characterized by measured surface dust concentrations of up to 7000 µg m-3 in the Dead Sea valley. We simulated this foehn phenomenon with the 3-km resolution COSMO-ART model. Our analysis has shown that the foehn phenomenon could be observed even over the relatively low Judean Mountains. This analysis was based on various meteorological, pyranometer, radar, and aerosol measurements together with high-resolution model data. In the Dead Sea valley, the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) did not coincide with the maximum surface dust concentration. This lack of coincidence indicates difficulties in using satellite-based AOD for initializing dust concentration within numerical forecast systems over this region with complex terrain. In the western Dead Sea valley, strong foehn winds of over 20 m/s were accompanied by maximal air turbulence leading to maximal local dust emissions. Thus, the model showed that, by creating significant turbulence, the foehn phenomenon intensified the saltation (bombardment) mechanism

  4. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    The Sea Ice Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by GCOS pertains of both sea ice concentration, thickness, and drift. Now in its second phase, the ESA CCI Sea Ice project is conducting the necessary research efforts to address sea ice drift.Accurate estimates of sea ice drift direction an...... in the final product. This contribution reviews the motivation for the work, the plans for sea ice drift algorithms intercomparison and selection, and early results from our activity....

  5. Making Marine Noise Pollution Impacts Heard: The Case of Cetaceans in the North Sea within Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen Middel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oceans represent more than 95% of the world’s biosphere and are among the richest sources of biodiversity on Earth. However, human activities such as shipping and construction of marine infrastructure pose a threat to the quality of marine ecosystems. Due to the dependence of most marine animals on sound for their communication, foraging, protection, and ultimately their survival, the effects of noise pollution from human activities are of growing concern. Life cycle assessment (LCA can play a role in the understanding of how potential environmental impacts are related to industrial processes. However, noise pollution impacts on marine ecosystems have not yet been taken into account. This paper presents a first approach for the integration of noise impacts on marine ecosystems into the LCA framework by developing characterization factors (CF for the North Sea. Noise pollution triggers a large variety of impact pathways, but as a starting point and proof-of-concept we assessed impacts on the avoidance behaviour of cetaceans due to pile-driving during the construction of offshore windfarms in the North Sea. Our approach regards the impact of avoidance behaviour as a temporary loss of habitat, and assumes a temporary loss of all individuals within that habitat from the total regional population. This was verified with an existing model that assessed the population-level effect of noise pollution on harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena in the North Sea. We expanded our CF to also include other cetacean species and tested it in a case study of the construction of an offshore windfarm (Prinses Amalia wind park. The total impact of noise pollution was in the same order of magnitude as impacts on other ecosystems from freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial acidification, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Although there are still many improvements to be made to this approach, it provides a basis for the implementation of noise

  6. Pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dürr, E.; Jaffe, R.; Nonini, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    This essay points to the role of pollution in understanding the social construction of hierarchies and urban space. Conceptualizations of pollution and approaches to waste management always reflect the Zeitgeist and tend to be politically charged. We argue that an ethnographic approach to pollution

  7. Effect of diesel fuel pollution on the lipid composition of some wide-spread Black sea algae and invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nechev, J.T.; Stefanov, K.L.; Popov, S.S. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry with Centre of Phytochemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Khotimchenko, S.V. [Inst. of Marine Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Ivanova, A.P. [Inst. of Plant Physiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Dimitrova-Konaklieva, S.D. [Faculty of Pharmacy, Higher Medical School, Sofia (Bulgaria); Andreev, S. [Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2002-04-01

    Two green algae (Ulva rigida and Cladophora coelothrix), the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the snail Rapana thomasiana from the Bulgarian Black Sea shore have been treated with diesel fuel (100 mg l{sup -1}) in an aquarium with sea-water for three days. The lipids and their fatty acid changes have been examined. Significant changes have been observed mainly in the polar lipids and in the saturation of the fatty acids. These changes appeared to be bigger in the evolutionary less advanced species from both groups of marine organisms - algae and invertebrates (Ulva rigida and Mytilus galloprovincialis respectively). The data obtained could be used for a biomonitoring of the pollution. (orig.)

  8. Issues in ecology: Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Robert W.; Anderson, D. B.; Cloern, James E.; Elfring, Chris; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Lapointe, Brian; Maloney, Thomas J.; Marcus, Nancy; McGlathery, Karen; Sharpley, A.N.; Walker, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, antipollution laws have greatly reduced discharges of toxic substances into our coastal waters. This effort, however, has focused largely on point-source pollution of industrial and municipal effluent. No comparable effort has been made to restrict the input of nitrogen (N) from municipal effluent, nor to control the flows of N and phosphorus (P) that enter waterways from dispersed or nonpoint sources such as agricultural and urban runoff or as airborne pollutants. As a result, inputs of nonpoint pollutants, particularly N, have increased dramatically. Nonpoint pollution from N and P now represents the largest pollution problem facing the vital coastal waters of the United States. Nutrient pollution is the common thread that links an array of problems along the nation’s coastline, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, ”dead zones,” fish kills, some shellfish poisonings, loss of seagrass and kelp beds, some coral reef destruction, and even some marine mammal and seabird deaths. More than 60 percent of our coastal rivers and bays in every coastal state of the continental United States are moderately to severely degraded by nutrient pollution. This degradation is particularly severe in the mid Atlantic states, in the southeast, and in the Gulf of Mexico. A recent report from the National Research Council entitled “Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reduc- ing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution” concludes that: Nutrient over-enrichment of coastal ecosystems generally triggers ecological changes that decrease the biologi- cal diversity of bays and estuaries. While moderate N enrichment of some coastal waters may increase fish production, over-enrichment generally degrades the marine food web that supports commercially valuable fish. The marked increase in nutrient pollution of coastal waters has been accompanied by an increase in harmful algal blooms, and in at least some cases, pollution has triggered these blooms. High

  9. Oil pollution in the Red Sea - Environmental monitoring of an oilfield in a Coral area, Gulf of Suez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dicks, B

    1984-01-01

    The Red Sea is rapidly developing as one of the world's largest offshore oil production areas. It also comprises a wide range of tropical marine habitats, many of which are internationally recognised for their conservation, scientific, economic or recreational value. Past oil production, refining and transport have resulted in chronic pollution of some areas, and environmental programmes to protect new areas of development from pollution damage are assuming increasing importance. At the initiative of an Egyptian oil company operating in the Gulf of Suez, an environmental protection and management scheme has been prepared for a new offshore oilfield and marine terminal at Ras Budran. This paper describes the form of the scheme and the results of its component environmental surveys. The development area comprises rich and diverse marine communities of fringing coral reefs, nearshore lagoons, seagrass beds, sandy beaches and fine sediments offshore. A baseline survey was designed following detailed discussion of the scope of the development with the company and a preliminary site visit, and the fieldwork was completed in October 1980. On the basis of the findings of the survey, a series of recommendations was made to the company, aimed at reducing environmental impacts during construction and operation to a minimum and acceptable level. These were subsequently implemented and the results of a post-construction survey in February 1983 are reported which show that environmental damage to the nearshore habitats during the construction phase had been relatively small and localised. Recently, the biological information obtained from the two surveys has also been incorporated into oil spill contingency plans.

  10. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Plastic pollution in the Labrador Sea: An assessment using the seabird northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis as a biological monitoring species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Provencher, Jennifer F; Liboiron, Max; Poon, Florence E; Smith, Paul A

    2018-02-01

    Plastic is now one among one of the most pervasive pollutants on the planet, and ocean circulation models predict that the Arctic will become another accumulation zone. As solutions to address marine plastic emerge, is essential that baselines are available to monitor progress towards targets. The northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), a widely-distributed seabird species, has been used as a biological monitor for plastic pollution in the North Sea, and could be a useful monitoring species elsewhere. We quantified plastic ingested by northern fulmars from the southeastern Canadian waters of the Labrador Sea with the objective of establishing a standardized baseline for future comparisons. Over two years we sampled 70 fulmars and found that 79% had ingested plastic, with an average of 11.6 pieces or 0.151g per bird. Overall, 34% of all fulmars exceeded the Ecological Quality Objective for marine litter, having ingested >0.1g of plastic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Results of the pollution reduction technology program for turboprop engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    A program was performed to evolve and demonstrate advanced combustor technology aimed at achieving the 1979 EPA standards for turboprop engines (Class P2). The engine selected for this program was the 501-D22A turboprop manufactured by Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation. Three combustor concepts were designed and tested in a combustor rig at the exact combustor operating conditions of the 501-D22A engine over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle. Each combustor concept exhibited pollutant emissions well below the EPA standards, achieving substantial reductions in unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and smoke emissions compared with emissions from the production combustor of this engine. Oxides of nitrogen emissions remained well below the EPA standards, also.

  13. California sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) census results, Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, M. Tim; Hatfield, Brian B.

    2017-09-29

    The 2017 census of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) was conducted between late April and early July along the mainland coast of central California and in April at San Nicolas Island in southern California. The 3-year average of combined counts from the mainland range and San Nicolas Island was 3,186, down by 86 sea otters from the previous year. This is the second year that the official index has exceeded 3,090, the Endangered Species Act delisting threshold identified in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Southern Sea Otter Recovery Plan (the threshold would need to be exceeded for 3 consecutive years before delisting consideration). The 5-year average trend in abundance, including both the mainland range and San Nicolas Island populations, remains positive at 2.3 percent per year. Continuing lack of growth in the range peripheries likely explains the cessation of range expansion.

  14. Addressing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Pan-Japan Sea Region. An Overview of Economic Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, G.; Kambu, A.

    2005-11-01

    The health and environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption are of increasing concern to countries in the Pan-Japan Sea region, where economic growth has led to increased energy consumption in recent years. Economic instruments like green taxes and emissions-trading schemes represent important tools to help reduce air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China, Japan, South Korea and Russia. Over the past several years, OECD countries have made progress in the use of economic instruments to reduce atmospheric air pollution. In Europe, new environmental taxes have been used most extensively, while in the United States market creation and emissions-trading schemes are more common. In the Pan-Japan Sea region, there has been considerable experience with pollution charge and levy systems, including the longstanding Japanese sulfur levy and the Russian and Chinese pollution charge systems. Generally, tax and emissions-trading systems are only beginning to emerge in the region although China has been experimenting with SOx emissions-trading schemes for several years now and South Korea and Japan have already begun experimenting with CO2 emissions-trading schemes. Only Japan has seriously looked at a carbon tax to curb GHG emissions among the four countries while direct subsidies for cleaner technologies have been adopted in the different Pan-Japan Sea countries. The costs and benefits of different economic instruments like taxes, charges, emissions-trading schemes and subsidies vary from case to case because they all have to be financially feasible, rest on informed and competent public institutions and perform effectively in local market and economic conditions. On top of all these is the fact that their overall success depends on their political acceptability. Given the experience of Pan-Japan Sea countries with economic instruments so far vis-a-vis the lessons learned in OECD countries and the nature of current and emerging pollution problems in Pan

  15. Preparing for SMOS: Sea Salinity Campaigns and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2006-01-01

    Mapping of sea surface salinity, based on L-band radiometric measurements, is presently investigated as a preparation for space missions. Special concern is on correction for effects caused by the sea surface roughness, and this paper will address two campaigns, LOSAC and CoSMOS, with the aim...... of investigating these effects. Conclusions from LOSAC are presented, and open issues to be investigated during the presently ongoing CoSMOS campaign are outlined. Finally, the installation and campaign plan for CoSMOS are presented....

  16. Regionalization of climate model results for the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauker, F.

    1999-07-01

    A dynamical downscaling is presented that allows an estimation of potential effects of climate change on the North Sea. Therefore, the ocean general circulation model OPYC is adapted for application on a shelf by adding a lateral boundary formulation and a tide model. In this set-up the model is forced, first, with data from the ECMWF reanalysis for model validation and the study of the natural variability, and, second, with data from climate change experiments to estimate the effects of climate change on the North Sea. (orig.)

  17. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    OpenAIRE

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and ...

  18. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Biologia Zelularra eta Histologia Laborategia, Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea/Universidad del Pais Vasco, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbao, Basque Country (Spain)], E-mail: mirenp.cajaraville@ehu.es

    2008-05-15

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution along the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets as sentinel organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorita, Izaskun; Ortiz-Zarragoitia, Maren; Apraiz, Itxaso; Cancio, Ibon; Orbea, Amaia; Soto, Manu; Marigomez, Ionan; Cajaraville, Miren P.

    2008-01-01

    A biomonitoring program was carried out in spring and autumn in three pollution hot-spots and sensitive areas of the NW Mediterranean Sea using red mullets (Mullus barbatus) as sentinel organisms and a battery of biomarkers together with gonad histology. In fish from anthropogenic impacted areas (Fos-sur-mer, Cortiou, Arenzano, Delta of Ebro) lysosomal membrane destabilization occurred indicating disturbed health. There were no significant differences in metallothionein (MT) levels among stations. Peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity was highest in fish from Cortiou. Both MT levels and AOX activities were significantly correlated with gamete development. Prevalence of melanomacrophage centers were high in Cortiou in all samplings and in Fos-sur-mer in September samplings. In conclusion, the application of a battery of biomarkers in red mullets provided relevant data for the assessment of environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea but also showed the difficulties of using native fish as sentinels. For future studies caging strategies are recommended. - Application of biomarkers in red mullets is promising to assess environmental pollution in the NW Mediterranean Sea

  20. Marine Spatial Planning Applied to the High Seas - Process and Results of an Exercise Focused on the Sargasso Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda, A. N.; Smythe, T. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Sargasso Sea, at the center of the North Atlantic gyre, is recognized by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity as a globally unique ecosystem threatened by anthropogenic activity. In its stewardship capacity, the Sargasso Sea Commission works within the current system of international organizations and treaties to secure protection for particular species or areas. Without a single governing authority to implement and enforce protective measures across the region, a coordinated management plan for the region is lacking. A research team comprised of 20 advanced undergraduate scientists participating in the spring 2015 SEA Semester: Marine Biodiversity and Conservation program of Sea Education Association (Woods Hole, MA) engaged in a groundbreaking simulated high seas marine spatial planning process resulting in A Marine Management Proposal for the Sargasso Sea. Based on natural and social science research, the interdisciplinary Proposal outlines goals, objectives and realistic strategies that encompass ecological, economic, human use, and future use considerations. Notably, the Proposal is the product of a classroom-based simulation intended to improve emerging scientists' understanding of how research is integrated into the policy process and how organizations work across disciplinary boundaries to address complex ocean management problems. Student researchers identified several discrete management areas and associated policy recommendations for those areas, as well as strategies for coordinated management across the entire Sargasso Sea region. The latter include establishment of a United Nations Regional Ocean Management Organization as well as provisions for monitoring and managing high seas traffic. To make progress toward these strategies, significant attention to the importance of high seas regions for global-scale conservation will be necessary.

  1. An ecological risk investigation of marine sediment from the northern Mediterranean coasts (Aegean Sea) using multiple methods of pollution determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Evren; Aydın, Mehmet; Şahin, Ülkü Alver

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study is an assessment of metal pollution levels in Aegean Sea sediment. Sediment samples collected from 7 different locations (Yeniköy, Edremit, Ayvalık, Dikili, Aliağa, Hekimadası, and Ildır) along the northern Mediterranean region of Turkey were investigated for 11 elements (Cu, Fe, Zn, V, Cd, Ni, As, Pb, Mn, Co, and Cr). Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GFAAS) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS) were used for elemental analysis. The findings were evaluated with sediment assessment methods by taking two different values as a reference and then investigating the adverse biological effects of elemental profiles on living organisms. Pb, Mn, As, Cd, and Cr concentrations were within a moderate to significant range in terms of contamination factor [Formula: see text]), albeit varying according to reference and location. The most problematic region and elements regarding the enrichment factor (EF) was Ayvalık and As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Co, and Cd. However, according to the EF, the anthropogenic effect was not at an alarming level. This was further supported by the results of the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The findings of the modified degree of contamination (mC d ) and the pollution load index (PLI) suggested that the accumulation was greatest in Ayvalık, and the least in Hekimadası and Ildır. The location with the highest elemental total toxic unit (ΣTU) was Edremit. The effect of the existing element profile on organisms was 21% in this location when the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q) was considered. As and Ni concentrations in all stations were found to be higher than threshold effect level (TEL) and Effect Range Low (ERL). Ni levels in Edremit exceeded the probable effect level (PEL) and Effect Range Median (ERM). Toxic unit (TU) values of these two elements in all stations ranged from 59.30 to 80.43%.

  2. Study of seasonal dynamics of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients and pollutants from the surface water layer of the Black Sea during 1992-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; Polikarpov, G.G.; Egorov, V.N.; Krivenko, O.V.; Stokozov, N.A.; Zherko, N.V.

    1995-01-01

    A series of regular measurements of sedimentation evacuation of suspended matter, nutrients (carbon, nitrogen) and pollutants (mercury, polychlorided biphenyls) from the surface water layer was carried out with 1-2 month interval between the measurements using 234 Th in the region of western cyclonic circulation of the Black Sea. It allowed to estimate the seasonal dynamics and to obtain average annual values of dientrophication and sedimentational self-purification of the euphotic zone of the Western part of the Black Sea. The parallel measurements of the rates of sedimentation evacuation of suspended organic nitrogen from the euphotic zone, which were performed using 234 Th and determining the so called products of phitoplankton by the absorption of 15 N traced nitrates and ammonium, give practically identical results. 19 refs.; 5 figs

  3. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-11-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow.

  4. Deterioration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L., meadows by water pollution in Seto Inland Sea, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Tokuoka, Makoto; Nishijima, Wataru; Terawaki, Toshinobu; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2002-01-01

    Survival of transplanted Zostera marina L. (eelgrass) and environmental conditions (water quality, bottom sediments, sedimentation on leaves and flow regime) were studied concurrently in the center, edge, and at the outside of a eelgrass meadow located in a eutrophic coastal zone in northern Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Eelgrass transplants at the outside of the meadow declined significantly, whereas those at the center were consistently well established. Silt content in the bottom sediments at the outside was higher than that at the center. The sediment was oxic from the surface to 2 cm deep at the center, whereas those at the edge and the outside were reductive almost from the surface. The sediment characteristics typical in eutrophic water seemed to be a factor responsible for the deterioration of eelgrass meadows. Although suspended solid concentrations in the water columns were almost the same, the amount of sediments deposited on leaves of eelgrass at the outside was higher than that at the center of the meadow. The amount of the deposition at the outside seems to be enough to inhibit photosynthesis; i.e. photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) available for eelgrass was only 36% of that without any deposition. The deposition in the center, however, was small enough to allow 84% of the original PPFD. Flow rates, determined at 30 cm above the bottom, a half height of average eelgrass, suggested that the rate at the outside was not enough to remove deposited sediments from the surface of eelgrass leaves. Thus, the large amount of sediment deposition caused by water pollution and/or eutrophication seemed to be another factor to inhibit the survival of eelgrass at the outside edge of the meadow

  5. Plastic pollution of the world's seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haward, Marcus

    2018-02-14

    The pervasive nature of marine plastic pollution was highlighted at the recent United Nations Environment Assembly. This meeting saw strong commitments for action, but at the same time reinforced the challenges for contemporary ocean governance in addressing marine plastic pollution.

  6. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  7. IInvestigations of space-time variability of the sea level in the Barents Sea and the White Sea by satellite altimetry data and results of hydrodynamic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, S. A.; Zilberstein, O. I.; Popov, S. K.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2003-04-01

    The problem of retrieving of the sea level anomalies in the Barents and White Seas from satellite can be considered as two different problems. The first one is to calculate the anomalies of sea level along the trek taking into account all amendments including tidal heights. The second one is to obtain of fields of the sea level anomalies on the grid over one cycle of the exact repeat altimetry mission. Experience results show that there is preferable to use the regional tidal model for calculating tidal heights. To construct of the anomalies fields of the sea level during the exact repeat mission (cycle 35 days for ERS-1 and ERS-2), when a density of the coverage of the area of water of the Barents and White Seas by satellite measurements achieves maximum. It is necessary to solve the problem of the error minimum. This error is based by the temporal difference of the measurements over one cycle and by the specific of the hydrodynamic regime of the both seas (tidal, storm surge variations, tidal currents). To solve this problem it is assumed to use the results of the hydrodynamic modeling. The error minimum is preformed by the regression of the model results and satellite measurements. As a version it is considered the possibility of the utilizing of the neuronet obtained by the model results to construct maps of the sea level anomalies. The comparison of the model results and the calculation of the satellite altimetry variability of the sea level of Barents and White Seas shows a good coincidence between them. The satellite altimetry data of ERS-1/2 and TOPEX/POSEIDON of Ocean Altimeter Pathfinder Project (NASA/GSFC) has been used in this study. Results of the regional tidal model computations and three dimensional baroclinic model created in the Hydrometeocenter have been used as well. This study also exploited the atmosphere date of the Project REANALYSIS. The research was undertaken with partial support from the Russian Basic Research Foundation (Project No. 01-07-90106).

  8. Mine Waste and Acute Warming Induce Energetic Stress in the Deep-Sea Sponge Geodia atlantica and Coral Primnoa resedeaformis; Results From a Mesocosm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Scanes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There is the potential for climate change to interact with pollution in all of the Earth's oceans. In the fjords of Norway, mine tailings are released into fjords generating suspended sediment plumes that impact deep-sea ecosystems. These same deep-sea ecosystems are expected to undergo periodic warming as climate change increases the frequency of down-welling events in fjords. It remains unknown how a polluted deep-sea ecosystem would respond to down-welling because multiple stressors will often interact in unpredictable ways. Here, we exposed two deep-sea foundation species; the gorgonian coral Primnoa resedaeformis and the demosponge Geodia atlantica to suspended sediment (10 mg L−1 and acute warming (+5°C in a factorial mesocosm experiment for 40 days. Physiology (respiration, nutrient flux and cellular responses (lysosomal cell stability were measured for both the coral and sponge. Exposure to elevated suspended sediment reduced metabolism, supressed silicate uptake and induced cellular instability of the sponge G. atlantica. However, combining sediment with warming caused G. atlantica to respire and excrete nitrogen at a greater rate. For the coral P. resedaeformis, suspended sediments reduced O:N ratios after 40 days, however, warming had a greater effect on P. resedaeformis physiology compared to sediment. Warming increased respiration, nitrogen excretion, and cellular instability which resulted in lower O:N ratios. We argue that suspended sediment and warming can act alone and also interact to cause significant harm to deep-sea biota, however responses are likely to be species-specific. Warming and pollution could interact in the deep-sea to cause mortality to the coral P. resedaeformis and to a lesser extent, the sponge G. atlantica. As foundation species, reducing the abundance of deep sea corals and sponges would likely impact the ecosystems they support.

  9. Evaluation of major polluting accidents in China-Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Yu; Zhang Tianzhu

    2009-01-01

    Lessons learnt from accidents are essential sources for updating state-of-the-art requirements in pollution accident prevention. To improve this input in the People's Republic of China in a systematic way, a database for collecting and evaluating major pollution accidents is being established. This is being done in co-operation with Chinese Society for Environment Sciences and other national Institutions. At the time of writing over 80 major events from 2002-2006 have been collected. In this paper, a summary evaluation on the major polluting events in China from 2002 to 2006 is presented and some basic lessons drawn shown. There is no a systematic pollution accident notification system currently in China. The results from root cause analysis underline the importance of emergency measures, maintenance, human factor issues and the role of safety organization. Chronic pollution, especially water pollution and air pollution should be paid the same attention as the sudden pollution. It is important to keep in mind that collecting information from major accidents represents a small percentage of the actual number of events taking place.

  10. Long distance atmospheric pollution: assessment, risks, management and decision. Collection of abstracts of research works. Synthesis of results of researches performed within the framework of the PRIMEQUAL programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, Severine; Ramalho, Olivier; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Blondeau, Patrice; Bonvallot, Nathalie; Campagna, Dave; Cellier, Pierre; Charles, Lionel; Coddeville, Patrice; Coll, Isabelle; Frejafon, Emeric; Gehin, Evelyne; George, Christian; Glorennec, Philippe; Gros, Valerie; Hecq, Walter; Laj, Paolo; Le Calve, Stephane; Mallet, Cecile; Momas, Isabelle; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Plaisance, Herve; Probst, Anne; Seigneur, Christian; Vlassopoulo, Chloe; Weiss, Karine

    2014-11-01

    After a brief presentation of the PRIMEQUAL programme, an inter-agency and institution research programme for a better air quality (275 supported research actions since the programme creation), an introduction presents the context of research works within this programme on long distance pollution. Various research works are then briefly presented. They address three main themes: 1) determining factors and atmospheric processes (role of organic nitrates in nitrogen transport, source and evolution of organic carbonated pollution in the atmosphere, modelling of long distance pollution, a miniature and autonomous station for atmospheric composition monitoring), 2) the regional evidence of pollutants transport (local and long distance pollution in Ile-de-France, pollutant transport and air quality in Mediterranean Sea, measurement and modelling of the deposition of Saharan dusts, relationship between forest fires and air quality), and 3) long term impacts on ecosystems, health and economy (peat lands as markers of atmospheric contamination, 20 years of measurements of atmospheric depositions in France and trends on the long term, vulnerability of ecosystems to atmospheric nitrogen, a cost-benefit approach to the relationship between long distance pollution and climate change). An appendix contains the call for research propositions which resulted in the above-mentioned researches

  11. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G. [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  12. Study of radioactivity among te Bulgarian Black Sea coastal zone - results from the NIMH monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veleva, B.; Kolarova, M.; Mungov, G.

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of the NIMH at BAS investigations of the Black sea radioactivity were initiated in 1978 with a development of a monitoring campaign. Samples of sea waters, sediments and algae were collected from several sampling sites along the coastal zone and measured by gamma-spectrometry. Results on gamma-emitting radio-nuclide's measurements in the Black sea coastal waters were published in the 80's. After the Chernobyl accident during the period between 1986-1989 seasonal-fields sampling campaigns were organised and radioactivity of algae and bottom sediments was estimated. Harmonized sampling strategies, analytical procedures and related data information exchange for radioactivity of seawater, sediment and biota in coastal areas of Black Sea countries were developed under the IAEA TCP Black Sea Project. The present work reports results of the monitoring programme of the NIMH of Bulgaria developed in the frame of the IAEA projects for the Black Sea basin. From 1993 to 2005 regular seasonal sampling was performed in 5 sampling sites along the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. Results of the dissolved '1'3'7Cs concentrations in sea water, sand, algae, and fish samples are discussed. The data for the different radio-isotopes measured in algae, fish and sea sediment samples are given in comparison with other investigations. A complex assessment of Cs-137 concentrations as important tracer and indicator of the marine processes is made on a long-term basis. (author)

  13. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.; Apprill, A.; Cervino, J.M.; Ossolinski, J.E.; Hughen, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study estimates radioactive pollution diffusion in coastline of the Oman Sea. • 36 high volume surface water samples were analyzed using a portable HPGe detector. • Oceanic currents in the northern coast of Oman Sea were investigated. • The spectral wave model SWAN was used for wave parameters simulation. • Currents and preferable wave directions were coupled with higher radioactivity. - Abstract: This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea

  16. Applied radiotracer techniques for studying pollutant bioaccumulation in selected marine organisms (jellyfish, crabs and sea stars)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Teyssie, J.-L.; Cotret, O.; Danis, B.; Warnau, M.; Rouleau, C.

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining specific information on contaminant biokinetics in marine biota is often necessary for properly interpreting monitoring data on trace contaminant levels in bioindicator species living under varying environmental conditions. Radiotracers have been employed in laboratory experiments to assess the uptake, distribution and retention of selected heavy metals and PCB congeners in three potential marine bioindicators occupying different ecological niches in the coastal zone. Pelagic and benthic jellyfish readily accumulated Co, Ag, Zn, Cd, 137 Cs and 241 Am from both water and food and retained them with biological half-lives (Tb1/2) ranging from a few days to several weeks. Zinc and silver were accumulated to the greatest degree (CF ∼ 4 · 10 2 ), with benthic jellyfish having a greater affinity for metals than the pelagic species. Results from light-dark experiments indicate that the enhanced metal uptake in the benthic jellyfish is due to the presence of endosymbiotic photosynthetic zooxanthellae situated in the arms of organisms. Shore crabs ingesting Ag, a sewage-related contaminant, readily accumulated the metal with male crabs assimilating some 71% and female crabs 51% of the Ag from their food. Moreover, the assimilated fraction of Ag remained virtually immobile in their tissues as evidenced by an extremely long Tb1/2 for depuration of 7.3 years. Sea stars exposed to 14 C-labelled PCB congener no. 153 in sea water accumulated the congener mainly in the body wall and podia reaching lipid weight CFs that ranged between approximately 2 · 10 5 to 4 · 10 5 . In contrast, following exposure in radiolabelled sediments, the corresponding PCB transfer factors in the same tissues were much lower, viz., 3 · 10 2 to 5 · 10 2 . Nevertheless, regardless of the exposure mode, CFs of PCB in the other tissues (digestive system, gonads, pyloric and rectal caeca) were consistently one to two orders of magnitude lower, an observation which suggests that sea star body

  17. Origin of polluted air masses in the Alps. An overview and first results for MONARPOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, August

    2009-01-01

    The contribution of ZAMG to MONAROP consists of special weather forecasts to control the SOCs sampling procedure and of the analysis of the specific transport processes for SOCs, which is still in progress. In this paper, air pollutant transport into the Alps is demonstrated by examples of inorganic pollutants: Measurements of NO x and ozone provide evidence for air pollutant transport by local wind systems (valley and slope winds), especially at low elevated sites of the Alps. In addition, trajectory analyses for the high elevation sites demonstrate the importance of large scale synoptic air pollutant transport. The effects of these transport processes with different spatial and temporal scales are governed by the physical and chemical properties of the particular pollutant. First results for the high alpine MONARPOP stations show that air masses from east Europe influence mostly Sonnblick (Austria), whereas the influence of the Po basin is strongest at Weissfluhjoch (Switzerland). - Effects of meteorological transport processes on air pollution in the Alps are demonstrated by examples of inorganic pollutants and first conclusions for SOCs are drawn.

  18. Results on SSH neural network forecasting in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixen, Michel; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Alvarez, Alberto; Tintore, Joaquim

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, satellites are the only monitoring systems that cover almost continuously all possible ocean areas and are now an essential part of operational oceanography. A novel approach based on artificial intelligence (AI) concepts, exploits pasts time series of satellite images to infer near future ocean conditions at the surface by neural networks and genetic algorithms. The size of the AI problem is drastically reduced by splitting the spatio-temporal variability contained in the remote sensing data by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition. The problem of forecasting the dynamics of a 2D surface field can thus be reduced by selecting the most relevant empirical modes, and non-linear time series predictors are then applied on the amplitudes only. In the present case study, we use altimetric maps of the Mediterranean Sea, combining TOPEX-POSEIDON and ERS-1/2 data for the period 1992 to 1997. The learning procedure is applied to each mode individually. The final forecast is then reconstructed form the EOFs and the forecasted amplitudes and compared to the real observed field for validation of the method.

  19. Baltic Sea hazardous substances management: results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, Henrik; VanDeveer, Stacy D

    2004-05-01

    The introduction into the Baltic Sea of hazardous substances that are persistent, bioaccumulate, and are toxic is an important environmental and human health problem. Multilateral efforts to address this problem have primarily been taken under the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM). This article examines past HELCOM efforts on hazardous substances, and discusses future challenges regarding their management. The article finds that past actions on hazardous substances have had a positive effect on improving Baltic environmental quality and reducing human health risks, although there are remaining issues and difficulties that need to be addressed. In particular, four related future challenges for HELCOM management of hazardous substances are identified and discussed: i) the need to engender further implementation and building public and private sector capacities; ii) the need to improve data availability, quality and comparability across the region and international fora; iii) the need to strengthen existing regulations and incorporate new issues; and iv) the need to effectively coordinate HELCOM activities with efforts on hazardous substances in other international fora.

  20. Association between nighttime artificial light pollution and sea turtle nest density along Florida coast: A geospatial study using VIIRS remote sensing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiyong; Hu, Hongda; Huang, Yuxia

    2018-08-01

    Artificial lighting at night has becoming a new type of pollution posing an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on organisms. The objective of this research was to examine the potential association between nighttime artificial light pollution and nest densities of the three main sea turtle species along Florida beaches, including green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Sea turtle survey data was obtained from the "Florida Statewide Nesting Beach Survey program". We used the new generation of satellite sensor "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)" (version 1 D/N Band) nighttime annual average radiance composite image data. We defined light pollution as artificial light brightness greater than 10% of the natural sky brightness above 45° of elevation (>1.14 × 10 -11 Wm -2 sr -1 ). We fitted a generalized linear model (GLM), a GLM with eigenvectors spatial filtering (GLM-ESF), and a generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach for each species to examine the potential correlation of nest density with light pollution. Our models are robust and reliable in terms of the ability to deal with data distribution and spatial autocorrelation (SA) issues violating model assumptions. All three models found that nest density is significantly negatively correlated with light pollution for each sea turtle species: the higher light pollution, the lower nest density. The two spatially extended models (GLM-ESF and GEE) show that light pollution influences nest density in a descending order from green turtles, to loggerheads, and then to leatherbacks. The research findings have an implication for sea turtle conservation policy and ordinance making. Near-coastal lights-out ordinances and other approaches to shield lights can protect sea turtles and their nests. The VIIRS DNB light data, having significant improvements over comparable data by its predecessor, the DMSP-OLS, shows promise for continued and improved research about ecological effects of

  1. Pollutant exclusion experiments on spruce at the Edelmannshof site. Results of physiological and biochemical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt; Bauer; Bourgois

    1993-01-01

    From 1987-1992 within the framework of a multidisciplinary approach extensive studies of physiological and biochemical parameters of spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.) growing on natural site in a forest decline area (Schwaebisch-Fraenkischer Wald) north-west of the conurbation Stuttgart were carried out. This pollutant-exclusion experiment was a further part of a threepart research program including field observations and defined pollutant experiments with young forest trees in modelecosystems. The results show, that also low concentrations of air pollutants cause effects in plant metabolism before the occurence of visible symptoms. The pollutant effects caused specially by ozone have to be linked to climatic factors such as drought which occured in the last years. In a final view some factors influencing the long-term project Edelmannshof are shown. Ultimately possible key-reactions for bioindication methods on the synecological level are presented. (orig.) [de

  2. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Marine pollution risk in a coastal city: use of an eco-genotoxic tool as a stress indicator in mussels from the Eastern Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Asli; Pazi, Idil; Gonul, Tolga; Kucuksezgin, Filiz

    2016-08-01

    Coastal areas, such as bays, estuaries, and harbors, are heavily polluted since these areas are the settlements to which toxic chemicals from industrial and domestic wastes are discharged. The genetic damage was evaluated using bioindicator mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis caused by toxic chemicals (metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in İzmir and Çandarlı Bays (the Eastern Aegean Sea) through comet assay. Three sampling sites from the two bays were selected and the study was conducted during the spring and autumn periods. The highest levels of DNA damage expressed as %Tail-DNA were observed in İzmir Bay (34.60 % Tail-DNA) in the spring. Analysis of the correlation between PAHs and metals in mussels and %T-DNA in the hemolymph and gill cells showed a statistically significant positive correlation between %T-DNA and ∑PAH, chromium (p llution level of the İzmir and Çandarlı Bays by using the DNA damage to the mussel, which can identify the effects of environmental pollutants at the cellular levels. These results confirm that comet assay can be used to determine the temporal and spatial differences of DNA damage, and as a suitable tool for the measurement of genotoxicity in regions with low pollutant concentrations.

  4. Plastic Pollution at a Sea Turtle Conservation Area in NE Brazil: Contrasting Developed and Undeveloped Beaches.

    OpenAIRE

    SUL, J. A. I. do.; SANTOS, I. R.; FRIEDRICH, A. C.; MATTHIENSEN, A.; FILLMANN, G.

    2011-01-01

    Sea turtles are highly susceptible to plastic ingestion and entanglement. Beach debris were surveyed along the most important sea turtle nesting beaches in Brazil (Costa dos Coqueiros, Bahia State). No significant differences among developed and undeveloped beaches were observed in terms of total number of items. Local sources (tourism activities) represented 70% of debris on developed beaches, where cigarette butts, straws, paper fragments, soft plastic fragments, and food packaging...

  5. Back to the land: the sea-to-land transfer of radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deere-Jones, T.

    1991-01-01

    The British nuclear industry insists that its radioactive discharges into the sea are too small to affect human health. But this assertion is made against a background of basic ignorance about the behaviour of radioactivity in the seas and major uncertainties over the health effects of low-level radiation. The industry has ignored much evidence showing that the coastal population of the UK are exposed to significant doses of radiation originating from marine discharges from nuclear plant. (author)

  6. Oxidative drug metabolizing enzymes in North Sea dab (Limanda limanda). Biological effects of pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vobach, M.; Kellermann, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    Increasing environmental pollution is regarded as an anthropogenic stress factor in general. As a consequence, this may have several detrimental impacts on organisms, including aquatic species. The ability of organisms to tolerate stress from chemical pollutants depends on the availability of a variety of protection mechanisms. One important mechanism to protect cells from lipophilic xenobiotics is based on enzymes or enzyme systems converting the chemicals into more polar metabolites which can be excreted

  7. Assessment of recent and chalcolithic period environmental pollution using Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 from Yarimburgaz Cave, the northern Marmara Sea and Bosphorus coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek F. Barut

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Marine or freshwater mussel species are found in large quantities around populated areas and accumulate metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, these organisms are used to monitor environmental pollution. Mytilus galloprovincialis is a generally accepted bioindicator of metal pollution and is used in this study. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the environmental conditions since antiquity. M. galloprovincialis shells were used to monitor Chalcolithic pollution levels in Yarimburgaz Cave, one of the oldest settlements in Europe. Recent samples were collected from 12 stations on the coasts of the Northern Marmara Sea and the Bosphorus between May–September 2004. The environmental pollution substantially changed over the last 7500 years. The comparison of the geochemical characteristics of the environmental pollution observed in the Chalcolithic period and today revealed that pollution from both household and industrial chemicals has increased in Istanbul.

  8. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorinated pollutants in deep-sea sediments of the Southern Cretan margin, Eastern Mediterranean Sea: a baseline assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Tselepides, Anastasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    Deep sediments from the southern Cretan margin were analyzed to establish baseline levels for various types of organic pollutants before the anticipated intensification of anthropogenic activities. The total concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons (ΣAH:326-3758ngg(-1), dry weight) was similar to those reported for deep sediments of the western Mediterranean Sea, while considerably lower levels were measured for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ΣPAH:9-60ngg(-1)). Source-diagnostic ratios suggested that the aliphatic hydrocarbons in sediments were mainly of terrestrial biogenic origin, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stemmed from the deposition of long-range transported combustion aerosols. Among the organochlorinated compounds analyzed, β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH:222-7052pgg(-1)), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT:37-2236pgg(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB:38-1182pgg(-1)) showed the highest abundance in sediments. The presence of HCHs and PCBs was attributed to historical inputs that have undergone extensive weathering, whereas an ongoing fresh input was suggested for p,p'-DDT. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the levels of the various pollutants in sediments were controlled by different factors, but with organic carbon content playing a prominent role in most cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On the physicochemical states of cadmium and lead in sea water and sediment pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Isao; Sakai, Takashi; Inoue, Yoriteru

    1976-01-01

    The existence states of cadmium and lead in sea water taken from Wakasa Bay in Japan were experimentally studied and their transfer to bottom sand layer was tested. Sample water was filtered through a glass wool filter and a 0.45 μ-m membrane filter. Cadmium chloride and lead chloride were fed so that the concentrations of the metals became the environmental standard values (0.01 ppm for cadmium and 0.1 ppm for lead). Cd-115m and lead-210 were added to the sample as tracers. The existence states were measured by dialysis, the filtration with a membrane filter and the adsorption on an ion-exchange resin. As a result, the ionic state of cadmium decreased to 85% and the deposition factor on the membrane filter increased to about 30% when pH is 9.6. The distribution factor of the cation exchange resin was 2 - 5, whereas that of the anion exchange resin was 1000 or more at pH 8,4 or less, but was reduced to 541 at pH 9.6. The ion existence ratio of lead was 80% - 90% at pH 8 or less, and was 10% or less at pH 8.8. The deposition factor of lead was higher than that of cadmium. The distribution factor of lead showed similar tendency to that of cadmium. As a result of measuring the radioactivity adsorbed by the bottom sand in the experimental tank, it was found that the transfer of very small amount of heavy metals to the bottom material depended upon the physicochemical existence states of the metals in water. (Iwakiri, K.)

  11. Persistent organic pollutants in the blood of free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris ssp.) in Alaska and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, David A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Estes, James A.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Jarman, Walter M.; Reese, Stacey; Dodd, Erin; Tinker, M. Tim; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of tagging and ecologic research efforts in 1997 and 1998, apparently healthy sea otters of four age-sex classes in six locations in Alaska and three in California were sampled for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of ecologic or environmental concern (COECs). Published techniques for the detection of POPs (specifically Σpolychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], ΣDDTs, Σhexachlorocyclohexanes [HCHs], Σpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], Σchlordanes [CHLs], hexachlorobenzene [HCB], dieldrin, and mirex) in the tissue of dead otters were modified for use with serum from live sea otters. Toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were calculated for POPs with proven bioactivity. Strong location effects were seen for most POPs and COECs; sea otters in California generally showed higher mean concentrations than those in Alaska. Differences in contaminant concentrations were detected among age and sex classes, with high levels frequently observed in subadults. Very high levels of ΣDDT were detected in male sea otters in Elkhorn Slough, California, where strong freshwater outflow from agricultural areas occurs seasonally. All contaminants except mirex differed among Alaskan locations; only ΣDDT, HCB, and chlorpyrifos differed within California. High levels of ΣPCB (particularly larger, more persistent congeners) were detected at two locations in Alaska where associations between elevated PCBs and military activity have been established, while higher PCB levels were found at all three locations in California where no point source of PCBs has been identified. Although POP and COEC concentrations in blood may be less likely to reflect total body burden, concentrations in blood of healthy animals may be more biologically relevant and less influenced by state of nutrition or perimortem factors than other tissues routinely sampled.

  12. Measurement of pressure ridges in SAR images of sea ice - Preliminary results on scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesecky, J. F.; Smith, M. P.; Daida, J. M.; Samadani, R.; Camiso, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    Sea ice ridges and keels (hummocks and bummocks) are important in sea ice research for both scientific and practical reasons. A long-term objective is to make quantitative measurements of sea ice ridges using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The preliminary results of a scattering model for sea ice ridge are reported. The approach is through the ridge height variance spectrum Psi(K), where K is the spatial wavenumber, and the two-scale scattering model. The height spectrum model is constructed to mimic height statistics observed with an airborne optical laser. The spectrum model is used to drive a two-scale scattering model. Model results for ridges observed at C- and X-band yield normalized radar cross sections that are 10 to 15 dB larger than the observed cross sections of multiyear ice over the range of angles of incidence from 10 to 70 deg.

  13. Low pollution combustor designs for CTOL engines - Results of the Experimental Clean Combustor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The NASA/Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Experimental Clean Combustor Program is a multi-year, major contract effort. Primary program objectives are the generation of combustor technology for development of advanced commercial CTOL engines with lower exhaust emissions than current aircraft and demonstration of this technology in a full-scale JT9D engine in 1976. This paper describes the pollution and performance goals, Phase I and II test results, and the Phase III combustor hardware, pollution sampling techniques, and test plans. Best results were obtained with the Vorbix concept which employs multiple burning zones and improved fuel preparation and distribution. Substantial reductions were achieved in all pollutant categories, meeting the 1979 EPA standards for NOx, THC, and smoke when extrapolated to JT9D cycle conditions. The Vorbix concept additionally demonstrated the capability for acceptable altitude relight and did not appear to have unsolvable durability or exit temperature distribution problems.

  14. Some important results from the air pollution distribution model STACKS (1988-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbrink, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is paid to the results of the study on the distribution of air pollutants by high chimney-stacks of electric power plants. An important product of the study is the integrated distribution model STACKS (Short Term Air-pollutant Concentrations Kema modelling System). The improvements and the extensions of STACKS are described in relation to the National Model, which has been used to estimate the environmental effects of individual chimney-stacks. The National Model shows unacceptable variations for high pollutant sources. Based on the results of STACKS revision of the National model has been taken into consideration. By means of the revised National Model a more realistic estimation of the environmental effects of electric power plants can be carried out

  15. PLASTIC POLLUTION ON RIZE SARAYKOY BEACH IN THE SOUTHEASTERN BLACK SEA

    OpenAIRE

    Esensoy Şahin, Fatma Başak; Karacan, Furkan; Aytan, Ülgen

    2018-01-01

    Marine litter is an important environmental problem in the Black Seawhich is a semi-enclosed with high river discharge. Plastics are the mostcommon marine litter in the Black Sea as it’s in the other regions in theworld. Plastic litter were monitored in the Saraykoy beach of Rize in theSouth-Eastern Black Sea between June 2016 and March 2017. The beach littercollected seasonally following OSPAR beach monitoring methodology and collectedin 100 m beach section and separated into types. During t...

  16. Biomagnification of organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic marine food chains from the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nfon, Erick; Cousins, Ian T.; Broman, Dag

    2008-01-01

    The trophic transfer of organic pollutants with varying physical chemical properties was determined in both a pelagic and benthic food chain using δ 15 N as a continuous variable for assessing trophic levels. The trophic transfer of organic pollutants through the entire food chain in terms of food chain magnification factors (FCMFs) was quantified from the slope of the regression between ln [concentration] and δ 15 N. Organic pollutants with statistically significant FCMFs > 1 were considered to biomagnify within the food chain, whereas those with FCMFs 1 were found for PCB congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the Baltic food chains whereas statistically significant FCMFs 15 N method suggested a food chain structure which was not consistent with the known dietary patterns of the species. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were additionally calculated as the ratio of the lipid normalized concentrations in the predator and prey species with adjustment for trophic level and were generally consistent with the FCMFs with BMF > 1 for PCBs and organochlorines

  17. Ecological assessment of oil-gas producing area in Kazakhstan zone of Caspian sea and using the bioremediation technology for cleaning of high level oil polluted sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigaliev, A.A.; Ishanova, N.E.; Bijazheva, S.M.; Novikova, A.; Bigaliev, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    A significant part of mineral raw material resources of Kazakhstan placed in the depth of the Caspian region, where more than 90% extracting of oil and natural gas, 100% balance store rare ground, 3.2% uranium, ore 0.3%, 90.5% sawn store concentrated. Last years, it takes intensive works by extraction of carbon raw materials in Kazakhstan sector of the Caspian sea. It brought to exceeding of coastal pollution at the North and middle the Caspian coastal pollution with oil products in average till 0.282 mg/l. Maximum meaning oil product pollution reaches 0.56 mg/l (which means exceeding of limited concentration on 11 times). How much money need to cover cost of remediation in real sites? Develop of assessment and monitoring procedures based on fate mechanisms for most of representative hydrocarbons in polluted soils. Step 1 - Collection of heavily polluted portions of soils, separation of hydrocarbons by cost efficient mechanical procedures and send HC rich material (HC>95%) to prepare of alternative fuel. Return of low HC content sand to project area (HC<5.0%). Step 2 - Development of low cost bioremediation procedures in areas transformed to moderately polluted site (HC<5% after removing of heavily polluted portions) with uniform HC content. We are needed to develop of coast efficiency approach for cleaning of high level oily polluted sites around urban areas in Kazakhstan new methodology to estimate polluted area and recover of pollution history, low cost bioremediation

  18. [Pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage waters of the sea area of Daya Bay and assessment on potential ecological risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shan-Nan; Li, Chun-Hou; Xu, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Ya-Yuan; Lin, Lin; Huang, Xiao-Ping

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to gain a clear understanding on the status of pollution by heavy metals in the petrochemical sewage and the potential ecological risk caused by heavy metal pollution in the sea area of Daya Bay. The contents and spatial distributions of heavy metals including Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, As and Hg in seawater, sediment and fishes collected from Daya Bay were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index (CPI) and ecological risk indexes (ERIs) were used to evaluate the contaminated severity and potential ecological risks of heavy metals in seawater and sediment. The results showed that the contents of these heavy metals, except for those of Zn and Pb, in several stations set in Daya Bay from 2011 to 2012 were relatively low, which were lower than the quality standard of class I according to the China National Standard Criteria for Seawater Quality, suggesting that the seawater in Daya Bay has not been polluted yet by these heavy metals. The average CPI of heavy metals in seawater during flooding season (0.72) was higher than that during dry season (0.38) whereas the average CPI of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (7.77) was higher than that during flooding season (5.70). Hg was found to be the primary contaminating heavy metal in sediment during dry season, which was followed by As and Zn whereas during flooding season, Hg was the primary contaminating metal in sediment, followed by Zn and Cu. The contents of these 7 heavy metals in fishes collected from the surveyed areas were lower than those of the standard requirements. A correlation analysis indicated that there were significant differences in the correlations between the midst of the heavy metals in sea water and the different periods. The ERIs of heavy metals in sediment during dry season (129.20) was higher than that during flooding season (102.86), and 25% of the sampling sites among all stations were under the risk of high-level alarm. The potential ERIs of heavy metals in sediment in

  19. Early life developmental effects of marine persistent organic pollutants on the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drs Anselmo, H.M.R.; Koerting, L.; Devito, S.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Dubbeldam, M.; Kwadijk, C.J.A.F.; Murk, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    A new 16-day echinoid early life stage (ELS) bioassay was developed to allow for prolonged observation of possible adverse effects during embryogenesis and larval development of the sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris. Subsequently, the newly developed bioassay was applied to study the effects of key

  20. Neutron activation investigation of the accumulation of some elements in Taraxacum officinale, resulting from environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulev, I.; Dzhingova, R.

    1985-01-01

    Taraxinum officinale (dandelion) have been proposed as a biological monitor of antropogenic toxic metals. The INAA has been used to determine the content of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Sb, Se, Zn, and atomic absorption spectroscopy - of Cu and Pb in leaf samples collected round a smelter, in a living quarter of a big city and high up in Rila mountains. A logarithmic dependence of the concentration of the elements on the distance from the emitter was found. The results have shown that the leaves of Taraxacum Officinale reflect the level of environmental pollution thus beeing a very suitable bioindicator for local pollution

  1. Training Course on Water Pollution. Red Sea & Gulf of Aden Programme (PERSGA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab Organization for Education and Science, Cairo (Egypt).

    This document presents a training course on water pollution developed by the staff of the National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt. This course, which is organized by the Arab League Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (ALECSO), is intended for Junior Bachelor of Science (B.S.) graduates from various Arab countries. The duration of the…

  2. Residence time of pollutants discharged in the Gulf of Kachchh, northwestern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patgaonkar, R.S.; Vethamony, P.; Lokesh, K.S.; Babu, M.T.

    A 2D Hydrodynamic-Particle Analysis model was applied to the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) to estimate the residence time of pollutants. The tidal currents in the Gulf have a strong E-W component, which prevents the material in the north being transported...

  3. Air pollution impacts due to petroleum extraction in the Norwegian Sea during the ACCESS aircraft campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuccella, P.; Thomas, J.L.; Law, K.S.; Raut, J.C.; Marelle, L.; Roiger, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Schlager, H.; Onishi, T.

    2017-01-01

    Emissions from oil/gas extraction activities in the Arctic are already important in certain regions and may increase as global warming opens up new opportunities for industrial development. Emissions from oil/gas extraction are sources of air pollutants, but large uncertainties exist with regard to

  4. Sea ice thermohaline dynamics and biogeochemistry in the Arctic Ocean: Empirical and model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Pedro; Meyer, Amelie; Olsen, Lasse M.; Kauko, Hanna M.; Assmy, Philipp; Rösel, Anja; Itkin, Polona; Hudson, Stephen R.; Granskog, Mats A.; Gerland, Sebastian; Sundfjord, Arild; Steen, Harald; Hop, Haakon; Cohen, Lana; Peterson, Algot K.; Jeffery, Nicole; Elliott, Scott M.; Hunke, Elizabeth C.; Turner, Adrian K.

    2017-07-01

    Large changes in the sea ice regime of the Arctic Ocean have occurred over the last decades justifying the development of models to forecast sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model (CICE) to simulate physical and biogeochemical properties at time scales of a few weeks and to use the model to analyze ice algal bloom dynamics in different types of ice. Ocean and atmospheric forcing data and observations of the evolution of the sea ice properties collected from 18 April to 4 June 2015, during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition, were used to test the CICE model. Our results show the following: (i) model performance is reasonable for sea ice thickness and bulk salinity; good for vertically resolved temperature, vertically averaged Chl a concentrations, and standing stocks; and poor for vertically resolved Chl a concentrations. (ii) Improving current knowledge about nutrient exchanges, ice algal recruitment, and motion is critical to improve sea ice biogeochemical modeling. (iii) Ice algae may bloom despite some degree of basal melting. (iv) Ice algal motility driven by gradients in limiting factors is a plausible mechanism to explain their vertical distribution. (v) Different ice algal bloom and net primary production (NPP) patterns were identified in the ice types studied, suggesting that ice algal maximal growth rates will increase, while sea ice vertically integrated NPP and biomass will decrease as a result of the predictable increase in the area covered by refrozen leads in the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Ocean Pollution as a Result of Onshore Offshore Petroleum Activities in the African Gulf of Guinea Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    increasing cases of pollution of farmlands, rivers, wells and the environment in general. Apart from all these, what is even becoming more worrisome is that none of all these oil firms operating in the region is able to account on how it disposes its industrial toxic waste generated as a result of its industrial activities within the region. Finally Geological strata are adversely destroyed by seismographic activities, Sea creatures are destroyed by oil pollution and Means of livelihood of revering dwellers are often threatened by pollution. RECOMMENDATIONS After identifying how the pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region is increasing in relation to the increasing petroleum activities, I have come up with the following suggestions/recommendations. 1. AFRICAN UNION RESOLUTION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) should use their capacity to be able to influence the African Union (AU) to pass a resolution banning the illegal dumping of radioactive waste, Gas flaring and Costal bunkering in this part of the world. 2. RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, in conjunction with the United Nations Environmental Agency, the International Atomic Energy Agency and with the corporation of the African Union should send team of researchers to come and investigate this trend on petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Guinea region and proffer possible solutions in checking the menace.

  6. Investigating the Marine Protected Areas most at risk of current-driven pollution in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, using a Lagrangian transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeche-Ellmann, Nicole C; Soomere, Tarmo

    2013-02-15

    The possibility of current-driven propagation of contaminants released along a major fairway polluting the Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Gulf of Finland, the Baltic Sea, is examined using a 3D circulation model, a Lagrangian transport model and statistics. Not surprisingly, the number of hits to the MPA decreases almost linearly with its distance from the fairway. In addition, the potential pollution released during a ship accident with the pollutants carried by currents may affect MPAs at very large distances. Typically, a fairway section approximately 125 km long (covering about 1/3 of the approximate 400-km-long gulf) may serve as a source of pollution for each MPA. The largest MPA (in the Eastern Gulf of Finland) may receive pollution from an approximately 210-km-long section (covering about 1/2 of the entire length of the gulf). This information may be useful in assisting maritime management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tracer investigations of natural and polluted sea sediment movement; Badanie traserowe ruchu naturalnych i zanieczyszczonych osadow morskich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruszak, Z. [Polska Akademia Nauk, Gdansk (Poland). Inst. Budownictwa Wodnego; Wierzchnicki, R. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Results of tracer investigations and bottom sediment movement analysis (natural and polluted) performed world-wide have been shown. Polish investigations have been compared to these results. A critical estimation and analysis of particular elements of sediment movement: thickness of the drag layer and various characteristics of bottom transport evaluated in different time-space scales has been performed. 14 refs, 9 figs.

  8. Effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Rasheed, Shahzad; Meo, Imran Mu; Khan, Muhammad Mujahid; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Oil spill in sea water represents a huge environmental disaster for marine life and humans in the vicinity. The aim was to investigate the effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water. The present study was conducted under the supervision of Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period July 2003 - December 2004. This was a comparative study of spirometry in 31 apparently healthy, non smoking, male workers, exposed to crude oil spill environment during the oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with similar number of male, non smoking control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air for periods longer than 15 days showed a significant reduction in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow in 25-25% (FEF25-75%) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). Air environment polluted due to crude oil spill into sea water caused impaired lung function and this impairment was associated with dose response effect of duration of exposure to air polluted by crude oil spill into sea water.

  9. Technogenic and natural radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the Sea of Azov: regularities of distribution and application to the study of pollutants accumulation chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, A. N.; Fedorov, Yu A.; Yaroslavtsev, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    The study of pollutants vertical distribution in seabed sediments is of high interest as they conserve the information on the chronology of pollution level in the past. In the present paper, the results of layer by layer study of Cs-137, Am-241, Pb-210 specific activities as well as concentrations of petroleum components, lead and mercury in 48 sediment cores of the Sea of Azov, the Don River and the Kuban River are examined. In most sediment cores, two peaks of Cs-137 and Am-241 are detected. The upper of them was formed due to the Chernobyl accident in 1986 and the other is related to the global nuclear fallout of 1960s. The specific activity of naturally occurring atmospheric Lead-210 decreases exponentially with the sediment core depth. However, it is influenced by fluvial run-off, coastal erosion, Radium-226 and Radon-222 decay. The data on the radionuclides distribution in the seabed sediments is used to date them. According to the results of dating, most of petroleum components, lead and mercury quantities are concentrated in the upper sediment layer formed in the last 50 to 70 years i.e. in the period of the most important anthropogenic pressure.

  10. Lipofuscin-like pigment in gonads of Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius as a potential biomarker of marine pollution: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaschenko, Marina A; Zhadan, Peter M; Aminin, Dmitry L; Almyashova, Tatyana N

    2012-05-01

    Accumulation of lipofuscin-like pigments (LLPs) has been shown to be an appropriate index of both age and stress in some aquatic invertebrates. In the present study, LLP was quantified by measuring its autofluorescence intensity (ex 450 nm/em 512 nm) in nutritive phagocytes (NPs) of sea urchins Strongylocentrotus intermedius inhabiting polluted and relatively clean areas of Japan Sea. To avoid variations in LLP content related to sea urchin reproductive condition, only developing gonads with acini occupied mostly by NPs were used for LLP quantification as well as semiquantitative histopathological analysis. LLP concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 4.57 ± 0.53% area fraction in female gonads and from 0.0 to 4.61 ± 0.35% in male gonads. The presence of specimens with extremely high LLP concentrations (>1.5%) in all examined samples, including specimens from the reference station, as well as the absence of strong correlations between LLP concentrations and several parameters related to pollution (heavy-metal concentrations in sea urchin gonads and concentrations of heavy metals, DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, and total petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments), allow us to conclude that LLP content in sea urchin NPs can not be used as a biomarker in marine pollution monitoring.

  11. Determination of pollution for the effect of sea salt aerosols corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayasu, Fumio; Umehara, Toshihiro; Mizutani, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Kiyokazu

    2007-01-01

    All of 15 nuclear power plants in Fukui Prefecture are located in the Japan Sea Coast. Corrosion is strongly influenced by material and environmental factors. We installed the salt damage experimental yard at Awara sea coast in March, 2006. We are doing the open air test, sheltered test without filter and with filter. The corrosivity of carbon steel of winter was higher than it of summer at Awara facility. The measurement of chloride deposition rate was done by the dry gauze method. The correlation between chloride deposition rate and the average velocity of the wind was found. The correlation between chloride deposition rate and the average rainfall was a little complicate. It means the chloride deposition rate has maximum value at a certain rainfall amount. No other clear relation was found. (author)

  12. Windscale experiment. A study of Windscale's pollution of the Irish Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackith, R

    1984-01-01

    The discharge of radioactive waste into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant in Cumbria is discussed from an Irish viewpoint. A history of accidents at the plant is reviewed, and past, present and future levels of discharge to the environment are outlined. The effect on the Irish population of discharges to the marine environment is evaluated by consideration of the food chain and the exposure pathways to man, in particular the concentration of radioactive caesium and plutonium in the flesh of fish in the Irish Sea. The general health effects attributed to radiation exposures are given, and a cluster of Downs Syndrome babies born to mothers who were at the same school in Co. Louth is attributed to increased exposure during the 1957 fire at the Windscale plant. The author concludes that, because of military implications and the need for plutonium for nulcear weapons, the reprocessing plant will continue to operate, but with greatly reduced levels of discharges permitted.

  13. Review of methods of detection of oil pollution in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgul, H; Pawlak, B

    1981-01-01

    In connection with the necessary of detection, recognition, and identification of oil spills in the sea, existing and prospective contactless methods of detecting oil on the water surface are reviewed, including such methods as optical (in IR, visible, and UV, including lasers, bands), radar with the use of fluorescence and interference phenomena; aerial and space photography and shooting. Parameters of instruments that use the optical and radar methods, including CO/sub 2/-, nitrogen and helium-cadmium lasers, are presented.

  14. Biomagnification of persistent organic pollutants in a deep-sea, temperate food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Herrero, Laura; Fernández, Mario; Gómara, Belén; Acuña, José Luis

    2017-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in a temperate, deep-sea ecosystem, the Avilés submarine Canyon (AC; Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay). There was an increase of contaminant concentration with the trophic level of the organisms, as calculated from stable nitrogen isotope data (δ 15 N). Such biomagnification was only significant for the pelagic food web and its magnitude was highly dependent on the type of top predators included in the analysis. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for PCB-153 in the pelagic food web (spanning four trophic levels) was 6.2 or 2.2, depending on whether homeotherm top predators (cetaceans and seabirds) were included or not in the analysis, respectively. Since body size is significantly correlated with δ 15 N, it can be used as a proxy to estimate trophic magnification, what can potentially lead to a simple and convenient method to calculate the TMF. In spite of their lower biomagnification, deep-sea fishes showed higher concentrations than their shallower counterparts, although those differences were not significant. In summary, the AC fauna exhibits contaminant levels comparable or lower than those reported in other systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Estimating sediment accumulation rates in Manila Bay, a marine pollution hot spot in the Seas of East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sta Maria, E J; Siringan, F P; Bulos, A dM; Sombrito, E Z

    2009-01-01

    The GEF/UNDP/IMO/PEMSEA project identifies Manila Bay as among the marine pollution hot spots in the Seas of East Asia. (210)Pb dating of its sediment can provide a historical perspective of its pollution loading. However, the validity of (210)Pb dating in a complex dynamic coastal system of Manila Bay may come into question. Land-based sediment input can be high and physical and biological processes can possibly disturb the sediment layers. In this report, the (210)Pb profiles of sediment cores from different parts of the bay are presented. The linear sedimentation rates are shown to be higher in the recent past and are also variable across the bay. The largest change in sedimentation rate, coincided with the occurrence of a volcanic eruption in 1991 and is shown by applying a variant of the CIC model in sedimentation rate calculations. The data suggest that (210)Pb dating can be useful in estimating relative magnitudes of sedimentation rates, even in a complex dynamic coastal system like Manila Bay.

  16. Electrochemical chloride extraction of a beam polluted by chlorides after 40 years in the sea

    OpenAIRE

    BOUTEILLER, Véronique; LAPLAUD, André; MALOULA, Aurélie; MORELLE, René Stéphane; DUCHESNE, Béatrice; MORIN, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    A beam element, naturally polluted by chlorides after 40 years of a marine tidal exposure, has been treated by electrochemical chloride extraction. The chloride profiles, before and after treatment, show that free chlorides are extrated with an efficiency of 70 % close to the steel, 50 % in the intermediate cover and only 5 % at the concrete surface. From the electrochemical characterizations (before, after, 1, 2 and 17 months after treatment), the steel potential values can, semehow, indicat...

  17. Severity and Susceptibility Beliefs Associated with Urban Air Pollution: Results of a Qualitative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Sala, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report we present the results of a qualitative study based on recombined focus groups with lay citizens. The main objective is to analyze individuals’ beliefs on urban air pollution and perceived benefits and barriers of some self-protective actions, such as using special masks, avoidance of polluted streets, etc. The analytical framework on which the study is based is the Health Belief Model, whose basic idea is that it is more likely that individuals take actions to protect themselves if they think they are potentially susceptible to a serious threat to your health, if they think adopting certain actions has advantages, and if they think there are no significant barriers for such conduct. A secondary objective is to explore the perception of different existing materials to inform the public about air pollution. The results of the study are intended to contribute to the design of interventions aimed at reducing health impacts of urban air pollution and, specifically, to the design of messages in the context of information campaigns on health and environmental risk.

  18. Oil pollution in the seas around India and application of remote sensing for its detection and monitoring

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fondekar, S.P.

    beam of microwave radia tion at the sea surface and measuring the strength of the reflected signal. Oil slicks can be detected because they damp out capillary waves and reduce the amount of backscatter and as a result oil appears as a dark area...

  19. Biochemical modifications in Pinus pinaster Ait. as a result of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquaviva, Rosaria; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Iauk, Liliana; Russo, Alessandra; Savoca, Francesca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Di Giacomo, Claudia

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to chemical pollution can cause significant damage to plants by imposing conditions of oxidative stress. Plants combat oxidative stress by inducing antioxidant metabolites, enzymatic scavengers of activated oxygen and heat shock proteins. The accumulation of these proteins, in particular heat shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase, is correlated with the acquisition of thermal and chemical adaptations and protection against oxidative stress. In this study, we used Pinus pinaster Ait. collected in the areas of Priolo and Aci Castello representing sites with elevated pollution and reference conditions, respectively. The presence of heavy metals and the levels of markers of oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxide levels, thiol groups, superoxide dismutase activity and expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase) were evaluated, and we measured in field-collected needles the response to environmental pollution. P. pinaster Ait. collected from a site characterized by industrial pollution including heavy metals had elevated stress response as indicated by significantly elevated lipid hydroperoxide levels and decreased thiol groups. In particular, we observed that following a chronic chemical exposure, P. pinaster Ait. showed significantly increased expression of heat shock protein 70, heme oxygenase and superoxide dismutase. This increased expression may have protective effects against oxidative stress and represents an adaptative cellular defence mechanism. These results suggest that evaluation of heme oxygenase, heat shock protein 70 and superoxide dismutase expression in P. pinaster Ait. could represent a useful tool for monitoring environmental contamination of a region and to better understand mechanisms involved in plant defence and stress tolerance.

  20. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K.; Aittoniemi, P.; Kaessi, T. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  1. Assessing PCB pollution in the Baltic Sea - An equilibrium partitioning based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lang, Susann-Cathrin; Mayer, Philipp; Hursthouse, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Sediment cores and bottom water samples from across the Baltic Sea region were analyzed for freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree), total sediment concentrations (CT) and the dissolved aqueous fraction in water of seven indicator PCBs. Ex-situ equilibrium sampling of sediment samples was conducted...... with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coated glass fibers that were analyzed by automated thermal desorption GC-MS, which yielded PCB concentrations in the fiber coating (CPDMS). Measurements of CPDMS and CT were then applied to determine (i) spatially resolved freely dissolved PCB concentrations; (ii) baseline toxicity...

  2. Air pollution abatement around the Baltic Sea. From a national to an international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kankaanpaeae, K; Aittoniemi, P; Kaessi, T [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Environmental burden and environmental protection activities, together with the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction and the economic possibilities of financing the environmental investments, vary greatly between the countries around the Baltic Sea. The objective of this presentation is to outline solutions based on a new approach to emission reflection, larger than the national scale. Especially the applications of the recently introduced Joint Implementation (JI) principle will be discussed. The presentation mainly deals with the acidic sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions related to power production. (author)

  3. Updating the results of glacier contribution to the sea level change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyurgerov, Mark B.; Abdalati, Waleed Dr. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    I have completed an update of global glacier volume change. All data of glacier annual mass balances, surface area over the period 1945/46 till 2004, outside the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets were included in this update. As the result global glacier volume change have been calculated, also in terms of glacier contribution to sea level change. These results were sent to Working Group 1 and 2 of IPCC-4 as the basis for modeling of sea level towards the end of 2100. In this study I have concentrated on studying glacier systems of different scales, from primary (e.g. Devon ice cap) to regional (e.g. Canadian Arctic), continental scale (e,g., entire Arctic), and global (e.g., change in glacier volume and contribution to sea level rise).

  4. Introduction to Part 3 - Pollution and protection of the seas: radioactive materials, heavy metals and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinne, O.

    1984-01-01

    In the introduction to Vol 3. Pt 5. of Marine Ecology, the essentials of ocean management and pollution control are discussed. Human activities reducing the quality of life in the marine environment and causing negative effects on human health, resources and marine ecosystems must be controlled. In particular there must be international cooperation and control in the disposal of radioactive wastes, oils and pesticides and the discharge of organic chemicals. Long-term ecological research, monitoring and legislation are necessary to ensure the maximum degree of ecosystem protection. (U.K.)

  5. Morphological changes within Florida Bay as a result of sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    Data from Florida Bay indicates that from 10,000 year BP to 6000 BP, the rate of sea level rise averaged about 10 mm/yr. The rate slowed at the end of this period flooding the shallow shelves surrounding the reef platforms of the western Atlantic. The relative flat South Florida shelf, because of its slight tilt to the southwest is an ideal local to assess the effects of this flooding. From 6000 BP to the present, numerous banks were formed within Florida Bay. A morphological model of bank formation based on the sea level oscillations was constructed from analysis of over 120 cores. These cores record sedimentological changes which are correlated to climatic events. In the central bay, the sediment accumulation was controlled by variations in rate of progressive sea-level rise. The Key West sea-level record shows that sea level has been rising incrementally over the last century. Between 1931 and 1950, sea level rose at a rate of 5 mm/yr. After 1950, it remained stable until 1971, when it again began to rise, but at a rate of 3 mm/yr. On the leeward side of mud banks, these variations resulted in shifts in sediment- accumulation rates, with accretion increasing during rising sea level and decreasing during stable periods. Between late 1970 and early 1972, a sharp jump in sea-level rise occurred that was approximately 10 cm higher than the preceding period. This jump coincided with a strongly positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a la Niña (negative ENSO), and a negative Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Water driven northward into Florida Bay eroded banks along the northern coastline, increased sediment accumulation in the northern lakes, and increased accretion rates on the banks. In addition to the sedimentological variations in the central portion of the bay, there was significant changes along the northern fringe. Around 1950, the northern fringe of the bay morphed from a fresh water environment to a marine environment. As a result, carbonate production

  6. Occurrence of persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from the Natuna Island, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-15

    Five marine fish species were collected from the Natuna Island, South China Sea to investigate the occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs in marine fish ranged from 2.85 to 7.82, 14.3 to 48.1, and 7.99 to 40.3 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Higher concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs were observed in Snakefish (Trachinocephalus myops), which might be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. PCBs were the predominant POPs in all marine fish, followed by DDTs and PBDEs. BDE 47 and PCB 153 were the predominant congener of PBDEs and PCBs, respectively. Compositional distribution of DDTs indicated the possible presence of fresh input sources around the Natuna Island. The ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT being less than 1 in fish samples suggested that DDT contributions from dicofol seemed considerably low. New input sources of DDT in South China Sea are worth further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollutants from the Gulf War serve as water mass tracer in the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plähn, Olaf; Rhein, Monika; Fine, Rana A.; Sullivan, Kevin F.

    In 1995, concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbon compound CFC-12 in the outflow water from the Persian Gulf were 8-40 fold higher than normally caused by air-sea gas exchange. At that time, the anomaly was restricted to the Gulf of Oman north of 20°N, while in 1998 the signal had spread southwestward to 12°N. The sources of this CFC-12 input of about 6400 kg are most likely the fire extinguishers and solvents used during and after the Gulf War in 1991. This CFC-12 signal is a new feature of the Persian Gulf Water (PGW) which can be used to track and quantify the spreading and dilution of PGW in the northern Indian Ocean. The contaminated PGW spreads southward with a mean velocity of 0.02-0.025 m s-1. At 20°N, the anomaly is diluted by a factor of more than two, and east of the island Socotra by a factor of four. A mean transport of less than 0.5·106 m³ s-1 is calculated for PGW assuming a mean dilution rate of 30% from the source signal in the Gulf of Oman to the western Arabian Sea.

  8. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  9. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P; Roerdam Olesen, H; Bossi, R; Stubkjaer, J

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  10. Variability and trends in the Arctic Sea ice cover: Results from different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Meier, Walter N.; Gersten, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Variability and trend studies of sea ice in the Arctic have been conducted using products derived from the same raw passive microwave data but by different groups using different algorithms. This study provides consistency assessment of four of the leading products, namely, Goddard Bootstrap (SB2), Goddard NASA Team (NT1), EUMETSAT Ocean and Sea Ice Satellite Application Facility (OSI-SAF 1.2), and Hadley HadISST 2.2 data in evaluating variability and trends in the Arctic sea ice cover. All four provide generally similar ice patterns but significant disagreements in ice concentration distributions especially in the marginal ice zone and adjacent regions in winter and meltponded areas in summer. The discrepancies are primarily due to different ways the four techniques account for occurrences of new ice and meltponding. However, results show that the different products generally provide consistent and similar representation of the state of the Arctic sea ice cover. Hadley and NT1 data usually provide the highest and lowest monthly ice extents, respectively. The Hadley data also show the lowest trends in ice extent and ice area at -3.88%/decade and -4.37%/decade, respectively, compared to an average of -4.36%/decade and -4.57%/decade for all four. Trend maps also show similar spatial distribution for all four with the largest negative trends occurring at the Kara/Barents Sea and Beaufort Sea regions, where sea ice has been retreating the fastest. The good agreement of the trends especially with updated data provides strong confidence in the quantification of the rate of decline in the Arctic sea ice cover.Plain Language SummaryThe declining Arctic sea ice cover, especially in the summer, has been the center of attention in recent years. Reports on the sea ice cover have been provided by different institutions using basically the same set of satellite data but different techniques for estimating key parameters such as ice concentration, ice extent, and ice area. In

  11. Sustainable manure management in the Baltic Sea Region - results, cases and project recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybirk, Knud; Luostarinen, S; Hamelin, Lorie

    This magazine contains the major results, conclusions and recommendations of the project Baltic Forum for Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Manure Management (Baltic Manure) which via co-funding from Interreg Baltic Sea Region programme has been a Flagship project in the EU Strategy...

  12. Preliminary Results from Second Phase Sea Testing of the Wave Dragon Prototype Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Hans Chr.; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006 the prototype Wave Dragon has been redeployed to a more energetic site in Nissum Bredning an inland sea in Western Denmark. This has followed a period of renovation of many aspects of the device which have resulted in 20% higher energy output. This paper describes the preliminary...

  13. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the project of law, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the adhesion of France to the 1996 protocol of the 1972 convention about the prevention of sea pollution resulting from the immersion of wastes; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant l'adhesion de la France au protocole de 1996 a la convention de 1972 sur la prevention de la pollution des mers resultant de l'immersion de dechets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    The protocol adopted in London (UK) on November 7, 1996 aims at updating the London convention of December 29, 1972 about the control of all pollution sources that can affect the marine environment by immersion. The pollution sources in concern are: the organo-halogenated compounds, the metals like mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead, copper, zinc etc., the plastics and other non-destructible synthetic materials, the crude oil and petroleum products, the highly radioactive wastes, the biological and chemical materials used for weapons, the cyanide and fluoride compounds etc.. The new protocol deepens the London convention by the addition of two main environmental principles: the precaution principle and the polluter-pays principle. However, these rules remain largely dependent of the good will of the states signatories to the protocol. This report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs stresses on the remaining gaps and limitations of the new protocol before giving its agreement for the adoption of the project of law submitted by the Senate for the adhesion of France to this protocol. (J.S.)

  14. The pollution reduction technology program for can-annular combustor engines - Description and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, R.; Fiorentino, A. J.; Diehl, L.

    1976-01-01

    Pollutant reduction and performance characteristics were determined for three successively more advanced combustor concepts. Program Element I consisted of minor modifications to the current production JT8D combustor and fuel system to evaluate means of improved fuel preparation and changes to the basic airflow distribution. Element II addressed versions of the two-staged Vorbix (vortex burning and mixing) combustor and represented a moderate increase in hardware complexity and difficulty of development. The concept selected for Element III employed vaporized fuel as a means of achieving minimum emission levels and represented the greatest difficulty of development and adaptation to the JT8D engine. Test results indicate that the Element I single-stage combustors were capable of dramatic improvement in idle pollutants. The multistage combustors evaluated in Program Elements II and III simultaneously reduced CO, THC and NOx emissions, but were unable to satisfy the current 1979 EPA standards.

  15. Load estimation and assessment of land-based pollution for Quanzhou Bay and their relevance to the Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W. L.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, J.; Xiao, J. M.; Lu, X. X.; Lin, J.; Huang, P.; Cai, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Total Quantity Control of Pollutants Discharged into the Sea (TQCPS) Program belonged to the Public Science and Technology Research Funds Projects of Ocean in China, launched in 2008. As one of the most important and typical demonstration cases of the TQCPS Program, a full investigation of the land-based pollutions discharges around Quanzhou Bay, China developed the total input for three main environmental factors (NH3-N, TP, COD) which were estimated and quantified in 2008 and 2012, respectively. Combined with the trend of seawater quality changes in Quanzhou Bay in the same periods, the effects of the program's implementation were then evaluated. On the whole, by using the basic survey data and export coefficient method, the total amounts of NH3-N, TP and COD discharged into the bay were estimated to be approximately 888.3, 130.6 and 14527.4 t/a in 2008, and 1518.6, 558.8 and 19986.7 t/a in 2012, respectively, where the percentage of the discharge from domestic sources (46.5% in 2008 and 45.2% in 2012) was generally higher than that from the other sources. Based on the characteristic of geography and administrative division, the land areas around the bay were divided into three parts: the south coast region (SCR), the west coast region (WCR), and the north coast region (NCR). The SCR and WCR accounted for 59.2 and 35.4% of the COD loads, and 49.2 and 48.0% of NH3-N loads in 2008. The NCR contributed less of the industrial pollution, but most to domestic pollution (54.1%), followed by 26.2% in the SCR in 2012. The contributions of the discharge from different land areas to the pollution of Quanzhou Bay were found to be differed in 2008 and 2012. Due to the difference in the levels of the economic development among these three areas, the discharge of pollutants from the north coast was much lower than that from the other two parts in 2008; however, following our suggestion of the moderation and optimization of the industrial distribution and the sewage

  16. Geographical distribution and risk assessment of persistent organic pollutants in golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) from the northern South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Sun, Yu-Xin; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Yao, Zi-Wei; Wang, You-Shao; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-10-01

    Fish are often used as good bioindicators to monitor the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on different scales in recent years. Forty-five golden threads (Nemipterus virgatus) were collected from six sampling sites in the northern South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs ranged from 1.3-36.0, 2.3-76.5, 8.3-228 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. The highest PBDEs and DDTs concentrations were found in golden threads from Shantou, owing to the intensive electronic waste recycling activities and rapid development of agriculture. Samples from Haikou had the highest levels of PCBs, probably due to the existence of many shipbuilding yards in the past years. The concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were found in a decreasing trend from east to west and from north to south, while DDTs concentrations had no obvious trend in the distribution. PCBs were the most prevalent contaminants in Xiamen and Yangjiang, while DDTs were the dominant compounds at the other four sampling sites. Different profiles of POPs at each sampling site may attribute to different pollution sources in the northern SCS. Ratios of (DDD + DDE)/DDTs in golden threads suggested the probability of fresh input of DDT in the northern SCS. The estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs and DDTs were 0.030-0.069, 0.167-0.258 and 0.105-1.88 ng/kg/day, respectively, which were significantly lower than the acceptable daily intake, suggesting that consumption of golden threads from the northern SCS would not subject the residents in the coastal areas of SCS to significant health risk.

  17. On the classification of mixed floating pollutants on the Yellow Sea of China by using a quad-polarized SAR image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaochen; Shao, Yun; Tian, Wei; Li, Kun

    2018-06-01

    This study explored different methodologies using a C-band RADARSAT-2 quad-polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image located over China's Yellow Sea to investigate polarization decomposition parameters for identifying mixed floating pollutants from a complex ocean background. It was found that solitary polarization decomposition did not meet the demand for detecting and classifying multiple floating pollutants, even after applying a polarized SAR image. Furthermore, considering that Yamaguchi decomposition is sensitive to vegetation and the algal variety Enteromorpha prolifera, while H/A/alpha decomposition is sensitive to oil spills, a combination of parameters which was deduced from these two decompositions was proposed for marine environmental monitoring of mixed floating sea surface pollutants. A combination of volume scattering, surface scattering, and scattering entropy was the best indicator for classifying mixed floating pollutants from a complex ocean background. The Kappa coefficients for Enteromorpha prolifera and oil spills were 0.7514 and 0.8470, respectively, evidence that the composite polarized parameters based on quad-polarized SAR imagery proposed in this research is an effective monitoring method for complex marine pollution.

  18. Some Results on Sea Ice Rheology for the Seasonal Ice Zone, Obtained from the Deformation Field of Sea Ice Drift Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, T.; Kimura, N.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice rheology which relates sea ice stress to the large-scale deformation of the ice cover has been a big issue to numerical sea ice modelling. At present the treatment of internal stress within sea ice area is based mostly on the rheology formulated by Hibler (1979), where the whole sea ice area behaves like an isotropic and plastic matter under the ordinary stress with the yield curve given by an ellipse with an aspect ratio (e) of 2, irrespective of sea ice area and horizontal resolution of the model. However, this formulation was initially developed to reproduce the seasonal variation of the perennial ice in the Arctic Ocean. As for its applicability to the seasonal ice zones (SIZ), where various types of sea ice are present, it still needs validation from observational data. In this study, the validity of this rheology was examined for the Sea of Okhotsk ice, typical of the SIZ, based on the AMSR-derived ice drift pattern in comparison with the result obtained for the Beaufort Sea. To examine the dependence on a horizontal scale, the coastal radar data operated near the Hokkaido coast, Japan, were also used. Ice drift pattern was obtained by a maximum cross-correlation method with grid spacings of 37.5 km from the 89 GHz brightness temperature of AMSR-E for the entire Sea of Okhotsk and the Beaufort Sea and 1.3 km from the coastal radar for the near-shore Sea of Okhotsk. The validity of this rheology was investigated from a standpoint of work rate done by deformation field, following the theory of Rothrock (1975). In analysis, the relative rates of convergence were compared between theory and observation to check the shape of yield curve, and the strain ellipse at each grid cell was estimated to see the horizontal variation of deformation field. The result shows that the ellipse of e=1.7-2.0 as the yield curve represents the observed relative conversion rates well for all the ice areas. Since this result corresponds with the yield criterion by Tresca and

  19. Atmospheric trace metal pollution in the Naples urban area based on results from moss and lichen bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, S.; Adamo, P.; Sorbo, S.; Vingiani, S.

    2005-01-01

    The results of trace element content analysed in Sphagnum capillifolium and Pseudevernia furfuracea exposed in bags in 1999 are reconsidered to evaluate the reliability of moss and lichen transplants to detect urban trace element atmospheric pollution, using Naples as a case example. After 4 months' exposure, trace element concentrations were at least twice as high as the pre-exposure values and in general higher in Sphagnum than in Pseudevernia. Moss samples were enriched in the following order: As = Cu > Mo > Pb > V > Co > Cr > Zn; lichen samples in the order: Mo > Cu > As = Co = Ni > V > Pb. Based on the calculation of a cumulative load factor, all sites located along the coast had higher trace element loads compared to sites in the hilly inland area. Complementary SEM, TEM and EDS observations showed, despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, the recurrent presence of particulate matter in moss and lichen, indicating the considerable presence of dust in the urban atmosphere which, according to chemical composition, may be due both to anthropogenic and natural sources such as volcanic rock and soil and sea salts. - Despite significant damage to tissue and cell integrity, moss and lichen in bags efficiently intercept airborne trace elements

  20. Estimating the uncertainty of damage costs of pollution: A simple transparent method and typical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, Joseph V.; Rabl, Ari

    2008-01-01

    Whereas the uncertainty of environmental impacts and damage costs is usually estimated by means of a Monte Carlo calculation, this paper shows that most (and in many cases all) of the uncertainty calculation involves products and/or sums of products and can be accomplished with an analytic solution which is simple and transparent. We present our own assessment of the component uncertainties and calculate the total uncertainty for the impacts and damage costs of the classical air pollutants; results for a Monte Carlo calculation for the dispersion part are also shown. The distribution of the damage costs is approximately lognormal and can be characterized in terms of geometric mean μ g and geometric standard deviation σ g , implying that the confidence interval is multiplicative. We find that for the classical air pollutants σ g is approximately 3 and the 68% confidence interval is [μ g / σ g , μ g σ g ]. Because the lognormal distribution is highly skewed for large σ g , the median is significantly smaller than the mean. We also consider the case where several lognormally distributed damage costs are added, for example to obtain the total damage cost due to all the air pollutants emitted by a power plant, and we find that the relative error of the sum can be significantly smaller than the relative errors of the summands. Even though the distribution for such sums is not exactly lognormal, we present a simple lognormal approximation that is quite adequate for most applications

  1. Residential Air Pollution, Road Traffic, Greenness and Maternal Hypertension: Results from GINIplus and LISAplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jendrossek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The public health burden of hypertension is high, but its relationship with long-term residential air pollution, road traffic, and greenness remains unclear. Objective: To investigate associations between residential air pollution, traffic, greenness, and hypertension among mothers. Methods: Information on doctor-diagnosed maternal hypertension was collected at the 15-year follow-up of two large population-based multicenter German birth cohorts—GINIplus and LISAplus (n=3063. Residential air pollution was modelled by land use regression models within the ESCAPE and universal kriging within the APMoSPHERE projects. Road traffic was defined as traffic load on major roads within a 100-m buffer around residences. Vegetation level (ie, greenness was defined as the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in a 500-m buffer around residences and was assessed from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. All the exposure variables were averaged over three residential addresses during the last 10 years and categorized into tertiles or dichotomized. The individual associations between each of the exposure variables and hypertension were assessed using logistic regression analysis. Results: No significant and consistent associations across different levels of adjustment were observed between the exposures of interest and hypertension. The only significant estimate was found with coarse particulate matter concentrations (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.74; 3rd vs 1st tertile among mothers residing in the Wesel area. No significant associations were observed with traffic load or greenness. Conclusion: This study does not provide evidence on detrimental effects of air pollution and road traffic or beneficial effects of greenness on hypertension among German adults.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in marine fish from Yongxing Island, South China Sea: levels, composition profiles and human dietary exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hao, Qing; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Shuai-Long; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-03-01

    Little data is available on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in marine organisms from South China Sea (SCS). Five marine fish species were collected from Yongxing Island, SCS to investigate the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs concentrations ranged from 2.0-117, 6.3-199, and 9.7-5831 ng g(-1) lw, respectively. In general, contaminants measured in this study were at the lower end of the global range. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs were significantly correlated in fish samples, implying that PBDEs are as prevalent as PCBs in Yongxing Island. Among the five fish species studied, yellow striped goatfish had the highest concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs, probably attributed to its different living and feeding habits. The contaminant distribution pattern indicated that agrochemical source is more important than industrial source in Yongxing Island, SCS. The average estimated daily intakes of PBDEs, PCBs, and DDTs via fish consumption by local residents in the coastal areas of South China ranged from 1.42-5.91, 3.20-13.3, and 8.08-33.6 ng d(-1), which were lower than those in previous studies, suggesting that consumption of marine fish in Yongxing Island, SCS, might not subject local residents to significant health risk as far as POPs are concerned. This is the first study to report the occurrence of POPs in marine biota from SCS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Revisiting global mean sea level budget closure : Preliminary results from an integrative study within ESA's Climate Change Initiative -Sea level Budget Closure-Climate Change Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The global mean sea level budget is revisited over two time periods: the entire altimetry era, 1993-2015 and the Argo/GRACE era, 2003-2015 using the version '0' of sea level components estimated by the SLBC-CCI teams. The SLBC-CCI is an European Space Agency's project on sea level budget closure using CCI products. Over the entire altimetry era, the sea level budget was performed as the sum of steric and mass components that include contributions from total land water storage, glaciers, ice sheets (Greenland and Antarctica) and total water vapor content. Over the Argo/GRACE era, it was performed as the sum of steric and GRACE based ocean mass. Preliminary budget analysis performed over the altimetry era (1993-2015) results in a trend value of 2.83 mm/yr. On comparison with the observed altimetry-based global mean sea level trend over the same period (3.03 ± 0.5 mm/yr), we obtain a residual of 0.2 mm/yr. In spite of a residual of 0.2 mm/yr, the sea level budget result obtained over the altimetry era is very promising as this has been performed using the version '0' of the sea level components. Furthermore, uncertainties are not yet included in this study as uncertainty estimation for each sea level component is currently underway. Over the Argo/GRACE era (2003-2015), the trend estimated from the sum of steric and GRACE ocean mass amounts to 2.63 mm/yr while that observed by satellite altimetry is 3.37 mm/yr, thereby leaving a residual of 0.7 mm/yr. Here an ensemble GRACE ocean mass data (mean of various available GRACE ocean mass data) was used for the estimation. Using individual GRACE data results in a residual range of 0.5 mm/yr -1.1 mm/yr. Investigations are under way to determine the cause of the vast difference between the observed sea level and the sea level obtained from steric and GRACE ocean mass. One main suspect is the impact of GRACE data gaps on sea level budget analysis due to lack of GRACE data over several months since 2011. The current action plan

  4. Escherichia coli pollution in a Baltic Sea lagoon: a model-based source and spatial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippmann, Bianca; Schernewski, Gerald; Gräwe, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Tourism around the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon, at the southern Baltic coast, has a long tradition, is an important source of income and shall be further developed. Insufficient bathing water quality and frequent beach closings, especially in the Oder river mouth, hamper tourism development. Monitoring data gives only an incomplete picture of Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria sources, spatial transport patterns, risks and does neither support an efficient bathing water quality management nor decision making. We apply a 3D ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model to analyse pollution events and to obtain spatial E. coli pollution maps based on scenario simulations. Model results suggests that insufficient sewage treatment in the city of Szczecin is the major source of faecal pollution, even for beaches 20km downstream. E. coli mortality rate and emission intensity are key parameters for concentration levels downstream. Wind and river discharge play a modifying role. Prevailing southwestern wind conditions cause E. coli transport along the eastern coast and favour high concentration levels at the beaches. Our simulations indicate that beach closings in 2006 would not have been necessary according to the new EU-Bathing Water Quality Directive (2006/7/EC). The implementation of the new directive will, very likely, reduce the number of beach closings, but not the risk for summer tourists. Model results suggest, that a full sewage treatment in Szczecin would allow the establishment of new beaches closer to the city (north of Dabie lake). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Results from the implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic sea ice rheology in HadCM3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Connolley

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results of an implementation of the Elastic Viscous Plastic (EVP sea ice dynamics scheme into the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model HadCM3. Although the large-scale simulation of sea ice in HadCM3 is quite good with this model, the lack of a full dynamical model leads to errors in the detailed representation of sea ice and limits our confidence in its future predictions. We find that introducing the EVP scheme results in a worse initial simulation of the sea ice. This paper documents various enhancements made to improve the simulation, resulting in a sea ice simulation that is better than the original HadCM3 scheme overall. Importantly, it is more physically based and provides a more solid foundation for future development. We then consider the interannual variability of the sea ice in the new model and demonstrate improvements over the HadCM3 simulation.

  6. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  7. The Carling 91-92 programme on the CFB unit main results of gaseous pollutant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, E.; Masniere, P.

    1993-04-01

    After a description of the metrology methods and equipment used, the main results of gaseous pollutant emissions measured during a test programme at the circulation fluidized bed boiler of Carling (France), are presented. Effects of the bag filter and of the Ca/S mol ratio on SO 2 emissions are presented. The variations in NO and N 2 O emissions with variations of operating parameters, such as the excess air and the temperature at the bottom of the combustion chamber, are studied. The special case of operation at part load is also briefly discussed. 11 figs., 7 tabs., 5 refs

  8. System of environmental and economic accounting for water pollution and the result analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yarong

    2017-10-01

    With the gradual acceleration of China's industrialization process, the environmental pollution caused by industrial production is more and more serious, especially water pollution. To construct a System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution, to a certain extent, can promote the green development of national economy in China. The System of Environmental and Economic Accounting for water pollution is analyzed and studied in this paper.

  9. New results from Fermilab E866 (NuSea) for d-bar/u-bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenhower, L. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Fermilab dimuon experiment 866/NuSea measured Drell-Yan yields from an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets. Over 370,000 Drell-Yan muon pairs were recorded. From these data, the ratio of anti-down (d-bar) to anti-up (u-bar) quark distributions in the proton sea is determined over a wide range in Bjorken-x. A strong x dependence is observed in the ratio d-bar/u-bar, showing substantial enhancement of d-bar with respect to u-bar for x < 0.2. The results presented here for the full data sets confirm previously published results from E866 and are compared with parametrizations of parton distribution functions calculated both before and after the publication of the high-mass E866 data

  10. Inventory of Radioactive Material Resulting from Historical Dumping, Accidents and Losses at Sea. For the Purposes of the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    The IAEA was requested by the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention) and the 1996 Protocol (London Protocol) to develop and maintain an inventory of radioactive material entering directly into the ocean from all human made origins. The intent in producing such an inventory is to establish a record of past waste dumping and of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material, based on official reports, for use as an information base for the assessment of the impact of radionuclide sources in the marine environment, when deemed necessary. To respond to the request of the London Convention and Protocol, the IAEA has undertaken the development of the inventory to include radioactive waste resulting from dumping at sea, and accidents and losses which occurred at sea and involved radioactive material. The first IAEA report on this subject, Inventory of Radioactive Material Entering the Marine Environment: Sea Disposal of Radioactive Waste (IAEA-TECDOC-588), was published in 1991. The report was subsequently revised to include information provided by the Russian Federation regarding waste dumping operations conducted by the former Soviet Union in the Arctic and North-west Pacific Seas and some additional information provided by Sweden and the United Kingdom. The revised report, Inventory of Radioactive Waste Disposals at Sea (IAEA-TECDOC-1105), was published in 1999. A report on the information available at the IAEA on such incidents was published in 2001 as Inventory of Accidents and Losses at Sea Involving Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1242). The present publication updates and combines IAEA-TECDOCs 1105 and 1242. It describes the contents of the inventory on waste dumping, accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. In order to prepare the publication, the IAEA, in cooperation with the International Maritime Organization (IMO), conducted a

  11. Using network to enhance the insights on correlation and pollution assessment of co-occurring metals in marine sediments, the East China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Wang, Yupeng; Lin, Sen; Li, Hong; Chen, Xin; Wang, Zhiping; Lin, Kuangfei

    2018-02-14

    In this study, sediment samples were collected from 24 sites in the East China Sea (ECS) to investigate the distribution characteristics, co-occurrence correlations, and ecological risks of metals. In surface sediments, metals presented a homologous banding distribution pattern decreasing seaward with distance. With network analysis, it indicated metals in this area might directly derive from the coastal river inputs. According to geo-accumulation indexes (I geo ), Cd was classified as moderate pollution at 58% sites, far above other metals. In addition, the potential ecological risk index (RI) was clustered with the ecological risk (ER) of Cd, which was regarded as considerable or high-risk level for most coastal stations. Thus Cd pollution in the ESC sediment should be paid more attention. In sum, the visualization of statistical analyses combined with geochemical approaches could reveal the potential sources of contaminants and ecological risks, thus facilitate the pollution evaluation in marine sediments.

  12. Remotely Operated Vehicles under sea ice - Experiences and results from five years of polar operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Lange, Benjamin; Belter, Hans Jakob; Schiller, Martin; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The availability of advanced robotic technologies to the Earth Science community has largely increased in the last decade. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) enable spatially extensive scientific investigations underneath the sea ice of the polar oceans, covering a larger range and longer diving times than divers with significantly lower risks. Here we present our experiences and scientific results acquired from ROV operations during the last five years in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice region. Working under the sea ice means to have all obstacles and investigated objects above the vehicle, and thus changes several paradigms of ROV operations as compared to blue water applications. Observations of downwelling spectral irradiance and radiance allow a characterization of the optical properties of sea ice and the spatial variability of the energy partitioning across the atmosphere-ice-ocean boundary. Our results show that the decreasing thickness and age of the sea ice have led to a significant increase in light transmission during summer over the last three decades. Spatially extensive measurements from ROV surveys generally provide more information on the light field variability than single spot measurements. The large number of sampled ice conditions during five cruises with the German research icebreaker RV Polarstern allows for the investigations of the seasonal evolution of light transmittance. Both, measurements of hyperspectral light transmittance through sea ice, as well as classification of upward-looking camera images were used to investigate the spatial distribution of ice-algal biomass. Buoyant ice-algal aggregates were found to be positioned in the stretches of level ice, rather than pressure ridges due to a physical interaction of aggregate-buoyancy and under-ice currents. Synchronous measurements of sea ice thickness by upward looking sonar provides crucial additional information to put light-transmittance and biological observations into context

  13. Results of the first Wave Glider experiment in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Aulicino

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A wave-propelled autonomous vehicle (Wave Glider instrumented with a variety of oceanographic and meteorological sensors was launched from Gulf of Naples on the 12th of September 2012 for a two-week mission in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The main objective of the mission was a preliminary evaluation of the potential of commercial autonomous platforms to provide reliable measurements of sea surface parameters which can complement existing satellite based products moving from the local to the synoptic scale. To this aim Wave Glider measurements were compared to equivalent, or near-equivalent, satellite products achieved from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensors onboard the EOS (Earth Observing System satellite platforms and from AVISO (Archiving Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic Data. Level-3 near real time and Level-4 reprocessed sea surface foundation temperature products provided by the CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service were also included in this study as well as high resolution model output supplied by NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean. The Wave Glider was equipped with sensors to measure temperature, salinity, currents, as well as Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM, turbidity and refined fuels fluorescence. The achieved results confirmed the emerging value of Wave Gliders in the framework of multiplatform monitoring systems of the ocean surface parameters. In particular, they showed that Wave Glider measurements captured the southern Tyrrhenian Sea major surface oceanographic features, including the coast to open sea haline gradient and the presence of a cyclone-anticyclone system in the southeastern sub-region. The Wave Glider also had the capability to monitor upper ocean currents at finer spatial and temporal scales than satellite altimetric observations and model outputs. Nonetheless, results stressed the existence of several limits in the combined

  14. Forecasting Antarctic Sea Ice Concentrations Using Results of Temporal Mixture Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Junhwa; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2016-06-01

    Sea ice concentration (SIC) data acquired by passive microwave sensors at daily temporal frequencies over extended areas provide seasonal characteristics of sea ice dynamics and play a key role as an indicator of global climate trends; however, it is typically challenging to study long-term time series. Of the various advanced remote sensing techniques that address this issue, temporal mixture analysis (TMA) methods are often used to investigate the temporal characteristics of environmental factors, including SICs in the case of the present study. This study aims to forecast daily SICs for one year using a combination of TMA and time series modeling in two stages. First, we identify temporally meaningful sea ice signatures, referred to as temporal endmembers, using machine learning algorithms, and then we decompose each pixel into a linear combination of temporal endmembers. Using these corresponding fractional abundances of endmembers, we apply a autoregressive model that generally fits all Antarctic SIC data for 1979 to 2013 to forecast SIC values for 2014. We compare our results using the proposed approach based on daily SIC data reconstructed from real fractional abundances derived from a pixel unmixing method and temporal endmember signatures. The proposed method successfully forecasts new fractional abundance values, and the resulting images are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the reference data.

  15. Hypertension prevalence and living conditions related to air pollution: results of a national epidemiological study in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Pascale; Chahine, Mirna; Hallit, Souheil; Farah, Rita; Zeidan, Rouba Karen; Asmar, Roland; Hosseiny, Hassan

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor of several diseases, linked to high mortality and morbidity, particularly in developing countries. Some studies have linked indoor and outdoor pollution exposure items to hypertension, but results were inconsistent. Our objective was to assess the association of living conditions related to air pollution to hypertension in Lebanon, a Middle Eastern country. A national cross-sectional study was conducted all over Lebanon. Blood pressure and its related medications were assessed to be able to classify participants as hypertensive or not. Moreover, in addition to living conditions related to air pollution exposure, we assessed potential predictors of hypertension, including sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported health information and biological measurements. Furthermore, we assessed dose-effect relationship of air pollution items in relation with hypertension. Living conditions related to indoor and outdoor air pollution exposures were associated with hypertension, with or without taking biological values into account. Moreover, we found a dose-effect relationship of exposure with risk of disease (15% increase in risk of disease for every additional pollution exposure item), after adjustment for sociodemographics and biological characteristics (Ora = 1.15 [1.03-1.28]). Although additional studies would be necessary to confirm these findings, interventions should start to sensitize the population about the effect of air pollution on chronic diseases. The work on reducing pollution and improving air quality should be implemented to decrease the disease burden on the population and health system.

  16. Capturing Early Changes in the Marine Bacterial Community as a Result of Crude Oil Pollution in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolicka, Adriana; Boccadoro, Catherine; Nilsen, Mari Mæland; Baussant, Thierry

    2017-12-27

    The results of marine bacterial community succession from a short-term study of seawater incubations at 4°C to North Sea crude oil are presented herein. Oil was used alone (O) or in combination with a dispersant (OD). Marine bacterial communities resulting from these incubations were characterized by a fingerprinting analysis and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene with the aim of 1) revealing differences in bacterial communities between the control, O treatment, and OD treatment and 2) identifying the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of early responders in order to define the bacterial gene markers of oil pollution for in situ monitoring.After an incubation for 1 d, the distribution of the individual ribotypes of bacterial communities in control and oil-treated (O and OD) tanks differed. Differences related to the structures of bacterial communities were observed at later stages of the incubation. Among the early responders identified (Pseudoalteromonas, Sulfitobacter, Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Glaciecola, Neptunomonas, Methylophaga, and Pseudofulvibacter), genera that utilize a disintegrated biomass or hydrocarbons as well as biosurfactant producers were detected. None of these genera included obligate hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (OHCB). After an incubation for 1 d, the abundances of Glaciecola and Pseudofulvibacter were approximately 30-fold higher in the OD and O tanks than in the control tank. OTUs assigned to the Glaciecola genus were represented more in the OD tank, while those of Pseudofulvibacter were represented more in the O tank. We also found that 2 to 3% of the structural community shift originated from the bacterial community in the oil itself, with Polaribacter being a dominant bacterium.

  17. An integrated assessment of pollution and biological effects in flounder, mussels and sediment in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Henryka; Kopko, Orest; Lehtonen, Kari K; Lang, Thomas; Waszak, Ilona; Balode, Maija; Strode, Evita

    2017-02-01

    Organic and metal contaminants and biological effects were investigated in flounder, mussels, and sediments in the southern Baltic Sea coastal area in order to assess environmental quality status in that area. Four sites were selected, including two within the Gulf of Gdańsk (GoG). In biota and sediment at each site, DDTs dominated over PCBs and PBDEs were the least abundant among organic contaminants. Their concentrations decreased progressively outward from GoG. Among metal contaminants, the levels of Hg, Pb, and Cd were elevated in GoG. Biomarkers in flounder, EROD activity and DNA SB, showed moderate positive correlations with organic and metal contaminants. In flounder, the integrated biomarker index (IBR/n) presented a spatial trend coherent with chemical pollution index (CPI), but there was no clear spatial correspondence between IBR/n and CPI in mussels nor between sediment toxicity index (STI) and sediment CPI. The integrated assessment of contaminant and biological effect data against available assessment criteria indicated that in biota, the contaminant assessment thresholds were most often exceeded by CB-118, heptachlor, PBDE, and Hg (in the GoG sediments by p,p'-DDT, Hg and Cd), while of the biological determinants, the threshold was breeched by AChE activity in mussels in GoG. Applying the ICES/OSPAR traffic-light approach showed that of the 50 parameters assessed at each site, there were 18% of determinants in the red color category in the two GoG sites and 8% of determinants in the two sites outside GoG, which indicated that none of the four investigated sites attained good environmental status (GES).

  18. Plastic pollution of the world’s seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance

    OpenAIRE

    Haward, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    The pervasive nature of marine plastic pollution was highlighted at the recent United Nations Environment Assembly. This meeting saw strong commitments for action, but at the same time reinforced the challenges for contemporary ocean governance in addressing marine plastic pollution.

  19. New results from air pollution studies in Bulgaria (moss survey 2000-2001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamenov, J.; Jovchev, M.; Vachev, B.

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin

  20. New Results from Air Pollution Studies in Bulgaria (Moss Survey 2000-2001)

    CERN Document Server

    Stamenov, J N; Vachev, B; Gueleva, E; Yurukova, L; Ganeva, A; Mitrikov, M; Antonov, A; Srentz, A; Varbanov, Z; Batov, I V; Damov, K; Marinova, E; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Strelkova, L P

    2002-01-01

    New results of moss survey 2000 of systematic study of air pollution with heavy metals and other toxic elements in Bulgaria are reported. The moss samples collected at 103 sites in Bulgaria, along the borders with Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Greece and Turkey were analyzed by instrumental activation analysis using epithermal neutrons (ENAA) at the IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor for a wide set of elements including heavy metals and rare earth elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Th, and U). The results obtained are consistent with the mean European values for most of elements. The principle component analysis is applied to distinguish heavy and light crust elements and vegetation ones from those of anthropogenic origin.

  1. Report: EPA Needs Accurate Data on Results of Pollution Prevention Grants to Maintain Program Integrity and Measure Effectiveness of Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0276, September 4, 2015. Inaccurate reporting of results misrepresents the impacts of pollution prevention activities provided to the public, and misinforms EPA management on the effectiveness of its investment in the program.

  2. Particulate matter pollution from aviation-related activity at a small airport of the Aegean Sea Insular Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psanis, C; Triantafyllou, E; Giamarelou, M; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Biskos, G

    2017-10-15

    The unprecedented growth in aviation during the last years has resulted in a notable increase of local air pollution related to airports. The impacts of aviation on air quality can be extremely high particularly around airports serving remote insular regions with pristine atmospheric environments. Here we report measurements that show how the atmospheric aerosol is affected by the activity at a small airport in a remote region. More specifically, we provide measurements performed at the airport of Mytilene, Greece, a regional yet international airport that serves the entire island of Lesvos; the third largest island of the country. The measurements show that the activity during landing, taxiing and take-off of the aircrafts accounted for up to a 10-fold increase in particulate matter (PM) mass concentration in the vicinity of the airport. The number concentration of particles having diameters from 10 to 500nm also increased from ca. 4×10 2 to 8×10 5 particlescm -3 , while the mean particle diameter decreased to 20nm when aircrafts were present at the airport. Elemental analysis on particle samples collected simultaneously at the airport and at a remote site 3km away, showed that the former were significantly influenced by combustion sources, and specifically from the engines of the aircrafts. Our results show that despite their small size, local airports serving remote insular regions should be considered as important air pollution hotspots, raising concerns for the exposure of the people working and leaving in their vicinities to hazardous pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Long range radio tracking of sea turtles and polar bear: Instrumentation and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    Instrumentation developed for studies of path behavior of the green sea turtle and migration movement of polar bear is described. Preliminary results bearing on navigation ability in these species are presented. Both species operate in difficult environments, and the problems faced in the design of electronic instrumentation for these studies are not completely specified at this time. However, the critical factors yet to be understood are primarily related to the behavior of instrumented animals. The data obtained with these experimental techniques are included, first to illustrate the technique and, second to provide initial preliminary results bearing on animal navigation.

  4. Problem of radioactive pollution as a result of Uranium ores processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korovin, V.; Korovin, Yu.; Laszkiewicz, G.; Lee, L.; Koshik, Yu.; Shmatko, G.; Semenets, G.; Merkulov, V.

    2001-01-01

    Composition and properties of radioactive wastes accumulated within Dnieprodzerzhinsk and Dnepropetrovsk region as well as conditions of their storage promote the further growth of radioactive and chemical pollution. Prevention of growth of further environment pollution needs special measures including elimination of pollution sources, waste isolation and their second burial. Utilization of radioactive wastes and deactivation of living zone are the problems that must be solved at municipal, state and international level

  5. Investigation and evaluation of airborne pollution in the framework of PARCOM (North Sea) and HELCOM (Baltic Sea) - subproject: Measurements of trace metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of measurements of the deposition and concentrations of atmospheric trace metals the annual input of some selected elements (Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, V) into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea was estimated. For the Baltic Sea, deposition measurements with a buoy system in the Kiel Bight and data from the EGAP(HELCOM)-monitoring network were used. Data from the measurement stations were extrapolated to related sub-basins according to the deposition fields obtained from model calculations (EMEP). For the North Sea, a mean atmospheric trace metal distribution was determined from numerous measurements at a coastal site and over the central North Sea and the annual input was calculated by multiplication with corresponding deposition velocities and scavenging ratios. A comparison of the deposition data based on measurements with those from model calculations show good agreement in the case of Pb in the Baltic Sea as well as in the North Sea. However, for Zn and Cd large discrepancies are observed. Additionally, deposition processes were studied. Scavenging ratios were determined and dry deposition velocities were estimated by the use of a new method for high time resolution measurements of atmospheric trace metal concentrations (impactor/TXRF). (orig.). 9 figs., 14 tabs [de

  6. On the calculation of atmospheric thermal pollution resulted from a flat area source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkauskas, D.Ch.; Senuta, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    A spatial distribution of thermal atmospheric pollution from a flat area source - a great city or a lake-cooler of NPP was investigated. The numerical solution obtained lets to evaluate the horizontal and vertical spreading of the thermal atmospheric pollution by the different wind velocities in dependence of the inhomogeneities in humidity of the earth's surface

  7. Optical dating results of beachrock, eolic dunes and sediments applied to sea-level changes study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatumi, S.H.; Kowata, E.A.; Gozzi, G.; Kassab, L.R.P.; Suguio, K.; Barreto, A.M.F.; Bezerra, F.H.R.

    2003-01-01

    Quartz and feldspar crystals were selected from the samples as eolic dunes, beach-rock and marine terraces, all collected in the coast area of Paraiba State, located in northeastern Brazil, in order to obtain ages of deposition of the sediments. It is a systematic study in the area. The results of the ages will be used in local sea-level changes study and a correlation between highstands of marine oxygen-isotopes stages will be made. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence have been measured and the regeneration method with multiple aliquot protocol was applied to obtain the paleodose values. Preliminaries ages spanning 3.2-229 kyr were evaluated

  8. Optical dating results of beachrock, eolic dunes and sediments applied to sea-level changes study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatumi, S.H. E-mail: tatumi@fatecsp.br; Kowata, E.A.; Gozzi, G.; Kassab, L.R.P.; Suguio, K.; Barreto, A.M.F.; Bezerra, F.H.R

    2003-05-01

    Quartz and feldspar crystals were selected from the samples as eolic dunes, beach-rock and marine terraces, all collected in the coast area of Paraiba State, located in northeastern Brazil, in order to obtain ages of deposition of the sediments. It is a systematic study in the area. The results of the ages will be used in local sea-level changes study and a correlation between highstands of marine oxygen-isotopes stages will be made. Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence have been measured and the regeneration method with multiple aliquot protocol was applied to obtain the paleodose values. Preliminaries ages spanning 3.2-229 kyr were evaluated.

  9. Bacterial diversity impacts as a result of combined sewer overflow in a polluted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Calderon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Newtown Creek is an industrial waterway and former tidal wetland in New York City. It is one of the most polluted water bodies in the United States and was designated as a superfund site in 2010. For over a century, organic compounds, heavy metals, and other forms of industrial pollution have disrupted the creek’s environment. The creek is also impacted by discharges from twenty combined sewer overflow pipes, which may deposit raw sewage or partially treated wastewater directly into the creek during heavy or sustained rain events. Combined sewer overflow events and associated nutrient over-enrichment at the creek drive eutrophication and subsequent hypoxia. At the current study, three sites were sampled one week apart during a dry period and a wet period, where indication of a combined sewage overflow event could be detected. 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing from these three sites collectively yielded over 1000 species of bacteria belonging to twenty-two classes. Based on these data, it is hypothesized that differences identified in the microbiome on wet versus dry days are as a result of combined sewage overflow, street runoff, and additional fluctuations in the creek’s environment associated with rain. It was found that after a combined sewer overflows event, the levels of Gamma Proteobacteria increased while the levels of Actinobacteria decreased. However, levels of bacteria stayed relatively unchanged at a site further away from combined sewer overflows discharge. Species found in Newtown Creek include pelagic, marine, human and animal pathogens, hydrocarbonoclastic, and other environmental microbes.

  10. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K. (eds.)

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  11. Mercury Studies around the Mediterranean Sea Basin: Ten years of Measurements and Modeling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sprovieri F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Only a few years ago the presence of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM was believed to be almost exclusively the result of anthropogenic emissions and that sustained high RGM concentrations in the MBL were not considered likely. During the past ten years, an in-depth investigation was carried out in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL of the Mediterranean Sea to quantify and possibly explain spatial and temporal patterns of Hg-species concentrations. This paper provides an overview of modeling results and atmospheric measurements performed during several cruise campaigns performed aboard the Research Vessel (RV URANIA of the CNR over the Mediterranean sea basin. RGM concentrations have been modelled using a photochemical box model of the MBL and compared to measured data obtained during the research cruises. The comparison results supports the hypothesis that there are daytime mercury oxidation reactions occurring which have not yet been identified. Major findings of key studies carried out during ten years of ship-borne activities have been highlighted.

  12. Persistent organic pollutants in fat of three species of Pacific pelagic longline caught sea turtles: Accumulation in relation to ingested plastic marine debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clukey, Katharine; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.; Li, Qing X.; Bachman, Melanie J.; Lynch, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to eating contaminated prey, sea turtles may be exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from ingesting plastic debris that has absorbed these chemicals. Given the limited knowledge about POPs in pelagic sea turtles and how plastic ingestion influences POP exposure, our objectives were to: 1) provide baseline contaminant levels of three species of pelagic Pacific sea turtles; and 2) assess trends of contaminant levels in relation to species, sex, length, body condition and capture location. In addition, we hypothesized that if ingesting plastic is a significant source of POP exposure, then the amount of ingested plastic may be correlated to POP concentrations accumulated in fat. To address our objectives we compared POP concentrations in fat samples to previously described amounts of ingested plastic from the same turtles. Fat samples from 25 Pacific pelagic sea turtles [2 loggerhead (Caretta caretta), 6 green (Chelonia mydas) and 17 olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) turtles] were analyzed for 81 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 20 organochlorine pesticides, and 35 brominated flame-retardants. The olive ridley and loggerhead turtles had higher ΣDDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and metabolites) than ΣPCBs, at a ratio similar to biota measured in the South China Sea and southern California. Green turtles had a ratio close to 1:1. These pelagic turtles had lower POP levels than previously reported in nearshore turtles. POP concentrations were unrelated to the amounts of ingested plastic in olive ridleys, suggesting that their exposure to POPs is mainly through prey. In green turtles, concentrations of ΣPCBs were positively correlated with the number of plastic pieces ingested, but these findings were confounded by covariance with body condition index (BCI). Green turtles with a higher BCI had eaten more plastic and also had higher POPs. Taken together, our findings suggest that sea turtles accumulate most POPs through their prey rather

  13. Metal pollution across the upper delta plain wetlands and its adjacent shallow sea wetland, northeast of China: implications for the filtration functions of wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Ye, Siyuan; Yuan, Hongming; Ding, Xigui; Zhao, Guangming; Yang, Shixiong; He, Lei; Wang, Jin; Pei, Shaofeng; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2018-02-01

    Grain size and concentrations of organic carbon (Corg) and particulate metals (PMs) As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn, Al, Fe, and Mn of 373 surface sediment samples, salinities in 67 surface water samples, were analyzed in various environments, including the upper delta plain wetlands (UDPW), its adjacent shallow sea wetland (SSW) in the Liaodong Bay, and river channels that are running through the Liaohe Delta, to evaluate the spatial distribution, transportation environmental dynamics of metals, and the provenance of metal pollution and assess the filtration functions of wetlands. The concentrations of PMs for UDPW were generally higher by a factor of ~ 10-22% compared with its analogues in SSW, suggesting the accumulation of PMs within the UDPW indicates that the UDPW systems are efficiently physical and chemical traps for PMs of anthropogenic sources by retaining and storing pollutants flowing into the sea. However, there was sever sewage irrigation-induced Cd pollution with a geo-accumulation index of 0.62-3.11 in an area of ~ 86 km 2 of the adjacent shallow sea wetland, where large amount wetlands were historically moved for agriculture in the UDPW. Remarkably, the distributions of PMs were controlled by salinity-induced desorption and re-adsorption mechanisms and significantly dispersed the contamination coverage by the three-dimensional hydrodynamic and sedimentation processes that dominated by inputs of freshwater and ocean dynamics including NE-SW tidal currents and NE-E longshore drifts in the SSW of the Liaodong Bay. A high agreement between the UDPW and the SSW datasets in principal component analysis essentially reflects that the characteristics of PM sources in the SSW were actually inherited from that in the UDPW, with a much closer relationship among metals, organic matter, and fine particulates in SSW than that of UDPW, which was judged by their correlation coefficient range of 0.406-0.919 in SSW against those of 0.042-0.654 in UDPW.

  14. Plasma levels of pollutants are much higher in loggerhead turtle populations from the Adriatic Sea than in those from open waters (Eastern Atlantic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucchia, Matteo; Camacho, María; Santos, Marcelo R D; Boada, Luis D; Roncada, Paola; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; García-Álvarez, Natalia; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we determined the levels of 63 environmental contaminants, including organic (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, and PAHs) and inorganic (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Hg and Zn) compounds in the blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from two comparable populations that inhabit distinct geographic areas: the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean basin) and the Canary Islands (Eastern Atlantic Ocean). All animals were sampled at the end of a period of rehabilitation in centers of wildlife recovery, before being released back into the wild, so they can be considered to be in good health condition. The dual purpose of this paper is to provide reliable data on the current levels of contamination of this species in these geographic areas, and secondly to compare the results of both populations, as it has been reported that marine biota inhabiting the Mediterranean basin is exposed to much higher pollution levels than that which inhabit in other areas of the planet. According to our results it is found that current levels of contamination by organic compounds are considerably higher in Adriatic turtles than in the Atlantic ones (∑PCBs, 28.45 vs. 1.12ng/ml; ∑OCPs, 1.63 vs. 0.19ng/ml; ∑PAHs, 13.39 vs. 4.91ng/ml; pmercury (5.74 vs. 7.59μg/ml, p<0.01). The results of this study confirm that the concentrations are larger in turtles from the Mediterranean, probably related to the high degree of anthropogenic pressure in this basin, and thus they are more likely to suffer adverse effects related to contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pollution of the sediments of the coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula and the Curonian Spit (Southeastern Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Krechik, Viktor; Danchenkov, Aleksandr; Krek, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The detailed environmental survey of the coastal zone of the Kaliningrad Region northern coast was carried out. The pollutants distribution in the silty clay fraction and calculation of ecological indexes allowed the evaluation of distribution of potentially harmful elements (PHEs). The sources of pollution in the most intensively used areas were identified, and transit and accumulation zones were allocated. A large area of anomalous content of PHEs was revealed on the underwater coastal slope of the Curonian Spit National Park, which is situated far from the sources of pollution. The alongshore bed load transport provides the contamination of the underwater slope whereas the beaches are less exposed to pollution.

  16. Water pollution monitoring in Tirrenian Sea 1991--1993; Monitoraggio ambientale nel bacino del basso Tirreno nel triennio 1991-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scipioni, A.; Napoli, M. [Padova Univ. (Italy), Ist. di Chimica Industriale; Cavolo, F. [Padova Univ. (Italy), Dip.di Biologia

    1996-07-01

    A marine environmental research programme is in course of carrying out for some years in a definite coastal zone of the southern Tirrenian Sea in order to point out possible significant pollutions, identify their origin and study the appropriate preventive and protective measures. In the first stage of the programme the analysis of the actual water quality was done, by evaluation of several indicators (temperature, conductivity, pH, turbidity and suspended sediments, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll a, nutrients concentration, bacteriological parameters) at three different distances from the shore: 50 m, 500 m and 1 mile. The analysis of the collected values shows that the actual water quality is on the whole quite satisfactory, except for some restricted areas in which a bacteriological pollution, due to high concentrations of coliforms and Streptococcus faecalis, has been pointed out.

  17. Diurnal cycle of air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: 2. Modeling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico K.; Prinn, Ronald G.; SchäR, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    After completing a 9-month field experiment studying air pollution and meteorology in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, we set up the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 to simulate the Kathmandu Valley's meteorology with a horizontal resolution of up to 1 km. After testing the model against available data, we used it to address specific questions to understand the factors that control the observed diurnal cycle of air pollution in this urban basin in the Himalayas. We studied the dynamics of the basin's nocturnal cold air pool, its dissipation in the morning, and the subsequent growth and decay of the mixed layer over the valley. During mornings, we found behavior common to large basins, with upslope flows and basin-center subsidence removing the nocturnal cold air pool. During afternoons the circulation in the Kathmandu Valley exhibited patterns common to plateaus, with cooler denser air originating over lower regions west of Kathmandu arriving through mountain passes and spreading across the basin floor, thereby reducing the mixed layer depth. We also examined the pathways of pollutant ventilation out of the valley. The bulk of the pollution ventilation takes place during the afternoon, when strong westerly winds blow in through the western passes of the valley, and the pollutants are rapidly carried out through passes on the east and south sides of the valley. In the evening, pollutants first accumulate near the surface, but then are lifted slightly when katabatic flows converge underneath. The elevated polluted layers are mixed back down in the morning, contributing to the morning pollution peak. Later in the morning a fraction of the valley's pollutants travels up the slopes of the valley rim mountains before the westerly winds begin.

  18. Preliminary results: Deep sea oil spill in the Arctic – effects of pyrene on overwintering Calanus copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Kirstine Underbjerg; Dinh, Khuong Van; Hjorth, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Polar Oceans are some of the least impacted by human activities due to seasonal or permanent sea ice that limits human access. Projections of future polar ice loss suggest that the impact will increase substantially because of changing environmental conditions and pollution. Arctic Oceans hold...... during overwintering does indeed impact both Calanus species, and that C. hyperboreus seem to be more robust than the smaller C. glacialis. While effects on C. glacialis may have implications for stock recruitment within the season, potential effects on C. hyperboreus are likely delayed until next season...

  19. Multielement instrumental neutron activation analysis of macroalgae Cystoseira used as biomonitor of the Black Sea coastal waters pollution (South-Western Crimea, Sevastopol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, A.V.; Mil'chakova, N.A.; Frontas'eva, M.V.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time for Sevastopol region the peculiarities of 26 (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Sm, Nd, Ag, Au and U) macro- and microelements accumulation in the thalli of brown algae Cystoseira from the coastal waters of south-western Crimea (the Black Sea) were studied using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The possibility of using brown algae Cystoseira as a biomonitor of coastal waters pollution was shown

  20. Sediment transport and deposition during extreme sea storm events at the Salerno Bay (Tyrrhenian Sea: comparison of field data with numerical model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Budillon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic stratigraphy and core litho-stratigraphy in the Salerno Bay inner shelf (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea reveal significant storm deposition episodes over the last 1 ky. Three major events are preserved as decimetre thick silt/sand layers bounded at their base by erosional surfaces and sealed in the muddy marine sequences between 25 and 60 m of depth. Geochronology and chrono-stratigraphy on core sediment point towards a recurrence of major sea storms between 0.1 and 0.3 ky and put the last significant event in the 19th century, when no local meteorological time series is available. A modelling of extreme sea-storms with a return period of about 0.1 ky is here proposed based on historical hindcast and aims at explaining the occurrence of such unusual deep and thick sand deposits in the northern sector of the bay. Results highlight the vulnerability of the northern coast of the Salerno Bay to the south western sea storms which can drive waves up to about 8 m high and wave period of about 13 s. With these conditions an intense combined flow current is formed and might account for winnowing fine sand down to the depth of 40 m at least. The numerical model thus confirms a possible sand transport in the bottom boundary layer due to wave-current interaction and could corroborate the interpretation of the most recent sand layers, included in the cores, as being generated under extreme sea storm conditions.

  1. Danube paleohydrology: Hyperspectral and sedimentological high-resultion study of the last glacial Black Sea rythmites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Lamas, R.; Debret, M.; Deloffre, J.; Toucanne, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Black Sea has undergone alternating phases of lacustrine and marine environment over geological timescales directly related to its semi-enclosed character and to eustatic sea-level oscillations. During lowstand conditions, as during the last glacial period, the Black Sea was a giant lake disconnected from the global ocean. At that time, Black Sea water-level was controlled by regional climate, and by Eurasian rivers, including the Danube that acted as an outlet of European Ice Sheet and the Alpine ice cap. Thus, the paleo-mouth of the Danube river contains a high quality archive for the study of the paleohydrology of the Danube River and by extension of the European climate changes during the last 30 kyr. For this purpose, we have focused on the GAS-CS01 calypso long-piston core (33.4 m) which was taken during GHASS cruise (Ifremer, 2015) on the upper slope (240 m. depth) at about 25 km east of the Danube Canyon, i.e. in the sediment pile of the Danube paleo-mouth during the last glacial period. Our chronology reveals that core GAS-CS01 extends back to 31 cal kyr BP. The lithology of GAS-CS01 is characterized by clastic rythmites which are presented as a high-resolution Danube runoff proxy. Preliminary results of sedimentological and chronological analysis showed five peaks of terrestrial discharges between ca 31 and 14 ka BP, probably linked to five phases of the enhanced runoff during the studied period. In order to understand the origin and the depositional processes of this laminae, we combined sedimentary analysis (x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence, grain size ...) and hyperspectral images analysis. Hyperspectral imagery is a non-destructive fast method classically used to quantify colour and provides data with high spatial (57-µm pixel size) and spectral (3 nm) resolution. The multi-proxy calibration is essential in order to obtain a high-resolution sedimentological dataset. This information allows us to reconstruct the nature and depositional

  2. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 26: Results of the SeaWiFS Data Analysis Round-Robin, July 1994 (DARR-1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Siegel, David A.; Obrien, Margaret C.; Sorensen, Jen C.; Konnoff, Daniel A.; Brody, Eric A.; Mueller, James L.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Rhea, W. Joseph

    1995-01-01

    The accurate determination of upper ocean apparent optical properties (AOP's) is essential for the vicarious calibration of the sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument and the validation of the derived data products. To evaluate the role that data analysis methods have upon values of derived AOP's, the first Data Analysis Round-Robin (DARR-94) workshop was sponsored by the SeaWiFS Project during 21-23 July, 1994. The focus of this intercomparison study was the estimation of the downwelling irradiance spectrum just beneath the sea surface, E(sub d)(0(sup -), lambda); the upwelling nadir radiance just beneath the sea surface, L(sub u)(0(sup -), lambda); and the vertical profile of the diffuse attenuation coefficient spectrum, K(sub d)(z, lambda). In the results reported here, different methodologies from four research groups were applied to an identical set of 10 spectroradiometry casts in order to evaluate the degree to which data analysis methods influence AOP estimation, and whether any general improvements can be made. The overall results of DARR-94 are presented in Chapter 1 and the individual methods of the four groups are presented in Chapters 2-5. The DARR-94 results do not show a clear winner among data analysis methods evaluated. It is apparent, however, that some degree of outlier rejection is required in order to accurately estimate L(sub u)(0(sup -), lambda) or E(sub d)(0(sup -), lambda). Furthermore, the calculation, evaluation and exploitation of confidence intervals for the AOP determinations needs to be explored. That is, the SeaWiFS calibration and validation problem should be recast in statistical terms where the in situ AOP values are statistical estimates with known confidence intervals.

  3. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data collected using sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from 1979-02-05 to 1987-10-30 (NODC Accession 8700038)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substances and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and other Sea areas from...

  4. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Foeyn, L [Norsk Inst. for Vannforskning, Oslo (Norway); Nikitin, A I [SPA ` ` Typhoon` ` , Roshydromet (Russian Federation); and others

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. Dumping of radioactive waste and investigation of contamination in the Kara Sea. Results from 3 years of investigations (1992-1994) in the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Foeyn, L.; Nikitin, A.I.

    1996-03-01

    The report summarises the results obtained from the joint Russian-Norwegian investigation concerning the consequences of dumping of radioactive waste in the Kara Sea. Three expeditions were undertaken to the Kara Sea and the present dumping sites for radioactive waste. Samples of water, sediments and biota were collected and analysed. An impact and risk assessment was performed, based on the information provided through the joint cooperation. Enhanced levels and artificially produced radionuclides in the sediments collected in the very close vicinity of almost all localised dumped objects, demonstrate that leakage occur. No contribution from dumped radioactive waste was observed in the open Kara Sea. Due to the potential for leakage from the dumped waste in the future and the presence of other potential sources in the area, a regular monitoring programme is highly recommended. 65 refs., 42 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Effects of pollution on the geochemical properties of marine sediments across the fringing reef of Aqaba, Red Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rousan, Saber; Al-Taani, Ahmed A; Rashdan, Maen

    2016-09-15

    The Gulf of Aqaba is of significant strategic and economic value to all gulf-bordering states, particularly to Jordan, where it provides Jordan with its only marine outlet. The Gulf is subject to a variety of impacts posing imminent ecological risk to its unique marine ecosystem. We attempted to investigate the status of metal pollution in the coastal sediments of the Jordanian Gulf of Aqaba. The distribution of Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Al, Fe, and Mn concentrations were determined in trapped and bottom-surface sediments at three selected sites at different depths. In addition, monthly sedimentation rates at varying water depths were also estimated at each sampling site using sediment traps. The high concentrations of Cd, Cr, Zn were recorded at the Phosphate Loading Birth (PLB) site followed by the Industrial Complex (IC) site indicating their dominant anthropogenic source (i.e., the contribution of industrial activities). However, Fe, Al, and Mn contents were related to inputs from the terrigenous (crustal) origin. Except for Al, Fe and Mn at the PLB site, the concentrations of metals exhibited a decreasing trend with increasing water depth (distance from the shoreline). The PLB site also showed the highest sedimentation rate which decreased with increasing water depth. The Enrichment factors (EFs) showed that Cd was the most enriched element in the sediment (indicating that Cd pollution is widespread), whereas the least enriched metal in sediments was Cu. EF values suggested that the coastal area is impacted by a combination of human and natural sources of metals, where the anthropogenic sources are intense in the PLB site (north of Gulf of Aqaba). The MSS area is potentially the least polluted, consistent with being a marine reserve. The IC sediments have been found to be impacted by human activities but less intensely compared to the PLB area. These results suggested that there are two sources of metals in sediments; the primary source is likely closer to PLB

  7. Effects of fluorine pollution and the resulting elementary analysis in the radis Raphanus sativus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlot, C.; Kisman, S.

    1983-01-01

    After mineral elementary analysis of plant tissue, it was observed that supply of NaF to radish Raphanus sativus L. reduced SiO/sub 2/, probably partly explaining the variation in resistance of plants to fluorine pollution.

  8. First results from experiment in South China Sea using marine controlled source electromagnetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Lipeng; Deng, Ming

    2016-04-01

    We concentrated on the use of marine controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) sounding with a horizontal electric dipole source towed close to the seafloor and receivers anchored on the seafloor. We applied the CSEM method in South China Sea for the first time in 2014, which not only test the application of our instrument, but also test our data processing method. Electromagnetic fields transmitted by a towed electric dipole source in deep sea were measured by a linear array of six seafloor receivers, positioned 600 meter (m) apart. Our results provided two highly resistivity layers beneath the survey line and the gas hydrate saturation profile associated with the anomalous resistivity. In the letter, we discussed some anomalous layers during the interpretation steps. The most plausible explanation of the first resistivity layer anomalies is that large amounts of gas hydrate have accumulated at 200 m depth below the seep sites, and the second layers is considerable volumes of gas hydrate have accumulated the seafloor at survey line according to the conceptual model, during the resistivity compared with other evidence like seismic and well data from the same survey. We should try other observation like heat flow, geochemical or other evidence to test the statement in the future.

  9. Results of the Interlaboratory Exercise CSN/CIEMAT-02 Among Environmental Radioactivity Laboratories (Sea Fish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Gonzalez, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    The document describes the outcome of the CSN/CIEMAT-02 interlaboratory test comparison among environmental radioactivity laboratories. The exercise was organised according to the ISO-43 and the ISO/IUPAC/AOAC Harmonized Protocol for the proficiency testing of analytical laboratories. The test sample was a reference materials provided by the IAEA-MEL (IAE Marine Environmental Laboratory, Monaco), a sea fish containing environmental levels of U-238, U-234, K-40, Pb-210, Ra-226, Sr-90, Cs-137, Co-60, Pu-(239+240), Am-241 and Tc-99. The results of the exercise were computed for 32 participating laboratories, and their analytical performance was assessed using the z-score approach. A raised percentage of satisfactory laboratory performance has been obtained for all the analysis, being the best performance in gamma measurements. The laboratories have made an effort to calculate the combined uncertainty of the radiochemical determinations. Most of the laboratories have demonstrated its competence in performing the study analysis and also the adequate measuring capability of their detection equipment even in conditions close to detection limits. The study has shown the capacity of participant laboratories to perform radioactive determinations in environmental sea fish samples with satisfactory quality levels. (Author) 6 refs

  10. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation

  11. The Baltic Sea experiment BALTEX: a brief overview and some selected results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschke, E.; Karstens, U.; Nolte-Holube, R.; Brandt, R.; Isemer, H.J.; Lohmann, D.; Lobmeyr, M.; Rockel, B.; Stuhlmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    The mechanisms responsible for the transfer of energy and water within the climate system are under worldwide investigation within the framework of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) to improve the predictability of natural and man-made climate changes at short and long ranges and their impact on water resources. Five continental-scale experiments have been established within GEWEX to enable a more complete coupling between atmospheric and hydrodlogical models. One of them is the Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX). In this paper, the goals and structure of BALTEX are outlined. A short overview of measuring and modelling strategies is given. Atmospheric and hydrological model results of the authors are presented. This includes validation of precipitation using station measurements as well as validation of modelled cloud cover with cloud estimates form satellite data. Furthermore, results of a large-scale grid based hydrological model to be coupled to atmospheric models are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Programmes GEWEX (Globales Energie- und Wasserkreislauf-Experiment) werden weltweite Untersuchungen derjenigen Mechanismen unternommen, die die Uebertragung von Energie und Wasser innerhalb des Klimasystems bestimmen. Dadurch soll die Vorhersagebarkeit von natuerlichen und anthropogenen Klimaaenderungen in kurzen und laengeren Zeitraeumen und deren Wirkung auf die verfuegbaren Wasservorraete verbessert werden. Insgesamt fuenf kontinentweite Experimente wurden innerhalb von GEWEX fuer diese Zwecke begonnen. In ihnen soll vordringlich eine Kopplung von Hydrologiemodellen an Atmosphaermodelle erfolgen. Eines dieser Experimente ist das BALTEX (Baltic Sea Experiment). In dieser Arbeit werden die Ziele und die Struktur von BALTEX vorgestellt. Es wird auch ein kurzer Ueberblick ueber die Mess- und Modellierstrategie vermittelt. Ferner werden erste Ergebnisse der Autoren vorgestellt. Diese schliessen auch einen Vergleich zwischen gemessenen und

  12. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  13. The fate of long - lived radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr in the Black Sea after Chernobyl NPP accident: results of twenty - year observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokozov, N. A.; Egorov, V. N.; Polikarpov, G. G.; Mirzoeva, N. Y.; Gulin, S. B.

    2006-01-01

    The presentation summarizes studies of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr pollution of the Black Sea Basin carried out by Institute of Biology of the Southern Seas during 1986-2005 following the Chernobyl NPP accident. Its goal was to assess inflows of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and the Danube Rivers, outflow through the Bosphorus Strait, inventories in bottom sediments and temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr inventories in the Black Sea water column. Besides, the temporary evolution of 1 37Cs and 9 0Sr profiles in the Black Sea deep-water basin was used to estimations of a large-scale vertical water mixing. It has been estimated that the atmospheric fall outs during the first days of May 1986 have deposited 1.7-2.4 PBq of 1 37Cs on the Black Sea surface (nearly 2% of total 1 37Cs release in the environment). Therefore, 1 37Cs inventory in the 0-50 m layer have increased by a factor of 6-10 and the total 1 37Cs inventory in the whole basin have increased at least by a factor of 2 in comparison with the pre-Chernobyl value - 1.4+/-0.3 PBq. 1 37Cs input from the Danube and the Dnieper Rivers was insignificant in comparison with short-term atmospheric fall outs. The results of observations and mathematical modelling are testified that in the surface layers 0-50 and 0-200 m of the Black Sea deep-water basin in 1986-2000 an exponential decreases of the 1 37Cs inventories with an effective half-lifes of 5-6 years and 9-13 years, respectively, have been observed. The process of vertical water mixing has been observed mainly in the 0-200 m layer. The contribution of Chernobyl-origin 9 0Sr from atmospheric fallout was estimated around in 0.1-0.3 PBq. Pre-accident 9 0Sr level nearly 20 Bq m - 3 was reached by 1988. At the same time, an active input of 9 0Sr from the Dnieper and Danube Rivers has been observed. The total amount of 9 0Sr delivered by the two rivers into the Black Sea was estimated to be nearly 0.1 PBq in the 1986-1995. Under conditions of insignificant river input

  14. Groundwater quality deterioration as a result of anthropogenic organic air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, I.; Schleyer, R.; Muehlhausen, D.

    1990-01-01

    For monitoring the atmospherical depositions of organic materials in soil and in particular groundwater, we measured in rain water, soil seepage water and groundwater from four measuring stations in hessian forest areas the AOX sum parameter (organic halogen compounds which can be adsorbed) and numerous single compounds, above all chlorinated hydrocarbons. Anthropogenic organic pollutants are found in all precipitations. Their concentrations are clearly increased as compared to the open land. Of special importance are the atmospherical reaction products of the primary emissions, for example trichloroacetic acid. In analogy to inorganic pollutants, organic pollutant depositions affect above all poorly protected water-bearing strata with thin topsoil layers with a low capacity for adsorption and buffering. Harmful concentrations may be reached here in some cases. (orig.) [de

  15. Geochemical pollution as a result of ore mining in the Erzgebirge mountains - assessment and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuge, P.; Degner, T.

    2000-01-01

    Mining was, is and will be associated with great influences to the environment. These influences are various in form and extent. In the Ore Mountains, one of the oldest mining districts in Europe, we find a lot of problems due to the mining of various oretypes over several hundred years. The biggest problem is the water pollution by acid mine drainage, another one the enormous land use by tailing dams, pits and dumps. To appraise the degree of water or soil pollution it is necessary to use local higher background values, especially for deposit characteristic elements like arsenic or zinc. Within the mines some types of barriers occur, like the formation of secondary minerals or the precipitation of metal hydroxids. Up to 80% of the primarily mobilised metals can be retarded by these barrier systems. One of the most successful and economical ways to reduce the pollution of the environment caused by mining is to characterise and support such naturally occuring barriers. (orig.)

  16. Foraminifera in surface sediments of Mandovi River Estuary: Indicators for mining pollution and high sea stand in Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Panchang, R.; Banerjee, P.

    .W., and AUSTIN, R.L., 1991. Benthic foraminiferids as pollution indicators in Southampton Water, southern England, U.K. Journal of Micropalaeontology, 10, 109– 113. YANKO, V.; AHMAD, M., and KAMINISKI, M., 1998. Morphological deformities of benthic foraminiferal...

  17. Sea spray as a source of ice nucleating particles - results from the AIDA Ocean03 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, M. E.; Ickes, L.; Adams, M.; Bierbauer, S.; Bilde, M.; Christiansen, S.; Ekman, A.; Gorokhova, E.; Höhler, K.; Kiselev, A. A.; Leck, C.; Mohr, C.; Mohler, O.; Murray, B. J.; Porter, G.; Ullrich, R.; Wagner, R.

    2017-12-01

    Clouds and their radiative effects are one of the major influences on the radiative fluxes in the atmosphere, but at the same time they remain the largest uncertainty in climate models. This lack of understanding is especially pronounced in the high Arctic. Summertime clouds can persist over long periods in this region, which is difficult to replicate in models based on our current understanding. The clouds most often encountered in the summertime high Arctic consist of a mixture of ice crystals and super-cooled water droplets, so-called mixed-phase clouds. This cloud type is sensitive to the availability of aerosol particles, which can act as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nuclei. However, since the high Arctic is a pristine region, aerosol particles are not very abundant, and the hypothesis of open leads in the Arctic as a potentially important source of cloud and ice nucleating particles via bubble bursting has emerged. In this context, we have conducted a series of experiments at the AIDA chamber at KIT, designed to investigate the mechanisms linking marine biology, seawater chemistry and aerosol physics/potential cloud impacts. During this campaign, two marine diatom species (Melosira arctica and Skeletonema marinoi) as well as sea surface microlayer samples collected during several Arctic Ocean research cruises were investigated. To aerosolize the samples, a variety of methods were used including a sea spray simulation chamber to mimic the process of bubble-bursting. The ice nucleating efficiency (mixed-phase cloud regime) of the samples was determined either directly in the AIDA chamber during adiabatic expansions, or using the INKA continuous flow diffusion chamber, or a cold stage. Results from the campaign along with the potential implications are presented.

  18. Trace Elements in the Sea Surface Microlayer: Results from a Two Year Study in the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, A. M.; Westrich, J. R.; Lipp, E. K.; Mellett, T.; Buck, K. N.; Landing, W. M.

    2016-02-01

    Natural and anthropogenic aerosols are a significant source of trace elements to oligotrophic ocean surface waters, where they provide episodic pulses of limiting micronutrients for the microbial community. Opportunistic bacteria have been shown to experience rapid growth during deposition events. However, little is known about the fate of trace elements at the air-sea interface, i.e. the sea surface microlayer. It has been hypothesized that dust particles would be retained in the sea surface microlayer long enough to undergo chemical and physical changes that would affect the bioavailability of trace elements. In this study, aerosols, sea surface microlayer, and underlying water column samples were collected in the Florida Keys in July 2014 and May 2015 at various locations and analyzed for a suite of dissolved and particulate trace elements. Sea surface microlayer samples ( 50 μm) were collected using a cylinder of ultra-pure quartz glass; a novel adaptation of the glass plate technique. Sampling sites ranged from a more pristine environment approximately ten kilometers offshore to a more anthropogenic environment within a shallow bay a few hundred meters offshore. While it was clear from the results that dust deposition events played a large role in the chemical composition of the sea surface microlayer (elevated concentrations in dissolved and particulate trace elements associated with dust deposition), the location where the samples were collected also had a large impact on the sea surface microlayer as well as the underlying water column. The results were compared with other parameters analyzed such as Vibrio cultures as well as iron speciation, providing an important step towards our goal of understanding of the fate of trace elements in the sea surface microlayer as well as the specific effects of aeolian dust deposition on heterotrophic microbes in the upper ocean.

  19. Mercury Redox Chemistry in Waters of the Eastern Asian Seas: From Polluted Coast to Clean Open Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yin, Yongguang; Chen, Jinsheng; Wang, Shiwei

    2016-03-01

    We performed incubation experiments using seawaters from representative marine environments of the eastern Asian seas to determine the mercury (Hg) available for photoreduction (Hgr(II)), to investigate the Hg redox reaction kinetics, and to explore the effect of environmental factors and water chemistry on the Hg redox chemistry. Results show that Hgr(II) accounted for a considerable fraction of total Hg (THg) (%Hgr(II)/THg: 24.90 ± 10.55%, n = 27) and positively correlated with THg. Filtration decreased the Hgr(II) pool of waters with high suspended particulate matter (SPM). The positive linear relationships were found between pseudo-first order rate constants of gross Hg(II) photoreduction (kr) and gross Hg(0) photo-oxidation (ko) with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Under the condition of PAR of 1 m mol m(-2) s(-1), the kr were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than ko (kr/ko: 0.86 ± 0.22). The Hg(0) dark oxidation were significantly higher than the Hg(II) dark reduction. The Hg(II) dark reduction was positively correlated to THg, and the anaerobic condition favored the Hg(II) dark reduction. Filtration significantly influenced the Hg photoredox chemistry of waters with high SPM. UVB radiation was important for both Hg(II) photoreduction and Hg(0) photo-oxidation, and the role of other wavebands in photoinduced transformations of Hg varied with the water chemistry.

  20. Vessel noise pollution as a human threat to fish: assessment of the stress response in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Monica; Filiciotto, Francesco; Maricchiolo, Giulia; Genovese, Lucrezia; Quinci, Enza Maria; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Vazzana, Mirella; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the effects of boat noise pollution on the stress indices of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, Linnaeus 1758). To assess the stress response in these fish, biometric values and plasma parameters such as ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity were analysed. After acclimatization of the animals, the experiment was carried out in a tank fitted with underwater speakers where the fish were exposed to sound treatments (in duplicate) consisting of: 10 days of no sound (control treatment; the animals were only exposed to the experimental tank's background noise) and 10 days of noise derived from original recordings of motor boats, including recreational boats, hydrofoil, fishing boat and ferry boat (vessel noise treatment). The exposure to noise produced significant variations in almost all the plasma parameters assessed, but no differences were observed in weights and fork lengths. A PERMANOVA analysis highlighted significantly increased values (p < 0.05) of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, lactate, haematocrit, Hsp70, cholesterol, triglycerides and osmolarity in the fish exposed to vessel noise for 10 days. This study clearly highlights that anthropogenic noise negatively affects fish, and they are valuable targets for detailed investigations into the effects of this global pollutant. Finally, these experimental studies could represent part of the science that is able to improve the quality of the policies related to management plans for maritime spaces (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 56/2008 CE) that are aimed at stemming this pollutant phenomenon.

  1. A numerical model for the whole Wadden Sea: results on the hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräwe, Ulf; Duran-Matute, Matias; Gerkema, Theo; Flöser, Götz; Burchard, Hans

    2015-04-01

    A high-resolution baroclinic three-dimensional numerical model for the entire Wadden Sea of the German Bight in the southern North Sea is first validated against field data for surface elevation, current velocity, temperature and salinity at selected stations and then used to calculate fluxes of volume, heat and salt inside the Wadden Sea and the exchange between the Wadden Sea and the adjacent North Sea through the major tidal inlets. The General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM) is simulating the reference years 2009-2011. The numerical grid has a resolution of 200x200m and 30 adaptive vertical layers. It is the final stage of a multi-nested setup, starting from the North Atlantic. The atmospheric forcing is taken from the operational forecast of the German Weather Service. Additionally, the freshwater discharge of 23 local rivers and creeks are included. For validation, we use observations from a ship of opportunity measuring sea surface properties, tidal gauge stations, high frequency of salinity and volume transport estimates for the Mardiep and Spiekeroog inlet. Finally, the estuarine overturning circulation in three tidal gulleys is quantified. Regional differences between the gullies are assessed and drivers of the estuarine circulation are identified. Moreover, we will give a consistent estimate of the tidal prisms for all tidal inlets in the entire Wadden Sea.

  2. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2012 Chukchi Sea Acoustic/Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We conducted acoustic-trawl (AT) surveys of the Alaska northern Bering and Chukchi Seas during ice-free periods with a focus on Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), a key...

  3. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2007 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Bering Sea- DY0707

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Bering Sea shelf walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) abundance and distribution in midwater were assessed between 2 June and 30 July 2007 using echo...

  4. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2014 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Bering Sea- DY1407

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Bering Sea shelf walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) midwater abundance and distribution were assessed from Bristol Bay in the United States, to Cape...

  5. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2009 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Bering Sea- DY0909

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Bering Sea shelf walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) abundance and distribution in midwater were assessed between 9 June and 7 August 2009 using...

  6. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2012 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Bering Sea- DY1207

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Bering Sea shelf walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) midwater abundance and distribution were assessed from Bristol Bay in the United States, to Cape...

  7. AFSC/RACE/MACE: Results of 2010 Pollock Acoustic-Trawl Survey Bering Sea- DY1006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Bering Sea shelf walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) abundance and distribution in midwater were assessed between 5 June and 7 August 2010 using...

  8. Recovery of benthic macrofauna from chronic pollution in the sea area off a refinery plant, southwest Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppakoski, E J; Lindstrom, L S

    1978-05-01

    Quantitative field studies on benthic sublittoral macrofauna near an oil refinery in southwestern Finland before and after the installation of a new wastewater treatment plant that reduced the amount of oil and liquid effluents are detailed. The number of species and species diversity increased during the first and second year after pollution abatement at the stations close to the former outflows. Postabatement succession is discussed. The recovery from chronic oil pollution and the degree of ecological damage caused by previous continuous discharge of oil is discussed. (1 diagram, 10 graphs, 4 maps, 33 references, 3 tables)

  9. Changes in Arctic sea ice result in increasing light transmittance and absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaus, Marcel; Katlein, Christian; Maslanik, J.; Hendricks, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Arctic sea ice has declined and become thinner and younger (more seasonal) during the last decade. One consequence of this is that the surface energy budget of the Arctic Ocean is changing. While the role of surface albedo has been studied intensively, it is still widely unknown how much light penetrates through sea ice into the upper ocean, affecting seaice mass balance, ecosystems, and geochemical processes. Here we present the first large-scale under-ice light measurem...

  10. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: Model results compared with summer observations

    OpenAIRE

    Pätsch, Johannes; Kühn, Wilfried; Six, Katharina D.

    2018-01-01

    For the sediments of the central and southern North Sea different sources of alkalinity generation are quantified by a regional modelling system for the period 2000–2014. For this purpose a formerly global ocean sediment model coupled with a pelagic ecosystem model is adopted to shelf sea dynamics where much larger turnover rates than in the open and deep ocean occurs. To track alkalinity changes due to different nitrogen-related processes the open ocean sediment model was extended by t...

  11. Residential Air Pollution, Road Traffic, Greenness and Maternal Hypertension: Results from GINIplus and LISAplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendrossek, Mario; Standl, Marie; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lehmann, Irina; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Schikowski, Tamara; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Markevych, Iana

    2017-07-01

    The public health burden of hypertension is high, but its relationship with long-term residential air pollution, road traffic, and greenness remains unclear. To investigate associations between residential air pollution, traffic, greenness, and hypertension among mothers. Information on doctor-diagnosed maternal hypertension was collected at the 15-year follow-up of two large population-based multicenter German birth cohorts-GINIplus and LISAplus (n=3063). Residential air pollution was modelled by land use regression models within the ESCAPE and universal kriging within the APMoSPHERE projects. Road traffic was defined as traffic load on major roads within a 100-m buffer around residences. Vegetation level ( ie , greenness) was defined as the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in a 500-m buffer around residences and was assessed from Landsat 5 TM satellite images. All the exposure variables were averaged over three residential addresses during the last 10 years and categorized into tertiles or dichotomized. The individual associations between each of the exposure variables and hypertension were assessed using logistic regression analysis. No significant and consistent associations across different levels of adjustment were observed between the exposures of interest and hypertension. The only significant estimate was found with coarse particulate matter concentrations (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.74; 3 rd vs 1 st tertile) among mothers residing in the Wesel area. No significant associations were observed with traffic load or greenness. This study does not provide evidence on detrimental effects of air pollution and road traffic or beneficial effects of greenness on hypertension among German adults.

  12. CMIP5-downscaled projections for the NW European Shelf Seas: initial results and insights into uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Palmer, Matthew; Lowe, Jason; Howard, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The North Sea, and wider Northwest European Shelf seas (NWS) are economically, environmentally, and culturally important for a number of European countries. They are protected by European legislation, often with specific reference to the potential impacts of climate change. Coastal climate change projections are an important source of information for effective management of European Shelf Seas. For example, potential changes in the marine environment are a key component of the climate change risk assessments (CCRAs) carried out under the UK Climate Change Act We use the NEMO shelf seas model combined with CMIP5 climate model and EURO-CORDEX regional atmospheric model data to generate new simulations of the NWS. Building on previous work using a climate model perturbed physics ensemble and the POLCOMS, this new model setup is used to provide first indication of the uncertainties associated with: (i) the driving climate model; (ii) the atmospheric downscaling model (iii) the shelf seas downscaling model; (iv) the choice of climate change scenario. Our analysis considers a range of physical marine impacts and the drivers of coastal variability and change, including sea level and the propagation of open ocean signals onto the shelf. The simulations are being carried out as part of the UK Climate Projections 2018 (UKCP18) and will feed into the following UK CCRA.

  13. Development of a compact underwater laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system and preliminary results in sea trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinjia; Lu, Yuan; Cheng, Kai; Song, Jiaojian; Ye, Wangquan; Li, Nan; Zheng, Ronger

    2017-10-10

    The exploitation and research of deep-sea hydrothermal vent has been an issue of great interest in ocean research in recent years. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has great potential for ocean application due to the capabilities of stand-off, multiphase, and multielement analysis. In this work, a newly developed compact 4000 m rated LIBS system (LIBSea) is introduced with preliminary results of sea trials. The underwater system consists of an Nd:YAG single-pulsed laser operating at 1064 nm, an optical fiber spectrometer, an optics module, and an electronic controller module. The whole system is housed in an L800  mm×ϕ258  mm pressure housing with an optical window on the end cap. It was deployed on the remote operated vehicle Faxian on the research vessel Kexue, and in June 2015 was successfully applied for hydrothermal field measurements at the Manus area. The obtained results are shown that the LIBS system is capable of detecting elements Li, Na, K, Ca, and Mg in the hydrothermal area. Profiles of LIBS signals of elements K and Ca have also been obtained during the sea trial. The results show that the K emission line is gradually broadened with depth from sea surface to sea floor (1800 m or so); the K intensity shows a hump shape with maximum value at about 1050 m. The Ca emission line is rapidly broadened below 400 m and slowly narrowed to the sea floor; the Ca intensity shows no obvious change below 400 m and increases continuously to sea floor. A very interesting finding is that the small fluctuations of intensity profile curve of Ca show a degree of correlation with seawater temperature change. The sea trial results prove the performance of LIBSea. After further optimization, it is hoped to apply the LIBS system to the in situ mineral deposits and hydrothermal vent fluid detection in deep sea.

  14. Pollution at Lake Mariut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nour ElDin, H.; Halim, S. N.; Shalby, E.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Mariut, south Alexandria, Egypt suffered in the recent decades from intensive pollution as a result of a continuous discharge of huge amounts of agriculture wastewater that contains a large concentration of the washed pesticides and fertilizers in addition to domestic and industrial untreated wastewater. The over flow from the lake is discharged directly to the sea through El-Max pumping station via EI-Umum drain. Lake Mariout is surrounded by a huge number of different industrial activities and also the desert road is cutting the lake, this means that a huge number of various pollutants cycle through the air and settle down in the lake, by the time and during different seasons these pollutants after accumulation and different chemical interactions will release again from the lake to the surrounding area affecting the surrounding zone

  15. Stationary spiraling eddies in presence of polar amplification of global warming as a governing factor of ecology of Greenland seals White Sea population: results of verification study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melentyev, K.; Chernook, V.; Melentyev, V.

    2003-04-01

    ) modification; B) eddies displacement and parameters modification (type of eddy, intensity and sign of rotation) as result of climate change; C) relationship between eddies location and whelping rookeries arrangement, climate change and variety of the type of migration; D) stationary eddy as zone of concentration of polluted waters and toxically hazard, climate change and self-cleaning ability; E) spiraling eddies in changing climate and prediction of modification of marine animal welfare.

  16. Wind Speed and Sea State Dependencies of Air-Sea Gas Transfer: Results From the High Wind Speed Gas Exchange Study (HiWinGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, B. W.; Brumer, S. E.; Fairall, C. W.; Huebert, B. J.; Zappa, C. J.; Brooks, I. M.; Yang, M.; Bariteau, L.; Prytherch, J.; Hare, J. E.; Czerski, H.; Matei, A.; Pascal, R. W.

    2017-10-01

    A variety of physical mechanisms are jointly responsible for facilitating air-sea gas transfer through turbulent processes at the atmosphere-ocean interface. The nature and relative importance of these mechanisms evolves with increasing wind speed. Theoretical and modeling approaches are advancing, but the limited quantity of observational data at high wind speeds hinders the assessment of these efforts. The HiWinGS project successfully measured gas transfer coefficients (k660) with coincident wave statistics under conditions with hourly mean wind speeds up to 24 m s-1 and significant wave heights to 8 m. Measurements of k660 for carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) show an increasing trend with respect to 10 m neutral wind speed (U10N), following a power law relationship of the form: k660 CO2˜U10N1.68 and k660 dms˜U10N1.33. Among seven high wind speed events, CO2 transfer responded to the intensity of wave breaking, which depended on both wind speed and sea state in a complex manner, with k660 CO2 increasing as the wind sea approaches full development. A similar response is not observed for DMS. These results confirm the importance of breaking waves and bubble injection mechanisms in facilitating CO2 transfer. A modified version of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment Gas transfer algorithm (COAREG ver. 3.5), incorporating a sea state-dependent calculation of bubble-mediated transfer, successfully reproduces the mean trend in observed k660 with wind speed for both gases. Significant suppression of gas transfer by large waves was not observed during HiWinGS, in contrast to results from two prior field programs.

  17. Sea level muon spectrum and muon charge ratio derived from CERN results for nucleon-nucleus inelastic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1979-01-01

    The sea level cosmic ray spectrum and muon charge ratio have been estimated by using the energy moments of the cross section for proton- air inelastic collisions. These energy moments have been determined by interpolation from CERN results for proton-nucleus inelastic interactions in pion production. The derived results are compared with previous work. (26 refs).

  18. Differential Nanos 2 protein stability results in selective germ cell accumulation in the sea urchin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-10-01

    Nanos is a translational regulator required for the survival and maintenance of primordial germ cells. In the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Sp), Nanos 2 mRNA is broadly transcribed but accumulates specifically in the small micromere (sMic) lineage, in part because of the 3'UTR element GNARLE leads to turnover in somatic cells but retention in the sMics. Here we found that the Nanos 2 protein is also selectively stabilized; it is initially translated throughout the embryo but turned over in the future somatic cells and retained only in the sMics, the future germ line in this animal. This differential stability of Nanos protein is dependent on the open reading frame (ORF), and is independent of the sumoylation and ubiquitylation pathways. Manipulation of the ORF indicates that 68 amino acids in the N terminus of the Nanos protein are essential for its stability in the sMics whereas a 45 amino acid element adjacent to the zinc fingers targets its degradation. Further, this regulation of Nanos protein is cell autonomous, following formation of the germ line. These results are paradigmatic for the unique presence of Nanos in the germ line by a combination of selective RNA retention, distinctive translational control mechanisms (Oulhen et al., 2013), and now also by defined Nanos protein stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  20. Sea pollution and civil responsibility at the off-shore activities in the petroleum industry; Poluicao marinha e responsabilidade civil nas atividades off-shore da industria do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, Julianne; Camara, Camila Gomes

    2011-01-15

    This work analyses the aspects which involve the responsibility of the polluter by spilling of hydrocarbon in sea environment, not only due to petroleum disasters occurred in the oceans, but also provenient of constant spillings coming from supplying, load ad discharge, routine operations at terminals and ports.

  1. Wind waves in the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.

    2014-11-01

    In this study we describe the wind wave fields in the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal wave parameter variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1949 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. According to our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant heavy sea are the southwestern and the northeastern parts of the sea as expressed in the spatial distribution of significant wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides, long-term annual variations of wave parameters were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the hindcast period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.

  2. Persistent organochlorine pollutants and risk for skeletal fractures and impaired bone mineral density in humans. Results from the ''COMPARE'' project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Wallin, E.; Joensson, B.A. [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POP) have, in animal studies, impaired normal bone metabolism and resulted in increased bone fragility. Especially considering the dramatical increase in osteoporotic fractures in western societies during the last decades, it is a pertinent question whether a high dietary intake of POP might pose a risk for deteriorated bone quality in humans. This problem has been assessed as a part of the collaborative project ''COMPARE'', funded by European Commission RD Life Science Program. As a study base we have used cohorts of Swedish fishermen's families. We have earlier shown that fishermen living at the east coast of Sweden, have a high consumption of contaminated fatty fish from the Baltic Sea and consequently relatively high exposure levels for various POPs, also compared with fishermen from the Swedish west coast. Such a discrepancy was also found for fishermen's wives. The aim of the project was to assess in epidemiological studies whether a high dietary intake of POP through fatty fish from the Baltic may result in an increased incidence of osteoporotic fractures or decreased bone mineral density (BMD). We give here an overview of the results.

  3. Gas nad mud volcanism formation as a result of geodynamic development of the Black sea region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrievsky, A.N.; Karakin, A.V.; Kazmin, V.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Fluidodynamic model of moving of gas-mud mixture accompanied by eruptions of mud volcanoes and gas bursts is firstly demonstrated by the example of the Black sea basin. The entire spectrum of gas bursts can be divided into gas and mud-fluid volcanoes. Emanation of hydrocarbon gases during the eruptions accompanied by powerful exploison, bursts of gas, water and fragments of rocks as well as by issue of breccia are typical for the first type of volcanoes. It was suggested that the eastern part of the Black sea forms block or subplate moving to the northeast. This conclusion is important for estimation of seismic and connected geological hazard in the studied region. It was established that deformations and seismicity were mainly confined to the edges of the East Black sea subplate while in its inner part the level of seismic activity is considerably lower.

  4. Sedimentologic and volcanologic investigation of the deep tyrrhenian sea: preliminary result of cruise VST02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bertagnini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The VST02 cruise carried out in the summer of 2002 was focused at sedimentologic and volcanologic researches over selected areas of the deep portion of the Tyrrhenian sea. Chirp lines and seafloor samples were collected from the Calabrian slope surrounding Stromboli island, in the Marsili deep sea fan, in the Vavilov basin and in the Vavilov seamount. Submarine volcanic activity, both explosive and effusive, is occuring in the Stromboli edifice. Explosive submarine volcanism affects also the shallowest areas of the Vavilov seamount. Submarine carbonate lithification has been observed on the sediment-starved flanks of the Vavilov seamount. Acoustic transparent layers make up the recentmost infill of the Gortani basin, the easternmost portion of the Vavilov basin. Channels comprised of a variety of architectural elements and depositional lobes are the main elements of the Marsili deep-sea fan where, apparently, sedimentation occurs mainly through debris flow processes.

  5. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  6. Analysing persistent organic pollutants in eggs, blood and tissue of the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merwe, Jason Paul van de; Lee, Shing Yip [Griffith University, Griffith School of Environment and Australian Rivers Institute, Gold Coast, QLD (Australia); Hodge, Mary [Queensland Health Scientific Services, Queensland Government, Coopers Plains, QLD (Australia); Whittier, Joan Margaret [Univ. of Queensland, St. Lucia (Australia). School of Biomedical Sciences

    2009-03-15

    Investigation into persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in sea turtles is an important area of conservation research due to the harmful effects of these chemicals. However, the analysis of POPs in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) has been limited by methods with relatively high limits of detection and high costs associated with multiple sample injections into complex arrangements of analytical equipment. The present study aimed to develop a method that could detect a large number of POPs in the blood, eggs and tissue of C. mydas at trace concentrations. A gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method was developed that could report 125 POP compounds to a limit of detection of <35 pg g{sup -1} using a single sample injection. The recoveries of internal standards ranged from 30% to 96%, and the standard reference materials were reported to within 70% of the certified values. The coefficient of variation of ten replicates of pooled egg sample was <20% for all compounds, indicating low within-run variation. This GC-MS/MS method is an improvement of previous methods for analysing POPs in C. mydas in that more compounds can be reported at lower concentrations and the accuracy and precision of the method are sound. This is particularly important for C. mydas as they occupy a low trophic level and have lower concentrations of POPs. This method is also simple to set up, and there are minimal differences in sample preparation for the different tissue types. (orig.)

  7. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  8. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  9. Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

    2006-06-01

    Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

  10. Temporal genetic variability and host sources of Escherichia coli associated with fecal pollution from domesticated animals in the shellfish culture environment of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Linglin; Shuai Jiangbing; Wang Yanbo; Ma Hongjia; Li Jianrong

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the genetic variability of Escherichia coli from domesticated animal wastes for microbial source tracking (MST) application in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea. (GTG) 5 primer was used to generate 1363 fingerprints from E. coli isolated from feces of known 9 domesticated animal sources around this shellfish culture area. Jackknife analysis of the complete (GTG) 5 -PCR DNA fingerprint library indicated that isolates were assigned to the correct source groups with an 84.28% average rate of correct classification. Based on one-year source tracking data, the dominant sources of E. coli were swine, chickens, ducks and cows in this water area. Moreover, annual and spatial changes of E. coli concentrations and host sources may affect the level and distribution of zoonotic pathogen species in waters. Our findings will further contribute to preventing fecal pollution in aquatic environments and quality control of shellfish. - Highlights: → The host-origin library developed by (GTG) 5 -PCR could be used to shellfish water MST. → Fecal pollution of Xiangshan Bay arose from multiple sources of agricultural wastes. → High level of E. coli concentration in shellfish water increases the health risk. → Annual changes of E. coli host sources affect distribution of zoonotic pathogens. - The temporal genetic variability and dominant host sources of E. coli in fecal contaminated shellfish growing waters of Xiangshan Bay was characterized.

  11. Atmospheric metallic and arsenic pollution at an offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea: A health risk assessment for the workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Han, Suqin; Bi, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhijing; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Wenjie; Zhang, Min; Chen, Jing; Wu, Jianhui; Zhang, Yufen; Feng, Yinchang

    2016-03-05

    To investigate the ambient metal pollution at the offshore drilling platform in the Bo Sea, which few studies have focused on, PM2.5 samples were collected and ten heavy metals, as well as As, were analyzed. High concentration levels of metals were observed, and the heavy metal pollution was quite serious compared to air quality standards and other marine areas. Back trajectories and wind dependent and PCA analyses showed that the marine sources included ship traffic emissions and corrosive stainless steels from the equipment at the platform as well as industrial emissions from stainless steel production and coal combustion sources, which were transported from the surrounding mainland. Both contributed greatly to the ambient metallic particles at the offshore platform. The Hazard Index values of the metals, which were much less than 1, the Carcinogenic Risk data, which were lower than the EPA's acceptable range, and the fact that the metal concentrations did not the exceed the permissible exposure limits of OSHA, indicated that the health risks from the ambient metallic particles for the oil-drilling workers were not significant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement and mapping of the GSM-based electromagnetic pollution in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuysuz, Burak; Mahmutoglu, Yigit

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic pollution caused by mobile communication devices, a new form of environmental pollution, has been one of the most concerning problems to date. Consequences of long-term exposure to the electromagnetic radiation caused by cell phone towers are still unknown and can potentially be a new health hazard. It is important to measure, analyze and map the electromagnetic radiation levels periodically because of the potential risks. The electromagnetic pollution maps can be used for the detection of diseases caused by the radiation. With the help of the radiation maps of different regions, comparative analysis can be provided and distribution of the diseases can be investigated. In this article, Global System for Mobile communication (GSM)-based electromagnetic pollution map of the Rize Providence, which has high cancer rates because of the Chernobyl nuclear explosion, is generated. First, locations of the GSM base stations are identified and according to the antenna types of the base stations, safety distances are determined. Subsequently, 155 measurements are taken during November 2014 from the nearest living quarters of the Rize city center in Turkey. The measurements are then assessed statistically. Thenceforth, for visual judgment of the determined statistics, collected measurements are presented on the map. It is observed that national limits are not exceeded, but it is also discovered that the safety distance is waived at some of the measurement points and above the average radiation levels are noted. Even if the national limits are not exceeded, the long-term effects of the exposition to the electromagnetic radiation can cause serious health problems.

  13. Assessment of Radiological and Chemical Pollutants and Their Effects on the Marine Ecosystems A long the Mediterranean Sea Coast Between Alexandria and Port Said City-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Monged, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program for the Egyptian coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea was established to initiate a monitoring data base system. This was done by applying quality control assessments to evaluate and protect the coastal zone, which ensure its sustainable use. An environmental risk assessment was performed, including a screening level ecological risk assessment (SLERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA). The aim of SLERA risk assessment was to determine which classes of chemical pollutants could possibly cause adverse ecological effects to benthic species and to determine whether hot spots exist or not. Investigation of the sediments revealed that the region which extends from the Alexandria harbor area to Port Said City is enriched with trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo chlorine pesticides. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected but in lower concentrations compared to the other organic compounds. The spatial distribution of the different contaminants investigated here showed that the Nile Delta region is more influenced by waste water discharge than the rest of the Egyptian coastal regions. In addition to sediments, two mussel species (Mactra corallina and Tapes decussate) were successfully used as bio indicators of marine environmental quality. The concentrations of most pollutants investigated (except organo chlorine pesticides, and some trace metals) were higher in the tissues of the mussels, especially M. caerulein, than in sediments. The highest concentration of PAHs in sediments and mussels were observed in front of the Alexandria harbor and Nile Delta, they possibly affected by shipping activities. Natural radioactivity of surface sediments and sea water samples were measured along the coastal Mediterranean Sea between Alexandria and Port Said City. The main source of radiation along the area is the black sands, which is rich in radionuclides. The measured values of "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th for

  14. EVALUATION OF AIR POLLUTION FROM ROVINARI (GORJ WITH SUBSTANCES IN SOSPENSION (PM10 AS A RESULT OF AUTO TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Cătălin ŞCHIOPU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a short introduction of the impact that auto transportation has on air quality and on the main pollutants resulting from fuel burning in the engines with internal combustion. Also here are presented the results obtained as a result of monitoring substances in suspension, fraction PM10, realized in the proximity of the most important auto traffic roads of Rovinari. The comparison of the results obtained was realized according to Law 104/2011 on the protection of ambient air quality

  15. Biological geography of the European seas: results from the MacroBen database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arvanitidis, C.; Somerfield, P.J.; Rumohr, H.; Faulwetter, S.; Valavanis, V.; Vasileiadou, A.; Chatzigeorgiou, G.; Vanden Berghe, E.; Vanaverbeke, J.; Labrune, C.; Grémare, A.; Zettler, M.L.; Kedra, M.; Wlodarska-Kowalczuk, M.; Aleffi, I.F.; Amouroux, J.M.; Anisimova, N.; Bachelet, G.; Büntzow, M.; Cochrane, S.J.; Costello, M.J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Dahle, S.; Degraer, S.; Denisenko, S.; Dounas, C.; Duineveld, G.; Emblow, C.; Escavarage, V.; Fabri, M.C.; Fleischer, D.; Gray, J.S.; Heip, C.H.R.; Herrmann, M.; Hummel, H.; Janas, U.; Karakassis, I.; Kendall, M.A.; Kingston, P.; Kotwicki, L.; Laudien, J.; Mackie, A.S.Y.; Nevrova, E.L.; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A.; Oliver, P.G.; Olsgard, F.; Palerud, R.; Petrov, A.; Rachor, E.; Revkov, N.K.; Rose, A.; Sardá, R.; Sistermans, W.C.H.; Speybroeck, J.; Van Hoey, G.; Vincx, M.; Whomersley, P.; Willems, W.; Zenetos, A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether or not biogeographical and/or managerial divisions across the European seas can be validated using soft-bottom macrobenthic community data. The faunal groups used were: all macrobenthos groups, polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, sipunculans and the last 5

  16. Results from the search-lidar demonstrator project for detection of small Sea-Surface targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Putten, F.J.M. van; Cohen, L.H.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Franssen, G.C.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal surveillance and naval operations in the littoral both have to deal with the threat of small sea-surface targets. These targets have a low radar cross-section and a low velocity that makes them hard to detect by radar. Typical threats include jet skis, FIAC's, and speedboats. Previous lidar

  17. Speciated particle dry deposition to the sea surface: Results from ASEPS '97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Geernaert, L.L.S.

    1999-01-01

    on Precipitation Scavenging and Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Processes. AMS, Richland, Washington, USA, 12pp.) model to calculate size-segregated dry deposition of particle inorganic nitrogen compounds to the western Baltic during the late Spring of 1997 based on data collected as part of the Air-Sea Exchange...

  18. Results are coming in from JGOFS-India cruises and collaborative projects in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.; Madhupratap, M.

    are published in special issue of Current science 71 (11) 1996 Dec. 10. Besides, biogeochemical research in the Arabian Sea is also a part of JGOFS (India) programme. Six cruises have been undertaken aboard research vessels Sargar sampada and Sargar Kanya...

  19. Comparison of TOPEX/Poseidon Sea Level and Linear Model Results forced by Various Wind Products for the Tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackert, Eric C.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to compare TOPEX/Posaidon (T/P) sea level with sea level results from linear ocean model experiments forced by several different wind products for the tropical Pacific. During the period of this study (October 1992 - October 1995), available wind products include satellite winds from the ERS-1 scatterometer product of [HALP 97] and the passive microwave analysis of SSMI winds produced using the variational analysis method (VAM) of [ATLA 91]. In addition, atmospheric GCM winds from the NCEP reanalysis [KALN 96], ECMWF analysis [ECMW94], and the Goddard EOS-1 (GEOS-1) reanalysis experiment [SCHU 93] are available for comparison. The observed ship wind analysis of FSU [STRI 92] is also included in this study. The linear model of [CANE 84] is used as a transfer function to test the quality of each of these wind products for the tropical Pacific. The various wind products are judged by comparing the wind-forced model sea level results against the T/P sea level anomalies. Correlation and RMS difference maps show how well each wind product does in reproducing the T/P sea level signal. These results are summarized in a table showing area average correlations and RMS differences. The large-scale low-frequency temporal signal is reproduced by all of the wind products, However, significant differences exist in both amplitude and phase on regional scales. In general, the model results forced by satellite winds do a better job reproducing the T/P signal (i.e. have a higher average correlation and lower RMS difference) than the results forced by atmospheric model winds.

  20. Novel Use of PIT Tags in Sea Cucumbers: Promising Results with the Commercial Species Cucumaria frondosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Gianasi

    Full Text Available The lack of a reliable and innocuous mark-recapture method has limited studies that would provide essential information for the management of commercial sea cucumbers. Tagging sea cucumbers is notoriously difficult because of their plastic nature and autolysis capacities. The markers that have so far been tested, mainly on or through the body wall, were either lost rapidly or had major drawbacks (e.g. suitable only for batch identification, requiring complex analysis, causing infections, necrosis, behavioural changes and mortality. The present study explored the efficacy of passive integrated transponder (PIT tags for individually marking sea cucumbers by assessing retention rates and long-term side effects of tags inserted in previously unstudied tissues/organs. Individuals of the species Cucumaria frondosa were tagged in the body wall, aquapharyngeal bulb and at the base of the oral tentacles. They were monitored closely for evidence of stress, infection, change in feeding and spawning behaviour and tag retention rate. Implanting the tag in an oral tentacle to reach the hydrovascular system of the aquapharyngeal bulb achieved the best retention rates in full-size individuals: from a maximum of 92% after 30 days to 68% at the end of the experimental period (300 days. Efficacy was lower in smaller individuals (84% after 30 d and 42% after 300 d. Following a slight increase in cloacal movements for 15 h post tagging, no side effect was noted in sea cucumbers tagged in the aquapharyngeal bulb via the tentacles. Feeding and spawning behaviours were not affected and no signs of infections or abnormal cell development in the vicinity of the tags were observed. This study indicates that marking sea cucumbers with 8.2 mm long PIT tags implanted via the oral tentacle is an effective technique, yielding relatively high retention rates over long periods without any detectable physiological or behavioural effects.

  1. Method of forecasting pollutant transfer in an aquifer initial results obtained in a sandy medium (Barp site, Gironde)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoz-Escande, C.; Peyrus, J.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogeological studies are undertaken in the context of the radiological safety of nuclear plants to forecast consequences of accidental releases of radioactive pollutants into an aquifer (transfer time, concentration at points of emergence). This quantitative forecast is obtained with the aid of a mathematical model with sequential emission. This requires a knowledge of the physical parameters of the aquifer and of the behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium. The physical parameters of a saturated porous medium are presented with the aid of radioactive tracer tests on a model and also in the field. The initial results obtained in a sandy medium are presented. In view of the difficulty of extrapolating to field conditions the conclusions of tests on models, it was necessary to set up a mobile laboratory with which in situ studies could be undertaken. The behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium is the subject of preliminary laboratory research on the laws of adsorption under different pH and temperature conditions. The numerical results obtained call for confirmation in the field. A description is given of a method which should enable the distribution coefficients to be evaluated in situ

  2. Dietary pollutants induce oxidative stress, altering maternal antioxidant provisioning and reproductive output in the temperate sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Kathryn N; Lamare, Miles D; Burritt, David J

    2016-08-01

    Evidence is growing to suggest that the capacity to withstand oxidative stress may play an important role in shaping life-history trade-offs, although little is known on the relationship in broadcast spawning marine invertebrates. In this group, variation in gamete quantity and quality are important drivers of offspring survival and successful recruitment. Therefore the provisioning of eggs with antioxidants may be an important driver of life history strategies because they play a critical role in preventing damage from reactive oxygen species to macromolecules. In this study, a suite of oxidative stress biomarkers was measured in the gonads and eggs of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Links between oxidative stress markers and core components of fitness including fecundity, gamete quality and maternal transfer of antioxidants were assessed. Experimental induction of oxidative stress was achieved via exposure to a mix of four PAHs over a 21-day period. In PAH exposed individuals, we observed a significant upregulation of the antioxidant defence and detoxification enzymes SOD, CAT, GR, GPx and GST, as well as a greater pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidant glutathione in gonad tissue and eggs. In contrast, glutathione redox status was not affected by PAH exposure, with the percentage of reduced glutathione remaining at approximately 80% in both gonad tissue and released eggs. PAH-exposed adults experienced greater than three- and five-fold increases in oxidative protein and lipid damage, respectively, in gonad tissue. In contrast, eggs maintained low levels of damage, not differing from baseline levels found in eggs released from PAH-naïve mothers. PAH exposure also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in fecundity of reproductively mature females but no significant alteration to egg diameter. Although PAH-exposed females released fewer eggs, successful fertilisation of those eggs was slightly enhanced with average

  3. WHISPERS Project on the easternmost slope of the Ross Sea (Antarctica): preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, E.; De Santis, L.; Bergamasco, A.; Colleoni, F.; Gales, J. A.; Florindo-Lopez, C.; Kim, S.; Kovacevic, V.; Rebesco, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet from the outer continental shelf and the oceanic circulation are the main causes of the depositional processes on the Ross Sea continental slope, at present time and during the most of the Cenozoic. Currently the Antarctic Bottom Water formation is directly linked to the relatively warm Circumpolar Deep Water that, encroaching the continental shelf, mixes with the colder Ross Sea Bottom Water. Detailed multibeam and geological surveys useful to locate and characterize peculiar morphological structures on the bottom are essential to study how the glacial and oceanographic processes interact with the seabed sediments. In the framework of the PNRA-WHISPERS project (XXXIIth Italian Antarctic expedition - January/March 2017), new multibeam bathymetric, sub-bottom chirp, were acquired from the easternmost margin of the Ross Sea, on the southeastern side of the Hayes Bank, usually covered by sea ice. We observed on the upper slope erosional features (incised gullies of likely glacial meltwater origin). A broad scar in the upper slope is characterized by an elongated SSW-NNE ridge (10 km long, 850-1200 m water depth, 2 km wide), that may be a remnants of previous glacial or debris flow deposits, eroded by meltwater outwash discharge at the beginning of grounding ice retreat and by RSBW cascading along the slope, as documented by Expandable Bathy-Thermograph and Acoustic Depth Current Profile data. Sub-bottom chirp profiles crossing this ridge show a very low amplitude reflective sea bed, supporting the hypothesis of its soft sediment nature, in good agreement with a very low acoustic velocity obtained by multichannel seismic data reprocessing. The occurrence of internal stratification on 2D multichannel seismic profiles would discount a gas-fluids related mud volcano origin. No sediment cores were collected, due to bad sea conditions and limited ship time, further data collection would be needed to fully understand

  4. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  5. Transport of particle pollution into the Maipo Valley: winter 2015 campaign results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneeus, Nicolás; Mazzeo, Andrea; Ordóñez, César; Donoso, Nicolás; Gallardo, Laura; Molina, Luisa; Moreno, Valeria; Muñoz, Ricardo; Orfanoz, Andrea; Vizcarra, Aldo

    2016-04-01

    Each winter, Santiago (33° 27'S, 70° 40'W) the capital of Chile with a population of about 7 million people, experiences episodes with particulate matter (PM) concentrations larger than allowed by Chilean environmental regulations. Transport and residential heating largely dominate emissions prior to and during these episodes. Important impact of black carbon (BC) on the cryosphere has been documented in other parts of the world associated with urban pollution. In order to explore if BC from Santiago has the potential to reach the Andean cryosphere during the aforementioned episodes, a one week-long campaign was conducted in Santiago and the Maipo Valley between 18th and 25th of July 2015 when the air quality conditions of the city reached twice the critical levels (pre-emergency in Chilean regulations). Measurements were carried out at three sites: downtown Santiago, the entrance of the valley (and outskirts of Santiago) and 12 km inside the Maipo Valley. At each of these sites both surface and vertically distributed measurements were conducted. A meteorological station measuring standard meteorological parameters and an E-Sampler measuring PM10 concentrations were installed at each site. In addition, a tethered balloon equipped with a sonde and a mini-aethalometer was used in each site to measure vertical profiles of standard meteorological parameters and BC concentrations, respectively. The tethered balloon was raised every three hours up to a maximum of 1000 meters above ground level, whenever meteorological conditions allowed. In general, the BC concentrations inside the valley, both at the surface and in the vertical, were dominated by emissions within the valley and BC was limited to shallow layers above the ground. However, on both days with critical air quality levels, winds blowing from the city and deeper BC layers were observed inside the valley. Furthermore, during these days observations at the entrance of the valley and those taken inside were

  6. Cs-137 geochronology, epithermal neutron activation analysis, and principal component analysis of heavy metals pollution of the Black Sea anoxic continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duliu, O. G.; Cristache, C.; Oaie, G.; Culicov, O. A.; Frontasyeva, M. V.

    2009-04-01

    Anthropogenic Cs-137 Gamma-ray Spectroscopy assay (GrSA) performed at the National Institute of Research and Development for Physics and Nuclear Engineering - Bucharest (Romania) in correlation with Epithermal Neutrons Activation Analysis (ENAA) performed at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Researches - Dubna (Russia) were used to investigate a 50 cm core containing unconsolidated sediments collected at a depth of 600 m off Romanian town of Constantza, located in the anoxic zone of the Black Sea Continental Shelf. A digital radiography showed the presence of about 265 distinct laminae, 1 to 3 mm thick, a fact attesting a stationary sedimentary process, completely free of bioturbation. After being radiographed, the core was sliced into 45 segments whose thickness gradually increased from 0.5 to 5 cm, such that the minimum thickness corresponded to the upper part of the core. From each segment two aliquots of about 0.5 g and 50 g were extracted for subsequent ENAA and Cs-137 GrSA. The Cs-137 vertical profile evidenced two maxima, one of them was very sharp and localized at a depth of 1 cm and the other very broad, almost undistinguished at about 8 cm depth, the first one being attributed to 1986 Chernobyl accident. Based on these date, we have estimated a sedimentation ratio of about 0.5 mm/year, value taken as reference for further assessment of recent pollution history. By means of ENAA we have determined the vertical content of five presumed pollutants, e.i. Zn, As, Br, Sn and Sb and of Sc, as natural, nonpolluting element. In the first case, all five elements presented a more or less similar vertical profile consisting of an almost exponential decrease for the first 10 cm below sediment surface followed by a plateau until the core base, i.e. 50 cm below surface, dependency better described by the equation: c(z) = c0 [1+k exp (-z/Z)] (1) where: where c(z) represents the concentration vertical profile; z represents depth (in absolute value); c0 represents the plateau

  7. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: model results compared with summer observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pätsch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available For the sediments of the central and southern North Sea different sources of alkalinity generation are quantified by a regional modelling system for the period 2000–2014. For this purpose a formerly global ocean sediment model coupled with a pelagic ecosystem model is adapted to shelf sea dynamics, where much larger turnover rates than in the open and deep ocean occur. To track alkalinity changes due to different nitrogen-related processes, the open ocean sediment model was extended by the state variables particulate organic nitrogen (PON and ammonium. Directly measured alkalinity fluxes and those derived from Ra isotope flux observation from the sediment into the pelagic are reproduced by the model system, but calcite building and calcite dissolution are underestimated. Both fluxes cancel out in terms of alkalinity generation and consumption. Other simulated processes altering alkalinity in the sediment, like net sulfate reduction, denitrification, nitrification, and aerobic degradation, are quantified and compare well with corresponding fluxes derived from observations. Most of these fluxes exhibit a strong positive gradient from the open North Sea to the coast, where large rivers drain nutrients and organic matter. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition also shows a positive gradient from the open sea towards land and supports alkalinity generation in the sediments. An additional source of spatial variability is introduced by the use of a 3-D heterogenous porosity field. Due to realistic porosity variations (0.3–0.5 the alkalinity fluxes vary by about 4 %. The strongest impact on interannual variations of alkalinity fluxes is exhibited by the temporal varying nitrogen inputs from large rivers directly governing the nitrate concentrations in the coastal bottom water, thus providing nitrate necessary for benthic denitrification. Over the time investigated the alkalinity effluxes decrease due to the decrease in the nitrogen supply by the rivers.

  8. The Costs of a Cleaner baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Sisse Liv; Konrad, Maria Theresia Hedegaard; Hasler, Berit

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the Helcom (The Helsinki Comity), representing most of the countries around the Baltic, made an agreement for the future of the Baltic Sea, on reducing the nutrient input to the Baltic Sea and thereby avert further environmental damage, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). One...... of the results was nutrient reduction targets for each country - the BSAP targets. Because the Baltic Sea is such an international marine area, receiving pollutants from many  countries, an international approach is necessary to make effective solutions. But is the BSAP the most cost-effective solution...... to the regulation of the Baltic Sea? And does the BSAP result in cost-effective reductions in the different countries, which is a requirement of the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Directive?   These questions are studied and answered using a cost minimisation model for the Baltic sea, initially...

  9. Wind waves on the Black Sea: results of a hindcast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, V. S.; Gippius, F. N.; Koltermann, K. P.; Surkova, G. V.

    2014-02-01

    In this study we describe the wind waves fields on the Black Sea. The general aims of the work were the estimation of statistical wave parameters and the assessment of interannual and seasonal storm variability. The domain of this study was the entire Black Sea. Wave parameters were calculated by means of the SWAN wave model on a 5 km × 5 km rectangular grid. Initial conditions (wind speed and direction) for the period between 1948 and 2010 were derived from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In our calculations the average significant wave height on the Black Sea does not exceed 0.7 m. Areas of most significant storminess are the south-western and the north-eastern corners as expressed in the spatial distribution of wave heights, wave lengths and periods. Besides that, long-term annual variations of storminess were estimated. Thus, linear trends of the annual total duration of storms and of their quantity are nearly stable over the reanalysis period. However, an intensification of storm activity is observed in the 1960s-1970s.

  10. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Roque [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)], E-mail: serrano@qfa.uji.es; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water (IUPA). Avda Sos Baynat, s/n. University Jaume I, 12071 Castellon (Spain)

    2008-01-25

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. {delta}{sup 15}N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. {delta}{sup 13}C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens.

  11. Biomagnification of organochlorine pollutants in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) and stable isotope characterization of the trophic chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Roque; Blanes, Miguel A.; Lopez, Francisco J.

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorine pollutants (pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls) were analysed in farmed and wild gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) tissues (white muscle and liver) from the Western Mediterranean (Spain) and in their diets. Determination was carried out by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after clean up of the fatty extracts by normal phase HPLC, with detection limits around 0.1 ng/g. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined in the samples. Organochlorine compounds concentration was found to be uniform throughout the year in farmed fish, in both white muscle and liver. In contrast, wild fish showed contamination profiles that reflect environmental factors and the biological cycle. Although biomagnification factors for white muscle and liver were found to be 2.4 and 3.0, respectively for farmed fish, and 0.15 and 0.54 for wild specimens, wild fish presented higher levels of organochlorine contaminants than farmed fish. Nitrogen stable isotopes determination in muscle from wild and farmed sea bream during the year gave us a profile related to the biological cycle. δ 15 N mean values from farmed fish were 2.0 per mille higher than from wild fish throughout the year that corresponding to close to one trophic step. δ 13 C values were stable during the year, and also more enriched in the case of farmed fish. The low levels of contaminants found in the feed supplied to farmed fish explain the organochlorine concentrations in their tissues which remain below wild fish, in spite of the intensive culture conditions and higher trophic level of cultured specimens

  12. The analysis of results received from the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done; Dimitrovski, Mile

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of results and influence of specified factors on the concentration of pollutants on the crossroads with chosen characteristic conditions has been made, on the basis of the programme for calculating the concentration of pollutants from vehicles with internal combustion engines on the crossroads in urban environments. (author)

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution.

  14. Study of the Barada river environment pollution with poisonous trace elements resulting from tanning and electroplating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamis, I.; Sarheel, A.; Al-Somel, N.; Al-Masri, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of leather industry impact on Barada river environment, specifically in the eastern part of Damascus was made. Differential samples such as sediments, soil, and plantations from various locations were collected. results show high increase of chromium in river's sediment and soil adjacent to the river banks. However, such increase was not noticed in plantations or tree leaves. Copper and nickel concentrations were also high in sediments due to waste coming out of the electroplating industry. Concentration of titanium, one of the polishing and coloring industry's wastes, was noticed to be rather high too. Concentration of all previous pollutants was noticed to decrease as the distance become farther from the industrial complex. (Author)

  15. Evaporation of boric acid from sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gast, J A; Thompson, T G

    1959-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that the boron-chlorinity ratios of rain waters are many times greater than the boron-chlorinity ratio of sea water. The presence of boron in the atmosphere has been attributed to sea spray, volcanic activity, accumulation in dust, evaporation from plants, and industrial pollution. In this paper data are presented to demonstrate that boric acid in sea water has a vapor pressure at ordinary temperatures of the sea and, when sea water evaporates, boric acid occurs in the condensate of the water vapor. It is postulated that, while some of the boron in the atmosphere can be attributed to the sources mentioned above, most of the boric acid results from evaporation from the sea.

  16. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo

    2002-01-01

    Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books and p...

  17. Pollution and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhoja, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    If no body can dispute the fact that technological progress favours production, comfort and the economy of time, nobody can deny either that the same progress is at the origin of a pollution that puts earth's natural resources in jeopardy. Pollution is physical, but it has a moral aspect as well. In the first case, it spoils water, the soil, the sea, the air and the vegetation. In the second case, it deals a hard blow to man's intelectual and spiritual life. Pollution is natural and biological and, in this case, it is not the result of man's activity, but that of bacteria and viruses which are responsible for various illnesses and epidemics. It could also be the result of toxicity due to volcanic eruptions, solar explosions, or electric charges liberated by clouds. Pollution can also result from harmful waste of chemical and other industries, from the various usages of chemical products, from cars and engines' exhaust, from thermal activities or radioactive spills. Today, it is radioactivity which constitutes the most serious threat to human life.(author)

  18. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts. PMID:27556233

  19. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Petit, Stéphanie; Elineau, Amanda; Bruzaud, Stéphane; Crebassa, Jean-Claude; Dumontet, Bruno; Martí, Elisa; Gorsky, Gabriel; Cózar, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items), although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  20. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of coastal areas of the Ross Sea, Antarctica: Indications for long-term downward trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Karla; Martellini, Tania; Corsolini, Simonetta; Harner, Tom; Estellano, Victor; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D; Lammel, Gerhard; Cincinelli, Alessandra

    2017-07-01

    Passive air samplers were used to evaluate long-term trends and spatial distribution of trace organic compounds in Antarctica. Duplicate PUF disk samplers were deployed at six automatic weather stations in the coastal area of the Ross sea (East Antarctica), between December 2010 and January 2011, during the XXVI Italian Scientific Research Expedition. Among the investigated persistent organic compounds, Hexachlorobenzene was the most abundant, with air concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 50 pg m -3 . In general, the following decreasing concentration order was found for the air samples analyzed: HCB > PeCB > PCBs > DDTs > HCHs. While HCB concentrations were in the same range as those reported in the atmosphere of other Antarctic sampling areas and did not show a decline, HCHs and DDTs levels were lower or similar to those determined one or two decades ago. In general, the very low concentrations reflected the pristine state of the East Antarctica air. Backward trajectories indicated the prevalence of air masses coming from the Antarctic continent. Local contamination and volatilization from ice were suggested as potential sources for the presence of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. RESULTS OF THE STUDY ORIBATIDMITEIN THE COASTAL AREA OF THE NORTH-WEST OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Grikurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim . Studied the fauna of the soil mites of coastal and island ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian sea (Bryansk spit, Strategiczne, Islands seal, Chechen and Nordby. Found 49 species and 39 genera and subgenera, and 24 families. Species composition of oribatidmite of theNorth-western part of the Caspian Sea remains not completely studied. The aim of the work was to study the species composition of oribatidmite ecosystems of the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea. Location. Coastal ecosystems north-western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The selection of soil samples in different habitats and MicroStation is the basis for studying the biodiversity and abundance of soil microarthropod. To extract small soil organisms method was used electoral forcing, which is based on the use of negative phototaxis soil organisms. When the definition of oribatid mites used the microscope MBI-6, Olympus CH-20.Results. As a result of studies 41 species of oribatidmites, 9 of which – new forthe fauna of the Caucasus, 17 species – new for the fauna of Dagestan, one species – new to science were identified. There sults can be used to compile regionallists, inventories and will be included in the list of directories oribatidmite of Caucasus.Main conclusions. There sults showed that for both are as of studies - 9 species, exclusively in coastal ecosystems of Bryansks pit 24 species, found only in ecosystems Staroterechnogo 9 species are common.

  2. Airborne pollutant concentrations and health risks in selected Apulia region (IT) areas: preliminary results from the Jonico-Salentino project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Genga, Alessandra; De Donno, Antonella; Siciliano, Tiziana; Siciliano, Maria; Serio, Francesca; Grassi, Tiziana; Rispoli, Gennaro; Cavaiola, Mattia; Lionello, Piero

    2017-04-01

    The Jonico-Salentino project (PJS) is a multidisciplinary study funded by Apulia Region (Det. N. 188_RU - 10/11/2015) aiming to assess health risk of people living in the cities of Lecce, Brindisi and Taranto. Citizens are exposed to emissions from industrial sources, biomass burning, vehicular, naval and air traffic, as well as from natural radioactive sources (radon). In this context, this work presents some preliminary results obtained by the Unit of University of Salento (Lecce) during an experimental campaign carried out in the study areas. The campaign is devoted to (i) sample particulate matter (PM), (ii) measure micro-meteorological variables and (iii) evaluate exposure levels of residents to main pollutants. Specifically, PM is sampled using a low volume sampler, while meteorological variables (wind speed components and direction temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and global solar radiation) are measured by advanced instrumentation such as ultrasonic anemometers which allows for the estimation of turbulence fluxes. The early effects of exposure to air pollutants is evaluated by the frequency of micronucleus (a biomarker of DNA damage) in exfoliated buccal cells collected using a soft-bristled toothbrush from oral mucosa of primary school children enrolled in the study. PM concentration data collected during the campaign are characterised from a chemical and morphological point of view; the analysis of different groups of particles allows identifying different natural and anthropogenic emission sources. This is done in conjunction to the investigation of the influence of local meteorology to elucidate the contribution of specific types of sources on final concentration levels. Finally, all data are used to assess the health risk of people living in the study areas as consequence of exposure to airborne pollutants.

  3. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  4. Analysing the Air: Experiences and Results of Long Term Air Pollution Monitoring in the Asia-Pacific Region Using Nuclear Analysis Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanacio, Armand J.

    2015-01-01

    Particles present in the air we breathe are now recognized as a major cause of disease and premature death globally. In fact, a World Health Organization (WHO) report recently ranked ambient air pollution as one of the top 10 causes of death in the world, directly contributing annually to around 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide 65% of which occurred in the Asian region alone. Airborne particulate matter (PM) can be generated from natural sources such as windblown soil or coastal sea-spray; as well as anthropogenic sources such as power stations, industry, vehicles and domestic biomass burning. At low concentration these fine pollution particles are too small to be seen by eye, but penetrate deep into our lungs and even our blood stream as our nose and throat are inefficient at filtering them out. At large concentrations, they can also have wider regional effects including reduced visibility, acid rain and even climate variability. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 2000, recognizing air pollution as a significant local, national and global challenge, initiated a collaborative air pollution study involving 14 countries across the greater Asia-pacific region from 2000 to 2015. This has amassed a database containing more than 14,000 data lines of PM mass concentration and the concentration of up to 40 elements using nuclear analytical techniques. It represents the most comprehensive and long-term airborne PM data set compiled to date for the Asia-Pacific region and as will be discussed, can be used to statistically resolve individual source fingerprints and their contributions to total air pollution using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). This sort of data necessary for implementing or reviewing the effectiveness of policy level changes aimed at targeted air pollution reduction. (author)

  5. Changes in the Floating Plastic Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea in Relation to the Distance to Land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Pedrotti

    Full Text Available The composition, size distribution, and abundance of floating plastic debris in surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea were analyzed in relation to distance to land. We combined data from previously published reports with an intensive sampling in inshore waters of the Northwestern Mediterranean. The highest plastic concentrations were found in regions distant from from land as well as in the first kilometer adjacent to the coastline. In this nearshore water strip, plastic concentrations were significantly correlated with the nearness to a coastal human population, with local areas close to large human settlements showing hundreds of thousands of plastic pieces per km2. The ratio of plastic to plankton abundance reached particularly high values for the coastal surface waters. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polyamides were the predominant plastic polymers at all distances from coast (86 to 97% of total items, although the diversity of polymers was higher in the 1-km coastal water strip due to a higher frequency of polystyrene or polyacrylic fibers. The plastic size distributions showed a gradual increase in abundance toward small sizes indicating an efficient removal of small plastics from the surface. Nevertheless, the relative abundance of small fragments (< 2 mm was higher within the 1-km coastal water strip, suggesting a rapid fragmentation down along the shoreline, likely related with the washing ashore on the beaches. This study constitutes a first attempt to determine the impact of plastic debris in areas closest to Mediterranean coast. The presence of a high concentration of plastic including tiny plastic items could have significant environmental, health and economic impacts.

  6. Temporal variation on environmental variables and pollution indicators in marine sediments under sea Salmon farming cages in protected and exposed zones in the Chilean inland Southern Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, Mauricio A

    2016-12-15

    The impacts of any activity on marine ecosystems will depend on the characteristics of the receptor medium and its resilience to external pressures. Salmon farming industry develops along a constant gradient of hydrodynamic conditions in the south of Chile. However, the influence of the hydrodynamic characteristics (weak or strong) on the impacts of intensive salmon farming is still poorly understood. This one year study evaluates the impacts of salmon farming on the marine sediments of both protected and exposed marine zones differing in their hydrodynamic characteristics. Six physico-chemical, five biological variables and seven indexes of marine sediments status were evaluated under the salmon farming cages and control sites. Our results identified a few key variables and indexes necessary to accurately evaluate the salmon farming impacts on both protected and exposed zones. Interestingly, the ranking of importance of the variables and the temporality of the observed changes, varied depending on the hydrodynamic characteristics. Biological variables (nematodes abundance) and environmental indexes (Simpson's dominance, Shannon's diversity and Pielou evenness) are the first to reflect detrimental impacts under the salmon farming cages. Then the physico-chemical variables such as redox, sulphurs and phosphorus in both zones also show detrimental impacts. Based on the present results we propose that the hydrodynamic regime is an important driver of the magnitude and temporality of the effects of salmon farming on marine sediments. The variables and indexes that best reflect the effects of salmon farming, in both protected and exposed zones, are also described. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Messinian seismic Markers in the Western Tyrrhenian Sea: preliminary results from the "METYSS" Cruise (June 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofi, Johanna; Gaullier, Virginie; Sage, Françoise; Chanier, Franck; Deverchere, Jacques; Gorini, Christian; Maillard, Agnès.; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Sellier, Nicolas; Thinon, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    This work has been undertaken in the framework of an integrated study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, Hsu et al., 1973) seismic makers at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. This new approach is based on multi-site comparative studies and on a unified nomenclature for Messinian sedimentary units and surfaces (Lofi et al., accepted). The objectives are to establish the impact of the MSC event on margins and basins that are characterized by various geodynamical, structural and sedimentary settings. In this scientific context, the Tyrrhenian Sea and especially its western part, constitutes a major target because of its geodynamical evolution. This area is a Neogene back-arc basin opened by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system (Jolivet et al., 2006). Rifting of the Tyrrhenian Sea started first on the Eastern Sardinian margin during the Tortonian-Messinian times, thus including Messinian deposits potentially syn-rift in some places. For these reasons, the western part of the Tyrrhenian basin is a key-area to document relationships between Messinian deposits and tectonic activity. In addition, this geodynamical evolution rises the question of the paleogeography and paleo-connections with the East Corsica basin, that may have worked as an independent lacustrine basin during the MSC, a topic that is questioned (Thinon et al., 2004). The dataset used in this study consists of 15 seismic high-resolution reflection profiles (±1200 km). They have been acquired during the "METYSS" cruise (June 2009) along the Eastern Sardinian and South-Eastern Corsican margins on the R/V "Téthys II" (INSU-CNRS/CIRMED) (Gaullier et al., 2009). These profiles penetrate up to 1 second TWT below the sea-floor, allowing to clearly image the Plio-Quaternary sequence, Messinian Salinity Crisis deposits and erosion surfaces, down to the basement top. Here, we describe the characteristics (seismic facies, geometry

  8. Lead-210 and polonium-210 as marine geochemical tracers: review and discussion of results from the Laborador Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, M.P.; Spencer, D.W.; Brewer, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    Because of their suitable half-lives and their accurately measurable rates of supply to the oceans by decay of parent radionuclides, 210 Pb and 210 Po have become increasingly important as tracers in the study of marine geochemical processes. Short removal times characterize the behavior of both nuclides in the biologically productive surface layers of the sea. Release from particles at depth is efficient for 210 Po but does not appear to be significant for 210 Pb. Scavenging processes in the deep sea are revealed by 210 Pb/ 226 Ra and 210 Po/ 210 Pb disequilibriums. Adsorption by particles sinking in the water column and reaction at the seafloor both appear to be important removal mechanisms. Results from four stations in the Labrador Sea are shown to be consistent with many earlier observations. Significant 210 Pb depletions, however, are found only at depths greater than 1500 m. Below 1500 m, 210 Pb/ 226 Ra ratios decrease steadily with depth to very low values in the Iceland-Scotland Overflow and Denmark Straits Overflow waters. The intense interaction of these water masses with the seafloor may account for this trend

  9. Assessment of offshore wind power potential in the Aegean and Ionian Seas based on high-resolution hindcast model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takvor Soukissian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study long-term wind data obtained from high-resolution hindcast simulations is used to analytically assess offshore wind power potential in the Aegean and Ionian Seas and provide wind climate and wind power potential characteristics at selected locations, where offshore wind farms are at the concept/planning phase. After ensuring the good model performance through detailed validation against buoy measurements, offshore wind speed and wind direction at 10 m above sea level are statistically analyzed on the annual and seasonal time scale. The spatial distribution of the mean wind speed and wind direction are provided in the appropriate time scales, along with the mean annual and the inter-annual variability; these statistical quantities are useful in the offshore wind energy sector as regards the preliminary identification of favorable sites for exploitation of offshore wind energy. Moreover, the offshore wind power potential and its variability are also estimated at 80 m height above sea level. The obtained results reveal that there are specific areas in the central and the eastern Aegean Sea that combine intense annual winds with low variability; the annual offshore wind power potential in these areas reach values close to 900 W/m2, suggesting that a detailed assessment of offshore wind energy would be worth noticing and could lead in attractive investments. Furthermore, as a rough estimate of the availability factor, the equiprobable contours of the event [4 m/s ≤ wind speed ≤ 25 m/s] are also estimated and presented. The selected lower and upper bounds of wind speed correspond to typical cut-in and cut-out wind speed thresholds, respectively, for commercial offshore wind turbines. Finally, for seven offshore wind farms that are at the concept/planning phase the main wind climate and wind power density characteristics are also provided.

  10. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  11. [Air pollution and mortality in twenty-five Italian cities: results of the EpiAir2 Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Ester Rita; Faustini, Annunziata; Chiusolo, Monica; Stafoggia, Massimo; Gandini, Martina; Demaria, Moreno; Antonelli, Antonello; Arena, Pasquale; Biggeri, Annibale; Canova, Cristina; Casale, Giovanna; Cernigliaro, Achille; Garrone, Elsa; Gherardi, Bianca; Gianicolo, Emilio Antonio Luca; Giannini, Simone; Iuzzolino, Claudia; Lauriola, Paolo; Mariottini, Mauro; Pasetto, Paolo; Randi, Giorgia; Ranzi, Andrea; Santoro, Michele; Selle, Vittorio; Serinelli, Maria; Stivanello, Elisa; Tominz, Riccardo; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Zauli-Sajani, Stefano; Forastiere, Francesco; Cadum, Ennio

    2013-01-01

    this study aims at presenting the results from the Italian EpiaAir2 Project on the short-term effects of air pollution on adult population (35+ years old) in 25 Italian cities. the short-term effects of air pollution on resident people died in their city were analysed adopting the time series approach. The association between increases in 10µg/m(3) in PM10, PM2.5, NO2 and O3 air concentration and natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular and respiratory mortality was studied. City-specific Poisson models were fitted to estimate the association of daily concentrations of pollutants with daily counts of deaths. The analysis took into account temporal and meteorological factors to control for potential confounding effect. Pooled estimates have been derived from random effects meta-analysis, evaluating the presence of heterogeneity in the city specific results. it was analysed 422,723 deaths in the 25 cities of the project among people aged 35 years or more, resident in each city during the period 2006-2010. daily counts of natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality, obtained from the registries of each city. Demographic information were obtained by record linkage procedure with the civil registry of each city. mean number of deaths for natural causes ranged from 513 in Rovigo to 20,959 in Rome. About 25% of deaths are due to cardiac diseases, 10% to cerebrovascular diseases, and 7% to respiratory diseases. It was found an immediate effect of PM10 on natural mortality (0.51%; 95%CI 0.16-0.86; lag 0-1). More relevant and prolonged effects (lag 0-5) have been found for PM2.5 (0.78%; 95%CI 0.12-1.46) and NO2 (1.10%; 95%CI 0.63-1.58). Increases in cardiac mortality are associated with PM10 (0.93%; 95%CI 0.16-1.70) and PM2.5 (1.25%; 95%CI 0.17-2.34), while for respiratory mortality exposure to NO2 has an important role (1.67%; 95%CI 0.23-3.13; lag 2-5), as well as PM10 (1.41%; 95%CI - 0.23;+3.08). Results are strongly homogeneous among cities, except for

  12. Microplastic in the gastrointestinal tract of fishes along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast

    KAUST Repository

    Baalkhuyur, Fadiyah M.; Bin Dohaish, El-Jawaher A.; Elhalwagy, Manal E.A.; Mannalamkunnath Alikunhi, Nabeel; Al-Suwailem, Abdulaziz M.; Rø stad, Anders; Coker, Darren James; Berumen, Michael L.; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-01

    of microplastics debris near the seabed. The results of this study represent a first evidence that microplastic pollution represents an emerging threat to Red Sea fishes, their food web and human consumers.

  13. Preliminary results of measurements of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds near the Polaniec power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewanski, J; Kasina, S; Lewinska, J; Piorek, S

    1976-01-01

    In the past investigations of the negative impact of power stations on the natural environment have been restricted to measuring sulfur dioxide content in the air. A method of determining complex influence of sulfur compounds on the natural environment is proposed. The following indexes are used: content of sulfur dioxide in the air, dust content (determined by means of the West-Gaeke method), content of sulphate ions in precipitation and pH value of precipitation. Methods used to determine each of the indexes are described. Location of measuring stations in the area where the power station is being constructed is evaluated, taking into account prevailing wind direction and atmospheric conditions (15 measuring points out of which 10 stations measure sulfur content in precipitation and pH value of precipitation, and 5 stations measure the mean daily concentration of sulfur dioxide and dust content). Results are presented in 3 maps, 1 table and 2 pictures. Variations in sulfur dioxide content, dust content, and pH value of precipitation depending on direction of wind, atmospheric conditions and season are analyzed. The results of the investigation will be compared with results of investigations carried out when the power station is in operation. (15 refs.)

  14. Diagnostic model of 3-D circulation in the Arabian Sea and western equatorial Indian Ocean: Results of monthly mean sea surface topography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bahulayan, N.; Shaji, C.

    A three-dimensional diagnostic model has been developed to compute the monthly mean circulation and sea surface topography in the Western Tropical Indian Ocean north of 20 degrees S and west of 80 degrees E. The diagnostic model equations...

  15. About uncertainties in sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2014-03-01

    One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative sea ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time sea ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and sea ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain sea ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-type dependent sea ice density is as mandatory

  16. Technico-economic evaluation of abatement systems applying to air pollution resulting from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounier, Marc.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the health care policies which could be considered in coal-fired power plants, in the comparative framework of the radiation protection in nuclear power plants. After a recall of the typical parameters of the air pollution due to the normal operation of a coal-fired power plant, we develop a heuristic model which allows, after having quantified the releases, to determine the theoretical health effects associated to a one-year operation of the power plant. The comparison of the various protection policies has been done with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis. An examination of the results shows that the policy presently implemented forms a part of the cost-effective options. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the marginal protection cost is higher in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants [fr

  17. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist of basal transgressive sands overlain by regressive highstand silts and quartz sands; and (2) although slope lithofacies variations are subdued, reworked sediments constitute lowstand deposits, causing the strongest, most extensive seismic reflections. Despite a primary eustatic control on sequence boundaries, New Jersey sequences were also influenced by changes in tectonics, sediment supply, and climate. During the early to middle Eocene, low siliciclastic and

  18. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure : Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    Aims Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution

  19. Air pollution and daily admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 6 European cities : Results from the APHEA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, HR; Spix, C; Medina, S; Schouten, JP; Castellsague, J; Rossi, G; Zmirou, D; Touloumi, G; Wojtyniak, B; Ponka, A; Bacharova, L; Schwartz, J; Katsouyanni, K

    We investigated the short-term effects of air pollution on hospital admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Europe. As part of a European project (Air Pollution and Health, a European Approach (APHEA)), we analysed data from the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, London, Milan,

  20. Benthic foraminifera cultured over a large salinity gradient: first results and comparison with field data from the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Jeroen; Filipsson, Helena L.; Austin, William E. N.; Darling, Kate; Quintana Krupinski, Nadine B.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most significant challenges in paleoclimate research arise from the need to both understand and reduce the uncertainty associated with proxy methods for climate reconstructions. This is especially important for shelf and coastal environments where increasing numbers of high-resolution paleorecords are being generated. These challenges are further highlighted in connection with ECORD/IODP Expedition 347: Baltic Sea Paleoenvironments. This large-scale drilling operation took place in the Baltic Sea region during the autumn of 2013. At this time, there is a pressing need for proxy calibrations directly targeted at the brackish Baltic environment. Within the CONTEMPORARY project we are investigating different temperature and salinity proxy variables through a combination of field- and culture-based benthic foraminiferal samples, together with genetic characterization (genotyping) of the morphospecies. We have completed two field campaigns where we collected (living) foraminifera and water samples at several sites, ranging from fully marine to low salinity conditions. The core-top foraminifera have been analysed for trace metal/Ca, stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, and faunal composition. Living foraminifera collected from the sediment-water interface were cultured in sea water in two long-term experiments at different temperatures (5°C and 10°C) and at three different salinities (15, 25, and 35). The first experiment yielded a large number of reproduced and experimentally-grown Elphidium specimens. The second experiment resulted in growth but no reproduction. We will provide a summary of the experimentally grown material and discuss the challenges of generating new proxy calibrations for foraminiferal shell geochemistry in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, specimens of Elphidium and Ammonia, found at two sampling sites (Anholt, Kattegat and Hanöbay) with differing salinities, were genotyped and the results indicate that the same genotype of Elphidium is

  1. Sea level trends in South East Asian Seas (SEAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2014-10-01

    Southeast Asian Seas (SEAS) span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The SEAS regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost two decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17 year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement in areas and at times of strong signal to noise associated decadal variability forced by low frequency variations in Pacific trade winds. The SEAS region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer time scales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past twenty years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the SEAS region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the SEAS regional sea level trends during 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the SEAS will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  2. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  3. Abnormalities in bivalve larvae from the Puck Bay (Gulf of Gdansk, southern Baltic Sea) as an indicator of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Rafal; Gierszewska, Katarzyna; Viard, Frédérique; Wolowicz, Maciej; Dobrzyn, Katarzyna; Comtet, Thierry

    2018-01-01

    This study described the occurrence of abnormalities in bivalve larvae from the Puck Bay. Analyses of plankton samples collected in 2012-2013 showed that larval Mytilus trossulus, Mya arenaria, and Cerastoderma glaucum exhibited abnormalities that could indicate adverse environmental impacts. The deformities were mainly in shells, but missing soft tissue fragments and protruding vela were also noted. In addition to larval studies, we analyzed benthic postlarvae of Mytilus trossulus. Interestingly, grooves and notches at different locations of the prodissoconch, dissoconch, and shell margin were observed. Some of these deformations were reminiscent of the indentations found on the shell edge of larvae. Comparing the proportion of abnormal postlarvae to larvae with shell abnormalities suggested that the survival of larvae with shell abnormalities was low. Overall, our results suggested that the ratio of abnormal bivalve larvae could be used as an indicator of the biological effects of hazardous substances in the pelagic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of the repeatability of the exhaust pollutants emission research results for cold and hot starts under controlled driving cycle conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Artur; Kuszewski, Hubert; Ustrzycki, Adam; Balawender, Krzysztof; Lejda, Kazimierz; Woś, Paweł

    2018-04-20

    Measurement of car engines exhaust pollutants emissions is very important because of their harmful effects on the environment. This article presents the assessment of repeatability of the passenger car engine exhaust pollutants emission research results obtained in the conditions of a chassis dynamometer. The research was conducted in a climate chamber, enabling the temperature conditions to be determined from - 20 to + 30 °C. The emission of CO, CH 4 , CO 2 , NO X , THC, and NMHC was subjected to the analysis. The aim of the research is to draw attention to the accuracy of the pollutant emission research results in driving cycles, and the comparison of pollutant emission results and their repeatability obtained in successive NEDC cycles under cold and hot start conditions. The results of the analysis show that, in the case of a small number of measurements, the results repeatability analysis is necessary for a proper interpretation of the pollutant emission results on the basis of the mean value. According to the authors' judgment, it is beneficial to determine the coefficient of variation for a more complete assessment of exhaust emission result repeatability obtained from a small number of measurements. This parameter is rarely presented by the authors of papers on exhaust components emission research.

  5. Casualty data analysis of the world merchant fleet for reported fire and explosion incidents resulting in marine pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem. The source of information is the Lloyd's Casualty Information System Data Base. The major findings of ...

  6. Characterize Behaviour of Emerging Pollutants in Artificial Recharge: Column Experiments - Experiment Design and Results of Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Carrera, J.; Ayora, C.; Licha, T.

    2012-04-01

    Emerging pollutants (EPs) have been detected in water resources as a result of human activities in recent years. They include pharmaceuticals, personal care products, dioxins, flame retardants, etc. They are a source of concern because many of them are resistant to conventional water treatment, and they are harmful to human health, even in low concentrations. Generally, this study aims to characterize the behaviour of emerging pollutants in reclaimed water in column experiments which simulates artificial recharge. One column set includes three parts: influent, reactive layer column (RLC) and aquifer column (AC). The main influent is decided to be Secondary Effluent (SE) of El Prat Wastewater Treatment Plant, Barcelona. The flow rate of the column experiment is 0.9-1.5 mL/min. the residence time of RLC is designed to be about 1 day and 30-40 days for AC. Both columns are made of stainless steel. Reactive layer column (DI 10cm * L55cm) is named after the filling material which is a mixture of organic substrate, clay and goethite. One purpose of the application of the mixture is to increase dissolve organic carbon (DOC). Leaching test in batchs and columns has been done to select proper organic substrate. As a result, compost was selected due to its long lasting of releasing organic matter (OM). The other purpose of the application of the mixture is to enhance adsorption of EPs. Partition coefficients (Kow) of EPs indicate the ability of adsorption to OM. EPs with logKow>2 could be adsorbed to OM, like Ibuprofen, Bezafibrate and Diclofenac. Moreover, some of EPs are charged in the solution with pH=7, according to its acid dissociation constant (Ka). Positively charged EPs, for example Atenolol, could adsorb to clay. In the opposite, negatively charged EPs, for example Gemfibrozil, could adsorb to goethite. Aquifer column (DI 35cm * L1.5m) is to simulate the processes taking place in aquifer in artificial recharge. The filling of AC has two parts: silica sand and

  7. Sedimentology, geochemistry, pollution status and ecological risk assessment of some heavy metals in surficial sediments of an Egyptian lagoon connecting to the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Said, Ghada F; Draz, Suzanne E O; El-Sadaawy, Manal M; Moneer, Abeer A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Mn, Zn and Fe) was studied on Lake Edku's surface sediments in relation to sedimentology and geochemistry characteristics and their contamination status on the ecological system. Lake Edku's sediments were dominated by sandy silt and silty sand textures and were enriched with carbonate content (9.83-58.46%). Iron and manganese were the most abundant heavy metals with ranges of 1.69 to 8.06 mg g(-1) and 0.88 to 3.27 mg g(-1), respectively. Cobalt and nickel showed a harmonic distribution along the studied sediments. The results were interpreted by the statistical means. The heavy metal pollution status and their ecological risk in Lake Edku was evaluated using the sediment quality guidelines and the contamination assessment methods (geoaccumulation, pollution load and potential ecological risk indices, enrichment factor, contamination degree as well as effect range median (ERM) and probable effect level (PEL) quotients). Amongst the determined heavy metals, zinc had the most ecological risk. Overall, the heavy metals in surface sediments showed ecological effect range from moderate to considerable risk, specially, in the stations in front of the seawater and in drain sources that had the highest toxic priority.

  8. Effects of pollution from oil shale mining in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallner, L.; Sepp, K.

    1993-01-01

    The largest commercially exploited oil shale deposit in the world is in northeast Estonia. The accumulation of solid residues by oil shale mines and processing plants has resulted in numerous dumps and ash hills, which are polluting the environment. The groundwater and streams are highly polluted by sulphates, phenols and oil products. A dump hill of radioactive wastes poses a serious threat to the Baltic Sea. Local people suffer from diseases more often than in other regions of Estonia. (author)

  9. Air pollution and doctors' house calls: results from the ERPURS system for monitoring the effects of air pollution on public health in Greater Paris, France, 1991-1995. Evaluation des Risques de la Pollution Urbaine pour la Santé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, S; Le Tertre, A; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Lameloise, P; Guzzo, J C; Festy, B; Ferry, R; Dab, W

    1997-10-01

    This study examines short-term relationships between doctors' house calls and urban air pollution in Greater Paris for the period 1991-1995. Poisson regressions using nonparametric smoothing functions controlled for time trend, seasonal patterns, pollen counts, influenza epidemics, and weather. The relationship between asthma visits and air pollution was stronger for children. A relative risk (RRP95/P5) of 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-1.47)] was observed for an increase from the 5th to the 95th percentile (7-51 micrograms/m3) in daily concentrations of black smoke (BS). The risks for 24-hr sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide levels were in the same range. Cardiovascular conditions, considered globally, showed weaker associations than angina pectoris/myocardial infarction, for which RRP95/P5 was 1.63 (95% CI = 1.10-2.41) in relation to ozone ambient levels. Eye conditions were exclusively related to ozone (RRP95/P5 = 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.33). Asthma visits and ozone showed an interaction with minimum temperature: an effect was observed only at 10 degrees C or higher. In two-pollutant models including BS with, successively, SO2, NO2, and O3, only BS and O3 effects remained stable. Along with mortality and hospital admissions, house call activity data, available on a regular basis, may be a sensitive indicator for monitoring health effects related to air pollution.

  10. IMCO: Making the seas safer and cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Since 1959, when the IMCO Assembly met for the first time, the Organization has had two main objectives: the introduction of measures designed to improve safety at sea and to prevent pollution of the sea from ships. But during its twenty-year history IMCO has also adopted a number of Conventions and other measures which are aimed specifically at tankers and the problem of pollution. The 1954 Oil Pollution Convention (for which IMCO became depositary in 1959) was the first major attempt by the maritime nations to curb the impact of oil pollution, but since then the problem has become even more serious today The amount of oil carried by sea has risen by 700 per cent in 20 years - to around 1,700 million tons. The world tanker fleet has increased from 37 million deadweight tons in 1954 to around 340 million deadweight tons today, and the size of the tankers themselves has also grown amazingly. The second Convention deals with liability of the ship or cargo owner for damage suffered as a result of an oil pollution casualty. The Convention is intended to ensure that adequate compensation is available to victims and places the liability for the damage on the shipowner. As a result, another Conference was convened by IMCO in 1971 which resulted in the adoption of a Convention establishing the International Fund for Compensation for Oil Pollution Damage The Convention came into force in 1978 and the Fund has now been established with its headquarters in London These three Conventions all deal with what one might call the legal aspects of oil pollution. But the continuing boom in the transportation of oil showed that more work needed to be done on the technical side as well: the scale of oil pollution was so great in some areas that there was serious concern for the marine environment, not only as a result of accidents but through normal tanker operations, notably the cleaning of cargo tanks. In 1973 a major conference was called to discuss the whole problem of marine

  11. Laser and infrared techniques for water pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, A.L.; Landolina, F.; Pantani, L.; Cecchi, G.

    1993-01-01

    A remote sensing application for the control of oil pollution and water quality was developed by the National Council of Research at Florence, and the University of Catania, both in Italy. The application is based on the simultaneous use of active antipassive remote sensing systems (lidar and flir systems) from a helicopter. Water pollution characteristics were determined with the lidar system, in polluted areas of water detected, on a larger scale, by the flir system. Pollution characteristics detected included type of pollutant, type of oil, and oil thickness. The experiment, named LIRA, was carried out using an Italian Navy helicopter over sea areas around Sicily having a high risk of pollution. The results proved the effectiveness and usefulness of the techniques proposed

  12. Application and practice of EU FP5. Research results in the area key action water - pollution prevention: are results fit for use?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bittens, M. [Univ. Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience; Prokop, G. [Umweltbundesamt, Wien (Austria)

    2003-07-01

    Embedded in the EU-funded project 'Innovative Management of Groundwater Resources in Europe - Training and RTD Co-ordination (IMAGE-TRAIN)' a two-phase (identification and testing) evaluation process was performed on basis of delivered research results from scientific projects running in the FP5 Key Action 'Management and Quality of Water - Pollution Prevention'. The 'Application and Practice Report', APR, documents available methods, concepts, and applications, which are qualified for supporting and enhancing the implementation processes of European policies and regulations with regard to the management and quality of water. Additionally, the APR determines boundary conditions for the application of available deliverable as result of the testing phase and facilitates the selection of the best available techniques for accompanying European implementation processes in accordance with the sustainable solutions strategy of European Union's 6{sup th} Environmental Action Programme 'Our Future, or choice'. IMAGE-TRAIN has the ambition to improve cooperation and interaction between ongoing research projects in the field of soil and groundwater contamination and to communicate new technology achievements to young scientists by means of training courses. IMAGE-TRAIn is a three year project which started in September 2001 and operates at two levels. (1) Senior level: At this level cluster meetings for researchers of ongoing research projects are being organised with the objective to establish topic links between RTD projects, dealing with contaminated land and groundwater and to promote their practical application. Furthermore practical case studies with selected experts are being organised to perform short feasibility studies related to current groundwater or mine water problems. (2) Junior level: At this level Advanced Study Courses are organised with theobjective to quickly transfer existing and emerging knowledge to young

  13. Identifying the source of petroleum pollution in sediment cores of southwest of the Caspian Sea using chemical fingerprinting of aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirneshan, Golshan; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Memariani, Mahmoud

    2017-02-15

    In this study, the concentration and sources of aliphatic and petroleum markers were investigated in 105 samples of Anzali, Rezvanshahr and Astara cores from the southwest of Caspian Sea. Petroleum importation was diagnosed as a main source in most depths of cores by the results of unresolved complex mixture, carbon preference index and hopanes and steranes. From the chemical diagnostic parameters, petroleum inputs in sediment of cores were determined to be different during years and the sources of hydrocarbons in some sections differed than Anzali and Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan oils. Diagenic ratios in most sediments of upper and middle sections in Astara core were determined to be highly similar to those of Azerbaijan oil, while the presence of Turkmenistan and Anzali oils were detected in a few sections of Anzali and Rezvanshahr cores and only five layers of downer section in Anzali core, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Impact on the marine environment of radioactive releases resulting from the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. April 4, 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having outlined that measurements taken over several days in the sea water in the vicinity of the power station have revealed severe contamination of the marine environment by various radionuclides released as a result of the accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power station, this report describes the origins of the contamination of the marine environment (release of liquid effluents directly into the sea in the vicinity of the damaged reactors, atmospheric fallout onto the surface of the sea, conveyance of radioactive pollution by rainout of contaminated ground). Then, while proposing several maps, the authors analyse and comment the dispersion in the sea of radioactive pollutants by addressing the following issues: topography of the sea bed and sea currents off the Japanese coast, immediate or short term dispersion (a few days), mid-term dispersion (weeks and months), long term and large scale future of the radioactive pollutants. Finally, the report briefly discusses the impact of radioactive pollution on living species

  15. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  16. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  17. Investigation Of The Effects Of Heavy Metal Pollution In Black Sea Seaside Caused From Vehicles By Using Verbascum Sinuatum L. (Scrophulariaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Duru

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the heavy metal pollution caused by vehicle traffic was investigated in the leaves of Verbascum sinuatum L.(Scrophulariaceae collected from the Blacksea coast ranging between Samsun, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Rize and Hopa. Sample collection procedure was made in 23 stations in the related route. Heavy metal concentrations in the leaf samples of each station were determined with Perkin Emler Optic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. Heavy metal concentration in samples was showed an order as Lead (Pb ; Zinc (Zn ; Chromium (Cr ; Nickel (Ni ; Copper (Cu ; Cadmium (Cd. The results of this study showed that the heavy metal accumulation in samples increased with an increase in traffic and V. sinuatum used as a biological indicator of this accumulation.

  18. Positive association between short-term ambient air pollution exposure and children blood pressure in China-Result from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Vaughn, Michael G; Nelson, Erik J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Perret, Jennifer; Chen, Duo-Hong; Ma, Huimin; Lin, Shao; de Foy, Benjamin; Hu, Li-Wen; Yang, Bo-Yi; Xu, Shu-Li; Zhang, Chuan; Tian, Yan-Peng; Nian, Min; Wang, Jia; Xiao, Xiang; Bao, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Ya-Zhi; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2017-05-01

    The impact of ambient air pollution on health causes concerns in China. However, little is known about the association of short-term air pollution exposure with blood pressure (BP) in children. The goal of present study was to assess the association between short-term air pollution and BP in children from a highly polluted area in China. This study enrolled 9354 children in 24 elementary and middle schools (aged 5-17 years) from the Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) study, respectively, during the period of 2012-2013. Ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 μm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ) on the days (1-5 days) preceding BP examination were collected from local air monitoring stations. Generalized additive models and two-level regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and BP after adjusting for other covariates. Results showed that with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM 10 (50.0 μg/m 3 ) and O 3 (53.0 μg/m 3 ) level during the 5-day mean exposure, positive associations with elevated BP were observed, with an odds ratio of 2.17 (95% CI, 1.61-2.93) for PM 10 and 2.77 (95% CI, 1.94-3.95) for O 3 . Both systolic BP and diastolic BP levels were positively associated with an IQR increase of four air pollutants at different lag times. Specifically, an IQR increase in the 5-day mean of PM 10 and O 3 was associated with elevation of 2.07 mmHg (95% CI, 1.71-2.44) and 3.29 mmHg (95% CI, 2.86-3.72) in systolic BP, respectively. When stratified by sex, positive relationships were observed for elevated BP with NO 2 exposure only in males. This is the first report on the relationship between ambient short-term air pollution exposure and children BP in China. Findings indicate a need to control air pollutants and protect children from heavy air pollution exposure in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sea level trends in Southeast Asian seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassburg, M. W.; Hamlington, B. D.; Leben, R. R.; Manurung, P.; Lumban Gaol, J.; Nababan, B.; Vignudelli, S.; Kim, K.-Y.

    2015-05-01

    Southeast Asian seas span the largest archipelago in the global ocean and provide a complex oceanic pathway connecting the Pacific and Indian oceans. The Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends are some of the highest observed in the modern satellite altimeter record that now spans almost 2 decades. Initial comparisons of global sea level reconstructions find that 17-year sea level trends over the past 60 years exhibit good agreement with decadal variability associated with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and related fluctuations of trade winds in the region. The Southeast Asian sea region exhibits sea level trends that vary dramatically over the studied time period. This historical variation suggests that the strong regional sea level trends observed during the modern satellite altimeter record will abate as trade winds fluctuate on decadal and longer timescales. Furthermore, after removing the contribution of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) to sea level trends in the past 20 years, the rate of sea level rise is greatly reduced in the Southeast Asian sea region. As a result of the influence of the PDO, the Southeast Asian sea regional sea level trends during the 2010s and 2020s are likely to be less than the global mean sea level (GMSL) trend if the observed oscillations in wind forcing and sea level persist. Nevertheless, long-term sea level trends in the Southeast Asian seas will continue to be affected by GMSL rise occurring now and in the future.

  20. Estimation of past sea-level variations based on ground-penetrating radar mapping of beach-ridges - preliminary results from Feddet, Faxe Bay, eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of past sea-level variations based on different methods and techniques have been presented in a range of studies, including interpretation of beach ridge characteristics. In Denmark, Holocene beach ridge plains have been formed during the last c. 7700 years, a period characterised by both...... isostatic uplift and changes in eustatic sea-level, and therefore represent an archive of past relative sea-level variations. Here, we present preliminary results from investigation of beach ridges from Feddet, a small peninsula located in Faxe Bay (Baltic Sea) in the eastern part of Denmark. Feddet has...... been chosen as a key-locality in this project, as it is located relatively close to the current 0-isobase of isostatic rebound. GPR reflection data have been acquired with shielded 250 MHz Sensors & software antennae along a number of profile lines across beach ridge and swale structures of the Feddet...

  1. First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Bellotti, R.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; De Marzo, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Dessages-Ardellier, F.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Festy, D.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J. C.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Legou, T.; Lim, G.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Niess, V.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Romita, M.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Stubert, D.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vita, R.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2006-11-01

    In 2005, the ANTARES Collaboration deployed and operated at a depth of 2500 m a so-called Mini Instrumentation Line equipped with Optical Modules (MILOM) at the ANTARES site. The various data acquired during the continuous operation from April to December 2005 of the MILOM confirm the satisfactory performance of the Optical Modules, their front-end electronics and readout system, as well as the calibration devices of the detector. The in situ measurement of the Optical Module time response yields a resolution better than 0.5 ns. The performance of the acoustic positioning system, which enables the spatial reconstruction of the ANTARES detector with a precision of about 10 cm, is verified. These results demonstrate that with the full ANTARES neutrino telescope the design angular resolution of better than 0.3° can be realistically achieved.

  2. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, P; Rudjord, A L [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Salbu, B [Norges Landbrukshoegskole, Vollebekk (Norway); and others

    1994-11-01

    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: (1) Elevated levels of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr and presence of {sup 60}Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. {sup 60}Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. (2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs.

  3. Radioactive contamination at dumping sites for nuclear waste in the Kara Sea. Results from the Russian-Norwegian 1993 expedition to the Kara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Rudjord, A.L.; Salbu, B.

    1994-11-01

    During the 1993 Joint Russian-Norwegian Expedition to the Kara Sea, three dumping sites for nuclear waste were investigated: The Tsivolky Bay, the Stepovogo bay and an area in the open Kara Sea (The Novaya Zemlya Trough). Dumped waste was localized and inspected in the Tsivolky Bay and in the Stepovogo Bay using side scanning sonar and underwater camera. In the Stepovogo Bay, the dumped nuclear submarine no. 601, containing spent nuclear fuel was localized. Samples of waters, sediments and biota were collected at nine stations and later analyzed for several radionuclides (gammaemitters, 90 Sr, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu and 241 Am). The analyses of the samples al the following conclusions to be drawn: 1) Elevated levels of 137 Cs and 90 Sr and presence of 60 Co were observed in the inner part of the Stepovogo Bay, and in one sample collected close to the hull of the dumped nuclear submarine in the Stepovogo Bay. 60 Co was also observed in the Tsivolky Bay. This radioactive contamination most likely originates from the dumped radioactive material. It may be due to leaching from the waste. 2) The enhanced levels of contamination caused by dumped nuclear waste are still low and restricted to small areas. Thus, radiation doses from the existing contamination would be negligible. Radioactive contamination outside these areas is similar to the activity levels in the open Kara Sea. 46 refs

  4. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure: results from the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution and noise exposure with blood pressure in 12-year-olds. Blood pressure was measured at age 12 years in 1432 participants of the PIAMA birth cohort study. Annual average exposure to traffic-related air pollution [NO2, mass concentrations of particulate matter with diameters of less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) and less than 10 µm (PM10), and PM2.5 absorbance] at the participants' home and school addresses at the time of blood pressure measurements was estimated by land-use regression models. Air pollution exposure on the days preceding blood pressure measurements was estimated from routine air monitoring data. Long-term noise exposure was assessed by linking addresses to modelled equivalent road traffic noise levels. Associations of exposures with blood pressure were analysed by linear regression. Effects are presented for an interquartile range increase in exposure. Long-term exposure to NO2 and PM2.5 absorbance were associated with increased diastolic blood pressure, in children who lived at the same address since birth [adjusted mean difference (95% confidence interval) [mmHg] 0.83 (0.06 to 1.61) and 0.75 (-0.08 to 1.58), respectively], but not with systolic blood pressure. We found no association of blood pressure with short-term air pollution or noise exposure. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution may increase diastolic blood pressure in children. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  6. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the da...... ¿ short sea or deep-sea shipping. Key Words: Air Pollution, Maritime Transport, Air Pollutant Emissions......This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  7. Radioactive marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontavice, E. du

    1976-01-01

    Certain provision in international law aim to prevent radioactive marine pollution and others concern compensation of damage from nuclear pollution. Prevention requires regulation of the disposal of wastes from nuclear industry from the operation of nuclear powered ships and from transport of fissile materials. As regards damage, if the measures to limit the extent of the damage come under the law of the sea, the priority of nuclear law over maritime law is clear in respect of financial compensation. (Auth) [fr

  8. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  9. Modelling Local Sea-Breeze Flow and Associated Dispersion Patterns Over a Coastal Area in North-East Spain: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. R.; Arasa, R.; Merino, M.; Olid, M.; Ortega, S.

    2011-07-01

    The structure and evolution of the sea breeze in the north-west part of the Mediterranean (Catalonia, north-east Spain) is studied both experimentally and, predominantly, using numerical models to increase understanding of sea-breeze structure and three-dimensional (3D) pollution distributions in coastal environments. Sea-breeze components are modelled and analyzed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results show that the growth and structure of the sea-breeze circulation is modulated by the synoptic flow and especially by the complex topography of the area. 3D pollution transport in a sea breeze is modelled by coupling the MM5 to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, with results indicating that topography and synoptic flow are the main factors modulating horizontal and vertical pollutant transport in sea-breeze episodes. In this way, horizontal dispersion is limited by the complex topography of the area, whilst the sea-breeze flow is intensified by anabatic upslope winds that contribute to vertical pollutant transport. The numerical model results also indicate that the sea-breeze circulation with a weak return flow at upper levels grows due to a synoptic onshore wind component. However, such a sea-breeze circulation is capable of transporting pollutants towards the coast.

  10. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Young

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The San Joaquin Valley (SJV in California experiences persistent air-quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physicochemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air-quality models. During January and February 2013, a ground supersite was installed at the Fresno–Garland California Air Resources Board (CARB monitoring station, where comprehensive, real-time measurements of PM and trace gases were performed using instruments including an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and an Ionicon proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS as part of the NASA Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ campaign. The average submicron aerosol (PM1 concentration was 31.0 µg m−3 and the total mass was dominated by organic aerosols (OA, 55 %, followed by ammonium nitrate (35 %. High PM pollution events were commonly associated with elevated OA concentrations, mostly from primary sources. Organic aerosols had average atomic oxygen-to-carbon (O / C, hydrogen-to-carbon (H / C, and nitrogen-to-carbon (N / C ratios of 0.42, 1.70, and 0.017, respectively. Six distinct sources of organic aerosol were identified from positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.09 associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 18 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.19 associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OA (BBOA1: 13 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.33; BBOA2: 20 % of total OA, O / C  =  0.60 most likely

  11. Testing the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method for comparison of EIA and SEA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuitunen, Markku; Jalava, Kimmo; Hirvonen, Kimmo

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how the results of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) could be compared using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) method. There are many tools and techniques that have been developed for use in impact assessment processes, including scoping, checklists, matrices, qualitative and quantitative models, literature reviews, and decision-support systems. While impact assessment processes have become more technically complicated, it is recognized that approaches including simpler applications of available tools and techniques are also appropriate. The Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) is a tool for organizing, analysing and presenting the results of a holistic EIA. RIAM was originally developed to compare the impact of alternative procedures in a single project. In this study, we used RIAM to compare the environmental and social impact of different projects, plans and programs realized within the same geographical area. RIAM scoring is based on five separate criteria. The RIAM criteria were applied to the impact that was considered to be the most significant in the evaluated cases, and scores were given both on environmental and social impact. Our results revealed that the RIAM method could be used for comparison and ranking of separate and distinct projects, plans, programs and policies, based on their negative or positive impact. Our data included 142 cases from the area of Central Finland that is covered by the Regional Council of Central Finland. This sample consisted of various types of projects, ranging from road construction to education programs that applied for EU funding

  12. Did opening of the South China Sea impact development of the Asian Monsoon? Results from Oligocene microfossils, IODP Site U1435, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhanek, Denise K.; Su, Xin; Li, Qianyu; Gregory, Mitch; Warny, Sophie; Clift, Peter D.

    2016-04-01

    Development of the Asian Monsoon is linked to uplift of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau in the Cenozoic, with good evidence for a strong monsoon system by the late Oligocene to early Miocene (e.g., Guo et al., 2002; Clift et al., 2008). However, Licht et al. (2014) suggested the presence of an Asian Monsoon in the late Eocene. Recent scientific ocean drilling in the Indian Ocean and surrounding marginal seas gives us the opportunity to test this hypothesis with newly recovered Paleogene sediment cores. International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 349 to the South China Sea recovered a 30 m section of primarily lower Oligocene nannofossil-rich claystone at Site U1435, located near the northern continent/ocean boundary. A thick sandstone unit devoid of typical marine microfossils underlies the marine claystone. The sandstone is interpreted as a deltaic or restricted marine deposit and is dated to the Eocene based on the presence of organic-walled palynomorphs, suggesting that a hiatus of several million years likely separates the sandstone below from the Oligocene marine claystone. This hiatus is interpreted as the breakup unconformity, with paleodepths in the South China Sea increasing during the Oligocene. Thus, this claystone should record if opening of the South China Sea during the early Oligocene influenced development of the Asian Monsoon. Combined calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy indicates that the 30 m section is primarily early Oligocene in age (~33.5-30 Ma) and was deposited on the middle slope, with paleodepths >500 m. Stable oxygen isotopes from planktonic foraminifers become heavier up-hole, suggestive of cooling/deepening in the region, whereas carbon isotopes record variable conditions with no distinct maxima or minima. Calcareous nannoplankton primarily live in the upper 50 m of the ocean and are sensitive to sea-surface temperature and nutrient conditions, thus making them useful recorders of paleoceanographic

  13. Environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, J.; Hanif, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    The third proceedings of National Symposium on Modern Trends in Contemporary Chemistry was held in Islamabad, Pakistan from February 24-26, 1997. In this symposium more than 220 scientists, engineers and technologist were registered from 11 universities, 17 research organisations and 8 non-governmental organisation including some commercial establishments. The symposium was divided into five technical sessions on hydro spheric pollution, atmospheric pollution, bio spheric pollution, lithospheric pollution and impact assessment and environmental education. Environmental and ecology are so interdependent that any change in the balance due to natural and man made cause may result in a disaster, flood, fire, earthquake, epidemic, population explosion etc. are the natural ways of unbalancing our ecosystem. The scope of this symposium includes: 1) Review the chemistry and the chemical techniques like polarography, coulometry, HPLC, GC-MS, NAA, XRF, AAS, AES etc. involved in the assessment monitoring and control of various pollutions. 2) Propose sampling, transportation, measurement and standardization procedures. 3) Collaboration in scientific data collection. 4) Mutual consultation for management of the pollution problem in a cost effective manner. 5) sharing knowledge and experience with various environmental protection groups both in public and private sector. (A.B.)

  14. Effect of depositional environment and sources of pollution on uranium concentration in sediment, coral, algae and seagrass species from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were determined in sediment samples, four hard and two soft corals, one seagrass and four species of algae collected from phosphate-polluted sites in the northern reef area of the Gulf of Aqaba. High uranium concentrations were found in all samples examined from a phosphate-polluted site near a phosphate loading berth compared to the unpolluted ones. Uranium levels, U/Ca ratios, concentration and discrimination factors were also high compared to those reported from other regions of the world. The effects of the exported raw phosphate powder as the main source of pollution and depositional environment on the concentration of uranium in the examined species are discussed. (Author)

  15. Prevention of condenser tubes corroson from polluted sea wtaer at Saijo thermal power station. Saijo hatsudensho ni okeru fukusuiki kan no boshoku taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, T.; Sato, N.; Ito, M. (Shikoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Kagawa (Japan))

    1991-03-15

    After the oil shock, Saijou thermal power station converted its energy source into coal to diversify the power source. With rising operation rate at the plant after fuel conversion, leaky condenser tubes have increased. Such leakage concentrated especially in new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes equipped in air cooling zones of the condenser. This report investigates the cause of this leakage and describes the study results on the corrosion prevention. Consequently, following two measures were taken: a measure to prevent local erosion of aluminum brass pipes by means of preventing inflow of foreign materials such as seashells; a measure to prevent corrosion of 70/30 cupro-nickel sulfide by strengthening the injection of ferrous sulfate and by test loading of coated tubes. As a result, no sea water was leaked. Moreover, it was found through the eddy current examination that sulfide corrosion of the new 70/30 cupro-nickel tubes was reduced by iron coat and the rate of losing its thickness decreased remarkably. 1 ref., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maharana, D.; Jena, K.B.; Pise, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    , and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India...

  17. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity

  18. Influences of emission sources and meteorology on aerosol chemistry in a polluted urban environment: results from DISCOVER-AQ California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. E.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Zhou, S.; Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Seco, R.; Kim, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in California experiences persistent air quality problems associated with elevated particulate matter (PM) concentrations due to anthropogenic emissions, topography, and meteorological conditions. Thus it is important to unravel the various sources and processes that affect the physico-chemical properties of PM in order to better inform pollution abatement strategies and improve parameterizations in air quality models. positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis of the AMS data: hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA; 9 % of total OA; O / C = 0.09) associated with local traffic, cooking OA (COA; 28 % of total OA; O / C = 0.19) associated with food cooking activities, two biomass burning OAs (BBOA1; 13 % of total OA; O / C = 0.33 and BBOA2; 20 % of total OA; O / C = 0.60) most likely associated with residential space heating from wood combustion, and semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA; 16 % of total OA; O / C = 0.63) and low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA; 24 % of total OA; O / C = 0.90) formed via chemical reactions in the atmosphere. Large differences in aerosol chemistry at Fresno were observed between the current campaign (winter 2013) and a~previous wintertime campaign (winter 2010), most notably that PM1 concentrations were nearly three times higher in 2013 than in 2010. These variations were attributed to differences in the meteorological conditions, which influenced primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation. In particular, COA and BBOA concentrations were greater in 2013 than 2010, where colder temperatures in 2013 likely resulted in increased biomass burning activities. The influence from a nighttime formed residual layer that mixed down in the morning was found to be much more intense in 2013 than 2010, leading to sharp increases in ground-level concentrations of secondary aerosol species including nitrate, sulfate, and OOA, in the morning between 08:00 to 12:00 PST. This is an indication that nighttime chemistry might also be

  19. Preliminary results on biological aspects of the grass snake, Natrix natrix in the southern coastal area of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraham Ahmadzadeh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Natrix natrix is, together with N. tessellata, the only representative of water snakes found in Iran. The lack of ecological studies on this species in Iran stimulated the current preliminary research on some basic biological traits. From April to July 2008, a total of fifty five snakes were collected from two stations in the southern part of the Caspian Sea coast, Iran: Gomishan Wetland and Sari. Basic morphometrics were compared between sexes and stations and gonadal development was compared between stations and seasons. At the two stations, adult sex ratio was not different from 1:1 and juveniles composed a predominant portion of the sample. Both sexes had unimodal length class size with a peak at 40-45 cm snout-vent length (SVL. Body sizes were unusually small for the species and no SVL sexual dimorphism was detected although males were relatively heavier than females for the same SVL. Snakes of both sexes attained larger size with better body condition at Sari than in Gomishan. Males and females carried more mature gonads in summer. However, in Sari males developed relatively larger testes earlier in the season and both sexes displayed less synchronic reproduction at this station. These results are best explained by local variations in habitat, trophic availability and degree of environmental disturbance.

  20. Sea surface temperature measurements by the along-track scanning radiometer on the ERS 1 satellite: Early results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlow, C. T.; ZáVody, A. M.; Barton, I. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1994-11-01

    The along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) was launched in July 1991 on the European Space Agency's first remote sensing satellite, ERS 1. An initial analysis of ATSR data demonstrates that the sea surface temperature (SST) can be measured from space with very high accuracy. Comparison of simultaneous measurements of SST made from ATSR and from a ship-borne radiometer show that they agree to within 0.3°C. To assess data consistency, a complementary analysis of SST data from ATSR was also carried out. The ATSR global SST field was compared on a daily basis with daily SST analysis of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). The ATSR global field is consistently within 1.0°C of the UKMO analysis. Also, to demonstrate the benefits of along-track scanning SST determination, the ATSR SST data were compared with high-quality bulk temperature observations from drifting buoys. The likely causes of the differences between ATSR and the bulk temperature data are briefly discussed. These results provide early confidence in the quantitative benefit of ATSR's two-angle view of the Earth and its high radiometric performance and show a significant advance on the data obtained from other spaceborne sensors. It should be noted that these measurements were made at a time when the atmosphere was severely contaminated with volcanic aerosol particles, which degrade infrared measurements of the Earth's surface made from space.

  1. Plastic pollutants in water environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrowiec Bożena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, wide applications of plastics result in plastic waste being present in the water environment in a wide variety of sizes. Plastic wastes are in water mainly as microplastics (the size range of 1 nm to < 5 mm. Microplastics have been recognized as an emerging threat, as well as ecotoxicological and ecological risk for water ecosystems. In this review are presented some of the physicochemical properties of plastic materials that determine their toxic effect on the aquatic environment. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are mentioned as one of main sources of microplastics introduced into fresh water, and rivers are the pathways for the transportation of the pollutants to seas and oceans. But, effluents from tertiary wastewater treatment facilities can contain only minimally microplastic loads. The issue of discharge reduction of plastic pollutants into water environment needs activities in the scope of efficient wastewater treatment, waste disposal, recycling of plastic materials, education and public involvement.

  2. Bangkok and its air pollution problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panich, S.

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok is the city on a former river delta and is a very flat area. The topography is unremarkable but being only a few kilometers (about 20) from the sea in the Gulf of Bangkok, the City experiences the sea breeze every afternoon and evening. The natural phenomenon is caused by the uplifting of hot air from the sun-baked ground and heat generation in the city, to be replaced by the cooler air from the sea, which is to the south. During the nighttime the sea breeze ceases to operate as the ground temperature cools down. The late night and early morning is characterized by the calm or no wind. With 2.1 million vehicles, the city has a serious problem of carbon monoxide from the gasoline vehicles stuck in the traffic on start and stop cycles, while particulate matter is the result of diesel vehicles. Hydrocarbons mainly result from two-stroke motorcycles and tuk-tuk (three-wheeled) taxis. Air pollution in Bangkok and major cities of Thailand is the result of emissions from gasoline, diesel, and LPG fueled vehicles, which contribute to the observed levels of carbon monoxide, lead, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and hydrocarbons. The industrial activities contribute smaller share due to tall stacks and more efficient combusting processes and pollution control.

  3. Sea Level History in 3D: Early results of an ultra-high resolution MCS survey across IODP Expedition 313 drillsites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Kucuk, H. M.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Fulthorpe, C.; Newton, A.; Baldwin, K.; Johnson, C.; Stanley, J. N.; Bhatnagar, T.

    2015-12-01

    Although globally averaged sea level is rising at roughly 3 mm/yr (and is accelerating), rates of local sea-level change measured at coastlines may differ from this number by a factor of two or more; at some locations, sea level may even be falling. This is due to local processes that can match or even reverse the global trend, making it clear that reliable predictions of future impacts of sea-level rise require a firm understanding of processes at the local level. The history of local sea-level change and shoreline response is contained in the geologic record of shallow-water sediments. We report on a continuing study of sea-level history in sediments at the New Jersey continental margin, where compaction and glacial isostatic adjustment are currently adding 2 mm/yr to the globally averaged rise. We collected 570 sq km of ultra-high resolution 3D MCS data aboard the R/V Langseth in June-July 2015; innovative recording and preliminary results are described by Nedimovic et al. in this same session. The goal was to provide regional context to coring and logging at IODP Exp 313 sites 27-29 that were drilled 750 m into the New Jersey shelf in 2009. These sites recovered a nearly continuous record of post-Eocene sediments from non-marine soils, estuaries, shoreface, delta front, pro-delta and open marine settings. Existing seismic data are good but are 2D high-resolution profiles at line spacings too wide to enable mapping of key nearshore features. The Langseth 3D survey used shallow towing of a tuned air gun array to preserve high frequencies, and twenty-four 50-m PCables each 12.5 apart provided 6.25 x 3.125 m common-midpoint bins along seventy-seven 50-km sail lines. With this especially dense spatial resolution of a pre-stack time migrated volume we expect to map rivers, incised valleys, barrier islands, inlets and bays, pro-delta clinoforms, tidal deltas, sequence boundaries, debris flow aprons, and more. Seismic attributes linked to sedimentary facies and

  4. Constraining back-arc basin formation in the eastern Coral Sea: preliminary results from the ECOSAT voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seton, M.; Williams, S.; Mortimer, N. N.; Meffre, S.; Moore, J.; Micklethwaite, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Coral Sea region is an underexplored area at the northeastern corner of the Australian plate, where long-lived interaction between the Pacific and Australian plate boundaries has resulted in an intricate assemblage of deep oceanic basins and ridges, continental fragments and volcanic products. A paucity of marine geophysical and geological data from this complex region has resulted in the lack of a clear conceptual framework to describe its formation, ultimately affecting our understanding of the connection between the plate boundaries of the SW Pacific and SE Asia. In particular, the tectonic relationship between two back-arc basins, the Santa Cruz and d'Entrecasteaux Basins, and the South Rennell Trough, has yet to be resolved. In October-November, 2012, we collected 6,200 km of marine magnetic, 6,800 km of gravity and over 13,600 km2 of swath bathymetry data from the eastern Coral Sea onboard the RV Southern Surveyor. A complementary dredging program yielded useful samples from 14 seafloor sites. Our preliminary geochemical interpretation of the dredge samples obtained from the South Rennell Trough reveal volcanic rocks resembling MORB or BABB-type basalts, similar in composition to the recently re-analysed and dated ORSTOM dredges from the area that yielded ~28 Ma MORB-like basalts. Swath bathymetry profiles from the Santa Cruz Basin reveal that the South Rennell Trough extends into this basin, with seafloor spreading fabric being parallel to the trough. Preliminary analysis of the three full and four partial new magnetic anomaly profiles across the Santa Cruz Basin, coupled with limited existing profiles, reveals that the basin may have formed between Chrons 13-18 (~32-38 Ma), with an extinct spreading ridge along the inferred continuation of the South Rennell Trough, consistent with ORSTOM age dates. Our results suggest that the South Rennell Trough is an extinct southwestward propagating spreading ridge, which may have initiated along a pre

  5. Annually recurrent macroalgal blooms (Ulva prolifera) resulting in the world's largest green-tides caused by expansion of coastal aquaculture in the Yellow Sea off China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, John; Liu, Dongyan

    2013-04-01

    The largest macroalgal blooms ever recorded occurred in the Yellow Sea of China in 2008 and 2009 and resulted in extensive green tides along the Shandong Province coastline, including at Qingdao. At their peak these Ulva prolifera blooms covered more than 4,000 km2 and affected 40,000 km2. A smaller bloom was recorded in 2007, but not earlier. Since then massive blooms have occurred annually in summer from 2008 to 2012. Using remote sensing methods, we tracked the source of the 2008 and 2009 blooms to an area along the Jiangsu Province coastline near Yancheng, over 200 km south of Qingdao, where there had been rapid expansion of Porphyra aquaculture to as much as 13 km offshore, prior to the appearance of the first bloom in 2007. Porphyra is grown on rafts which can become heavily fouled with U. prolifera which is disposed of into the sea when the Porphyra is harvested. The timing of the blooms occurred post the April harvest period when daily tidal ranges in this region can be in excess of 7 m. This provides the mechanism for transportation of the floating algae offshore and into the warm nutrient rich waters of the Yellow Sea where it grows rapidly forming large patches. As the patches of algae grow and join, they gradually move north, as a result of wind driven surface currents that prevail in the Yellow Sea in summer, ultimately washing ashore on the Shandong Peninsula. We present a range of oceanographic, biological, ecological and genetic data to support the hypothesis that Porphyra aquaculture provides the source biomass for the Yellow Sea green-tides. Improved aquaculture waste disposal methods in the southern area of Jiangsu Province are likely to reduce or prevent the Yellow Sea green tides and present a feasible solution to a recurrent problem.

  6. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  8. Crustal characteristic variation in the central Yamato Basin, Japan Sea back-arc basin, deduced from seismic survey results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; No, Tetsuo; Miura, Seiichi; Kodaira, Shuichi

    2018-02-01

    The crustal structure of the Yamato Bank, the central Yamato Basin, and the continental shelf in the southern Japan Sea back-arc basin is obtained based on a seismic survey using ocean bottom seismographs and seismic shot to elucidate the back-arc basin formation processes. The central Yamato Basin can be divided into three domains based on the crustal structure: the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. In the deep basin domain, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-13 km thick. Very few units have P-wave velocity of 5.4-6.0 km/s, which corresponds to the continental upper crust. In the seamount and transition domains, the crust without the sedimentary layer is about 12-16 km thick. The P-wave velocities of the upper and lower crusts differs among the deep basin, the seamount, and the transition domains. These results indicate that the central Yamato Basin displays crustal variability in different domains. The crust of the deep basin domain is oceanic in nature and suggests advanced back-arc basin development. The seamount domain might have been affected by volcanic activity after basin opening. In the transition domain, the crust comprises mixed characters of continental and oceanic crust. This crustal variation might represent the influence of different processes in the central Yamato Basin, suggesting that crustal development was influenced not only by back-arc opening processes but also by later volcanic activity. In the Yamato Bank and continental shelf, the upper crust has thickness of about 17-18 km and P-wave velocities of 3.3-4.1 to 6.6 km/s. The Yamato Bank and the continental shelf suggest a continental crustal character.

  9. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Contact Us Share As a result of EPA's ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Basic Information How does lead get in the ...

  10. Rare earth elements in Japan Sea sediments and diagenetic behavior of Ce/Ce∗: results from ODP Leg 127

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Buchholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.; Brumsack, Hans-Juergen; Gerlach, David C.; Russ III, G. Price

    1991-01-01

    The relative effects of paleoceanographic and paleogeographic variations, sediment lithology, and diagenetic processes on the recorded rare earth element (REE) chemistry of Japan Sea sediments are evaluated by investigating REE total abundances and relative fractionations in 59 samples from Ocean Drilling Program Leg 127.

  11. Kaon-pion ratio from ISR results and the derived sea level muon spectrum from Maeda's model

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, D P

    1978-01-01

    The sea-level muon spectrum has been calculated using Maeda's (1973) model. The contribution of the muon flux caused by kaon decay has been included in the calculation as the kaon-pion ratio. The value used for this ratio is that determined by the CERN Intersecting Storage Ring Group, Antinucci et al. (1973). (7 refs).

  12. Bottom water oxygenation history in southeastern Arabian Sea during the past 140 ka: Results from redox-sensitive elements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pattan, J.N; Pearce, N

    The concentrations of multiple redox-sensitive elements such as Re, U, Mo, Cd, V, Sb, and Tl were determined in sediments from the southeastern Arabian Sea (9 degrees 21 minutes N: 71 degrees 59 minutes E) to understand the bottom water oxygenation...

  13. Results and analysis of the Armara sea water intercomparison for 137Cs, 238Pu and 239,240Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, P.I.; Holm, E.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1999-01-01

    With the initiation of the EC-supported Arctic Marine Radioecology (ARMARA) project in late-1995, the need to ensure comparability of radionuclide measurement in sea water between the participating laboratories became apparent, as extensive data sets obtained in the course of separate expeditions, sometimes using different preconcentration and radiochemical techniques, were combined for modelling purposes

  14. Enzymatic methods for the determination of pollution in seawater using salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzorova, Natalie I.; Seitkalieva, Alexandra V.; Rasskazov, Valery A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin (StAP) proved to be active in seawater. • Activity of StAP is inhibited by very low concentrations of heavy metal. • A test to assess sea and fresh water quality has been developed basing on StAP. • For the first time a salt resistant alkaline phosphatase has been found in eukaryote. - Abstract: A new salt resistant alkaline phosphatase from eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius (StAP) has been shown to have a unique property to hydrolyze substrate in seawater without loss of enzymatic activity. The enzyme has pH optimum at 8.0–8.5. Model experiments showed various concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead added to seawater or a standard buffer mixture to inhibit completely the enzyme activity at the concentrations of 15–150 μg/l. StAP sensitivity to the presence in seawater of metals, pesticides, detergents and oil products appears to be considerably less. Samples of seawater taken from aquatic areas of the Troitsy Bay of the Peter the Great Bay, Japan Sea have been shown to inhibit the enzyme activity; the same was shown for the samples of fresh waters. The phosphatase inhibition assay developed proved to be highly sensitive, technically easy-to use allowing to test a great number of samples

  15. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    / thalasoterapy. Black Sea ecosystem restoration - Certainties and Uncertainties: Pressure on the Danube and other rivers has decreased, chemical discharges have decreased obviously, and yet there appear phenomena of water flowering - "red waters", hypoxia is still present at times and there is mass mortality of fish and other benthic organisms. Why? Signs of recovery should be considered cautiously and uncertainties may be resolved only in a longer time by increasing our scientific efforts. The results of the EU FP7 Project PERSEUS led to the identification of three important issues that should be resolved in order to achieve good environmental status: • Applying an adaptive management to increase the resilience of the ecosystems and to diminish the vulnerability of biodiversity; • Necessity of participative approach by stakeholders; • Identifying and obtaining adequate financial support for new R-D-I projects. Who are the actors in addressing and implementing the actions? • Academic educational and research institutions for adequate working condition; • More specialists trained for taxonomic groups; • Reasonable diversity of coordinating specialists, capable team leaders / satisfactory work packages; • Attracting NGO members towards nature conservation issues; • Resonable stakeholders committed to environmental issues. Studying the results of researches carried out by GeoEcoMar on the Romanian Black Sea coast in recent years, the author concluded that the major problems hampering progress towards a good ecosystem in NW Bent Black Sea are: • lack of diversity in the fields of research, both in theoretical and applied realms; • structural and functional consequences of ecological pressures and the disordered state of the ecosystems in the periods of paroxysmal eutrophication / pollution at the end of the 20th Century; • scarcity of data and knowledge on the Social-Economic System; • high costs of the new marine technology used directly in the sea and

  16. Changes in body temperature in king penguins at sea: the result of fine adjustments in peripheral heat loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Alard, Frank; Handrich, Yves

    2006-09-01

    To investigate thermoregulatory adjustments at sea, body temperatures (the pectoral muscle and the brood patch) and diving behavior were monitored during a foraging trip of several days at sea in six breeding king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. During inactive phases at sea (water temperature: 4-7 degrees C), all tissues measured were maintained at normothermic temperatures. The brood patch temperature was maintained at the same values as those measured when brooding on shore (38 degrees C). This high temperature difference causes a significant loss of heat. We hypothesize that high-energy expenditure associated with elevated peripheral temperature when resting at sea is the thermoregulatory cost that a postabsorptive penguin has to face for the restoration of its subcutaneous body fat. During diving, mean pectoral temperature was 37.6 +/- 1.6 degrees C. While being almost normothermic on average, the temperature of the pectoral muscle was still significantly lower than during inactivity in five out of the six birds and underwent temperature drops of up to 5.5 degrees C. Mean brood patch temperature was 29.6 +/- 2.5 degrees C during diving, and temperature decreases of up to 21.6 degrees C were recorded. Interestingly, we observed episodes of brood patch warming during the descent to depth, suggesting that, in some cases, king penguins may perform active thermolysis using the brood patch. It is hypothesized that functional pectoral temperature may be regulated through peripheral adjustments in blood perfusion. These two paradoxical features, i.e., lower temperature of deep tissues during activity and normothermic peripheral tissues while inactive, may highlight the key to the energetics of this diving endotherm while foraging at sea.

  17. Atmospheric components of the surface energy budget over young sea ice: Results from the N-ICE2015 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Von P.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Cohen, Lana; Murphy, Sarah Y.; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-08-01

    The Norwegian young sea ice campaign obtained the first measurements of the surface energy budget over young, thin Arctic sea ice through the seasonal transition from winter to summer. This campaign was the first of its kind in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This study describes the atmospheric and surface conditions and the radiative and turbulent heat fluxes over young, thin sea ice. The shortwave albedo of the snow surface ranged from about 0.85 in winter to 0.72-0.80 in early summer. The near-surface atmosphere was typically stable in winter, unstable in spring, and near neutral in summer once the surface skin temperature reached 0°C. The daily average radiative and turbulent heat fluxes typically sum to negative values (-40 to 0 W m-2) in winter but then transition toward positive values of up to nearly +60 W m-2 as solar radiation contributes significantly to the surface energy budget. The sensible heat flux typically ranges from +20-30 W m-2 in winter (into the surface) to negative values between 0 and -20 W m-2 in spring and summer. A winter case study highlights the significant effect of synoptic storms and demonstrates the complex interplay of wind, clouds, and heat and moisture advection on the surface energy components over sea ice in winter. A spring case study contrasts a rare period of 24 h of clear-sky conditions with typical overcast conditions and highlights the impact of clouds on the surface radiation and energy budgets over young, thin sea ice.

  18. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  19. Liver melanomacrophage centres and CYP1A expression as response biomarkers to environmental pollution in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilone, Gualtiero; Gargano, Antonella; Corriero, Aldo; Zupa, Rosa; Santamaria, Nicoletta; Mangano, Salvatore; Ferreri, Rosalia; Pulizzi, Maurizio; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo; Passantino, Letizia

    2018-06-01

    The goal of the present study was to verify the suitability of using melanomacrophage centres (MMCs) as response biomarkers of marine pollution in European anchovy, which are short-lived, migratory, small pelagic fish. This suitability was verified by analysing the MMC density and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 1A (CYP1A) expression in livers of anchovies from four areas of southern Italy. Age 2 anchovies sampled from three areas exposed to pollutants of industrial/agricultural origin (Gulf of Gela, Mazara del Vallo and Gulf of Naples) showed liver areas occupied by MMCs and numbers of MMCs that were significantly higher than those in the anchovies from Pozzallo, which is a marine area not subjected to any source of pollution. Anti-CYP1A immunoreactivity was observed in the hepatocytes of all specimens sampled from the Gulf of Gela. These findings suggest the utility of liver MMCs as biomarkers of exposure to pollutants in this small pelagic fish. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dissolved organic matter dynamics in surface waters affected by oil spill pollution: Results from the Serious Game exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, M.; Galletti, Y.; Marchetti, E.; Mercadante, L.; Retelletti Brogi, S.; Ribotti, A.; Sorgente, R.; Vestri, S.; Santinelli, C.

    2016-11-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chromophoric and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (CDOM and FDOM, respectively) surface distribution was studied during the Serious Game exercise carried out in the Eastern Ligurian Sea, where an oil spill was localized by using satellite images and models. This paper reports the first DOC, CDOM and FDOM data for this area together with an evaluation of fluorescence as a fast and inexpensive tool for early oil spill detection in marine waters. The samples collected in the oil spill showed a fluorescence intensity markedly higher ( 5 fold) than all the other samples. The excitation-emission matrixes, coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), allowed for the identification in the FDOM pool of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, humic-like and protein-like fluorophores.

  1. Some International Legal Aspects of the Enclosed Seas, especially the Baltic Sea, with Regard to their Protection Against Pollutive Agents; Quelques Considerations de Droit International Touchant les Mers Fermees, notamment la Baltique, au Point de Vue de la Protection Contre les Agents de Pollution; 041d 0414 ; Estudio de Algunos Aspectos Juridicos Internacionales de los Mares Cerrados, especialmente el Baltico, con Miras a la Proteccion de sus Aguas Frente a los Agentes Contaminadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manner, E. J. [Advisory State Committee on Water Pollution, Helsinki (Finland)

    1960-07-01

    Enclosed or intra-continental seas should be distinguished from lakes, because the systems of the international law of the sea and international water- law differ from each other. The definitions of the enclosed sea used in the literature are not satisfactory and in the paper a new and more appropriate definition is proposed. The main sources of the international law of the sea are four Conventions adopted by the United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea held at Geneva in 1958. Many of the problems concerning the Baltic are also characteristic of other intra-continental seas. In the paper reference is made to these problems and to the considerations that render the provisions of the Conventions on the Law of the Sea inadequate for the case of the enclosed seas. With regard to the prevention of pollution of the sea and the disposal of radioactive wastes, the rules of international law are still undeveloped. In the paper mention is made of the aspects that should be considered when drawing up regulations and taking measures for the prevention of pollution, especially of the enclosed seas. (author) [French] Il faut distinguer les mers fermees ou intracontinentales des lacs, car le droit maritime international s'applique aux premieres et non aux deuxiemes. Il n'existe pas de definition satisfaisante de la mer fermee, et l'auteur du memoire propose une nouvelle, qui est plus exacte. Les principales sources du droit maritime international sont constituees par quatre conventions, adoptees par la Conference des Nations Unies sur le droit de la mer, qui s'est tenue a Geneve en 1958. Beaucoup de problemes concernant la mer Baltique sont des. problemes types qui interessent egalement les autres mers intracontinentales. Le memoire expose ces problemes et les raisons pour lequelles les dispositions des conventions sur le droit de la mer ne sont pas suffisantes dans le cas des mers fermees. En ce qui concerne la prevention de la pollution de la mer et l'evacuation des

  2. Release strategies for rehabilitated sea otters

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGange, Anthony R.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bayha, Keith; Williams, Terrie M.; Davis, Randall W.

    1995-01-01

    According to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Services’ (USFWS) Response Plan for sea otters (USFWS, in preparation), in the event of an oil spill, the decision to release sea otters from rehabilitation centers following treatment will be linked to the decision on whether to capture sea otters for treatment. Assuming a scenario similar to the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS), once the decision to capture sea otters is made, the ultimate goal is to return as many sea otters to the wild as possible, even though the rescue may not be expected to produce results significant at the population level. The decision by the USFWS to proceed with capture, rehabilitation, and release will be made on a case-by-case basis (USFWS, in preparation). Many factors will influence the decision. Perhaps the most important factors in deciding when and where to release sea otters are the location and availability of suitable release sites and verification that the otters are free of diseases that might be transmitted to the wild population.Alternative release strategies for sea otters will be contained in the sea otter response portion of the USFWS’s oil spill contingency plans for Alaska and California that are being developed as required by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Public review of these plans before they are implemented will help to reduce public concern about the survival of rehabilitated otters, their biological effect on the release area, and the potential introduction or spread of disease into the wild sea otter population.The objective of this chapter is to review alternative strategies for the disposition of rehabilitated sea otters. Our assumption is that returning as many animals to the wild as possible, whether it be for humanitarian or biological reasons, is the ultimate goal of this effort (Figure 10.1).

  3. Anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in the NW Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas. Results of the 1994-1995 Japanese-Korean-Russian expeditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.B.L.; Amano, H.; Berezhnov, V.I.; Nikitin, A.; Veletova, N.K.; Chaykovskaya, E.; Chumichev, V.B.; Chung, C.S.; Gastaud, J.; Hirose, K.; Hong, G.H.; Kim, C.K.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.H.; Morimoto, T.; Oda, K.; Povinec, P.P.; Togawa, O.; Suzuki, E.; Tkalin, A.; Volkov, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    1999-01-01

    Assessment of contamination of anthropogenic radionuclides from past dumping of radioactive waste in areas of the Okhotsk Sea, NW Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan/East Sea has been performed. Two joint Japanese-Korean-Russian scientific expeditions were carried out in 1994-1995, where seawater and seabed sediments were samples from 22 sites. Results of sediment analysis are reported here, where concentrations of 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239,240Pu and 241Am in surface layer and bulk sediments showed on large spatial variations, ranging between -1 dry wt., -1 dry wt., -1 dry wt., 0.006 and 2.0 Bq kg -1 dry wt., 0.03 and 1.8 Bq kg -1 dry wt., respectively. However, the concentrations are comparable with those found in reference sites outside the dumping areas and they generally fall within ranges previously reported for non-dumping areas of the investigated seas. Estimates of sediment inventories indicated differences in radionuclide load between shelf/slope and basin type sediments as well as dependence on water depth. Except for the shallow areas, most of the inventories of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes are still to be found in the water column. Total inventories (in water+sediment) show a surplus of 137Cs and Pu-isotopes compared to expected integrated global fall-out deposition, which is consistent with previous observations in non-dumping areas in the seas investigated. Analysis of sediment 238Pu/239,240Pu activity ratios showed values in accord with that of global fall-out. Analysis of radionuclide depth distributions in core samples from areas of the Sea of Okhotsk showed sedimentation rates of 0.2-0.4 g cm -2 year -1 and 0.03 g cm -2 year -1 for shelf and basin areas respectively, which is similar to values found in the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Depth profiles of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes in cores of the basin area indicate a typical delay compared to the input records of global fall-out

  4. Mercury Pollution in Soils from the Yacuambi River (Ecuadorian Amazon) as a Result of Gold Placer Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Blanco, Charo; Collahuazo, Luis; Torres, Sandra; Chinchay, Luis; Ayala, Diana; Benítez, Paulina

    2015-09-01

    Gold mining is known to generate important economic products but also to produce several types of contamination/pollution. We report here the first data about Hg concentrations in the soils of the Yacuambi River in the Ecuadorian Amazon. We analyzed soil samples to assess the extent of contamination caused by gold placer mining in this area. Hg concentrations in soils exceeded the local background concentrations. High concentrations of Mn, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Fe and Zn in some soil samples were probably derived from the geology of the site, which is rich in polysulfides and metamorphic rocks. Placer mining may accelerate the natural release of these elements to the environment by the exposure of the bedrock to the atmosphere. Accumulation of Hg in the river soils may be a potential source of toxicity for aquatic life and a risk to human health in the future.

  5. A systematic study of biochemical effects of heavy metal pollution. Programme of the research and preliminary results on cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbioni, E.; Girardi, F.; Marafante, E.

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of labelled metal pollutants at low-dose in organs, subcellular fractions and isolated and fractional component of subcellular fractions, in view of identifying specific metal binding component, was studied. Two types of experiments were carried out, on rats. Long-term experiments (up to 3-4 months), the labelled metal was administred at low concentrations (environmental levels) over long periods of time in order to simulate as close as possible the conditions of polluted environments. Short-term experiments (1-7 days), the labelled metal was injected at acute or subacute levels. 5 elements were selected (Cd, Zn, Se, Hg, Cr) for the long term experiments and 4 elements (Pb, V, Ni, Be) for the short term experiments. The essential present knowledge on the behavior at cellular level of heavy metals which were chosen were summarized. Preliminary results on biochemical effects of cadmium and lead were reported

  6. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  7. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  8. [Study of self-reported health of people living near point sources of environmental pollution: a review. Second part: analysis of results and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniau, C; Dor, F; Eilstein, D; Lefranc, A; Empereur-Bissonnet, P; Dab, W

    2013-08-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the health impacts of local sources of environmental pollution using as an outcome variable self-reported health, reflecting the overall perception interviewed people have of their own health. This work aims at analyzing the advantages and the results of this approach. This second part presents the results of the studies. Based on a literature review (51 papers), this article presents an analysis of the contribution of self-reported health to epidemiological studies investigating local sources of environmental pollution. It discusses the associations between self-reported health and exposure variables, and other risk factors that can influence health reporting. Studies using self-reported health showed that local sources can be associated with a wide range of health outcomes, including an impact on mental health and well-being. The perception of pollution, especially sensory information such as odors, affects self-reported health. Attitudes referring to beliefs, worries and personal behaviors concerning the source of pollution have a striking influence on reported health. Attitudes can be used to estimate the reporting bias in a biomedical approach, and also constitute the main explanatory factors in biopsychosocial studies taking into account not only the biological, physical, and chemical factors but also the psychological and social factors at stake in a situation of environmental exposure. Studying self-reported health enables a multifactorial approach to health in a context of environmental exposure. This approach is most relevant when conducted within a multidisciplinary framework involving human and social sciences to better understand psychosocial factors. The relevance of this type of approach used as an epidemiological surveillance tool to monitor local situations should be assessed with regard to needs for public health management of these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  10. Quantifying dust input to the Subarctic North Pacific - Results from surface sediments and sea water thorium isotope measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winckler, G.; Serno, S.; Hayes, C.; Anderson, R. F.; Gersonde, R.; Haug, G. H.

    2012-12-01

    The Subarctic North Pacific is one of the three primary high-nutrient-low chlorophyll regions of the modern ocean, where the biological pump is relatively inefficient at transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the deep sea. The system is thought to be iron-limited. Aeolian dust is a significant source of iron and other nutrients that are essential for the health of marine ecosystems and potentially a controlling factor of the high-nutrient-low chlorophyll status of the Subarctic North Pacific. However, constraining the size of the dust flux to the surface ocean remains difficult. Here we apply two different approaches, based on surface sediment and water column samples, respectively, obtained during the SO202/INOPEX research cruise to the Subarctic North Pacific in 2009. We map the spatial patterns of Th/U isotopes, helium isotopes and rare earth elements across surface sediments from 37 multi-core core-top sediments across the Subarctic North Pacific. In order to deconvolve the detrital endmembers in regions of the North Pacific affected by volcanic material, IRD and hemipelagic input, we use a combination of trace elements with distinct characteristics in the different endmembers. This approach allows us to calculate the relative aeolian fraction, and in combination with Thorium230-normalized mass flux data, to quantify the dust supply. Secondly, we present an innovative approach to use paired Thorium-232 and Thorium-230 concentrations of upper-ocean seawater at 7 stations along the INOPEX track. Thorium-232 in the upper water column is dominantly derived from dissolution of aeolian dust, whereas Thorium-230 data provide a measure of the thorium removal from the surface waters and, thus, allow us to derive Thorium-232 fluxes. Combined with a mean Thorium-232 concentration in dust and estimate of the thorium solubility, the Thorium-232 flux can be translated in a dust flux to the surface ocean. Dust flux estimates for the Subarctic North Pacific will be

  11. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alava, Juan Jose [School of the Environment, University of South Carolina, 702G Byrnes Building, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States) and Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: jalavasa@sfu.ca; Keller, Jennifer M. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)]. E-mail: Jennifer.Keller@noaa.gov; Kucklick, John R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States); Wyneken, Jeanette [Florida Atlantic University, Department of Biological Sciences, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (United States); Crowder, Larry [Duke University Marine Laboratory, 135 Duke Marine Lab Road, Beaufort, NC 28516 (United States); Scott, Geoffrey I. [Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 219 Ft. Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of {sigma}PCBs (52 congeners), {sigma}DDTs, {sigma}chlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development.

  12. Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) egg yolk concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and lipid increase during the last stage of embryonic development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alava, Juan Jose; Keller, Jennifer M.; Kucklick, John R.; Wyneken, Jeanette; Crowder, Larry; Scott, Geoffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Data are scarce describing the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in sea turtle eggs. The purpose of this study was to establish appropriate sample collection methodology to monitor these contaminants in sea turtle eggs. Contaminant concentrations were measured in yolk samples from eggs that failed to hatch from three loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nests collected in southern Florida to determine if concentrations change through embryonic development. One to three egg yolk samples per nest were analyzed from early, middle, and late developmental stages (n = 22 eggs total). PCB and pesticide concentrations were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Geometric mean concentrations of ΣPCBs (52 congeners), ΣDDTs, Σchlordanes, and dieldrin in all eggs were 65.0 (range = 7.11 to 3930 ng/g lipid), 67.1 (range = 7.88 to 1340 ng/g lipid), 37.0 (range = 4.04 to 685 ng/g lipid), and 11.1 ng/g lipid (range = 1.69 to 44.0 ng/g lipid), respectively. Early and middle developmental stage samples had similar concentrations of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides on a wet-mass basis (ng/g tissue extracted), but the concentrations doubled by the late stage. This increase is most likely attributable to the 50% increase in lipid content observed in the late-stage yolk. These findings indicate that an early-stage sample cannot be directly compared to a late-stage sample, especially from different nests. These preliminary findings also allowed us to calculate the minimum number of eggs per nest required for analysis to obtain an acceptable mean concentration per nest. More research is required to investigate geographical trends of contaminant concentrations and potential health effects (i.e., abnormalities) caused by these contaminants on sea turtle development

  13. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, G.J.; Santos, M.B.; Murphy, S.; Learmonth, J.A.; Zuur, A.F.; Rogan, E.; Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F.; Lahaye, V.; Ridoux, V.; Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts

  14. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in female common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) from western European seas: Geographical trends, causal factors and effects on reproduction and mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, G.J. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain)], E-mail: g.j.pierce@abdn.ac.uk; Santos, M.B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Centro Oceanografico de Vigo, P.O. Box 1552, 36200, Vigo (Spain); Murphy, S. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Sea Mammal Research Unit, Gatty Marine Laboratory, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 8LB (United Kingdom); Learmonth, J.A. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Zuur, A.F. [Highland Statistics, 6 Laverock Road, Newburgh, Aberdeenshire AB41 6FN (United Kingdom); Rogan, E. [AFDC, Department of Zoology, Ecology and Plant Science, University College, National University of Ireland, Enterprise Centre, North Mall, Cork (Ireland); Bustamante, P.; Caurant, F. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Lahaye, V. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Tillydrone Avenue, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ (United Kingdom); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Ridoux, V. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217 CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de la Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France); Zegers, B.N.; Mets, A. [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2008-05-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blubber of female common dolphins and harbour porpoises from the Atlantic coast of Europe were frequently above the threshold at which effects on reproduction could be expected, in 40% and 47% of cases respectively. This rose to 74% for porpoises from the southern North Sea. PCB concentrations were also high in southern North Sea fish. The average pregnancy rate recorded in porpoises (42%) in the study area was lower than in the western Atlantic but that in common dolphins (25%) was similar to that of the western Atlantic population. Porpoises that died from disease or parasitic infection had higher concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) than animals dying from other causes. Few of the common dolphins sampled had died from disease or parasitic infection. POP profiles in common dolphin blubber were related to individual feeding history while those in porpoises were more strongly related to condition. - High PCB levels were recorded in porpoises and common dolphins from European coasts.

  15. INTEGRATION OF RS/GIS FOR SURFACE WATER POLLUTION RISK MODELING. CASE STUDY: AL-ABRASH SYRIAN COASTAL BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yaghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers – lakes and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP and non-point Source pollution (NPSP. Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  16. Integration of Rs/gis for Surface Water Pollution Risk Modeling. Case Study: Al-Abrash Syrian Coastal Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Y.; Salim, H.

    2017-09-01

    Recently the topic of the quality of surface water (rivers - lakes) and the sea is an important topics at different levels. It is known that there are two major groups of pollutants: Point Source Pollution (PSP) and non-point Source pollution (NPSP). Historically most of the surface water pollution protection programs dealing with the first set of pollutants which comes from sewage pipes and factories drainage. With the growing need for current and future water security must stand on the current reality of the coastal rivers basin in terms of freshness and cleanliness and condition of water pollution. This research aims to assign the NPS pollutants that reach Al Abrash River and preparation of databases and producing of risk Pollution map for NPS pollutants in order to put the basin management plan to ensure the reduction of pollutants that reach the river. This research resulted of establishing of Databases of NPSP (Like pesticides and fertilizers) and producing of thematic maps for pollution severity and pollution risk based on the pollution models designed in GIS environment and utilizing from remote sensing data. Preliminary recommendations for managing these pollutants were put.

  17. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  18. Assessment of biological effects of environmental pollution in Mersin Bay (Turkey, northeastern Mediterranean Sea) using Mullus barbatus and Liza ramada as target organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yılmaz, Doruk; Kalay, Mustafa; Dönmez, Erdem; Yılmaz, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of marine ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropriate biological indicators for these areas. Enzyme activities and histopathology are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of pollutant exposure. As part of an ecotoxicological assessment of Mersin Bay, EROD enzyme activity and histopathological response in selected organs and tissues of two species of fish, Mullus barbatus (red mullet) and Liza ramada (thinlip grey mullet), captured from area were examined. Pollutant (Organochlorines (OC), alkylphenols (APs) and BPA) levels and biomarker responses in tissue samples were evaluated together for their potential to alter the metabolism and cellular aspects in liver and gonad. Elevated induction of EROD activity and histopathological alterations in contaminated samples from Mersin Bay was observed compared to reference site indicating the exposure to potential pollutants. - Highlights: • PCBs, DDTs, APs and BPA were detected in liver tissues of red mullet (Mullus barbatus) and thinlip grey mullet (Liza ramada). • Highly induced EROD activity were measured in fish samples from Mersin Bay in comparison to reference fish. • Liver and gonad impairments were observed in samples from contaminated area of Mersin Bay. - Histopathological alterations and induced EROD activities were observed in parallel with elevated tissue concentrations of contaminants in red mullet and thinlip grey mullet.

  19. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  20. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  1. Advances in agronomic management of phytoremediation: methods and results from a 10-year study of metal-polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teofilo Vamerali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Among green technologies addressed to metal pollution, phytoextraction has received increasing attention in recent years as an alternative to physical and chemical methods of decontamination. Since 1998, as part of an Italian multidisciplinary research team on phytoremediation, we have been carrying out several agronomic investigations with field crops in agricultural soil and pyrite waste, both markedly contaminated by heavy metals. Phytoextraction was rarely an efficient process, requiring a long time even to remove merely the bioavailable metal fraction, but the great metal stock in roots suggests exploring the effectiveness of long-term in planta stabilisation. Poor above-ground productivity was the main factor constraining metal removals, especially in wastes. Without assisting the process, only zinc (Zn, manganese (Mn and copper (Cu were harvested by the canopy in substantial amounts, with an estimated maximum of ~8 kg of metals from an hectare base with rapeseed in the agricultural soil and only 0.33 kg with fodder radish in pyrite waste. Root growth was a key trait in species and genotype selection, in view of the close relationship between root length and metal uptake. The auxins, humic acids and chelators tested on the model plant fodder radish generally increased metal concentrations in plant tissues, but reduced growth and removals. It is currently concluded that phytoremediation efficiency with crop species may be improved through increased productivity by suitable soil management, involving mineral and organic fertilisation, contaminant dilution, soil capping, and metal immobilisation with inorganics and biochar.

  2. Are Wolf-Rayet Stars Able to Pollute the Interstellar Medium of Galaxies? Results from Integral Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pérez-Montero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the spatial distribution of chemical abundances in a sample of low metallicity Wolf-Rayet (WR galaxies selected from the SDSS. We used the integral field spectroscopy technique in the optical spectral range (3700 Å–6850 Å with PMAS attached to the CAHA 3.5 m telescope. Our statistical analysis of the spatial distributions of O/H and N/O, as derived using the direct method or strong-line parameters consistent with it, indicates that metallicity is homogeneous in five out of the six analysed objects in scales of the order of several kpc. Only in the object WR404 is a gradient of metallicity found in the direction of the low surface brightness tail. In contrast, we found an overabundance of N/O in spatial scales of the order of hundreds of pc associated with or close to the positions of the WR stars in 4 out of the 6 galaxies. We exclude possible hydrodynamical causes, such as the metal-poor gas inflow, for this local pollution by means of the analysis of the mass-metallicity relation (MZR and mass-nitrogen-to-oxygen relation (MNOR for the WR galaxies catalogued in the SDSS.

  3. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  4. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  5. Importance of open (green) spaces in the polluted Ruhr and the resultant consequences for land use planning in the Ruhr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froriep, S

    1972-01-01

    The Siedlungsverband Ruhrkohlenbezirk (SVR) is a regional association formed in 1920, which covers the fourth largest conurbation in the world. At the present time, over 5 1/2 million people live in it, on an area of nearly 4600 sq km, i.e. almost 10% of the population of the Federal Republic on 2% of its area (225 inhabitants per sq km). Apart from its legal obligations in the field of land use planning, it also undertakes other important tasks in the field of landscape care and conservation. The conservation and care of the landscape inside a conurbation is an extremely important social and political problem. Here the open space policy is of special importance. Open (green) spaces help to improve the climate in the development area, to reduce temperature extremes, to restore the air, and to provide scope for recreation outside the residential areas. It is obvious that the open spaces in a conurbation, with a rising population and associated extension of civic and industrial development, are exposed to the danger of being alienated. This applies especially to forest areas. Even so, despite the considerable building activity in the last 50 years, the forest has been maintained so that only about 10,000 ha. (out of 82,000 ha. in 1920) have been lost. The forest forms 15.5% of the total surface area of the SVR region. Every effort should be made not merely to maintain but to increase this percentage. This can be done by afforestation of marginal land, waste land, tips and spoil mounds, and other unused areas. However, a further reduction of the pollution which adversely affects the vegetation is a prerequisite for the conservation of the natural basis of life for man. Environmental hygiene must therefore be included in environmental planning.

  6. Impact of metal pollution on shrimp Crangon affinis by NMR-based metabolomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chenglong; Yu, Deliang; Wang, Qing; Li, Fei; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-01-01

    Both cadmium and arsenic are the important metal/metalloid pollutants in the Bohai Sea. In this work, we sampled the dominant species, shrimp Crangon affinis, from three sites, the Middle of the Bohai Sea (MBS), the Yellow River Estuary (YRE) and the Laizhou Bay (LZB) along the Bohai Sea. The concentrations of metals/metalloids in shrimps C. affinis indicated that the YRE site was polluted by Cd and Pb, while the LZB site was contaminated by As. The metabolic differences between shrimps C. affinis from the reference site (MBS) and metal-pollution sites (YRE and LZB) were characterized using NMR-based metabolomics. Results indicated that the metal pollutions in YRE and LZB induced disturbances in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism via different metabolic pathways. In addition, a combination of alanine and arginine might be the biomarker of Cd contamination, while BCAAs and tyrosine could be the biomarkers of arsenic contamination in C. affinis. - Highlights: •YRE and LZB are mainly polluted by Cd and As, respectively. •Metal pollutions caused differential effects in C. affinis from different sites. •Metabolomics is useful to elucidate metal pollution-induced biological effects.

  7. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Corrosion of AISI 304 stainless steel in polluted seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brankevich, G.; Guiamet, P.; Videla, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sequence of microbiofouling settlement on AISI 304 stain steel samples exposed to polluted harbor sea water of a power cooling water intake is studied. The firts sates of bacterial colonization are followed by means of scanning electron microscopy during two weeks of exposure. The relation between microbiofouling and corrosion is also followed by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated through electrochemical polarization experiments. The results obtained show that microbial colonization and extracellular polimeric substances forming the biofilms have a marked influence on the electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel in sea water. Laboratory experiments using inorganic chloride solutions or artificial sea water show a considerably lesser attack of the metal than those performed 'in situ' with natural sea water. Passivity breadown is highly facilitated when complex biological and inorganic deposits (fouling) have settled on the metal surface. (Author) [pt

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbon pollution after the tasman spirit oil spill of coastal/deep sea sediment along the clifton beach karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, A.B.; Ansari, F.A.; Siddiqi, H.A.; Zeeshan, M.

    2011-01-01

    An oil tanker,Tasman Spirit, carrying 67000 to nsc rude oil, got damaged near the Clifton Beach of Karachi, Pakistan and approx. 31,000 ton oil spilled into the sea. The distribution of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons was determined in deep sea and surface sediment collected at 12 stations along the Clifton beach of Karachi, following the oil spill. Sampling was performed during 2003-2006, starting just after the accident of the oil tanker. Concentrations of PAHs (sigma 16 parent components) and aliphatics were in the range of 0.09-560 macro g/kg dw and 0.12-685 macro g/kg dw, respectively, since the date of accident and after bio remedial measures. The highest concentrations were found within the radius of 50 km around the site, the area most heavily impacted by the spill, whereas at the stations, away from the ship, the concentrations were in the lower range without alkylated compounds Addition of increasing amounts of ship fuel oil (taken from a Pakistani ship) to a representatives sediment samples showed that measurable concentration of the Tasman Spirit oil was > 1 g/kg of sediment The toxicity of selected samples of surface sediment from the coastal area near oil spill showed higher PAH concentrations the average number of dead fauna was 90-95% within 3 days of oil spill which gradually decreased with the time. (author)

  10. Management of Ecological-Economic Processes of Pollution Accumulation and Assimilation in the Coastal Zone Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.E. Timchenko

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for managing the balance of pollution (getting into the sea with the coastal runoff assimilation and accumulation, based on the negative feedback between the coastal economic system efficiency and penalties for the sea coastal zone pollution is proposed. The model is constructed by the Adaptive Balance of Causes method and is intended for finding a rational balance of profit from the use of assimilative resources of the marine environment and the costs of maintaining its quality. The increase of pollutions in the coastal zone is taken as proportional to the volume of product realization. The decrease of pollution concentration is related to the environment protection activities paid for by the production. The model contains the agents for managing the volume of the economic system generalized production release. The agents control pollution accumulation rate at different ones of the bio-chemical processes resulting in the marine environment natural purification. Scenario analysis of ecological-economic processes in the “Land–Sea” system is carried out, and the dependencies of economic subsystem production profitability on penalty sanctions limiting the pollutant flux getting into the sea are constructed. Sea temperature and water mass dynamics effect on these processes is considered. The scenarios of their intra-annual variability are constructed. It is shown that the sea temperature and near-water wind consideration in the model have a significant effect on marine environment pollution level and production profitability. The conclusion is that the proposed adaptive simulation model “Sea–Land” can be used for forecasting the scenarios of coastal subsystem production processes (the volume of generalized product manufacturing, production cost, profitability in parallel with the forecast of pollution concentration in the sea scenarios.

  11. The pollution of the sea water by the waste from the LNG plant Arzew-Algeria and the waste water purifying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meniuar, H.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Generally, the pollution makes a lot of problems for the environment. The natural gas (N.G.) is a compound of the light hydrocarbons, methane, ethane, propane, butane and other trace elements, like Helium, Nitrogen, Carbon Dioxide and others. After the different zones of the natural gas treatment, a problem of pollution of water is appeared. In this plant there are eight zones, six units of process, one for the energy production and another for the storage. It exists a system to treat all the effluents contamination coming from these zones. The treatment of this waste water consists in the separation of the oil and the sludge to satisfy the standard environmental protection. There are six separators, pools of concrete are connected with a collector for supply which is connected with each separator by three conduits. A diffusion apparatus is put in front of every nozzle of entry in the separator, and this is for a suitable distribution of the liquid in the separator. In reason of the decrease speed of the liquid when it passes through the separator, the particles carried, deposit in the bottom of the separator. The suspended matters are collected by a chain collector. The float matters up the liquid of the separators, mainly oils, are removed through the creaming tubs

  12. Part 1. Short-term effects of air pollution on mortality: results from a time-series analysis in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ganguli, Bhaswati; Ghosh, Santu; Sankar, S; Thanasekaraan, Vijaylakshmi; Rayudu, V N; Caussy, Harry

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the results of a time-series analysis of the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter part of its Public Health and Air Pollution in Asia (PAPA) initiative. The study involved integration and analysis of retrospective data for the years 2002 through 2004. The data were obtained from relevant government agencies in charge of routine data collection. Data on meteorologic confounders (including temperature, relative humidity, and dew point) were available on all days of the study period. Data on mortality were also available on all days, but information on cause-of-death (including accidental deaths) could not be reliably ascertained. Hence, only all-cause daily mortality was used as the major outcome for the time-series analyses. Data on PM10, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were limited to a much smaller number of days, but spanned the full study period. Data limitations resulting from low sensitivity of gaseous pollutant measurements led to using only PM10 in the main analysis. Of the eight operational ambient air quality monitor (AQM) stations in the city, seven met the selection criteria set forth in the common protocol developed for the three PAPA studies in India. In addition, all raw data used in the analysis were subjected to additional quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) criteria to ensure the validity of the measurements. Two salient features of the PM10 data set in Chennai were a high percentage of missing readings and a low correlation among daily data recorded by the AQMs. The latter resulted partly because each AQM had a small footprint (approximate area over which the air pollutant measurements recorded in the AQM are considered valid), and partly because of differences in source profiles among the 10 zones within the city. The zones were defined by the Chennai Corporation based on population density. Alternative exposure series were developed to control for

  13. Performance Evaluation of "Low-cost" Sensors for Measuring Gaseous and Particle Air Pollutants: Results from Two Years of Field and Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, B. J.; Polidori, A.; Tisopulos, L.; Papapostolou, V.; Zhang, H.; Pathmanabhan, J.

    2016-12-01

    In recent years great progress has been made in development of low-cost miniature air quality sensing technologies. Such low-cost sensors offer a prospect of providing a real-time spatially dense information on pollutants, however, the quality of the data produced by these sensors is so far untested. In an effort to inform the general public about the actual performance of commercially available low-cost air quality sensors, in June 2014 the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has established the Air Quality Sensor Performance Evaluation Center (AQ-SPEC). This program performs a thorough characterization of low-cost sensors under ambient (in the field) and controlled (in the laboratory) conditions. During the field testing, air quality sensors are operated side-by-side with Federal Reference Methods and Federal Equivalent Methods (FRM and FEM, respectively), which are routinely used to measure the ambient concentration of gaseous or particle pollutants for regulatory purposes. Field testing is conducted at two of SCAQMD's existing air monitoring stations, one in Rubidoux and one near the I-710 freeway. Sensors that demonstrate an acceptable performance in the field are brought back to the lab where a "characterization chamber" is used to challenge these devices with known concentrations of different particle and gaseous pollutants under different temperature and relative humidity levels. Testing results for each sensor are then summarized in a technical report and, along with other relevant information, posted online on a dedicated website (www.aqmd.gov/aq-spec) to educate the public about the capabilities of commercially available sensors and their potential applications. During this presentation, the results from two years of field and laboratory testing will be presented. The major strengths and weaknesses of some of the most commonly available particle and gaseous sensors will be discussed.

  14. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  15. Application of different enzyme assays and biomarkers for pollution monitoring of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitkalieva, Alexandra V; Menzorova, Natalie I; Rasskazov, Valerу A

    2016-01-01

    New phosphatase and DNase inhibition tests for assessing the total pollution of a natural marine ecosystem were applied. The seawater samples with different pollution degrees were collected in the Troitsa Bay of the Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). The sensitivity of the alkaline phosphatase test to integrated pollution was in accordance with the sensitivity of the standard sea urchin sperm cell toxicity test. The increased seawater pollution level was shown to result in an up to fourfold increase in specific activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases from the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. It was demonstrated that a complex methodological approach can be used to assess marine water areas, as well as to assess the biological conditions of invertebrates adapting to different environmental and anthropogenic effects.

  16. A distributed atmosphere-sea ice-ocean observatory in the central Arctic Ocean: concept and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Nicolaus, Marcel; Rabe, Benjamin; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Katlein, Christian; Scholz, Daniel; Valcic, Lovro

    2017-04-01

    To understand the current evolution of the Arctic Ocean towards a less extensive, thinner and younger sea ice cover is one of the biggest challenges in climate research. Especially the lack of simultaneous in-situ observations of sea ice, ocean and atmospheric properties leads to significant knowledge gaps in their complex interactions, and how the associated processes impact the polar marine ecosystem. Here we present a concept for the implementation of a long-term strategy to monitor the most essential climate- and ecosystem parameters in the central Arctic Ocean, year round and synchronously. The basis of this strategy is the development and enhancement of a number of innovative autonomous observational platforms, such as rugged weather stations, ice mass balance buoys, ice-tethered bio-optical buoys and upper ocean profilers. The deployment of those complementing platforms in a distributed network enables the simultaneous collection of physical and biogeochemical in-situ data on basin scales and year round, including the largely undersampled winter periods. A key advantage over other observatory systems is that the data is sent via satellite in near-real time, contributing to numerical weather predictions through the Global Telecommunication System (GTS) and to the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP). The first instruments were installed on ice floes in the Eurasian Basin in spring 2015 and 2016, yielding exceptional records of essential climate- and ecosystem-relevant parameters in one of the most inaccessible regions of this planet. Over the next 4 years, and including the observational periods of the Year of Polar Prediction (YOPP, 2017-2019) and the Multidisciplinary drifting Observatory for the Study of the Arctic Climate (MOSAiC, 2020), the distributed observatory will be maintained by deployment of additional instruments in the central Arctic each year, benefitting from international logistical efforts.

  17. Troubled waters. The future of the oceans. Human activity is polluting the marine environment and the economic livelihoods of millions who fish the seas. Science can help change the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    In assessing the state of the ocean today, it is useful to think in terms of its general condition and consider its living resources. The good news is that the waters of the open ocean are in reasonable chemical health. They receive contaminant inputs from two major sources - the atmosphere and shipping. Atmospheric input is a diverse mixture of all the pollutants already mentioned which mingle in the air carried around the world, and eventually fall out by wet or dry deposition. However, due to dilution and the long residence time often associated with atmospheric transport, the oceanic fallout, although measurable, leads to only low concentrations in surface waters so that significant impacts on marine biota are not detected. The shipping input is more concentrated, but is confined to traffic lanes, and tends to be rapidly dispersed and diluted - although persistent materials that float, like plastics and tar balls, can be carried great distances and accumulate on beaches. In contrast to the open ocean, the coastal zones of the world present a very different picture. As most of the polluting inputs come from the continental landmasses, near-shore areas are significantly at risk, and the adjacent shelf seas are also threatened. Degradation is particularly acute in estuaries where industry is concentrated and in coastal areas where major rivers carry wastes from the hinterland to the sea. Semienclosed bays that have extensive urban or farming hinterland, and are poorly flushed by the open ocean, are also highly vulnerable. As for the living resources, in spite of earlier fears, marine pollution has not been the threat that was feared. Indeed, the danger to them is more direct - the impact of excessive exploitation. The decline of catches of the preferred species, and the collapse of important stocks is now all too clear, and fishing communities are under great pressure. Today, of the major fish stocks throughout the world, 47% are fully exploited, 18% are over

  18. Trace metal variations in the shells of Ensis siliqua record pollution and environmental conditions in the sea to the west of mainland Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Nicholas J.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, Wales (United Kingdom)]. E-mail Nick.Pearce@aber.ac.uk; Mann, Victoria L. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of Wales, Aberystwyth, SY23 3DB, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    Shells of the pod razor shell (Ensis siliqua) from 13 locations around the west coast of mainland Britain have been analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for a range of trace metals including Zn, Cd, Pb, U, Ba, Sr and Mg. The trace metal record in these shells is a proxy record for changes in seawater chemistry during the 1990s. Regional variations exist in the median concentrations of the analysed metals. Barium concentrations are related to increased productivity from sewage sludge dumping at sea. Strontium shows a local relationship to salinity, but there is no clear relationship over the study area, instead high Sr is often associated with high Ba, and may reflect ontogenetic factors such as growth rate. Magnesium shows a seasonal variation within individual shells and can be used to calculate sea surface temperatures from groups of shells. Contaminant metals show a clear regional relationship with known sources, thus high Pb and Zn are typically associated with former metal mining areas (e.g. Cardigan Bay, Anglesey), and high Pb, Zn, Cd and U are associated with industrial activity in Liverpool Bay. Anomalies such as the high U in shells from northern Scotland cannot at present be explained. A seasonal variation of Pb is also seen in Cardigan Bay and Liverpool Bay, relating to increased winter fluxes of these metals to the marine environment. The regional distribution of these metals is consistent with known sources of contamination and patterns of seawater migration around the coast of Britain.

  19. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  20. Flooding Model as the Analysis of the Sea Level Increase as a Result of Global Warming in Coastal Area in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Kurniawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The melting of ice layers, as a direct impact on global warming, is indicated from a lesser thickness of ice layers is specifically causing an increase on the sea level. Lampung, as a province that has an ecosistem of regional coast, can be estimated to submerge. Flood modelling can be done to know the estimated flood range. The model of the flooded region is taken from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission(SRTM data, which is nomalized to get the visualisation of Digital Elevation Model (DEM. The purpose of this research is to know the estimated region of provincial coast of Lampung that is going to be flooded because of the raising of sea surface. This research uses flood inundation technique that uses one of the GIS mapping software. The result can be used as consideration to achieve policy in the building of regional coast. The regions that are flooded based on the scenario of the raising of two and three meter surface sea level are East Lampung Regency, West Lampung Regency, South Lampung Regency, Tanggamus Regency, Pesawaran Regency, and Bandar Lampung.

  1. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effect