WorldWideScience

Sample records for sea floor deposits

  1. Carbon dioxide deposition under the sea floor and political decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelsen, Atle; Steensen, Anders J.; Bekkevold, Stein

    2000-01-01

    It is now possible to build gas power plants that will not emit CO2 into the atmosphere. All the necessary technology is available. Research indicates that CO2 deposited in saline reservoirs below the sea floor will stay there for many thousand years. But separation and deposition of CO2 increases the cost of a combined gas- and steam power plant by 50 - 100%. Reinjection and deposition will take about 25% of the extra cost, which should be paid for by the authorities. Such power plants are not likely to be built in the near future since first the price of power will have to go up and the price of technology will have to go town. The reservoirs in the North Sea appear to be large enough to contain all CO2 emissions from Europe for more than 600 years. But infrastructure to handle the gas is needed and public funding is necessary. Norsk Hydro evaluated the use of CO2 as injection gas on the Grane field, but the price was too high

  2. Effects of early sea-floor processes on the taphonomy of temperate shelf skeletal carbonate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Abigail M.; Nelson, Campbell S.

    2003-10-01

    Cool-water shelf carbonates differ from tropical carbonates in their sources, modes, and rates of deposition, geochemistry, and diagenesis. Inorganic precipitation, marine cementation, and sediment accumulation rates are absent or slow in cool waters, so that temperate carbonates remain longer at or near the sea bed. Early sea-floor processes, occurring between biogenic calcification and ultimate deposition, thus take on an important role, and there is the potential for considerable taphonomic loss of skeletal information into the fossilised record of cool-water carbonate deposits. The physical breakdown processes of dissociation, breakage, and abrasion are mediated mainly by hydraulic regime, and are always destructive. Impact damage reduces the size of grains, removes structure and therefore information, and ultimately may transform skeletal material into anonymous particles. Abrasion is highly selective amongst and within taxa, their skeletal form and structure strongly influencing resistance to mechanical breakdown. Dissolution and precipitation are the end-members of a two-way chemical equilibrium operating in sea water. In cool waters, inorganic precipitation is rare. There is conflicting opinion about the importance of diagenetic dissolution of carbonate skeletons on the temperate sea floor, but test maceration and early loss of aragonite in particular are reported. Dissolution may relate to undersaturated acidic pore waters generated locally by a combination of microbial metabolisation of organic matter, strong bioturbation, and oxidation of solid phase sulphides immediately beneath the sea floor in otherwise very slowly accumulating skeletal deposits. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that surface-to-volume ratio and skeletal mineralogy are both important in determining skeletal resistance to dissolution. Biological processes on the sea floor include encrustation and bioerosion. Encrustation, a constructive process, may be periodic or seasonal, and can be

  3. Ploughing the deep sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Canals, Miquel; Company, Joan B; Martín, Jacobo; Amblas, David; Lastras, Galderic; Palanques, Albert

    2012-09-13

    Bottom trawling is a non-selective commercial fishing technique whereby heavy nets and gear are pulled along the sea floor. The direct impact of this technique on fish populations and benthic communities has received much attention, but trawling can also modify the physical properties of seafloor sediments, water–sediment chemical exchanges and sediment fluxes. Most of the studies addressing the physical disturbances of trawl gear on the seabed have been undertaken in coastal and shelf environments, however, where the capacity of trawling to modify the seafloor morphology coexists with high-energy natural processes driving sediment erosion, transport and deposition. Here we show that on upper continental slopes, the reworking of the deep sea floor by trawling gradually modifies the shape of the submarine landscape over large spatial scales. We found that trawling-induced sediment displacement and removal from fishing grounds causes the morphology of the deep sea floor to become smoother over time, reducing its original complexity as shown by high-resolution seafloor relief maps. Our results suggest that in recent decades, following the industrialization of fishing fleets, bottom trawling has become an important driver of deep seascape evolution. Given the global dimension of this type of fishery, we anticipate that the morphology of the upper continental slope in many parts of the world’s oceans could be altered by intensive bottom trawling, producing comparable effects on the deep sea floor to those generated by agricultural ploughing on land.

  4. Sea floor magnetic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, V.; Prystai, A.; Vallianatos, F.; Makris, J.

    2003-04-01

    The electromagnetic precursors of seismic hazards are widely accepted as strong evidence of the approaching earthquake or volcano eruption. The monitoring of these precursors are of main interest in densely populated areas, what creates serious problems to extract them at the strong industrial noise background. An interesting possibility to improve signal-to-noise ratio gives the installation of the observation points in the shelf zones near the possible earthquake places, what is fairly possible in most seismically active areas in Europe, e. g. in Greece and Italy. The serious restriction for this is the cost of the underwater instrumentation. To realize such experiments it requires the unification of efforts of several countries (e. g., GEOSTAR) or of the funds of some great companies (e. g., SIO magnetotelluric instrument). The progress in electronic components development as well as the appearance of inexpensive watertight glass spheres made it possible to decrease drastically the price of recently developed sea floor magnetic stations. The autonomous vector magnetometer LEMI-301 for sea bed application is described in the report. It is produced on the base of three-component flux-gate sensor. Non-magnetic housing and minimal magnetism of electronic components enable the instrument to be implemented as a monoblock construction where the electronic unit is placed close to the sensor. Automatic circuit provides convenient compensation of the initial field offset and readings of full value (6 digits) of the measured field. Timing by internal clock provides high accuracy synchronization of data. The internal flash memory assures long-term autonomous data storage. The system also has two-axes tilt measurement system. The methodological questions of magnetometer operation at sea bed were studied in order to avoid two types of errors appearing at such experimental cases. First is sea waving influence and second one magnetometer orientation at its random positioning on

  5. Chapter H: Stratiform Barite Deposits in the Roberts Mountains Allochthon, Nevada: A Review of Potential Analogs in Modern Sea-Floor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Randolph A.; Hein, James R.

    2004-01-01

    Fracture Zone), marginal basins (Sea of Okhotsk), convergent margins (Peru, Oregon, Alaska), and transform margins (California Continental Borderland). Both hydrothermal and diagenetic barite deposits may be present in some environments (for example, the California California Borderland). On the basis of a consideration of tectonic settings and a comparison of deposit attributes (associated rock types, size, structure), mineralogy (BaSO4 content, SiO2 content), and geochemistry (S- and Sr-isotopic ratios) for modern and ancient massive barite deposits, cold seeps along transform margins (or, possibly, marginal basins) represent the most promising present-day metallogenetic analogs for stratiform barite. Hydrothermal systems can also produce high-grade barite, but the ubiquity of associated sulfide mineralization on the modern sea floor (and the paucity of sulfides in Nevada deposits) is problematic. On the basis of data from modern barite deposits, the presence of vent-specific faunas (tubeworms) and the variation in d34S values for barite (related to bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate) may not permit discrimination between a diagenetic or hydrothermal origin for ancient barite deposits.

  6. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition......'s attempt to "wave the Danish flag". The expedition was the first scientific expedition to have on board a separate press section communicating its scientific results as well as Danish nationality to the wider public. In this poster, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench are placed within this context...

  7. Nuclear wastes beneath the deep sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hollister, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    Projections of energy demands for the year 2000 show that nuclear power will likely be one of our energy sources. But the benefits of nuclear power must be balanced against the drawbacks of its by-product: high-level wastes. While it may become possible to completely destroy or eliminate these wastes, it is at least equally possible that we may have to dispose of them on earth in such a way as to assure their isolation from man for periods of the order of a million years. Undersea regions in the middle of tectonic plates and in the approximate center of major current gyres offer some conceptual promise for waste disposal because of their geologic stability and comparatively low organic productivity. The advantages of this concept and the types of detailed information needed for its accurate assessment are discussed. The technical feasibility of permanent disposal beneath the deep sea floor cannot be accurately assessed with present knowledge, and there is a need for a thorough study of the types and rates of processes that affect this part of the earth's surface. Basic oceanographic research aimed at understanding these processes is yielding answers that apply to this societal need. (U.S.)

  8. Acoustics advances study of sea floor hydrothermal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Peter A.; Jackson, Darrell R.; Bemis, Karen G.; Jones, Christopher D.; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko; Palmer, David R.; Silver, Deborah

    Sub-sea floor hydrothermal convection systems discharge as plumes from point sources and as seepage from the ocean bottom. The plumes originate as clear, 150-400°C solutions that vent from mineralized chimneys; precipitate dissolved metals as particles to form black or white smokers as they turbulently mix with ambient seawater; and buoyantly rise hundreds of meters to a level of neutral density where they spread laterally. The seepage discharges from networks of fractures at the rock-water interface as clear, diffuse flow, with lower temperatures, metal contents, and buoyancy than the smokers. The diffuse flow may be entrained upward into plumes, or laterally by prevailing currents in discrete layers within tens of meters of the sea floor. The role of these flow regimes in dispersing heat, chemicals, and biological material into the ocean from sub-sea floor hydrothermal convection systems is being studied on a global scale.

  9. Geological Interpretation of the Sea Floor Offshore of Edgartown, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Foster, D.S.; Blackwood, D.S.; Williams, S.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Moser, M.S.; Glomb, K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Gridded bathymetry and sidescan-sonar imagery together cover approximately 37.3 square kilometers of sea floor in the vicinity of Edgartown Harbor, Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H11346, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor stations and seismic-reflection lines subsequently occupied to verify them, 1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, 2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and 3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management (for example, windfarms, pipelines, and dredging) activities along the Massachusetts inner continental shelf.

  10. Pyroclastic Deposits in the Floor-fractured Crater Alphonsus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Donaldson-Hanna, Kerri L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Moriarty, Daniel P.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Bennett, Kristen A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Paige, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Alphonsus, the 118 km diameter floor-fractured crater, is located immediately east of Mare Nubium. Eleven pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the crater's floor. Early telescopic spectra suggest that the floor of Alphonsus is noritic, and that the pyroclastic deposits contain mixtures of floor material and a juvenile component including basaltic glass. Head and Wilson contend that Nubium lavas intruded the breccia zone beneath Alphonsus, forming dikes and fractures on the crater floor. In this model, the magma ascended to the level of the mare but cooled underground, and a portion broke thru to the surface in vulcanian (explosive) eruptions. Alternatively, the erupted material could be from a source unrelated to the mare, in the style of regional pyroclastic deposits. High-resolution images and spectroscopy from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Diviner Lunar Radiometer, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) provide data to test these formation models. Spectra from M3 confirm that the crater floor is primarily composed of noritic material, and that the Nubium lavas are basaltic. Spectra from the three largest pyroclastic deposits in Alphonsus are consistent with a minor low- Ca pyroxene component in a glass-rich matrix. The centers of the 2 micron absorption bands have wavelengths too short to be of the same origin as the Nubium basalts. Diviner Christiansen feature (CF) values were used to estimate FeO abundances for the crater floor, Nubium soil, and pyroclastic deposits. The estimated abundance for the crater floor (7.5 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is within the range of FeO values for Apollo norite samples. However, the estimated FeO abundance for Nubium soil (13.4 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is lower than those measured in most mare samples. The difference may reflect contamination of the mare soil by highland ejecta. The Diviner-derived FeO abundance for the western pyroclastic deposit is 13.8 +/- 3.3 wt.%. This is lower than the values for mare soil

  11. Drilling gas hydrates with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Wefer, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are bound in marine gas hydrate deposits. Local conditions like pressure, temperature, gas and pore water compositions define the boundaries of gas hydrate stability within the ocean sediments. Depending on those conditions gas hydrates can occur within marine sediments at depth down to several hundreds of meters up to sea floor. These oceanic methane deposits are widespread along continental margins. By forming cement in otherwise soft sediments gas hydrates are stabilizing the seafloor on continental slopes. Drilling operations are required for understanding the distribution of gas hydrates as well as for sampling them to study the composition, microstructure and its geomechanical and geophysical properties. The sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo200 has the capability to drill down to 200 m below sea floor well within the depth of major gas hydrate occurrences at continental margins. This drill rig is a transportable sea floor drill rig that can be deployed from a variety of multi-purpose research vessels. It is deployed on the sea bed and controlled from the vessel. It is the second generation MeBo (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013) and was developed from 2011 to 2014 by MARUM in cooperation with BAUER Maschinen GmbH. Long term experiences with the first generation MeBo70 that was operated since 2005 on 15 research expeditions largely contributed to the development of MeBo200. It was first tested in October 2014 from the research vessel RV SONNE in the North Sea. In this presentation the suitability of MARUM-MeBo for drilling marine gas hydrates is discussed. We report on experiences drilling gas hydrates on two research expeditions with MeBo70. A research expedition for sampling gas hydrates in the Danube Paleodelta with MeBo200 as well as technical developments for improving the suitability of MeBo for gas hydrate exploration works are planned within the project SUGAR3 funded by the Federal Government for Economy and Energy (BMWi). Freudenthal

  12. The Sea Floor: A Living Learning Residential Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guentzel, J. L.; Rosch, E.; Stoughton, M. A.; Bowyer, R.; Mortensen, K.; Smith, M.

    2016-02-01

    Living learning communities are collaborations between university housing and academic departments designed to enhance the overall student experience by integrating classroom/laboratory learning, student life and extracurricular activities. At Coastal Carolina University, the residential community associated with the Marine Science program is known as the Sea Floor. Students selected to become members of the Sea Floor remain "in residence" for two consecutive semesters. These students are first-time freshman that share a common course connection. This course is usually Introduction to Marine Science (MSCI 111) or MSCI 399s, which are one credit field/laboratory centered internships. The common course connection is designed so residents can establish and maintain an educational dialog with their peers. Activities designed to enhance the students' networking skills and educational and social development skills include monthly lunches with marine science faculty and dinner seminars with guest speakers from academia, industry and government. Additionally, each semester several activities outside the classroom are planned so that students can more frequently interact with themselves and their faculty and staff partners. These activities include field trips to regional aquariums, local boat trips that include water sample collection and analysis, and an alternative spring break trip to the Florida Keys to study the marine environment firsthand. The resident advisor that supervises the Sea Floor is usually a sophomore or junior marine science major. This provides the residents with daily communication and mentoring from a marine science major that is familiar with the marine science program and residence life. Assessment activities include: a university housing community living survey, student interest housing focus groups, fall to spring and fall to fall retention, and evaluation of program advisors and program activities.

  13. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Nardi, Matthew J.; Andring, Matthew A.

    2015-09-09

    Multibeam echosounder data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration along with sediment samples and still and video photography of the sea floor collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were used to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in southern Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, as part of a long-term effort to map the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. Sea-floor features include rocky areas and scour depressions in high-energy environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition, and sand waves and megaripples in environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Two shipwrecks are also located in the study area. Much of the sea floor is relatively featureless within the resolution of the multibeam data; sedimentary environments in these areas are characterized by processes associated with sorting and reworking. This report releases bathymetric data from the multibeam echosounder, grain-size analyses of sediment samples, and photographs of the sea floor and interpretations of the sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. It provides base maps that can be used for resource management and studies of topics such as benthic ecology, contaminant inventories, and sediment transport.

  14. Sea-floor geology and topography offshore in Eastern Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Blackwood, D.S.; Schaer, J.D.; Forrest, M.R.; Ostapenko, A.J.; Doran, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    A gridded multibeam bathymetric dataset covers approximately 133.7 square kilometers of sea floor offshore in eastern Long Island Sound. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H11997, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor sampling and photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them during USGS cruise 2010-015-FA, are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource management (for example, cables, pipelines, and dredging) activities in this major East Coast estuary. Results show the composition and terrain of the seabed and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. Bedrock outcrops, erosional outliers, lag deposits of boulders, scour depressions, and extensive gravel pavements are common in the eastern part of the study area. These features, which result from the near-constant exposure to strong tidal currents, indicate sedimentary environments dominated by processes associated with erosion. Large fields of transverse and barchanoid sand waves in the western part of the study area reflect slightly lower energy levels and sedimentary environments where processes associated with coarse bedload transport prevail.

  15. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments of western Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Clos, Andrew R.; Parker, Castle E.

    2014-01-01

    Multibeam-echosounder data, collected during survey H12299 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 162-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, northeast of Gardiners Island, New York, are used along with sediment samples and bottom photography, collected at 37 stations in this area by the U.S. Geological Survey during cruise 2013-005-FA, to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These data and interpretations provide important base maps for future studies of the sea floor, focused, for example, on benthic ecology and resource management. The features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the glacial history and modern tidal regime. Features include bedforms such as sand waves and megaripples, boulders, a large current-scoured depression, exposed glaciolacustrine sediments, and areas of modern marine sediment. Sand covers much of the study area and is often in the form of sand waves and megaripples, which indicate environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Boulders and gravelly lag deposits, which indicate environments of erosion or nondeposition, are found off the coast of Gardiners Island and on bathymetric highs, probably marking areas where deposits associated with recessional ice-front positions, the northern flank of the terminal moraine, or coastal-plain sediments covered with basal till are exposed. Bottom photographs and video of boulders show that they are commonly covered with sessile fauna. Strong tidal currents have produced the deep scour depression along the northwestern edge of the study area. The eastern side of this depression is armored with a gravel lag. Sea-floor areas characterized by modern marine sediments appear featureless at the 2-meter resolution of the bathymetry and flat to current rippled in the photography. These modern environments are indicative of sediment sorting and reworking.

  16. Characterization of sea floor in Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, B.A.; Kenyon, N.H.; Schlee, J.S.; Mattick, R.e.; Twichell, D.C.

    1986-05-01

    In 1985, the US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a mapping program in the Gulf of Mexico. Using the GLORIA (Geologic Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scan sonar system of the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, USGS mapped approximately 90,000 nmi/sup 2/ of sea floor in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, seaward of the shelf edge. The Sigsbee Escarpment, the seaward edge of a salt front that extends from the western gulf to just west of the Mississippi Canyon, is marked by piles of debris along its base, and is breached by several submarine channels. One such meandering channel can be traced from the shelf edge, through the maze of diapirs on the slope, and out across the Sigsbee Abyssal Plain. This continuous transport pathway indicates the interaction of salt tectonics on sediment pathways and distribution. Numerous bed forms seaward of the Sigsbee Escarpment suggest that strong bottom currents are present. The northern gulf has three major submarine fans, each with different surface morphologies. The Rio Grande Fan has a braided channel system. The Mississippi Fan has a main channel that can be traced for approximately 100 km across the midfan, but most of the surface of the upper and midfan as well as the channel are buried by submarine slides or debris flows. Desoto Canyon Fan also has a continuous channel that has been filled or overrun in places by massive debris flows. Based on the sonographs, mass wasting appears to be an important process in distributing sediments in the deep water of the central gulf.

  17. High resolution hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor maps (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, C.; Inglis, G.

    2013-12-01

    This abstract presents a method for creating hybrid optical and acoustic sea floor reconstructions at centimeter scale grid resolutions with robotic vehicles. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are two common sensing modalities with complementary strengths that are well suited for data fusion. We have recently developed an automated two stage pipeline to create such maps. The steps can be broken down as navigation refinement and map construction. During navigation refinement a graph-based optimization algorithm is used to align 3D point clouds created with both the multibeam sonar and stereo cameras. The process combats the typical growth in navigation error that has a detrimental affect on map fidelity and typically introduces artifacts at small grid sizes. During this process we are able to automatically register local point clouds created by each sensor to themselves and to each other where they overlap in a survey pattern. The process also estimates the sensor offsets, such as heading, pitch and roll, that describe how each sensor is mounted to the vehicle. The end results of the navigation step is a refined vehicle trajectory that ensures the points clouds from each sensor are consistently aligned, and the individual sensor offsets. In the mapping step, grid cells in the map are selectively populated by choosing data points from each sensor in an automated manner. The selection process is designed to pick points that preserve the best characteristics of each sensor and honor some specific map quality criteria to reduce outliers and ghosting. In general, the algorithm selects dense 3D stereo points in areas of high texture and point density. In areas where the stereo vision is poor, such as in a scene with low contrast or texture, multibeam sonar points are inserted in the map. This process is automated and results in a hybrid map populated with data from both sensors. Additional cross modality checks are made to reject outliers in a robust manner. The final

  18. Modeling of methane bubbles released from large sea-floor area: Condition required for methane emission to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, A.; Yamanaka, Y.; Tajika, E.

    2009-01-01

    Massive methane release from sea-floor sediments due to decomposition of methane hydrate, and thermal decomposition of organic matter by volcanic outgassing, is a potential contributor to global warming. However, the degree of global warming has not been estimated due to uncertainty over the proportion of methane flux from the sea-floor to reach the atmosphere. Massive methane release from a large sea-floor area would result in methane-saturated seawater, thus some methane would reach the atm...

  19. GEOSTAR deep sea floor missions: magnetic data analysis and 1D geo electric structure underneath the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitale, S.; De Santis, A.; Di Mauro, D.; Cafarella, L.; Palangio, P.; Beranzoli, L.; Favali, P.

    2009-01-01

    From 2000 to 2005 two geophysical exploration missions were undertaken in the Tyrrenian deep sea floor at depth between -2000 and -3000 m in the framework of the European-funded GEOSTAR Projects. The considered missions in this work are GEOSTAR-2 and ORION-GEOSTAR-3 with the main scientific objective of investigating the deep-sea floor by means of an automatic multiparameter benthic observatory station working continuously from around 5 to 12 months each time. During the two GEOSTAR deep sea floor missions, scalar and vector magnetometers acquired useful magnetic data both to improve global and regional geomagnetic reference models and to infer specific geo electric information about the two sites of magnetic measurements by means of a forward modelling.

  20. Sea-floor geology in central Rhode Island Sound south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Ackerman, S.D.; Worley, C.R.; Nadeau, M.A.; Van Hoy, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) are working together to study the sea floor along the northeastern coast of the United States. NOAA collected multibeam-echosounder data during hydrographic survey H11995 in a 63-square-kilometer area in central Rhode Island Sound, south of Sakonnet Point, Rhode Island. The USGS collected sediment samples, bottom video, and still photographs from 27 stations in this study area to verify an interpretation of the bathymetric data. Collected data are used to map areas of scour depressions and erosional outliers, megaripples, boulders, and relatively undisturbed modern marine sediments. In general, much of the eastern part of the study area, a submerged segment of the Harbor Hill-Roanoke Point-Charlestown-Buzzards Bay moraine, is bouldery. Bottom photography shows boulders are generally encrusted with hydrozoans, algae, and anemone. Scour depressions, presumably formed by long-period storm waves, and erosional outliers of Holocene sediments dominate the western part of the study area and several large areas in the east. The scour depressions tend to have coarser grained sediment than intervening erosional outliers. The coarseness likely creates turbulence in the water over these areas, which prevents fine-grained sediment deposition. Several small areas of megaripples are visible in the bathymetry data in the west. Other sandy areas are typically rippled, with burrows, worm tubes, and starfish present.

  1. Duel frequency echo data acquisition system for sea-floor classification

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Navelkar, G.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Chakraborty, B.

    An echo data acquisition system is designed to digitize echo signal from a single beam shipboard echo-sounder for use in sea-floor classification studies using a 12 bit analog to digital (A/D) card with a maximum sampling frequency of 1 MHz. Both 33...

  2. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeuw, G. de; Skjøth, C.A.; Hertel, O.

    2003-01-01

    The flux of nitrogen species from the atmosphere into the ocean, with emphasis on coastal waters, was addressed during the ANICE project (Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs into the Coastal Ecosystem). ANICE focused on quantifying the deposition of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen compounds (HNO3...... on experimental results and small-scale model studies. In particular, effects of the aerosol size distribution on the nitrogen deposition are discussed. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... and Harwich/Newcastle. These measurements provided data for sensitivity studies of a variety of problems associated with the coastal region that are not easily evaluated with larger scale models, to constrain models and to test model results. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds over the North Sea...

  3. Sea floor litter monitoring : International Bottom Trawl Survey 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures

  4. Sea floor litter monitoring : International Bottom Trawl Survey 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Hal, van, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures taken, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch monitoring p...

  5. Classification of sea-floor features associated with methane seeps along the Gulf of Cádiz continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Ricardo; Somoza, Luis; Medialdea, Teresa; Maestro, Adolfo; Díaz-del-Río, Victor; Fernández-Puga, María del Carmen

    2006-06-01

    Based on recently gathered swath-bathymetry, high- to ultra-high-resolution seismic, and underwater camera data, along with dredging and coring samples, this paper examines the relationship between sea-floor features and the nature of hydrocarbon-enriched fluid and gas leaks from degassing of deeply buried sediments along the continental margin of the Gulf of Cádiz (eastern Central Atlantic). A classification into three main groups is proposed on the basis of the morphology and nature of deposits: (1) mud volcanoes, (2) methane-derived authigenic carbonates (MDAC) mounds, and (3) crater-like pockmarks. Mud volcanoes are, topographically, cone-shaped sea-floor edifices, built up from catastrophic mud and fluid degassing, intercalated with periods of inactivity. So far more than 25 mud volcanoes have been discovered in the Gulf of Cádiz, named in memory of deceased colleagues (e.g., Ginsburg and Baraza), or researchers' birth places (e.g. Faro, Cibeles, Almazán, San Petersburgh, Yuma, Rabat, Bonjardim, Coruña, Gades). These structures range from 800 to 2500 m in diameter and tower 150-300 m above the seabed. The volcanoes consistently feature a well-defined outer ring or circular terrace and an inner dome. All mud volcanoes are built up of episodes of mud-breccia flows, intercalated with deep-current deposits, with evident indications of gas saturation: degassing structures, a strong H 2S smell, and chemosynthetic fauna (such as Pogonophora sp. tube worms and Calyptogena sp.). Commonly observed carbonate crusts and slabs overlying some mud volcanoes are thought to have been formed by slow, diffuse venting during periods of inactivity or slower rates of fluid venting following the ejection of mud. A "fermentation" process, the result of microbial-mediated oxidation of hydrocarbon-enriched fluids, seems to play an important role in the growth of large deep-water carbonate mounds and chimneys during periods of low methane-seep fluid pressure. More than 400 crater

  6. Detection and mapping of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, O.; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Cvikel, D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the detection of shipwrecks embedded in sea-floor sediments using a Chirp sub-bottom profiler. From a methodological-historical perspective it presents four examples of recent chirp recordings of verified shipwrecks embedded in different types of sediment environments, from...... different geographical and geological areas and from different periods. The effects of shallow water depths, different sediment types, recording speed and different (2D and 3D) sub-bottom profiler systems are briefly discussed. It is concluded that Chirps are well suited for survey purposes, producing high...... than present 3D systems. Chirp data are therefore of great value in identifying and outlining shipwrecks hidden in the sea floor in survey situations where larger areas must be covered. The overall conclusion is that there are grounds for optimism with regard to this method of detection of maritime...

  7. Sea-floor geology and topography offshore in northeastern Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Glomb, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Datasets of gridded multibeam bathymetry, covering approximately 52.9 square kilometers, were used to interpret character and geology of the sea floor in northeastern Long Island Sound. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H12012, these acoustic data and the sea-floor sampling and photography stations subsequently occupied to verify the acoustic data are interpreted (1) to define the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) to provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) as part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource management (for example, cables, pipelines, and dredging) activities in this major east coast estuary.

  8. Sea-floor character and sedimentary processes of Block Island Sound, offshore Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; Danforth, W.W.; McMullen, K.Y.; Blankenship, M.A.; Glomb, K.A.; Wright, D.B.; Smith, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 634 square kilometers of sea floor in Block Island Sound. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic surveys H12009, H12010, H12011, H12015, H12033, H12137, and H12139, these combined acoustic data and the sea-floor sediment sampling and photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them during U.S. Geological Survey cruise 2011-006-FA (1) show the composition and terrain of the seabed, (2) provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat, and (3) are part of an expanding series of studies that provide a fundamental framework for research and management activities (for example, wind farms and fisheries) along the Rhode Island inner continental shelf.

  9. In situ experimental evidence of the fate of a phytodetritus pulse at the abyssal sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witte, U.; Wenzhofer, F.; Sommer, S.

    2003-01-01

    More than 50% of the Earth's surface is sea floor below 3,000 m of water. Most of this major reservoir in the global carbon cycle and final repository for anthropogenic wastes is characterized by severe food limitation. Phytodetritus is the major food source for abyssal benthic communities...... very important for initial carbon degradation. The retarded response of bacteria and Foraminifera, the restriction of microbial carbon degradation to the sediment surface, and the low total carbon turnover distinguish abyssal from continental-slope 'deep-sea' sediments....

  10. Scientific Drilling with the Sea Floor Drill Rig MeBo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerold Wefer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2007 the sea floor drill rig MeBo (short for “Meeresboden-Bohrgerät”, ‘sea floor drill rig’ in German returned from a 17-day scientific cruise with the new German research vessel Maria S. Merian. Four sites between 350 m and 1700 m water depth were sampled at the continental slope off Morocco by push coring and rotary drilling. Up to 41.5-m-long sediment cores were recovered from Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene marls. MeBo bridges the gapbetween conventional sampling methods from standard multipurpose research vessels (gravity corer, piston corer, dredges and drill ships. Most bigger research vessels will be able to support deployment of the MeBo. Since the drill system can be easily transported within 20-ft containers, worldwide operation from vessels of opportunity is possible. With the MeBo a new system is available for marine geosciences that allows the recovery of high quality samples from soft sediments and hard rock from the deep sea withoutrelying on the services of expensive drilling vessels.

  11. Dust depositions leading to phytoplankton blooms in the Arabian sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, P.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    The authors thank the Director CSIR-NIO, Goa and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India for support. Dust depositions leading to phytoplankton blooms in the Arabian Sea Banerjee P.* and S. Prasanna Kumar *Physical Oceanography Division, CSIR...

  12. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2016-09-02

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs/video, and surficial sediment samples collected within the 494-square-kilometer study area. Interpretations of seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  13. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David S.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Ackerman, Seth D.; Andrews, Brian D.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-07

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples. The interpretation of the seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  14. Sea-floor classification using multibeam echo-sounding angular backscatter data: A real-time approach employing hybrid neural network architecture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Kodagali, V.N.; Baracho, J.

    OF OCEANIC ENGINEERING, VOL. 28, NO. 1, JANUARY 2003 121 Technical Communications__________________________________________________ Sea-Floor Classification Using Multibeam Echo-Sounding Angular Backscatter Data: A Real-Time Approach Employing Hybrid Neural... vector quantization (LVQ), multibeam echo sounder, sea-floor classification, self-organizing feature map (SOFM). I. INTRODUCTION U SE OF multibeam echo-sounding systems for sea-floor bathymetry and backscatter studies are well known for understanding...

  15. Morphologie radar de fonds marins Radar Morphology of Some Sea Floors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadsworth A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les radars latéraux sont des instruments de télédétection, fournissant des images de la surface terrestre survolée par pratiquement tout temps, c'est-à-dire de jour ou de nuit, par temps clair ou à travers de la brume, du brouillard, des nuages ou de la pluie. Dans le cadre de l'utilisation de ces instruments pour l'acquisition de données en mer, afin de quantifier les vagues ou la houle, des visualisations annexes, involontaires à l'origine, ont été réalisées. C'est le cas, par exemple, de certains fonds marins, que l'on peut voirlorsque quelques éléments opérationnels sont bien choisis. De plus, une certaine idée de leur morphologie peut être atteinte. Divers exemples sont présentés dans le cas de faibles fonds. Une approche des causes de cette visualisation est proposée, les grandes limites en sont fixées. Side-looking radars are remote-sensing instruments providing images of the ground surface overflown in almost all weather, i. e. day or night, with clear weather or through mist, fog, clouds or rain. These equipments, previously used to quantify sea waves and swell produced, in sonie cases, a noise which was later understood as being a signal, an expression of sea bottom features. This is the case, for example, for sonie sea floors which can be seenwhen a few operational elements have been carefully chosen. Likewise, some idea of the morphology of sea floors can be obtained. This article gives different examples for shallow depths. An approach to the causes of this visualization is proposed, and the major limitations are determined.

  16. Temporal variability of vertical migration of zooplankton at deep-sea floor in the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul La, Hyoung; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kang, Chan Young; Wåhlin, Anna; Park, Jisoo; Lee, SangHoon; Shin, Hyoung Chul

    2014-05-01

    Vertical migration of zooplankton is ubiquitous behavior in marine plankton community. Observations on diel, seasonal, and interannual variation of zooplankton behavior can support the knowledge for understanding of marine ecosystems. However, daily and seasonal rhythms are little observed in the deep-sea with seasonally ice-covered water. We described the pattern of diel vertical distribution (DVM) above deep-sea floor in a seasonally ice-covered Amundsen Sea. Times series of acoustic backscatter was observed using a bottom-moored, upward-looking Acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) in the depth of 250-550 m. Multi-frequency acoustic backscatter data (38 and 120 kHz, EK60) were collected to identify the composition of DVM between fish and zooplankton using a dB differencing technique. The seasonal vertical distribution of zooplankton was clearly governed by the seasonal phase of surface solar radiation (SSR) and sea ice condition (SIC), while water temperature did not affect on the DVM variation. The main depths of zooplankton were primarily distributed near 250 m with high SSR and low SIC period and found near bottom in the lowermost layers (>400 m) with low SSR and high SIC between mid-April and mid-November. The temporal variation of main depths of zooplankton was significantly correlated with both SSR and SIC (r = 0.87 and -0.70, respectively, pbiological pump.

  17. Holocene valley-floor deposition and incision in a small drainage basin in western Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lawrence S.; Rosenburg, Margaret; Figueroa, Maria del Mar; McKee, Kathleen; Haravitch, Ben; Hunter, Jenna

    2010-09-01

    The valley floor of a 33.9 km 2 watershed in western Colorado experienced gradual sedimentation from before ˜ 6765 to ˜ 500 cal yr BP followed by deep incision, renewed aggradation, and secondary incision. In contrast, at least four terraces and widespread cut-and-fill architecture in the valley floor downstream indicate multiple episodes of incision and deposition occurred during the same time interval. The upper valley fill history is atypical compared to other drainages in the Colorado Plateau. One possible reason for these differences is that a bedrock canyon between the upper and lower valley prevented headward erosion from reaching the upper valley fill. Another possibility is that widespread, sand-rich, clay-poor lithologies in the upper drainage limited surface runoff and generally favored alluviation, whereas more clay-rich lithologies in the lower drainage resulted in increased surface runoff and more frequent incision. Twenty-two dates from valley fill charcoal indicate an approximate forest fire recurrence interval of several hundred years, similar to that from other studies in juniper-piñon woodlands. Results show that closely spaced vertical sampling of alluvium in headwater valleys where linkages between hillslope processes and fluvial activity are relatively direct can provide insight about the role of fires in alluvial chronologies of semi-arid watersheds.

  18. Mapping the Sea Floor of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS) Offshore of New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butman, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    The area offshore of New York City has been used for the disposal of dredged material for over a century. The area has also been used for the disposal of other materials such as acid waste, industrial waste, municipal sewage sludge, cellar dirt, and wood. Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (MDS), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of dredged material annually. In September 1997 the MDS was closed as a disposal site, and it and the surrounding area were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, currently is being remediated by placing a minimum 1-m-thick cap of clean dredged material on top of the surficial sediments that are contaminated from previous disposal of dredged and other materials. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is working cooperatively with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to map the sea floor geology of the HARS and changes in the characteristics of the surficial sediments over time.

  19. Prototype development of an apparatus to locate and map sea floor petroleum seepages. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The objective of the grant was to design, build, and test two autonomous instruments to measure vertical profiles of electrical potential in sea floor sediments. The objectives were fully met when the instruments were successfully deployed in 1,800 feet of water at known petroleum seepage sites in the Gulf of Mexico. The instruments were proven to be able to measure and record signals known to be appropriate to sediments altered by seepage. Two known seepage sites were visited on September 18th and 20th, 1996. At the first, a small-scale instrument capable of measuring 60 cm into the sediment was repeatedly emplaced by the manipulator arm of a research submarine, along a sea floor traverse. Further, the large-scale instrument, having a probe 3.3 m in length, was deployed by steel cable from the ship and emplaced in the sediment under gravity. Both successfully recorded data from multiple electrodes, revealing the expected negative potentials (Eh values at low at {minus}230 mV) at, and close to, the sediment-water interface, instead of at the normal depths of 3 to 4 m.

  20. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  1. The Sea-Floor Mapping Facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusser, Rebecca E.; Schwab, William C.; Denny, Jane F.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers of the sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Woods Hole Field Center in Woods Hole, Mass., use state-of-the-art technology to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor. In addition to basic bathymetry and morphology, sea-floor maps may contain information about the distribution of sand resources, patterns of coastal erosion, pathways of pollutant transport, and geologic controls on marine biological habitats. The maps may also show areas of human impacts, such as disturbance by bottom fishing and pollution caused by offshore waste disposal. The maps provide a framework for scientific research and provide critical information to decisionmakers who oversee resources in the coastal ocean.

  2. Invertebrate population genetics across Earth's largest habitat: The deep-sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M L; Roterman, C N

    2017-10-01

    Despite the deep sea being the largest habitat on Earth, there are just 77 population genetic studies of invertebrates (115 species) inhabiting non-chemosynthetic ecosystems on the deep-sea floor (below 200 m depth). We review and synthesize the results of these papers. Studies reveal levels of genetic diversity comparable to shallow-water species. Generally, populations at similar depths were well connected over 100s-1,000s km, but studies that sampled across depth ranges reveal population structure at much smaller scales (100s-1,000s m) consistent with isolation by adaptation across environmental gradients, or the existence of physical barriers to connectivity with depth. Few studies were ocean-wide (under 4%), and 48% were Atlantic-focused. There is strong emphasis on megafauna and commercial species with research into meiofauna, "ecosystem engineers" and other ecologically important species lacking. Only nine papers account for ~50% of the planet's surface (depths below 3,500 m). Just two species were studied below 5,000 m, a quarter of Earth's seafloor. Most studies used single-locus mitochondrial genes revealing a common pattern of non-neutrality, consistent with demographic instability or selective sweeps; similar to deep-sea hydrothermal vent fauna. The absence of a clear difference between vent and non-vent could signify that demographic instability is common in the deep sea, or that selective sweeps render single-locus mitochondrial studies demographically uninformative. The number of population genetics studies to date is miniscule in relation to the size of the deep sea. The paucity of studies constrains meta-analyses where broad inferences about deep-sea ecology could be made. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sea ice dynamics influence halogen deposition to Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spolaor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea ice is an important parameter in the climate system and its changes impact upon the polar albedo and atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Iodine (I and bromine (Br have been measured in a shallow firn core drilled at the summit of the Holtedahlfonna glacier (Northwest Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Changing I concentrations can be linked to the March–May maximum sea ice extension. Bromine enrichment, indexed to the Br / Na sea water mass ratio, appears to be influenced by changes in the seasonal sea ice area. I is emitted from marine biota and so the retreat of March–May sea ice coincides with enlargement of the open-ocean surface which enhances marine primary production and consequent I emission. The observed Br enrichment could be explained by greater Br emissions during the Br explosions that have been observed to occur mainly above first year sea ice during the early springtime. In this work we present the first comparison between halogens in surface snow and Arctic sea ice extension. Although further investigation is required to characterize potential depositional and post-depositional processes, these preliminary findings suggest that I and Br can be linked to variability in the spring maximum sea ice extension and seasonal sea ice surface area.

  4. Large-scale patterns in biodiversity of microbial eukaryotes from the abyssal sea floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheckenbach, Frank; Hausmann, Klaus; Wylezich, Claudia; Weitere, Markus; Arndt, Hartmut

    2010-01-05

    Eukaryotic microbial life at abyssal depths remains "uncharted territory" in eukaryotic microbiology. No phylogenetic surveys have focused on the largest benthic environment on this planet, the abyssal plains. Moreover, knowledge of the spatial patterns of deep-sea community structure is scanty, and what little is known originates primarily from morphology-based studies of foraminiferans. Here we report on the great phylogenetic diversity of microbial eukaryotic communities of all 3 abyssal plains of the southeastern Atlantic Ocean--the Angola, Cape, and Guinea Abyssal Plains--from depths of 5,000 m. A high percentage of retrieved clones had no close representatives in genetic databases. Many clones were affiliated with parasitic species. Furthermore, differences between the communities of the Cape Abyssal Plain and the other 2 abyssal plains point to environmental gradients apparently shaping community structure at the landscape level. On a regional scale, local species diversity showed much less variation. Our study provides insight into the community composition of microbial eukaryotes on larger scales from the wide abyssal sea floor realm and marks a direction for more detailed future studies aimed at improving our understanding of deep-sea microbes at the community and ecosystem levels, as well as the ecological principles at play.

  5. Inferred effects of cloud deposition on forest floor nutrient cycling and microbial properties along a short elevation gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, M.; Bradley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Higher cloud cover significantly decreases forest floor pH, decrease exchangeable cations, modifies mineral-N speciation and increases physiological stress within microbial communities. - Cloud water deposition often increases with elevation, and it is widely accepted that this cloud water increases acid loading to upland forest ecosystems. A study was undertaken in south-eastern Quebec to determine if a 250 m elevation gradient (i.e. 420-665 m), along a uniform sugar-maple stand on the slope of Mount Orford, corresponded to a pH gradient in the forest floor and to predictable changes in soil nutrient availability and microbial properties. Precipitation data from a nearby study, and a photographic survey, provided presumptive evidence that this elevation gradient corresponded to a strong gradient in cloud water deposition. Forest floor temperature did not differ significantly across elevations. Forest floor moisture content was significantly higher, whereas pH and exchangeable Ca and Mg were significantly lower, at the higher elevations. Average seasonal net nitrification rates, determined by long-term laboratory incubations, did not differ significantly across elevations, whereas average seasonal net ammonification rates were significantly higher at higher elevations. Basal respiration rates and microbial biomass did not differ significantly across elevations, but metabolic quotient was significantly higher at higher elevations indicating possible environmental stress on forest floor microbial communities due to cloud water deposition. Anaerobic N mineralisation rates were significantly higher at higher elevations suggesting that N-limited microbial communities frequently exposed to cloud cover can be important short-term sinks for atmospheric N, thereby contributing to increase the active-N fraction of forest floors. We conclude that, where no significant changes in vegetation or temperature occur, elevation gradients can still be used to understand the spatial

  6. Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor - a new method of in situ gas flux quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomanek, K.; Zielinski, O.; Sahling, H.; Bohrmann, G.

    2010-06-01

    Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter"). New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.

  7. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The group is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently received increased attention and the group of researchers working on the station has expanded to include several microbial biologists. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments are planned for fall 2005 and center about the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles. The subs will be used to effect bottom surveys, emplace sensors and sea floor experiments and make connections between sensor data loggers and the integrated data power unit (IDP). Station/observatory completion is anticipated for 2007 following the

  8. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas M. McGee; Carol Blanton Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2007-03-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. These delays caused scheduling and deployments difficulties but many

  9. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2004-03-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has already succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. As funding for this project, scheduled to commence December 1, 2002, had only been in place for less than half of the reporting period, project progress has been less than for other reporting periods. Nevertheless, significant progress has been made and several cruises are planned for the summer/fall of 2003 to test equipment, techniques and compatibility of systems. En route to reaching the primary goal of the Consortium, the establishment of a monitoring station on the sea floor, the following achievements have been made: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning

  10. Sea-floor geology and sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel, Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, L.J.; McMullen, K.Y.; Ackerman, S.D.; Schaer, J.D.; Wright, D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Gridded multibeam bathymetry covers approximately 10.4 square kilometers of sea floor in the vicinity of Cross Rip Channel in Nantucket Sound, offshore southeastern Massachusetts. Although originally collected for charting purposes during National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration hydrographic survey H12007, these acoustic data, and the sea-floor sediment sampling and bottom photography stations subsequently occupied to verify them, show the composition and terrain of the seabed and provide information on sediment transport and benthic habitat. This report is part of an expanding series of cooperative studies by the U.S. Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management that provide a fundamental framework for research and resource-management activities (for example, windfarms, pipelines, and dredging) along the inner continental shelf offshore of Massachusetts.

  11. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Tom McGee; Carol Lutken; Elizabeth Stidham

    2006-06-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort was made to locate and retain the services of a suitable vessel and submersibles or Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) following the storms and the loss of the contracted vessel

  12. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-09-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements six months into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: Analysis and repair attempts of the VLA used in the deep water deployment during October 2003 have been completed; Definition of an interface protocol for the VLA DATS to the SFO has been established; Design modifications to allow integration of the VLA to the SFO have been made; Experience gained in the deployments of the first VLA is being applied to the design of the next VLAs; One of the two planned new VLAs being modified to serve as an Oceanographic Line Array (OLA). (2) Progress on the Sea Floor Probe: The decision to replace the Sea Floor Probe technology with the borehole emplacement of a geophysical array was reversed due to the 1300m water depth at the

  13. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-11-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Noteworthy achievements one year into the extended life of this cooperative agreement include: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (1a) Repair attempts of the VLA cable damaged in the October >1000m water depth deployment failed; a new design has been tested successfully. (1b) The acoustic modem damaged in the October deployment was repaired successfully. (1c) Additional acoustic modems with greater depth rating and the appropriate surface communications units have been purchased. (1d) The VLA computer system is being modified for real time communications to the surface vessel using radio telemetry and fiber optic cable. (1e) Positioning sensors--including compass and tilt sensors--were completed and tested. (1f) One of the VLAs has been redesigned to collect near sea floor geochemical data. (2

  14. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities to Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carol Lutken

    2006-09-30

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The Consortium is administered by the Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET, at the University of Mississippi. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2007, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the marine environment, including sea water and sea-floor sediments, on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. In 2005, biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health, was added to the mission of the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has now achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical, geological, and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, had to be postponed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Station/observatory completion, anticipated for 2007, will likely be delayed by at least one year. The CMRET has conducted several research cruises during this reporting period

  15. Changes in conifer and deciduous forest foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area tree growth across a nitrogen (N) deposition gradient in the northeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny L. Boggs; Steven G. McNulty; Linda H. Pardo

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999...

  16. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis; Bob A. Hardage; Jeffrey Chanton; Rudy Rogers

    2006-05-18

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research. The primary objective of the group has been to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (MS/SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission, although unavoidably delayed by hurricanes and other disturbances, necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station has always included the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. This possibility has recently achieved reality via the National Institute for Undersea Science and Technology's (NIUST) solicitation for proposals for research to be conducted at the MS/SFO. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in the arena of gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. The observatory has achieved a microbial dimension in addition to the geophysical and geochemical components it had already included. Initial components of the observatory, a probe that collects pore-fluid samples and another that records sea floor temperatures, were deployed in Mississippi Canyon 118 in May of 2005. Follow-up deployments, planned for fall 2005, have had to be postponed and the use of the vessel M/V Ocean Quest and its two manned submersibles sacrificed due to the catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina (and later, Rita) on the Gulf Coast. Every effort is

  17. Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Mahamid, Julia; Shimoni, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2013-01-01

    With the onset of gastrulation, sea urchin embryos deposit a calcium carbonate endoskeleton consisting of two spicules. Sea water is the source for the mineral ions, but the specific stages of the transport and deposition pathway are not well understood. This study shows that the first-formed mineral is deposited inside intracellular micrometer-size vesicles as solid nanospheres. Surprisingly, the initial deposits are distributed widely inside the embryonic cells, including epithelial cells. ...

  18. Manganese mineralization in andesites of Brestovačka Banja, Serbia: evidence of sea-floor exhalations in the Timok Magmatic Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pačevski, Aleksandar; Cvetković, Vladica; Šarić, Kristina; Banješević, Miodrag; Hoefer, Heidi Eva; Kremenović, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    Andesites near Brestovačka Banja belong to the Late Cretaceous Timok Magmatic Complex (TMC), which hosts the world-class Bor metallogenic zone including numerous porphyry-copper and epithermal deposits. Two main volcanic phases are recognized in the TMC. The newly discovered Mn mineralization reported here is associated with the second volcanic phase of Turonian-Campanian age. Manganese mineralization containing 58 % MnO on average, occurs as black veins, lumps and nests filling cracks and cavities within an autoclastic andesite, which was deposited in a subaqueous environment. This rock also contains minor Fe mineralization, which is contemporaneous with the manganese mineralization. Manganese mineralization predominantly consists of Mn-Ca silicates (macfallite, pumpellyite-Mn, orientite, bustamite) and Mn oxides (pyrolusite, manganite). Micrometer-scale mineral intergrowths and locally preserved botryoidal and colloform textures are characteristic features of this uncommon mineral assemblage. The features could indicate that the mineralization was formed by deposition from a primary colloidal assemblage and is of sub-marine hydrothermal origin. Orientite is the only Mn mineral with grain size reaching several tenths of micrometers and showing prismatic crystal habit. Scarce to rare associated minerals are hollandite, crednerite, an unknown REE mineral, powellite, pyrite, barite and galena, in decreasing abundance. Trace element analyses of the Mn mineralization show different element contents and REE patterns compared to those of the volcanic host-rock. Manganese mineralization shows relatively high contents of Cu - 1784 ppm, Mo - 20 ppm and As - 268 ppm. These elements are commonly enriched in the Cu deposits of the Bor zone and their relatively high contents in the studied Mn crusts indicate sea-floor hydrothermal vents as a source of the metals.

  19. Sea-floor morphology and sedimentary environments in western Block Island Sound, offshore of Fishers Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Katherine Y.; Poppe, Lawrence J.; Danforth, William W.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Winner, William G.; Parker, Castle E.

    2015-01-01

    Multibeam-bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in a 114-square-kilometer area of Block Island Sound, southeast of Fishers Island, New York, are combined with sediment samples and bottom photography collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 36 stations in this area in order to interpret sea-floor features and sedimentary environments. These interpretations and datasets provide base maps for studies on benthic ecology and resource management. The geologic features and sedimentary environments on the sea floor are products of the area’s glacial history and modern processes. These features include bedrock, drumlins, boulders, cobbles, large current-scoured bathymetric depressions, obstacle marks, and glaciolacustrine sediments found in high-energy sedimentary environments of erosion or nondeposition; and sand waves and megaripples in sedimentary environments characterized by coarse-grained bedload transport. Trawl marks are preserved in lower energy environments of sorting and reworking. This report releases the multibeam-bathymetric, sidescan-sonar, sediment, and photographic data and interpretations of the features and sedimentary environments in Block Island Sound, offshore Fishers Island.

  20. Deposit and scale prevention methods in thermal sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehner, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Introductory remarks deal with the 'fouling factor' and its influence on the overall heat transfer coefficient of msf evaporators. The composition of the matter dissolved in sea water and the thermal and chemical properties lead to formation of alkaline scale or even hard, sulphate scale on the heat exchanger tube walls and can hamper plant operation and economics seriously. Among the scale prevention methods are 1) pH control by acid dosing (decarbonation), 2) 'threshold treatment' by dosing of inhibitors of different kind, 3) mechanical cleaning by sponge rubber balls guided through the heat exchanger tubes, in general combined with methods no. 1 or 2, and 4) application of a scale crystals germ slurry (seeding). Mention is made of several other scale prevention proposals. The problems encountered with marine life (suspension, deposit, growth) in desalination plants are touched. (orig.) [de

  1. 40Ar-39Ar dating of terrestrial and exterrestrial materials. Basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and meteorites from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneoka, Ichiro; Takigami, Yutaka.

    1994-01-01

    Through a series of 40 Ar- 39 Ar dating for terrestrial and exterrestrial samples, the results for basalts from the Japan Sea floor, Deccan Plateau and for meteorites from Antarctica give significant information concerning their formation histories. 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages of basalts from the Japan Sea floor give a constraint that the Japan Sea floor was formed at least 20 Ma. 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages for dyke samples from the Deccan Plateau indicate a possibility for the occurrence of a little younger ages than that of the main plateau formations by a few million years. Meteorites collected from Antarctica show some variable 40 Ar- 39 Ar ages reflecting their different thermal histories. (author)

  2. Continuous flow chemical vapour deposition of carbon nanotube sea urchins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Verpilliere, Jean; Jessl, Sarah; Saeed, Khuzaimah; Ducati, Caterina; De Volder, Michael; Boies, Adam

    2018-04-17

    Hybrid structures consisting of functional materials enhanced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have potential for a variety of high impact applications, as shown by the impressive progress in sensing and mechanical applications enabled by CNT-enhanced materials. The hierarchical organisation of CNTs with other materials is key to the design of macroscale devices benefiting from the unique properties of individual CNTs, provided CNT density, morphology and binding with other materials are optimized. In this paper, we provide an analysis of a continuous aerosol process to create a hybrid hierarchical sea urchin structure with CNTs organized around a functional metal oxide core. We propose a new mechanism for the growth of these carbon nanotube sea urchins (CNTSU) and give new insight into their chemical composition. To corroborate the new mechanism, we examine the influence of CNT growth conditions on CNTSU morphology and demonstrate a new in-line characterisation technique to continuously monitor aerosol CNT growth during synthesis, which enables industrial-scale production optimization. Based upon the new formation mechanism we describe the first substrate-based chemical vapour deposition growth of CNTSUs which increases CNT length and improves G to D ratio, which also allows for the formation of CNTSU carpets with unique structures.

  3. Marine litter on the floor of deep submarine canyons of the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea: The role of hydrodynamic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubau, Xavier; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Rayo, Xavier; Rivera, Jesus; Amblas, David

    2015-05-01

    Marine litter represents a widespread type of pollution in the World's Oceans. This study is based on direct observation of the seafloor by means of Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives and reports litter abundance, type and distribution in three large submarine canyons of the NW Mediterranean Sea, namely Cap de Creus, La Fonera and Blanes canyons. Our ultimate objective is establishing the links between active hydrodynamic processes and litter distribution, thus going beyond previous, essentially descriptive studies. Litter was monitored using the Liropus 2000 ROV. Litter items were identified in 24 of the 26 dives carried out in the study area, at depths ranging from 140 to 1731 m. Relative abundance of litter objects by type, size and apparent weight, and distribution of litter in relation to depth and canyon environments (i.e. floor and flanks) were analysed. Plastics are the dominant litter component (72%), followed by lost fishing gear, disregarding their composition (17%), and metal objects (8%). Most of the observed litter seems to be land-sourced. It reaches the ocean through wind transport, river discharge and after direct dumping along the coastline. While coastal towns and industrial areas represent a permanent source of litter, tourism and associated activities relevantly increase litter production during summer months ready to be transported to the deep sea by extreme events. After being lost, fishing gear such as nets and long-lines has the potential of being harmful for marine life (e.g. by ghost fishing), at least for some time, but also provides shelter and a substrate on which some species like cold-water corals are capable to settle and grow. La Fonera and Cap de Creus canyons show the highest mean concentrations of litter ever seen on the deep-sea floor, with 15,057 and 8090 items km-2, respectively, and for a single dive litter observed reached 167,540 items km-2. While most of the largest concentrations were found on the canyon floors at

  4. SUPPORT OF GULF OF MEXICO HYDRATE RESEARCH CONSORTIUM: ACTIVITIES TO SUPPORT ESTABLISHMENT OF A SEA FLOOR MONITORING STATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Higley; J. Robert Woolsey; Ralph Goodman; Vernon Asper; Boris Mizaikoff; Angela Davis

    2005-08-01

    A Consortium, designed to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research, has been established at the University of Mississippi's Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology, CMRET. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico by the year 2005, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor. This mission necessitates assembling a station that will monitor physical and chemical parameters of the sea water and sea floor sediments on a more-or-less continuous basis over an extended period of time. Development of the station allows for the possibility of expanding its capabilities to include biological monitoring, as a means of assessing environmental health. Establishment of the Consortium has succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among researchers in this relatively new research arena. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to innovate research methods and construct necessary instrumentation. A year into the life of this cooperative agreement, we note the following achievements: (1) Progress on the vertical line array (VLA) of sensors: (A) Software and hardware upgrades to the data logger for the prototype vertical line array, including enhanced programmable gains, increased sampling rates, improved surface communications, (B) Cabling upgrade to allow installation of positioning sensors, (C) Adaptation of SDI's Angulate program to use acoustic slant ranges and DGPS data to compute and map the bottom location of the vertical array, (D) Progress in T''0'' delay and timing issues for improved control in data recording, (E) Successful deployment and recovery of the VLA twice during an October, 2003 cruise, once in 830m water, once in 1305m water, (F) Data collection and recovery from the DATS

  5. Engaging Middle School Students with Google Earth Technology to Analyze Ocean Cores as Evidence for Sea Floor Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouhet, T.; Cook, J.

    2006-12-01

    Google Earth's ability to captivate students' attention, its ease of use, and its high quality images give it the potential to be an extremely effective tool for earth science educators. The unique properties of Google Earth satisfy a growing demand to incorporate technology in science instruction. Google Earth is free and relatively easy to use unlike some other visualization software. Students often have difficulty conceptualizing and visualizing earth systems, such as deep-ocean basins, because of the complexity and dynamic nature of the processes associated with them (e.g. plate tectonics). Google Earth's combination of aerial photography, satellite images and remote sensing data brings a sense of realism to science concepts. The unobstructed view of the ocean floor provided by this technology illustrates three-dimensional subsurface features such as rift valleys, subduction zones, and sea-mounts enabling students to better understand the seafloor's dynamic nature. Students will use Google Earth to navigate the sea floor, and examine Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) core locations the from the Glomar Challenger Leg 3 expedition. The lesson to be implemented was expanded upon and derived from the Joint Oceanographic Insitute (JOI) Learning exercise, Nannofossils Reveal Seafloor Spreading. In addition, students take on the role of scientists as they graph and analyze paleontological data against the distance from the Mid Ocean Ridge. The integration of ocean core data in this three-dimensional view aids students' ability to draw and communicate valid conclusions about their scientific observations. A pre and post survey will be given to examine attitudes, self-efficacy, achievement and content mastery to a sample of approximately 300 eighth grade science students. The hypothesis is that the integration of Google Earth will significantly improve all areas of focus as mentioned above.

  6. Crustal Structure in the Southern Rockall Trough from Satellite Gravity Data: Evidence for Sea-floor Spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, A.; Kusznir, N. J.

    2005-05-01

    The southern Rockall Trough south of 57 N has previously been interpreted as either an intra-continental rift floored with highly extended continental crust, or a failed oceanic rift formed by Cretaceous sea floor spreading. Satellite gravity, bathymetry data and seismic estimates of sediment thickness are used to derive crustal basement thickness for the southern Rockall Trough and adjacent regions using a gravity inversion method incorporating a correction for the large negative thermal gravity component present in oceanic and stretched continental lithosphere. The marine Bouguer anomaly, derived from satellite free air gravity (Sandwell & Smith 1997) and Gebco 2003 bathymetry data, is inverted using the method of Oldenberg (1974), incorporating an iteratively applied thermal anomaly correction, to give Moho depth. For oceanic crust the thermal anomaly correction is calculated using isochron ages (Muller et al. 1997) and for continental crust from the beta stretching factors resulting from gravity derived crustal basement thickness and an assumed rift age. When sediment thickness and volcanic addition are assumed to be zero, the resulting upper bound of crustal thickness from the gravity inversion is as little as 10 km in the southern Rockall Trough. A segmented axial thickening of the crust at the centre of the Rockall Trough is predicted, between the Barra volcanic ridge and the Anton Dohrn seamount and is interpreted as having a volcanic origin. Inclusion of a sediment thickness correction in the gravity inversion further reduces predicted crustal thickness. A pseudo-sediment-thickness map has been constructed from the available wide-angle data and incorporated in the gravity inversion. The addition of up to 5.5 km of sediment in the gravity inversion reduces the upper bound of crustal thickness to less than 3 km in some locations. The segmented axial thickening and thin crust shown by the gravity inversion, the lack of intra-basinal faulting, and the volcanic

  7. Travelling to a former sea floor: colonization of forests by understorey plant species on land recently reclaimed from the sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pierik, M.; Van Ruijven, J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Berendse, F.

    2010-01-01

    Questions: What are important forest characteristics determining colonization of forest patches by forest understorey species? Location: Planted forests on land recently reclaimed from the sea, the Netherlands. Methods: We related the distribution of forest specialist species in the understorey of

  8. Star-shaped feeding traces produced by echiuran worms on the deep-sea floor of the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Suguru

    1984-12-01

    Many star-shaped foraging traces were observed in bottom photographs of the deep-sea floor taken in the Bay of Bengal between the depths of 5025 and 2635 m. They were classified into 10 types according to their dimensions, aspect ratios (length/width) of their spokes, features of the central structure, and possible production mechanisms. The proboscis of a deep-sea bonellid echiuran worm was photographed at a depth of 2635 m in the act of producing one of the star-shaped foraging traces. On the basis of photographic observations and observations of shallow-water forms, several types of the feeding traces can be ascribed to the foraging of deep-sea echiuran worms on surface detritus. At least four types of the star-shaped trace are probably produced by deep-sea bonellid worms, and a linear correlation could be found between the aspect ratios of the spokes and maximum number of spokes around the central hole. A geometrical model experiment stimulating the feeding behavior of a bonellid worm suggested simple behavioral principles which afford maximum utilization of the surface area around a central hole with least expenditure of energy. The prediction of the maximum number of spokes for a given aspect of spokes by the model experiment agreed well with those observed, both utilizing about 76% of the fresh sediment surface within the span of the probiscis around a central hole. This efficient feeding pattern may have adaptive value in deep-sea environments such as the central part of the Bay of Bengal, where energy input is limited.

  9. Structural analysis of benthic communities on the secondary hard sea-floor in the pollution gradient of the Kiel Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kersting, U.

    1981-01-01

    The benthic communities on the secondary hard sea-floor of the Kiel Bay have been investigated over a period of 30 months. The sampling stations were arranged within the pollution gradient along the Kiel Bay. On the basis of physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters, the Kiel Bay has been characterized as a medium-pollution part of the Belt Sea. Pollution parameters are lower in the Belt Sea direction. The water quality in the Bay is influenced by the Schwentine and some minor rivers; this influence has been proved in exemplary analyses. Pollution is due to intensive agricultural utilisation and to insufficient sewage treatment plants. Marine growth on man-made substrates was investigated by determining species diversity, number of organisms, weight and size of organisms. The occurrence of mesoplanctic larvae was closely related to the fastening of organisms on the substrate; it influenced spatial distribution and abundancy. The growth, which differed between sampling stations, was discussed on the basis of literature data, and possible explanations were given. Oxygen and the degree of exposure are possible causes. The types of macrofauna and some groups of meiofauna have been investigated. Population density, biomass and, in some cases, proliferation periods have been determined. The tolerance of organic pollution has been established by observing the distribution of organisms in the Kiel Bay. Differences and similarities between sampling stations have been discussed. The findings have been compared with data of the years 1974/75. It was found that the situation has improved since then.

  10. Support of Gulf of Mexico Hydrate Research Consortium: Activities of Support Establishment of a Sea Floor Monitoring Station Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Robert Woolsey; Thomas McGee; Carol Lutken

    2008-05-31

    The Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) was established in 1999 to assemble leaders in gas hydrates research that shared the need for a way to conduct investigations of gas hydrates and their stability zone in the Gulf of Mexico in situ on a more-or-less continuous basis. The primary objective of the group is to design and emplace a remote monitoring station or sea floor observatory (SFO) on the sea floor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, in an area where gas hydrates are known to be present at, or just below, the sea floor and to discover the configuration and composition of the subsurface pathways or 'plumbing' through which fluids migrate into and out of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) to the sediment-water interface. Monitoring changes in this zone and linking them to coincident and perhaps consequent events at the seafloor and within the water column is the eventual goal of the Consortium. This mission includes investigations of the physical, chemical and biological components of the gas hydrate stability zone - the sea-floor/sediment-water interface, the near-sea-floor water column, and the shallow subsurface sediments. The eventual goal is to monitor changes in the hydrate stability zone over time. Establishment of the Consortium succeeded in fulfilling the critical need to coordinate activities, avoid redundancies and communicate effectively among those involved in gas hydrates research. Complementary expertise, both scientific and technical, has been assembled to promote innovative methods and construct necessary instrumentation. Following extensive investigation into candidate sites, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118) was chosen by consensus of the Consortium at their fall, 2004, meeting as the site most likely to satisfy all criteria established by the group. Much of the preliminary work preceding the establishment of the site - sensor development and testing, geophysical surveys, and laboratory studies - has been reported in

  11. Evaluation of the Gas Production Potential of Marine HydrateDeposits in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J.; Reagan, Matthew T.; Kim, Se-Joon; Seol,Yongkoo; Zhang, Keni

    2007-11-16

    Although significant hydrate deposits are known to exist in the Ulleung Basin of the Korean East Sea, their survey and evaluation as a possible energy resource has not yet been completed. However, it is possible to develop preliminary estimates of their production potential based on the limited data that are currently available. These include the elevation and thickness of the Hydrate-Bearing Layer (HBL), the water depth, and the water temperature at the sea floor. Based on this information, we developed estimates of the local geothermal gradient that bracket its true value. Reasonable estimates of the initial pressure distribution in the HBL can be obtained because it follows closely the hydrostatic. Other critical information needs include the hydrate saturation, and the intrinsic permeabilities of the system formations. These are treated as variables, and sensitivity analysis provides an estimate of their effect on production. Based on the geology of similar deposits, it is unlikely that Ulleung Basin accumulations belong to Class 1 (involving a HBL underlain by a mobile gas zone). If Class 4 (disperse, low saturation accumulations) deposits are involved, they are not likely to have production potential. The most likely scenarios include Class 2 (HBL underlain by a zone of mobile water) or Class 3 (involving only an HBL) accumulations. Assuming nearly impermeable confining boundaries, this numerical study indicates that large production rates (several MMSCFD) are attainable from both Class 2 and Class 3 deposits using conventional technology. The sensitivity analysis demonstrates the dependence of production on the well design, the production rate, the intrinsic permeability of the HBL, the initial pressure, temperature and hydrate saturation, as well as on the thickness of the water zone (Class 2). The study also demonstrates that the presence of confining boundaries is indispensable for the commercially viable production of gas from these deposits.

  12. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  13. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  14. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub

  15. Sea floor litter monitored using catches of the International Bottom Trawl Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hal, van R.

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires from the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state and trends of the marine waters on a regular basis and the

  16. Automated gas bubble imaging at sea floor – a new method of in situ gas flux quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bohrmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo-optical systems are common in marine sciences and have been extensively used in coastal and deep-sea research. However, due to technical limitations in the past photo images had to be processed manually or semi-automatically. Recent advances in technology have rapidly improved image recording, storage and processing capabilities which are used in a new concept of automated in situ gas quantification by photo-optical detection. The design for an in situ high-speed image acquisition and automated data processing system is reported ("Bubblemeter". New strategies have been followed with regards to back-light illumination, bubble extraction, automated image processing and data management. This paper presents the design of the novel method, its validation procedures and calibration experiments. The system will be positioned and recovered from the sea floor using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. It is able to measure bubble flux rates up to 10 L/min with a maximum error of 33% for worst case conditions. The Bubblemeter has been successfully deployed at a water depth of 1023 m at the Makran accretionary prism offshore Pakistan during a research expedition with R/V Meteor in November 2007.

  17. Sea floor litter monitored using catches of the International Bottom Trawl Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hal, van, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) requires from the European Member States to develop programmes of measures to achieve or maintain Good Environmental Status (GES) in European Seas. To be able to evaluate the quality state and trends of the marine waters on a regular basis and the effect of measures, monitoring programs for MSFD descriptors and indicators have been established by the Member states. GES is described by 11 descriptors, and marine litter is one of them. The Dutch mo...

  18. Sensitivity of modeled atmospheric nitrogen species and nitrogen deposition to variations in sea salt emissions in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Neumann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Coarse sea salt particles are emitted ubiquitously from the ocean surface by wave-breaking and bubble-bursting processes. These particles impact the atmospheric chemistry by affecting the condensation of gas-phase species and, thus, indirectly the nucleation of new fine particles, particularly in regions with significant air pollution. In this study, atmospheric particle concentrations are modeled for the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions in northwestern Europe using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system and are compared to European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP measurement data. The sea salt emission module is extended by a salinity-dependent scaling of the sea salt emissions because the salinity in large parts of the Baltic Sea is very low, which leads to considerably lower sea salt mass emissions compared to other oceanic regions. The resulting improvement in predicted sea salt concentrations is assessed. The contribution of surf zone emissions is considered separately. Additionally, the impacts of sea salt particles on atmospheric nitrate and ammonium concentrations and on nitrogen deposition are evaluated. The comparisons with observational data show that sea salt concentrations are commonly overestimated at coastal stations and partly underestimated farther inland. The introduced salinity scaling improves the predicted Baltic Sea sea salt concentrations considerably. The dates of measured peak concentrations are appropriately reproduced by the model. The impact of surf zone emissions is negligible in both seas. Nevertheless, they might be relevant because surf zone emissions were cut at an upper threshold in this study. Deactivating sea salt leads to minor increases in NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− and a decrease in NO3− concentrations. However, the overall effect on NH3 +  NH4+ and HNO3 +  NO3− concentrations is smaller than the deviation from the measurements. Nitrogen wet deposition is

  19. Indicators for the Sea-floor Integrity of the Hellenic Seas under the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive: establishing the thresholds and standards for Good Environmental Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SIMBOURA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A data set of 625 samples of benthic macroinvertebrates collected from the Hellenic Seas (Ionian and Aegean was used to establish thresholds and reference standards for two of the indicators addressing the descriptors of Sea-floor Integrity under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD: species diversity and richness and the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species. The dataset was categorised according to the baseline ecological status assessment of the respective water bodies under the Water Framework Directive (WFD. Species diversity and richness were characterised using the Shannon diversity and species richness indices, respectively, and were analysed for three pre-defined substrate types, three depth zones and three sample-size categories, and the significant categories were statistically validated. Good Environmental Status (GEnS threshold and reference values were established for the valid combinations of categories denoted as ‘ecotypes’ through the use of a boxplot and an analysis of variance. The limitations and specifications for an overall GEnS assessment using the above indices are highlighted based on the WFD experience. For the ratio of sensitive species to tolerant species, the BENTIX index classification scale is proposed for GEnS assessment, and an integrated approach to the assessment of diversity and species richness is suggested. Finally, the regionality of the tested indices in relation to the two Mediterranean sub-regions, including the Hellenic area, was tested.

  20. Evidence for change in depositional environment in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    cm interval were analyzed for calcium carbonate, organic carbon and reduced sulfur contents. Sedimentological analysis indicates that the core contains hemipelagic Globigerina ooze of Holocene age at the top, underlain by sediments depositEd...

  1. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Source receptor relations for the calculation of atmospheric deposition to the North Sea: Nitrogen and Cadmium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Jaarsveld JA; de Leeuw FAAM

    1993-01-01

    In this report a simplified atmospheric transport model for estimating the deposition of nitrogen (both NOx and NHx) and cadmium to the North Sea is presented. In this so-called meta-model a linear relationship between the emissions from a source area and the resulting deposition at receptor points

  3. Lithostratigraphy, depositional history and sea level changes of the Cauvery Basin, southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuvairvasamy Ramkumar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary sequence exposed in the erstwhile Tiruchirapalli district hosts a more or less complete geological record of the Upper Cretaceous-Tertiary period. Systematic field mapping, collation of data on the micro-meso scale lithology, sedimentary structures, petrography, faunal assemblage and facies relationships of these rocks, in the light of modern stratigraphic concepts, helped to enumerate the lithostratigraphic setup and depositional history of the basin. Spatial and temporal variations of the lithologies and revised stratigraphic units are presented in this paper. Many high frequency sea level cycles (presumably fourth or higher order which stack up to form third order sea level cycles (six in number, which in turn form part of second order cycles (two in number, including seven eustatic sea level peaks, have been recorded in this basin. Trend analysis of sea level curves indicates a gradual increase of the sea level from Barremian to Coniacian and a gradual decrease from Coniacian to Danian. Such lasting sea level trends had their influence on the sedimentation pattern and facies association. It is inferred that depositional bathymetry was maintained at a shallow-moderate level, primarily influenced by a lack of major subsidence during the depositional history of this basin. The study also revealed a prevalent simple basin filling process and dominant control by sea level changes, rather than tectonic movements over the depositional regime.

  4. Spectrum Gamma Ray bore hole logging while tripping with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Steinke, Stephan; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wefer, Gerold

    2013-04-01

    The robotic Sea Floor Drill Rig MARUM-MeBo developed at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen was used to retrieve long sediment cores at two sites in the northern South China Sea. Both sites are located in about 1000 m water depth in southeasterly and southwesterly direction of the Pearl River mouth, respectively. South East Asian Monsoon variability controls terrigenous material transport by rivers into the South China Sea. The Pearl River is one of the largest rivers of the region that discharges into the northern South China Sea. The terrigenous fraction of marine sediments of the northern South China Sea therefore provides an excellent archive for reconstructing past variability of the South East Asian Monsoon system. In analogy to the drilling strategy within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program IODP multiple holes were drilled in order to generate continuous spliced records at both sites. Overall the MARUM-MeBo drilled 374 m during 5 deployments with a maximum drilling depth of 80.85 m and an average core recovery of 94 %. Here we present first results of bore hole logging conducted during 4 of the 5 deployments with a spectrum gamma ray (SGR) probe adapted for the use with MARUM-MeBo. This probe is an autonomous slim hole probe that is used in the logging while tripping mode. This method is especially favorable for remote controlled drilling and logging operation. The probe is equipped with its own energy source and data storage. The probe is lowered into the drill string after the target wire-line coring depth is reached and after the last inner core barrel has been retrieved. When the probe has landed on the shoulder ring at the bottom of the hole, the drill string is pulled out and disassembled. The probe, while being raised with the drill string, continuously measures the geophysical properties of the in situ sediments and rocks. Since the bore hole is stabilized during the tripping process by the drill string

  5. Mass Deposition Fluxes of Asian Dust to the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea from Geostationary Satellite MTSAT: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianguang Tu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Windblown dust aerosol plays an important role in marine ecosystems once they are deposited and dissolved. At present, methods for estimating the deposition flux are mainly limited to direct measurements or model outputs. Additionally, satellite remote sensing was often used to estimate the integral dust column concentration (DCC. In this paper, an algorithm is developed to estimate the mass deposition fluxes of Asian dust by satellite. The dust aerosol is identified firstly and then the DCC is derived based on the relationships between the pre-calculated lookup table (LUT and observations from Japanese geostationary Multi-functional Transport Satellites (MTSAT. The LUT is built on the dust cloud and surface parameters by a radiation transfer model Streamer. The average change rate of deposition is derived, which shows an exponential decay dependence on transport time along the pathway. Thus, the deposition flux is acquired via integrating the hourly deposition. This simple algorithm is applied to a dust storm that occurred in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea from 1 to 3 March 2008. Results indicate that the properties of the dust cloud over the study area changed rapidly and the mass deposition flux is estimated to be 2.59 Mt.

  6. Detection and mapping of the iron ore occurrence in the sea floor sediments in the coastal zone of the Sepetiba Bay. Rio de Janeiro. Brasil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, P.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the detection and mapping of the iron occurrence in the sea floor sediments in the coastal zone of the Sepetiba Bay. Rio de Janeiro. Brasil. The results of geochemical analysis revealed that the area around the mangrove forest located near the Itacuruca channel, the perpendicular direction to the Muriqui Yacht Club channel and the immediate vicinity of the the Guaiba Island Terminal were respectively the areas of highest iron ore concentration

  7. Linking benthic biodiversity and environmental conditions at the sea floor combining statistical and mechanistic modeling. Case study on the Black Sea's northwestern shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drion, Roxanne; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure

    2014-05-01

    The preservation of the health and biodiversity of benthic ecosystems is a crucial priority in order to achieve the Good Environmental Status (GES) of marine waters. The multiple pressures acting on the ocean, and in particular, on the coastal zone may prevent the maintenance of biodiversity either directly (e.g. trawling, dredging) or indirectly by modifying environmental conditions at the sea floor (e.g. eutrophication, pollution, acidification, warming). The management of the GES of the benthos in a changing environment and the definition of management strategies (e.g. nutrient reduction) that would preserve GES require tools able to predict the modifications of environmental conditions and to link these modifications to the status of the benthic system. Coupled biogeochemical-circulation models provide a large amount of information on physical (e.g. currents, salinity, temperature, shear stress) and biochemical conditions (e.g. oxygen, inorganic nutrients, sinking detritus) but cannot provide an information on species richness. We propose to link these aspects by applying canonical ordination techniques (e.g. Redundancy Analysis, CoInertia Analysis) on a large data set on macrobenthos collected on the Black Sea's north-western shelf with in-situ sediment data (e.g. granulometry, carbon and nitrogen content, C/N ratio, CaCO3 content) and bottom conditions (e.g. shear stress, level of oxygen stress, flux of organic matter to the sediments) provided by a three dimensional model. Beyond taxonomic description, the analysis is performed on the functional composition of the macrobenthos: A trait-based approach is used to assess the functional composition of the macrobenthos by associating the considered species to a list of biological, ecological and behavioral traits. This approach allows to appraise how local conditions determine the functional and taxonomical diversity and provides a mean to evaluate the impact of habitat alteration on the ecological role of

  8. Trend Analysis of Nitrogen Deposition to Baltic Sea and its sub basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeena, V. S.; Jerzy, Bartnicki

    2009-04-01

    Since the beginning of last century, Baltic Sea has changed from a clear-water sea into a eutrophic marine environment. Eutrophication is the major problem in the Baltic Sea. Excessive nitrogen and phosphorus loads coming from land-based sources within and outside the catchment area of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea are the main cause of the eutrophication in the sea. Even though a major part of nitrogen(75%) and phosphorus load(95%) enter the sea via rivers or as water-born discharges, 25% of the nitrogen load comes as atmospheric deposition. Numerical models are the best tools to measure atmospheric deposition into sea waters. We have used the latest version of the Unified EMEP model - which has been developed at the EMEP/MSC-W (Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West of EMEP) for simulating atmospheric transport and deposition of acidifying and eutrophying compounds as well as photo-oxidants in Europe- to study the trends in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea for the period 1995-2006. The model domain covers Europe and the Atlantic Ocean. The model grid (of the size 170×133) has a horizontal resolution of 50 km at 60o N, which is consistent with the resolution of emission data reported to CLRTAP. Approximately 10 of these layers are placed below 2 km to obtain high resolution of the boundary layer which is of special importance to the long range transport of air pollution. EMEP model has been thouroughly validated (Fagerli et.al.[1], Simpson et.al.[2], Simpson et.al.[3] ) The contribution of deposition of nitrogen into Baltic Sea from each of the bordering countries of the Baltic Sea and the deposition trends for the period 1995-2006 has been analysed and the results will be presented. References: [1]. Fagerli H., Simpson D. and Aas W.: Model performance for sulphur and nitrogen compounds for the period 1980 to 2000. [In:] L. Tarraśon, (editor), Transboundary Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground Level Ozone in Europe. EMEP

  9. Floor interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Krogh, Peter; Ludvigsen, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Within architecture, there is a long tradition of careful design of floors. The design has been concerned with both decorating floors and designing floors to carry information. Ubiquitous computing technology offers new opportunities for designing interactive floors. This paper presents three...... different interactive floor concepts. Through an urban perspective it draws upon the experiences of floors in architecture, and provides a set of design issues for designing interactive floors....

  10. 210Pb dating of sediments from the central and the northern Adriatic Sea: The deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; La Rosa, J.

    1996-04-01

    A central goal of the ELNA project is to assess the carbon assimilation capacity of the Northern Adriatic Sea. This requires fundamental quantitative information on budgets and sinks of organic carbon. Any change in carbon production in the water column should be reflected in the underlying sediments. Moreover, the fraction of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor which is subsequently preserved in the sediment will be strongly coupled to sediment accumulation and mixing. In this study a series of box cores were collected in order to characterize a hypothetical eutrophication gradient extending from the Po River outflow region in the north down to the shallow meso-Adriatic depression (Jabuka Pit). The main tasks assigned to IAEA-MEL were to provide 210 Pb derived sedimentation and dry-mass accumulation rates and to examine the possible correlations between sedimentary processes, the deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon and pelagic primary productivity

  11. Mastritherium (Artiodactyla, Anthracotheriidae) from Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia; an earliest Miocene age for continental rift-valley volcanic deposits of the Red Sea margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Gary T.; Schmidt, Dwight Lyman; Whitmore, Frank C.

    1983-01-01

    A lower jaw fragment with its last molar (M/3) from the Baid formation in Wadi Sabya, southwestern Saudi Arabia, represents the first recorded occurrence in the Arabian Peninsula of an anthracotheriid artiodactyl (hippo-like, even-toed ungulate). This fossil is identified as a primitive species of Masritherium, a North and East African genus restricted, previously to the later early Miocene. This identification indicates that the age of the Baid formation, long problematical, is early Miocene and, moreover, shows that the age of the fossil site is earliest Miocene (from 25 to 21Ma). The Wadi Sabya anthracothere is the first species of fossil mammal recorded from western Saudi Arabia, and more important, it indicates an early Miocene age for the volcanic deposits of a continental rift-valley that preceded the initial sea-floor spreading of the Red Sea.

  12. Study of the Implications of Whitecap Intermittency on the Uniform Sea-salt Aerosol Source Approximation and Deposition Velocity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoppel, William A; Caffrey, Peter F

    2007-01-01

    The source function and deposition velocity of sea-salt particles used in large-scale models assumes that the source and deposition is uniform over areas large compared to the horizontal grid spacing...

  13. Impact of the emissions of international sea traffic on airborne deposition to the Baltic Sea and concentrations at the coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marke Hongisto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ship traffic emissions in the Baltic Sea on deposition and airborne concentrations of nitrogen and sulphur compounds in the period 2008--2011 was studied using the Hilatar chemistry transport model with a 0.068° latitude-longitude resolution. An accurate ship emission inventory based on AIS (automatic identification system security signals was used. The uncertainty of the European emission inventories are discussed, as is an inter-comparison of the Baltic Sea airborne load and concentrations with other model-based estimates and with air quality measurements and the effect of the EU sulphur directive for ship emissions on sulphate concentrations.

  14. Sea floor geomorphology: Discussion

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Evsykov, Y.D.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    stream_size 1 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_38.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    KAUST Repository

    Engelbrecht, Johann

    2017-09-27

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m−2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of  < 10 and  < 2.5 µm dust deposition rates, and it is suggested that these represent proxies for PM10 (coarse) and PM2. 5 (fine) particle size fractions in the dust deposits. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the

  16. The timing of Mediterranean sapropel deposition relative to insolation, sea-level and African monsoon changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, K. M.; Grimm, R.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Marino, G.; Ziegler, M.; Rohling, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean basin is sensitive to global sea-level changes and African monsoon variability on orbital timescales. Both of these processes are thought to be important to the deposition of organic-rich sediment layers or 'sapropels' throughout the eastern Mediterranean, yet their relative

  17. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, E.; Brouwer, E.; Kooijman, A.; Blindow, I.; Esselink, H.; Roelofs, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha−1 yr−1. The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a

  18. Projected change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea towards 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Ambelas Skjøth, C.; Ellermann, T.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Hertel, O.; Frohn, L. M.; Gross, A.; Brandt, J.

    2012-03-01

    The ecological status of the Baltic Sea has for many years been affected by the high input of both waterborne and airborne nutrients. The focus here is on the airborne input of nitrogen (N) and the projected changes in this input, assuming the new National Emission Ceilings directive (NEC-II), currently under negotiation in the EU, is fulfilled towards the year 2020. With a set of scenario simulations, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) has been used to estimate the development in nitrogen deposition based on present day meteorology combined with present day (2007) or future (2020) anthropogenic emissions. Applying a so-called tagging method in the DEHM model, the contribution from ship traffic and from each of the nine countries with coastlines to the Baltic Sea has been assessed. The annual deposition to the Baltic Sea is estimated to 203 k tonnes N for the present day scenario (2007) and 165 k tonnes N in the 2020 scenario, giving a projected reduction of 38 k tonnes N in the annual load in 2020. This equals a decline in nitrogen deposition of 19%. The results from 20 model runs using the tagging method show that of the total nitrogen deposition in 2007, 52% came from emissions within the bordering countries. By 2020, this is projected to decrease to 48%. For some countries the projected decrease in nitrogen deposition arising from the implementation of the NEC-II directive will contribute significantly to compliance with the reductions agreed on in the provisional reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This underlines the importance of including projections like the current in future updates of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  19. Projected change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea towards 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Geels

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ecological status of the Baltic Sea has for many years been affected by the high input of both waterborne and airborne nutrients. The focus here is on the airborne input of nitrogen (N and the projected changes in this input, assuming the new National Emission Ceilings directive (NEC-II, currently under negotiation in the EU, is fulfilled towards the year 2020. With a set of scenario simulations, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM has been used to estimate the development in nitrogen deposition based on present day meteorology combined with present day (2007 or future (2020 anthropogenic emissions. Applying a so-called tagging method in the DEHM model, the contribution from ship traffic and from each of the nine countries with coastlines to the Baltic Sea has been assessed. The annual deposition to the Baltic Sea is estimated to 203 k tonnes N for the present day scenario (2007 and 165 k tonnes N in the 2020 scenario, giving a projected reduction of 38 k tonnes N in the annual load in 2020. This equals a decline in nitrogen deposition of 19%. The results from 20 model runs using the tagging method show that of the total nitrogen deposition in 2007, 52% came from emissions within the bordering countries. By 2020, this is projected to decrease to 48%. For some countries the projected decrease in nitrogen deposition arising from the implementation of the NEC-II directive will contribute significantly to compliance with the reductions agreed on in the provisional reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This underlines the importance of including projections like the current in future updates of the Baltic Sea Action Plan.

  20. Projected change in atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the Baltic Sea towards 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    this is projected to decrease to 48 %. For some countries the projected decrease in N deposition arising from the implementation of the NEC-II directive will be a considerable part of the reductions agreed on in the provisional reduction targets of the Baltic Sea Action Plan. This underlines the importance......The ecological status of the Baltic Sea has for many years been affected by the high input of both waterborne and airborne nutrients. The focus is here on the airborne input of nitrogen (N) and the projected changes in this input, assuming the new National Emission Ceilings directive (NEC...... scenario, giving a projected reduction of 38 k tonnes N in the annual load in 2020. This equals a decline in N deposition of 19 %. The results from 20 model runs using the tagging method show that of the total N deposition in 2007, 52 % came from emissions within the bordering countries. By 2020...

  1. Aminostratigraphic correlations and paleotemperature implications, Pliocene-Pleistocene high-sea-level deposits, northwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Darrell S.; Brigham-Grette, Julie

    Multiple periods of Late Pliocene and Pleistocene high sea level are recorded by surficial deposits along the coastal plains of northwestern Alaska. Analyses of the extent of amino acid epimerization in fossil molluscan shells from the Nome coastal plain of the northern Bering Sea coast, and from the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain of the Chukchi and Beaufort Sea coasts, allow recognition of at least five intervals of higher-than-present relative sea level. Three Late Pliocene transgressions are represented at Nome by the complex and protracted Beringian transgression, and on the Arctic Coastal Plain by the Colvillian, Bigbendian, and Fishcreekian transgressions. These were followed by a lengthy period of non-marine deposition during the Early Pleistocene when sea level did not reach above its present position. A Middle Pleistocene high-sea-level event is represented at Nome by the Anvilian transgression, and on the Arctic Coastal Plain by the Wainwrightian transgression. Anvilian deposits at the type locality are considerably younger than previously thought, perhaps as young as Oxygen-Isotope Stage 11 (˜410,000 BP). Finally, the last interglacial Pelukian transgression is represented discontinuously along the shores of northwestern Alaska. Amino acid epimerization data, together with previous paleomagnetic measurements, radiometric-age determinations, and paleontologic evidence provide geochronological constraints on the sequence of marine deposits. They form the basis of regional correlations and offer a means of evaluating the post-depositional thermal history of the high-sea-level deposits. Provisional correlations between marine units at Nome and the Artic Coastal Plain indicate that the temperature difference that separates the two sites today had existed by about 3.0 Ma. Since that time, the effective diagenetic temperature was lowered by about 3-4°C at both sites, and the mean annual temperature was lowered considerably more. This temperature decrease was

  2. Physical and chemical properties of deposited airborne particulates over the Arabian Red Sea coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Johann P.; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Jish Prakash, P.; Lersch, Traci; Anisimov, Anatolii; Shevchenko, Illia

    2017-09-01

    Mineral dust is the most abundant aerosol, having a profound impact on the global energy budget. This research continues our previous studies performed on surface soils in the Arabian Peninsula, focusing on the mineralogical, physical and chemical composition of dust deposits from the atmosphere at the Arabian Red Sea coast. For this purpose, aerosols deposited from the atmosphere are collected during 2015 at six sites on the campus of the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) situated on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia and subjected to the same chemical and mineralogical analysis we conducted on soil samples. Frisbee deposition samplers with foam inserts were used to collect dust and other deposits, for the period December 2014 to December 2015. The average deposition rate measured at KAUST for this period was 14 g m-2 per month, with lowest values in winter and increased deposition rates in August to October. The particle size distributions provide assessments of analysis of a subset of samples confirms variable amounts of quartz, feldspars, micas, and halite, with lesser amounts of gypsum, calcite, dolomite, hematite, and amphibole. Freeze-dried samples were re-suspended onto the Teflon® filters for elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), while splits from each sample were analyzed for water-soluble cations and anions by ion chromatography. The dust deposits along the Red Sea coast are considered to be a mixture of dust emissions from local soils and soils imported from distal dust sources. Airborne mineral concentrations are greatest at or close to dust sources, compared to those through medium- and long-range transport. It is not possible to identify the exact origin of deposition samples from the mineralogical and chemical results alone. These aerosol data are the first of their kind from the Red Sea region. They will help assess their potential nutrient input into the Red Sea, as well the impact on human health

  3. Saharan Dust Deposition May Affect Phytoplankton Growth in the Mediterranean Sea at Ecological Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallisai, Rachele; Peters, Francesc; Volpe, Gianluca; Basart, Sara; Baldasano, José Maria

    2014-01-01

    The surface waters of the Mediterranean Sea are extremely poor in the nutrients necessary for plankton growth. At the same time, the Mediterranean Sea borders with the largest and most active desert areas in the world and the atmosphere over the basin is subject to frequent injections of mineral dust particles. We describe statistical correlations between dust deposition over the Mediterranean Sea and surface chlorophyll concentrations at ecological time scales. Aerosol deposition of Saharan origin may explain 1 to 10% (average 5%) of seasonally detrended chlorophyll variability in the low nutrient-low chlorophyll Mediterranean. Most of the statistically significant correlations are positive with main effects in spring over the Eastern and Central Mediterranean, conforming to a view of dust events fueling needed nutrients to the planktonic community. Some areas show negative effects of dust deposition on chlorophyll, coinciding with regions under a large influence of aerosols from European origin. The influence of dust deposition on chlorophyll dynamics may become larger in future scenarios of increased aridity and shallowing of the mixed layer. PMID:25333783

  4. Climatic, eustatic, and tectnoic controls on Quarternary deposits and landforms, Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, Raymond; Becker, Richard; Shanabrook, Amy; Luo, Wei; Sturchio, Neil; Sultan, Mohamed; Lofty, Zakaria; Mahmood, Abdel Moneim; El Alfy, Zeinhom

    1994-01-01

    The degree to which local climatic variations, eustatic sea level fluctuations, and tectonic uplift have influenced the development of Quaternary marine and fluvial landforms and deposits along the Red Sea coast, Eastern Desert, was investigated using a combination of remote sensing and field data, age determinations of corals, and numerical simulations. False color composites generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT image data, digital elevation models derived from sterophotogrammetric analysis of SPOT data, and field observations document that a approximately 10-km wide swath inland from the coast is covered in many places with coalescing alluvial fans of Quaternary age. Wadis cutting through the fans exhibit several pairs of fluvial terraces, and wadi walls expose alluvium interbedded with corraline limestone deposits Further, three distinct coral terraces are evident along the coatline. Climatic, eustatic, and tectonic uplift controls on the overall system were simulated using a cellular automata algorithm with the following characteristics: (1) uplift as a function of position and time, as defined by the elevations and ages of corals; (2) climatic variations driven by insolation changes associated with Milankovitch cycles; (3) sea level fluctuations based on U/Th ages of coral terraces and eustatic data; and (4) parametrized fluvial erosion and deposition. Results imply that the fans and coralline limestones were generated in a setting in which the tectonic uplift rate decreased over the Quarternary to negligible values at present. Coralline limestones formed furing eustatic highstands when alluvium was trapped uspstream and wadis filled with debris. During lowstands, wadis cut into sedimentary deposits; coupled with continuing uplift, fans were dissected, leaving remnant surfaces, and wadi-related terraces were generated by down cutting. Only landforms from the past three to four eustatic sea level cycles (i.e., approximately 300 to 400 kyr) are likely

  5. Norm in oil production in Caspian sea deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanov, B.A.; Humbatov, F.Y.; Ahmedov, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The petroleum industry is one of several industries that generate large volumes of NORM-bearing wastes. The sources of most of the radioactivity in petroleum industry wastes are the isotopes formed from the radioactive decay of uranium-238 (U-238) and thorium-232 (Th-232), which are naturally present in the subsurface formations from which oil and gas are extracted. The primary radionuclide of concern in NORM wastes is radium-226 (Ra-226) of the U-238 decay series. Radium-228 (Ra-228) of the Th-232 decay series also occurs in NORM waste, but usually at lower concentrations. Other radionuclides of concern include those that form from the decay of Ra-226 and Ra-228. As the produced water is brought to the surface, some of the dissolved radium precipitates out in solid form. Most commonly, the radium coprecipitates with barium sulfate, a hard and relatively insoluble scale deposit; however, it also can coprecipitate to form other complex sulfates and carbonates. Study of old oil production site in Azerbaijan allows to make the following conclusions: 1.NORM problems are arising in Oil and Gas industry as results of accumulation (concentration) of Ra (the daughter products of U-238 and Th-232), if there are not sufficiently disposal activities of produced water by operator (or there are technical difficulties to apply existing methods); 2.There are very interesting scientific themes, both related with fundamental aspects of phenomena and development of new methods to decreasing of NORM accumulation (concentration); 3.Modelling of exposure risks during various disposal methods based on national developed of regulatory frameworks are required ungently; 4. Development of state-of-the-art analytical methods for quantity determination of Ra with covered by both of QA/QC and interlaboratory audit activities can identified as the one of indispensable condition for continue of national scientific activity in this field

  6. Sea-level proxies in Holocene raised beach ridge deposits (Greenland) revealed by ground-penetrating radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lars; Bendixen, Mette; Kroon, Aart; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Clemmensen, Lars B; Weβling, Ronny; Elberling, Bo

    2017-04-19

    Identification of sea-level proxies is important for reconstruction of past sea-level variation. Methods for reconstructing Holocene relative sea-level curves are crucial for quantification of the impact of Greenland ice thickness variation on global sea level and vertical land movement. Arctic beach ridges constitute important potential archives of sea-level variation. However, their surface morphology may have undergone modification since deposition due to freezing/thawing processes and erosion, and their morphology may therefore not be trustworthy for sea-level reconstruction. Therefore, geophysical imaging is used to examine the internal structures of the beach ridges and to define a sea-level proxy unaffected by surface processes. The GPR reflections from study sites in West and South Greenland show deposition of beachface deposits and upper shoreface deposits; the contact between steeply dipping beachface reflections and less-dipping shoreface reflections is used as sea-level proxy. Numerous points are identified along GPR transects facilitating reconstruction of relative sea-level variation of hitherto unprecedented resolution. Erosional events and deformation caused by freezing/thawing processes are clearly delineated. The approach constitutes a solid base for reconstruction of relative sea-level curves affected by a well-defined vertical land movement history since the studied beach ridge systems represent long time intervals and only relatively small spatial extents.

  7. Deposition of organic matter and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus at the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition - a GIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditte L. Jansen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A GIS (Geographical Information System based study on deposition in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition area has been carried out. The study is based on (i a digital bathymetry model, (ii 93 available 210Pb / 137Cs sedimentation rate estimations, (iii grain-size distributions, organic matter, C, N and P content of 64 top 1 cm sediment samples from the study area, and (iv GIS-based modelling of resuspension potentials based on wind statistics. With the use of regression statistics on depth, resuspension potential and sediment characteristics, results are extrapolatedarea-wide from the 64 sampling positions. The area is divided into sediment types and classified as accumulation or erosion/transport bottoms. Model results show good agreement with existing maps of sediment distributions, indicating that the sediment distribution is governed to a large extent by wind-induced waves. Correlations of sediment types, their deposition rates and their N and P contents were used to estimate spatial deposition rates. In all, the yearly deposition in the study area amounts to 2.8 million tons of organic matter, 0.14 million tons of total nitrogen, and 0.035 milliontons of total phosphorus. Correlations of sediment types and dry bulk densities were used to infer spatial inventories of organic matter and total nitrogen and phosphorus in the top 1 cm of the sediments. A total of 100 million tons of organic matter, 4 million tons of total nitrogen, and 0.019 million tons of total phosphorus are contained in the top 1 cm of the sediments in the study area. In general, the deep parts of the study areawith low resuspension potentials act as sinks for the fine-grained sediments and their associated particulate nutrients.

  8. Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts vegetation of dry, coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remke, Eva; Brouwer, Emiel; Kooijman, Annemieke; Blindow, Irmgard; Esselink, Hans; Roelofs, Jan G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal dunes around the Baltic Sea have received small amounts of atmospheric nitrogen and are rather pristine ecosystems in this respect. In 19 investigated dune sites the atmospheric wet nitrogen deposition is 3-8 kg N ha -1 yr -1 . The nitrogen content of Cladonia portentosa appeared to be a suitable biomonitor of these low to medium deposition levels. Comparison with EMEP-deposition data showed that Cladonia reflects the deposition history of the last 3-6 years. With increasing nitrogen load, we observed a shift from lichen-rich short grass vegetation towards species-poor vegetation dominated by the tall graminoid Carex arenaria. Plant species richness per field site, however, does not decrease directly with these low to medium N deposition loads, but with change in vegetation composition. Critical loads for acidic, dry coastal dunes might be lower than previously thought, in the range of 4-6 kg N ha -1 yr -1 wet deposition. - Even low to medium nitrogen deposition impacts Baltic dune vegetation promoting a dominance of taller graminoids

  9. [Diversity of culturable actinomycetes in sea deposit of Tiger beach at Bohai Bay, Dalian, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Tan, Yi; Chen, Feifei; Zhou, Hongxia; Wang, Yiguang; He, Weiqing; Wang, Yong

    2011-02-01

    To study the diversity of culturable actinomycetes isolated from the sea deposit of Tiger beach at Bohai bay, Dalian, China. By using five different media strains we isolated actinomycetes strains from the sea deposit of Tiger beach at Bohai bay, Dalian, China. Partial 16S rRNA sequences were carried out to characterize the diversity of culturable actinomycetes. A total of 1215 colonies with phenotypical actinomycetes were isolated, of which 271 were classified by 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. The data showed that 251 strains were homologous with Actinobacteria (92.26% ) including 15 genera of 11 families, and the remaining 20 strains were possible members of the phylum Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. There were 7 strains (3-166, 3-117, 3-435, 5-186-2, 5-9, 5-171, 3-134) to be preliminarily identified as unreported species. A high diversity of culturable actinomycets both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition was presented from the sea deposit of Tiger beach in Bohai bay.

  10. Geophysical Imaging of Sea-level Proxies in Beach-Ridge Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, L.; Emerich Souza, P.; Meldgaard, A.; Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Clemmensen, L. B.

    2017-12-01

    We show ground-penetrating radar (GPR) reflection data collected over modern and fossil beach deposits from different localities along coastlines in meso-tidal regimes of Greenland and micro-tidal regimes of Denmark. The acquired reflection GPR sections show several similar characteristics but also some differences. A similar characteristic is the presence of downlapping reflections, where the downlap point is interpreted to mark the transition from upper shoreface to beachface deposits and, thus, be a marker of a level close to or at sea-level at the time of deposition. Differences in grain size of the investigated beach ridge system result in different scattering characteristics of the acquired GPR data. These differences call for tailored, careful processing of the GPR data for optimal imaging of internal beach ridge architecture. We outline elements of the GPR data processing of particular importance for optimal imaging. Moreover, we discuss advantages and challenges related to using GPR-based proxies of sea-level as compared to other methods traditionally used for establishment of curves of past sea-level variation.

  11. Preparation and deployment of the bottom ocean monitor for long term photographic observations of the sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    The components that make up the Bottom Ocean Monitor are described. The unit is designed to photographically record bottom fauna; the procedures used in testing on-board cameras are described. Recovery involves the use of a sonically-triggered release. The main instrument package then floats to the surface for retrieval by a research vessel; the base tripod remains on the ocean floor. Detailed specifications for component instruments are provided, and refurbishing procedures for each are given. 7 figures, 1 table

  12. Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Mahamid, Julia; Shimoni, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2014-01-07

    Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. We reconstructed various stages of the formation pathway of calcium carbonate from calcium ions in sea water to mineral deposition and integration into the forming spicules. Monitoring calcium uptake with the fluorescent dye calcein shows that calcium ions first penetrate the embryo and later are deposited intracellularly. Surprisingly, calcium carbonate deposits are distributed widely all over the embryo, including in the primary mesenchyme cells and in the surface epithelial cells. Using cryo-SEM, we show that the intracellular calcium carbonate deposits are contained in vesicles of diameter 0.5-1.5 μm. Using the newly developed airSEM, which allows direct correlation between fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we confirmed the presence of solid calcium carbonate in the vesicles. This mineral phase appears as aggregates of 20-30-nm nanospheres, consistent with amorphous calcium carbonate. The aggregates finally are introduced into the spicule compartment, where they integrate into the growing spicule.

  13. Initial stages of calcium uptake and mineral deposition in sea urchin embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidavsky, Netta; Addadi, Sefi; Mahamid, Julia; Shimoni, Eyal; Ben-Ezra, David; Shpigel, Muki; Weiner, Steve; Addadi, Lia

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchin larvae have an endoskeleton consisting of two calcitic spicules. We reconstructed various stages of the formation pathway of calcium carbonate from calcium ions in sea water to mineral deposition and integration into the forming spicules. Monitoring calcium uptake with the fluorescent dye calcein shows that calcium ions first penetrate the embryo and later are deposited intracellularly. Surprisingly, calcium carbonate deposits are distributed widely all over the embryo, including in the primary mesenchyme cells and in the surface epithelial cells. Using cryo-SEM, we show that the intracellular calcium carbonate deposits are contained in vesicles of diameter 0.5–1.5 μm. Using the newly developed airSEM, which allows direct correlation between fluorescence and energy dispersive spectroscopy, we confirmed the presence of solid calcium carbonate in the vesicles. This mineral phase appears as aggregates of 20–30-nm nanospheres, consistent with amorphous calcium carbonate. The aggregates finally are introduced into the spicule compartment, where they integrate into the growing spicule. PMID:24344263

  14. The impact of atmospheric mineral aerosol deposition on the albedo of snow & sea ice: are snow and sea ice optical properties more important than mineral aerosol optical properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Lamare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the albedo of polar regions is crucial for understanding a range of climatic processes that have an impact on a global scale. Light-absorbing impurities in atmospheric aerosols deposited on snow and sea ice by aeolian transport absorb solar radiation, reducing albedo. Here, the effects of five mineral aerosol deposits reducing the albedo of polar snow and sea ice are considered. Calculations employing a coupled atmospheric and snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow show that the effects of mineral aerosol deposits are strongly dependent on the snow or sea ice type rather than the differences between the aerosol optical characteristics. The change in albedo between five different mineral aerosol deposits with refractive indices varying by a factor of 2 reaches a maximum of 0.0788, whereas the difference between cold polar snow and melting sea ice is 0.8893 for the same mineral loading. Surprisingly, the thickness of a surface layer of snow or sea ice loaded with the same mass ratio of mineral dust has little effect on albedo. On the contrary, the surface albedo of two snowpacks of equal depth, containing the same mineral aerosol mass ratio, is similar, whether the loading is uniformly distributed or concentrated in multiple layers, regardless of their position or spacing. The impact of mineral aerosol deposits is much larger on melting sea ice than on other types of snow and sea ice. Therefore, the higher input of shortwave radiation during the summer melt cycle associated with melting sea ice accelerates the melt process.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF SEISMIC RESEARCH WORKS FOR OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS IN THE BLACK SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. CHIS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental impact of seismic research works for oil and gas deposits in the Black Sea. The prospecting and exploitation activity of hydrocarbon deposits in Romania has experienced a major development in the nineteenth century and has remained since a major component in achieving energy independence in our country. In 1970 the oil and gas production in Romania reached a peak of over 14.5 million tons of crude oil. Gas production reached 33 million tons of oil equivalents. After 1990 the production level fell again, because of the depletion of the existing resources and the lack of investment prevented the discovery and the development of new fields. They have led in the last few years to a decrease of the oil production level to less than 5.0 million tons of oil and of the gas production of 10,3 million oil equivalent. After 1990 the Romanian Government through THE NATIONAL AGENCY FOR MINERAL RESOURCES has decided to organize international auctions to award a series of contracts regarding exploration and participation to rates of production of specialized companies that run all the financial funds and necessary technologies for the development of hydrocarbon prospecting activities. That is why in the Black Sea, beside the oil and gas deposits leased to OMV Petrom, there were also leased 7 areas needed for research, exploration and possible exploitation of oil and gas deposits. This paper presents the effects of seismic research works on the environment, considering that these are the first that will run on the platform of the Black Sea shore.

  16. Sea-floor texture and physiographic zones of the inner continental shelf from Salisbury to Nahant, Massachusetts, including the Merrimack Embayment and Western Massachusetts Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-10-26

    A series of maps that describe the distribution and texture of sea-floor sediments and physiographic zones of Massachusetts State waters from Nahant to Salisbury, Massachusetts, including western Massachusetts Bay, have been produced by using high-resolution geophysical data (interferometric and multibeam swath bathymetry, lidar bathymetry, backscatter intensity, and seismic reflection profiles), sediment samples, and bottom photographs. These interpretations are intended to aid statewide efforts to inventory and manage coastal and marine resources, link with existing data interpretations, and provide information for research focused on coastal evolution and environmental change. Marine geologic mapping of the inner continental shelf of Massachusetts is a statewide cooperative effort of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management.

  17. Impact of atmospheric wet deposition on phytoplankton community structure in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong-Yang; Wang, Jiang-Tao; Tan, Li-Ju; Dong, Ze-Yi

    2016-05-01

    The South China Sea (SCS), which is the largest marginal sea in East Asia, plays a significant role in regional climate change. However, research on the phytoplankton community structure (PCS) response to atmospheric wet deposition remains inadequate. In this study, field incubation experiments were performed to survey the impact of atmospheric wet deposition on the PCS in the SCS in December 2013. Results indicate that the mean dissolved inorganic nitrogen/dissolved inorganic phosphorous (DIN/DIP) ratio in rainwater was 136, which was higher than that in seawater. Under low initial nutrient concentrations, rainwater inputs not only significantly increased total chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations but also potentially altered the PCS. The total Chl a concentration increased 1.7-, 1.9-, and 1.6-fold; microphytoplankton increased 2.6-, 3.2-, and 1.7-fold with respect to their initial values in the 5%, 10% addition, and 10% addition (filtered) treatment samples, respectively. Finally, microphytoplankton contributed 61% to the total Chl a concentration in 10% addition treatment samples. Differences in the nutrients induced by atmospheric wet deposition resulted in a shift in the advantage from picophytoplankton to microphytoplankton. Diatoms became the predominant species, accounting for 55% of the total abundance after rainwater addition.

  18. Formation of fine sediment deposit from a flash flood river in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Gracia, Vicenç; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Guillén, Jorge; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We identify the mechanisms controlling fine deposits on the inner-shelf in front of the Besòs River, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. This river is characterized by a flash flood regime discharging large amounts of water (more than 20 times the mean water discharge) and sediment in very short periods lasting from hours to few days. Numerical model output was compared with bottom sediment observations and used to characterize the multiple spatial and temporal scales involved in offshore sediment deposit formation. A high-resolution (50 m grid size) coupled hydrodynamic-wave-sediment transport model was applied to the initial stages of the sediment dispersal after a storm-related flood event. After the flood, sediment accumulation was predominantly confined to an area near the coastline as a result of preferential deposition during the final stage of the storm. Subsequent reworking occurred due to wave-induced bottom shear stress that resuspended fine materials, with seaward flow exporting them toward the midshelf. Wave characteristics, sediment availability, and shelf circulation determined the transport after the reworking and the final sediment deposition location. One year simulations of the regional area revealed a prevalent southwestward average flow with increased intensity downstream. The circulation pattern was consistent with the observed fine deposit depocenter being shifted southward from the river mouth. At the southern edge, bathymetry controlled the fine deposition by inducing near-bottom flow convergence enhancing bottom shear stress. According to the short-term and long-term analyses, a seasonal pattern in the fine deposit formation is expected.

  19. Potential for post-depositional migration of neptunium in Irish Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.R.

    1981-01-01

    Neptunium-237 is generally considered to be present in well oxygenated sea water as the highly soluble and mobile pentavalent species NpO + 2 . Measurements of the physico-chemical condition in the interstitial waters of Irish Sea sediments, including Eh, pH, Mn, Fe 2+ , Fe 3+ , NO - 3 /N0 - 2 and phosphate, have been made with a view to assessing whether or not Np will be reduced to the much less soluble tetravalent state after burial in bottom sediments. The large differences in the distribution coefficients of the two oxidation states between the solid and aqueous phases makes this an important consideration in the assessment of the long-term effects of 237 Np in the marine environment. The very low concentrations of this nuclide available for study in sediments at the present time make direct assessment of the oxidation state extremely difficult. However, laboratory experiments using the short-lived γ→emitting nuclide 239 Np support the view that Np IV will be the dominant species in Irish Sea sediments at least below the top 10-20 cm. Doubts still remain about the conditions above this point and it is concluded that further efforts must be made to obtain direct measurements of 237 Np in interstitial waters of Irish Sea sediments to assess not only changes in oxidation state but also to obtain more precise information on the effects of organic complexing agents on the post-depositional mobility of Np in these sediments. (author)

  20. Characteristics of a sandy depositional lobe on the outer Mississippi fan from SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, David C.; Schwab, William C.; Nelson, C. Hans; Kenyon, Neil H.; Lee, Homa J.

    1992-01-01

    SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar images of the distal reaches of a depositional lobe on the Mississippi Fan show that channelized rather than unconfined transport was the dominant transport mechanism for coarse-grained sediment during the formation of this part of the deep-sea fan. Overbank sheet flow of sands was not an important process in the transport and deposition of the sandy and silty sediment found on this fan. The dendritic distributary pattern and the high order of splaying of the channels, only one of which appears to have been active at a time, suggest that coarse-grained deposits on this fan are laterally discontinuous.

  1. Impact of structural and autocyclic basin-floor topography on the depositional evolution of the deep-water Valparaiso forearc basin, central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, J.; Normark, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Valparaiso Basin constitutes a unique and prominent deep-water forearc basin underlying a 40-km by 60-km mid-slope terrace at 2.5-km water depth on the central Chile margin. Seismic-reflection data, collected as part of the CONDOR investigation, image a 3-3.5-km thick sediment succession that fills a smoothly sagged, margin-parallel, elongated trough at the base of the upper slope. In response to underthrusting of the Juan Ferna??ndez Ridge on the Nazca plate, the basin fill is increasingly deformed in the seaward direction above seaward-vergent outer forearc compressional highs. Syn-depositional growth of a large, margin-parallel monoclinal high in conjunction with sagging of the inner trough of the basin created stratal geometries similar to those observed in forearc basins bordered by large accretionary prisms. Margin-parallel compressional ridges diverted turbidity currents along the basin axis and exerted a direct control on sediment depositional processes. As structural depressions became buried, transverse input from point sources on the adjacent upper slope formed complex fan systems with sediment waves characterising the overbank environment, common on many Pleistocene turbidite systems. Mass failure as a result of local topographic inversion formed a prominent mass-flow deposit, and ultimately resulted in canyon formation and hence a new focused point source feeding the basin. The Valparaiso Basin is presently filled to the spill point of the outer forearc highs, causing headward erosion of incipient canyons into the basin fill and allowing bypass of sediment to the Chile Trench. Age estimates that are constrained by subduction-related syn-depositional deformation of the upper 700-800m of the basin fill suggest that glacio-eustatic sea-level lowstands, in conjunction with accelerated denudation rates, within the past 350 ka may have contributed to the increase in simultaneously active point sources along the upper slope as well as an increased

  2. Atmospheric inorganic nitrogen input via dry, wet, and sea fog deposition to the subarctic western North Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol, rainwater, and sea fog water samples were collected during the cruise conducted over the subarctic western North Pacific Ocean in the summer of 2008, in order to estimate dry, wet, and sea fog deposition fluxes of atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (N. During sea fog events, mean number densities of particles with diameters larger than 0.5 μm decreased by 12–78%, suggesting that particles with diameters larger than 0.5 μm could act preferentially as condensation nuclei (CN for sea fog droplets. Mean concentrations of nitrate (NO3, methanesulfonic acid (MSA, and non sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO42− in sea fog water were higher than those in rainwater, whereas those of ammonium (NH4+ in both sea fog water and rainwater were similar. These results reveal that sea fog scavenged NO3 and biogenic sulfur species more efficiently than rain. Mean dry, wet, and sea fog deposition fluxes for atmospheric total inorganic N (TIN; i.e. NH4+ + NO3 over the subarctic western North Pacific Ocean were estimated to be 4.9 μmol m−2 d−1, 33 μmol m−2 d−1, and 7.8 μmol m−2 d−1, respectively. While NO3 was the dominant inorganic N species in dry and sea fog deposition, inorganic N supplied to surface waters by wet deposition was predominantly by NH4+. The contribution of dry, wet, and sea fog deposition to total deposition flux for TIN (46 μmol m−2 d−1 were 11%, 72%, and 17%, respectively, suggesting that ignoring sea fog deposition would lead to underestimate of the total influx of atmospheric inorganic N into the subarctic western North Pacific Ocean, especially in summer periods.

  3. New Approaches to the Sea-Floor Mapping: Results From the GEBCO-NF Alumni Team's Technique Developments in Preparation to the Shell Ocean Discovery XPRIZE 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhenova, E.; Zarayskaya, Y.; Wigley, R. A.; Anderson, R.; Falconer, R. K. H.; Kearns, T.; Martin, T.; Minami, H.; Roperez, J.; Rosedee, A.; Sade, H.; Seeboruth, S.; Simpson, B.; Sumiyoshi, M.; Tinmouth, N.; Zwolak, K.

    2017-12-01

    In preparation for the XPRIZE 2017 Round 1, a new sea-floor mapping system has been assembled based on an Unmanned Surface Vessel (USV) coupled with an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). USV operation allows reducing logistics costs, while the AUV provides enhanced maneuverability and high accuracy of stabilization for the mapping missions. The AUV is equipped with a high-resolution interferometric synthetic aperture sonar (HISAS) and a multibeam sonar (MBES), covering a wide bathymetry swath and the nadir, respectively. Typically operating at 20 to 40 m altitude, the HISAS is capable of providing SAS imagery with 4 x 4 cm resolution and bathymetry with 40 x 40 cm resolution throughout the swath. Smaller areas of interest (50 x 50 m) can be further examined using the Spot processing technique, to produce SAS imagery with 2 x 2 cm resolution and high- resolution SAS bathymetry with 5 x 5 cm resolution. This allows multi-aspect imaging and examination of seabed geological features at different scales. Advanced data post-processing can be performed to produce 3D images of objects and explore their structure using the shadow contrast and shape. Being an interferometric system, the HISAS collects data for both imagery and bathymetry in the same swath. This improves the robustness for SAS in areas with significant relief. In the standard survey mode, the HISAS can typically collect SAS data at 2.6 km2/hr over relatively flat ground. Another limiting factor to the HISAS data coverage and quality is the vehicle stability influenced by downslope and cross currents and the resulting vehicle's speed. From experience, the best coverage occurs at a vehicle speed of around 2 m/s. At slower speeds the vehicle starts to lose steerage leading to degradation of tracking and navigation performance, which harms the focusing algorithm that creates the SAS data. For the AUV mission planning in unknown areas or in case of highly variable conditions at the study site, MBES

  4. Hideout of sea water impurities in steam generator tube deposits: laboratory and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; Turner, C.W.; Thompson, R.; Sawochka, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sea water impurities hide out within thin (∼10 μm) deposits on steam generator tubes, as demonstrated by both laboratory studies using segments of fouled steam generator tubes pulled in 1992 from Crystal River-3 nuclear power station and field hideout return studies performed during recent plant shutdowns. Laboratory tests performed at 279 o C (534 o F) and heat fluxes ranging from 35 to 114 kW/m 2 (11,100 - 36,150 Btu/h.ft 2 ), conditions typical of the lower tubesheet to the first support plate region of a once-through steam generator, showed that impurity hideout can occur in thin free-span tube deposits. The extent of hideout increased with increasing heat flux. Soluble species, such as sodium and chloride ions, returned promptly to the bulk water from the deposits when the heat flux was turned off, whereas less soluble species, such as calcium sulfate and magnesium hydroxide, returned more slowly. Recent field hideout return studies performed at Crystal River-3 where the water level in the steam generators was maintained below the first tube support plate during the shutdown, thus wetting only the thin deposits in the free span and the small sludge pile, corroborate the laboratory findings, showing that hideout does indeed occur in the free-span regions of the tubes. These findings suggest that hideout within tube deposits has to be accounted for in the calculation of crevice chemistry from hideout return studies and in controlling the bulk chemistry using the molar ratio criterion. (author). 3 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Atmospheric Deposition And MediterraneAN sea water productiviTy (Thales - ADAMANT) An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulaki, Sylvia; Petihakis, George; Triantafyllou, George; Pitta, Paraskevi; Papadimitriou, Vassileios; Tsiaras, Konstantinos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2015-04-01

    In the marine environment the salinity and biological pumps sequester atmospheric carbon dioxide. The biological pump is directly related to marine primary production which is controlled by nutrient availability mainly of iron, nitrogen and phosphorus. The Mediterranean Sea, especially the eastern basin is one of the most oligotrophic seas. The nitrogen (N) to phosphorus (P) ratio is unusually high, especially in the eastern basin (28:1) and primary production is limited by phosphorus availability. ADAMANT project contributes to new knowledge into how nutrients enter the marine environment through atmospheric deposition, how they are assimilated by organisms and how this influences carbon and nutrient fluxes. Experimental work has been combined with atmospheric and marine models. Important knowledge is obtained on nutrients deposition through mesocosm experiments on their uptake by the marine systems and their effects on the marine carbon cycle and food chain. Kinetic parameters of adsorption of acidic and organic volatile compounds in atmospheric samples of dust and marine salts are estimated in conjunction with solubility of N and P in mixtures contained in dust. Atmospheric and oceanographic models are coupled to create a system that is able to holistically simulate the effects of atmospheric deposition on the marine environment over time, beginning from the pre-industrial era until the future years (hind cast, present and forecast simulations). This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework - Research Funding Program: THALES, Investing in knowledge society through European Social Fund.

  6. A major upgrade of the sediment echosounder ATLAS PARASOUND and the digital acquisition software ParaDigMA for high-resolution sea floor studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerriets, A.; von Lom-Keil, H.; Spiess, V.; Zwanzig, C.; Bruns, R.

    2003-04-01

    The combination of the ATLAS PARASOUND sediment echosounder, designed by ATLAS Hydrographic, and the digital recording software package ParaDigMA (commercially available as ATLAS PARASTORE-3) for online digitisation, preprocessing and visualisation of recorded seismograms has proven to be a reliable system for high-resolution acoustic sea floor studies. During 10 years of successful operation aboard several research vessels, including R/V Meteor, R/V Sonne and R/V Polarstern, the system has been only slightly modified. Based on this experience, today's PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has accomplished the step from DOS towards Windows platform and network capability. In cooperation of ATLAS Hydrographic and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bremen a major upgrade of the PARASOUND/ParaDigMA system has been developed that adds significant functionality for surveys of sediment structures and sea floor morphology. The innovations primarily concern the control section of the ATLAS PARASOUND echosounder and the ParaDigMA user front end. The previous analogue PARASOUND control terminal has been replaced by a small real time control PC responsible for the control of the echosounder as well as for the continuous digitisation of the data. The control PC communicates via standard network protocols metadata and data with client applications that can display and store the acquired data on different computers on the network. The new network capabilities of the system overcome former limitations and admit a high flexibility with respect to numbers and locations of operator and recording/display PCs. The system now offers a simultaneous parallel registration of the 2.5-5.5kHz parametric signal and the 18kHz NBS signal. This feature in combination with the recording of complete soundings including the entire water column provides the basis for evolving scientific research topics e. g. gas venting. The ParaDigMA recording software now operates on Windows platforms which

  7. A seismic-reflection investigation of gas hydrates and sea-floor features of the upper continental slope of the Garden Banks and Green Canyon regions, northern Gulf of Mexico: report for cruise G1-99-GM (99002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan; Twichell, David; Hart, Patrick

    1999-01-01

    During April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a 13-day cruise in the Garden Banks and Green Canyon regions of the Gulf of Mexico. The R/V Gyre, owned by Texas A&M University, was chartered for the cruise. The general objectives were (1) to acquire very high resolution seismic-reflection data and side-scan sonar images of the upper and middle continental slope (200-1200-m water depths), (2) to study the acoustic character and features of the sea floor for evidence of sea-floor hazards, and (3) to look for evidence of subsurface gas hydrates and their effects. The Gulf of Mexico is well known for hydrocarbon resources, with emphasis now on frontier deep-water areas. For water depths greater than about 250 m, the pressure-termperature conditions are correct for the development of shallow-subsurface gas hydrate formation (Anderson et al., 1992). Gas hydrates are ice-like mixtures of gas and water (Kvenvolden, 1993). They are known to be present from extensive previous sampling in sea-floor cores and from mound-like features observed on the sea floor in many parts of the northern Gulf, including the Green Canyon and Garden Banks areas (e.g., Roberts, 1995). Seismic-reflection data are extensive in the Gulf of Mexico, but few very-high-resolution data like those needed for gas-hydrate studies exist in the public domain. The occurrence and mechanisms of gas hydrate formation and dissociation are important to understand, because of their perceived economic potential for methane gas, their potential controls on local and regional sea-floor stability, and their possible effects on earth climates due to massive release of methane greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. Three high-resolution seismic-reflection systems and one side-scan sonar system were used on the cruise to map the surface reflectance and features of the sea floor and the acoustic geometries and character of the shallow sub-surface. The cruise was designed to acquire regional and detailed local

  8. Late Pleistocene Post-Glacial Sea Level Rise and Differential Preservation of Transgressive “Sand Ridge” Deposits in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ridente

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Linear sand bodies with ridged or mounded morphology are commonly referred to as “sand ridges”. Their origin may reflect a great variety of depositional processes and environments, although many examples from modern shelves include near-shore transgressive deposits formed during the last post-glacial sea level rise. These transgressive sand ridges, however, are not present on all the margins drowned during this interval, indicating that local environmental factors contribute to their formation and preservation. Transgressive sand ridges are recognized on the South Adriatic shelf in water depths between 90 and 120 m, where they overlay a major unconformity originated during the last glacial sea level fall and lowstand. In contrast, they are absent on the Central Adriatic shelf, where transgressive deposits above the glacial unconformity fill erosional scours without forming relief on the seafloor. The transgressive sand ridges on the South Adriatic shelf appear roughly elongated parallel to the bathymetric contour and are locally as thick as 15–20 m. Core data indicate an overall coarse-grained composition, with a relevant bioclastic component. Their limited distribution reflects the importance of local variation in shelf morphology and sediment sourcing at the onset of sea level rise. In particular, their deposition and preservation are favored in less subsiding shelf sectors characterized by higher gradients and tectonic relief, where transgressive erosion and reworking of pre-existing lowstand deposits is also more efficient.

  9. Deltaic Depositional Systems, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao

    2015-04-01

    Deltaic depositional systems are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China Sea. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta system:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic system; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface systems. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.

  10. A Comparison of Fishes and Invertebrates Living in the Vicinity of Energized and Unenergized Submarine Power Cables and Natural Sea Floor off Southern California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton S. Love

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reliance on deep-water renewable energy has increased concerns about the effects of the electromagnetic fields (EMFs generated by submarine power cables on aquatic organisms. Off southern California, we conducted surveys of marine organisms living around energized and unenergized submarine power cables and nearby sea floor during 2012–2014 at depths between 76 and 213 m. In general, EMFs declined to background levels about one meter from the cable. We found no statistical difference in species composition between the fish assemblages along the energized and unenergized cables. The natural habitat community statistically differed from both energized and unenergized cable communities. Within species (or species groups, we found no differences in densities between energized and unenergized cables. Total fish densities were significantly higher around the cables than over the natural habitat. We found that invertebrate communities were structured by habitat type and depth and, similar to the fishes, there was no statistical difference between the energized and unenergized cables. Individually, the densities of four invertebrate species or species groups (Metridium farcimen, Luidia spp., unidentified black Crinoidea, and Urticina spp. differed between energized and unenergized cables, but this difference was not significant across all depth strata. The invertebrate community inhabiting the natural habitat strongly differed from the energized and unenergized cable community exhibiting the fewest species and individuals.

  11. Diverse origins and pre-depositional histories of organic matter in contemporary Chinese marginal sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2016-10-01

    River) delta (48% and 49%), and fossil OC is most significant north of the old Huanghe mouth (26%). Significant pre-aged soil contributions (33%) are also evident for sites further offshore, where transport and deposition of eolian dust supply may be important. For the three major deposition areas of the BS-YS system (Bohai Basin, sub-aqueous Huanghe delta and central south YS basin), we estimate that about 3.02 Mt/yr of refractory, plant-derived pre-aged soil OC and 0.98 Mt/yr of 14C-depleted fossil OC accumulates in surface sediments, corresponding to 35% and 11% of sediment TOC, respectively. Compared with estimates for fluxes from corresponding sources, the burial efficiency is close to 100% for pre-aged soil OC and 70% for fossil OC, implying efficient OC burial in delta and shelf environments. Re-burial of these two pools of terrigenous OC only affects carbon cycling on millennial and longer timescales respectively, and exerts little influence on the modern carbon cycle (contemporary carbon cycling in marginal sea systems.

  12. Sediment transport and deposition during extreme sea storm events at the Salerno Bay (Tyrrhenian Sea: comparison of field data with numerical model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Budillon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic stratigraphy and core litho-stratigraphy in the Salerno Bay inner shelf (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea reveal significant storm deposition episodes over the last 1 ky. Three major events are preserved as decimetre thick silt/sand layers bounded at their base by erosional surfaces and sealed in the muddy marine sequences between 25 and 60 m of depth. Geochronology and chrono-stratigraphy on core sediment point towards a recurrence of major sea storms between 0.1 and 0.3 ky and put the last significant event in the 19th century, when no local meteorological time series is available. A modelling of extreme sea-storms with a return period of about 0.1 ky is here proposed based on historical hindcast and aims at explaining the occurrence of such unusual deep and thick sand deposits in the northern sector of the bay. Results highlight the vulnerability of the northern coast of the Salerno Bay to the south western sea storms which can drive waves up to about 8 m high and wave period of about 13 s. With these conditions an intense combined flow current is formed and might account for winnowing fine sand down to the depth of 40 m at least. The numerical model thus confirms a possible sand transport in the bottom boundary layer due to wave-current interaction and could corroborate the interpretation of the most recent sand layers, included in the cores, as being generated under extreme sea storm conditions.

  13. Composition and genesis of ferromanganese deposits from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Chen, Zhong; González, Francisco Javier; Hein, James R.; Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Gang; Luo, Yun; Mo, Aibin; Tian, Yuhang; Wang, Shuhong

    2017-05-01

    Marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) nodules and crusts are archives of past environmental conditions and potential mineral resources. Over the last 30 years, many have been discovered in the northern South China Sea (SCS). To determine the origin of the Fe-Mn deposits, a comprehensive laboratory analysis of physical properties, mineralogy and geochemistry was conducted on newly collected Fe-Mn nodule/crust samples. The results revealed that there are three types of Fe-Mn deposits: (1) Fe-rich nodules containing essentially goethite occur on the northeastern slope of the SCS, with high Fe, low Mn (Mn/Fe = 0.03) and low trace metals and rare earth elements concentrations; (2) Smooth Fe-Mn nodules and crusts composed of asbolane, todorokite and CFA occur along the northwestern marginal of the SCS that have similar Fe and Mn contents (Mn/Fe = 1.21), moderate trace metal enrichments, and a positive Ce anomaly; (3) Fe-Mn nodules and crusts composed of asbolane, todorokite and birnessite that occur in the central basin of the SCS have higher Mn and lower Fe contents (Mn/Fe = 1.45). This depositional pattern was associated with major changes in oceanographic conditions and tectonic regimes. The northeastern slope deposits occur in a contourite depositional system, are strongly enriched in Fe relative to Mn (average 38.7% and 0.96%, respectively), formed from the combination of hydrogenetic and diagenetic processes. We propose a new genetic model for Fe-Mn nodules, which formed through the oxidation of pyrite and pyrite-barite concretions that formed by rapid early diagenetic growth (average 3320 mm/Myr) on continental margins above the carbonate compensation depth, and dominated by hydrocarbon seep structures and strong erosive action of bottom currents along the northeastern slope. In contrast, the introduction of vigorous deep-water flow from the North Pacific promoted the slow growth (4-7 mm/Myr) of hydrogenetic Fe-Mn nodules and crusts along the northwestern margin. Finally

  14. Luminescence dating of Holocene sedimentary deposits on Rømø, a barrier island in the Wadden Sea, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2010-01-01

    This study presents an Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) based chronology for the evolution of the barrier island Rømø and related back-barrier lagoon deposits in the Danish Wadden Sea. The chronology is constructed using 78 quartz OSL ages obtained using a Single Aliquot Regenerative dose...

  15. The origin of life near deep-sea hydrothermal systems during the Cambrian explosion: data from the Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit (Central Asia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, Vladimir; Terleev, Alexander; Safonova, Inna; Kotlyarov, Alexey; Stupakov, Sergey; Tokarev, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    On Earth the solar radiation and the hydrothermal circulation both affect life evolution. Recent extensive studies of the World Ocean have shown that the biodiversity of Earth is linked with hydrothermal activity on the oceanic floor. These deep-sea ecosystems use chemical energy, not solar radiation. In the last quarter of the XX century, a new type of hydrothermal systems, so-called black smokers, was discovered in mid-oceanic ridges. As black smokers form sulfide ores and are surrounded by abundant bio-oases or symbioses, identification of their analogues in ancient orogenic belts is necessary for studying life origin and evolution. Of special importance are problems of life associated with deep-sea hydrothermal systems acted at the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary - the time of Cambrian explosion (Maruyama et al., 2013). During that explosion life significantly evolved and diversified due to dramatic changes of Earth's environment. Consequently, the early Cambrian - late Precambrian Kyzyl Tashtyg sulphide deposit of East Tuva in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt is of special interest. This deposit was formed on the bottom of ancient back-arc deep-sea basin as a result of black smoker hydrothermal activity and is hosted by volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks altered by the high temperature solutions. The altered Kyzyl Tashtyg basalts have an amygdules (filled by albite, epidote and carbonates), contain brown-green microfossils, often attached to their walls. The microfossils are thin tubes 5 to 25 microns in diameter and 500 microns long. This tubes are empty and have straight, curved or branching shape. Chemically, the tube material is close to epidote. In consideration of microscopic dimensions, simple morphology and similarity with modern tubular microorganisms, the studied tube-shaped microfossils can be related to cyanobacteria. Almost the same fossils, associated with oceanic basalt complexes, were described earlier (Furnes et al., 2007; Mcloughlin et al., 2007

  16. Environmental hazard assessment of a marine mine tailings deposit site and potential implications for deep-sea mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Nélia C; Rocha, Thiago L; Canals, Miquel; Cardoso, Cátia; Danovaro, Roberto; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Regoli, Francesco; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Bebianno, Maria João

    2017-09-01

    Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes. Surface sediment samples were collected at the same sites for metal analysis and ecotoxicity assessment. Metal concentrations and a battery of biomarkers (oxidative stress, metal exposure, biotransformation and oxidative damage) were measured in different mussel tissues. The environmental hazard posed by the resuspension plumes was investigated by a quantitative weight of evidence (WOE) model that integrated all the data. The resuspension of sediments loaded with metal mine tails demonstrated that chemical contaminants were released by trawling subsequently inducing ecotoxicological impact in mussels' health. Considering as sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) those indicated in Spanish action level B for the disposal of dredged material at sea, the WOE model indicates that the hazard is slight off the mine tailings deposit, moderate on the mine tailings deposit without the influence from the resuspension plumes, and major under the influence of the resuspension plumes. Portmán Bay mine tailings deposit is a by-product of sulphide mining, and despite differences in environmental setting, it can reflect the potential ecotoxic effects to marine fauna from the impact of resuspension of plumes created by deep-sea mining of polymetallic sulphides. A similar approach as in this study could be applied in other areas affected by sediment resuspension and for testing future deep-sea mining sites in

  17. Seabed photographs, sediment texture analyses, and sun-illuminated sea floor topography in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region off Boston, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Page C.; Gallea, Leslie B.; Blackwood, Dann S.; Twomey, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Sanctuary Program, conducted seabed mapping and related research in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary region from 1993 to 2004. The mapped area is approximately 3,700 km (1,100 nmi) in size and was subdivided into 18 quadrangles. An extensive series of sea-floor maps of the region based on multibeam sonar surveys has been published as paper maps and online in digital format (PDF, EPS, PS). In addition, 2,628 seabed-sediment samples were collected and analyzed and are in the usSEABED: Atlantic Coast Offshore Surficial Sediment Data Release. This report presents for viewing and downloading the more than 10,600 still seabed photographs that were acquired during the project. The digital images are provided in thumbnail, medium (1536 x 1024 pixels), and high (3071 x 2048) resolution. The images can be viewed by quadrangle on the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center's photograph database. Photograph metadata are embedded in each image in Exchangeable Image File Format and also provided in spreadsheet format. Published digital topographic maps and descriptive text for seabed features are included here for downloading and serve as context for the photographs. An interactive topographic map for each quadrangle shows locations of photograph stations, and each location is linked to the photograph database. This map also shows stations where seabed sediment was collected for texture analysis; the results of grain-size analysis and associated metadata are presented in spreadsheet format.

  18. Seasonal atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea: Implications for source-sink processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuqing; Lin, Tian; Wu, Zilan; Li, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhongxia; Guo, Zhigang; Yao, Xiaohong

    2018-04-01

    In this work, air samples and surface seawater samples covering four seasons from March 2014 to January 2015 were collected from a background receptor site in the YRE to explore the seasonal fluxes of air-sea gas exchange and dry and wet deposition of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their source-sink processes at the air-sea interface. The average dry and wet deposition fluxes of 15 PAHs were estimated as 879 ± 1393 ng m-2 d-1 and 755 ± 545 ng m-2 d-1, respectively. Gaseous PAH release from seawater to the atmosphere averaged 3114 ± 1999 ng m-2 d-1 in a year round. The air-sea gas exchange of PAHs was the dominant process at the air-sea interface in the YRE as the magnitude of volatilization flux of PAHs exceeded that of total dry and wet deposition. The gas PAH exchange flux was dominated by three-ring PAHs, with the highest value in summer and lowest in winter, indicating a marked seasonal variation owing to differences in Henry's law constants associated with temperature, as well as wind speed and gaseous-dissolved gradient among seasons. Based on the simplified mass balance estimation, a net 11 tons y-1 of PAHs (mainly three-ring PAHs) were volatilized from seawater to the atmosphere in a ∼20,000 km2 area in the YRE. Other than the year-round Yangtze River input and ocean ship emissions, the selective release of low-molecular-weight PAHs from bottom sediments in winter due to resuspension triggered by the East Asian winter monsoon is another potential source of PAHs. This work suggests that the source-sink processes of PAHs at the air-sea interface in the YRE play a crucial role in regional cycling of PAHs.

  19. Arabian Night and Sea Story - Biomarkers from a Giant Mass Transport Deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratenkov, Sophia; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Clift, Peter D.; George, Simon C.

    2016-04-01

    The study of mass transport deposits (MTDs) is an important field of research due to the potential insights into catastrophic events in the past and modern geohazard threats (e.g. tsunamis). Submarine mass movements are very significant processes in sculpturing the structure of continental margins, particularly in their extent and magnitude that have consequences both in the modern day, as well as in the geological past. An understanding of the complex stratigraphy of a submarine mass transport deposit (MTD) might help in reconstructing the provenance and transport pathways of sedimentary material and thus give important insights into sedimentary dynamics and processes triggering specific events. Drilling operations during International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 Arabian Sea Monsoon, which took place during April and May, 2015 cored two sites in Laxmi Basin. Site U1456 was cored to 1109.4 m below seafloor (mbsf), with the oldest recovered rock dated to ~13.5-17.7 Ma. Site U1457 was cored to 1108.6 mbsf, with the oldest rock dated to ~62 Ma. At each site, we cored through ~330 m and ~190 m of MTD material. The MTD layers mainly consist of interbedded lithologies of dark grey claystone, light greenish calcarenite and calcilutite, and conglomerate/breccia, with ages based on calcareous nannofossil and foraminifer biostratigraphy ranging from the Eocene to early Miocene (Pandey et al., 2015). This MTD, known as Nataraja Slide, is the third largest MTD known from the geological record and the second largest on a passive margin. Calvés et al. (2015) identified a potential source area offshore Sourashstra on the Indian continental margin and invoked the single step mass movement model to explain the mechanism of emplacement. Initial shipboard work demonstrated the high variability in total organic carbon and total nitrogen levels in different layers within the MTD, which raises a number of questions related to the source and composition of the organic

  20. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel in the incubation water. Over the three-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon (POC increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived cobalt (Co, manganese, and nickel were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Copper (Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1 atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2 these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3 growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic

  1. Deposition of the radiocaesium in soil at the Black Sea coastal area in Turkey after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varinlioglu, A.; Kose, A.

    1997-01-01

    It was known that some of the Black Sea region received rainfall containing radioactive material after the Chernobyl accident. This region was the most affected area by wet deposition because rainfall occurred during radioactive cloud passage. The unfortunate event at Chernobyl is a unique accession for better defining the fate of radioactive pollutant in the environmental. Several papers have been published recently concerning radioactivity levels observed in part of Europe and Black Sea region as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. Indeed, the environmental central of Black Sea and its Turkish coast is of particular interest owing to the relative proximity of Turkey to Chernobyl. Not much information for the deposition rates of cesium radionuclides in soil of this area is available. Exceedingly high Cs-migration rates of 0.2-0.3 cm.h - 1 in soils were found few days after deposition during a rain shower. However generally the deposited Cs was quickly fixed in the top soil and Cs migration agricultural soils decreased to values below 1 cm.a -1 , levels which are known from the global fallout caesium. The fallout of radiocesium after the Chernobyl accident has renewed interest in its environmental behaviour. How it behaves in soils is important, for example, for the modelling of radiocesium transport and retention in soil and transfer from soil to plants and hence in to the food chain

  2. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  3. Recent changes of biogenic carbonate deposition in anoxic sediments of the Black Sea: sedimentary record and climatic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, S B

    2000-05-01

    Recent changes of carbonate deposition were traced in a Black Sea sediment core taken in the western abyssal basin. The sediments were dated from a vertical profile of excess 210Pb. The 210Pb geochronology corresponded well to the 137Cs fallout record. A 20-year cyclic variability of carbon deposition has been traced in the dated sediments and has been related inversely to the long-term changes in temperature of air over the basin, forcing the convection in the upper water column, which may bear influence upon the coccolithophorid blooms by bringing nutrients from deeper water to the surface.

  4. Atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange fluxes of DDT and HCH in the Yangtze River Estuary, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongxia; Lin, Tian; Li, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Yuqing; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-07-01

    The Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) is strongly influenced by the Yangtze River and lies on the pathway of the East Asian Monsoon. This study examined atmospheric deposition and air-sea gas exchange fluxes of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) to determine whether the YRE is a sink or source of selected pesticides at the air-water interface under the influences of river input and atmospheric transport. The air-sea gas exchange of DDT was characterized by net volatilization with a marked difference in its fluxes between summer (140 ng/m2/d) and the other three seasons (12 ng/m2/d), possibly due to the high surface seawater temperatures and larger riverine input in summer. However, there was no obvious seasonal variation in the atmospheric HCH deposition, and the air-sea gas exchange reached equilibrium because of low HCH levels in the air and seawater after the long-term banning of HCH and the degradation. The gas exchange flux of HCH was comparable to the dry and wet deposition fluxes at the air-water interface. This suggests that the influences from the Yangtze River input and East Asian continental outflow on the fate of HCH in the YRE were limited. The gas exchange flux of DDT was about fivefold higher than the total dry and wet deposition fluxes. DDT residues in agricultural soil transported by enhanced riverine runoff were responsible for sustaining such a high net volatilization in summer. Moreover, our results indicated that there were fresh sources of DDT from the local environment to sustain net volatilization throughout the year.

  5. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Monitoring of radionuclide contents in rainwater is a useful way to keep a check on any change in the external radiation dose caused by the deposited material. Thus analuses of 3 H, 89 Sr and 90 Sr as well as 137 Cs and other gamma radionuclide contents in deposition were continued both nationwide and in the vicinities of the nuclear power stations at Loviisa and Olkiluoto. The deposition of 90 Sr and 137 Cs was lower than in previous years, being only a small fraction of the highest deposition values measured in 1983. The tritium concentrations were also lower than in 1982. The total annual deposition of tritium at different sampling stations varied from 1.7 kBq/m 2 to 2.9 kBq/m 2

  6. Seismic Facies of Pleistocene–Holocene Channel-fill Deposits in Bawean Island and Adjacent Waters, Southeast Java Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Albab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The late Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphic architecture of the Bawean Island and surrounding waters, southeast Java Sea has been analyzed by using sparker seismic profiles. Geological interpretation of these seismic profiles revealed the widespread distribution of paleochannels with different shape and size in the present-day Java Sea. Two channel types can be distinguished based on its morphology: U-shaped channels in the western part and V-shaped channels in the eastern part. The stratigraphic successions were grouped into two major seismic units separated by different seismic boundaries. Characters of marine and fluvial deposits were determined based on seismic boundaries and internal reflectors. Three seismic facies can be identified within late Pleistocene – Holocene incised channel fills associated with SB2. The internal structure of incised-channels consist of chaotic reflector at the bottom, covered by parallel–sub parallel and almost reflection-free indicating the homogenous sediment deposited during the succession.

  7. Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutken, Carol [Univ. of Mississippi, Oxford, MS (United States). Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology (CMRET)

    2013-07-31

    A permanent observatory has been installed on the seafloor at Federal Lease Block, Mississippi Canyon 118 (MC118), northern Gulf of Mexico. Researched and designed by the Gulf of Mexico Hydrates Research Consortium (GOM-HRC) with the geological, geophysical, geochemical and biological characterization of in situ gas hydrates systems as the research goal, the site has been designated by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management as a permanent Research Reserve where studies of hydrates and related ocean systems may take place continuously and cooperatively into the foreseeable future. The predominant seafloor feature at MC118 is a carbonate-hydrate complex, officially named Woolsey Mound for the founder of both the GOM-HRC and the concept of the permanent seafloor hydrates research facility, the late James Robert “Bob” Woolsey. As primary investigator of the overall project until his death in mid-2008, Woolsey provided key scientific input and served as chief administrator for the Monitoring Station/ Seafloor Observatory (MS-SFO). This final technical report presents highlights of research and accomplishments to date. Although not all projects reached the status originally envisioned, they are all either complete or positioned for completion at the earliest opportunity. All Department of Energy funds have been exhausted in this effort but, in addition, leveraged to great advantage with additional federal input to the project and matched efforts and resources. This report contains final reports on all subcontracts issued by the University of Mississippi, Administrators of the project, Hydrate research activities that both support and derive from the monitoring station/sea-floor Observatory, Mississippi Canyon 118, northern Gulf of Mexico, as well as status reports on the major components of the project. All subcontractors have fulfilled their primary obligations. Without continued funds designated for further project development, the Monitoring Station

  8. Diversity, abundance and niche differentiation of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of the eastern China marginal seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaolan eYu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The eastern China marginal seas are prominent examples of river-dominated ocean margins, whose most characteristic feature is the existence of isolated mud patches on sandy sediments. Ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes play a crucial role in the nitrogen cycles of many marine environments, including marginal seas. However, few studies have attempted to address the distribution patterns of ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in mud deposits of these seas. The horizontal and vertical community composition and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA and bacteria (AOB were investigated in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS and the East China Sea (ECS by using amoA clone libraries and quantitative PCR. The diversity of AOB was comparable or higher in the mud zone of SYS and lower in ECS when compared with AOA. Vertically, surface sediments had generally higher diversity of AOA and AOB than middle and bottom layers. Diversity of AOA and AOB showed significant correlation with latitude. Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosospira lineages dominated AOA and AOB communities, respectively. Both AOA and AOB assemblages exhibited greater variations across different sites than those among various depths at one site. The abundance of bacterial amoA was generally higher than that of archaeal amoA, and both of them decreased with depth. Niche differentiation, which was affected by dissolved oxygen, salinity, ammonia and silicate (SiO32-, was observed between AOA and AOB and among different groups of them. The spatial distribution of AOA and AOB was significantly correlated with δ15NTN and SiO32-, and nitrate and δ13C, respectively. Both archaeal and bacterial amoA abundance correlated strongly with SiO32-. This study improves our understanding of spatial distribution of AOA and AOB in ecosystems featuring oceanic mud deposits.

  9. Evaluating the impact of atmospheric depositions on springtime dinitrogen fixation in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean - A mesocosm approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Rahav

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of dust and atmospheric aerosols, originating from surrounding desert areas (e.g., Sahara and Middle East are deposited annually on the surface of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. These depositions can provide high amounts of micro (such as Fe, Zn, Co and macro nutrients (such as P and N to supplement nutrient-poor surface waters- that typically limit primary productivity and also dinitrogen (N2 fixation in many marine environments. Here, we studied the impact of the atmospheric deposition of dust and aerosols on N2 fixation in the Cretan Sea (Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mixed polluted aerosols (hereafter A and Saharan dust (hereafter SD were added to nine mesocosms (3-m3 each containing surface mixed layer seawater (~10 m, and N2 fixation was evaluated for 6 days during May 2012 (springtime. The addition of SD triggered a rapid (30 h and robust (2-4 fold increase in N2 fixation rates that remained high for 6 days and contributed 3-8% of the primary productivity. The A addition also resulted in higher N2 fixation rates compared to the unamended control mesocosms, although the responses were less profound (1.5-2 fold and accounted for only 2-4% of the primary productivity. The microbial community responded differently to the two additions. Heterotrophic bacterial N2 fixers dominated the diazotroph community in A and the control mesocosms, while the non-filamentous cyanobacterial group Trichodesmium prevailed in the SD treatment (68% of all the operational taxonomic units, verified by qPCR analyses. Our results indicate that the aerosol source, its route prior to deposition, and its specific chemical composition, can alter the diazotrophic diversity and activity in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and may thus impact both the N and C dynamics in this impoverished environment.

  10. Characteristics of a sandy depositional lobe on the outerMississippi Fan from Sea MARC 1A sidescan sonar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twichell, D.C.; Schwab, W.C.; Nelson, C.H.; Kenyon, Neil H.; Lee, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Shows that channelized rather than unconfined transport was the dominant transport mechanism for coarse-grained sediment during the formation of this part of the deep-sea fan. The dendritic distributary pattern and the high order of splaying of the channels, only one of which appears to have been active at a time, suggest that coarse- grained deposits on this fan are laterally discontinuous. -from Authors

  11. Eukaryotic diversity in late Pleistocene marine sediments around a shallow methane hydrate deposit in the Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouduka, M; Tanabe, A S; Yamamoto, S; Yanagawa, K; Nakamura, Y; Akiba, F; Tomaru, H; Toju, H; Suzuki, Y

    2017-09-01

    Marine sediments contain eukaryotic DNA deposited from overlying water columns. However, a large proportion of deposited eukaryotic DNA is aerobically biodegraded in shallow marine sediments. Cold seep sediments are often anaerobic near the sediment-water interface, so eukaryotic DNA in such sediments is expected to be preserved. We investigated deeply buried marine sediments in the Japan Sea, where a methane hydrate deposit is associated with cold seeps. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA in marine sediments at depths up to 31.0 m in the vicinity of the methane hydrate deposit. In contrast, the reproducible recovery of eukaryotic DNA was limited to a shallow depth (8.3 m) in marine sediments not adjacent to the methane hydrate deposit in the same area. Pyrosequencing of an 18S rRNA gene variable region generated 1,276-3,307 reads per sample, which was sufficient to cover the biodiversity based on rarefaction curves. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the eukaryotic DNA originated from radiolarian genera of the class Chaunacanthida, which have SrSO 4 skeletons, the sea grass genus Zostera, and the seaweed genus Sargassum. Eukaryotic DNA originating from other planktonic fauna and land plants was also detected. Diatom sequences closely related to Thalassiosira spp., indicative of cold climates, were obtained from sediments deposited during the last glacial period (MIS-2). Plant sequences of the genera Alnus, Micromonas, and Ulmus were found in sediments deposited during the warm interstadial period (MIS-3). These results suggest the long-term persistence of eukaryotic DNA from terrestrial and aquatic sources in marine sediments associated with cold seeps, and that the genetic information from eukaryotic DNA from deeply buried marine sediments associated with cold seeps can be used to reconstruct environments and ecosystems from the past. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Depositional and diagenetic models of some miocene evaporites on the Red Sea coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed A. A., Youssef

    1986-06-01

    The Miocene evaporites on the Red Sea coast, Egypt, are interpreted as a sabkha-chenier complex, which includes deposition in shallow water as well as in supratidal environments Costal sabkhas and shallow subaqueous evaporite sequences are recognised. The subaqueous sequence is represented by nodular mosaic and massive crystalline gypsum covered by a surface layer of nodular, white, dense powdery anhydrite. The sabkha sequences are represented by (a) small mounds overlying the older rock unit (Gebel El Rusas Formation) composed of fenestral stromatolitic and nodular dolomites overlain by a dolomitic limestone layer, (b) thin layer overlying the subaqueous evaporite sequence and composed of fenestral stromatolitic dolomite overlain by a nodular anhydrite layer. The nodular structure in the subaqueous as well as the sabkha sequences is formed diagenetically by transformation and recrystallization process. The dolomites in both sabkha sequences (a and b) are characterised by low Na + concentrations (143 to 755 ppm) and low values of δ 18O (- 1.85 to -8.7‰ PDB). This indicates that the dolomites were formed from saline water mixed with fresh water. These dolomites are also characterised by a low δ 13C (-12.95 to -27.1‰ PDB). This shows that the light carbon produced by the degradation of organic matter through the sulphate reduction process has played a significant role in the formation of these dolomites. Both microcrystalline and megacrystalline white dolomites are recognised in sabkha sequences. Relatively high concentrations of lead, zinc and copper are associated with the high percent of megacrystalline white dolomite.

  13. Preserved Offshore Tsunami Deposits Recognized in a 'Low Risk' Zone: an undocumented tsunami in the northern Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman Tchernov, Beverly; Katz, Timor; Yonaton, Shaked; Qupty, Nairooz; Kanari, Mor; Niemi, Tina; Agnon, Amotz

    2016-04-01

    The Red Sea generally, despite all of the necessary components for tsunami production, has been generally defined as 'low-risk' with regard to tsunami damage on the basis of historical records, observations of small-scale tsunami production in recent periods, and a lack of field evidence. While some regions are known to be prone to tsunami events, other areas are considered safe because of their geographic and bathymetric settings, seismic disposition, and lack of written descriptions of past tsunamis. Models that are produced to estimate said risk rely on catalogues of written records and field studies that summarize known events. There are multiple failures in this approach. First, written records are not evenly distributed worldwide, nor has writing always existed; thereby limiting the possible timeframe for reference. Field studies of preserved tsunami deposits focus primarily on terrestrial or coastal deposits, which modern observations of post-tsunami deposit diagenesis are determining that they are quickly eroded and rarely preserved, thus leading to a considerably patchy record, ultimately underrepresenting the actual number of past tsunamis. Offshore sedimentary deposits may hold promise as better recorders of these events. Here we present recently published evidence for a rare, yet significant and potentially very destructive tsunami event that impacted a presumed low-risk location in the northern Red Sea's Gulf of Aqaba. The anomalous deposits were recognized within sediment cores collected offshore (-16 to -12 msl) and were identified using a suite of common tsunamigenic indicators such as sedimentological characterization, granulometry and micropaleontology. Given rapidly expanding coastal populations in the region and worldwide, these findings are a warning that the current practice of determining risk based solely on models and historical catalogues, without offshore field studies, is insufficient.

  14. Gas hydrates in shallow deposits of the Amsterdam mud volcano, Anaximander Mountains, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Kasten, Sabine; Zabel, Matthias; Bahr, André; Abegg, Friedrich; Hohnberg, Hans-Jürgen; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    We investigated gas hydrate in situ inventories as well as the composition and principal transport mechanisms of fluids expelled at the Amsterdam mud volcano (AMV; 2,025 m water depth) in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Pressure coring (the only technique preventing hydrates from decomposition during recovery) was used for the quantification of light hydrocarbons in near-surface deposits. The cores (up to 2.5 m in length) were retrieved with an autoclave piston corer, and served for analyses of gas quantities and compositions, and pore-water chemistry. For comparison, gravity cores from sites at the summit and beyond the AMV were analyzed. A prevalence of thermogenic light hydrocarbons was inferred from average C1/C2+ ratios <35 and δ13C-CH4 values of -50.6‰. Gas venting from the seafloor indicated methane oversaturation, and volumetric gas-sediment ratios of up to 17.0 in pressure cores taken from the center demonstrated hydrate presence at the time of sampling. Relative enrichments in ethane, propane, and iso-butane in gas released from pressure cores, and from an intact hydrate piece compared to venting gas suggest incipient crystallization of hydrate structure II (sII). Nonetheless, the co-existence of sI hydrate can not be excluded from our dataset. Hydrates fill up to 16.7% of pore volume within the sediment interval between the base of the sulfate zone and the maximum sampling depth at the summit. The concave-down shapes of pore-water concentration profiles recorded in the center indicate the influence of upward-directed advection of low-salinity fluids/fluidized mud. Furthermore, the SO{4/2-} and Ba2+ pore-water profiles in the central part of the AMV demonstrate that sulfate reduction driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane is complete at depths between 30 cm and 70 cm below seafloor. Our results indicate that methane oversaturation, high hydrostatic pressure, and elevated pore-water activity caused by low salinity promote fixing of considerable

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Sediment Transport and Deposition Trends of the Sand Seas of Titan and the Namib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Corbin; Bishop, Bradley; Radebaugh, Jani; Christiansen, Eric

    2017-10-01

    Despite different atmospheric and grain compositional differences, the similarity in the shape, size and spatial trends of linear dunes of the Belet Sand Sea of Titan and the Namib Sand Sea suggest that comparisons of dune parameters between them will yield a better understanding of dune forming processes. Titan’s main dune fields occupy the lowest elevation areas in the equatorial regions, with the exception of the lower Xanadu. New analyses of dune widths in the Belet Sand Sea support the correlation between dune width and latitude. Furthermore, dunes with larger widths and spacings are concentrated towards Belet’s center. This may suggest that the elevation in the topographic basin constrains dune size, or instead, that proximity to the sand sea margin influences dune size. There are larger dune-to-interdune ratios at lower elevations across Titan. This could be a result of lower wind velocities which would cause greater sediment accumulation as opposed to bypassing. In the Namib, new analyses of dune width and spacing suggest elevation exerts little to no control on general dune morphology. However, there is an increase in the variability of dune spacing as elevation increases. Our results corroborate previous studies indicating a concentration of larger linear dunes in the center of the Namib Sand Sea. This may suggest influence by variables other than elevation, such as proximity to the dune field margin or varying sand supply and wind parameters across the dune field. It’s possible that sediment supply and wind are more consistent on Titan’s surface than on Earth because we observe a predominance of linear dunes on Titan. Further analyses of dune parameters in relation to these controls, and the further delineation of these variables, will allow for a better understanding of sediment transport and deposition patterns in sand seas on Earth and Titan.

  16. Accessing the Impact of Sea-Salt Emissions on Aerosol Chemical Formation and Deposition Over Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q.; Wang, X.; Liu, Y.; Wu, D.; Chan, P. W.; Fan, S.; Feng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Sea-salt aerosol (SSA) emissions have a significant impact on aerosol pollution and haze formation in the coastal areas. In this study, Models-3/CMAQ modeling system was utilized to access the impact of SSA emissions on aerosol chemical formation and deposition over Pearl River Delta (PRD), China in July 2006. More SSAs were transported inland from the open-ocean under the southeast wind in summertime. Two experiments (with and without SSA emissions in the CMAQ model) were set up to compare the modeling results with each other. The results showed that the increase of sulfate concentrations were more attributable to the primary emissions of coarse SO42- particles in SSA, while the increase of nitrate concentrations were more attributable to secondary chemical formations, known as the mechanisms of chloride depletion in SSA. In the coastal areas, 17.62 % of SO42-, 26.6% of NO3- and 38.2% of PM10 were attributed to SSA emissions, while those portions were less than 1% in the inland areas. The increases of PM10 and its components due to SSA emissions resulted in higher deposition fluxes over PRD, particularly in the coastal areas, except for the wet deposition of nitrate. Nitrate was more sensitive to SSA emissions in chemical formations than sulfate and dry deposition of aerosol was also more sensitive than that for wet deposition. Process analysis of sulfate and nitrate was applied to find out the difference of physical and chemical mechanisms between Guangzhou (the inland areas) and Zhuhai (the coastal areas). The negative contributions of dry deposition process to both sulfate and nitrate concentrations increased if SSA emissions were taken into account in the model, especially for Zhuhai. The negative contributions of cloud process also increased due to cloud scavenging and wet deposition process. In the coastal area, the gas-to-particle conversions became more active with high contributions of aerosol process to nitrate concentrations.

  17. Introductory guide to floors and flooring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Billingham, PA

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ............................................................................. In situ terrazzo 2 3 Natural stone ............................................................................... 25 . . Ceram~c t~les ................................................................................ 27 Brick floors... coverings) includes carpets, wooden floors and cork t~les. There is a third group (thin floor coverings) made from material which conducts heat poorly but which is usually applied too thinly (3 mm or less) for the insulating effect to have a great...

  18. Gleysols on sandy deposits of the Litorina Sea underlain by Histosol formations of Ancylus Lake age in western Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reintam, Loit

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two bisequal Gleysol profiles were studied in western Estonia to characterize pedogenetic features on aqueous sediments of the Litorina Sea and Ancylus Lake in similar topographical and geological situations. The development of Gleysols during the Late Holocene has been uniform and depends on the composition and sediment structure of both sandy and silty parent materials. Saturated R2O3-humic-fulvic organic matter of hydromorphic origin has increased the specific surface area and exchange properties during all stages of the Holocene while the textural-chemical properties of deposits in groundwater regimes have been preserved from Ancylus Lake time up to the present.

  19. Speciated particle dry deposition to the sea surface: Results from ASEPS '97

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.; Geernaert, L.L.S.

    1999-01-01

    It has been postulated that atmospheric pathways may comprise a significant source of nitrogen for aquatic ecosystems and excess atmospheric deposition to coastal areas may be a major cause of eutrophication. Dry deposition of nitrogen containing particles is a potential, but poorly quantified pa...

  20. Sources and Depositions of Atmospheric Trace Metals in PM2.5 over East China Seas and Northwestern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M.; Yan, C.; Guo, X.; Gao, H.; Yao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies have indicated that trace metals may have significant effects on marine ecosystem. Atmospheric transport of continental aerosols and deposition of marine aerosols are one of the most important ways for trace metals from anthropogenic processes transferred to sea. One Chinese Comprehensive Ocean Experiment by R/V "Dong Fang Hong 2" of Ocean University of China was conducted over East China Seas and West Pacific in spring (from 30 March to 6 May) of 2015. An online multi-metal monitor (Xact 625, Copper Environmental Sciences, LLC) and single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), equipped with PM2.5 cyclone inlets during the cruise were onboard to conduct high time-resolution measurement on metals over these regions. Totally, 23 metals (e.g., Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, K, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, and V) were continuously and simultaneously measured with a time resolution of 1 to 2 hour. Therefore, chemical characteristics and spatial distribution of trace metals in marine aerosol were further investigated. In consideration of data quality, only 15 metals were further used and discussed. Our preliminary results showed that the concentrations of the sum of 15 metals ranged from 50 ng/m3 to 3 μg/m3 in this region, and metals inshore tend to have higher concentrations than offshore. The metals detected could be classified into four categories based on their spatial distributions. Source regions were identified by total potential source contribution function (TPSCF) model for each kind of metals. Size distribution of metals were analyzed by SPAMS. Furthermore, dry deposition of metals over this region were calculated and discussed, with a fixed small dry deposition velocity and also with consideration of size-dependent particle dry deposition velocities.

  1. Depositional and sea-level history from MIS 6 (Termination II) to MIS 3 on the southern continental shelf of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthra, H. C.; Jacobs, Z.; Compton, J. S.; Fisher, E. C.; Karkanas, P.; Marean, C. W.

    2018-02-01

    Pleistocene shoreline deposits comprised of calcified shallow marine (palaeobeach) and aeolian (palaeodune) facies found along mid-latitude coastlines can be useful indicators of past sea levels. Here, we describe a succession of such deposits that are presently exposed both above (subaerial) and below (submerged) mean sea level along the southern Cape coast of South Africa, 18 km east of the town of Mossel Bay. The submerged units provide a window on Late Pleistocene coastal processes, as palaeoshoreline deposits in this study extend to water depths of up to 55 m on the mid-shelf. Five sedimentary facies were identified in the strata and were compared to modern depositional environments of the local littoral zone, which include aeolian dune, upper shoreface, foreshore, intertidal swash and back-barrier settings. Twenty-two geological units were observed and mapped. Some of these units were directly dated with optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. OSL ages were obtained for ten samples from the subaerial and twelve samples from the submerged deposits. Those geological units not directly dated were interpreted based on sedimentology and field/stratigraphic relationships to dated units. The stratigraphy and chronology of the succession indicates a record of initial deposition during Termination II (T-II) meltwater events, preceding and leading to marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e. Indicators for multiple sea-level fluctuations between MIS 5d and MIS 4, and sediment deposition at the end of MIS 4 and start of MIS 3 are also found. Both regressive and transgressive depositional cycles are well-preserved in the succession. We propose that palaeodune and palaeobeach deposits along the South Coast of South Africa have no clear preference for deposition during sea-level transgressions or regressions. Sediment deposition more closely mirrors the rate of sea level change, with deposition and preservation either during times of rapid sea-level movement, or oscillation

  2. Compositional variation recorded in deep-sea ferromanganese deposits of the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandnani, M.; Gupta, D.K.; Yashrakshita; Singh, R.; Singh, P.; Baidya, S.; Banakar, V.K.

    of these deposits was realized only after a cen- tury when Mero1 reported enrichment of several transi- tion metals such as Mn, Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, etc. and Pb in them. There are three types of Fe–Mn oxide deposits, namely, Fe–Mn nodules (FMNs), seamount Fe... are formed at locations where bottom currents are adequately strong enough to prevent sedi- ment deposition on potential substrates for accretion of colloidal Fe–Mn oxide precipitates. Formation of FMNs results from hydrogenous or diagenous precipitation...

  3. A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L; PrakashBabu, C.; Mascarenhas, A.

    on the slopes is attributed to various geological parameters such as texture of sediments, rates of fine terrigenous sediment deposition, shelf width, slope gradient, bottom currents and adsorption capacity of individual clay minerals. All these observations...

  4. Characterization of Particulate Matter Profiling and Alveolar Deposition from Biomass Burning in Northern Thailand: The 7-SEAS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Neng-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass burning (BB) frequently occurs in SouthEast Asia (SEA), which significantly affects the air quality and could consequently lead to adverse health effects. The aim of this study was to characterize particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) emitted from BB source regions in SEA and their potential of deposition in the alveolar region of human lungs. A 31-day characterization of PM profiling was conducted at the Doi Ang Khang (DAK) meteorology station in northern Thailand in March 2013. Substantial numbers of PM (10147 +/- 5800 # per cubic centimeter) with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 114.4 +/- 9.2 nm were found at the study site. The PM of less than 2.5 micron in aerodynamic diameter (PM sub 2.5) hourly-average mass concentration was 78.0 +/- 34.5 per cubic microgram whereas the black carbon (BC) mass concentration was 4.4 +/- 2.6 micrograms per cubic meter. Notably, high concentrations of nanoparticle surface area (100.5 +/- 54.6 square micrometers per cubic centimeter) emitted from biomass burning can be inhaled into the human alveolar region. Significant correlations with fire counts within different ranges around DAK were found for particle number, the surface area concentration of alveolar deposition, and BC. In conclusion, biomass burning is an important PM source in SEA, particularly nanoparticles, which has high potency to be inhaled into the lung environment and interact with alveolar cells, leading to adverse respiratory effects. The fire counts within 100 to 150 km shows the highest Pearson's r for particle number and surface area concentration. It suggests 12 to 24 hr could be a fair time scale for initial aging process of BB aerosols. Importantly, the people lives in this region could have higher risk for PM exposure.

  5. Three Kanto Earthquakes Inferred from the Tsunami Deposits and the Relative Sea Level Change in the Miura Peninsula, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Shimazaki, K.; Chiba, T.; Ishibe, T.; Okamura, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Tsuji, Y.; Satake, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto earthquake is a great interplate earthquake caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Japan Island along the Sagami Trough. The 1923 Kanto earthquake (M=7.9) and the 1703 Kanto earthquake (M~8.0) are two of the most devastating earthquake those struck Tokyo Metropolitan area, respectively. These earthquakes brought large (~5 m) tsunami to the coast area and uplifted the Miura peninsula by ~1.4 m. The tide gauge station, moreover, records the subsidence during the interseismic period before and after the 1923 earthquake. Present study clarifies the past Kanto earthquake prior to the 1703 earthquake based on the sedimentary analysis in the Koajiro bay of the southern Miura Peninsula. The continuous samples of inner bay fine sediments were taken by the boring survey using 3-m-long geoslicer. Three layers of coarse sediments, T1, T2, and T3 units from top toward bottom, are observed in the bay sediments at almost all the sites. These units are composed of mixture of materials such as shell fragments, rock clasts and gravel, and some of units have eroded the lower fine sediments, indicating the event deposits by the strong traction flow. The grain sizes of the bay sediments are grading upward and abruptly become larger after the deposition of the T1, T2 and T3 units. Very little diatom is observed in these units, but the total number of diatoms increase in the bay sediments. The ratio of the marine planktonic species against the benthic species gradually rises from the lower part to the upper part in the bay sediment. In the tidal flat sediment, the freshwater planktonic species appear in place of the marine planktonic diatom. The changes of grain size and diatom species make a presumption that the sea depth suddenly becomes shallow by the event and deeper during the interseismic period. The T1, T2 and T3 units, thus, are correlated with the tsunami deposits conveyed by the Kanto earthquake. The T1 and T2 units are inferred to be the tsunami

  6. Vertical hydraulic transport for deep sea mining : A study into flow assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep sea mining activities require excavation of material at the sea floor, transport of the material from the sea floor to the sea surface and processing of the material afterwards. One way to transport the material from the sea floor to sea surface is by means of a riser with centrifugal pump

  7. Deep-sea ferromanganese deposits and their resource potentials for India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.

    during pioneering expeditions of H. M. S. Challenger during 1872-76. The metal contents in these deposits show large variations from basin to basin. For India, the Cu and Ni (approx. 1% each) in nodules and Co (approx. 0.7%) and Pt (approx. 0.5 ppm...

  8. Determination of depositional beryllium-10 fluxes in the area of the Laptev sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobl, C.; Schulz, V.; Schaeper, S.; Molnar, M.; Baumann, S.; Mangini; Kubik, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    A huge amount of continental 10 Be is delivered to the Arctic Ocean through the rivers. Our investigations show that the most extensive part of it is deposited directly in the shelf areas. The determined sedimentation flux densities in the continental slope and in the Central Arctic Ocean are in the range of the assumed atmospheric input of 10 Be and therefore clearly lower than in the shelf areas. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs

  9. Determination of depositional beryllium-10 fluxes in the area of the Laptev sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobl, C.; Schulz, V.; Schaeper, S.; Molnar, M.; Baumann, S.; Mangini [Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Heidelberg (Germany); Kubik, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    A huge amount of continental {sup 10}Be is delivered to the Arctic Ocean through the rivers. Our investigations show that the most extensive part of it is deposited directly in the shelf areas. The determined sedimentation flux densities in the continental slope and in the Central Arctic Ocean are in the range of the assumed atmospheric input of {sup 10}Be and therefore clearly lower than in the shelf areas. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  10. Natural and anthropogenic influences on depositional architecture of the Ural Delta, Kazakhstan, northern Caspian Sea, during the past 70 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarelli, Frederico M.; Cantelli, Luigi; Barboza, Eduardo G.; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    This paper focuses on the Ural Delta in the northern zone of the Caspian Sea, an area with particular characteristics, where intense influence from anthropogenic and natural factors exists, which acts on the fragile delta system. We built a database to integrate the data from the published sources, bathymetric survey, and recent images in the geographical information system (GIS) environment. The results were linked to the Caspian Sea level (CSL) curve, which had many variations, changing the Ural Delta system's dynamics and in its architecture. In addition, the anthropogenic changes contribute to shaping the actual Ural Delta architecture. Through the link between the results and CSL, we reconstructed an evolution model for the Ural Delta system for the last century and identified three different architectures for the Ural Delta, determined by the energy that acted on the system in the last century and by the anthropogenic changes. This work identifies six different delta phases, which are shaped by CSL changes during the last 70 years and by anthropogenic changes. The delta phases recognized are: i) a Lobate Delta phase, shaped during high CSL before 1935; ii) Natural Elongate Delta 1935-1950 formed during rapid CSL fall; iii) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1950-1966, formed during rapid CSL fall and after the Ural-Caspian Sea canal construction, which modified the sedimentary deposition on the delta; iv) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1966-1982 shaped during low CSL phase; v) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1982-1996 formed during a rapid CSL rise phase; and vi) Anthropogenic Elongate Delta 1996-2009 shaped during high CSL that represent the last phase and actual Ural Delta architecture.

  11. Spatial distributions and deposition chronology of short chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments across the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Chen, Ru; Zhao, Zongshan; Wang, Thanh; Gao, Yan; Li, An; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin; Sun, Liguang

    2013-10-15

    As the most complex halogenated contaminants, short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are scarcely reported in marine environments. In this work, a total of 117 surficial sediment (0-3 cm) samples and two sediment cores were collected from the Chinese Bohai and Yellow Seas to systematically study the spatial and temporal trends of SCCPs at a large scale in the Chinese marine environment. Total SCCP concentrations in the surficial sediments were in the range of 14.5-85.2 ng g(-1) (dry weight, d.w.) with an average level of 38.4 ng g(-1) d.w. Spatial distribution showed a decreasing trend with the distance from the coast to the open waters. Compositional pattern analysis suggested that C10 was the most predominant homologue group, followed by C11, C12, and C13 homologue groups. The concentrations of total SCCPs in sediment cores ranged from 11.6 to 94.7 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS1 and from 14.7 to 195.6 ng g(-1) d.w. for YS2, with sharp rise from the early 1950s to present based on (210)Pb dating technique. The historical records in cores correspond well to the production and usage changes of CPs in China. Multivariate regression statistics indicate TOC, latitude and longitude are the major factors influencing surficial SCCP levels in the Chinese East Seas by combining analysis with the data from the East China Sea (R(2) = 0.332, p < 0.01). These findings indicated that the sources of SCCPs were mainly from river outflows via ocean current and partly from atmospheric depositions by East Asian monsoon in the sampling areas.

  12. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    1999-01-01

    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  13. Depositional history of a condensed shallow marine reservoir succession: stratigraphy and detrital zircon geochronology of the Jurassic Sto Formation, Barents Sea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klausen, T. G.; Müller, R.; Sláma, Jiří; Olaussen, S.; Rismyhr, B.; Helland-Hansen, W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 1 (2018), s. 130-145 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : binary alloys * deposition * erosion * geochronology * lead * lead alloys * sea level * silicate minerals * uranium alloys * zircon Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.037, year: 2016

  14. Influence of Late Paleozoic Gondwana glaciations on the depositional evolution of the northern Pangean shelf, North Greenland, Svalbard and the Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stemmerik, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Outcrop and subsurface data from the central northern margin of the Pangean shelf in North Greenland, Svalbard, and the Norwegian Barents Sea record the depositional response of a Northern Hemisphere subtropical shelf to Late Carboniferous-Early Permian (Bashkirian-Sakmarian) Gondwana glaciations...

  15. Methods of trend analysis for atmospheric deposition into the sea; Trendabschaetzung atmosphaerischer Stoffeintraege in die Meere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhbier, P.; Uhlig, S.; Fraenzel, A.; Schick, N.

    2001-02-01

    In order to prevent a considerable deterioration in the detectability of time trends in depositions as a result of fluctuations in the climatic conditions, an adjustment whereby the entry data are recomputed into an 'average' weather conditions appears inevitable. Accordingly, the aim of the project was the development of a concept for the adjustment and trend analysis of depositions including the examination of a number of statistical methods, with the form of the adjustment being the focus of the work. As per this concept, adjustment takes place on the basis of monthly data. The adjusted depositions are then summarized before trend analysis follows on the basis of these adjusted annual depositions. Finally the trend sensitivity of the method is examined as part of a power analysis. A data bank-based software was developed as part of the project in order to carry out the extensive calculations. With this software, the most diverse trend analysis and adjustment methods were realised and tested. It may first of all be noted that the evaluations conducted confirm the practicality of the adjustment concept developed, with various methods being deployable for fixing the adjustment parameter according to the measurement site and parameter concerned. The average reduction in the scatter of the annual depositions vis-'a-vis the non-adjusted depositions is over 40%. This amounts to a substantial improvement in trend sensitivity and makes for a clear reduction in the length of the requisite time series. However, there is no method among the adjustment methods investigated which, considering all the prerequisites, may be regarded as being superior to the other methods. The question as to which form of adjustment yields the most favourable results depends on the pollutants and the site-related conditions in each case. (orig.) [German] Um zu verhindern, dass durch klimatische Schwankungen die Nachweisbarkeit zeitlicher Trends in Depositionen wesentlich

  16. PALEOBATHYMETRIC INTERPRETATION OF THE FISH OTOLITHS FROM THE LOWER - MIDDLE QUATERNARY DEPOSITS OF KEPHALLONIA AND ZAKYNTHOS ISLANDS (IONIAN SEA, WESTERN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KONSTANTINA AGIADI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish otoliths are herein used to estimate the depositional depth of the Early - Middle Pleistocene deposits at SE Zakynthos and SW Kephallonia Islands (Ionian Sea, Western Greece, through comparison with the modern bathymetric distributions of the identified fish taxa. These estimates provide a more detailed picture of the depth variations for the Gelasian - Ionian stage interval in the study areas. The Lower Pleistocene marine deposits of the Gerakas Formation (SE Zakynthos Island, Ionian Sea were deposited at average depths of 400-450 meters, with eustacy playing an important role in the depth variability, between 1.95-1.73 Ma. An uplifting episode, followed by subsidence takes place between 1.73-1.66 Ma, taking the area to 200-300 meters of depth, and then back to 400-500 meters. However, the area seems uplifted again to 200-400 meters later on in the Calabrian stage (1.25-0.97 Ma. Sedimentation of the Akrotiri deposits (NW Kephallonia Island, Ionian Sea, during the same chronostratigraphic interval, took place in a similar setting. At the Early Pleistocene (1.95-1.73 Ma this basin reached depths of 400-450 meters, with uplift and following subsidence taking place between 1.73-1.66 Ma. Overall, the application of fish otolith paleobathymetry in the study areas provide a detailed picture of the depth variations for the Early Quaternary interval and refine the currently hypothesized pattern of tectonic movements. 

  17. High peripheral temperatures in king penguins while resting at sea: thermoregulation versus fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewden, Agnès; Enstipp, Manfred R; Picard, Baptiste; van Walsum, Tessa; Handrich, Yves

    2017-09-01

    Marine endotherms living in cold water face an energetically challenging situation. Unless properly insulated, these animals will lose heat rapidly. The field metabolic rate of king penguins at sea is about twice that on land. However, when at sea, their metabolic rate is higher during extended resting periods at the surface than during foraging, when birds descend to great depth in pursuit of their prey. This is most likely explained by differences in thermal status. During foraging, peripheral vasoconstriction leads to a hypothermic shell, which is rewarmed during extended resting bouts at the surface. Maintaining peripheral perfusion during rest in cold water, however, will greatly increase heat loss and, therefore, thermoregulatory costs. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the maintenance of a normothermic shell during surface rest: (1) to help the unloading of N 2 accumulated during diving; and (2) to allow the storage of fat in subcutaneous tissue, following the digestion of food. We tested the latter hypothesis by maintaining king penguins within a shallow seawater tank, while we recorded tissue temperature at four distinct sites. When king penguins were released into the tank during the day, their body temperature immediately declined. However, during the night, periodic rewarming of abdominal and peripheral tissues occurred, mimicking temperature patterns observed in the wild. Body temperatures, particularly in the flank, also depended on body condition and were higher in 'lean' birds (after 10 days of fasting) than in 'fat' birds. While not explicitly tested, our observation that nocturnal rewarming persists in the absence of diving activity during the day does not support the N 2 unloading hypothesis. Rather, differences in temperature changes throughout the day and night, and the effect of body condition/mass supports the hypothesis that tissue perfusion during rest is required for nutritional needs. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  18. Parallel measurements of organic and elemental carbon dry (PM1, PM2.5) and wet (rain, snow, mixed) deposition into the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowska, Anita; Falkowska, Lucyna M

    2016-03-15

    Parallel studies on organic and elemental carbon in PM1 and PM2.5 aerosols and in wet deposition in various forms of its occurrence were conducted in the urbanised coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. The carbon load introduced into the sea water was mainly affected by the form of precipitation. Dry deposition load of carbon was on average a few orders of magnitude smaller than wet deposition. The suspended organic carbon was more effectively removed from the air with rain than snow, while an inverse relationship was found for elemental carbon. However the highest flux of water insoluble organic carbon was recorded in precipitation of a mixed nature. The atmospheric cleaning of highly dissolved organic carbon was observed to be the most effective on the first day of precipitation, while the hydrophobic elemental carbon was removed more efficiently when the precipitation lasted longer than a day. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Atmospheric deposition impacts on nutrients and biological budgets of the Mediterranean Sea, results from the high resolution coupled model NEMOMED12/PISCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richon, Camille; Dutay, Jean-Claude; Dulac, François; Desboeufs, Karine; Nabat, Pierre; Guieu, Cécile; Aumont, Olivier; Palmieri, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition is at present not included in regional oceanic biogeochemical models of the Mediterranean Sea, whereas, along with river inputs, it represents a significant source of nutrients at the basin scale, especially through intense desert dust events. Moreover, observations (e.g. DUNE campaign, Guieu et al. 2010) show that these events significantly modify the biogeochemistry of the oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea. We use a high resolution (1/12°) version of the 3D coupled model NEMOMED12/PISCES to investigate the effects of high resolution atmospheric dust deposition forcings on the biogeochemistry of the Mediterranean basin. The biogeochemical model PISCES represents the evolution of 24 prognostic tracers including five nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and iron) and two phytoplankton and zooplanktons groups (Palmiéri, 2014). From decadal simulations (1982-2012) we evaluate the influence of natural dust and anthropogenic nitrogen deposition on the budget of nutrients in the basin and its impact on the biogeochemistry (primary production, plankton distributions...). Our results show that natural dust deposition accounts for 15% of global PO4 budget and that it influences primarily the southern part of the basin. Anthropogenic nitrogen accounts for 50% of bioavailable N supply for the northern part. Deposition events significantly affect biological production; primary productivity enhancement can be as high as 30% in the areas of high deposition, especially during the stratified period. Further developments of the model will include 0D and 1D modeling of bacteria in the frame of the PEACETIME project.

  20. Thick massive gas hydrate deposits were revealed by LWD in Off-Joetsu area, eastern margin of Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, M.; Morita, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2016-12-01

    GR14 and HR15 survey cruises, which were dedicated to the LWD (Logging While Drilling), were carried out in summers of 2014 and 2015, respectively, by Meiji University and Geological Survey of Japan, AIST to explore the "gas chimney" structures in eastern margin of Japan Sea. Shallow (33 to 172m-bsf, average 136m-bsf) 33 LWD drilling were performed in Oki Trough, Off-Joetsu, and Mogami Trough areas along eastern margin of Japan Sea during two cruises. Schlumberger LWD tools, GeoVISION (resistivity), TeleScope, ProVISION (NMR) and SonicVISION were used during GR14. NeoScope (neutron) was added and SonicScope was replaced for SonicVISION during HR14. The data quality was generally good. "Gas chimney" structures with acoustic blanking columns on the high frequency seismic sections with mound and pockmark morphologic features on the sea bottom, are well developed within survey areas. Every LWD records taken from gas chimney structures during the cruises show high resistivity and acoustic velocity anomalies which suggest the development of gas hydrate. Characteristic development of massive gas hydrate was interpreted at the Umitaka CW mound structure, Off-Joetsu. The mound lies at 890-910m in water depth and has very rough bottom surface, regional high resistivity, regional high heat flow, several natural seep sites, 200m x 300m area, and 10-20m height. 8 LWD holes, J18L to J21L and J23L to J26L, were drilled on and around the mound. There are highly anomalous intervals which suggest the development of massive gas hydrate at J24L, with high resistivity, high Vp and Vs, high neutron porosity, low natural gamma ray intensity, low neutron gamma density, low NMR porosity, low NMR permeability, low formation sigma, from 10 to 110m-bsf with intercalating some thin less hydrate layers. It is interpreted that there is several tens of meter thick massive gas hydrate in the gas chimney mound. It is partly confirmed by the later nearby coring result which showed the repetition of

  1. Establishment of floor ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Robič, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    After the socioeconomic system had been changed in 1991 the right of ownership and land registry seemed to gain a much greater importance. In that time the concept of floor ownership has also started to develop, but after 25 years a significant number of multi-unit buildings without the established floor ownership still exist in Slovenia. In this thesis both theoretical background and practical solutions for establishing a floor ownership are presented, furthermore, possible causes for an ina...

  2. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    1999-01-01

    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become r......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  3. An Analysis on Stability and Deposition Zones of Natural Gas Hydrate in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuan Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose several physical/chemical causes to support the seismic results which find presence of Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR at site 1144 and site 1148 in Dongsha Region, North of South China Sea. At site 1144, according to geothermal gradient, the bottom of stability zone of conduction mode is in agreement with BSR. At site 1148, however, the stability zone of conduction mode is smaller than the natural gas presence zone predicted by the BSR. We propose three causes, that is, mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode, multiple composition of natural gas and overpressure in deep sediment to explain the BSR presence or gas hydrate presence. Further, our numerical simulation results suggest yet another reason for the presence of BSR at site 1144 and site 1148. Because the temperatures in deep sediment calculated from the mixed convection and conduction thermal flow mode are lower than that from the single conduction mode, the bottom of gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ is deeper than the bottom of gas hydrate deposition zone (GHDZ or BSR. The result indicates that occurrence zone of natural is decided by the condition that natural gas concentrate in the zone is greater than its solubility.

  4. Microbial Diversity Associated with High Temperature Sulfide Deposits Along the East Pacific Rise Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, D.; Hoek, J.; Banta, A. B.; von Damm, K.; Reysenbach, A.

    2002-12-01

    In January 2002, hydrothermal chimneys were collected using DSV Alvin from active vents from 9° 17N to 9° 50N and 20° 49N to 20° 50N. Hydrothermal fluids were collected for end member chemistry prior to collecting the sulfide deposits. Chimney samples were sub-sectioned, separating surface and associated biofilm samples from inner chimney samples. Microbial diversity of sub-samples was assessed using culture-dependent and culturing-independent small subunit (16S) ribosomal RNA-based techniques. Initial bacterial diversity assessments using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) support the global prevalence of epsilon Proteobacteria associated with deep-sea sulfide structures. These are closely related to the sulfur-reducing isolate Nautilia lithotrophica. The biofilm communities varied in complexity with one sample containing several 16S rRNA sequences (phylotypes, OTU's) of alpha, epsilon, and gamma Proteobacteria while others contained a single phylotype of epsilon Proteobacteria. One proteobacterial phylotype was present in all but one of the surface samples, and this sample contained unique alpha and epsilon proteobacterial sequences. The inner chimney samples lacked the most common epsilon proteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences. Enrichment culturing was restricted to selecting for thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing Bacteria. The widespread distribution of Persephonella spp. was confirmed, and novel enrichments of a sheathed and as yet unidentified chemolithotroph were obtained.

  5. Origin and depositional environment of fine-grained sediments since the last glacial maximum in the southeastern Yellow Sea: evidence from rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, In Kwon; Choi, Man Sik; Lee, Gwang Soo; Chang, Tae Soo

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-reconstructed seismic stratigraphy of the Holocene mud deposit in the southeastern Yellow Sea, known as the Heuksan mud belt (HMB), the provenances of these sediments and their depositional environments are unclear, especially for the fine-grained sediments. According to seismic data (extracted from another article in this special issue), the HMB comprises several sedimentary units deposited since the last glacial maximum. Based on analytical results on rare earth elements, fine-grained sediments in all sedimentary units can be interpreted as mixtures of sediments discharged from Chinese and Korean rivers. The proportions of fine-grained sediments from Chinese rivers (74.5 to 80.0%) were constant and higher than those from Korean rivers in all units. This fact demonstrates that all units have the same fine-grained sediment provenance: units III-b and III-a, located in the middle and northern parts of the HMB and directly deposited from Chinese rivers during the sea-level lowstand, could be the sediment source for units II-b and II-a. Unit I, while ambiguous, is of mixed origin combining reworked sediments from nearby mud deposits and Changjiang River-borne material with those of the Keum River. The results of this study indicate that at least 18.6% of bulk sediments in the HMB clearly originate from Chinese rivers, despite its location close to the southwestern coast of Korea.

  6. Carbon dioxide disposal on the ocean floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavarini, C.; Maccioni, F.

    2001-01-01

    A lot of experts propose to dispose of the Co2 in the Oceans; but there is some confusion on that subject. The possibility of dispersing the Carbon Dioxide on the Ocean floor must be considered with great caution, carefully studying all the possible balances Co2 is subject to. A parameter which must be considered is the possibility for Co2 - whatever the form may be - of solving in the sea water, even when very deep. At the moment, the most safe way of storing the Co2 in the oceans seems to be the introduction of Co2 Hydrates into the sediments under the ocean floor [it

  7. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intake. Biofeedback, which is a special form of pelvic floor physical therapy aimed at improving a patient’s rectal sensation and ... therapy. As patients perform this specialized form of pelvic floor physical therapy, they are often able to view EMG or ...

  8. Solving decontaminable flooring problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Pennsylvania Power and Light wanted to cover deteriorating concrete in unit 2 of its Susquehanna BWR with a smooth, durable, decontaminable coating. Traditionally, floors in the plant had been coated with epoxy paint, but many of these floors suffered delamination, and failed in three to five years. Painting with epoxy would also interrupt operations for as much as three days while the floor dried, yet critical instruments in some areas had to be monitored at least once per shift. In addition, conventional floor surface preparation produced dust and vibration around sensitive equipment. The solution was a dustless scabbling system for surface preparation, followed by the installation of a high-strength acrylic industrial floor known as Silakal. The work was carried out by Pentek. Silikal bonds to the underlying concrete, so that delamination of the floor will not occur even under severe traffic conditions. Another advantage of this type of flooring is that it cures in one hour, so floor resurfacing has only minimal impact on plant operations. (author)

  9. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...

  10. School Flooring Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, John

    2012-01-01

    With all of the hype that green building is receiving throughout the school facility-management industry, it's easy to overlook some elements that may not be right in front of a building manager's nose. It is helpful to examine the role floor covering plays in a green building project. Flooring is one of the most significant and important systems…

  11. Sea-floor carbonate fans from the Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian-Toarcian): a sedimentological signature of carbon cycle perturbation in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, R. C.; Them, T. R.; Gill, B. C.; Knoll, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon cycle perturbations at the end of the Permian and Triassic periods are linked to immense volcanism and mass extinction. The Early Jurassic Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE) also appears to be correlated with the emplacement of a large igneous province (Karoo-Ferrar), but its biological consequences were more modest. Despite only limited extinction, widespread reef collapse suggests that, like the end-Permian and end-Triassic events, the T-OAE event may have been an instance of ancient ocean acidification. Testing such a hypothesis requires the development and implementation of new proxies for ocean acidification events in deep time. Primary aragonite seafloor fans are a common occurrence in Archean and Paleoproterozoic carbonates, as well as in cap carbonates above Neoproterozoic glaciogenic deposits. They are relatively rare, however, in Phanerozoic successions and until recently were thought to occur almost exclusively during the Permo-Triassic interval. In the last few years, cm-scale carbonate fans (pseudomorphs of aragonite) that formed within the sediment (before compaction) have been discovered in Triassic-Jurassic boundary successions and are posited to reflect an acidified water column. We have identified broadly comparable fibrous calcite layers (roughly 2 - 10 cm thick) in Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) cores from Alberta, Canada. At the macroscale the layers exhibit a fan-like (and sometimes cone-in-cone) structure and appear to have displaced the sediment around them as they grew in an upward direction. At the microscale, the carbonate crystals (pseudomorphs of aragonite) often initiate on a condensed horizon or shell material and grow in multiple directions (suggesting growth within the sediment). However, the predominant crystal growth direction is upward, towards the sediment-water interface. Resedimentation of broken fans is evidence that crystal growth was penecontemporaneous with sedimentation and occurred within centimeters of

  12. Perceived floor slipperiness and floor roughness in a gait experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruifeng; Li, Kai Way

    2015-01-01

    Slips and falls contribute to occupational injuries and fatalities globally. Both floor slipperiness and floor roughness affect the occurrence of slipping and falling. Investigations on fall-related phenomena are important for the safety and health of workers. The purposes of this study were to: compare the perceived floor slipperiness before and after walking on the floor; compare the perceived floor slipperiness with and without shoes for males and females; discuss the perceived floor roughness based on barefoot walking; and establish regression models to describe the relationship between perceived floor slipperiness and actual friction of the floors. Male and female subjects walked on 3 m walkways with or without shoes. The perceived floor slipperiness ratings both before and after their walk were collected. The perceived floor slipperiness both before and after walking were significantly affected by both floor and surface conditions. Gender, floor, surface, and footwear conditions were all significant factors affecting the adjustment of perceived floor slipperiness. The subjects made more adjustment on perceived floor slipperiness rating when they had shoes on than when they were barefooted. Regression models were established to describe the relationship between perceived floor slipperiness and floor coefficient of friction. These models may be used to estimate perceived floor slipperiness, or in reverse, the coefficient of friction of the floor, so as to prevent slipping and falling in workplaces.

  13. Seismic stratigraphy and depositional history of the Büyükçekmece Bay since Latest Pleistocene, Marmara Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Denizhan; Alp, Hakan; Alpar, Bedri

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution seismic data shed light on latest Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentation beneath the Büyükçekmece Bay, northern shelf area of the Marmara Sea, Turkey. Discontinuous fluvio-marine and marine deposits overlying the erosional truncation surface of Oligocene-Lower Miocene deposits are as thick as 30 m and preserved preferentially within the incised valleys that were controlled by some old faults. A series of prograding shoreline, laterally passing to the latest Pleistocene-Holocene valley-fill deposits, are thought to have accumulated mainly during times of shoreline transgression and sea-level rise. The overall morphology and stratigraphic setting observed in the Büyükçekmece Bay and at the southern outlet of the Bosphorus Strait have nearly same characteristics, implying that similar hydrodynamic conditions, erosional and depositional processes were mainly under the control of strong northerly flows during the Late Quaternary. These flows were less powerful in the Büyükçekmece region with decreased sediment input and smaller accommodation space.

  14. Geologic features of the sea bottom around a municipal sludge dumpsite near 39 degrees N., 73 degrees W., offshore New Jersey and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, James M.

    1994-01-01

    The sea-floor of a dumpsite area offshore New York and New Jersey (Deep-water dumpsite 106) was studied using detailed bathymetry, sidescan-sonar images, subbottom profiles, bottom photographs, and bottom-sediment samples. These data show that this continental rise area contains deposits of submarine landslides and pathways of sediment gravity flows. Images of the sea floor obtained with a deep-towed high-resolution sidescan sonar system show offshore-trending furrowed surfaces over parts of the area. If such furrows are old, one might expect them to have been obliterated by sediment resuspension and redeposition due to the mostly gentle contour-parallel bottom currents that are measured in the present day. While most of the sea-floor features were probably formed during Pleistocene or early Holocene (glacial or early post-glacial) times, our information suggests that vigorous present-day episodes of offshore-directed transport may continue to occur, at unknown intervals.

  15. The distribution of trace elements in a range of deep-sea sulphide ore deposits and their impact on seafloor mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, E. K.; Scott, T. B.; Brooker, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Acid rock drainage is a natural weathering process that is often exacerbated by mining activities, common in onshore sulphide ore deposits, that can lead to considerable environmental impact. A similar 'weathering process' occurs at seafloor massive sulphide (SMS) ore deposits. In contrast to the onshore situation, the expected consequence in the marine environment is often considered to be oxide formation, negligible metal release and minimal net acid generation due to the high buffering capacity of seawater and low solubility of iron at near neutral pH. However, no dissolution studies exist that emulate the true composition of sulphide ore deposits that either sit passively on the seafloor or are actively mined in this colder, more saline, and alkaline environment. In particular, these deposits will include a variety of minerals, and it is the interaction of these minerals and inclusions in regards to galvanic cells that can subsequently increase the dissolution of metals into the water column. Any heavy metal release that is not balanced by subsequent oxidation and precipitation, has the potential to produce toxicity for benthic ecosystems, bioaccumulation and dispersal through currents. The present work has sought to provide a pilot investigation on the deep sea weathering of sulphide minerals, by identifying the mineral phases, trace elements and potential galvanic couples that may arise in sulphide mineral samples collected from various tectonic settings. Samples have been analysed using EMPA and LA-ICPMS in order to identify the range of trace elements and toxins that may be contributed to the water column, especially heavy metals and environmental toxins (e.g. Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co, Ni, Cd, As, Sb, Sn, Hg). Our observations raise important questions about which ore deposits could have more or less environmental impact during any mining activity. These observations will be used to design oxidative dissolution experiments at deep-sea conditions utilising the

  16. A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vet, Robert; Artz, Richard S.; Carou, Silvina

    2014-08-01

    Investigating and assessing the chemical composition of precipitation and atmospheric deposition is essential to understanding how atmospheric pollutants contribute to contemporary environmental concerns including ecosystem acidification and eutrophication, loss of biodiversity, air pollution and global climate change. Evidence of the link between atmospheric deposition and these environmental issues is well established. The state of scientific understanding of this link is that present levels of atmospheric deposition of sulfur and nitrogen adversely affect terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, putting forest sustainability and aquatic biodiversity at risk. Nitrogen and phosphorus loadings are linked to impacts on the diversity of terrestrial and aquatic vegetation through biological cycling, and atmospheric deposition plays a major role in the emission-transport-conversion-loss cycle of chemicals in the atmosphere as well as the formation of particulate matter and ozone in the troposphere. Evidence also shows that atmospheric constituents are changing the earth's climate through direct and indirect atmospheric processes. This Special Issue, comprising a single article titled "A global assessment of precipitation chemistry and deposition of sulfur, nitrogen, sea salt, base cations, organic acids, acidity and pH, and phosphorus", presents a recent comprehensive review of precipitation chemistry and atmospheric deposition at global and regional scales. The information in the Special Issue, including all supporting data sets and maps, is anticipated to be of great value not only to the atmospheric deposition community but also to other science communities including those that study ecosystem impacts, human health effects, nutrient processing, climate change, global and hemispheric modeling and biogeochemical cycling. Understanding and quantifying pollutant loss from the atmosphere is, and will remain, an important component of each of these scientific fields as they

  17. Early diagenesis in the sediments of the Congo deep-sea fan dominated by massive terrigenous deposits: Part II - Iron-sulfur coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillefert, Martial; Beckler, Jordon S.; Cathalot, Cécile; Michalopoulos, Panagiotis; Corvaisier, Rudolph; Kiriazis, Nicole; Caprais, Jean-Claude; Pastor, Lucie; Rabouille, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    Deep-sea fans are well known depot centers for organic carbon that should promote sulfate reduction. At the same time, the high rates of deposition of unconsolidated metal oxides from terrigenous origin may also promote metal-reducing microbial activity. To investigate the eventual coupling between the iron and sulfur cycles in these environments, shallow sediment cores (fueled by discrete, excess inputs of highly labile natural organic matter from Congo River turbidites or by exhumation of buried sulfide during channel flank erosion and slumping. Sulfidic conditions may be maintained by the mineralization of decomposition products from local benthic macrofauna or bacterial symbionts or by the production of more crystalline Fe(III) oxide phases that are less thermodynamically favorable than sulfate reduction in these bioturbated sediments. Overall, the iron and sulfur biogeochemical cycling in this environment is unique and much more similar to a coastal ecosystem than a deep-sea environment.

  18. Sedimentary processes and architecture of Upper Cretaceous deep-sea channel deposits: a case from the Skole Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapcik, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    Deep-sea channels are one of the architectonic elements, forming the main conduits for sand and gravel material in the turbidite depositional systems. Deep-sea channel facies are mostly represented by stacking of thick-bedded massive sandstones with abundant coarse-grained material, ripped-up clasts, amalgamation and large scale erosional structures. The Manasterz Quarry of the Ropianka Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Skole Nappe, Carpathians) contains a succession of at least 31 m of thick-bedded high-density turbidites alternated with clast-rich sandy debrites, which are interpreted as axial deposits of a deep-sea channel. The section studied includes 5 or 6 storeys with debrite basal lag deposits covered by amalgamated turbidite fills. The thickness of particular storeys varies from 2.5 to 13 m. Vertical stacking of similar facies through the whole thickness of the section suggest a hierarchically higher channel-fill or a channel complex set, with an aggradation rate higher than its lateral migration. Such channel axis facies cannot aggrade without simultaneous aggradation of levee confinement, which was distinguished in an associated section located to the NW from the Manasterz Quarry. Lateral offset of channel axis facies into channel margin or channel levee facies is estimated at less than 800 m. The Manasterz Quarry section represents mostly the filling and amalgamation stage of channel formation. The described channel architectural elements of the Ropianka Formation are located within the so-called Łańcut Channel Zone, which was previously thought to be Oligocene but may have been present already in the Late Cretaceous.

  19. The contribution to nitrogen deposition and ozone formation in South Norway from atmospheric emissions related to the petroleum activity in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solberg, S.; Walker, S.-E.; Knudsen, S.; Lazaridis, M.; Beine, H.J.; Semb, A.

    1999-03-01

    A photochemical plume model has been developed and refined. The model is designed to simulate the advection and photochemistry for several simultaneous point sources as well as the atmospheric mixing. the model has been used to calculate nitrogen deposition and ozone formation due to offshore emissions in the North Sea. Based on meteorological data for 1992 the calculations give a total contribution of 60-80 mg (N)/m 2 at most in South Norway. Emission from British and Norwegian sector is calculated to contribute less than 5% each to the AOT40 index for ozone. (author)

  20. Relic carbonate deposits along the western margin of India: Sea level and environmental changes during the Late Quaternary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.

    to the combined influence of sea level and neo-tectonic changes. Area-wise interpretations are necessary to better understand the sea level changes. Fig. 1 Location of samples along the western margin of India Fig. 2. A... terraces, pristine dolomite crusts of 20.3 kaBP , vadose diagenetic limestones of Holocene age and age range of aragonite sands can not be explained by any other single mechanism without invoking neo-tectonic activity. It is amazing how carbonates...

  1. Synoptic conditions of fine-particle transport to the last interglacial Red Sea-Dead Sea from Nd-Sr compositions of sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchan, Daniel; Stein, Mordechai; Goldstein, Steven L.; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Tirosh, Ofir; Erel, Yigal

    2018-01-01

    The sediments deposited at the depocenter of the Dead Sea comprise high-resolution archive of hydrological changes in the lake's watershed and record the desert dust transport to the region. This paper reconstructs the dust transport to the region during the termination of glacial Marine Isotope Stage 6 (MIS 6; ∼135-129 ka) and the last interglacial peak period (MIS5e, ∼129-116 ka). We use chemical and Nd and Sr isotope compositions of fine detritus material recovered from sediment core drilled at the deepest floor of the Dead Sea. The data is integrated with data achieved from cores drilled at the floor of the Red Sea, thus, forming a Red Sea-Dead Sea transect extending from the desert belt to the Mediterranean climate zone. The Dead Sea accumulated flood sediments derived from three regional surface cover types: settled desert dust, mountain loess-soils and loess-soils filling valleys in the Dead Sea watershed termed here "Valley Loess". The Valley Loess shows a distinct 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7081 ± 1, inherited from dissolved detrital calcites that originate from dried waterbodies in the Sahara and are transported with the dust to the entire transect. Our hydro-climate and synoptic conditions reconstruction illustrates the following history: During glacial period MIS6, Mediterranean cyclones governed the transport of Saharan dust and rains to the Dead Sea watershed, driving the development of both mountain soils and Valley Loess. Then, at Heinrich event 11, dry western winds blew Saharan dust over the entire Red Sea - Dead Sea transect marking latitudinal expansion of the desert belt. Later, when global sea-level rose, the Dead Sea watershed went through extreme aridity, the lake retreated, depositing salt and accumulating fine detritus of the Valley Loess. During peak interglacial MIS 5e, enhanced flooding activity flushed the mountain soils and fine detritus from all around the Dead Sea and Red Sea, marking a significant "contraction" of the desert belt

  2. A revised global ozone dry deposition estimate based on a new two-layer parameterisation for air-sea exchange and the multi-year MACC composition reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhar, Ashok K.; Woodhouse, Matthew T.; Galbally, Ian E.

    2018-03-01

    Dry deposition at the Earth's surface is an important sink of atmospheric ozone. Currently, dry deposition of ozone to the ocean surface in atmospheric chemistry models has the largest uncertainty compared to deposition to other surface types, with implications for global tropospheric ozone budget and associated radiative forcing. Most global models assume that the dominant term of surface resistance in the parameterisation of ozone dry deposition velocity at the oceanic surface is constant. There have been recent mechanistic parameterisations for air-sea exchange that account for the simultaneous waterside processes of ozone solubility, molecular diffusion, turbulent transfer, and first-order chemical reaction of ozone with dissolved iodide and other compounds, but there are questions about their performance and consistency. We present a new two-layer parameterisation scheme for the oceanic surface resistance by making the following realistic assumptions: (a) the thickness of the top water layer is of the order of a reaction-diffusion length scale (a few micrometres) within which ozone loss is dominated by chemical reaction and the influence of waterside turbulent transfer is negligible; (b) in the water layer below, both chemical reaction and waterside turbulent transfer act together and are accounted for; and (c) chemical reactivity is present through the depth of the oceanic mixing layer. The new parameterisation has been evaluated against dry deposition velocities from recent open-ocean measurements. It is found that the inclusion of only the aqueous iodide-ozone reaction satisfactorily describes the measurements. In order to better quantify the global dry deposition loss and its interannual variability, modelled 3-hourly ozone deposition velocities are combined with the 3-hourly MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate) reanalysis ozone for the years 2003-2012. The resulting ozone dry deposition is found to be 98.4 ± 30.0 Tg O3 yr-1 for the ocean

  3. Pelvic floor imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.; Halligan, S.; Bartram, C. I.

    2001-01-01

    A greater awareness of the therapies now available for pelvic floor dysfunction has increased demand for specialized imaging of this region. Some of the techniques required are available at relatively few centers, and the purpose of this review is to introduce the emerging subspecialty of pelvic

  4. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damodararao, K.; Singh, S.K.; Rai, V.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    , constrain their transport pathways and assess the factors influencing the erosion in the catchment and their dispersal and deposition over the Andaman Shelf region. Major elemental compositions of the shelf sediments suggest mafic lithology...

  5. Annual dynamics of halite precipitation in the Dead Sea: In situ observations and their geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, Ido; enzel, Yehouda; Lensky, Nadav G.

    2017-04-01

    Layered halite sequences deposited in deep basins throughout the geological record. However, analogues of such sequences are commonly studied in sallow environments. Here we study active precipitation of halite layers from the only modern analog for deep, halite-precipitating basin, the hypersaline Dead Sea. In situ observations in the Dead Sea link seasonal thermohaline stratification, halite saturation, and the characteristics of the actively forming halite layers. The spatiotemporal evolution of halite precipitation in the Dead Sea was characterized by means of monthly observations of the i) lake thermohaline stratification (temperature, salinity, and density), ii) degree of halite saturation, and iii) textural evolution of the active halite deposits. We present the observed relationships between textural characteristics of layered halite deposits (i.e. grain size, consolidation, and roughness) and the degree of saturation, which in turn reflected the limnology and hydro-climatology. The lakefloor is divided into two principle environments: A deep, hypolimnetic and a shallow, epilimnetic lakefloor. In the deeper hypolimnetic lakefloor halite continuously precipitates with seasonal variations: (a) during summer, consolidated coarse halite crystals form rough surfaces under slight super-saturation. (b) During winter, unconsolidated, fine halite crystals form smooth seafloor deposits under high supersaturation. The observations also emphasize the thought regarding seasonal alternation of halite crystallization mechanism. The shallow epilimnetic lake floor is highly influenced by the seasonal temperature variations, and by intensive summer dissolution of part of the previous year's halite deposit which results in thin sequences with annual unconformities. This emphasizes the control of temperature seasonality on the precipitated halite layers characteristics. In addition, precipitation of halite in the hypolimnetic floor, on the expense of the dissolution of the

  6. Pelvic floor muscle function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the level of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) referred by gynaecologists and urologists for in-hospital pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), and to identity associated factors for a low level of PFM...

  7. Contemporary deposition and long-term accumulation of sediment and nutrients by tidal freshwater forested wetlands impacted by sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, Gregory; Hupp, Cliff R.; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary deposition (artificial marker horizon, 3.5 years) and long-term accumulation rates (210Pb profiles, ~150 years) of sediment and associated carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) were measured in wetlands along the tidal Savannah and Waccamaw rivers in the southeastern USA. Four sites along each river spanned an upstream-to-downstream salinification gradient, from upriver tidal freshwater forested wetland (TFFW), through moderately and highly salt-impacted forested wetlands, to oligohaline marsh downriver. Contemporary deposition rates (sediment, C, N, and P) were greatest in oligohaline marsh and lowest in TFFW along both rivers. Greater rates of deposition in oligohaline and salt-stressed forested wetlands were associated with a shift to greater clay and metal content that is likely associated with a change from low availability of watershed-derived sediment to TFFW and to greater availability of a coastal sediment source to oligohaline wetlands. Long-term accumulation rates along the Waccamaw River had the opposite spatial pattern compared to contemporary deposition, with greater rates in TFFW that declined to oligohaline marsh. Long-term sediment and elemental mass accumulation rates also were 3–9× lower than contemporary deposition rates. In comparison to other studies, sediment and associated nutrient accumulation in TFFW are lower than downriver/estuarine freshwater, oligohaline, and salt marshes, suggesting a reduced capacity for surface sedimentation (short-term) as well as shallow soil processes (long-term sedimentation) to offset sea level rise in TFFW. Nonetheless, their potentially large spatial extent suggests that TFFW have a large impact on the transport and fate of sediment and nutrients in tidal rivers and estuaries.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  9. Effects of dust deposition on iron cycle in the surface Mediterranean Sea: results from a mesocosm seeding experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagener

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil dust deposition is recognized as a major source of iron to the open ocean at global and regional scales. However, the processes that control the speciation and cycle of iron in the surface ocean after dust deposition are poorly documented mainly due to the logistical difficulties to investigate in-situ, natural dust events. The development of clean mesocosms in the frame of the DUNE project (a DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem was a unique opportunity to investigate these processes at the unexplored scale of one dust deposition event. During the DUNE-1-P mesocosm seeding experiment, iron stocks (dissolved and particulate concentrations in the water column and fluxes (export of particulate iron in sediment traps were followed during 8 days after an artificial dust seeding mimicking a wet deposition of 10 g m−2. The addition of dust at the surface of the mesocosms was immediately followed by a decrease of dissolved iron [dFe] concentration in the 0–10 m water column. This decrease was likely due to dFe scavenging on settling dust particles and mineral organic aggregates. The scavenging ratio of dissolved iron on dust particles averaged 0.37 ± 0.12 nmol mg−1. Batch dissolution experiments conducted in parallel to the mesocosm experiment showed a increase (up to 600% in dust iron dissolution capacity in dust-fertilized waters compared to control conditions. This study gives evidences of complex and unexpected effects of dust deposition on surface ocean biogeochemistry: (1 large dust deposition events may be a sink for surface ocean dissolved iron and (2 successive dust deposition events may induce different biogeochemical responses in the surface ocean.

  10. Detailed facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Tununk Shale Member, Henry Mountains Region, Utah: Implications for mudstone depositional models in epicontinental seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiyang; Schieber, Juergen

    2018-02-01

    Lower-Middle Turonian strata of the Tununk Shale Member of the greater Mancos Shale were deposited along the western margin of the Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway during the Greenhorn second-order sea level cycle. In order to examine depositional controls on facies development in this mudstone-rich succession, this study delineates temporal and spatial relationships in a process-sedimentologic-based approach. The 3-dimensional expression of mudstone facies associations and their stratal architecture is assessed through a fully integrative physical and biologic characterization as exposed in outcrops in south-central Utah. Sedimentologic characteristics from the millimeter- to kilometer-scale are documented in order to fully address the complex nature of sediment transport mechanisms observed in this shelf muddy environment. The resulting facies model developed from this characterization consists of a stack of four lithofacies packages including: 1) carbonate-bearing, silty and sandy mudstone (CSSM), 2) silt-bearing, calcareous mudstone (SCM), 3) carbonate-bearing, silty mudstone to muddy siltstone (CMS), and 4) non-calcareous, silty and sandy mudstone (SSM). Spatial and temporal variations in lithofacies type and sedimentary facies characteristics indicate that the depositional environments of the Tununk Shale shifted in response to the 2nd-order Greenhorn transgressive-regressive sea-level cycle. During this eustatic event, the Tununk shows a characteristic vertical shift from distal middle shelf to outer shelf (CSSM to SCM facies), then from outer shelf to inner shelf environment (SCM to CMS, and to SSM facies). Shifting depositional environments, as well as changes in dominant paleocurrent direction throughout this succession, indicate multiple source areas and transport mechanisms (i.e. longshore currents, offshore-directed underflows, storm reworking). This study provides a rare documentation of the Greenhorn cycle as exposed across the entire shelf setting

  11. Contribution of offshore petroleum deposits to marine food chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S.

    2009-12-01

    Petroleum production out of offshore petroleum deposits often coincides with abundant fisheries in the world. Superposition of marine microorganism concentration distribution and offshore petroleum field distribution from various data in the literature provides to prove this coincidence. Sakhalin Island coastal regions, North Sea, Gulf of Mexico, etc. are chosen for the superpositions. Significant conformity is observed between the plankton concentration distribution and the offshore petroleum deposit distribution in all those regions. Also, most studies on the consequence of oil spills to marine eco-systems have focused mainly on hazardous marine pollution caused by spilled petroleum at high concentration in marine environment. However, some of those data clearly indicate stimulation of plankton population in properly low concentration levels of dissolved hydrocarbons and dissolved petroleum compositions. Further, increase of hydrocarbon concentration leads to its inhibition from its stimulation conditions upon crossing over a critical concentration level—a plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration (SITC) of hydrocarbons. The SITC varies depending on hydrocarbon compounds, petroleum compositions, and microorganisms such as planktons. Further, petroleum composition diffusing through subterranean layers from petroleum deposits reacts with dissolved oxygen to be consumed at the ocean floor to precipitate the agglomerate suspension of hydrocarbons, leaving the sea water in a condition of oxygen depletion on the ocean floor. Such incidents are also briefly discussed.Plankton stimulation/inhibition threshold concentration of petroleum fractions

  12. Feasibility study of surveying an offshore gas reservoir by using low-frequency electromagnetic sounding: example of Shtokman deposit at Barents Sea (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikhov, E.; Zhdanov, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    We have studied the feasibility of using a low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) survey to search for hydrocarbons deposits in the prospective offshore anticline structures. Our study was based on an example of the well known Shtokman gas deposit. The problem was solved using three-dimensional numerical modeling of the EM field by the integral equation method. The different sources of the low-frequency EM field were considered. We calculated all six components of the electromagnetic field in the points located at the bottom of the sea within the area above the anticline for various frequencies in a range from 0.01Hz to 10 Hz. The computer simulation was done for a case where hydrocarbons were present in the reservoir and for a case where there were no hydrocarbons. The main goal of this computer simulation was to establish if there were detectable variations in the resistivity of a thin hydrocarbon-containing layer and that of the host rock to detect the presence of a deposit. We also investigated what are the most informative components of the EM field and what are the optimal parameters of the source (transmitter type, orientation, frequency, distance) for a hydrocarbon reservoir discovery. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the marine controlled-source EM method for offshore hydrocarbon exploration. These results can be used for the optimal marine EM survey design as well.

  13. Chronic pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dee; Sarton, Julie

    2014-10-01

    The successful treatment of women with vestibulodynia and its associated chronic pelvic floor dysfunctions requires interventions that address a broad field of possible pain contributors. Pelvic floor muscle hypertonicity was implicated in the mid-1990s as a trigger of major chronic vulvar pain. Painful bladder syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, fibromyalgia, and temporomandibular jaw disorder are known common comorbidities that can cause a host of associated muscular, visceral, bony, and fascial dysfunctions. It appears that normalizing all of those disorders plays a pivotal role in reducing complaints of chronic vulvar pain and sexual dysfunction. Though the studies have yet to prove a specific protocol, physical therapists trained in pelvic dysfunction are reporting success with restoring tissue normalcy and reducing vulvar and sexual pain. A review of pelvic anatomy and common findings are presented along with suggested physical therapy management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes......, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition...... to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif­ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down...

  15. Late Quaternary sea level and environmental changes from relic carbonate deposits of the western margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Rajagopalan, G.; Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    the entire margin. The age of these deposits on the continental shelf off Cape Comorin and Mangalore, between 110 and 18m depth, ranges between 12, 610 ¹4C yr BP and 6,390 ¹4C yr BP. On the northwestern margin of India, especially on the carbonate platform...

  16. Trace Fossils as Indicators of Depositional Sequence Boundaries in Lower Carboniferous Deep-Sea Fan Environment Moravice Formation, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehotský, T.; Bábek, O.; Mikuláš, Radek; Zapletal, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 14, - (2002), s. 59-60 ISSN 1210-9606. [Áelazno 2002. Meeting of the Czech Tectonic Studies Group /7./. Áelazno, 09.05.2002-12.05.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/0118 Keywords : trace fossils * Carboniferous * Deep- Sea Environment Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume14/G14-059.pdf

  17. Shifts in microbial community structure and activity in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea driven by the deposition of Saharan dust and European aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric deposition of gases and particulates from the Sahara Desert and European landmass is an important source of nutrients for the Mediterranean Sea. In this study, we investigated how such atmospheric input might affect bacterial metabolic activities and community dynamics in the ultra-oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Thus a mesocosm simulation experiment was conducted using pure Saharan dust (SD and mixed aerosols (A, polluted and desert origin. The cell specific bacterial production (BP was stimulated soon after the addition of SD and A, with a higher degree of stimulation being observed in the activity of Alphaproteobacteria than in Gammaproteobacteria, and this lead to significant increases in community BP. Subsequently, a shift between these two dominating classes was observed (such that the proportion of Gammaproteobacteria increased while that of Alphaproteobacteria decreased, along with significant increases in bacterial abundance and chlorophyll a concentration. After a few days, although the abundance of bacteria was still significantly higher in the SD- or A-treated groups, differences in the active community composition between the treatment and control groups were reduced. The altered activity of the two dominating Proteobacteria classes observed, might reflect their different strategies in responding to external nutrient input: with Alphaproteobacteria being more responsive to the direct dust input, whereas Gammaproteobacteria seemed to benefit more from the increase in phytoplankton biomass. In addition, the input of A had a stronger immediate effect and longer lasting influence on changing the active bacterial community composition than did that of SD. Our findings show that episodic atmospheric deposition events might affect the microbial community with regards to their abundance, activity and composition over a short period of time, and thus regulate the function of the microbial community and carbon cycling

  18. Volcano Instability Induced by Resurgence at the Ischia Island Caldera (Italy), and the Tsunamigenic Potential of the Related Debris Avalanche Deposits: a Complex Source of Hazard at Land-sea Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, S.; Zaniboni, F.; Pagnoni, G.; Marotta, E.; Della Seta, M.; de Vita, S.; Orsi, G.; Sansivero, F.; Fredi, P.

    2009-05-01

    Slope instability is a common feature in the evolution of active volcanic areas. The occurrence of mass movements is doubly linked to volcanism and volcano-tectonism, which act as either preparing factor (through increased topographic gradients or emplacement of unconsolidated deposits on slopes) or triggering factor (through earthquakes and/or eruptions). Debris avalanches and lahars in active volcanic areas are an additional factor of hazard, due to their high destructive power. Moreover, volcanoes located in coastal areas or on islands, may experience lateral collapses with the potential to generate large tsunamis. Ischia is an active volcanic island in the Gulf of Naples. Volcanism begun prior to 150 ka and continued, with periods of quiescence, until the last eruption in 1302 A.D. It has been dominated by a caldera-forming eruption (55 ka), which was followed by resurgence of the caldera floor. Volcanism and gravitational mass movements have been coeval to resurgence, which generated a maximum net uplift of about 900 m over the past 33 ka. Resurgence occurred through intermittent uplifting and tectonic quietness phases. During uplift, volcanism and generation of mass movements were very active. The resurgent area is composed of differentially displaced blocks and has a poligonal shape, resulting from reactivation of regional faults and activation of faults directly related to volcano-tectonism. The western sector is bordered by inward-dipping, high-angle reverse faults, cut by late outward-dipping normal faults due to gravitational readjustment of the slopes. The north-eastern and the south-western sides are bordered by vertical faults with right transtensive and left transpressive movements, respectively. The area located to the east of the most uplifted block is displaced by outward- dipping normal faults. Some giant landslides and their relationships with volcano-tectonism have been recognized at Ischia. Their deposits are intercalated with primary

  19. Characteristics and source appointment of atmospheric particulate mercury over East China Sea: Implication on the deposition of atmospheric particulate mercury in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Cheng, Na; Xiu, Guangli; Wang, Fujiang; Chen, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Huaniao Island in northern East China Sea (ECS) from March 2012 to January 2013. Chemical analysis were conducted to measure the concentration of total particulate mercury (TPM) and speciated particulate mercury including HCl-soluble particulate mercury (HPM), elemental particulate mercury (EPM) and residual particulate mercury (RPM). The bromine (Br) and iodine (I) on particles were also detected. The mean concentration of TPM during the study period was 0.23 ± 0.15 ng m -3 , while the obviously seasonal variation was found that the concentrations of TPM in spring, summer, fall and winter were 0.34 ± 0.20 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.03 ng m -3 , 0.15 ± 0.05 ng m -3 and 0.27 ± 0.26 ng m -3 , respectively. The statistically strong correlation of bromine and iodine to HPM was only found in spring with r = 0.81 and 0.77 (p mercury due to the deposition of mercury over the sea. The cluster of air mass across the sea had low concentration of HPM in winter, which suggested that the oxidation of mercury in winter might be related to other oxidants. During the whole sampling period, the air mass from the north of China contributed to the higher concentration of TPM in Huaniao Island. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic floor disorders in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thubert, T; Bakker, E; Fritel, X

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to provide an update on the results of pelvic floor rehabilitation in the treatment of urinary incontinence and genital prolapse symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle training allows a reduction of urinary incontinence symptoms. Pelvic floor muscle contractions supervised by a healthcare professional allow cure in half cases of stress urinary incontinence. Viewing this contraction through biofeedback improves outcomes, but this effect could also be due by a more intensive and prolonged program with the physiotherapist. The place of electrostimulation remains unclear. The results obtained with vaginal cones are similar to pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback or electrostimulation. It is not known whether pelvic floor muscle training has an effect after one year. In case of stress urinary incontinence, supervised pelvic floor muscle training avoids surgery in half of the cases at 1-year follow-up. Pelvic floor muscle training is the first-line treatment of post-partum urinary incontinence. Its preventive effect is uncertain. Pelvic floor muscle training may reduce the symptoms associated with genital prolapse. In conclusion, pelvic floor rehabilitation supervised by a physiotherapist is an effective short-term treatment to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of vertical movement of low elevation topography combining a new compilation of global sea-level curves and scattered marine deposits (Armorican Massif, western France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François; Robin, Cécile; Braun, Jean; Bauer, Hugues; Schroëtter, Jean-Michel

    2017-07-01

    A wide range of methods are available to quantify Earth's surface vertical movements but most of these methods cannot track low amplitude (5 Ma, e.g. cosmogenic isotope studies) vertical movements characteristic of plate interiors. The difference between the present-day elevation of ancient sea-level markers (deduced from well dated marine deposits corrected from their bathymetry of deposition) and a global sea-level (GSL) curve are sometimes used to estimate these intraplate vertical movements. Here, we formalized this method by re-assessing the reliability of published GSL curves to build a composite curve that combines the most reliable ones at each stage, based on the potential bias and uncertainties inherent to each curve. We suggest i) that curves which reflect ocean basin volume changes are suitable for the ca. 100 to 35 Ma ;greenhouse; period ii) whereas curves that reflects ocean water volume changes are better suited for the ca. 35 to 0 Ma ;icehouse; interval and iii) that, for these respective periods, the fit is best when using curves that accounts for both volume changes. We used this composite GSL curve to investigate the poorly constrained Paleogene to Neogene vertical motions of the Armorican Massif (western France). It is characterized by a low elevation topography, a Variscan basement with numerous well dated Cenozoic marine deposits scattered upon it. Using our method, we identify low amplitude vertical movements ranging from 66 m of subsidence to 89 m of uplift over that time period. Their spatial distribution argues for a preferred scale of deformation at medium wavelengths (i.e., order 100 km), which we relate to the deformation history of northwestern European lithosphere in three distinct episodes. i) A phase of no deformation between 38 and 34 Ma, that has been previously recognized at the scale of northwestern Europe, ii) a phase of low subsidence between 30 and 3.6 Ma, possibly related to buckling of the lithosphere and iii) a phase of

  2. Sea corrosion protection: comparison between aluminium covering deposited by thermal spray with compressed air, argon and nitrogen; Protecao contra a corrosao marinha: comparacao de revestimentos de aluminio depositados por aspersao termica com ar comprimido, argonio e nitrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Regina M.H. Pombo; Cortes Paredes, Ramon S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico]. E-mail: regina@demec.ufpr.br; ramon@demec.ufpr.br; ramon@lactec.org.br; Silva, Jose Maurilio da [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: maur�lio@lactec.org.br

    2003-07-01

    In this work, aluminium coverings deposited by thermal spray through different projecting gases were studied. Our aim was to evaluate the passive effect of the aluminium oxide in presence of different gases in order to choose the best condition against sea corrosion of ships, offshore and industrial installations. The aluminium coverings were deposited through electric arc thermal spray process, with pre-heating of the substratum and use of argon, nitrogen or air compressed. The evolution against sea corrosion was made through electrochemical tests, where anodic potentiodynamic curves were plotted. A 3,5% NaCl aqueous solution simulated the marine medium. The must protective covering was the one deposited with compressed air followed by the nitrogen and argon gases. All studied coatings showed corrosion potential that allows the steel cathodic protection. It was concluded that because the covering using compressed air, which is also the cheapest process, generates more oxide, the protection was enhanced compared to argon or nitrogen. (author)

  3. Evidence for late Holocene relative sea-level fall from reconnaissance stratigraphical studies in an area of earthquake-subsided intertidal deposits, Isla Chiloé, southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frostick, L.E.; Steel, R.J.; Bartsch-Winkler, S.; Schmoll, H.R.

    1993-01-01

    At Río Pudeto and Quetalmahue, two estuaries along the northern shore of Isla Chiloé that subsided as much as 2 m in the great 1960 earthquake, reconnaissance stratigraphical studies reveal evidence of a regressive, nearshore marine sequence. The intertidal deposits include a peat-bearing, high-intertidal marsh sequence as thick as 1.4 m overlying shell- and foraminifera-bearing silt and clay layers presumed to represent a deeper water, low-intertidal environment.Stratigraphy indicates a relative sea-level fall since about 5000 years BP as evidenced by radiocarbon ages that constrain the peat-bearing sequences. Locally, low-intertidal silt and clay overlie high-intertidal peat layers, but such minor transgressions cannot be correlated from site to site. At Río Pudeto, the youngest foraminifera-bearing silt deposit is no younger than 1200 years BP. The youngest age of shells at Quetalmahue is about 2600 years BP. The oldest peat-bearing deposits that are not overlain by silt deposits are about 1350 years BP at Río Pudeto, and as old as 4900 years BP at Quetalmahue. At Río Pudeto, peat-bearing deposits, which are overlain by silt and clay, range in age from 760 to 5430 years BP, and at Quetalmahue from 290 to 5290 years BP. A beach terrace on the northwest coast of the Isla is estimated to have been emergent since 1150 + 130 years ago.Although some relatively abrupt transgressions may be due to sudden coseismic subsidence, data are not sufficient to document regional subsidence during individual plate-interface earthquakes. Seven earthquakes in south central Chile since 1520, especially those that occurred in 1575, 1737, and 1837, are thought to have been of a magnitude comparable to that of the 1960 earthquake. Although the sedimentological effects of the 1960 earthquake on the intertidal zone were dramatic, only limited evidence of possible historic earthquakes is found on Isla Chiloé and nearby islands; the ages and displacements of these earthquakes are

  4. The tail of the Storegga Slide: Insights from the geochemistry and sedimentology of the Norwegian Basin deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W.; Holbrook, W.S.; Hill, T.M.; Haflidason, H.; Winters, W.; Lorenson, T.; Aiello, I.; Johnson, J.E.; Lundsten, E.

    2010-01-01

    Deposits within the floor of the Norwegian Basin were sampled to characterize the deposition from the Storegga Slide, the largest known Holocene-aged continental margin slope failure complex. A 29 to 67 cm thick veneer of variable-coloured, finely layered Holocene sediment caps a homogeneous, extremely well-sorted, poorly consolidated, very fine-grained, grey-coloured sediment section that is >20 m thick on the basin floor. This homogeneous unit is interpreted to represent the uppermost deposits generated by a gravity flow associated with the last major Storegga Slide event. Sediments analogous to the inferred source material of the slide deposits were collected from upslope on the Norwegian Margin. Sediments sampled within the basin are distinguishable from the purported source sediments, suggesting that size sorting has significantly altered this material along its flow path. Moreover, the very fine grain size (3·1 ± 0·3 μm) suggests that the >20 m thick homogeneous unit which was sampled settled from suspension after the turbulent flow was over. Although the turbulent phase of the gravity flow that moved material out into the basin may have been brief (days), significantly more time (years) is required for turbid sediments to settle and dewater and for the new sea floor to be colonized with a normal benthonic fauna. Pore water sulphate concentrations within the uppermost 20 m of the event deposit are higher than those normally found in sea water. Apparently the impact of microbial sulphate reduction over the last ca 8·1 cal ka bp since the re-deposition of these sediments has not been adequate to regenerate a typical sulphate gradient of decreasing concentration with sub-bottom depth. This observation suggests low rates of microbial reactions, which may be attributed to the refractory carbon composition in these re-deposited sediments.

  5. Anorectal and pelvic floor anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The anorectum and pelvic floor are crucial in maintaining continence, facilitating evacuation, providing pelvic organ support while in females the pelvic floor is part of the birth canal. The anal sphincter is a multilayered cylindrical structure, including the smooth muscle internal sphincter and

  6. Floor heating maximizes residents` comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirkkanen, P.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Storing heat in floors by using economical night-time electricity does not increase the specific consumption of heating. According to studies done by IVO, the optimum housing comfort is achieved if the room is heated mainly by means of floor heating that is evened out by window or ceiling heating, or by a combination of all three forms of heating. (orig.)

  7. Significance of relic carbonate deposits along the central and southwestern margin of India for late Quaternary environmental and sea level changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, V. Purnachandra; Montaggioni, L.; Vora, K. H.; Almeida, F.; Rao, K. M.; Rajagopalan, G.

    2003-06-01

    Environmental and sea level indicators were investigated using dredge samples from late Quaternary carbonate deposits along the shelf break between Goa and Cape Comorin, India. Geomorphic features in the area were identified from sonar profiles and included isolated patch reefs with a relief of up to 10 m, and linear reefs with reliefs between 2 and 15 m. The main clast types recovered from these features include fragmented corals and carbonate nodules dominated by either encrusted foraminifera or coralline algae. Some of these clast types are clearly of shallow-water origin. Fragments of reef-forming Poritid corals, for example, were collected off Mangalore at depths of 110-105 m and dated between 11,520 and 12,610 14C years BP (13.42-14.77 ka). Nodules of similar age dominated by Lithothamnium and capped by foraminiferal veneers were also collected at -90 m off Cape Comorin. Their altered algal tissues are consistent with formation in shallow water, high-energy conditions. In contrast, nodules recovered off Kochi and Mangalore-Goa are of deeper water origin, younger in age (10,980-7350 14C years BP), and are dominated by Gypsina encrustations with volumetrically less algal encrustation. They show cyclic succession of foraminiferal-algal, or foraminiferal-algal-coral laminations in which the algal species are typical of deeper waters. The age and elevation of corals and shallow-water nodules are both consistent with published glacio-eustatic sea-level curves. In addition, the alternate micro-encrustations of foraminifera, algae and encrusting corals could indicate changing conditions from nutrient-rich and turbid to nutrient-poor and clear water that may be attributable to seasonal variations in sediment flux caused by monsoons.

  8. Organic nitrogen and carbon in atmospheric dry and wet depositions in the southern East China Sea: its implication for new production in coastal region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. Y.; Yeh, J. X.; Lin, C. T.

    2016-02-01

    We collected 11 sets of size-segregated particulate aerosol (include coarse and fine particles) and 53 rain samples from January to December 2014 at a coastal city (Keelung) on the southern East China Sea. Here we present measurements of water-soluble inorganic/organic nitrogen and carbon (WSIN/WSON and WSIC/WSOC, respectively) in aerosol samples and dissolved inorganic/organic nitrogen and carbon (DIN/DON and DIC/DOC, respectively) in rain samples. In addition, 4-d back trajectories of air masses arriving daily at the sampling site were calculated to determine the potential aerosol source regions. The concentrations of water-soluble species in particulate aerosols were relatively high in March (WSON: 223±48 nmol m-3; WSOC: 203±51 nmol m-3) and dissolved species in rain samples were high in December (DON: 157±69 μM; DOC: 294±168 μM), which occur frequently during the spring and winter. The monsoon system of East Asia play a key role on the atmospheric composition of nitrogen and carbon, with higher loadings in northerly (winter to spring) than southerly (summer to autumn) monsoon periods, owing to strong emissions from the East Asian continent. Our results indicate that biomass burning and dust events yielded the largest concentrations of ON and OC not only on particulate aerosols but also in precipitations. For aerosols, the amounts of WSON and WSOC accounted for 42±8% and 80±7% of the water-soluble total nitrogen (WSTN) and carbon (WSTC), respectively. Additionally, the concentrations of DON and DOC accounted for 40±5% and 75±3% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and carbon (TDC), respectively, for precipitations. By using dry and wet deposition flux estimations, we estimated that the fluxes of WSTN/TDN and WSTC/TDC were 47.1±24.4 / 266±20 mmol m-2 yr-1 and 23±9 / 153±3 mmol m-2 yr-1, respectively. These results suggest that atmospheric deposition contributed approximately 25-34% of the annual biological new production in the southern East China Sea.

  9. Marine magnetic anomalies in the northeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.; Chaubey, A; Murty, G.P.S.; Rao, D.G.; Scherbakov, V.S.; Lygin, V.A; Philipenko, A; Bogomyagkov, A

    Based on the analysis of some additional magnetic profiles, an updated correlation and identification of the sea-floor spreading type magnetic lineations in the northeastern Arabian Sea is presented. The anomaly 24 A-B sequence, characteris...

  10. Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor - Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor Poster was created at NGDC using the Crustal Ages of the Ocean Floor database draped digitally over a relief of the ocean floor...

  11. Modern sedimentary facies, depositional environments, and major controlling processes on an arid siliciclastic coast, Al qahmah, SE Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhan, Abdullah I.; Yang, Wan

    2018-04-01

    The facies and environments along the arid siliciclastic coast of Red Sea in Al Qahmah, Saudi Arabia are studied to establish a depositional model for interpretation of ancient rocks deposited in rift settings. Field and petrographic studies of 151 sediment samples in an area of 20 km2 define seven main facies types: beach, washover fan, tidal channel, dune, sabkha, delta, and wadi (seasonal stream). The wadi and delta facies are composed of poorly to moderately well-sorted, gravelly, medium-to-fine sands. Delta-front sands are redistributed by southward longshore currents to form a beach. Beach facies is composed of well-to-moderately sorted fine sands with minor gravels, which contain high concentrations of magnetite, ilmenite, garnet, pyroxene, amphibole, epidote, titanite, and apatite grains, indicating strong winnowing. Crabs and other burrowers destroy primary sedimentary structures and mix sediments in foreshore and backshore of the beaches. Wind and storm surge rework foreshore and backshore sediments to form washover fans. Sabkha facies occurs extensively in supratidal depressions behind beach, are flooded by rainstorms and spring tide, and capped by a 5-cm-thick crust composed of interlaminated halite, quartz, albite, minor gypsum and biotite, and rarely calcium carbonate. Halite occurs as thin sheets and gypsum as nodules with a chicken-wire structure. Clastic fraction in sabkha sediments ranges from coarse silt to coarse sand with moderate sorting, and is transported by currents and wind. Tidal inlets and tidal creeks assume abandoned wadis and are filled by muddy sand. Sand dunes and sand sheets are 1-7 m high and widely distributed due to variable wind directions. Fine-grained dune sands are moderately well sorted, whereas sheet sands are coarser and poorly sorted due to vegetation baffling. Most eolian sands are sourced from beach deposits. This suite of complex riverine, wave, tidal, wind, chemical, and biological processes form the facies mosaic

  12. Strontium isotopes and water-rock interaction of the Agrokipia 'B' stockwork deposit in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus: a fossil subseafloor ore body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahata, H. (Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)); Scott, S. (University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada). Marine Geology Laboratory)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the formation of the Agrokipia B' stock work deposit in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus. Sulfide precipitation took place within pillow lavas in this deposit, and such a deposit has been considered to be originated on the sea floor by the emergence of warm fluids ln a situation comparable to that described at the Galapagos Spreading Center. On the core samples of Holes CY2A (694m) and CY4 (2263m) drilled in the deposit, water-rock interaction in pillow lavas and the sheeted dike complex below the ancient sea floor was studied. From Sr-Rb isotope analysis, it was found that the age of the formation of the deposit is about 90 Ma, and the hydrothermal alteration occurred on or close to a spreading axis was required. Local, secondary circulation systems are required to explain the strontium isotopes and water/rock data and probably are necessary for the formation of the subseafloor ore deposit. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Synoptic conditions of fine-particle transport to the last interglacial Red Sea -Dead Sea from Nd-Sr compositions of sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M.; Palchan, D.; Goldstein, S. L.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Tirosh, O.; Erel, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The last interglacial peak, Marine Isotope Stage 5e (MIS 5e), was associated with stronger northern hemisphere insolation, higher global sea levels and higher average global temperatures compared to the Holocene, and is considered as an analogue for a future warming world. In this perspective the present-day areas of the Sahara - Arabia deserts (the "desert belt") are of special interest since their margins are densely inhabited and global climate models predict enhanced aridity in these regions due to future warming. The Red Sea situated at the midst of the desert belt and the Dead Sea at the northern fringe of the desert belt comprise sensitive monitors for past hydroclimate changes in the Red Sea-Levant regions as global climate shifted from glacial to interglacial conditions. Here, we reconstruct the synoptic conditions that controlled desert dust transport to the Red Sea and the Dead Sea during MIS5e. The reconstruction is based on Nd-Sr isotopes and chemical composition of carbonate-free detritus recovered from sediment cores drilled at the deep floors of these water-bodies combined with data of contemporaneous dust storms transporting dust to the lake and sea floors. During Termination 2 ( 134-130 ka) the Sahara, Nile River desiccated and the Dead Sea watershed were under extreme dry conditions manifested by lake level drop, deposition of salt and enhanced transport of Sahara dusts to the entire studied transect. At the peak of the interglacial MIS 5e ( 130-120 ka), enhanced flooding activity mobilized local fine detritus from the surroundings of the Red Sea and the Dead Sea watershed into the water-bodies. This interval coincided with the Sapropel event S5 in the Mediterranean that responded to enhanced monsoon rains at the heads of the Blue Nile River. At the end of MIS 5e ( 120-116 ka) the effect of the regional floods faded and the Dead Sea and Red Sea areas re-entered sever arid conditions with salt deposition at the Dead Sea. Overall, the desert

  14. Pelvic floor physical therapy in urogynecologic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarinos, Rhonda K

    2003-08-01

    Physical therapists are uniquely qualified to treat pelvic floor dysfunction with conservative management techniques. Techniques associated with incontinence and support functions of the pelvic floor include bladder training and pelvic floor rehabilitation: pelvic floor exercises, biofeedback therapy, and pelvic floor electrical stimulation. Pain associated with mechanical pelvic floor dysfunction can be treated by physical therapists utilizing various manual techniques and modalities. Research documents that conservative management is effective in treating many conditions associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Research should be conducted to determine if addressing diastasis recti and contracture of the pelvic floor musculature should be a component of the standard physical therapy protocol.

  15. Floor cooler for floor trough of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Cooling pipes are situated below the floor trough of a BWR, which are connected to the annular distribution or collection pipes. The distribution and collection pipes are connected by parallel hairpin pipes with involute shape to the centre of the floor trough. These hairpin pipes are situated in a lower plane than the annular distribution pipe to the centre and in a higher plane from the centre to the outer annular collector pipe. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Price floors for emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Peter John; Jotzo, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Price floors in greenhouse gas emissions trading schemes can guarantee minimum abatement efforts if prices are lower than expected, and they can help manage cost uncertainty, possibly as complements to price ceilings. Provisions for price floors are found in several recent legislative proposals for emissions trading. Implementation however has potential pitfalls. Possible mechanisms are government commitments to buy back permits, a reserve price at auction, or an extra fee or tax on acquittal of emissions permits. Our analysis of these alternatives shows that the fee approach has budgetary advantages and is more compatible with international permit trading than the alternatives. It can also be used to implement more general hybrid approaches to emissions pricing. - Research highlights: → Price floors for emissions trading schemes guarantee a minimum carbon price. → Price floors mean that emissions can be less than specified by the ETS cap. → We examine how price floors can relate to different policy objectives. → We compare different mechanisms for implementing a price floor. → We find that a mechanism where there is an extra tax or fee has advantages.

  17. Neogene sedimentation on the outer continental margin, southern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallier, T.L.; Underwood, M.B.; Gardner, J.V.; Barron, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Neogene sedimentary rocks and sediments from sites on the outer continental margin in the southern Bering Sea and on the Alaska Peninsula are dominated by volcanic components that probably were eroded from an emergent Aleutian Ridge. A mainland continental source is subordinate. Most sediment in the marine environment was transported to the depositional sites by longshore currents, debris flows, and turbidity currents during times when sea level was near the outermost continental shelf. Fluctuations of sea level are ascribed both to worldwide glacio-eustatic effects and to regional vertical tectonics. Large drainage systems, such as the Yukon and Kuskokwim Rivers, had little direct influence on sedimentation along the continental slope and Unmak Plateau in the southern Bering Sea. Sediments from those drainage systems probably were transported to the floor of the Aleutian Basin, to the numerous shelf basins that underlie the outer continental shelf, and to the Arctic Ocean after passing through the Bering Strait. Environments of deposition at the sites along the outer continental margin have not changed significantly since the middle Miocene. The site on the Alaska Peninsula, however, is now emergent following shallow-marine and transitional sedimentation during the Neogene. ?? 1980.

  18. Submarine Depositional Terraces at Salina Island (Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and Implications on the Late-Quaternary Evolution of the Insular Shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Casalbore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated analysis of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and single-channel seismic profiles around Salina Island allowed us to characterize the stratigraphic architecture of the insular shelf. The shelf is formed by a gently-sloping erosive surface carved on the volcanic bedrock, mostly covered by sediments organized in a suite of terraced bodies, i.e. submarine depositional terraces. Based on their position on the shelf, depth range of their edge and inner geometry, different orders of terraces can be distinguished. The shallowest terrace (near-shore terrace is a sedimentary prograding wedge, whose formation can be associated to the downward transport of sediments from the surf zone and shoreface during stormy conditions. According to the range depth of the terrace edge (i.e., 10–25 m, compatible with the estimated present-day, local storm-wave base level in the central and western Mediterranean, the formation of this wedge can be attributed to the present-day highstand. By assuming a similar genesis for the deeper terraces, mid-shelf terraces having the edge at depths of 40–50 m and 70–80 m can be attributed to the late and early stages of the Post-LGM transgression, respectively. Finally, the deepest terrace (shelf-edge terrace has the edge at depths of 130–160 m, being thus referable to the lowstand occurred at ca. 20 ka. Based on the variability of edge depth in the different sectors, we also show how lowstand terraces can be used to provide insights on the recent vertical movements that affected Salina edifice in the last 20 ka, highlighting more generally their possible use for neo-tectonic studies elsewhere. Moreover, being these terraces associated to different paleo-sea levels, they can be used to constrain the relative age of the different erosive stages affecting shallow-water sectors.

  19. An upwelling model for the Phosphoria sea: A Permian, ocean-margin sea in the northwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, D.Z.; Link, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The Permian Phosphoria Formation, a petroleum source rock and world-class phosphate deposit, was deposited in an epicratonic successor basin on the western margin of North America. We calculate the seawater circulation in the basin during deposition of the lower ore zone in the Meade Peak Member from the accumulation rates of carbonate fluorapatite and trace elements. The model gives the exchange rate of water between the Phosphoria sea and the open ocean to the west in terms of an upwelling rate (84 m yr-1) and residence time (4.2 yr) of seawater in the basin. These hydrographic properties supported a mean rate of primary productivity of 0.87 g m-2 d-1 of carbon in the uppermost few tens of meters of the water column (the photic zone) and denitrifying redox conditions in the bottom water (below approximately 150 m depth). High rain rates, onto the sea floor, of the organic matter that hosted the phosphate and several trace elements contributed to the accumulation of phosphorite, chert, and black shales and mudstones. Evaporation in the Goose Egg basin to the east of the Phosphoria basin ensured the import of surface seawater from the Phosphoria sea. Budgets of water, salt, phosphate, and oxygen, plus the minor accumulation of the biomarker gammacerane, show that exchange of water between the two basins was limited, possibly by the shallow carbonate platform that separated the two basins.

  20. In-situ inventory of gas and gas hydrates in deposits of the Hâkon Mosby mud volcano, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, T.; Feseker, T.; Kasten, S.; Fischer, D.; Abegg, F.; Hohnberg, H.-J.; Bohrmann, G.

    2009-04-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes are an important source and reservoir of methane and other low-molecular weight hydrocarbons (LMWHC). Consequently, mud volcanoes located within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) are known to host shallow buried gas hydrates in high density. However, gas hydrate inventories in shallow mud volcano deposits are strongly affected by changes in local physico-chemical conditions due to episodic volcanic activity and response by fixation or release of abundant portions of LMWHC. We determined the in situ gas inventories in shallow deposits of the Håkon Mosby mud volcano (HMMV, SW Barents Sea) in approx. 1,250 m water depth by quantitative degassing of pressure cores recovered with our Dynamic Autoclave Piston Corer. As recognized during previous studies of the HMMV, a concentric arrangement of geochemical parameters and topographic features allow for the distinction of three geomorphological units (I, II, III). During our cruise in summer 2008 we recovered pressure cores (up to 2.65 m below seafloor, b.s.f.) from all the three units and volumetric gas-sediment (wet) ratios ranged between 2.6 in a core taken at the northwestern outer rim (Unit III), and 25.2 obtained for a core in the northeastern section (Unit II). Gas sub-samples collected during degassing of pressure cores belonging to the three units showed C1/C2+ ratios >1,000 suggestive of a predominantly microbial LMWHC origin. Hydrate stability calculations based on LMWHC distributions, pore water salinities and bottom water temperatures suggest that structure I hydrates are the most stable crystallographic hydrate structure at the HMMV. Pore water chloride and sulfate profiles combined with in situ temperature data were used to delineate local boundaries of hydrate accumulations in each of the three geomorphologic units. Subsequently, gas volumes in pressure cores were referred to core segments comprising gas hydrates, and hydrate concentrations were calculated. Low gas hydrate

  1. Dead Sea drawdown and monsoonal impacts in the Levant during the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfstein, Adi; Goldstein, Steven L.; Kushnir, Yochanan; Enzel, Yehouda; Haug, Gerald; Stein, Mordechai

    2015-02-01

    Sediment cores recovered by the Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) from the deepest basin of the hypersaline, terminal Dead Sea (lake floor at ∼725 m below mean sea level) reveal the detailed climate history of the lake's watershed during the last interglacial period (Marine Isotope Stage 5; MIS5). The results document both a more intense aridity during MIS5 than during the Holocene, and the moderating impacts derived from the intense MIS5e African Monsoon. Early MIS5e (∼133-128 ka) was dominated by hyperarid conditions in the Eastern Mediterranean-Levant, indicated by thick halite deposition triggered by a lake-level drop. Halite deposition was interrupted however, during the MIS5e peak (∼128-122 ka) by sequences of flood deposits, which are coeval with the timing of the intense precession-forced African monsoon that generated Mediterranean sapropel S5. A subsequent weakening of this humidity source triggered extreme aridity in the Dead Sea watershed and resulting in the biggest known lake level drawdown in its history, reflected by the deposition of thick salt layers, and a capping pebble layer corresponding to a hiatus at ∼116-110 ka. The DSDDP core provides the first evidence for a direct association of the African monsoon with mid subtropical latitude climate systems effecting the Dead Sea watershed. Combined with coeval deposition of Arabia and southern Negev speleothems, Arava travertines, and calcification of Red Sea corals, the evidence points to a climatically wet corridor that could have facilitated homo sapiens migration "out of Africa" during the MIS5e peak. The hyperaridity documented during MIS5e may provide an important analogue for future warming of arid regions of the Eastern Mediterranean-Levant.

  2. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca Rossetti, Salvatore

    2016-03-31

    Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  3. Functional anatomy of pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rocca Rossetti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Generally, descriptions of the pelvic floor are discordant, since its complex structures and the complexity of pathological disorders of such structures; commonly the descriptions are sectorial, concerning muscles, fascial developments, ligaments and so on. On the contrary to understand completely nature and function of the pelvic floor it is necessary to study it in the most unitary view and in the most global aspect, considering embriology, philogenesy, anthropologic development and its multiple activities others than urological, gynaecological and intestinal ones. Recent acquirements succeeded in clarifying many aspects of pelvic floor activity, whose musculature has been investigated through electromyography, sonography, magnetic resonance, histology, histochemistry, molecular research. Utilizing recent research concerning not only urinary and gynecologic aspects but also those regarding statics and dynamics of pelvis and its floor, it is now possible to study this important body part as a unit; that means to consider it in the whole body economy to which maintaining upright position, walking and behavior or physical conduct do not share less than urinary, genital, and intestinal functions. It is today possible to consider the pelvic floor as a musclefascial unit with synergic and antagonistic activity of muscular bundles, among them more or less interlaced, with multiple functions and not only the function of pelvic cup closure.

  4. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  5. Late Jurassic ocean anoxic event: evidence from voluminous sulphide deposition and preservation in the Panthalassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Tatsuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The historically productive copper-bearing Besshi-type sulphide deposits in the Japanese accretionary complex were formed as volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits on the deep-sea floor of the Panthalassa Ocean. Here we report that eleven typical Besshi-type deposits yielded Re-Os isochron ages around 150 Ma (148.4 ± 1.4 Ma from the composite isochron) in Late Jurassic time. This date coincides with the lowest marine (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio and highest atmospheric CO2 concentration of the past 300 million years. We infer that intense mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal and volcanic activity in the Late Jurassic produced huge sulphide deposits and large emissions of CO2 gas, leading to global warming and a stratified Panthalassa Ocean with anoxic deep seas that favored preservation of sulphides in the pelagic environment. The emergence of ocean anoxia triggered by seafloor volcanism is also consistent with a positive δ(13)C excursion and widespread deposition of petroleum source rocks and black shales.

  6. Pelvic Floor Dysfunction in Aging Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Den Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction may increase steadily during the aging process in women. Pelvic floor dysfunction may be associated with dysfunctions of micturition, defecation, prolapse, and sex. The natural history and mechanism of pelvic floor dysfunction in aged women are not well understood or explored. In this article, we review the effect of age on the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunction and on the structural and functional changes of the lower urinary tract, anorectum and pelvic floor. Altogether, the aging process has a negative impact on either the function or structure of the lower urinary tract, anorectum and pelvic floor in women.

  7. Steel-board composite floors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couchman, G.H.; Tomà, A.W.; Brekelmans, J.W.P.M.; Brande, E.L.M.G. van den

    1999-01-01

    Work currently underway in Holland aDd the UK aims to increase the already considerable potential for light steel framing in buildings by developing rules for so-called "dry composites". This paper discusses both theoretical and experimental work to develop validated design mies for floor systems

  8. Timber floors strengthened with concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blass, H.J.; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Schlager, M.

    1998-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are not new (Pokulka, 1997) and form a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the Jack of uniform design rules. In this research

  9. Flooring for Schools: Unsightly Walkways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Many mattress manufacturers recommend that consumers rotate their mattresses at least twice a year to help prevent soft spots from developing and increase the product's life span. It's unfortunate that the same kind of treatment can't be applied to flooring for schools, such as carpeting, especially in hallways. Being able to flip or turn a carpet…

  10. Response of benthic foraminifera to phytodetritus in the eastern Arabian Sea under low oxygen conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enge, Annekatrin; Wukovits, Julia; Wanek, Wolfgang; Watzka, Margarete; Witte, Ursula; Hunter, William; Heinz, Petra

    2016-04-01

    At water depths between 100 and 1500 m a permanent Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) impinges on the sea floor in the eastern Arabian Sea, exposing benthic organisms to anoxic to suboxic conditions. The flux of organic matter to the sea floor is relatively high at these depths but displays seasonal variation. Deposition of relatively fresh phytodetrital material (phytoplankton remains) can occur within a short period of time after monsoon periods. Several organism groups including foraminifera are involved to different extent in the processing of phytodetritus in the OMZs of the northern Arabian Sea. A series of in situ feeding experiments were performed to study the short-term processing (metabolic processes under hypoxic stress. Variable levels and ratios of phytodetrital carbon and nitrogen indicate specific nutritional demands and storage of food-derived nitrogen in some foraminifera species under near anoxia where the mean phytodetrital nitrogen content in foraminifera was elevated. In summary, foraminifera dominate the short-term processing of phytodetritus by fauna in the OMZ core but are less important in the lower OMZ boundary region of the Indian margin as a result of biological interactions and changes in the distribution of individual foraminiferal species.

  11. A comprehensive study of the origins of methane emission in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, P.

    2016-02-01

    Search and exploration of hydrocarbon deposits of sea and ocean floors is one of the most urgent problems of the modern marine geology. In Ukraine the problem of scientifically reasoned evaluation of reservoirs and specification of the prospects of natural gas production is highly important. However, a key question of the origin of the gas seepage and seabed flames remains controversial and has not yet been clarified. Materials for the study were compiled by an expedition of Department of Marine Geology and Sedimentary Ore Formation of Ukrainian National Academy of Sciences using a manned submersible in combination with conventional methods of marine geology. On the basis of this data, we analyzed the outside edge of the shelf, the continental slope, the adjacent area of the Black Sea basin and confirmed both endogenous and biogenic origins of natural gas at the sea floor. The study discloses specific tectonic and geodynamic conditions of the Cenozoic era, high fragmentation of the region, a frequent renewal of permanent fault systems that promotes an active lateral and vertical migration of large masses of hydrocarbons in the Earth's crust. The study found that the North Black Sea coast is a zone of active accumulation of natural hydrocarbons of various origins. As the next step of the studies, a detailed tectonic analysis can provide a substantial assistance to determine the prospects of developing energy resources and to prevent from errors in the assessment of commercial petroleum potential of the region.

  12. Using High-Resolution Swath Mapping Data and Other Underway Geophysical Measurements Collected during Transit Cruises of RV Isabu to Map Deep Sea Floor of the Pacific and Indian Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, G. H.; Lee, S. M.; Kim, D. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Detail images of the seafloor are often the first collection of clues that set one towards a path that leads to a new discovery. The mapping of unchartered seafloor is like exploring the surface of an unknown planet for the first time. The launch of new global-ocean-class RV Isabu operated by Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) in November 2016 has reinvigorated the ongoing open ocean research in Korea. The location of the KIOST research vessels can be found at http://www.kiost.net/. Here we present a new collaborative research and education program which utilizes onboard measurements taken during the transit cruises. The measurements include high-resolution swath mapping bathymetric data, underway geophysical measurements (3.5 kHz subbottom profile, sea surface gravity and magnetic field) which are gathered semi-automatically during a scientific operation. The acquisition of data alone is not sufficient for meaningful scientific knowledge as the initial measurements must be cleaned and processed during or after the cruise. As in any scientific endeavor, planning is important. Prior to the cruise, preliminary study will be carried out by carefully examining the previously collected data from various global databases. Whenever possible, a small offset will be made of the ship track lines crossing the region so that important new measurements can be obtained systematically over the years. We anticipate that the program will not only contribute to fill the gap in the high-resolution bathymetry in some part of the Indian Ocean and Pacific. The processed and analyzed data will be available to other scientific communities for further understanding via download from KIOST website.

  13. How Are Pelvic Floor Disorders Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print How are pelvic floor disorders diagnosed? A physical exam may be all ... fee ). This test is used to evaluate the pelvic floor and rectum while the patient is having a ...

  14. Determining sources of deep-sea mud by organic matter signatures in the Sunda trench and Aceh basin off Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omura, Akiko; Ikehara, Ken; Arai, Kohsaku; Udrekh

    2017-12-01

    The content, optically determined properties, and stable isotope composition of organic carbon in fine-grained sediment cores were analyzed to investigate the origins of deep-sea sediments deposited in the Aceh forearc basin and on the Sunda trench floor off Sumatra from the late Pleistocene to the Holocene. In the Aceh basin, the depositional frequency of turbidite mud decreased as sea level rose during the deglaciation. The terrigenous organic carbon content was high at the end of the last glacial period, whereas during the deglaciation most of the organic carbon was of marine origin. In the Sunda trench, the Holocene turbidites consisted of remobilized slope sediments from two different sources: sediments derived from the old Bengal/Nicobar fan included thermally matured organic fragments, whereas those derived from the trench slope contained little terrigenous organic carbon.

  15. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound in pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, A J; Solanki, D; Hamad, A; Morris, S J; Schizas, A M P; Williams, A B

    2017-01-01

    Imaging for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction includes defaecation proctography. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound (transvaginal, transperineal, endoanal) may be an alternative. This study assesses ultrasound accuracy for the detection of rectocele, intussusception, enterocele and dyssynergy compared with defaecation proctography, and determines if ultrasound can predict symptoms and findings on proctography. Treatment is examined. Images of 323 women who underwent integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound and defaecation proctography between 2011 and 2014 were blindly reviewed. The size and grade of rectocele, enterocele, intussusception and dyssynergy were noted on both, using proctography as the gold standard. Barium trapping in a rectocele or a functionally significant enterocele was noted on proctography. Demographics and Obstructive Defaecation Symptom scores were collated. The positive predictive value of ultrasound was 73% for rectocele, 79% for intussusception and 91% for enterocele. The negative predictive value for dyssynergy was 99%. Agreement was moderate for rectocele and intussusception, good for enterocele and fair for dyssynergy. The majority of rectoceles that required surgery (59/61) and caused barium trapping (85/89) were detected on ultrasound. A rectocele seen on both transvaginal and transperineal scanning was more likely to require surgery than if seen with only one mode (P = 0.0001). If there was intussusception on ultrasound the patient was more likely to have surgery (P = 0.03). An enterocele visualized on ultrasound was likely to be functionally significant on proctography (P = 0.02). There was, however, no association between findings on imaging and symptoms. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound provides a useful screening tool for women with defaecatory dysfunction such that defaecatory imaging can avoided in some. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. TINY FEET NO TREAT TO FLOORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMALLEY, DAVE E.

    A DISCUSSION OF FLOOR MAINTENANCE AND CARE INTERMS OF BROKEN, WARPED, AND OTHERWISE DAMAGED CONDITIONS WHICH OFTEN REQUIRE REPLACEMENTS GIVES SUGGESTIONS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF FLOORING MATERIAL. WOOD FLOOR CONDITIONS MAY INCLUDE--(1) CUPPED BOARDS, (2) BUCKLING BOARDS, AND (3) BROKEN BOARDS. A DETAILED DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF METHODS FOR REMOVING…

  17. Branding on the Shop Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Szilvia Gyimóthy; Louise Rygaard Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Service branding is a particular form of emotional management, where employees are regarded as adaptable media, who can be trained to convey corporate values while interacting with customers. This paper examines the identity work of butchers during the brand revitalisation campaign of Kvickly, a Danish supermarket chain. During the implementation of the “Best Butcher in Town”-project, Kvickly’s shop floor becomes an engineered servicescape where the norms of good salesmanship must be performe...

  18. Internal wave deposits in Jurassic Kermanshah pelagic carbonates and radiolarites (Kermanshah area, West Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Asad; Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy; Bádenas, Beatriz

    2014-12-01

    We report eventites generated by turbulence events triggered by breaking internal waves in Jurassic pelagic muds deposited in a graben area located between the Arabian and Bisotoun carbonate platforms, at the Kermanshah basin (West Iran). The 43 m-thick studied Pliensbachian-Aalenian succession at Kermanshah includes sponge spicule-radiolarian limestones and cherts with cm- to dm-thick intercalations of pyroclastic beds and coarse-grained deposits formed by neritic-derived grains and reworked pelagic material. Breaking of internal waves in localized areas reworked the available sediment on sea floor, including the erosion of cohesive pelagic muds and the resuspension of neritic-derived grains, which were resedimented from the Bisotoun platform most probably by storms or turbidity currents. The generated internal wave deposits include: flat- and round pebble limestone conglomerates, formed by deposition of pelagic clasts and neritic-derived grains near the breaker zone; laminated packstone-grainstones deposited by high-energy, upslope (swash) and downslope (backswash) flows; cm-thick packstone-grainstones with asymmetrical starved ripples and hummocy crossstratification, generated downdip by waning of backwash flows and internal wave oscillatory flows. These internal wave deposits predominate in the Pliensbachian-early Toarcian, and were related to internal waves developed along a thermocline linked to climate warming and excited by submarine volcanic eruptions, storms or tectonic shaking.

  19. An updated astronomical time scale for the Plio-Pleistocene deposits from South China Sea and new insights into Asian monsoon evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ao, H.; Dekkers, M.J.; Qin, L.; Xiao, G.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present an improved astronomical timescale since 5 Ma as recorded in the ODP Site 1143 in the southern South China Sea, using a recently published Asian summer monsoon record (hematite to goethite content ratio, Hm/Gt) and a parallel benthic δ18O record. Correlation of the benthic δ18O

  20. Scaling on a limestone flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Quiroga, P. M.; Blanco-Varela, M. T.; Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2012-04-01

    Natural stone can be use on nearly every surface, inside and outside buildings, but decay is more commonly reported from the ones exposed to outdoor aggressively conditions. This study instead, is an example of limestone weathering of uncertain origin in the interior of a residential building. The stone, used as flooring, started to exhibit loss of material in the form of scaling. These damages were observed before the building, localized in the South of Spain (Málaga), was inhabited. Moreover, according to the company the limestone satisfies the following European standards UNE-EN 1341: 2002, UNE-EN 1343: 2003; UNE-EN 12058: 2004 for floorings. Under these circumstances the main objective of this study was to assess the causes of this phenomenon. For this reason the composition of the mortar was determined and the stone was characterized from a mineralogical and petrological point of view. The last material, which is a fossiliferous limestone from Egypt with natural fissure lines, is mainly composed of calcite, being quartz, kaolinite and apatite minor phases. Moreover, under different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques (FTIR, micro-Raman, SEM-EDX, etc) samples of the weathered, taken directly from the buildings, and unweathered limestone tiles were examined and a new mineralogical phase, trona, was identified at scaled areas which are connected with the natural veins of the stone. In fact, through BSE-mapping the presence of sodium has been detected in these veins. This soluble sodium carbonate would was dissolved in the natural waters from which limestone was precipitated and would migrate with the ascendant capilar humidity and crystallized near the surface of the stone starting the scaling phenomenon which in historic masonry could be very damaging. Therefore, the weathering of the limestone would be related with the hygroscopic behaviour of this salt, but not with the constructive methods used. This makes the limestone unable to be used on restoration

  1. Marine Terrace Deposits along the Mediterranean Coast on the Southeastern Turkey and Their Implications for Tectonic Uplift and Sea Level Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, U.; Tüysüz, O.; Blackwell, B. A. B.; Genç, Ş. C.; Florentin, J. A.; Mahmud, Z.; Li, G. L.; Blickstein, J. I. B.; Skinner, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic movements among the African, Arabian and Anatolian Plates have deformed the eastern Mediterranean. These movements caused transtensional opening of the NE-trending Antakya Graben since the late Pliocene. Tectonic uplift coupled with Quaternary sealevel fluctuations has produced several stacked marine terraces along the Mediterranean coasts on the graben. Here, marine terrace deposits that sit on both flanks of the graben at elevations between 3 and 175 m were dated using electron spin resonance (ESR) method in order to calculate uplift rates. The ESR ages range from 12 ka in late MIS 2 to 457 ka in MIS 9-11, but most of the terraces contain molluscs reworked from several earlier deposits due to successive tectonic movements and sealevel fluctuations. By dating in situ fossils, along the basal contacts of the marine terraces, uplift rates were calculated on both sides of the Antakya Graben. Results indicate that these deposits were mainly uplifted by local active faults rather than regional movements.

  2. Primary production in the Sulu Sea

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greater primary productivity may provide the explanation for the higher deposition rate of carbon in the Sulu Sea. Although the Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea, the central area can still be classified as a desert. Estimates of the new primary production in the central Sulu Sea seem to be ...

  3. Mode of delivery and Pelvic floor disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, R.; Neelam, H.; Bashir, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare pelvic floor dysfunction in non pregnant women who had delivered vaginally versus those with cesarean delivery. Methodology: The prevalence of pelvic floor disorders among non pregnant women was assesses by using a standardized tool pelvic floor distress inventory short form (PFDI-20). Data was collected from Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Total numbers of participants were 278. 47.12% subjects had moderate, 36.69% miner and 16.19% had severe pelvic floor dysfunction. The symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse were more prevalent (mean value is 59.1876) than Urinary Distress (mean value is 40.5426), while the Colorectal-Anal Distress (mean value is 35.9150) were least prevalent. Conclusion: Pelvic floor disorders are very common among females and are strongly associated with mode of delivery. Although spontaneous vaginal birth was extensively associated with pelvic floor disorders the instrumental delivery affects most. (author)

  4. The colonisation of a former sea-floor by ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremer, P.

    2007-01-01

    Het gaat goed met de varens in de Nederlandse bossen. Zeventig procent van de soorten neemt toe in aantal. De groei is voor een belangrijke deel te danken aan nieuwe leefgebieden in de bossen van Flevoland, waar zich binnen enkele decennia `hotspots` voor varens ontwikkelden. Dat is op wereldschaal

  5. Sea floor geomorphology: Bathymetry investigations in the S22 cruise

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Evsykov, Y.D.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rai, S.N.

    stream_size 9 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_29.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_1998_39_29.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. An Approach to the Quantitative Study of Sea Floor Topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    108 Chile 0-3’ 6 111 Chile 3-5’ 10 48 Pacific-Antarctic 0-3’ 10 91 Chile 3-5’ 10 106 Pacific-Antarctic 0-3’ 10 135 130 Pacific-Antarctic 0-3’ 10 153... Chile 3-5’ 10 176 Pacific-Antarctic 0-3’ 10 204 Nazca-Pacific 0-2’ 16 102 Nazca-Pacific 0-2’ 16 164 133 It appears from these results that no...plate is used to explain the long linear chains of volcanoes , which grade in age from recently active to long extinct. There are, in addition, island

  7. LDEO Carbon 14 Data from Selected Sea floor Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Carbon-14 data in this file were compiled by W.F. Ruddiman and staff at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. Data include 974 carbon-14 dates...

  8. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  9. Enhanced Accelerated Drying of Concrete Floor Slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Niall; West, Roger P.

    2013-01-01

    Concrete floor slabs dry out through a process of evaporation and diffusion provided the ambient environment promotes such drying. Impermeable floor coverings laid on concrete slabs can be subject to damage caused by high levels of residual moisture trapped by premature sealing of the surface. This damage can include timber floor boards buckling, vinyls blistering or tiles lifting. Whether or not it is safe to apply such a covering depends on whether the slab is sufficiently dry. Furthermore,...

  10. Extreme Dead Sea drying event during the last interglacial from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.; Yasuda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The ICDP funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental record in the Middle East, drilling holes in a deep and a shallow site extending to ~450 meters. The Dead Sea expands during the glacials and contracts during interglacials, and the sediments are an archive of the evolving climatic conditions. During glacials the sediments comprise intervals of marl (aragonite, gypsum and detritus) and during interglacials they are salts and marls. We estimate that the deep site core spans ~200 kyr (to early MIS 7). A dramatic discovery is a ~40 cm interval of rounded pebbles at ~235 m below the lake floor, the only clean pebbly unit in the entire core. It appears to be a beach layer, near the deepest part of the Dead Sea, lying above ~35 meters of mainly salt. If it is a beach layer, it implies an almost complete dry-down of the paleo-Dead Sea. The pebble layer lies within the last interglacial interval. Our initial attempt to estimate the age of the possible dry down shows an intriguing correlation between the salt-mud stratigraphy of the Dead Sea core and the oxygen isotope record of Soreq Cave, whereby excursions to light oxygen in the speleothems correspond to periods of salt deposition. Through this comparison, we estimate that the dry down occurred during MIS 5e. The occurrence of ~35 meters of mainly salt along with the pebble layer demonstrates a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping as all the countries in the area use the runoff. GCM models indicate a more arid future in the region. The core shows that the runoff nearly stopped during a past warm period without human intervention.

  11. The study of major, trace and rare earth elements geochemistry in Shahrestanak Mn deposit, south of Qom: Implications for genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Maanijou

    2015-04-01

    source. As (Co/Zn-(Co+Cu+Ni diagram, the samples from Shahrestanak deposit show close similarities with hydrothermal deposits which in turn show common genesis. Using Pb versus Zn diagram, dubhite (deposits derived from previous mineralized sequence can be distinguished from other Mn oxide (hydrothermal or supergene deposits. The dubhite deposits have high Pb/Zn ratios and more than 1 percent Pb and Zn contents. Meanwhile, other types of deposits like shallow marine deposit, hot springs, SEDEX, weathered deposits have lower contents of Pb and Zn. The Shahrestanak deposit has more similarities with SEDEX and shallow marine deposits. Conclusion Geological and geochemical evidences show that deposition of ore occurred by submarine hydrothermal activities in Neotethys oceanic basin during Middle to Upper Eocene in calcareous tuff with intercalation of micrite and calcareous limestone. For the genesis of the deposit, it can be stated that the pillow basalt and andesite lavas were leached by hydrothermal activities and Mn, Fe, Si, Ba, Sr and As entered in sedimentary basin by exhalative – volcanic activities through faults, then by regression of the sea and forming oxidizing condition, primary oxide-hydroxide Mn-minerals are deposited. Acknowledgement We gratefully thank the Research and Technology Department of Bu-Ali Sina University for supporting the research. References Bonatti, E., Kraemer, T. and Rdell, H., 1972. Classification and genesis of submarine iron- manganese deposits of the ocean floor. In: D.R. Horn (Editor, Ferromanganese Deposits of the Ocean Floor. Aren House Harriman, pp. 149-166. Cann, J.R., Winter, C.K. and Pritchard R.G., 1977. A hydrothermal deposit from the floor of the Gulf of Aden. Mineralogical Magazine, 41(318: 193-199. Nicholson, K., 1992. Genetic types of manganese oxide deposits in Scotland: Indicators of paleo-ocean-spreading rate and a Devonian geochemical mobility boundary. Economic Geology 87(5: 1301-1309.

  12. Seasonal and annual fluxes of atmospheric nitrogen deposition and riverine nitrogen export in two adjacent contrasting rivers in central Japan facing the Sea of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Sugimoto

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insight for the region: Deposition rates of bulk N in each basin exceeded 1000 mg m−2 year−1, more than 60% of which was supplied from winter to early spring by westerly winds. Annual deposition rates in the two basins did not differ, but annual export rates of inorganic N from the Kita River were significantly higher than those from the Minami River. These results suggest that symptoms of N saturation in the Kita River forested watershed are more serious. Furthermore, recent increasing trends of riverine N concentrations may have caused shifts in the limiting nutrient for coastal primary production from N to phosphorous. We suggest reductions in nitrate exports from forests as a strategy to improve nitrate pollution to both downstream waters and coastal ecosystems; however such efforts would involve intercontinental-scale actions in reducing N emissions.

  13. River response to climate and sea level changes during the Late Saalian/Early Eemian in northern Poland – a case study of meandering river deposits in the Chłapowo cliff section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskalewicz Damian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS; upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.

  14. Paleomagnetism and rock magnetism from sediments along a continental shelf-to-slope transect in the NW Barents Sea: Implications for geomagnetic and depositional changes during the past 15 thousand years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricchi, C.; Lucchi, R. G.; Sagnotti, L.; Macrì, P.; Morigi, C.; Melis, R.; Caffau, M.; Rebesco, M.; Hanebuth, T. J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic data were measured on glaciomarine silty-clay successions along an E-W sediment-core transect across the continental shelf and slope of the Kveithola paleo-ice stream system (south of Svalbard, north-western Barents Sea), representing a stratigraphic interval spanning the last deglaciation and the Holocene. The records indicate that magnetite is the main magnetic mineral and that magnetic minerals are distinctly less abundant on the shelf than at the continental slope. The paleomagnetic properties allow for the reconstruction of a well-defined characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) throughout the sedimentary successions. The stratigraphic trends of rock magnetic and paleomagnetic parameters are used for a shelf-slope core correlation and sediment facies analysis is applied for depositional processes reconstruction. The new paleomagnetic records compare to the PSV and RPI variation predicted for the core sites by a simulation using the global geomagnetic field variation models SHA.DIF.14k and CALS7K.2 and closest PSV and RPI regional stack curves. The elaborated dataset, corroborated by available 14C ages, provides a fundamental chronological framework to constrain the coupling of shelf-slope sedimentary processes and environmental changes in the NW Barents Sea region during and after deglaciation.

  15. Insights into fluid flow and environmental conditions present in deep-sea hydrothermal vent deposits from measurements of permeability and porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbin, J. L.; Zhu, W.; Tivey, M. K.

    2008-12-01

    Evolution of permeability-porosity relationships (EPPRs) of different seafloor vent deposit sample types provide crucial information about how fluid flows within the deposits. In this study, we conducted permeability and porosity measurements on a wide range of vent sample types recovered from many different active seafloor vent fields. The sample set includes chalcopyrite-lined black smoker chimneys, Zn-rich diffusing spires (including white smokers), flanges/slabs/crusts (i.e., plate-like deposits that overlie pooled fluid), massive anhydrite, and cores recovered from the sides of vent structures. Using a probe permeameter, permeability measurements were systematically taken of each sample along several orientations. The measured permeability ranges over 6 orders of magnitude from 10-14 to 10-8 m2. Our data indicate that in general massive anhydrite samples are the least permeable with a mean at ~10-13 m2 and the samples from Zn-rich diffusing spires that were actively venting when collected are the most permeable with a mean at ~10-11 m2. With a mean at 10-11.5 m2, permeability data of flanges/slabs/crusts span over 4 orders of magnitude from 10-13 to 10-9 m2, the largest spread among all sample types tested. Permeability values of the outer portions of relict spires, ranging from ~10-13 m2 to 10-9.5 m2, displayed clear anisotropic trends: permeability along the radial directions is higher than that along the axial direction. Black smokers exhibit a strong layered heterogeneity, where inner chalcopyrite linings were significantly less permeable than outermost layers. To conduct porosity and directional permeability measurements, cylindrical cores will be taken from these vent samples. We will examine whether different sample types, or portions of samples, exhibit distinct permeability-porosity relationships, and will then use micro-structural observations of the cores to examine chimney growth processes (e.g., mineral deposition or cracking) that likely result

  16. Building with electromagnetic shield structure for individual floors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Nakamura, M.; Yabana, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Nagata, K.

    1991-01-01

    This invention relates to a building having a floor-by-floor electromagnetic shield structure well-suited for application to an information network system in which an electromagnetically shielded space is divided by individual floors and electric waves are utilized within the building on a floor-by-floor basis. (author). 8 figs

  17. Constructing international floors for language learning ends ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constructing international floors for language learning ends: reflectng on a teacher upgrading course. ... Journal for Language Teaching ... that teachers, as superordinates in an authoritybased relationship, may consciously construct configurations of the interactional floor to achieve pre-selected language learning ends.

  18. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a

  19. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000 psi...

  20. Minimising infection--from floor to ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Sarah

    2014-10-01

    Dr Sarah Peake, product sustainability manager at specialty chemicals company, Sika--which provides solutions for concrete, waterproofing, roofing, flooring, refurbishment, sealing and bonding, and industry--looks at the fundamentals for keeping floors, walls, and ceilings in hospitals and other healthcare facilities 'in excellent health'.

  1. Laparoscopic Pelvic Floor Repair Using Polypropylene Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Shien Weng

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic floor repair using a single piece of polypropylene mesh combined with uterosacral ligament suspension appears to be a feasible procedure for the treatment of advanced vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele. Fewer mesh erosions and postoperative pain syndromes were seen in patients who had no previous pelvic floor reconstructive surgery.

  2. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Jaap; Taylor, Stuart A.; DeLancey, John O.L.

    2008-01-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  3. Imaging pelvic floor disorders. 2. rev. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiology; Taylor, Stuart A. [University College Hospital, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Specialist X-Ray; DeLancey, John O.L. (eds.) [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). L4000 Women' s Hospital

    2008-07-01

    This volume builds on the success of the first edition of imaging pelvic floor disorders and is aimed at those practitioners with an interest in the imaging, diagnosis and treatment of pelvic floor dysfunction. Concise textual information from acknowledged experts is complemented by high-quality diagrams and images to provide a thorough update of this rapidly evolving field. Introductory chapters fully elucidate the anatomical basis underlying disorders of the pelvic floor. State of the art imaging techniques and their application in pelvic floor dysfunction are then discussed in detail. Additions since the first edition include consideration of the effect of aging and new chapters on perineal ultrasound, functional MRI and MRI of the levator muscles. The closing sections of the book describe the modern clinical management of pelvic floor dysfunction, including prolapse, urinary and faecal incontinence and constipation, with specific emphasis on the integration of diagnostic and treatment algorithms. (orig.)

  4. Effect of depositional environment and sources of pollution on uranium concentration in sediment, coral, algae and seagrass species from the Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Hilal, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Uranium concentrations were determined in sediment samples, four hard and two soft corals, one seagrass and four species of algae collected from phosphate-polluted sites in the northern reef area of the Gulf of Aqaba. High uranium concentrations were found in all samples examined from a phosphate-polluted site near a phosphate loading berth compared to the unpolluted ones. Uranium levels, U/Ca ratios, concentration and discrimination factors were also high compared to those reported from other regions of the world. The effects of the exported raw phosphate powder as the main source of pollution and depositional environment on the concentration of uranium in the examined species are discussed. (Author)

  5. A minimal molecular toolkit for mineral deposition? Biochemistry and proteomics of the test matrix of adult specimens of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakostis, Konstantinos; Zanella-Cléon, Isabelle; Immel, Françoise; Guichard, Nathalie; Dru, Philippe; Lepage, Thierry; Plasseraud, Laurent; Matranga, Valeria; Marin, Frédéric

    2016-03-16

    The sea urchin endoskeleton consists of a magnesium-rich biocalcite comprising a small amount of occluded organic macromolecules. This structure constitutes a key-model for understanding the mineral--organics interplay, and for conceiving in vitro bio-inspired materials with tailored properties. Here we employed a deep-clean technique to purify the occluded proteins from adult Paracentrotus lividus tests. We characterized them by 1- and 2D-electrophoreses, ELISA and immunoblotting, and using liquid chromatography coupled with Mass Spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS), we identified two metalloenzymes (carbonic anhydrase and MMP), a set of MSP130 family members, several C-type lectins (SM29, SM41, PM27) and cytoskeletal proteins. We demonstrate the effect of the protein extract on the crystals, with an in vitro crystallization assay. We suggest that this small set of biomineralization proteins may represent a 'minimal molecular crystallization toolkit'. Biominerals often exhibit superior chemical properties, when compared to their inorganic counterparts. This is due pro parte to the proteins that are occluded in the mineral. However, the limited available studies on biomineralization have not yet succeeded in identifying a minimal set of proteins directly involved in the formation of the biomineral in vivo and sufficiently required for in vitro precipitation. Indeed, the high number of proteins identified by high-throughput screening in the recent years does not encourage the possibility of recreating or tailoring the mineral in vitro. Thus, the identification of biomineralization proteins involved in protein-mineral interactions is highly awaited. In the present study, we used the sea urchin, Paracentrotus lividus (P. lividus), to identify the native proteins directly taking part in protein-mineral interactions. We employed an improved deep-clean technique to extract and purify the native occluded skeletal matrix proteins from the test and identified them by the highly

  6. Depositional sequences and facies in the Torok Formation, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    Brookian turbidites (Cretaceous through Tertiary) have become oil exploration objectives on the NorthSlope of Alaska during the past decade, and it is likely this focus will extend into the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPRA). A regional grid of 2-D seismic data, sparse well control, and field work in the Brooks Range foothills provide constraints for an ongoing effort to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for Brookian turbidites in the Torok Formation across NPRA. The Torok Formation and overlying Nanushuk Formation (both mostly Albian) display the overall seismic geometry of bottomset-clinoform-topset strata indicating northeastward migration of a shelf margin. Within bottomset and clinoform strata of the Torok, depositional sequences have been identified that represent four distinct phases of shelf-margin sedimentation. (1) Regression, representing low relative sea level, is characterized by the development of an erosional surface on the shelf and upper slope, and the deposition of turbidite channel deposits on the middle to lower slope and submarine fan deposits at the base of slope. These deposits constitute a lowstand systems tract (LST). (2) Transgression, representing rising relative sea level, is characterized by the deposition of a mudstone drape on the basin floor, slope, and outer shelf. This drape comprises relatively condensed facies that constitute a transgressive systems tract (TST). (3) Aggradation, representing high relative sea level, is characterized by the deposition of relatively thick strata on the outer shelf and moderately thick mudstones on the slope. (4) Progradation, also representing high relative sea level, is characterized by the deposition of relatively thin strata on the outer shelf and very thick mudstones on the slope. Together, deposits of the aggradation and progradation phases constitute a highstand systems tract (HST). Large scale geometries of Torok strata vary across the Colville basin. In southern NPRA, high

  7. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Soil Carbon Dynamics in Temperate Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ginzburg Ozeri, Shimon

    incubated in litterbags had significantly lower late-stage decomposition rates compared with control litter. However, potential respiration of forest floor and mineral soil was overall unaffected by the experimental N-additions. A temperature treatment of forest floor samples taken from one edge site...... by needle litterfall were generally not significantly affected by N deposition at the edge sites but tended to increase with increasing distance from the edge in two of the N-saturated sites. The experimental N additions resulted in reduced C inputs by foliar litter relative to control concomitant...... reduced belowground C inputs under elevated N deposition. At two edge sites, forest floor C outputs by respiration tended to decrease with decreased forest floor C/N and distance from the edge indicating positive effect of elevated N deposition on SOC sequestration. Correspondingly, N-enriched litter...

  8. Testing of the Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal Stories Contact About GI Motility Twitter Facebook ... Large Intestine Disorders of the Pelvic Floor Motility Testing Personal Stories Contact Anorectal and Pelvic Floor Area ...

  9. Pelvic floor and sexual male dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pischedda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The pelvic floor is a complex multifunctional structure that corresponds to the genito- urinary-anal area and consists of muscle and connective tissue. It supports the urinary, fecal, sexual and reproductive functions and pelvic statics. The symptoms caused by pelvic floor dysfunction often affect the quality of life of those who are afflicted, worsening significantly more aspects of daily life. In fact, in addition to providing support to the pelvic organs, the deep floor muscles support urinary continence and intestinal emptying whereas the superficial floor muscles are involved in the mechanism of erection and ejaculation. So, conditions of muscle hypotonia or hypertonicity may affect the efficiency of the pelvic floor, altering both the functionality of the deep and superficial floor muscles. In this evolution of knowledge it is possible imagine how the rehabilitation techniques of pelvic floor muscles, if altered and able to support a voiding or evacuative or sexual dysfunction, may have a role in improving the health and the quality of life.

  10. Anatomy and Physiology of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickmeyer, Sarah M

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the anatomic relationship of the pelvic floor muscles with the pelvic girdle, spine, and hips aids the rehabilitation provider in diagnosis, management, and appropriate referrals. The bony anatomy of the pelvic girdle consists of 3 bones and 3 joints. The pelvic floor muscles are comprised mainly of the levator ani muscles with somatic innervation from the lumbosacral plexus. The bony and muscular pelvis is highly interconnected to the hip and gluteal musculature, which together provide support to the internal organs and core muscles. Pelvic floor physiology is centered on bladder and bowel control, sexual functioning, and pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasound Imaging of the Pelvic Floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Daniel E; Quiroz, Lieschen H

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the background and appraisal of endoluminal ultrasound of the pelvic floor. It provides a detailed anatomic assessment of the muscles and surrounding organs of the pelvic floor. Different anatomic variability and pathology, such as prolapse, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence, vaginal wall cysts, synthetic implanted material, and pelvic pain, are easily assessed with endoluminal vaginal ultrasound. With pelvic organ prolapse in particular, not only is the prolapse itself seen but the underlying cause related to the anatomic and functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor muscle structures are also visualized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Environmental Settings of Homo-Sapience Dispersal and the Neolithic Revolution in the Dead Sea - Red Sea Rift Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Dead Sea-Red Sea Rift accommodated climatic and historic events that have fundamentally influenced the evolution of hominids. Among these developments, the Homo-Sapience (HS) dispersal "out of Africa" and the "Neolithic Revolution (NR)" represent major benchmarks. These developments occurred during the last interglacial and the post-glacial periods when the Red Sea - Levant region was overall arid. Nevertheless, wetter intervals prevailed within these arid periods, allowed the human culture development. The information on these wetter periods is stored in the sedimentary archives that were formed in the Rift. Lake Lisan that expanded all over the Dead Sea- Jordan- Kinnarot basin during the last glacial period retreated and contracted when the ice receded at the northern latitudes. At ~ 14-13 ka BP the lake dropped abruptly and deposited thick sequences of halite. Subsequently, terra rossa soil was re-mobilized from the Judea Mountains and accumulated along the Jordan Valley comprising the Fazael Fm. This soil and the availability of water in the Jordan Valley allow the establishment of the early agriculture settlements of Jericho, Gilgal and Fazael (at ~10-9 ka BP, the "peak" of sapropel S1, when enhance flow of Nile waters arrived to the Mediterranean). During the last interglacial HS dispersal occurs along the Red Sea- Jordan Valley corridor. Evidence for periods of wetness in this rather hyperarid region comes from fringing coral reefs along the Red Sea- Gulf of Aqaba shores, speleothems and travertines in the southern Negev desert -Arava valley and from lake sediments that were recently drilled at the deepest floor of the Dead Sea. All inventories indicate interval of enhanced wetness at ~ 128-122 ka BP, when sapropel S5 occurred. Thus, it appears that the periods of sapropels S1 and S5 were favorite for human culture development along the Red Sea - Jordan rift valley. Nevertheless, these human-development periods terminated abruptly at ~118-116 ka BP and

  13. The Law of the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  14. A Quantitative Visual Mapping and Visualization Approach for Deep Ocean Floor Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansteen, T. H.; Kwasnitschka, T.

    2013-12-01

    Geological fieldwork on the sea floor is still impaired by our inability to resolve features on a sub-meter scale resolution in a quantifiable reference frame and over an area large enough to reveal the context of local observations. In order to overcome these issues, we have developed an integrated workflow of visual mapping techniques leading to georeferenced data sets which we examine using state-of-the-art visualization technology to recreate an effective working style of field geology. We demonstrate a microbathymetrical workflow, which is based on photogrammetric reconstruction of ROV imagery referenced to the acoustic vehicle track. The advantage over established acoustical systems lies in the true three-dimensionality of the data as opposed to the perspective projection from above produced by downward looking mapping methods. A full color texture mosaic derived from the imagery allows studies at resolutions beyond the resolved geometry (usually one order of magnitude below the image resolution) while color gives additional clues, which can only be partly resolved in acoustic backscatter. The creation of a three-dimensional model changes the working style from the temporal domain of a video recording back to the spatial domain of a map. We examine these datasets using a custom developed immersive virtual visualization environment. The ARENA (Artificial Research Environment for Networked Analysis) features a (lower) hemispherical screen at a diameter of six meters, accommodating up to four scientists at once thus providing the ability to browse data interactively among a group of researchers. This environment facilitates (1) the development of spatial understanding analogue to on-land outcrop studies, (2) quantitative observations of seafloor morphology and physical parameters of its deposits, (3) more effective formulation and communication of working hypotheses.

  15. Biomechanics of the pelvic floor musculature

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, S.

    2006-01-01

    The present thesis was motivated by two main goals. The first research goal of the thesis was to understand the complex biomechanical behaviour of the pelvic floor muscles. The second goal was to study the mechanism of the pelvic organ prolapse (genital prolapse). The pelvic floor in humans is a very complex muscular structure. It is largely responsible for supporting both pelvic and abdominal organs and acts synergistically with the striated muscle of the anterior abdominal wall to generate ...

  16. Anonymous electronic trading versus floor trading

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, Günter; Hess, Dieter

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares the attractiveness of floor trading and anonymous electronic trading systems. It is argued that in times of low information intensity the insight into the order book of the electronic trading system provides more valuable information than floor trading, but in times of high information intensity the reverse is true. Thus, the electronic system's market share in trading activity should decline in times of high information intensity. This hypothesis is tested by data on BUND...

  17. Distribution and abundance of gas hydrates in near-surface deposits of the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano, SW Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Feseker, Tomas; Kasten, Sabine; Fischer, David; Bohrmann, Gerhard

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of gas hydrates at submarine mud volcanoes (MVs) located within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) is controlled by upward fluid and heat flux associated with MV activity. Determining the spatial distribution of gas hydrates at MVs is crucial to evaluate their sensitivity to known episodic changes in volcanic activity. We determined the hydrocarbon inventory and spatial distribution of hydrates at an individual MV structure. The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV), located at 1,250 m water depth on the Barents Sea slope, was investigated by combined pressure core sampling, heat flow measurements, and pore water chemical analysis. Quantitative pressure core degassing revealed gas-sediment ratios between 3.1 and 25.7, corresponding to hydrate concentrations of up to 21.3% of the pore volume. Hydrocarbon compositions and physicochemical conditions imply that gas hydrates incipiently crystallize as structure I hydrate, with a dissociation temperature of around 13.8°C at this water depth. Based on numerous in situ measurements of the geothermal gradient in the seabed, pore water sulfate profiles and microbathymetric data, we show that the thickness of the GHSZ increases from less than 1 m at the warm center to around 47 m in the outer parts of the HMMV. We estimate the total mass of hydrate-bound methane stored at the HMMV to be about 102.5 kt, of which 2.8 kt are located within the morphological Unit I around the center and thus are likely to be dissociated in the course of a large eruption.

  18. Revisiting Seafloor-Spreading in the Red Sea: Basement Nature, Transforms and Ocean-Continent Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapponnier, P.; Dyment, J.; Zinger, M. A.; Franken, D.; Afifi, A. M.; Wyllie, A.; Ali, H. G.; Hanbal, I.

    2013-12-01

    A new marine geophysical survey on the Saudi Arabian side of the Red Sea confirms early inferences that ~ 2/3 of the eastern Red Sea is floored by oceanic crust. Most seismic profiles south of 24°N show a strongly reflective, landward-deepening volcanic basement up to ~ 100 km east of the axial ridge, beneath thick evaporitic deposits. This position of the Ocean-Continent Boundary (OCB) is consistent with gravity measurements. The low amplitudes and long wavelengths of magnetic anomalies older than Chrons 1-3 can be accounted for by low-pass filtering due to thick sediments. Seafloor-spreading throughout the Red Sea started around 15 Ma, as in the western Gulf of Aden. Its onset was coeval with the activation of the Aqaba/Levant transform and short-cutting of the Gulf of Suez. The main difference between the southern and northern Red Sea lies not in the nature of the crust but in the direction and modulus of the plate motion rate. The ~ 30° counterclockwise strike change and halving of the spreading rate (~ 16 to ~ 8 mm/yr) between the Hermil (17°N) and Suez triple junctions results in a shift from slow (≈ North Atlantic) to highly oblique, ultra-slow (≈ Southwest Indian) ridge type. The obliquity of spreading in the central and northern basins is taken up by transform discontinuities that stop ~ 40 km short of the coastline, at the OCB. Three large transform fault systems (Jeddah, Zabargad, El Akhawein) nucleated as continental transfer faults reactivating NNE-trending Proterozoic shear zones. The former two systems divide the Red Sea into three main basins. Between ~15 and ~5 Ma, for about 10 million years, thick evaporites were deposited directly on top of oceanic crust in deep water, as the depositional environment, modulated by climate, became restricted by the Suez and Afar/Bab-el-Mandeb volcano-tectonic 'flood-gates.' The presence of these thick deposits (up to ~ 8 km) suffices to account for the difference between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden

  19. Analysing the Cenozoic depositional record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2008-01-01

    between the global climate record (oxygen isotopes) and lithology variations on the Eocene-Oligocene transition in the eastern North Sea. Due to the strongly limited time resolution of low temperature thermochronology, the Cenozoic sedimentary record potentially provides the most detailed history...... models. The matrix mass deposition history will be compared with the paleoclimate record (e.g. oxygen isotope curves) to see if the previously observed correlation in the eastern North Sea can be extended to other ages and locations.  ...

  20. [Migration of industrial radionuclides in soils and benthal deposits at the coastal margins of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management (SevRAO) and its influence on the possible contamination of the sea offshore waters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filonova, A A; Seregin, V A

    2014-01-01

    For obtaining the integral information about the current radiation situation in the sea offshore waters of the temporary waste storage facility (TWSF) of the Northwest Center for Radioactive Waste Management "SevRAO" in the Andreeva Bay and in the settle Gremikha with a purpose of a comprehensive assessment of its condition there was performed radiation-ecological monitoring of the adjacent sea offshore waters of the TWSF. It was shown that in the territory of industrial sites of the TWSF as a result of industrial activity there are localized areas of pollution by man-made radionuclides. As a result of leaching of radionuclides by tidal stream, snowmelt and rainwater radioactive contamination extends beyond the territory of the sanitary protection zone and to the coastal sea offshore waters. To confirm the coastal pollution of the sea offshore waters the levels of mobility of 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental chains and bond strength of them with the soil and benthal deposits were clarified by determining with the method of detection of the forms of the presence of radionuclides in these media. There was established a high mobility of 137Cs and 90Sr in soils and benthal deposits (desorption coefficient (Kd) of 137Cs and 90Sr (in soils - 0.56 and 0.98), in the sediments - 0.82). The migration of radionuclides in environmental chains can lead to the contamination of the environment, including the sea offshore waters.

  1. Messinian events in the Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Radionova, Eleanora P.; Golovina, Larisa A.; Raffi, Isabella; Kuiper, Klaudia F.; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2015-01-01

    Past hydrological interactions between the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea are poorly resolved due to complications in establishing a high-resolution time frame for the Black Sea. We present a new greigite-based magnetostratigraphic age model for the Mio-Pliocene deposits of DSDP Hole 380/380A,

  2. In-situ measurements of rare earth elements in deep sea sediments using nuclear methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obhođaš, Jasmina; Sudac, Davorin; Meric, Ilker; Pettersen, Helge E S; Uroić, Milivoj; Nađ, Karlo; Valković, Vlado

    2018-03-21

    The prospecting activities for finding new rare earth elements (REE) sources have increased greatly in recent years. One of the main discoveries was announced in 2011 by Japanese researchers who found large quantities of REE on the ocean seafloor at the sea depths greater than 4,000 m. The classic approach to investigate REE in deep sea sediments is to obtain sediment samples by drilling that is followed by laborious laboratory analysis. This is very expensive, time consuming and not appropriate for exploring vast areas. In order to efficiently explore the ocean floor for REE deposits, the further development of affordable sensors is needed. Here, we propose two nuclear techniques for exploring REE in surface deep sea sediments: i) Passive measurement of lutetium-176 radioactivity, appropriate if long-term in-situ measurements are possible, and ii) The use of the neutron sensor attached to a remotely operated vehicle for rapid in-situ measurement of gadolinium by thermal neutron-capture. Since concentrations of lutetium and gadolinium show strong linear correlation to the total REE concentrations in deep sea sediments, it is possible to deduce the total REE content by measuring Lu or Gd concentrations only.

  3. Some Passive Damping Sources on Flooring Systems besides the TMD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    damping to the structure. Basically also passive humans on a floor act as a damping source, but it also turns out from doing system identification tests with a floor strip that a quite simple set-up installed on the floor (cheap and readily at hand) might do a good job in terms of reducing vertical floor...

  4. A novel & affordable interactive floor for educational applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Ulrik; Hansen, Anders Juul; Knudsen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    This article examines two research areas: How interactive floors can be used beneficially in an educational context, and how an interactive floor can be created which is mobile and relatively inexpensive.......This article examines two research areas: How interactive floors can be used beneficially in an educational context, and how an interactive floor can be created which is mobile and relatively inexpensive....

  5. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  6. Controls on the molecular and carbon isotopic composition of organic matter deposited in a Kimmeridgian euxinic shelf sea: evidence for preservation of carbohydrates through sulfurisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kaam-Peters, Heidy M. E.; Schouten, Stefan; Köster, Jörgen; Sinninghe Damstè, Jaap S.

    1998-10-01

    Thirteen samples from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation (KCF) in Dorset, covering all different lithologies, were studied using bulk and molecular geochemical and microscopical techniques. Our data show that the positive correlation between TOC and δ 13C TOC reported for shales (Huc et al., 1992) also holds for other lithologies (e.g., limestones) if we correct for dilution by carbonate (TOC∗). Despite the wide range of δ 13C TOC values (-26.7 to -20.7‰), the δ 13C values of individual biomarkers of algal and green sulfur bacterial origin and of kerogen pyrolysis products (i.e., n-alkanes) show in general only small changes (Kerogen pyrolysates indicated that with increasing TOC∗, and thus increasing δ 13C TOC, carbon isotopically heavy C 1-C 3 alkylated thiophenes with a linear carbon skeleton become increasingly abundant; in the case of the Blackstone Band kerogen (TOC∗ = 63%) they dominate the pyrolysate. These thiophenes are probably derived from sulfur-bound carbohydrates in the kerogen. Algal carbohydrates are typically 5-10‰ heavier than algal lipids and differences in preservation of labile carbohydrate carbon through sulfurisation may thus explain the range in δ 13C TOC values without the need to invoke any change in water column conditions. The increasing dominance of thiophenes in the kerogen pyrolysate with increasing TOC∗ is consistent with the increasing Sulfur Index (mg S org/g TOC), the decreasing S PYRITE/S TOT ratio, and the increasing dominance of orange amorphous organic matter produced by natural sulfurisation. The organic matter of all sediments was deposited under euxinic conditions as revealed by the occurrence of isorenieratene derivatives indicating (periodic) photic zone euxinia. At times of reduced run-off from the hinterland, represented by so-called condensed sections, the flux of reactive iron was relatively small compared to the flux of reactive organic matter, which resulted in the formation of relatively small amounts

  7. Evidence for a Middle Pleistocene glaciation of MIS 8 age in the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beets, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the coresof borehole 89/2, situated at 541 00 010N and 51 00 040E about 70 km north of the Frisian Islands in the southern North Sea, two diamictonsle vels are found at 770 and 100m below sea floor (i.e. 7110 and 140 below present sea level), respectively. Both diamictonsap pear to be older than

  8. Subsurface deposition of Cu-rich massive sulphide underneath a Palaeoproterozoic seafloor hydrothermal system—the Red Bore prospect, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agangi, Andrea; Reddy, S. M.; Plavsa, D.; Vieru, C.; Selvaraja, V.; LaFlamme, C.; Jeon, H.; Martin, L.; Nozaki, T.; Takaya, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2018-02-01

    The Proterozoic Bryah and Yerrida basins of Western Australia contain important base and precious metal deposits. Here we present microtextural data, trace element and S isotope analyses of massive sulphide mineralisation hosted in Palaeoproterozoic subvolcanic rocks (dolerite) recently discovered at Red Bore. The small-scale high-grade mineralisation, which extends from the sub-surface to at least 95 m down-hole, is dominated by massive chalcopyrite and contains minor pyrite and Bi-Te-(Se) phases. Massive sulphide mineralisation is surrounded by discontinuous brecciated massive magnetite, and a narrow (contains up to 10 ppm Au and in excess of 100 ppm Ag. Sulphur isotope analyses of pyrite and chalcopyrite indicate a narrow range of δ34SVCD (- 0.2 to + 4.6 ‰), and no significant mass-independent fractionation (- 0.1 sea water contributed to sea floor mineralisation similar to neighbouring VHMS deposits. Our data are permissive of a genetic association of Red Bore mineralisation with VHMS deposits nearby, thus suggesting a direct connection between magmatism and mineralising fluids responsible for VHMS deposition at surface. Therefore, the Red Bore mineralisation may represent the magmatic roots of a VHMS system.

  9. Flooring-systems and their interaction with usage of the floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Frier, Christian; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    Some flooring-system designs might be sensitive to their vibrational performance, as there might be the risk that serviceability-limit-state problems may be encountered. For evaluating the vibrational performance of the flooring-system at the design stage, decisions need to be made by the enginee...

  10. Total pelvic floor ultrasound for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction: a pictorial review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Deepa; Schizas, Alexis M P; Williams, Andrew B

    2015-01-01

    Total pelvic floor ultrasound is used for the dynamic assessment of pelvic floor dysfunction and allows multicompartmental anatomical and functional assessment. Pelvic floor dysfunction includes defaecatory, urinary and sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and pain. It is common, increasingly recognized and associated with increasing age and multiparity. Other options for assessment include defaecation proctography and defaecation MRI. Total pelvic floor ultrasound is a cheap, safe, imaging tool, which may be performed as a first-line investigation in outpatients. It allows dynamic assessment of the entire pelvic floor, essential for treatment planning for females who often have multiple diagnoses where treatment should address all aspects of dysfunction to yield optimal results. Transvaginal scanning using a rotating single crystal probe provides sagittal views of bladder neck support anteriorly. Posterior transvaginal ultrasound may reveal rectocoele, enterocoele or intussusception whilst bearing down. The vaginal probe is also used to acquire a 360° cross-sectional image to allow anatomical visualization of the pelvic floor and provides information regarding levator plate integrity and pelvic organ alignment. Dynamic transperineal ultrasound using a conventional curved array probe provides a global view of the anterior, middle and posterior compartments and may show cystocoele, enterocoele, sigmoidocoele or rectocoele. This pictorial review provides an atlas of normal and pathological images required for global pelvic floor assessment in females presenting with defaecatory dysfunction. Total pelvic floor ultrasound may be used with complementary endoanal ultrasound to assess the sphincter complex, but this is beyond the scope of this review. PMID:26388109

  11. Submarine slides, slumps and turbidites in relation to various tectonic and sedimentary processes in the Çinarcik Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Mustafa; Sakitas, Alper; Sarikavak, Kerim; Keskin, Seref

    2013-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine and understand the impacts of the climatic changes, active tectonism, slope instability and sediment mass movements in the eastern Marmara Sea (Turkey) during the Holocene. Of these, sea level changes, earth quakes, slides, slumps and turbidites were considered to be the major causes to shape the seafloor in the region. With this in mind and within a framework of a larger Project (TÜBİTAK-YDABAG 101Y071), after the major earthquake of 17 August 1999 in Kocaeli-Turkey, both sediment samples and seismic reflection profiles were obtained during the August 2000 Cruise of the Research Vessel "MTA "SİSMİK 1" at water depths between 58 and 1249 meters in the Çınarcık Basin of the eastern Marmara Sea (NW Turkey). Offshore studies covered shelf, slope and basin-floor subenvironments. Onboard, airgun and multichannel seismic reflection system was used along 7 tracklines aligned to N-S and E-W directions. At 15 sites gravity cores were deployed and from 53 to 367 cm thick core sediments were obtained. Grain size analysis, visual core descriptions, and conventional radicarbon datings were also made. To interpret seismic profiles, well-known seismic facies analysis and stratigraphic methods were applied. Fine-grained and grayish-green colored siliciclastic mud was the dominant sediment type (also called "homogenite") deposited on the floor. The coarser-grained intervals and laminations would likely suggest effects of not only turbidites from active tectonism but they can also be related to the wind-driven offshore storm deposits and river floods after heavy rain-falls. Active normal faults on the shelves, fault scarps along the slopes and negative flower structure of syntectonic sedimentation in the deep basin floor observed on the seismic profiles all must indicate the consequences of westerly extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone in the Marmara Sea. Seismic profiles displayed sediment structures of underwater

  12. WOODEN FLOORING – BETWEEN PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan CISMARU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presenting a systematization of the wood floors, both in terms of the areas of application, and in terms of the fastening solutions and structures in constructions. In this respect, an extensive bibliographic research was achieved, on the researchers’ preoccupations. Starting from the current situation and forecasting the future, from the point of view of the chances held by wooden flooring, in competition with other types of materials, we dare say the wooden flooring or the wood in combination with other materials are not likely to be eliminated from the “civil-engineering market”. The wood floors are likely to develop as an application, especially in the area of the “special floors”, specific to the indoor sports or social halls; and even for some industrial sectors, with strict operating conditions (elasticity, thermal insulation, soundproofing that cannot be provided by other types of materials or structures. Starting from this last observation, the paper also aims at submitting current opinions with respect to this type of floors, both in the light of the current databases and in the light of the future researches, to this end

  13. Glazed Tiles as Floor Finish in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyin Emmanuel AKINDE

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tile is no doubt rich in antiquity; its primordial  show, came as mosaic with primary prospect in sacred floor finish before its oblivion, courtesy of, later consciousness towards wall finish in banquets, kitchens, toilets, restaurants and even bars. Today, its renaissance as floor finish is apparent in private and public architectural structures with prevalence in residential, recreational, commercial, governmental and other spaces. In Nigeria, the use of glazed tiles as floor finish became apparent, supposedly in mid-twentieth century; and has since, witnessed ever increasing demands from all sundry; a development that is nascent and has necessitated its mass  production locally with pockets of firms in the country. The latter however, is a resultant response to taste cum glazed tiles affordability, whose divergent sophistication in design, colour, size and shape is believed preferred to terrazzo, carpet and floor flex tile. Accessible as glazed tile and production is, in recent times; its dearth of a holistic literature in Nigeria is obvious. In the light of the latter, this paper examine glazed tiles as floor finish in Nigeria, its advent, usage, production, challenge, benefit and prospect with the hope of opening further frontier in discipline specifics.

  14. Pelvic floor health: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Heather; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Chiarelli, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    To report an analysis of the concept 'pelvic floor health'. 'Pelvic floor health' is a term used by multiple healthcare disciplines, yet as a concept is not well defined. Rodger's evolutionary view was used to guide this analysis. Academic literature databases and public domain websites viewed via the Internet search engine Google. Literature in English, published 1946-July 2014 was reviewed. Websites were accessed in May 2014, then analysed of presentation for relevance and content until data saturation. Thematic analysis identified attributes, antecedents and consequences of the concept. Based on the defining attributes identified in the analysis, a contemporary definition is offered. 'Pelvic floor health' is the physical and functional integrity of the pelvic floor unit through the life stages of an individual (male or female), permitting an optimal quality of life through its multifunctional role, where the individual possesses or has access to knowledge, which empowers the ability to prevent or manage dysfunction. This analysis provides a definition of 'pelvic floor health' that is based on a current shared meaning and distinguishes the term from medical and lay terms in a complex, multifaceted and often under-reported area of healthcare knowledge. This definition provides a basis for theory development in future research, by focusing on health rather than disorders or dysfunction. Further development of the meaning is required in an individual's social context, to ensure a contemporaneous understanding in a dynamic system of healthcare provision. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of Floor Covering Resistance of a Radiant Floor on System Energy and Exergy Performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazanci, Ongun Berk; Shukuya, Masanori; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    Floor covering resistance (material and thickness) can be influenced by subjective choices (architectural design, interior design, texture, etc.) with significant effects on the performance of a radiant heating and cooling system. To study the effects of floor covering resistance on system...... performance, a water-based radiant floor heating and cooling system (dry, wooden construction) was considered to be coupled to an air-to-water heat pump, and the effects of varying floor covering resistances (0.05 m2K/W, 0.09 m2K/W and 0.15 m2K/W) on system performance were analyzed in terms of energy...... and exergy. In order to achieve the same heating and cooling outputs, higher average water temperatures are required in the heating mode (and lower temperatures in the cooling mode) with increasing floor covering resistance. These temperature requirements decrease the heat pump’s performance (lower...

  16. Tsunami deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The NSC (the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan) demand to survey on tsunami deposits by use of various technical methods (Dec. 2011), because tsunami deposits have useful information on tsunami activity, tsunami source etc. However, there are no guidelines on tsunami deposit survey in JAPAN. In order to prepare the guideline of tsunami deposits survey and evaluation and to develop the method of tsunami source estimation on the basis of tsunami deposits, JNES carried out the following issues; (1) organizing information of paleoseismological record and tsunami deposit by literature research, (2) field survey on tsunami deposit, and (3) designing the analysis code of sediment transport due to tsunami. As to (1), we organize the information gained about tsunami deposits in the database. As to (2), we consolidate methods for surveying and identifying tsunami deposits in the lake based on results of the field survey in Fukui Pref., carried out by JNES. In addition, as to (3), we design the experimental instrument for hydraulic experiment on sediment transport and sedimentation due to tsunamis. These results are reflected in the guideline on the tsunami deposits survey and evaluation. (author)

  17. Dermoid cyst in the mouth floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelles Masso, Ayelen Maria; Torres Inniguez, Ailin Tamara.

    2010-01-01

    The Dermoid cyst account for the 0.01 % of all cysts of buccal cavity. Its more frequent location is in the mouth floor. This is the case of a female patient aged 19 who approximately 7 years noted an increase of volume under tongue growing gradually and noting outside face and the discomfort at to speak and to chew. Complementary studies were conducted and under general anesthesia a surgical exeresis was carried out by intrabuccal approach achieving excellent esthetic and functional results. Histopathologic diagnosis matched with a dermoid cyst of mouth floor. Patient has not lesion recurrence after three years after operation. We conclude that the Dermoid cyst of mouth floor appear as benign tumor of middle line. The intrabuccal exeresis demonstrates esthetic and functional benefits. (author)

  18. Development of rationalized system treating floor drain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Serizawa, Kenichi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Shimizu, Takayuki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive liquid wastes generated at BWR plants are collected and treated as required. These days, however, generation of floor drain has deceased and HFF (Hollow Fiber Filter) has experienced a wide applicability to several kinds of liquid wastes. We should consider that the floor drain can be mixed and diluted with equipment drain and be purified by HFF. That enables some of the sumps and long priming pipes to be combined. From this point of view, we have developed a highly rationalized waste liquid system. We have evaluated the applicability of this system after an investigation into the generation and properties of floor drain and equipment drain at the latest BWR'S and an on-site test at a typical BWR. (author)

  19. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoker, Jaap [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St. Mark' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-04-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  20. Imaging of the posterior pelvic floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, Jaap; Bartram, Clive I.; Halligan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Disorders of the posterior pelvic floor are relatively common. The role of imaging in this field is increasing, especially in constipation, prolapse and anal incontinence, and currently imaging is an integral part of the investigation of these pelvic floor disorders. Evacuation proctography provides both structural and functional information for rectal voiding and prolapse. Dynamic MRI may be a valuable alternative as the pelvic floor muscles are visualised, and it is currently under evaluation. Endoluminal imaging is important in the management of anal incontinence. Both endosonography and endoanal MRI can be used for detection of anal sphincter defects. Endoanal MRI has the advantage of simultaneously evaluating external sphincter atrophy, which is an important predictive factor for the outcome of sphincter repair. Many aspects of constipation and prolapse remain incompletely understood and treatment is partly empirical; however, imaging has a central role in management to place patients into treatment-defined groups. (orig.)

  1. Singular and combined effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire on forest floor and soil mercury pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl P.J. Mitchell; Randall K. Kolka; Shawn. Fraver

    2012-01-01

    A number of factors influence the amount of mercury (Hg) in forest floors and soils, including deposition, volatile emission, leaching, and disturbances such as fire. Currently the impact on soil Hg pools from other widespread forest disturbances such as blowdown and management practices like salvage logging are unknown. Moreover, ecological and biogeochemical...

  2. Extreme drying event in the Dead Sea basin during MIS5 from the ICDP Dead Sea Deep Drill Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S. L.; Stein, M.; Ben-Avraham, Z.; Agnon, A.; Ariztegui, D.; Brauer, A.; Haug, G. H.; Ito, E.; Kitagawa, H.; Torfstein, A.; Yasuda, Y.; The Icdp-Dsddp Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    The ICDP funded Dead Sea Deep Drilling Project (DSDDP) recovered the longest and most complete paleo-environmental record in the Middle East, drilling holes of ~450 and ~350 meters in length in deep (~300 m below the lake level) and shallow sites (~3 mbll) respectively. The Dead Sea expands during the glacials and contracts during interglacials, and the sediments comprise a geological archive of the evolving environmental conditions (e.g. rains, floods, dust-storms, droughts). Dead Sea sediments include inorganic aragonite, allowing for dating by U-series (e.g. Haase-Schramm et al. GCA 2004). The deep site cores were opened and described in June 2011. The cores are composed mainly of alternating intervals of marl (aragonite, gypsum and detritus) during glacials, and salts and marls during interglacials. From this stratigraphy we estimate that the deep site core spans ~200 kyr (to the boundary of MIS 6 and 7). A dramatic discovery is a ~40 cm thick interval of partly rounded pebbles at ~235 m below the lake floor. This is the only clean pebbly unit in the entire core. It appears to be a beach layer, near the deepest part of the Dead Sea, lying above ~35 meters of mainly salt. If it is a beach layer, it implies an almost complete dry-down of the paleo-Dead Sea. The pebble layer lies within the last interglacial interval. Our initial attempt to more precisely estimate the age of the possible dry down shows an intriguing correlation between the salt-mud stratigraphy of the Dead Sea core and the oxygen isotope record of Soreq Cave, whereby excursions to light oxygen in the speleothems correspond to periods of salt deposition. Through this comparison, we estimate that the possible dry down occurred during MIS 5e. The occurrence of ~35 meters of mainly salt along with the pebble layer demonstrates a severe dry interval during MIS 5. This observation has implications for the Middle East today, where the Dead Sea level is dropping as all the countries in the area use the

  3. Thermal Performance Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Floor Structure with Radiant Floor Heating System in Apartment Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the resilient materials in the radiant floor heating systems of reinforced concrete floor in apartment housing is closely related to the reduction of the floor impact sound and the heating energy loss. This study examined the thermal conductivity of expanded polystyrene (EPS foam used for the resilient material in South Korea and analysed the thermal transfer of reinforced concrete floor structure according to the thermal conductivity of the resilient materials. 82 EPS specimens were used to measure the thermal conductivity. The measured apparent density of EPS resilient materials ranged between 9.5 and 63.0 kg/m3, and the thermal conductivity ranged between 0.030 and 0.046 W/(m·K. As the density of resilient materials made of expanded polystyrene foam increases, the thermal conductivity tends to proportionately decrease. To set up reasonable thermal insulation requirements for radiant heating floor systems, the thermal properties of floor structure according to thermal insulation materials must be determined. Heat transfer simulations were performed to analyze the surface temperature, heat loss, and heat flow of floor structure with radiant heating system. As the thermal conductivity of EPS resilient material increased 1.6 times, the heat loss was of 3.4% increase.

  4. Unlocking the hydrocarbon potential of the eastern Black Sea basin. Prospectivity of middle Miocene submarine fan reservoirs by seismic sequence stratigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundogan, Coskun; Galip, Ozbek; Ali, Demirer

    2002-01-01

    Full text : The objective of this paper is to present present depositional characteristics and hydrocarbon prospectivity of the middle Miocene submarine basin floor fan deposits from the exploration stand point of view by using seismic data available in the offshore eastern Black Sea basin. This basin is a Tertiary trough formed as a continuation of the Mesozoic oceanic basin. The hydrocarbon potential of the basin is believed to be high in the Tertiary section because of the existence of the elements necessary for generation, migration and entrapment of hydrocarbon. A sequence stratigraphic study has been carried out by using 2-d seismic data in the Turkish portion of the eastern Black Sea basin. The objective of the study was to determine periods of major clastic sediment influxes which might lead to identify good reservoir intervals and their spatial distribution in this basin. All basic seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and seismic facies analysis were used to identify times of these sand rich deposition periods. Sequence stratigraphy and seismic facies analysis indicate that the basinal areas of the middle Miocene sequences were dominated mainly by submarine fan complexes introduced in the lowstand stages and pelagic sediments deposited during the transgressive and highstand stages. It was proposed that Turkish portion of this basin which is one of the best frontier exploration area with its high potential left in the world, is glimpsing to those looking for good future exploration opportunities.

  5. Biomimetic matrices for pelvic floor repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vashaghian, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapsed (POP) is a dysfunctional disease in female pelvic floor that affects a lot of women worldwide, and reduces their quality of life. Currently, trans-vaginal knitted polypropylene meshes are used as secondary treatment, for anatomical correction of the dysfunctional tissues.

  6. Pelvic floor electrophysiology patterns associated with faecal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hussein Al-Moghazy Sultan

    2012-12-28

    Dec 28, 2012 ... a Physical Medicine, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alexandria, Egypt ... Aim: The present study was conducted to determine the patterns of pelvic floor electrophysiology that are associated ..... decision of the appropriate therapy whether conservative or.

  7. Fire resistance of slim floor beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Twilt, L.

    1996-01-01

    Slim floor beams support decks on a wide plate welded on the lower flange of an 1- shaped beam. The air gap between the plate and the lower flange increases the fire resistance of the beam. A Finite Element Method (FEM) model, validated with three fire tests, is used to set up simple calculation

  8. Timber-concrete composite floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M.L.R. van der; Blass, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    Timber-concrete composite (tcc) beams may be used for the renovation of old timber floors. Although these systems are a simple and practical solution, they are not widely adopted. One of the reasons for this is the lack of uniform design mies. In this research programme shear tests on four different

  9. Organizational Learning in Shop Floor Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Che Keung; Geng, Shuang; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chau, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present the result of the pilot run of a research project which aims at evaluating the applicability of project-based action learning (PAL) to shop floor organizational learning (OL) component in a manufacturing company in Dongguan, China. How the PAL framework was introduced and implemented is described. The factors…

  10. Modal analysis for floors in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    constructions usually consist of plates that are stiffened by beams and by the dividing walls. In this study the wave equation for a plate is expanded by Fourier series and an analytical solution in terms of the eigenmodes of the entire system is presented. The studied system consists of one lightweigt floor...

  11. Seeing Results in Flooring for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Operations staffs at education facilities of all sizes are tasked with selecting a hard floor cleaning program that is cost-effective, efficient and highly productive. With an increased focus on the sustainability of an environment, facility managers also must select a program that meets sustainability goals while maintaining a healthful, safe…

  12. Pelvic floor dyssynergia: efficacy of biofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadel Hak, Nabil; El-Hemaly, Mohamed; Hamdy, Emad; El-Raouf, Ahmed Abd; Atef, Ehab; Salah, Tarek; El-Hanafy, Ehab; Sultan, Ahmad; Haleem, Magdy; Hamed, Hala

    2011-03-01

    Paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor during attempts to defaecate is described as pelvic floor dyssynergia (anismus). It is a behavioural disorder (no associated morphological or neurological abnormalities); consequently, biofeedback training has been recommended as a behavioural therapy for such a disorder. The aim of the present study was to evaluate long-term satisfaction of patients diagnosed with pelvic floor dyssynergia after biofeedback. Sixty patients (35 females and 25 males) with a mean age of 30±12years and a 4year duration of constipation were included. Forty-five patients had normal colonic transit and 15 patients had slow colonic transit. History, physical examination and barium enema were done to exclude constipation secondary to organic causes. Colonic and pelvic floor functions (colon-transit time, anorectal manometry, EMG and defaecography) were performed before and after biofeedback treatments. Patients were treated on a weekly basis with an average of (6±2) sessions. At the end of sessions, 55 out of 60 patients (91.6%) reported a subjectively overall improvement. Symptoms of dyschezia were reported less frequently after biofeedback. Age and gender were not predictive factors of outcome. No symptoms at initial assessment were predictive for patient's satisfaction but the only factor of predictive value was the diagnosis of anismus and the motivated patient who wanted to continue the sessions. Biofeedback remains a morbidity free, low-cost and effective outpatient therapy for well-motivated patients complaining of functional constipation and diagnosed as pelvic floor dyssynergia. Copyright © 2011 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional imaging of the pelvic floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienemann, Andreas E-mail: andreaslienemann@web.de; Fischer, Tanja

    2003-08-01

    Introduction/Objective: Pelvic floor dysfunction and associated pelvic organ prolapse represent a major problem in our present-day society, mostly afflicting parous women. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is assuming an increasingly important role in the more accurate delineation of the extent of the problem. This article briefly reviews one of the main radiological methods for the dynamic evaluation of the pelvic floor: functional cine MRI. Methods and Material: Out of the literature the smallest common denominator for functional cine MRI can be defined as follows: high field system; patient either in supine or sitting position; fast gradient echo sequence; midsagittal slice orientation; either a stack of slices or repeated measurements at the same slice position with the patient at rest or straining; image analysis using the pubococcygeal reference line. Results: All except two publications stress the usefulness of functional cine MRI in the evaluation of patients with organ descent and prolapse. This well accepted method allows for the visualization of all relevant structures in the anterior, middle and posterior compartment. It is especially useful in the detection of enteroceles, and provides a reliable postoperative follow-up tool. Isolated urinary or stool incontinence are not an indication for functional cine MRI, as is the case in patients with equivocal clinical findings. To date it does not allow for real 3D imaging of the pelvic floor or sufficient determination of fascial defects. Discussion: Functional cine MRI of the pelvic floor is a promising new imaging method for the detection of organ descent and prolapse in patients with equivocal clinical findings. The combination of function and morphology allows for an innovative view of the pelvic floor, and thus adds to our understanding of the various interactions of the structures.

  14. The Last Glacial Maximum of Svalbard and the Barents Sea Area: Ice Sheet Extent and Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landvik, Jon Y.; Bondevik, Stein; Elverhøi, Anders; Fjeldskaar, Willy; Mangerud, Jan; Salvigsen, Otto; Siegert, Martin J.; Svendsen, John-Inge; Vorren, Tore O.

    The timing, extent and configuration of the Late Weichselian Barents ice sheet has been debated for several decades. This debate has arisen largely because of the limited or conflicting field evidence on which most models have been based. In particular, reconstruction of the marine parts of the former Barents ice sheet has been controversial. This paper aims to review the geological observations and interpretations regarding the size and timing of the Late Weichselian ice sheet, combined with numerical modelling of its formation in order to produce a reconstruction of ice sheet extent and behaviour. Sub-glacial till with overlying glacimarine deposits dated to the Late Weichselian is found over most of the Barents Sea floor and the continental shelf west of Svalbard. Glacially induced debris flow deposits on the large Bjønøya and Isfjorden trough mouth fans strongly support the idea of ice sheet extension to the shelf edge during maximum glaciation. Isobase maps show a centre of post-glacial uplift in the north-central Barents Sea, and glaciological and isostatic modelling suggest that the ice sheet was 2000-3000 m thick in this area. The ice sheet was confluent with ice over the Kara Sea, but the interaction between the Barents and Kara ice sheets is not yet fully understood. The deglaciation of the Barents ice sheet started ca 15 ka, probably by calving within the deeper troughs. By 12 ka, most of the central Barents Sea was ice free, and ice remained over the Svalbard, Franz Josef Land and Novaja Zemlya archipelagos and adjacent shallow shelf areas. The coasts and fjords of these islands were ice free by 10 ka.

  15. Severe bleeding after sinus floor elevation using the transcrestal technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Storgard; Eriksen, Jacob; Schiodt, Morten

    2012-01-01

    To present a rare but clinically significant complication to sinus floor elevation (SFE) using the transcrestal technique.......To present a rare but clinically significant complication to sinus floor elevation (SFE) using the transcrestal technique....

  16. Assessment of pelvic floor dysfunctions using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Salah Darwish

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Dynamic MRI is an ideal, non invasive technique which does not require patient preparation for evaluation of pelvic floor. It acts as one stop shop for diagnosing single or multiple pelvic compartment involvement in patients with pelvic floor dysfunction.

  17. Discovery of chemosynthesis-based association on the Cretaceous basal leatherback sea turtle from Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Jenkins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We report a Late Cretaceous chemosynthetic community fueled by decomposing basal leatherback sea turtle on the ocean floor in the western Pacific. The fossil association representing this community has been recovered from the matrix of a concretion containing a single carapace of Mesodermochelys sp. from Late Cretaceous outer shelf to upper slope deposit of northern Hokkaido, Japan. The carapace displays boreholes most likely performed by boring bivalves, and is associated with molluscan shells, mainly Provanna cf. nakagawensis and Thyasira tanabei. Since this association is similar to fauna already known from Late Cretaceous hydrocarbon seeps, sunken wood, and plesiosaur-falls in Hokkaido, it is suggested that all types of chemosynthesis-based communities in the Late Cretaceous of western Pacific may have belonged to the same regional pool of animals and were not yet fully differentiated into three independent types of communities as it is known today. This finding also indicates that the sulfophilic stage of the vertebrate-fall communities was supported not only by plesiosaur carcasses, which were previously reported, but also by sea turtle carcasses. It highlights the possibility of surviving vertebrate-fall communities through the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event on carcasses of sea turtles which are the only large marine vertebrates surviving this event.

  18. [Physiotherapy of pelvic floor for incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeri, S; Sottini, C

    2001-09-01

    The rate of urinary incontinence after prostatectomy, as reported in several studies, varies between 0 and 88%. In the last years, pelvic floor rehabilitation in the women stress incontinence has been strengthened, with a great amount of clinical studies and results. Recently, the rehabilitation treatment has been studied in men who underwent a radical prostatectomy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews recently published the "Conservative management for post prostatectomy incontinence". The aim of this study was to determine the effects of conservative management in post prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Randomized or almost-randomized trials were analyzed up to January 1999; five studies were included, with the following results: 1. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no active treatment. Two trials compared pelvic floor muscle training with patients in a control group. In both groups there was a clinical improvement, especially in the first months after prostatectomy. The results of the two studies suggest a benefit in the treated group, even if not statistically significant, mainly in the first months after surgery. 2. Pelvic floor muscle training + biofeedback versus no active treatment. The treated group regained continence in shorter time, with decrease of incontinence episodes, of urinary frequency, of the quantity of urine loss; these data were not statistically significant. 3. Pelvic floor muscle training + rectal electrical stimulation versus no active treatment No detectable differences among the two groups, either in number of men still incontinent, and in Pad-test results. 4. Pelvic floor muscle training + rectal electrical stimulation + biofeedback versus no active treatment. Pad-test evaluation was similar in the treated and in the control group; no other outcomes were described. 5. Pelvic floor muscle training + rectal electrical stimulation versus pelvic floor muscle training. There was a progressive improvement in three months of

  19. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Neels, Hedwig; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Proper pelvic floor function is important to avoid serious dysfunctions including incontinence, prolapse, and sexual problems. The current study evaluated the knowledge of young nulliparous women about their pelvic floor and identified what additional information they wanted. [Subjects and Methods] In this cross-sectional survey, a validated, 36 item questionnaire was distributed to 212 nulliparous women. The questionnaire addressed demography, pelvic floor muscles, pelvic floor dys...

  20. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and ...

  1. Mapping of multi-floor buildings: A barometric approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özkil, Ali Gürcan; Fan, Zhun; Xiao, Jizhong

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for mapping multi5floor buildings. The method combines laser range sensor for metric mapping and barometric pressure sensor for detecting floor transitions and map segmentation. We exploit the fact that the barometric pressure is a function of the elevation......, and it varies between different floors. The method is tested with a real robot in a typical indoor environment, and the results show that physically consistent multi5floor representations are achievable....

  2. Singular and combined effects of blowdown, salvage logging, and wildfire on forest floor and soil mercury pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Carl P J; Kolka, Randall K; Fraver, Shawn

    2012-08-07

    A number of factors influence the amount of mercury (Hg) in forest floors and soils, including deposition, volatile emission, leaching, and disturbances such as fire. Currently the impact on soil Hg pools from other widespread forest disturbances such as blowdown and management practices like salvage logging are unknown. Moreover, ecological and biogeochemical responses to disturbances are generally investigated within a single-disturbance context, with little currently known about the impact of multiple disturbances occurring in rapid succession. In this study we capitalize on a combination of blowdown, salvage logging and fire events in the sub-boreal region of northern Minnesota to assess both the singular and combined effects of these disturbances on forest floor and soil total Hg concentrations and pools. Although none of the disturbance combinations affected Hg in mineral soil, we did observe significant effects on both Hg concentrations and pools in the forest floor. Blowdown increased the mean Hg pool in the forest floor by 0.76 mg Hg m(-2) (223%). Salvage logging following blowdown created conditions leading to a significantly more severe forest floor burn during wildfire, which significantly enhanced Hg emission. This sequence of combined events resulted in a mean loss of approximately 0.42 mg Hg m(-2) (68% of pool) from the forest floor, after conservatively accounting for potential losses via enhanced soil leaching and volatile emissions between the disturbance and sampling dates. Fire alone or blowdown followed by fire did not significantly affect the total Hg concentrations or pools in the forest floor. Overall, unexpected consequences for soil Hg accumulation and by extension, atmospheric Hg emission and risk to aquatic biota, may result when combined impacts are considered in addition to singular forest floor and soil disturbances.

  3. Special aspects of attic floor warming in historic buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murgul Vera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article containsreasoningof the heat transfer performance uniformity factor determination for attic floors of historic residential buildings while energy effective modifying buildings. The numeral value of this heat transfer performance uniformity factor for the wooden attic floor structure was founddurung investigation. It was estimated that there was no moisture condensation in the wooden attic floor structure.

  4. 26 CFR 52.4682-4 - Floor stocks tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks tax. 52.4682-4 Section 52.4682-4... TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-4 Floor stocks tax. (a) Overview. This section provides rules for identifying ozone-depleting chemicals (ODCs) that are subject to the floor stocks tax imposed...

  5. Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Khalil Ibrahim

    2014-07-18

    Jul 18, 2014 ... Pelvic floor dysfunction;. Pelvic floor electrophysiology. Abstract Background: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), fecal incontinence (FI) and/or pelvic ... Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of PFD either .... PFD attending the outpatient clinic at the Physical Medicine,.

  6. Floor Vibrations - as Induced and Reduced by Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    . As for dynamic loads focus is placed on heel impact excitation and actions of jumping people causing floor vibrations. As for interaction between stationary humans and the vibrating floor focus is on modelling humans as oscillating spring-mass-damper systems attached to the floor rather than as simple added mass...

  7. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non...

  8. Efficacy of biofeedback-assisted pelvic floor muscle training in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress urinary incontinence (SUI), fecal incontinence (FI) and/or pelvic floor dyssynergia, with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are described as pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD). Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is the first-line therapy in the treatment of PFD either alone or combined with biofeedback assisted pelvic ...

  9. Pelvic floor function during and after first pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummen, H.J. van

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects the first pregnancy and childbirth on the pelvic floor. Pregnancy and vaginal delivery can negatively affect pelvic floor function. Micturition symptoms, defecation symptoms and sexual dysfunction are all signs of an impaired pelvic floor function. These symptoms are

  10. 27 CFR 46.233 - Payment of floor stocks tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of floor stocks... PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.233 Payment of floor stocks tax. (a...

  11. 27 CFR 46.221 - Floor stocks tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks tax rates. 46... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Tax Liability Calculation § 46.221 Floor stocks tax rates. Product...

  12. 27 CFR 46.231 - Floor stocks tax return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks tax return... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 Filing Requirements § 46.231 Floor stocks tax return. Form 5000...

  13. 27 CFR 46.195 - Floor stocks requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Floor stocks requirements... CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes Held for Sale on April 1, 2009 General § 46.195 Floor stocks requirements. (a) Take inventory. The...

  14. 49 CFR 38.79 - Floors, steps and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Floors, steps and thresholds. 38.79 Section 38.79 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Light Rail Vehicles and Systems § 38.79 Floors, steps and thresholds. (a) Floor surfaces on aisle...

  15. Mining the ocean floor : Managing geological uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wambeke, T.; Alvarez Grima, M.; Fenton, G.A.; Benndorf, J.; Vervoort, A.

    2013-01-01

    As land resources decrease, commodity prices increase, and technology evolves, deep sea mining is becoming a viable alternative to meet the increasing demand for minerals. Successful deep sea mining operations are built on sound identification of the resource, proper selection of equipment, a

  16. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  17. Development of remote operated floor contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreekumar, K.; Gangamohan, M.; Kannan, R.K.; Rajan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Contamination check of floors and walkways in and around Reactor building areas forms an integral part of Radiation Protection Program in Power Stations. Though random swipe check method is adopted for the detection of loose contamination, this method has the disadvantage of leaving the fixed contamination and hotspots undetected. Hence, scanning the area with a sensitive detector, held close to the surface provides positive means for the detection of contamination. Checking large areas and walkways by holding the detector close to the surface involves physical work. Also, areas which are unapproachable due to congestion of equipment, may go uncovered by contamination monitoring in order to eliminate the physical strain involved in such contamination monitoring and to cover unapproachable areas, a small size prototype device that can be operated remotely was fabricated. This device detects contamination instantaneously and accurately. This paper describes design and fabrication of the device used for floor contamination monitoring. (author)

  18. Biomimetic matrices for pelvic floor repair

    OpenAIRE

    Vashaghian, M.

    2017-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapsed (POP) is a dysfunctional disease in female pelvic floor that affects a lot of women worldwide, and reduces their quality of life. Currently, trans-vaginal knitted polypropylene meshes are used as secondary treatment, for anatomical correction of the dysfunctional tissues. However, the meshes can create sever adverse complications in some patients, such as chronic pain and dypareunia, in longer-term. In the hope of finding an alternative surgical treatment, we developed ...

  19. Orbital floor dermoid: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeola Meenakshi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermoid cysts are developmental abnormal arrangement of tissues and are often evident soon after birth. Its occurrence in the orbit is relatively rare. We report a case of orbital floor dermoid in an 18-year-old female patient who presented with progressive, painless swelling in the lower eyelid associated with mild proptosis of three months duration. The lesion was excised completely, and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of dermoid cyst.

  20. Ocean floor mounting of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan G

    2015-01-20

    A system for mounting a set of wave energy converters in the ocean includes a pole attached to a floor of an ocean and a slider mounted on the pole in a manner that permits the slider to move vertically along the pole and rotate about the pole. The wave energy converters can then be mounted on the slider to allow adjustment of the depth and orientation of the wave energy converters.

  1. Understanding gaming floor influences on player behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to entice and retain player activity within a casino gaming environment require bringing to bear a range of sensory and physical influences. The challenge is to accomplish the operators’ objectives while at the same time ensuring any potential negative effects on the player are minimised. How casinos keep this in balance is at the heart of how the gaming floor works, and assessing such matters is becoming a necessary part of social responsibility.

  2. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : an integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Gesa

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  3. High resolution stratigraphy and paleoenvironmental changes in the southern North Sea during the Neogene : An integrated study of Late Cenozoic marine deposits from the northern part of the Dutch offshore area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is the result of a multidisciplinary study on the prograding marine Neogene sedimentary succession of the southern North Sea Basin. To date, sediment material available from the Neogene North Sea is very scarce. Its location between 400 and 1500 m below the seabed in the depocentre of

  4. Reconstruction of Orbital Floor With Auricular Concha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Ergin; Tellioglu, Ali Teoman; Inozu, Emre; Ozakpinar, Hulda Rifat; Horoz, Ugur; Eryilmaz, Avni Tolga; Karamursel, Sebat

    2017-10-01

    Orbital floor fractures of varying sizes commonly occur after orbital injuries and remain a serious challenge. Serious complications of such fractures include enopthalmos, restriction of extraocular movement, and diplopia. There is a dearth of literature that can be applied widely, easily, and successfully in all such situations, and therefore there is no consensus on the treatment protocol of this pathology yet. Autogenous grafts and alloplastic and allogenic materials with a wide variety of advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. The value of preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examination should be standard of care in all orbital fracture patients. An ideal reconstructed orbital floor fracture should accelerate the restoration of orbital function with acceptable cosmetic results. Management parameters of orbital fractures such as timing of surgery, incision type, and implant materials, though widely discussed, remain controversial. In this study, 55 patients with orbital floor fractures surgically reconstructed with conchal cartilage grafts between 2008 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. Complications and long-time follow-up visit results have been reported with clinical and radiographic findings. The aim of this study was to present the authors' clinical experiences of reconstruction of blow-out fractures with auricular conchal graft and to evaluate the other materials available for use.

  5. 40 CFR 427.70 - Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos floor tile subcategory. 427.70 Section 427.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos Floor Tile Subcategory § 427.70 Applicability; description of the asbestos floor tile subcategory... manufacture of asbestos floor tile. ...

  6. Pelvic floor dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurri, A; Maffioli, A; Danelli, P

    2015-12-01

    Advances in tailored medical therapy and introduction of biologic agents for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) treatment have ensured long-term disease remission. Some patients, however, still report defecatory symptoms. Patients present with a wide spectrum of conditions - anal incontinence, obstructed defecation and pelvic pain among the most frequent - that have a great impact on their quality of life. Due to IBD diagnosis, little relevance is attributed to this type of symptoms and their epidemiologic distribution is unknown. Pathogenetic hypotheses are currently under investigation. Routine diagnostic workflow and therapeutic options in pelvic floor service are often underused. The evaluation of these disorders starts with an endoscopy to rule out ongoing disease; the following diagnostic workflow is the same as in patients without IBD. For fecal incontinence and obstructed defecation, simple conservative therapy with dietary modifications and appropriate fluid intake is effective in most cases. In non-responding patients, anorectal physiology tests and imaging are required to select patients for pelvic floor muscle training and biofeedback. These treatments have been proven effective in IBD patients. Some new minimally invasive alternative strategies are available for IBD patients, as sacral nerve and posterior tibial nerve stimulation; for other ones (e.g., bulking agent implantation) IBD still remains an exclusion criterion. In order to preserve anatomical areas that could be useful for future reconstructive techniques, surgical options to cure pelvic floor dysfunction are indicated only in a small group of IBD patients, due to the high risk of failure in wound healing and to the possible side effects of surgery, which can lead to anal incontinence or to a possible proctectomy. A particular issue among defecatory symptoms in patients with IBD is paradoxical puborectalis contraction after restorative proctocolectomy: if this disorder is properly diagnosed, a

  7. Model boiler studies on deposition and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakrishnan, P.V.; McVey, E.G.

    1977-09-01

    Deposit formation was studied in a model boiler, with sea-water injections to simulate the in-leakage which could occur from sea-water cooled condensers. When All Volatile Treatment (AVT) was used for chemistry control the deposits consisted of the sea-water salts and corrosion products. With sodium phosphate added to the boiler water, the deposits also contained the phosphates derived from the sea-water salts. The deposits were formed in layers of differing compositions. There was no significant corrosion of the Fe-Ni-Cr alloy boiler tube under deposits, either on the open area of the tube or in crevices. However, carbon steel that formed a crevice around the tube was corroded severely when the boiler water did not contain phosphate. The observed corrosion of carbon steel was caused by the presence of acidic, highly concentrated chloride solution produced from the sea-water within the crevice. Results of theoretical calculations of the composition of the concentrated solution are presented. (author)

  8. The influence of oxygen exposure time on the composition of macromolecular organic matter as revealed by surface sediments on the Murray Ridge (Arabian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierop, Klaas G. J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Veld, Harry; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2017-06-01

    The Arabian Sea represents a prime example of an open ocean extended oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) with low oxygen concentrations (down to less than 2 μM) between 200 and 1000 m water depth. The OMZ impinges on the ocean floor, affecting organic matter (OM) mineralization. We investigated impact of oxygen depletion on the composition of macromolecular OM (MOM) along a transect through the OMZ on the slopes of the Murray Ridge. This sub-marine high in the northern Arabian Sea, with the top at approximately 500 m below sea surface (mbss), intersects the OMZ. We analyzed sediments deposited in the core of OMZ (suboxic conditions), directly below the OMZ (dysoxic conditions) and well below the OMZ (fully oxic conditions). The upper 18 cm of sediments from three stations recovered at different depths were studied. MOM was investigated by Rock Eval and flash pyrolysis techniques. The MOM was of a predominant marine origin and inferred from their pyrolysis products, most biomolecules (tetra-alkylpyrrole pigments, polysaccharides, proteins and their transformation products, and polyphenols including phlorotannins), showed a progressive relative degradation with increasing exposure to oxygen. Alkylbenzenes and, in particular, aliphatic macromolecules increased relatively. The observed differences in MOM composition between sediment deposited under various bottom water oxygen conditions (i.e. in terms of concentration and exposure time) was much larger than within sediment cores, implying that early diagenetic alteration of organic matter depends largely on bottom water oxygenation rather than subsequent anaerobic degradation within the sediments, even at longer time scales.

  9. Investigation of Floor Surface Finishes for Optimal Slip Resistance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Ju Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing the slip resistance of floor surfaces would be desirable, but there is a lack of evidence on whether traction properties are linearly correlated with the topographic features of the floor surfaces or what scales of surface roughness are required to effectively control the slipperiness of floors. Objective: This study expands on earlier findings on the effects of floor surface finishes against slip resistance performance and determines the operative ranges of floor surface roughness for optimal slip resistance controls under different risk levels of walking environments. Methods: Dynamic friction tests were conducted among three shoes and nine floor specimens under wet and oily environments and compared with a soapy environment. Results: The test results showed the significant effects of floor surface roughness on slip resistance performance against all the lubricated environments. Compared with the floor-type effect, the shoe-type effect on slip resistance performance was insignificant against the highly polluted environments. The study outcomes also indicated that the oily environment required rougher surface finishes than the wet and soapy ones in their lower boundary ranges of floor surface roughness. Conclusion: The results of this study with previous findings confirm that floor surface finishes require different levels of surface coarseness for different types of environmental conditions to effectively manage slippery walking environments. Collected data on operative ranges of floor surface roughness seem to be a valuable tool to develop practical design information and standards for floor surface finishes to efficiently prevent pedestrian fall incidents. Keywords: floor surface finishes, operational levels of floor surface roughness, slip resistance, wet, soapy and oily environments

  10. Experimental research on the use of micro-encapsulated Phase Change Materials to store solar energy in concrete floors and to save energy in Dutch houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an experimental research is presented on a new use of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in concrete floors, in which thermal energy provided by the sun is stored in a mix of concrete and PCMs. When this thermal energy is being released – in moderate sea climates during the evening and

  11. Factors controlling late Cenozoic continental margin growth from the Ebro Delta to the western Mediterranean deep sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1990-01-01

    The Ebro continental margin sedimentation system originated with a Messinian fluvial system. This system eroded both a major subaerial canyon cutting the margin southeastward from the present Ebro Delta and an axial valley that drained northeastward down Valencia Trough. Post-Messinian submergence of this topography and the Pliocene regime of high sea levels resulted in a marine hemipelagic drape over the margin. Late Pliocene to Pleistocene glacial climatic cycles, drainagebasin deforestation, and sea-level lowstands combined to increase sediment supply, cause the margin to prograde, and create a regime of lowstand sediment-gravity flows in the deeper margin. The depositional patterns of regressive, transgressive and highstand sea-level regimes suggest that location of the sediment source near the present Ebro Delta throughout the late Cenozoic, southward current advection of sediment, and greater subsidence in the southern margin combined to cause generally asymmetric progradation of the margin to the southeast. Thicker, less stable deposits filling the Messinian subaerial canyon underwent multiple retrograde failures, eroded wide gullied canyons and formed unchanneled base-of-slope sediment aprons in the central margin area; other margin areas to the north and south developed a series of channel-levee complexes. On the basin floor, the formation of Valencia Valley over the Messinian subaerial valley and earlier faults led to draining of about 20% of the Ebro Pleistocene sediment from channel-levee complexes through the valley to prograde Valencia Fan as much as 500 km northeast of the margin. Thus, the Ebro margin has two growth directions, mainly southeastward during higher sea levels, and eastward to northeastward during lower sea levels. The northeastward draining of turbidity currents has produced unusually thin and widely dispersed turbidite systems compared to those on ponded basin floors. During the past few centuries, man's impact has exceeded natural

  12. Environmental Conditions in a Carpathian Deep Sea Basin During the Period Preceding Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - A Case Study from the Skole Nappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.

  13. VOC- and SVOC-emissions from adhesives, floor coverings and complete floor structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Olaf; Jann, Oliver; Brödner, Doris

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) from materials for flooring installation (primer, screed, adhesive, floor covering) were measured by means of emission test chambers and cells over a time period of at least 28 days at 23 degrees C, 50% relative humidity and an area specific air flow rate of q = 1.25 m(3)/m(2) h. Single components were tested in comparison to three complete structures (same concrete, primer, screed, adhesive) with different types of floor covering (PVC, carpet, linoleum). Sorption into concrete/screed and different permeability of flooring materials affected the emissions from the complete structures. The complete structures with linoleum and PVC showed the same types of emission and emission rates as the individual floor coverings themselves. Emissions from the carpet-covered structure resulted also from the lower layers. In all cases emissions from the complete structures were lower than the sum of emissions from the single components. For two adhesives the formation of secondary emissions (aldehydes and organic acids) was observed starting after the standard testing time of 28 days. This paper gives a survey of possible emissions of VOCs and SVOCs from flooring materials and adhesives. On the example of these materials it is shown that the determination of SVOC-emissions from materials is important because after a few weeks the emission rates for SVOCs might be higher than for VOCs. In the real indoor environment SVOCs will be probably adsorbed to dust but by means of emission test chambers or cells the determination of emission rates from materials is possible. With the knowledge of this "emission potential" it is possible to estimate also the release of SVOCs into the (indoor) environment.

  14. Air-Sea Exchange of Legacy POPs in the North Sea Based on Results of Fate and Transport, and Shelf-Sea Hydrodynamic Ocean Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieran O'Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The air-sea exchange of two legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs, γ-HCH and PCB 153, in the North Sea, is presented and discussed using results of regional fate and transport and shelf-sea hydrodynamic ocean models for the period 1996–2005. Air-sea exchange occurs through gas exchange (deposition and volatilization, wet deposition and dry deposition. Atmospheric concentrations are interpolated into the model domain from results of the EMEP MSC-East multi-compartmental model (Gusev et al, 2009. The North Sea is net depositional for γ-HCH, and is dominated by gas deposition with notable seasonal variability and a downward trend over the 10 year period. Volatilization rates of γ-HCH are generally a factor of 2–3 less than gas deposition in winter, spring and summer but greater in autumn when the North Sea is net volatilizational. A downward trend in fugacity ratios is found, since gas deposition is decreasing faster than volatilization. The North Sea is net volatilizational for PCB 153, with highest rates of volatilization to deposition found in the areas surrounding polluted British and continental river sources. Large quantities of PCB 153 entering through rivers lead to very high local rates of volatilization.

  15. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  16. Infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Infiltration deposits-is concentration of minerals matters formed by concretion on the some depth of readily soluble of descending waters of hyper genes zone. In the process of rocks chemical decomposition a great deal of readily soluble components in the form of sulfates, carbonates, bicarbonates, hydro-oxides and complex compounds, including ore element compounds become free

  17. Floor impact noise interception performance examination in the laboratory of the temperature warmth ceremony floor heating soundproof floor; Onsui yukadanbo boon jikahariyuka no jikkenshitsu ni okeru yuka shogekion shadan seino shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A floor impact noise level improvement quantity examination in the laboratory was done about the warm water ceremony floor heating soundproof floor (for the warm water circulation-type floor warmth for benson floor SG floor warmth) that it was submitted by Hayakawa rubber incorporated company, and a floor impact noise level calculation and an insulation grade were found as that result. A form dimension, section details, and so on are shown in the table 1 in the figure 1 the kind of the test body, the trade name, the dimension, and so on. A test body was constructed on the floor edition for the examination. (NEDO)

  18. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  19. Modal analysis for floors in lightweight buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjökvist, Lars-Göran; Brunskog, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    constructions usually consist of plates that are stiffened by beams and by the dividing walls. In this study the wave equation for a plate is expanded by Fourier series and an analytical solution in terms of the eigenmodes of the entire system is presented. The studied system consists of one lightweigt floor......High rise buildings built with wooden framing systems is of major interest for several reasons. It is said to be environmental friendly material, the production cost might be lower and the weight of the house is very low. The development of wooden housing is faster than the development...

  20. A radiochemical study of sedimentation onto the Japan Trench floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, M.; Kitaoka, H.; Tsunogai, S.

    1983-01-01

    Box cores were taken from the Japan Trench (water depth, 8260 m) and two neighboring shallower stations (water depth, 2970 and 4310 m) and analyzed for uranium isotopes, thorium isotopes, 210 Pb, CaCO 3 , Fe, Mn, Al, and Cu. The 230 Th: 232 Th activity ratios in the top layer (0 to 1 cm) were 12 to 15 at the three stations, indicating no appreciable addition of 230 Th during descent through the water column below 4 km depth. There are no significant differences in the concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, and 230 Th on a carbonate-free basis at the three stations. The 230 Th: 232 Th activity ratios of the Japan Trench sediments in the upper 30 cm are nearly constant with depth, indicating rapid sedimentation or active vertical mixing of the sediments. The mixing depth of the Japan Trench sediments is estimated to be 7 cm from the vertical distribution of excess 210 Pb. The maximum concentration of 210 Pb in the Japan Trench sediment is at 2- to 3-cm depth. The results suggest that sediment deposited on the shallower slope of the trench slides down and accumulates on the trench floor. (author)

  1. Sub-Sea Ice Sands Offshore of Dry Valleys: Potential Links between Onshore and Offshore Cenozoic Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, T. J.; Miller, M. F.; Bowser, S. S.

    2008-12-01

    Onshore and offshore records of late Cenozoic history of Southern Victoria Land (SVL), Antarctica, depict strikingly different scenarios; onshore (Dry Valleys), the geomorphic record indicates long term (Ma) stability of polar deserts whereas offshore (e.g., ANDRILL 1B), the stratigraphic record reveals repeated ice sheet fluctuations and major cooling and establishment of modern conditions in the Late Pliocene. Recognition of facies deposited beneath near permanent sea ice offshore of the Dry Valleys provides an often overlooked but direct method of connecting the disparate records. As part of an initial effort to document facies characteristics, shallow marine cores >30 cm long were collected from a depth of ~20 m in Explorers Cove at the mouth of the Taylor Dry Valley. Shell material characteristics, bioturbation, grain size distribution, and surface textures of quartz grains were analyzed to elucidate taphonomic processes and sediment transport mechanisms, and to constrain the rate of sedimentation. Little shell material was found in the cores, but foraminifera were widespread and sponge spicules were locally abundant. Some bioturbation is apparent in the top 5 cm, and sediment, primarily medium to coarse sand, is poorly sorted and unlaminated with a coarser zone at 8-21 cm depth. Eolian features are abundant on quartz grain surfaces whereas features indicative of fluvial and glacial transport are less common. Eolian transport probably is the dominant transport process, with sediment blown onto the sea ice and eventually deposited on the sea floor via ice cracks. Small summer streams could also deliver sediment to coastal moats, transporting material beneath the sea ice to deeper nearshore water. Results from this study can be applied to analogous present-day habitats in Antarctica and to the interpretation of Cenozoic stratigraphic sequences in cores.

  2. Deep-water turbidity systems: a review of their elements, sedimentary processes and depositional models. Their characteristics on the Iberian margins; Sistemas turbiditicos de aguas profundas: revision de sus elementos, procesos sedimentarios y modelos deposicionales. Sus caracteristicas en los margenes Ibericos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, M.; Ercilla, G.; Alonso, B.; Estrada, F.; Jane, G.; Mena, A.; Alves, T.; Juan, C.

    2015-07-01

    Turbidity systems or submarine fans are considered the most important clastic accumulations in the deep sea and represent the sediment-transfer system between the hinterland source area and the deep-sea depositional sink. Their deposits contain information about global factors and local factors. Different scales and varying observational methods have contributed to the lack of a unifying terminology. In order to solve this problem several authors have proposed an elemental approach. The main architectural elements defining a turbidity sys- tem are: large-scale erosive features (mass-movements and canyons), channels and channel-fill deposits, over- bank deposits and lobes. The sediment making up these elements is principally from gravity flow deposits, the most widely recognised being the turbidity, and other submarine mass movements. The genesis and character of these elements, as well as the overall geometry of the systems, indicate they are formed by a complex inter- action between global and local factors. Various turbidity-system classifications are found in the literature, the most widely-used being based on grain size and feeder systems. Besides the scientific importance of turbiditic systems, they are predominantly studied because of the economic interest in them, as turbidite sandstones con- stitute important gas and oil reservoirs. Turbidite systems shape the sea floor of the Iberian continental margins and contribute in a large part to their outbuilding and basin in filling. They are hugely variable in size, location within the physiographic domains, style and overall geometry of the architectural elements, as well as sediment composition. The most studied Iberian turbidity fans are in the Mediterranean Sea whereas those of the Atlantic Ocean remain poorly known. (Author)

  3. Relations between pregnancy-related low back pain, pelvic floor activity and pelvic floor dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool-Goudzwaard, A.L.; Slieker ten Hove, M.C.; Vierhout, M.E.; de Mulder, PH; Pool, J.J.M.; Snijders, C.J.; Stoeckart, R.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) in pregnancy- related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) patients, a cross-sectional study was performed, comprising 77 subjects. Each subject underwent physical assessment, and filled in the Urogenital Distress Inventory completed with

  4. Processing Research on Chemically Vapor Deposited Silicon Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    34 sea urchins ") predominated, suggesting that formation was primarily from the vapor phase with little of the nodular growths seen at only slightly...deposition parameters on crystallite size, morphology and deposition rate. Geometries include a cold-wall, flat plate reactor (CW) and 4-inch and 1-inch...typical crossections of banded deposits and deposits which showed transitions from amorphous to crystalline morphologies , respectively. Figure 2-5

  5. Methods for measuring atmospheric nitrogen deposition inputs in arid and montane ecosystems of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; J.O. Sickman; A. Bytnerowicz; D.W. Clow; N.P. Molotch; J.E. Pleim; G.S. Tonnesen; K.C. Weathers; P.E. Padgett; D.H. Campbell.

    2009-01-01

    Measuring atmospheric deposition in arid and snow-dominated regions presents unique challenges. Throughfall, the flux of nutrients transported in solution to the forest floor, is generally the most practical method of estimating below-canopy deposition, particularly when monitoring multiple forest sites or over multiple years. However, more studies are needed to relate...

  6. Exposure assessment of kneeling work activities among floor layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L K; Rytter, S; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the proportion of kneeling work activities among floor layers and to assess external knee joint forces in five different kneeling work positions. Thirty-three floor layers were videotaped discontinuously and four floor layers were videotaped continuously...... for a whole working day. External knee forces were measured in five different kneeling work positions in ten floor layers using Computer Dynography. The study showed that floor layers spent a high percentage of time in knee-straining work positions. Kneeling work tasks, particularly gluing and crawling caused...... high external knee forces ranging from 0.3 Newton (SD 0.2) times body weight when floor layers were kneeling back on the heels, to 3.5 Newton (SD 0.3) times body weight in the crawling work position. The study highlights the need for prevention by minimizing the amount of kneeling work positions among...

  7. The fluid dynamics of deep-sea mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Thomas; Rzeznik, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    With vast mineral deposits on the ocean floor, deep-sea nodule mining operations are expected to commence in the next decade. Among several fundamental fluid dynamics problems, this could involve plans for dewatering plumes to be released into the water column by surface processing vessels. To study this scenario, we consider the effects of non-uniform, realistic stratifications on forced compressible plumes with finite initial size. The classical plume model is developed to take into account the influence of thermal conduction through the dewatering pipe and also compressibility effects, for which a dimensionless number is introduced to determine their importance compared to the background stratification. Among other things, our results show that small-scale features of a realistic stratification can have a large effect on plume dynamics compared to smoothed profiles and that for any given set of environmental parameters there is a discharge flow rate that minimizes the plume vertical extent. Our findings are put in the context of nodule mining plumes for which the rapid and efficient re-sedimentation of waste material has important environmental consequences.

  8. Biomechanic Factors Associated With Orbital Floor Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sagar; Andrecovich, Christopher; Silverman, Michael; Zhang, Liying; Shkoukani, Mahdii

    2017-07-01

    Orbital floor fractures are commonly seen in clinical practice, yet the etiology underlying the mechanism of fracture is not well understood. Current research focuses on the buckling theory and hydraulic theory, which implicate trauma to the orbital rim and the globe, respectively. To elucidate and define the biomechanical factors involved in an orbital floor fracture. A total of 10 orbits from 5 heads (3 male and 2 female) were used for this study. These came from fresh, unfixed human postmortem cadavers that were each selected so that the cause of death did not interfere with the integrity of orbital walls. Using a drop tower with an accelerometer, we measured impact force on the globe and rim of cadaver heads affixed with strain gauges. The mean impacts for rim and globe trauma were 3.9 J (95% CI, 3.4-4.3 J) and 3.9 J (95% CI, 3.5-4.3 J), respectively. Despite similar impact forces to the globe and rim, strain-gauge data displayed greater mean strain for globe impact (6563 μS) compared with rim impact (3530 μS); however, these data were not statistically significant (95% CI, 3598-8953 μS; P = .94). Our results suggest that trauma directly to the globe predisposes a patient to a more posterior fracture while trauma to the rim demonstrates an anterior predilection. Both the hydraulic and buckling mechanisms of fracture exist and demonstrate similar fracture thresholds. NA.

  9. Pelvic floor electrophysiology in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankisi, H; Pugdahl, K; Rasmussen, M M; Clemmensen, D; Rawashdeh, Y F; Christensen, P; Krogh, K; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, A

    2016-05-01

    The study aimed to investigate sacral peripheral nerve function and continuity of pudendal nerve in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) using pelvic floor electrophysiological tests. Twelve patients with low cervical or thoracic SCI were prospectively included. Quantitative external anal sphincter (EAS) muscle electromyography (EMG), pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) testing, bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) testing and pudendal short-latency somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) measurement were performed. In EAS muscle EMG, two patients had abnormal increased spontaneous activity and seven prolonged motor unit potential duration. PNTML was normal in 10 patients. BCR was present with normal latency in 11 patients and with prolonged latency in one. The second component of BCR could be recorded in four patients. SEPs showed absent cortical responses in 11 patients and normal latency in one. Pudendal nerve and sacral lower motor neuron involvement are significantly associated with chronic SCI, most prominently in EAS muscle EMG. The frequent finding of normal PNTML latencies supports earlier concerns on the utility of this test; however, BCR and pudendal SEPs may have clinical relevance. As intact peripheral nerves including pudendal nerve are essential for efficient supportive therapies, pelvic floor electrophysiological testing prior to these interventions is highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of viable seeds in the forest floor after clearcutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Frank; Lawrence O. Safford

    1970-01-01

    The viability of seeds o[ northern conifers apparently does not persist in the forest floor for more than one year. A set of forest-floor samples collected two years alter a heavy seed crop and one year alter a seedcrop failure did not produce any conifer germinants, regardless of whether or not the surfaces of the samples were disturbed. A second set of forest-floor...

  11. Pelvic floor rehabilitation is effective in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahtera, T; Haaranen, M; Viramo-Koskela, A L; Ruutiainen, J

    1997-08-01

    To determine the effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises combined with electrical stimulation of pelvic floor on lower urinary tract dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with near normal (current symptoms of lower urinary tract dysfunction. The muscle activity of the pelvic floor muscles was tested using surface EMG. Subjective urinary symptoms were assessed using a questionnaire. Pelvic floor muscles were stimulated using electrical stimulation at six sessions. During and after the final session the patients were taught to exercise their pelvic floor muscles and advised to continue these exercises regularly for at least six months. The control group was not treated. The maximal contraction power and endurance of the pelvic floor muscles increased after six sessions of electrical stimulation with interferential currents. Symptoms of urinary urgency, frequency and incontinence were significantly less frequent in the treated group than in the untreated subjects. Male patients appeared to respond better to the treatment than female patients. Compliance with the pelvic floor exercises was over 60% at the end of a follow-up for six months. Most drop-outs were due to the disappearance of urinary tract symptoms or to severe relapses in MS. The present study indicates that pelvic floor muscle exercises combined with electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor constitute an effective treatment for lower urinary tract dysfunction at least in male patients with MS.

  12. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y

    2016-03-01

    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gait of dairy cows on floors with different slipperiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telezhenko, E; Magnusson, M; Bergsten, C

    2017-08-01

    This study assessed the slip resistance of different types of solid flooring in cattle housing using a range of technical tests and gait analysis. Dynamic and static coefficient of friction, skid resistance, and abrasiveness were tested on concrete flooring with a smooth finish, a grooved pattern, or a tamped pattern, acid-resistant mastic asphalt, soft rubber mats, and a worn slatted concrete floor. Coefficients of friction and skid resistance were tested under clean and slurry-soiled conditions. Linear kinematic variables were assessed in 40 cows with trackway measurements after the cows passed over the floors in a straight walk. All gait variables were assessed as deviations from those obtained on the slatted concrete floor, which was used as a baseline. The coefficient of friction tests divided the floors into 3 categories: concrete flooring, which had a low coefficient of friction (0.29-0.41); mastic asphalt flooring, which had medium values (0.38-0.45); and rubber mats, which had high values (0.49-0.57). The highest abrasion (g/10 m) was on the asphalt flooring (4.48), and the concrete flooring with a tamped pattern had significantly higher abrasiveness (2.77) than the other concrete floors (1.26-1.60). Lowest values on the skid-resistance tests (dry/wet) were for smooth concrete (79/35) and mastic asphalt (65/47), especially with a slurry layer on the surface. Gait analysis mainly differentiated floors with higher friction and abrasion by longer strides and better tracking. Step asymmetry was lower on floors with high skid-resistance values. The most secure cow gait, in almost every aspect, was observed on soft rubber mats. Relationships between gait variables and physical floor characteristics ranged from average to weak (partial correlations 0.54-0.16). Thus, none of the physical characteristics alone was informative enough to characterize slip resistance. With reference to gait analysis, the abrasiveness of the hard surfaces was more informative than the

  14. Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

    CERN Document Server

    British Standards Institution. London

    1998-01-01

    Acoustics. Measurement of sound insulation in buildings and of building elements. Laboratory measurements of the reduction of transmitted impact noise by floor coverings on a heavyweight standard floor

  15. Sequence architecture of the Palaeocene Transitional Facies and Response to Tectonic Evolution and Sea Level Change in the Lishui Depression, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Lishui Depression (LD) is a polycyclic rift basin located in the southwestern of the East China Sea Shelf Basin. From bottom to top, the Palaeocene strata sequentially comprise the Yueguifeng (YGF), Lingfeng (LF) and Mingyuefeng Formations (MYF). The YGF clastic deposits were produced by a continental lacustrine. The LF and MYF were a set of coal-bearing strata formed by marine transgressive-regressive cycles. The Palaeocene depositional cycle is divided into two second-order sequences, namely SQII1 (YGF, 66.5-60Ma) and SQII2 (LF and MYF, 60-53Ma), which can be interpreted as the initial rifting sequence and the strong rifting sequence respectively that controlled by episodic tectonic subsidence, namely Yandang and Oujiang movements. The SQII1 includes only one third-order sequence, namely SQIII1, which is constituted by lake transgressive systems tract (LTST) and lake regressive systems tract (LRST). The SQII2 can be subdivided into four third-order sequences, namely SQIII2 (Lower LF, 60-57Ma), SQIII3 (Upper LF, 57-55Ma), SQIII4 (Lower MYF, 55-54.5Ma) and SQIII5 (Upper MYF, 54.5-53Ma). In the SQIII2 period, LD suffered massive transgression and the sustained high relative sea level led to the only development of transgressive systems tract (TST) and highstand systems tract (HST). In the SQIII3 period, the relative sea level declined and simultaneously two sets of incised valley were recognized on the seismic reflection with no lowstand fan developed. So the SQIII3 is considered to be composed of basin margin systems tract (BMST, similar to the shelf margin systems tract), TST and HST. Early SQIII4 (55Ma ), the relative sea level started global rapid declining and the LST of LD developed a completed system of prograding wedge, incised valley and basin floor fan. While the TST developed a retrograding marine sediments and the HST was characterized by a typical foreset parasequences. In SQIII5 period, the global sea level continuously rose and the sedimentary

  16. Vision in the deep sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Locket, N Adam

    2004-08-01

    detection and localisation of point-source bioluminescence at ecologically meaningful distances. At all depths, the eyes of animals active on and over the nutrient-rich sea floor are generally larger than the eyes of pelagic species. In fishes, the retinal ganglion cells are also frequently arranged in a horizontal visual streak, an adaptation for viewing the wide flat horizon of the sea floor, and all animals living there. These and many other aspects of light and vision in the deep sea are reviewed in support of the following conclusion: it is not only the intensity of light at different depths, but also its distribution in space, which has been a major force in the evolution of deep-sea vision.

  17. Depositional history and tectonic regimes within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian shield during the last 1300 million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulamaeki, S.; Kuivamaeki, A.

    2006-05-01

    This report is a literature review, which describes the occurrences of Meso- and Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks in Finland and their depositional history The report also summarizes the tectonic and magmatic events within and in the margins of the Fennoscandian Shield during the last 1200 - 1300 million years. Mesoproterozoic (Middle Riphean) and Neoproterozoic (Late Vendian) sandstones and siltstones are presently found only in some tectonically protected basins, e.g., Satakunta and Muhos grabens, Bothnian Sea basin and Bothnian Bay basin, or in the impact structures, but they may have originally distributed over a much larger area. During the Lower and Middle Cambrian, arenaceous and argillaceous sediments were probably deposited in most of the western, southern and central Finland. During the Ordovician, carbonates were deposited in an epicontinental sea with repeated transgressions and regressions. In several occasions, the Bothnian Sea and Aaland Sea basins, as well as southern and south-western Finland were covered by the sea, and in the Middle Ordovician, the sea reached as far as central Finland. No Late Palaeozoic (Silurian to Permian) sedimentary rocks have been recognized. The apatite fission track studies indicate, however, that extensive Silurian to Devonian deposits most likely covered large parts of the Fennoscandian Shield, with an estimated thickness of 3 - 4 km in Sweden and ca. 1 km in Finland. In eastern Lapland, the clay bed of Akanvaara was deposited in early Tertiary (Eocene) under marine conditions. The Mesoproterozoic tectonics was dominated by the Sveconorwegian orogeny (ca. 1250 - 900 Ma), which mainly affected the present south-western Sweden and southern Norway. In Finland, the 'Postjotnian' olivine diabases, dated at 1270 - 1250 Ma, are considered to be connected to the initial rifting at the onset of the orogeny. After the Sveconorwegian orogeny, the Fennoscandian Shield was part of the worldwide supercontinent

  18. Plio-Quaternary Sandy Deposits and Microbial Buildups at the Southern Marmara Shelf Near Shoreface Area, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denizhan Vardar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the formation and evolution mechanism of the sandy deposits plays key role to define the hydrodynamics of the shelves and coasts. The barrier islands determined from high resolution chirp seismic reflection profiles, were started to deposit on the boundary (SB that characterized by the lowstand stages of global sea level in the southern Marmara shelf near shoreface area. The unit haslost its activity at 55 ms, 60 ms depth in Erdek Bay, at 55 ms in Bandırma Bay, at 61 ms front of the Kocasu River. According to global sea level curves, this unit was evolved between 11000-11500 BP and10450-10150 BP. The geometrical situation and internal reflection character of these units indicate the balance between fluvial sediment transportation, marine intrusion and current systems in the study area. Belkis Isthmus that connects the Kapıdağ Peninsula to the mainland occurred synchronously with same process that formed the barrier islands. Bioherm structures were formed on the barrier islands and some of the bioherm’s uppermost surface is reached to 1 m below the sea floor. Bioherm structures are composing from organisms; formation and evolution depend on various stress factors. Barrier islands provide nutritional source to bioherms. Since these structures occur in a limited area, the development should be controlled by secondary factors. Biogenic gas determined from seismic sections closed to bioherm structures, probably plays the secondary role. Addition to this, during the forming and the growing of bioherms, Marmara Islands (Pasalimanı, Avşa, Marmara Islands and Imralı Island were possibly control the currents and the flooding in the study area and provided convenient environment to these structures evolution.

  19. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  20. Notes on holotypes of hermit crabs (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguroidea) deposited in the collection of Zoological Museum of RAS (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) with remarks on hermit crab diversity along the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ivan

    2016-04-20

    The holotype of Clibanarius sachalinicus Kobjakova, 1955 and Clibanarius hirsutimanus Kobjakova, 1971 in the collection of Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Saint-Petersburg, Russia) are examined. As a result, Clibanarius hirsutimanus Kobjakova, 1971 is found to be a species of Areopaguristes nigroapiculus (Komai, 2009) while Clibanarius sachalinicus Kobjakova, 1955 is a species of Clibanarius virescens (Krauss, 1843). Remarks on a single record of Diogenes penicillatus Stimpson, 1858 from Shamora Bay (Usury Bay) of the Sea of Japan as well as current faunal list of hermit crabs from the Russian coasts of the Sea of Japan are also presented in the paper.

  1. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THE PELVIC FLOOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E.; Shaw, Janet M.

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) are common, with one in four U.S. women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review is to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and PFDs. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include: Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this exam finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for women. However

  2. The Entrance of Pyroclastic Flows into the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundt, A.

    2001-12-01

    Explosive volcanoes, especially in subduction-zone and ocean-island settings, can generate pyroclastic flows that enter the sea. Geologic constraints on the interaction mechanisms and hazards are poor since resulting deposits hardly survive coastal erosion. The entrance of hot pyroclastic flows into water has been observed experimentally by letting shooting granular flows of ignimbrite ash heated to up to 420oC run down a chute into a water-filled tank. Flows of relatively cool ash, less than 150oC, impulsively displace some near-shore water generating a tsunami wave and then separate into a fine-ash over-water surge formed near shore and the main, coarser and denser material penetrating the water surface to form a turbulent mixing zone which advances downstream as long as the granular flow is maintained. Pumice floats to the surface, lithics and coarse ash fall out onto the floor, but ash remaining in suspension forms a turbidity current flowing down the tank. At temperatures above 250oC, almost all ash is initially transported along the water surface, rather than immediately penetrating it. Transport over water is facilitated by steam explosions derived from mixing of some of the ash with water across the surface. Ash fountains throw dry ash forward before it contacts the water, triggering the next steam explosion farther away from shore where fountains collapse onto the water surface. Each time ash and heat are consumed by mixing; the distance to where explosions extend thus depends on initial mass flux and temperature. Most fine ash forms an ash-cloud surge travelling over water, loosing sediment plumes that unite on the tank floor to form a turbidity current. Tsunami waves generated by coastal impact appear to be additionally driven by surface-water displacement by massive ash-input from ash fountains. Grain size distribution is also critical in determining interaction processes. Moderately well sorted medium ash generates strong steam explosions and becomes

  3. Improving the cleaning procedure to make kitchen floors less slippery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, F; Poirier, P; Lehane, P

    2008-12-01

    This investigation shows that, in most cases, the floor cleaning procedure of typical restaurants could be improved, resulting in a better cleaning efficiency and a better floor friction. This simple approach could help reduce slips and falls in the workplace. Food safety officers visited ten European style restaurants in the London Borough of Bromley (UK) to identify their floor cleaning procedure in terms of the cleaning method, the concentration and type of floor cleaner and the temperature of the wash water. For all 10 restaurants visited, the cleaning method was damp mopping. Degreasers were used in three sites while neutral floor cleaners were used in seven sites. Typically, the degreasers were over diluted and the neutrals were overdosed. The wash water temperature ranged from 10 to 72 degrees C. The on-site cleaning procedures were repeated in the laboratory for the removal of olive oil from new and sealed quarry tiles, fouled and worn quarry tiles and new porcelain tiles. It is found that in 24 out of 30 cases, cleaning efficiency can be improved by simple changes in the floor cleaning procedure and that these changes result in a significant improvement of the floor friction. The nature of the improved floor cleaning procedure depends on the flooring type. New and properly sealed flooring tiles can be cleaned using damp mopping with a degreaser diluted as recommended by the manufacturer in warm or hot water (24 to 50 degrees C). But as the tiles become worn and fouled, a more aggressive floor cleaning is required such as two-step mopping with a degreaser diluted as recommended by the manufacturer in warm water (24 degrees C).

  4. Floor tile and mastic removal project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    A test program was developed and coordinated with State and Federal Regulators and carried out at Fort Sill, Oklahoma. This program was carefully designed to create the worst conditions in order to evaluate whether asbestos fibers are released when asbestos containing floor tile and mastic are removed. There were over 1,000 samples taken and analyzed during the execution of the program. The conclusions reached were based upon analysis of the critical samples using the Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) technology. Additionally, the TEM procedures were used to evaluate personnel samples to determine whether those fibers found were asbestos or other materials. Most of the (TEM) samples were analyzed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory in Cincinnati, Ohio.

  5. Seismic resistance of composite floor diaphragms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M. L.; Greimann, L. F.

    1980-05-01

    The behavioral and strength characteristics of composite steel deck floor slab diaphragms are reported. Principal characteristics investigated include maximum load, ductility, stiffness, and failure mode. The addition of studs increases the flexural load capacity of one-way steel deck reinforced slabs by 10 to 30 percent. Non-studded specimens ultimately fail because of loss of interfacial force in the shear span. Studded specimens ultimately fail due to tearing of the deck near the stud. Two analysis procedures were used, a contributing forces approach and a shear-bond approach. The former was found to be a potential analysis procedure, and results from the shear-bond increase approach demonstrated its feasibility for studded specimens.

  6. Architectural Considerations for Holonic Shop Floor Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Bilberg, Arne

    1997-01-01

    The general trends in the global markets is forcing manufacturing firms to produce products with increasing diversity while adapting new technology as it emerges. In order to cope with this new situation they need manu-facturing systems which are much more agile than them we presently consider...... of the HMS concept, followed by an investigation regard-ing the development of shop floor control architectures. This will include a summary of the ongoing research on HMS, and current results regarding the development of a holonic SFC architecture in a cellular manufacturing perspective. The paper...... will present a model of both a holonic cell and multi-cell control architecture. The work is based on a theoretical study of new manufac-turing systems theories, practical test, development of a prototype, and two case studies. It is part of a research project which aims at developing a multi-cell control...

  7. 76 FR 26685 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... International Trade Administration Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of... multilayered wood flooring (``wood flooring'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with the final... wood flooring from the PRC. See Multilayered Wood Flooring from the People's Republic of China...

  8. An approach to constipation associated with pelvic floor dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An approach to constipation associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. ... A detailed history and physical examination is necessary. Tests of colonic and pelvic floor function help distinguish constipation ... A small group of patients, refractory to medical therapy should be considered for surgery. Should test results show pelvic ...

  9. reliability analysis of a two span floor designed according

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    contemporary striking design alongside modern architecture in our towns and cities. Afolayan and. Adeyeye [7] noted the inherent advantages of timber that make it especially attractive in specific applications. Timber floor is used in buildings, local ports decks and footbridges to provide platforms for walking [2]. A timber floor ...

  10. Obstetric practice and the pelvic floor | Jeffery | Obstetrics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vaginal delivery has a profound impact on the pelvic floor with the potential for significant functional sequelae. There is an increasing trend among obstetricians to perform a caesarean section to preserve pelvic floor function. This in turn has contributed to an increasing caesarean section rate, both in South Africa and ...

  11. Longevity of black cherry seed in the forest floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. W. Wendel

    1972-01-01

    Observations made on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia indicate that some black cherry seeds remain viable in the forest floor over three winters. On the average fewer than 10 percent of the seeds stored in the forest floor germinated the first spring, about 50 percent germinated the second spring, and 25 percent germinated the third spring.

  12. Experimental Verification of an Instrument to Test Flooring Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Rony; Löfgren, Hans, Dr

    2018-02-01

    The focus of this work is to validate the fluid model with different flooring materials and the measurements of an instrument to test flooring materials and its force attenuating capabilities using mathematical models to describe the signature and coefficients of the floor. The main contribution of the present work focus on the development of a mathematical fluid model for floors. The aim of the thesis was to analyze, compare different floor materials and to study the linear dynamics of falling impacts on floors. The impact of the hammer during a fall is captured by an accelerometer and response is collected using a picoscope. The collected data was analyzed using matlab least square method which is coded as per the fluid model. The finding from this thesis showed that the fluid model works with more elastic model but it doesn’t work for rigid materials like wood. The importance of parameters like velocity, mass, energy loss and other coefficients of floor which influences the model during the impact of falling on floors were identified and a standardized testing method was set.

  13. Efficient systems of sound insulating floors. [multilayer soundproofing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgiu, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments are summerized on dwelling houses with a view to the creation of efficient warm floors. The experiments concern the types of floors built in Rumania with currently produced materials. At the present time experiments are continuing with solutions based on concrete slabs equipped with a PVC carpet and placed on an elastic layer.

  14. Sound absorption characteristics of tree bark and forest floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Reethof; O. H. McDaniel; G. M. Heisler

    1977-01-01

    Results of basic research on absorption of sound by tree bark and forest floors are presented. Amount of sound absorption by tree bark was determined by laboratory experiments with bark samples in a standing-wave tube. A modified portable standing-wave tube was used to measure absorption of sound by forest floors with different moisture contents, with and without leaf...

  15. Floor Care. Resource Manual for Custodial Training Course #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. School Plant Management Section.

    The most widely accepted practices and recent developments in the floor maintenance field are presented as an aid to school custodians and administrators. It is important that operations and maintenance men develop inexpensive, efficient methods of treatment which will give the floor maximum protection and service, make it look its best, and…

  16. 17 CFR 155.2 - Trading standards for floor brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trading standards for floor brokers. 155.2 Section 155.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION TRADING STANDARDS § 155.2 Trading standards for floor brokers. Each contract market shall adopt and submit...

  17. Claw health and floor type in group housed sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Vermeij, I.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to give an overview of the effect of floor types on claw health in group housed sows. The risk on lameness caused by the pen floor is increasing with group housing becoming more important. Lameness is a major welfare and production problem and often related to claw

  18. 75 FR 79019 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29... than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of China. \\1\\ The record is defined in Sec. 207...

  19. 78 FR 30329 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... and 731-TA-1179 (Final) concerning multilayered wood flooring (``MLWF'') from China. For further... States was materially injured by reason of imports of MLWF from China that were sold in the United States...

  20. 76 FR 76435 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Multilayered Wood Flooring From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... China of multilayered wood flooring, provided for in subheadings 4409.10, 4409.29, 4412.31, 4412.32... orders on imports of this product from China. Background The Commission instituted these investigations...

  1. A Novel Cystometric Model of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction After Rabbit Pelvic Floor Noxious Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobberfuhl, Amy D; Spettel, Sara; Schuler, Catherine; Dubin, Andrew H; Levin, Robert M; De, Elise J B

    2016-01-01

    Although a relationship between pelvic floor dysfunction and lower urinary tract symptoms is described in the literature, the mechanism and pathways need further characterization. We developed an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction after noxious stimulation of the pubococcygeus (PC) muscle. Fifteen female adult rabbits were evaluated with cystometry (CMG) and electromyography (EMG) recordings from the PC muscle. Cystometry/EMG was performed before and after treatment animal (n = 11) received noxious pelvic floor electrical stimulation through the PC EMG electrode, and controls (n = 4) underwent sham needle placement. Two animals underwent S3 dorsal rhizotomy to demonstrate that the observed results required afferent innervation. Voiding changes were demonstrated in 9 of 11 rabbits after stimulation. Most of the rabbits (7/9) exhibited a prolonged-dysfunctional voiding pattern with larger capacity (mean, 17 mL [SEM, ±8 mL]), longer intercontractile interval (227% [SEM, ±76%]) and duration (163% [SEM, ±20%]), and increased postvoid residual (24 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). The remaining dysfunctional rabbits (2/9) exhibited an overactive-dysfunctional voiding pattern with lower capacity (-26 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]), shortened intercontractile interval (16% [SEM, ±9%]) and duration (56% [SEM, ±30%]), and decreased postvoid residual (-27 mL [SEM, ±6 mL]). Nonresponder rabbits (2/11) were relatively unchanged in their micturition cycles after stimulation. Rhizotomy animals were acontractile and filled until overflow incontinence occurred. Using noxious electrical stimulation of the pelvic musculature, we were able to produce an animal model of pelvic floor dysfunction in most rabbits as hallmarked by a larger bladder capacity, an increased intercontractile interval, and prolonged contraction duration.

  2. Pelvic floor dysfunction, and effects of pregnancy and mode of delivery on pelvic floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Bozkurt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD, although seems to be simple, is a complex process that develops secondary to multifactorial factors. The incidence of PFD is increasing with increasing life expectancy. PFD is a term that refers to a broad range of clinical scenarios, including lower urinary tract excretory and defecation disorders, such as urinary and anal incontinence, overactive bladder, and pelvic organ prolapse, as well as sexual disorders. It is a financial burden on the health care system and disrupts women's quality of life. Strategies applied to decrease PFD are focused on the course of pregnancy, mode and management of delivery, and pelvic exercise methods. Many studies in the literature define traumatic birth, usage of forceps, length of the second stage of delivery, and sphincter damage as modifiable risk factors for PFD. Maternal age, fetal position, and fetal head circumference are nonmodifiable risk factors. Although numerous studies show that vaginal delivery affects pelvic floor structures and their functions in a negative way, there is not enough scientific evidence to recommend elective cesarean delivery in order to prevent development of PFD. PFD is a heterogeneous pathological condition, and the effects of pregnancy, vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery, and possible risk factors of PFD may be different from each other. Observational studies have identified certain obstetrical exposures as risk factors for pelvic floor disorders. These factors often coexist; therefore, the isolated effects of these variables on the pelvic floor are difficult to study. The routine use of episiotomy for many years in order to prevent PFD is not recommended anymore; episiotomy should be used in selected cases, and the mediolateral procedures should be used if needed.

  3. [Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation: Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X; Vieillefosse, S; Billecocq, S; Battut, A; Nizard, J; Coulm, B; Thubert, T

    2015-12-01

    Provide guidelines for clinical practice concerning postpartum rehabilitation. Systematically review of the literature concerning postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and abdominal rehabilitation. Pelvic-floor rehabilitation using pelvic floor muscle contraction exercises is recommended to treat persistent urinary incontinence at 3 months postpartum (grade A), regardless of the type of incontinence. At least 3 guided sessions with a therapist is recommended, associated with pelvic floor muscle exercises at home. This postpartum rehabilitation improves short-term urinary incontinence (1 year) but not long-term (6-12 years). Early pelvic-floor rehabilitation (within 2 months following childbirth) is not recommended (grade C). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation in women presenting with anal incontinence, is associated with a lower prevalence of anal incontinence symptoms in short-term (1 year) (EL3) but not long-term (6 and 12) (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is recommended to treat anal incontinence (grade C) but results are not maintained in medium or long term. No randomized trials have evaluated the pelvic-floor rehabilitation in asymptomatic women in order to prevent urinary or anal incontinence in medium or long term. It is therefore not recommended (expert consensus). Rehabilitation supervised by a therapist (physiotherapist or midwife) is not associated with better results than simple advice for voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor muscles to prevent/correct, in short term (6 months), a persistent prolapse 6 weeks postpartum (EL2), whether or not with a levator ani avulsion (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation is not associated with a decrease in the prevalence of dyspareunia at 1-year follow-up (EL3). Postpartum pelvic-floor rehabilitation guided by a therapist is therefore not recommended to treat or prevent prolapse (grade C) or dyspareunia (grade C). No randomized trials have evaluated the effect of pelvic

  4. Recognition and Management of Nonrelaxing Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubion, Stephanie S.; Shuster, Lynne T.; Bharucha, Adil E.

    2012-01-01

    Nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction is not widely recognized. Unlike in pelvic floor disorders caused by relaxed muscles (eg, pelvic organ prolapse or urinary incontinence, both of which often are identified readily), women affected by nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction may present with a broad range of nonspecific symptoms. These may include pain and problems with defecation, urination, and sexual function, which require relaxation and coordination of pelvic floor muscles and urinary and anal sphincters. These symptoms may adversely affect quality of life. Focus on the global symptom complex, rather than the individual symptoms, may help the clinician identify the condition. The primary care provider is in a position to intervene early, efficiently, and effectively by (1) recognizing the range of symptoms that might suggest nonrelaxing pelvic floor dysfunction, (2) educating patients, (3) performing selective tests when needed to confirm the diagnosis, and (4) providing early referral for physical therapy. PMID:22305030

  5. Impact sound insulation improvement of wooden floors on concrete slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Hoffmeyer, Dan; Hansen, Rói

    2014-01-01

    renovating housing. In Denmark, there are about 1 million dwellings in multi-storey housing. About half of the dwellings are built with timber floors, and the other half with wooden floors on concrete slabs, either in-situ cast or prefabricated hollow-core elements. In a project including mapping of sound...... insulation in the Danish housing stock and investigation of improvement possibilities, a pilot laboratory study of wooden floors on concrete was carried out. The laboratory study included impact sound improvement measurements of full-scale samples (10 m2) fulfilling the conditions in EN ISO 10140....... The measurements indicated up to about 8 dB improvement potential compared to floor constructions typical before the latest change of regulations, namely wooden floors on joists on PE wedges or similar. In addition, tests of small-scale samples (1 m2) – unsuitable for type testing – were performed to provide...

  6. Historical Cavern Floor Rise for All SPR Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, Dylan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) contains the largest supply is the largest stockpile of government-owned emergency crude oil in the world. The oil is stored in multiple salt caverns spread over four sites in Louisiana and Texas. Cavern infrastructure near the bottom of the cavern can be damaged from vertical floor movement. This report presents a comprehensive history of floor movements in each cavern. Most of the cavern floor rise rates ranged from 0.5-3.5 ft/yr, however, there were several caverns with much higher rise rates. BH103, BM106, and BH105 had the three highest rise rates. Information from this report will be used to better predict future vertical floor movements and optimally place cavern infrastructure. The reasons for floor rise are not entirely understood and should be investigated.

  7. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  8. Carbonate Deposition on Antarctic Shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, T. D.; James, N. P.; Malcolm, I.

    2011-12-01

    Limestones associated with glaciomarine deposits occur throughout the geologic record but remain poorly understood. The best-described examples formed during major ice ages of the Neoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic. Quaternary analogs on Antarctic shelves have received comparatively little study. Here, we report on the composition, spatial distribution, and stratigraphic context of carbonate sediments contained in piston cores from the Ross Sea. The goals of this work are to (1) document the nature and distribution of carbonate sediments on the Ross Sea continental shelf and (2) examine temporal relationships to Quaternary glaciation. Results will be used to develop criteria that will improve understanding of analogous deposits in the ancient record. All carbonate-rich intervals in piston cores from the Ross Rea, now housed at the Antarctic Marine Geology Research Facility at Florida State University, were examined and described in detail. Sediment samples were disaggregated and sieved into size fractions before description with paleontological analysis carried out on the coarsest size fraction (>250 microns). Carbonate-rich sediments are concentrated in the northwestern Ross Sea, along the distal margins of Mawson and Pennell Banks. Calcareous facies include a spectrum of lithologies that range from fossiliferous mud, sand, and gravel to skeletal floatstone-rudstone and bafflestone. Floatstone-rudstone and bafflestone is most abundant along western-facing slopes in areas protected from the Antarctic Coastal Current. Sand-prone facies dominate the tops of banks and mud-prone, often spicultic, facies occur in deeper areas. The carbonate factory is characterized by a low-diversity, heterozoan assemblage that is dominated by stylasterine hydrocorals, barnacles, and bryozoans. Molluscs and echinoids are present but not abundant. Planktic and benthic foraminifera are ubiquitous components of the sediment matrix, which is locally very rich in sponge spicules. Biota rarely

  9. Role of submarine canyons in sediment transport on active Taiwan and passive Chinese margins in northernmost South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hsiung, K.; Yu, H.

    2011-12-01

    The basin floor of the northernmost South China Sea (SCS) is manifested by flexure of the Chinese margin under the westward migrating overthrust belt of Taiwan, forming two distinct slopes facing each other: the SCS Slope to the Chinese margin and the Kaoping Slope to the Taiwan orogen, respectively. The oblique arc-continental collision being actively propagating from north to south, and consequently the basin floor of the northernmost SCS deepens and tilts towards south, forming a linear marine transport route along the basin axis. The Penghu Canyon is located along the tilting basin axis where is the physiographic boundary separating the SCS and Kaoping slopes. This canyon extends southward and continues to a deep-sea Penghu Channel around 21°N, and finally merges into the northern Manila Trench. The Kaoping Canyon is a distinctive canyon on the Kaoping Shelf/Slope and is the major sediment conduit for delivering Taiwan orogenic sediment to the SCS basin. On the passive margin, the Formosa Canyon is the major sediment pathway on the SCS Slope where it extends from the upper slope to the lower slope and merges into the lower Penghu Canyon. These three main canyons are draining sediment flows southward to the basin floor of SCS and finally to the Manila Trench. Longitudinal profiles for these three canyons are presented to interpret conditions of sedimentary processes in canyon floors. The longitudinal profile of Kaoping Canyon is characterized by linear geometry which is suggested to be erosion dominated. Similarly, the Penghu Canyon shows a linear curve in longitudinal profile indicating the canyon to be erosion type. In contrast, the longitudinal profile of Formosa Canyon shows nearly concave shape which indicates to be deposition dominated. Erosion of these three canyons is suggested to be removal of sediments on the canyon floor and transport down-canyon rather than to be down-cutting of canyon floor. These three main canyons provide sediment input from

  10. Pelvic floor assessment after delivery: how should women be selected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Marco; Livio, Stefania; De Ponti, Elena; Scebba, Ileana; Carpentieri, Federica; Serati, Maurizio; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction after delivery is quite common. New mothers deserve to receive targeted care for pelvic floor dysfunction, but how should women who are at risk be identified and selected for treatment? This study investigated risk factors and puerperal health-seeking behaviours to develop a restrictive patient selection model for postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction assessment. This prospective observational study involved women who were at ≥32 weeks gestational age when they delivered in a tertiary referral maternity hospital in Milan, Italy, between July and December 2014. Eligible women were scheduled for a 3-month postnatal pelvic floor clinic. The adherence rate to the pelvic floor clinic and the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions at 3 months postpartum were recorded. Univariable and logistic multivariable analyses were performed to select risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunctions. Risk factors were then tested for sensitivity and specificity for 3-month postpartum pelvic floor dysfunctions. Of 1606 eligible women, 1293 (80.5%) were included in the analysis; 685 puerperal women (53.0%) adhered to the 3-month postnatal pelvic floor clinic; pelvic floor dysfunctions were detected in 238 women (34.7%). Four elements emerged as risk factors: symptoms before pregnancy (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.15-2.56; p=0.008), symptoms during pregnancy (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.49-3.06; p<0.0001), vacuum extractor use (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.54; p=0.034), and severe perineal tears (OR 19.45, 95% CI 2.42-156.15; p=0.005). The combined sensitivity and specificity for the 4 risk factors were 82% and 39%, respectively. Internal risk factors analysis offers the potential to efficiently restrict patient selection for follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pelvic floor tenderness in the etiology of superficial dyspareunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Paul J; Mui, Justin; Allaire, Catherine; Williams, Christina

    2014-11-01

    To calculate the prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness in the population of women with pelvic pain and to determine its implications for symptoms of pelvic pain. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with pelvic pain at a tertiary referral centre. Pelvic floor tenderness was defined as levator ani tenderness on at least one side during single digit pelvic examination. The prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness in this cohort of women with pelvic pain was compared with the prevalence in a cohort of women without pain attending a gynaecology clinic. In the women with pelvic pain, multiple regression was performed to determine which variables were independently associated with pelvic floor tenderness. The prevalence of pelvic floor tenderness was 40% (75/189) in the cohort with pelvic pain, significantly greater than the prevalence of 13% (4/32) in the cohort without pain (OR 4.61; 95% CI 1.55 to 13.7, P = 0.005). On multiple logistic regression, superficial dyspareunia (OR 4.45; 95% CI 1.86 to 10.7, P = 0.001), abdominal wall pain (OR 4.04; 95% CI 1.44 to 11.3, P = 0.005), and bladder base tenderness (OR 4.65; 95% CI 1.87 to 11.6, P = 0.001) were independently associated with pelvic floor tenderness. Pelvic floor tenderness was similarly present in women with or without underlying endometriosis. Pelvic floor tenderness is common in women with pelvic pain, with or without endometriosis, and is a contributor to superficial dyspareunia. Pelvic floor tenderness was also associated with abdominal wall pain and bladder base tenderness, suggesting that nervous system sensitization is involved in the etiology of pelvic floor tenderness.

  12. A canopy trimming experiment in Puerto Rico: the response of litter invertebrate communities to canopy loss and debris deposition in a tropical forest subject to hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Richardson; Michael J. Richardson; Grizelle Gonzalez; Aaron B. Shiels; Diane S. Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Hurricanes cause canopy removal and deposition of pulses of litter to the forest floor. A Canopy Trimming Experiment (CTE) was designed to decouple these two factors, and to investigate the separate abiotic and biotic consequences of hurricane-type damage and monitor recovery processes. As part of this experiment, effects on forest floor invertebrate communities were...

  13. Characterization of previously unidentified lunar pyroclastic deposits using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, J. Olaf; Bell, James F.; Gaddis, Lisa R.R.; Hawke, B. Ray Ray; Giguere, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    We used a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) global monochrome Wide-angle Camera (WAC) mosaic to conduct a survey of the Moon to search for previously unidentified pyroclastic deposits. Promising locations were examined in detail using LROC multispectral WAC mosaics, high-resolution LROC Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images, and Clementine multispectral (ultraviolet-visible or UVVIS) data. Out of 47 potential deposits chosen for closer examination, 12 were selected as probable newly identified pyroclastic deposits. Potential pyroclastic deposits were generally found in settings similar to previously identified deposits, including areas within or near mare deposits adjacent to highlands, within floor-fractured craters, and along fissures in mare deposits. However, a significant new finding is the discovery of localized pyroclastic deposits within floor-fractured craters Anderson E and F on the lunar farside, isolated from other known similar deposits. Our search confirms that most major regional and localized low-albedo pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the Moon down to ~100 m/pix resolution, and that additional newly identified deposits are likely to be either isolated small deposits or additional portions of discontinuous, patchy deposits.

  14. Pelvic floor muscle training as a persistent nursing intervention: Effect on delivery outcome and pelvic floor myodynamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Persistent nursing intervention for pregnant/postpartum women helped to shorten the second stage of labour and contributed to the recovery of postpartum pelvic floor myodynamia. The influence of this intervention on the delivery mode, and rates of episiotomy and perineal laceration remains unknown. Medical staff should strengthen health education programmes that involve pelvic floor functional rehabilitation.

  15. Accuracy of integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound compared to defaecatory MRI in females with pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, Alison J; Pilkington, Sophie A; Grierson, Catherine; Rutherford, Elizabeth; Schizas, Alexis M P; Nugent, Karen P; Williams, Andrew B

    2016-12-01

    Defaecatory MRI allows multicompartmental assessment of defaecatory dysfunction but is often inaccessible. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound (transperineal, transvaginal, endoanal) may provide a cheap, portable alternative. The accuracy of total pelvic floor ultrasound for anatomical abnormalities when compared with defaecatory MRI was assessed. The dynamic images from 68 females who had undergone integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound and defaecatory MRI between 2009 and 2015 were blindly reviewed. The following were recorded: rectocoele, enterocoele, intussusception and cystocoele. There were 26 rectocoeles on MRI (49 rectocoeles on ultrasound), 24 rectocoeles with intussusception on MRI (19 rectocoeles on ultrasound), 23 enterocoeles on MRI (24 enterocoeles on ultrasound) and 49 cystocoeles on MRI (35 cystocoeles on ultrasound). Sensitivity and specificity of total pelvic floor ultrasound were 81% and 33% for rectocoele, 60% and 91% for intussusception, 65% and 80% for enterocoele and 65% and 84% for cystocoele when compared with defaecatory MRI. This gave a negative-predictive value and positive-predictive value of 74% and 43% for rectocoele, 80% and 79% for intussusception, 82% and 63% for enterocoele and 48% and 91% for cystocoele. Integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound may serve as a screening tool for pelvic floor defaecatory dysfunction; when normal, defaecatory MRI can be avoided, as rectocoele, intussusception and enterocoele are unlikely to be present. Advances in knowledge: This is the first study to compare integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound with defaecatory MRI. The results support the use of integrated total pelvic floor ultrasound as a screening tool for defaecatory dysfunction.

  16. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercise on pelvic floor muscle activity and voiding functions during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyaoglu Sut, Hatice; Balkanli Kaplan, Petek

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pelvic floor muscle exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period on pelvic floor muscle activity and voiding functions. Pregnant women (n = 60) were randomly assigned into two groups (Training [n = 30] and Control [n = 30]) using a computer-based system. Pelvic floor muscle strength was measured using a perineometry device. Urinary symptoms were measured using the Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6), Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7), and the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). Voiding functions were measured using uroflowmetry and 3-day voiding diaries. Measurements were obtained at week 28, weeks 36-38 of pregnancy, and postpartum weeks 6-8. Pelvic floor muscle strength significantly decreased during the pregnancy (P pelvic floor muscle strength improvement was significantly higher in the Training group compared to the Control group (P  0.05). However, UDI-6, coping, concern, and total scores of OAB-q were significantly decreased during weeks 36-38 of pregnancy in the Control group (P pelvic floor muscle strength, urinary symptoms, quality of life, and voiding functions. Pelvic floor muscle exercises applied during pregnancy and the postpartum period increase pelvic floor muscle strength and prevent deterioration of urinary symptoms and quality of life in pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Do women with pelvic floor dysfunction referred by gynaecologists and urologists at hospitals complete a pelvic floor muscle training programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibaek, Sigrid; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    For decades women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) have been referred to pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT), but there is only little information on whether the women complete the programmes and why. The objectives of this study were to investigate to which extent women completed a PFMT...

  18. Chemical effect on ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over seawater. Recent studies suggest that surface layer resistance over sea-water is influenced by wind-speed and chemical interaction at the air-water interface. Here, we investigate the e...

  19. Technical note: Examining ozone deposition over seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface layer resistance plays an important role in determining ozone deposition velocity over sea-water and can be influenced by chemical interactions at the air-water interface. Here, we examine the effect of chemical interactions of iodide, dimethylsulfide, dissolved organic c...

  20. Turbidites and Benthic Faunal Succession in the Deep Sea: An Ecological Paradox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, David

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of benthic faunal succession following turbidity flows in the deep sea will vary according to the composition of turbidite materials, the spatial scales of deposition, the structure...

  1. Erosional and depositional contourite features at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and southern South Atlantic Ocean: links with regional water-mass circulation since the Middle Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Lara F.; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Esteban, Federico D.; Tassone, Alejandro; Piola, Alberto R.; Maldonado, Andrés; Preu, Benedict; Violante, Roberto A.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterise the morpho-sedimentary features and main stratigraphic stacking pattern off the Tierra del Fuego continental margin, the north-western sector of the Scotia Sea abyssal plain (Yaghan Basin) and the Malvinas/Falkland depression, based on single- and multi-channel seismic profiles. Distinct contourite features were identified within the sedimentary record from the Middle Miocene onwards. Each major drift developed in a water depth range coincident with a particular water mass, contourite terraces on top of some of these drifts being associated with interfaces between water masses. Two major palaeoceanographic changes were identified. One took place in the Middle Miocene with the onset of Antarctic Intermediate Water flow and the enhancement of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) flow, coevally with the onset of Weddell Sea Deep Water flow in the Scotia Sea. Another palaeoceanographic change occurred on the abyssal plain of the Yaghan Basin in the Late Miocene as a consequence of the onset of Southeast Pacific Deep Water flow and its complex interaction with the lower branch of the CDW. Interestingly, these two periods of change in bottom currents are coincident with regional tectonic episodes, as well as climate and Antarctic ice sheet oscillations. The results convincingly demonstrate that the identification of contourite features on the present-day seafloor and within the sedimentary record is the key for decoding the circulation of water masses in the past. Nevertheless, further detailed studies, especially the recovery of drill cores, are necessary to establish a more robust chronology of the evolutionary stages at the transition between the western Scotia Sea and the southern South Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Mercury's Pyroclastic Deposits and their spectral variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Sebastien; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Observations of the MESSENGER spacecraft in orbit around Mercury have shown that volcanism is a very important process that has shaped the surface of the planet, in particular in its early history.In this study, we use the full range of the MASCS spectrometer (300-1400nm) to characterize the spectral properties of the pyroclastic deposits. Analysis of deposits within the Caloris Basin, and on other location of Mercury's surface (e.g., Hesiod, Rachmaninoff, etc.) show two main results: 1) Spectral variability is significant in the UV and VIS range between the deposits themselves, and also with respect to the rest of the planet and other features like hollows, 2) Deposits exhibit a radial variability similar to those found with the lunar pyroclastic deposits of floor fractured craters.These results are put in context with the latest analysis of other instruments of the MESSENGER spacecraft, in particular the visible observations from the imager MDIS, and the elemental composition given by the X-Ray spectrometer. Although all together, the results do not allow pointing to compositional variability of the deposits for certain, information on the formation mechanisms, the weathering and the age formation can be extrapolated from the radial variability and the elemental composition.

  3. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, ppelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, ppelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  4. Miocene shale tectonics in the Moroccan margin (Alboran Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do Couto, D.; El Abbassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Gorini, C.; Estrada, F.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; Jolivet, L.; Jabour, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Betic (Southern Spain) and Rif (Morocco) mountains form an arcuate belt that represents the westernmost termination of the peri-mediterranean Alpine mountain chain. The Miocene Alboran Basin and its subbasins is located in the hinterland of the Betic-Rif belt. It is considered to be a back-arc basin that developed during the coeval westward motion of the Alboran domain and the extensional collapse of previously thickened crust of the Betic-Rif belt. The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) is the major sedimentary depocenter with a sediment thickness in excess of 10 km, it is bordered by the Gibraltar arc, the volcanic Djibouti mounts and the Alboran ridge. Part of the WAB is affected by shale tectonics and associated mud volcanism. High-quality 2D seismic profiles acquired on the Moroccan margin of the Alboran Basin during the last decade reveal the multiple history of the basin. This study deals with the analysis of a number of these seismic profiles that are located along and orthogonal to the Moroccan margin. Seismic stratigraphy is calibrated from industrial wells. We focus on the interactions between the gravity-driven tectonic processes and the sedimentation in the basin. Our seismic interpretation confirms that the formation of the WAB began in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian - Burdigalian). The fast subsidence of the basin floor coeval to massive sedimentation induced the undercompaction of early miocene shales during their deposition. Downslope migration of these fine-grained sediments initiated during the deposition of the Langhian siliciclastics. This gravity-driven system was accompanied by continuous basement subsidence and induced disharmonic deformation in Mid Miocene units (i.e. not related to basement deformation). The development of shale-cored anticlines and thrusts in the deep basin is the result of compressive deformation at the front of the gravity-driven system and lasted for ca. 15 Ma. The compressive front has been re-activated by strong

  5. Dead sea asphalts: historical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.

    1978-05-01

    Asphalts are present in the Dead Sea basin in three forms: (1) huge blocks, up to 100 tons in weight, composed of extremely pure (>99.99%) solid asphalt occasionally found floating on the lake, (2) veins, seepages, and cavity and fissure fillings in Lower Cretaceous to Holocene rocks, and (3) ozocerite veins on the eastern shore of the lake. Dead Sea asphalts probably have been documented over a longer period of time than any other hydrocarbon deposit--from antiquity to the 19th century. Major uses of asphalt from the Dead Sea have been as an ingredient in the embalming process, for medicinal purposes, for fumigation, and for agriculture. The first known war for control of a hydrocarbon deposit was in the Dead Sea area in 312 B.C. between the Seleucid Syrians and the Nabatean Arabs who lived around the lake. Surface manifestations of asphalt are linked closely to tectonic activity. In the lake itself, the asphalt is associated with diapirs During certain historic periods, tectonic and diapiric activity caused frequent liberation to the Dead Sea surface of semiliquid asphalt associated with large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas. When the tectonic activity was attenuated, as in the 19th and 20th centuries, the rate of asphalt seepage to the bottom sediments of the Dead Sea was much slower and the asphalt solidified on the lake bottom. The release of asphalt to the surface became much more sporadic, and may have resulted in part from earthquakes. Thus, future asphalt prospecting in the Dead Sea area should be conducted along the boundaries of diapirs or their associated faults.

  6. Assessment of the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength using ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence: a prospective randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tosun, Ozge Celiker; Solmaz, Ulas; Ekin, Atalay; Tosun, Gokhan; Gezer, Cenk; Ergenoglu, Ahmet Mete; Yeniel, Ahmet Ozgur; Mat, Emre; Malkoc, Mehtap; Askar, Niyazi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of pelvic floor exercises on pelvic floor muscle strength could be detected via ultrasonography in patients with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Of 282 incontinent patients, 116 participated in the study and were randomly divided into a pelvic floor muscle training (n=65) group or control group (n=51). The pelvic floor muscle training group was given pelvic floor exercise training for 12 weeks. Both groups were ev...

  7. [SHOULD EVERY WOMAN AFTER LABOR BE OFFERED PELVIC FLOOR PHYSIOTHERAPY?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Vered; Kafri, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Pelvic floor damage can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or post-partum, and may be expressed by symptoms such as urinary incontinence, fecal and gas incontinence, sexual dysfunction, pelvic organ prolapse and chronic pelvic pain. Some of the symptoms, which manifest later in a woman's life, will go unrecognized in the immediate postpartum period. Most women do not mention their general health, unless specifically asked. Physiotherapists, who are adept with the anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and the ability to diagnose unique differences, can aid in the diagnosis and treatment of postpartum pelvic floor problems. Monitoring, pelvic floor physiotherapy and exercise can be effective both in treatment and prevention of functional disorders of the pelvic floor. In this article, we will discuss pelvic floor problems and their appearance throughout pregnancy and childbirth, and the means of treatment from the physiotherapist's perspective. We raise the question as to whether all postpartum women could benefit from a training program of pelvic floor muscles. Pelvic floor physiotherapy is included in the health basket in Israel, but is not broadly utilized. Wider use could be adopted, particularly in light of the latest research evidence.

  8. Floor-Fractured Craters through Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorey, C.

    2015-12-01

    Floor-fractured craters are impact craters that have undergone post impact deformations. They are characterized by shallow floors with a plate-like or convex appearance, wide floor moats, and radial, concentric, and polygonal floor-fractures. While the origin of these deformations has long been debated, it is now generally accepted that they are the result of the emplacement of shallow magmatic intrusions below their floor. These craters thus constitute an efficient tool to probe the importance of intrusive magmatism from the lunar surface. The most recent catalog of lunar-floor fractured craters references about 200 of them, mainly located around the lunar maria Herein, we will discuss the possibility of using machine learning algorithms to try to detect new floor-fractured craters on the Moon among the 60000 craters referenced in the most recent catalogs. In particular, we will use the gravity field provided by the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, and the topographic dataset obtained from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to design a set of representative features for each crater. We will then discuss the possibility to design a binary supervised classifier, based on these features, to discriminate between the presence or absence of crater-centered intrusion below a specific crater. First predictions from different classifier in terms of their accuracy and uncertainty will be presented.

  9. The Storegga Slide Tsunami - Deposits, Run-up Heights and Radiocarbon Dating of the 8000-Year-Old Tsunami in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondevik, S.; Lovholt, F.; Harbitz, C.; Stormo, S.; Skjerdal, G.

    2006-12-01

    One of the largest Holocene landslide mapped on Earth is the Storegga Slide offshore Norway. Between 2500 and 3400 km3 material were mobilized in a retrogressive process, generating a huge tsunami dated to about 7300 14C years BP, or ca 8100 calendar years BP. The tsunami is documented from onshore deposits along the entire Norwegian coast, on the Faeroe Islands, the Shetland Islands, in Scotland and possibly also on Greenland. Of these, the tsunami deposits in Shetland reach the highest elevation, indicating a run-up of at least 20 m. Coastal lakes have a high potential for preserving deposits from tsunamis and Storegga tsunami deposits are now documented from more than 40 lakes and submarine basins. Such deposits typically show an erosive, sharp, lower boundary against the underlying lake- or sea-floor mud. Coarse sand and fine gravel particles (2-6 mm) rest on this boundary. The sand often contains rip-up clasts of both gray silt and brown organic lake mud. Further up-core, the tsunami deposit is a mixture of plant fragments, twigs, bark, sand, and other re-deposited mud. The upper boundary is very gradual. The sand may contain marine diatoms, fragments of marine shells, and sea-urchins. This clearly demonstrates that material was brought into the fresh water lakes from the sea during the tsunami event. Based on these findings we have established a sedimentological model for tsunami deposits in lakes and shallow marine basins. Accurate radiocarbon dating of paleotsunamis are problematic because of erosion of the underlying strata, re- deposition of organic material within the tsunami deposit and also re-deposition of organic matter for many years after the tsunami event. Unexpectedly, we discovered plant material within the tsunami sand that is excellent for radiocarbon dating - these are green moss stems that we know were killed by the tsunami. The green color is analyzed to be chlorophyll. Chlorophyll in dead plants degrades rapidly with exposure to light and

  10. Association between preterm labour and pelvic floor muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Turhan; Pekgöz, Ipek; Bozkaya, Hasan; Osmanagaoglu, Mehmet A

    2018-03-23

    We hypothesised that the pressure on the cervix increases with advancing gestation and it may lead to a cervical shortening and cause preterm labour in women with weak pelvic floor muscles. The aim of this prospective study was to measure vaginal resting pressure and pelvic floor muscle strength in the first trimester of pregnancy and to investigate their effects on labour. A study was conducted on the pregnant women with a low risk for preterm birth. The pelvic floor muscle strength and vaginal resting pressure were assessed in 320 pregnant women at their first trimester with a vaginal pressure measurement device. Fifty-two pregnant women were hospitalised for tocolytic therapy because of spontaneous preterm labour. Thirty-two of them (10.2%) had a preterm delivery despite the tocolytic therapy. Both the vaginal resting pressure (p = .009, 95%CI: 0.8; 5.9) and the pelvic floor muscle strength (p = .01, 95%CI: 3.5; 13.1) were significantly lower in the women with a preterm labour. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? The pelvic floor muscles have an essential role in continence and provide support to the pelvic organs. They also have an impact on labour. The pelvic floor muscles should distend to allow the passage of the foetus during labour. The rotation and flexion of the foetal head is due to the pelvic floor resistance. The effect of a vaginal birth on the pelvic floor's function is readily understood. On the other hand, the effect of the pelvic floor muscle function on labour is still controversial. What do the results of this study add? This prospective study showed that there is a negative association between the pelvic floor muscle strength and preterm labour. This is the first clinical study indicating that weak pelvic floor muscles may cause a preterm labour. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research? Pelvic floor physical therapy may be an alternative preventive strategy to reduce

  11. Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy for Vulvodynia: A Clinician's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Stephanie A

    2017-09-01

    Vulvar pain affects up to 20% of women at some point in their lives, and most women with vulvar pain have associated pelvic floor impairments. Pelvic floor dysfunction is associated with significant functional limitations in women by causing painful intercourse and urinary, bowel, and sexual dysfunction. A quick screening of the pelvic floor muscles can be performed in the gynecology office and should be used when patients report symptoms of pelvic pain. It is now known the vulvar pain syndromes are heterogeneous in origin; therefore, successful treatment plans are multimodal and include physical therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Late orbital floor implant migration presenting as recurrent episcleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sobha; Cheung, David

    2014-04-01

    A 53-year-old patient presented with recurrent epicleritis of the right eye for 6 months and progressive diplopia. He had a past history of orbital floor repair over 30 years. A CT scan showed a radiodense migrated orbital floor sheet implant in the maxillary sinus causing obstruction of the maxillary sinus ostium, secondary maxillary sinusitis with retrobulbar involvement. The silastic orbital implant was removed via a Caldwell Luc approach and resolution of the patient's symptoms and signs quickly ensued. We discuss this late complication of orbital floor fracture repair presenting initially as recurrent episcleritis and maxillary sinusitis with intraorbital extension. This report also emphasizes the importance of history taking.

  13. An architecture for agile shop floor control systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Gilad; Alting, Leo

    2000-01-01

    Changes in markets and global business trends affect the manufacturing environment in infinite ways. These changes have brought about the need for a paradigm shift to reassess the manner in which manufacturing systems are developed and operated. New theories and concepts present solutions to enable...... as shop floor control. This paper presents the Holonic Multi-cell Control System (HoMuCS) architecture that allows for design and development of holonic shop floor control systems. The HoMuCS is a shop floor control system which is sometimes referred to as a manufacturing execution system...

  14. Rehabilitation of the short pelvic floor. II: Treatment of the patient with the short pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, M P; Kotarinos, R

    2003-10-01

    Several urogynecologic syndromes are associated with the clinical finding of a short, painful, tender and weak pelvic floor and a variety of connective tissue abnormalities. Techniques for rehabilitation include the avoidance of perpetuating factors, rehabilitation of extrapelvic musculoskeletal abnormalities, the use of manual techniques and needling to promote resolution of connective tissue problems, closure of any diastasis recti, and transvaginal/transrectal manual release of muscular trigger points and contractures. Therapy can be facilitated by pudendal or epidural nerve block. Patients contribute to their success through home maintenance programs.

  15. Assessment of slip resistance under footwear materials, tread designs, floor contamination, and floor inclination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chen, Ching Chung; Liu, Liwen

    2012-01-01

    Slip and fall incidences are common in our daily lives. They are not only important environmental safety issues but also important occupational safety and health problems. The purpose of this study was to use the Brungraber Mark II to measure the friction so as to investigate the effects of the shoe sole, surface condition and the inclined angle of the floor and their interactions on friction coefficient. The results of the study showed the effects of all the main factors and their interactions were significant (p<0.001). Engineering designs & ergonomic interventions in slip & fall prevention should take these factors in full consideration.

  16. [Continuous improvement of portable domestic pelvic floor neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the pelvic floor function of patients with urinary incontinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijing; Zhu, Lan; Lang, Jinghe; Wang, Wei; Shi, Honghui; Pang, Hongxia; Shi, Xinwen

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate continuous improvement of portable domestic pelvic floor neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the pelvic floor function of patients with stress urinary incontinence after short-term pelvic floor electrophysiological treatment in hospital. Totally 60 women with stress urinary incontinence were recruited for this randomized controlled trial. The control group including a total of 30 patients, only received 4 weeks pelvic floor electrophysiological treatment in the hospital. Family consolidation treatment group (experimental group) including 30 patients, after 4-week treatment in hospital, received 12-week of pelvic floor neuromuscular electrical stimulation using portable electrical stimulator at home under the guidance of doctors. In post-treatment 6 months and 9 months, 1-hour pad test was measured for urine leakage, pelvic floor electrical physiological parameters were assessed, and subjective improvement of symptoms of urinary incontinence were evaluated. All these data were analysed to compare the effect of the two groups. In 9 months after treatment, average change of urine leakage, the control group and experiment group were (75±24)% versus (99±3)%, the difference was statistically significant (Pcontinuous improvement of pelvic floor function.

  17. Testing and training of the pelvic floor muscles after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, A; Larsson, B; Pschera, H

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective study of 83 women, two different physiotherapy methods for strengthening the pelvic floor muscles after childbirth were evaluated. The training program was carried out by the patients at home for 12 weeks, starting 8 weeks after spontaneous uneventful delivery. Forty-two women did pelvic floor exercises in accordance with the method presented by Kegel. Forty-one women used standard vaginal cones with weights increasing in 10 g stages from 20 to 100 g, to be retained in the vagina both when standing erect and moving. Pelvic floor muscle strength, defined as the weight in grams of the heaviest cone that could be retained in the vagina, was recorded before and after the 12-week training period. Training with vaginal cones produced significantly better pelvic floor muscle strength than did exercise without cones.

  18. Wooden floors: part of historical antiseismic building systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Laner

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes how wooden floors have been used over the centuries as a means of ensuring greater building solidity to ensure against earthquakes or other events that threaten wall stability.

  19. Surgical Management of Pelvic floor Prolapse in women using Mesh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAH

    polytetrafluoroethylene) . This article reviews our experience with polypropylene mesh in pelvic floor repair at the. Southern General Hospital Glasgow. The objective was to determine the safety and effectiveness of the prolene mesh in the repair ...

  20. Nuclear reactor cavity floor passive heat removal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Neeley, Gary W.; Inman, James B.

    2018-03-06

    A nuclear reactor includes a reactor core disposed in a reactor pressure vessel. A radiological containment contains the nuclear reactor and includes a concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor. An ex vessel corium retention system includes flow channels embedded in the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor, an inlet in fluid communication with first ends of the flow channels, and an outlet in fluid communication with second ends of the flow channels. In some embodiments the inlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a first elevation and the outlet is in fluid communication with the interior of the radiological containment at a second elevation higher than the first elevation. The radiological containment may include a reactor cavity containing a lower portion of the pressure vessel, wherein the concrete floor located underneath the nuclear reactor is the reactor cavity floor.

  1. Improvement of PVC floor tiles by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, T.A. du; Badenhorst, F.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma radiation presents a unique method of transforming highly plasticized PVC floor tiles, manufactured at high speed through injection moulding, into a high quality floor covering at a cost at least 30% less than similarly rated rubber tiles. A specially formulated PVC compound was developed in collaboration with a leading manufacturer of floor tiles. These tiles are gamma crosslinked in its shipping cartons to form a dimensionally stable product which is highly fire resistant and inert to most chemicals and solvents. These crosslinked tiles are more flexible than the highly filled conventional PVC floor tiles, scratch resistant and have a longer lifespan and increased colour fastness. These tiles are also less expensive to install than conventional rubber tiles. (author)

  2. Fabrication of patient specific composite orbital floor implants by stereolithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geven, Mike Alexander; Varjas, V.; Kamer, L.; Wang, X.; Peng, J.; Eglin, D.; Grijpma, Dirk W.

    2015-01-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are common in traffic accidents and assaults, and inadequate treatment can result in serious complications. Accurate anatomical reconstruction of the orbit using implants is the preferred treatment. Implants require degradability, adequate mechanical properties to

  3. Physical and chemical test results of electrostatic safe flooring materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompf, R. H.

    1988-01-01

    This test program was initiated because a need existed at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to have this information readily available to the engineer who must make the choice of which electrostatic safe floor to use in a specific application. The information, however, should be of value throughout both the government and private industry in the selection of a floor covering material. Included are the test results of 18 floor covering materials which by test evaluation at KSC are considered electrostatically safe. Tests were done and/or the data compiled in the following areas: electrostatics, flammability, hypergolic compatibility, outgassing, floor type, material thickness, and available colors. Each section contains the test method used to gather the data and the test results.

  4. Floor Care 101: The Basics of Vacuuming and Damp Mopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines six steps to maintaining hard wood and resilient floors in educational facilities that can provides a high level of appearance, safety, sanitation, and prevention of damage. Specific cleaning techniques accompany each step. (GR)

  5. Power to the Pelvis: Strengthening Your Pelvic Floor Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Issues Subscribe March 2018 Print this issue Power to the Pelvis Strengthening Your Pelvic Floor Muscles ... Bulging Hernia Keeping Your Gut in Check The Power of Your Pancreas Pregnancy and Beyond Wise Choices ...

  6. Advanced low-floor vehicle (ALFV) specification research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report details the results of research on market comparison, operational cost efficiencies, and prototype tests conducted on : a novel design for an Advanced Low Floor Vehicle (ALFV), flex-route transit bus. Section I describes how the need for ...

  7. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  8. Muscle function of the pelvic floor in healthy, puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Pardiñas, M A; Torres-Lacomba, M; Navarro-Brazález, B

    2017-05-01

    To understand the function of the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) at different ages in healthy women and in puerperal women with pelvic floor dysfunctions (PFD) and to ascertain whether there are differences among them. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2016 and included 177 women, 70 of whom had no symptoms of PFD, 53 primiparous mothers in late postpartum and 54 with PFD. The function of the PFM was measured through vaginal palpation (quality of the contraction); manometry (force); dynamometer (tone, strength, and response to stretching), and surface electromyography (neuromuscular activity and resistance). The healthy women showed superior values for PFM tone, maximum strength, neuromuscular activity and resistance than the puerperal mothers and the women with PFD (P.05). The muscle function of the healthy women did not vary significantly with age, except in the case of tone, which was lower in the women older than 46 years (P=.004). Age and births decrease the baseline tone of the PFM in healthy women. Therefore, lower strength, resistance and neuromuscular activity appear to be the main difference between the PFM of women with PFD and the PFM of healthy women. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey and analysis of deep water mineral deposits using nuclear methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, C.M.; Noakes, J.E.; Spaulding, J.

    1991-01-01

    Present knowledge of the location, quality, quantity and recoverability of sea floor minerals is severely limited, particularly in the abyssal depths and deep water within the 200 mile Exclusion Economic Zone (EEZ) surrounding the U.S. Pacific Islands. To improve this understanding and permit exploitation of these mineral reserves much additional data is needed. This paper will discuss a sponsored program for extending existing proven nuclear survey methods currently used on the shallow continental margins of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico into the deeper waters of the Pacific. This nuclear technology can be readily integrated and extended to depths of 2000 m using the existing RCV-150 remotely operated vehicle (ROV) and the PISCESE V manned deep submersible vehicle (DSV) operated by The University of Hawaii's, Hawaii Underseas Research Laboratory (HURL). Previous papers by the authors have also proposed incorporating these nuclear analytical methods for survey of the deep ocean through the use of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUX). Such a vehicle could extend the use of passive nuclear instrument operation, in addition to conventional analytical methods, into the abyssal depths and do so with speed and economy not otherwise possible. The natural radioactivity associated with manganese nodules and crustal deposits is sufficiently above normal background levels to allow discrimination and quantification in near real time

  10. Where the oil from surface and subsurface plumes deposited during/after Deepwater Horizon oil spill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill released an estimated 4.9 million barrels (about 200 million gallons) of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico between April 20, 2010 and July 15, 2010. Though Valentine et al. has linked the elevated oil components in some sediments with the subsurface plume, the sites with fallout from the ocean surface plume has not been identified. This piece of information is critical not only for a comprehensive scientific understanding of the ecosystem response and fate of spill-related pollutants, but also for litigation purposes and future spill response and restoration planning. In this study we focus on testing the hypothesis that marine snow from the surface plume were deposited on the sea floor over a broad area. To do so, we use publicly available data generated as part of the ongoing Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) process to assess the spatial distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in the water column and deep-ocean sediments of the Gulf of Mexico. Sensitive hydrocarbon markers are used to differentiate hydrocarbons from surface plume, deep subsurface plume, and in-situ burning. Preliminary results suggest the overlapping but different falling sites of these plumes and the sedimentation process was controlled by various biological, chemical, and physical factors.

  11. Marine Geophysical Study of Cyclic Sedimentation and Shallow Sill Intrusion in the Floor of the Central Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluesner, Jared W.

    A new marine geophysical study in the central Gulf of California provides new insights into uppercrustal processes associated with the transition from continental rifting to seafloor spreading. This research is based on the collection and processing of multibeam bathymetry, 3.5 kHz profiles, and two multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection grids collected throughout the central Gulf of California. One high-resolution MCS profile collected across the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin shows alternations of seismically transparent sedimentary units and horizontally layered strata with high-amplitude internal reflectors. Correlation with DSDP drilling results reveals that reflector alternations are due to cyclical changes between diatomaceous mud turbidites and mud turbidites rich in terrigenous clastics driven by glacial/interglacial cyclicity. This correlation is also supported by the spatial extent of the seismic units, specifically the distance off-axis at which they intercept an intrusion-sediment complex that spreads away from the axis at ˜23 km/Myr. Seismic stratigraphy also shows that during glacials, accumulation rates in the southwest part of Guaymas Basin increased significantly, filling the axial trough. During interglacials, greater aridity and higher sea-level reduced the delivery of terrigneous clastics and axial extension outpaced sedimentation, resulting in regeneration of the axial rift relief. Throughout the central Gulf, analysis of MCS and 3.5 kHz profiles and multibeam bathymetry reveals extensive evidence of shallow, young magmatic intrusions into unconsolidated hemipelagic muds blanketing axial troughs, off-axis oceanic crust, and thinned continental crust. Multiple sills 1--2 km in diameter have a characteristic concave-upwards profile are most common as off-axis intrusions into unconsolidated hemipelagic muds flooring the Guaymas, Carmen, and Farallon Basins, and within the sediment cover of subsided continental crust at the basins' margins

  12. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    OpenAIRE

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19?21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal volunta...

  13. Normative pelvic floor parameters in children assessed by transabdominal ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, W F; Chase, J W; Stillman, B C

    2006-07-01

    Successful management of dysfunctional voiding in children hinges on retraining inappropriate pelvic floor muscle recruitment. Recently dynamic pelvic floor muscle activity was visualized in adults using transabdominal ultrasound. We evaluated transabdominal ultrasound for visualizing and measuring pelvic floor muscle activity in normative children. A total of 21 volunteers, including 10 boys and 11 girls 7 to 16 years old (mean age 11.6) who were free of bladder disorders consented to participate in the study. Subjects were screened and demonstrated normative bladder emptying before being imaged while supine and standing using a sagittal curved linear array 2 to 5 MHz transducer over the suprapubic region. After pelvic floor muscle contraction was explained 4 parameters were measured 3 times each, including the direction of movement/displacement from freeze-frame ultrasound images, and endurance and coordination from ultrasound movie loops. The methodology for digitizing movie data were developed, tested and found to be reliable. New variables of endurance as a percent of maximum coordination amplitude and coordination as the amplitude between maximum and minimum effort were created. Overall 66% and 71% of subjects demonstrated anterior displacement of the pelvic floor during voluntary contraction while lying and standing, respectively, with no significant difference in lying vs standing. However, coordination displacement was greater while lying than standing. During 20-second contractions pelvic floor muscle activity attained peak amplitude at 5.5 seconds, followed by a marked decay with 1 or more cycles of muscular re-recruitment. It was observed that fatigue led to repeat recruitment of the rectus and oblique abdominal muscles. In children free of voiding dysfunction pelvic floor displacement and coordination are highly variable. Noninvasive ultrasound of the pelvic floor provided visual assessment of muscular activity, a biofeedback component for the patient

  14. Pelvic floor functional disorders in vaginally delivered primiparae

    OpenAIRE

    Antolic, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined pelvic floor functional disorders in primiparae with single pregnancies, cephalic presentation at term at the Charité delivery department before and during pregnancy as well as after vaginal delivery by means of questionnaire in relation to maternal, neonatal and obstetric risk factors. The pathophysiology of pelvic floor disorders is still not statisfyingly resolved. During pregnancy 74% of primiparae knew about the interrelation between delivery and sexual disorde...

  15. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  16. Pelvic floor spasm as a cause of voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Ng, L G; Chapple, Christopher R

    2015-07-01

    Pelvic floor disorders can present with lower urinary tract symptoms, bowel, sexual dysfunction, and/or pain. Symptoms of pelvic muscle spasm (nonrelaxing pelvic floor or hypertonicity) vary and can be difficult to recognize. This makes diagnosis and management of these disorders challenging. In this article, we review the current evidence on pelvic floor spasm and its association with voiding dysfunction. To distinguish between the different causes of voiding dysfunction, a video urodynamics study and/or electromyography is often required. Conservative measures include patient education, behavioral modifications, lifestyle changes, and pelvic floor rehabilitation/physical therapy. Disease-specific pelvic pain and pain from pelvic floor spasm needs to be differentiated and treated specifically. Trigger point massage and injections relieves pain in some patients. Botulinum toxin A, sacral neuromodulation, and acupuncture has been reported in the management of patients with refractory symptoms. Pelvic floor spasm and associated voiding problems are heterogeneous in their pathogenesis and are therefore often underrecognized and undertreated; it is therefore essential that a therapeutic strategy needs to be personalized to the individual patient's requirements. Therefore, careful evaluation and assessment of individuals using a multidisciplinary team approach including a trained physical therapist/nurse clinician is essential in the management of these patients.

  17. Role of pelvic floor in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermansky, Christopher J; Moalli, Pamela A

    2016-10-01

    The pelvic floor plays an integral part in lower urinary tract storage and evacuation. Normal urine storage necessitates that continence be maintained with normal urethral closure and urethral support. The endopelvic fascia of the anterior vaginal wall, its connections to the arcus tendineous fascia pelvis (ATFP), and the medial portion of the levator ani muscles must remain intact to provide normal urethral support. Thus, normal pelvic floor function is required for urine storage. Normal urine evacuation involves a series of coordinated events, the first of which involves complete relaxation of the external urethral sphincter and levator ani muscles. Acquired dysfunction of these muscles will initially result in sensory urgency and detrusor overactivity; however, with time the acquired voiding dysfunction can result in intermittent urine flow and incomplete bladder emptying, progressing to urinary retention in severe cases. This review will start with a discussion of normal pelvic floor anatomy and function. Next various injuries to the pelvic floor will be reviewed. The dysfunctional pelvic floor will be covered subsequently, with a focus on levator ani spasticity and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Finally, future research directions of the interaction between the pelvic floor and lower urinary tract function will be discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endoscopic anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.

  19. Generation of floor response spectra for PFBR RCB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajish, S.D.; Ramakrishna, V.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the generation of floor time histories and corresponding floor response spectrums at various locations in reactor containment building (RCB) for 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). The RCB and its internal structures are modeled with equivalent 3D-beam elements (stick model), which have got the essential global stiffness and inertial properties of the corresponding building. The main aspect in the simulation of beam model is derivation of equivalent cross sectional properties such as bending, torsional and shear rigidities including shear centers. These properties have been obtained through 3D plate/shell element models with appropriate kinematic constraints, for the zones between floors of corresponding buildings. The stick model includes a set of springs and dampers to simulate soil effects, on which base raft and various sticks are mounted. The soil stiffness and damping values are derived based on equations given in ASCE-98. Time history analysis has been done using three uncorrelated time histories, which are derived from the site dependent design response spectra. Floor time histories (FTH) are extracted at important locations from which the corresponding floor response spectrums (FRS) have been generated for various damping values. Peak broadening of the response spectrums has been done according ASCE criteria. Floor response spectrum corresponds to reactor assembly support shows amplification 2.5 for SSE and 3 for OBE. CASTEM 3M is used for seismic analysis and generation of FRS. (author)

  20. Jurassic animals and algae in the flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antczak Mateusz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The flooring of Our Lady of Sorrows Church in Poznań is made of Jurassic rocks from the Świętokrzyskie Mountains (also known as Holy Cross Mountains and contain abundant marine invertebrate fossils: sponges, bivalves, brachiopods, various families of cephalopods, etc. Some of them can be identified to the genus level. The fossils make it possible to describe the environment and ecosystem of the Jurassic sea and biostratigraphy of the sediment. There are also some significant inorganic structures, which suggest post-diagenetic tectonic movements.

  1. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    precious-metal-rich silica-barite-carbonate white ores began at low temperature in a shallow, subaqueous setting, probably a thin carbonate shelf on the flanks of the Alexander landmass. Epigenetic carbonate replacement textures in the footwall dolostones are overlain by stratiform silica-carbonate-barite-rich ores and indicate that early mineralization formed at and just beneath the paleo sea floor by mixing of a reduced, precious-metal-rich, base-metal-poor hydrothermal fluid with oxygenated seawater. As rifting intensified, the shelf was downfaulted and isolated as a graben. Isolation of the basin and onset of starved-basin shale sedimentation was concurrent with emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusives at shallow levels in the rift, resulting in an increasingly higher temperature and progressively more anoxic ore-forming environment. The formation of the main stage of massive sulfide ores began as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur increased in the accumulating shales. As the main-stage mineralization intensified, shale sedimentation inundated the hydrothermal system, eventually forming a cap. Biogenic sulfate reduction supplied reduced sulfur to the base of the shales where mixing occurred with hot, base-metal-rich hydrothermal fluids. Ore deposition continued by destruction and epigenetic replacement of the early white ores in proximal areas and by inflation and diagenetic replacement of unlithified shale at the interface between the white ores and the base of the shale cap. Ore deposition waned as the shales became lithified and as the supply of bacterially reduced sulfur to the site of ore deposition ceased. The final stages of rifting resulted in the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks into the Greens Creek system and extrusion of voluminous basaltic flows at the top of the Triassic section. Greenschist facies metamorphism during the Jurassic-Cretaceous accretion of the Alexander terrane to the continental margin resulted in recrystalli

  2. Molecular analysis of fungal communities and laccase genes in decomposing litter reveals differences among forest types but no impact of nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, C.B.; Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.; Sinsabaugh, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The fungal community of the forest floor was examined as the cause of previously reported increases in soil organic matter due to experimental N deposition in ecosystems producing predominantly high-lignin litter, and the opposite response in ecosystems producing low-lignin litter. The mechanism proposed to explain this phenomenon was that white-rot basidiomycetes are more important in the degradation of high-lignin litter than of low-lignin litter, and that their activity is suppressed by N deposition. We found that forest floor mass in the low-lignin sugar-maple dominated system decreased in October due to experimental N deposition, whereas forest floor mass of high-lignin oak-dominated ecosystems was unaffected by N deposition. Increased relative abundance of basidiomycetes in high-lignin forest floor was confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing. Abundance of basidiomycete laccase genes, encoding an enzyme used by white-rot basidiomycetes in the degradation of lignin, was 5-10 times greater in high-lignin forest floor than in low-lignin forest floor. While the differences between the fungal communities in different ecosystems were consistent with the proposed mechanism, no significant effects of N deposition were detected on DGGE profiles, laccase gene abundance, laccase length heterogeneity profiles, or phenol oxidase activity. Our observations indicate that the previously detected accumulation of soil organic matter in the high-lignin system may be driven by effects of N deposition on organisms in the mineral soil, rather than on organisms residing in the forest floor. However, studies of in situ gene expression and temporal and spatial variability within forest floor communities will be necessary to further relate the ecosystem dynamics of organic carbon to microbial communities and atmospheric N deposition. ?? 2007 The Authors; Journal compilation ?? 2007 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Patients with Pelvic Floor Muscle Spasm Have a Superior Response to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy at Specialized Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, Alan Scott; Li, Jianbo; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2015-10-01

    Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome is a common condition that often requires multimodal therapy. Patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome have a high incidence of pelvic floor spasm, which can be treated with pelvic floor physical therapy. However, this is a specialized skill. We compared outcomes of pelvic floor physical therapy as part of multimodal therapy in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome between those treated at our institution and elsewhere. We identified patients from our chronic pelvic pain syndrome registry with pelvic floor spasm who were seen between 2010 and 2014 for more than 1 visit. Patient phenotype was assessed with the UPOINT system and symptom severity was determined by the National Institutes of Health CPSI. A 6-point decrease in CPSI was used to define patient improvement. A total of 82 patients fit the study criteria. Mean age was 41.6 years (range 19 to 75) and median symptom duration was 24 months (range 3 to 240). Mean CPSI was 26.8 (range 10 to 41), the median number of positive UPOINT domains was 3 (range 1 to 6) and 27 patients (32.9%) were treated locally. At followup 9 patients had refused pelvic floor physical therapy, and 24 and 48 had undergone pelvic floor physical therapy elsewhere and at CCF, respectively. The mean change in CPSI was 1.11 ± 4.1 in patients who refused, -3.46 ± 6.7 in those treated elsewhere and -11.3 ± 7.0 in those treated at CCF (p physical therapy at CCF (OR 4.23, p = 0.002) and symptom duration (OR 0.52, p = 0.03) predicted improvement. Pelvic floor physical therapy can be effective for chronic pelvic pain syndrome in patients with pelvic floor spasm. However, the outcome depends on specialty training and experience of therapists. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Geometry of the proximal part of the modern turbidite depositional system of the Carapebus Formation, Campos Basin: a model for reservoir heterogeneities; Geometria da porcao proximal do sistema deposicional turbiditico moderno da Formacao Carapebus, Bacia de Campos; modelo para heterogeneidades de reservatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Luis Claudio Ribeiro; Kowsmann, Renato Oscar; Almeida Junior, Waldemar de; Murakami, Celso Yoshihito; Schreiner, Simone; Miller, Dennis James; Piauilino, Pedro Orlando Vasconcelos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Unidade de Servico Submarino]. E-mail: machadolc@petrobras.com.br

    2004-11-01

    The deep-water marine sedimentary environment of the Cenozoic of the Campos Basin is examined at the modern sea floor, where it can be better understood. This environment is responsible for the genesis of the turbidite systems of the Carapebus Formation, the reservoirs that hold more than 90% of Brazil's petroleum reserves. The study was developed with the records of regional side-scan sonar, swath bathymetry, sub-bottom profiler data, standard multichannel 3D seismic surveys and piston cores covering almost the entire basin. After leaving the Almirante Camara Canyon, the turbiditic flows erode the muddy debris apron surrounding the continental slope and begin to deposit thick layers of clean sand into a big trough in water depths of 1800 m to 3000 m. The trough is 3.5 km wide, 150 m deep, 150 km long, and is formed by a chain of salt withdrawal mini-basins. In some places the sea floor is flat enough to develop today a depositional lobe, in all aspects analogous to the best, geologically ancient petroleum reservoirs in the basin. Aspects of the system: 1) the arcosean sands are brought by the river, cross the shelf, the incised valley, the canyon, and deposit as turbidites - they do not originate from a collapse of the continental slope; 2) a wide muddy debris apron surrounds the continental slope (slope apron), and represents a huge volume of sediment in the Campos Basin ; 3) the turbidites do not develop a submarine fan, but are deposited in an elongated trough formed by salt tectonics; 4) the turbidite beds, both in the lobe or in the trough, are not deposited during a single episode, but in multiple events over significant geologic time in which small channels which brought the turbidites avulse and meander along the entire depositional area, building a single amalgamated bed; 5) classic channel-levees are not present because this system comprises a sandy braid plain and the levees are as sandy as the channel; 6) a hierarchical depositional model for bulb

  5. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Mahboubi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular ï‌‚abellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  6. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Bayetgol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular flabellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  7. Comparison of panoramic radiograph with cone-beam computed tomography in assessment of maxillary sinus floor and nasal floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Panoramic radiograph is frequently prescribed by dentists for implant planning and, hence, accurate assessment of anatomical structures in panoramic radiograph is of utmost importance. Aims: The aim of the present study is to know the accuracy of panoramic radiograph in assessment of relationship between maxillary sinus floor and posterior teeth roots, and the distance from alveolar crest to nasal floor by comparing it with that of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT image. Materials and Methods: Panoramic and CBCT images of 30 patients were analyzed. The topographic relationship of each root of posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus floor was evaluated and classified into three classes. The distance from the peak point on maxillary alveolar crest to nasal floor was measured in panoramic radiograph as well as in CBCT image. All the measurements were made by built-in measurement tools. Results: Class 1 roots in panoramic radiograph showed high agreement (86% with CBCT image, followed by class 0 (76%. There was a significant difference in the measurements of alveolar bone height (ABH in the nasal floor region with a P value of 0.018. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph is reliable in assessment of nasal floor and maxillary sinus, provided position of the patient, distortion, and the inherent magnification factor are taken into consideration.

  8. Development of Claw Traits and Claw Lesions in Dairy Cows kept on different floor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, J.G.C.J.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Frankena, K.; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E.N.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Several claw shape measurements, horn hardness, and horn growth and wear were recorded monthly at 12 dairy farms to investigate the effect of floor type and changes in these traits over time. Herds were either housed on a slatted floor (SL), solid concrete floor (SC), grooved floor (GR), or on a

  9. 17 CFR 240.11a-1 - Regulation of floor trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulation of floor trading... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Adoption of Floor Trading Regulation (rule 11a-1) § 240.11a-1 Regulation of floor trading. (a) No member of a national securities exchange, while on the floor of such exchange...

  10. Cenozoic unconformities and depositional supersequences of North Atlantic continental margins: testing the Vail model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poag, C. Wylie; Ward, Lauck W.

    1987-01-01

    Integrated outcrop, borehole, and seismic reflection stratigraphy from the U.S. and Irish margins of the North Atlantic basin reveals a framework of Cenozoic depositional supersequences and interregional unconformities that resembles the Vail depositional model. Paleo-bathymetric and paleoceanographic analyses of associated microfossil assemblages indicate a genetic link between the depositional framework and the relative position of sea level.

  11. Barriers to Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy Regarding Treatment of High-Tone Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, Dani; Higgins, Margaret; Swan, Kimberly; Cummings, Jennifer; Dominguez, Sarah; Carey, Erin

    Chronic pelvic pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition with a wide range of etiologies. An estimated 30% to 70% of chronic pelvic cases involve musculoskeletal component pain including high-tone pelvic floor dysfunction (HTPFD). Pelvic floor physical therapy has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for HTPFD, yet many patients do not have access to this treatment. The objective of this study was to identify the barriers preventing patients from following through with the first-line management, physical therapy. Participants with a diagnosis of HTPFD (n = 154) were identified from the list of referrals sent from the obstetrics and gynecology department to an affiliated PFPT center. Participants were contacted and asked to complete a phone survey addressing demographics and perceived barriers to care. Responses were collected in REDCap. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using a statistical analysis software. Seventy surveys were completed. The top barriers identified by participants were financial constraints (51.4%), perceived lack of utility (37.1%), time constraints (30.0%), and travel issues (18.6%); 84.4% of participants had 1 or more comorbid pain condition. Whereas 51.4% expressed some level of anxiety regarding the PFPT option, only 9.6% of participants did not start treatment because of fear of treatment. The majority of treatment barriers identified were concrete restraints, with insurance noncoverage and time constraints being the top issues. A fair number of participants expressed anxiety about the treatment or felt they received unclear explanations of the treatment. These are areas in which providers can potentially alleviate some barriers to care.

  12. [Re-treatments of recurrence after pelvic floor repair surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, S X; Wang, F M; Lin, L S; Song, Y F

    2017-06-25

    Objective: To analyze re-treatments of recurrence after the pelvic floor repair surgery. Methods: The protocol and the effect of re-treatments were investigated by reviewing and analyzing the clinical data of 81 recurrent patients (grade Ⅱ and above), who had received the pelvic floor repair surgery from January 2011 to January 2016. Pelvic organ prolapse quantitation system (POP-Q) and two questionnaires about quality of life [pelvic floor distress inventory-short form 20 (PFDI-20) and pelvic floor impact questionnaire short form (PFIQ-7)] were used to evaluate objective and subjective efficacy, respectively. Results: Among 81 recurrent patients who were followed up for a median of 35 months (10- 69 months), 78 cases (with prolapse up to grade Ⅲ or Ⅳ) were treated by surgical operation with both objective cure rate and subjective satisfaction being 100% (78/78); 3 cases (with grade Ⅱ prolapse) were treated by pelvic floor electrical stimulation biofeedback, and 1 case among the three cases had the vaginal foreign body sensation, the subjective satisfaction was 2/3. The methods of surgical operation for the 78 recurrent patients included: total pelvic floor reconstructive surgery (55 cases; 3 of which involve trachelectomy), anterior pelvic reconstructive surgery (2 cases), posterior pelvic reconstructive surgery (3 cases), Y-mesh sacral colpopexy (2 cases), colpocleisis (11 cases), vaginal hysterectomy combined posterior fornix forming (3 cases), and vaginal hysterectomy combined posterior pelvic reconstructive surgery(2 cases). Conclusion: The extent of recurrence, the recurrent site and complications must be carefully considered and evaluated for re-treatments of recurrence after pelvic floor repair surgery, and then an appropriately individualized re-treatment protocol could be designed for each of the patients.

  13. [Pelvic floor rehabilitation for female urinary incontinence: mechanisms of action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X; Billecocq, S; Demoulin, G; Rivain, A-L; Trichot, C; Thubert, T

    2013-06-01

    To analyze the proven mechanisms of action of pelvic rehabilitation in women presenting with urinary incontinence. Review of literature (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Database) using following keywords: female; urinary incontinence; overactive bladder syndrome; stress urinary incontinence; bladder training; bladder diary; pelvic floor muscle training; pelvic floor rehabilitation; physiotherapy; cognitive therapies. Among 2906 articles (animal and anatomical studies have been excluded); 66 have been selected because they focused on the evaluation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of pelvic floor rehabilitation concerning female urinary incontinence. Studies on pelvic floor muscles training exercises showed a significant increase in the force of contraction of these muscles and it was correlated with improved scores of urinary incontinence and pad test (coefficient of correlation r ranged from 0.23 to 0.34) for women presenting with stress urinary incontinence. These studies have not observed an increase in the maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) or correction of urethral hypermobility related with the improvement of incontinence after rehabilitation sessions. Studies concerning pelvic floor stimulation observed an increase in the force of contraction of pelvic floor muscles after rehabilitation and a decrease in the intensity of detrusor contractions without changing the MUCP. There is very little data on the precise mechanisms of action of biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy. In studies that objectively evaluated the mechanisms of action of pelvic rehabilitation, it was observed that pelvic floor muscles voluntary exercises and electrostimulation resulted an increase in force of contraction of these muscles without changing the MUCP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal analysis of a double layer phase change material floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Zhang Xiaosong

    2011-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to shift the cooling or heating load from the peak period to the off-peak period. In this paper, a new double layer phase change material (PCM) floor is put forward. The two layers of PCM have different melting temperature. The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. According to the numerical model built in this paper, the thermal performances of the floor are analyzed. The results show that the optimal melting temperatures of PCMs exist. The fluctuations of the floor surface temperatures and the heat fluxes will be reduced and the system still can provide a certain amount of heat or cold energy after the heat pump or chiller has been turned off for a long time. Compared to the floor without PCM, the energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period will be increased by 41.1% and 37.9% during heating and cooling when the heat of fusion of PCM is 150 kJ/kg. - Highlights: → A new double layer phase change material floor is put forward. → The system is used to store heat or cold energy in the off-peak period and release them in the peak period during heating or cooling. → The optimal melting temperatures of PCMs in the system exist. → The heat and cold energy released by the floor with PCM in peak period can be increased by 41.1% and 37.9%.

  15. Processes controlling carbon components in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Rajendran, R.; Somasundar, K.; Ittekkot, V.; Desai, B.N.

    production in the western Arabian Sea, relatively low CaCO sub(3) dissolution (approximately 100 mol dm/3 near and below 3000m) is attributed to skeletal material incorporation into faecal material and the subsequent faster deposition rates. Arabian Sea water...

  16. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......, that the foundation has a large impact on the energy consumption of buildings heated by floor heating. Consequently, this detail should be in focus when designing houses with floor heating....

  17. Radioactive Iron Rain: Transporting $^{60}$Fe in Supernova Dust to the Ocean Floor

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Brian J.; Ellis, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Several searches have found evidence of $^{60}$Fe deposition, presumably from a near-Earth supernova (SN), with concentrations that vary in different locations on Earth. This paper examines various influences on the path of interstellar dust carrying $^{60}$Fe from a SN through the heliosphere, with the aim of estimating the final global distribution on the ocean floor. We study the influences of magnetic fields, angle of arrival, wind and ocean cycling of SN material on the concentrations at different locations. We find that the passage of SN material through the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) is the greatest influence on the final global distribution, with ocean cycling causing lesser alteration as the SN material sinks to the ocean floor. SN distance estimates in previous works that assumed a uniform distribution are a good approximation. Including the effects on surface distributions, we estimate a distance of $46^{+10}_{-6}$ pc for a $8-10 \\ M_{\\odot}$ SN progenitor. This is consistent with a SN occ...

  18. Development of Tertiary Basins of SE Asia from the South China Sea to the Andaman Sea region ; a comparative view on structure and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Sautter, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Basins of SE Asia have developed since the end of Cretaceous times to the detriment of a Mesozoic andean arc which surrounded Sundaland. The arc was broader in the Eastern part along the Pacific Subduction Zone including theSouth China Sea (SCS), than in the Western part along the Sumatra Subduction Zone (Myanmar, Andaman Sea (AS), Malay Peninsula). By the end of the Upper Cretaceous, this arc died out and a widespread rifting with astonishing resemblances started in the whole Sundaland. We compare and discuss the basins similarities and differences in structure and timing between the two sides. A relaxation stage is evidenced in Western Sunda, represented by poorly exposed Late Cretaceous red beds filling the pre-existing morphostructures without clear fault-controlled basins. These deposits are also observed on seismic data offshore in the Gulf of Thailand and AS). On the opposite side along the Chinese margin, thick molasse-type deposits of Late Cretaceous age are on the contrary well expressed offshore and restricted to narrow valleys, indicating that stretching had already begun. There, the Paleogene is marked by strong extension with large crustal blocks rotated by often counter-regional normal faults creating half grabens. Crust was extended and extremely thinned particularly around the SCS. Basins reached the spreading stage in the Celebes Sea, the North Makassar basin and the SCS. On the western side, this period corresponds to narrow deep grabens (e.g. Mergui basins and part of western Malacca) with continental deposits, meaning that the stretching was localized. There, thinning of the crust took place during the Oligocene up to the Middle Miocene where large basins develop mostly to the outer edges of the Yenshanian Arc. Extension resumed in the Pliocene with the opening of the Andaman basin in an even more external position. To the eastern side the uppermost Miocene and the Pliocene were marked mostly by a deepening of the margins and the SCS ocean

  19. Validation of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 in Danish women with pelvic organ prolapse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Ulla; Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    To translate the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20) and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire-7 (PFIQ-7) and to evaluate their psychometric properties in Danish women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse....

  20. Shale depositional processes: Example from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale, Fort Worth Basin, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelresh, Mohamed; Slatt, Roger

    2011-12-01

    A long held geologic paradigm is that mudrocks and shales are basically the product of `hemipelagic rain' of silt- and/or clay-sized, detrital, biogenic and particulate organic particles onto the ocean floor over long intervals of time. However, recently published experimental and field-based studies have revealed a plethora of micro-sedimentary features that indicate these common fine-grained rocks also could have been transported and/or reworked by unidirectional currents. In this paper, we add to this growing body of knowledge by describing such features from the Paleozoic Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, U.S.A. which suggests transport and deposition was from hyperpycnal, turbidity, storm and/or contour currents, in addition to hemipelagic rain. On the basis of a variety of sedimentary textures and structures, six main sedimentary facies have been defined from four 0.3 meter intervals in a 68m (223 ft) long Barnett Shale core: massive mudstone, rhythmic mudstone, ripple and low-angle laminated mudstone, graded mudstone, clay-rich facies, and spicule-rich facies. Current-induced features of these facies include mm- to cmscale cross- and parallel-laminations, scour surfaces, clastic/biogenic particle alignment, and normal- and inverse-size grading. A spectrum of vertical facies transitions and bed types indicate deposition from waxing-waning flows rather than from steady `rain' of particles to the sea floor. Detrital sponge spicule-rich facies suggests transport to the marine environment as hypopycnal or hyperpycnal flows and reversal in buoyancy by transformation from concentrated to dilute flows; alternatively the spicules could have originated by submarine slumping in front of contemporaneous shallow marine sponge reefs, and then transported basinward as turbidity current flows. The occurrence of dispersed biogenic/organic remains and inversely size graded mudstones also support a hyperpycnal and/or turbidity flow origin for a significant part of