WorldWideScience

Sample records for sea faring ships

  1. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  2. Global ship accidents and ocean swell-related sea states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2017-11-01

    With the increased frequency of shipping activities, navigation safety has become a major concern, especially when economic losses, human casualties and environmental issues are considered. As a contributing factor, the sea state plays a significant role in shipping safety. However, the types of dangerous sea states that trigger serious shipping accidents are not well understood. To address this issue, we analyzed the sea state characteristics during ship accidents that occurred in poor weather or heavy seas based on a 10-year ship accident dataset. Sea state parameters of a numerical wave model, i.e., significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction, were analyzed for the selected ship accident cases. The results indicated that complex sea states with the co-occurrence of wind sea and swell conditions represent threats to sailing vessels, especially when these conditions include similar wave periods and oblique wave directions.

  3. Analysis of Ship Groundings on Soft Sea Beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    it influences the ship heave and pitch motions as well as the friction between the ship and the soil.In this paper a rational calculation model is presented for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the ship bottom. The model is based on the assumption that the penetration of the ship bow generates a flow of pore......The consequences associated with ships running aground depend very much on the soil characteristics of the sea bed and the geometrical shape of the ship bow. The penetration into the sea bed depends on these factors and the penetration is an important factor for the ship motion because...... by the theory of frictional soils in rupture. Frictional stresses on the bow surface are assumed to be related to the normal pressure by a simple Coulumb relation. The total soil reaction as a function of velocity and penetration is found by integration of normal pressure and frictional stresses over...

  4. Ships - inspiring objects in architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marczak, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    Sea-going vessels have for centuries fascinated people, not only those who happen to work at sea, but first and foremost, those who have never set foot aboard a ship. The environment in which ships operate is reminiscent of freedom and countless adventures, but also of hard and interesting maritime working life. The famous words of Pompey: “Navigare necesseest, vivere non estnecesse” (sailing is necessary, living - is not necessary), which he pronounced on a stormy sea voyage, arouse curiosity and excitement, inviting one to test the truth of this saying personally. It is often the case, however, that sea-faring remains within the realm of dreams, while the fascination with ships demonstrates itself through a transposition of naval features onto land constructions. In such cases, ship-inspired motifs bring alive dreams and yearnings as well as reflect tastes. Tourism is one of the indicators of people’s standard of living and a measure of a society’s civilisation. Maritime tourism has been developing rapidly in recent decades. A sea cruise offers an insight into life at sea. Still, most people derive their knowledge of passenger vessels and their furnishings from the mass media. Passenger vessels, also known as “floating cities,” are described as majestic and grand, while their on-board facilities as luxurious, comfortable, exclusive and inaccessible to common people on land. Freight vessels, on the other hand, are described as enormous objects which dwarf the human being into insignificance. This article presents the results of research intended to answer the following questions: what makes ships a source of inspiration for land architecture? To what extent and by what means do architects draw on ships in their design work? In what places can we find structures inspired by ships? What ships inspire architects? This article presents examples of buildings, whose design was inspired by the architecture and structural details of sea vessels. An analysis of

  5. Ice and AIS: ship speed data and sea ice forecasts in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Löptien

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea located in a densely populated area in northern Europe. Severe sea ice conditions have the potential to hinder the intense ship traffic considerably. Thus, sea ice fore- and nowcasts are regularly provided by the national weather services. Typically, the forecast comprises several ice properties that are distributed as prognostic variables, but their actual usefulness is difficult to measure, and the ship captains must determine their relative importance and relevance for optimal ship speed and safety ad hoc. The present study provides a more objective approach by comparing the ship speeds, obtained by the automatic identification system (AIS, with the respective forecasted ice conditions. We find that, despite an unavoidable random component, this information is useful to constrain and rate fore- and nowcasts. More precisely, 62–67% of ship speed variations can be explained by the forecasted ice properties when fitting a mixed-effect model. This statistical fit is based on a test region in the Bothnian Sea during the severe winter 2011 and employs 15 to 25 min averages of ship speed.

  6. Japan nuclear ship sea trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Toshikatus; Mizushima, Toshihiko

    1992-01-01

    The sea trial of the first Japan nuclear Ship 'MUTSU' was conducted from the end of October to December in 1990. The purpose of the sea trial was to verify the nuclear propulsive performances and maneuverabilities. The present report describes the results of the sea trial. These results are classified into four items: 1. Speed test and engineering performance tests 2. Maneuvering performance tests 3. Vibration tests 4. Other tests. Acceptable performances were demonstrated, as expected in the original design. The experience of the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS), which were newly adopted for the sea trial, is also reported. (author)

  7. Research on Extraction of Ship Target in Complex Sea-sky Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, W J; Ding, X M; Cui, J W; Ao, L

    2006-01-01

    Research on the extraction of ship target in complex sea-sky background has important value to improve the capability of imaging-typed sea navigation and nautical traffic control systems. According to the imaging property of complex sea-sky background, a reliable ship target extraction method is proposed in this paper. The general guide line is that getting the sea-sky division line as a priori knowledge and then the target potential area is determined through discontinuous region of the sea-sky division line. Firstly, a local selective window filter is adopted to filter the image; secondly, eight directions Sobel operator edge detection method and gradient Hough transform are combined to extract sea-sky division line in the image; then a multi-histogram matching technique is adopted to remove the sea and sky background and thus ship target is extracted from complex background. The experiments show that our method has the merits of robustness to noise, small computational complexity and stability

  8. Wastewater Pollution from Cruise Ships in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Perić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The global growth of cruise tourism has brought increasing concern for the pollution of the marine environment. Marine pollution from sanitary wastewater is a problem especially pronounced on large cruise ships where the number of people on board may exceed 8,000. To evaluate future marine pollution in any selected period of time it is necessary to know the movement of ships in the Adriatic Sea. This paper presents the problem of marine pollution by sanitary wastewater from cruise ships, wastewater treatment technology and a model of cruise ship traffic in the Adriatic Sea considering MARPOL Annex IV areas of limited wastewater discharge. Using the model, it is possible to know in advance the routes of the cruisers and retention time in certain geographic areas. The data obtained by this model can be used as input parameters for evaluation model of wastewater pollution or for evaluation of other types of pollution from cruise ships.

  9. Economic Possibilities of Shipping though Northern Sea Route1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and climate change haves brought a new issue in the Arctic sea. Therefore, we can now explore new shipping routes through the Arctic Ocean instead of the existing commercial route. In particular, the Northern Sea Route (NSR is one of the feasible shipping routes and, has provided tremendous shipping benefits. If the NSR becomes commercialized, we will be able to save about 5,000 nautical miles in distance and sailing time. In this study, we will emphasize some of the important results on the possibility of commercializing the shipping route in the Arctic. The NSR may bring positive economic effects in terms of shipping distance and time. For example, when utilizing the NSR, the maximum cargo traffic between Asia and Europe is expected to be around 46 million TEU. However, we also need to consider an expensive passage fee that is currently imposed by Russia. In conclusion, we maintain our efforts to protect the environment in the Arctic, in terms of logistics, and we need to explore every possible avenue to bring possible economic benefits to the North Pacific countries.

  10. SAR Imagery Simulation of Ship Based on Electromagnetic Calculations and Sea Clutter Modelling for Classification Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, K F; Zhao, Z; Xing, X W; Zou, H X; Zhou, S L

    2014-01-01

    Ship detection and classification with space-borne SAR has many potential applications within the maritime surveillance, fishery activity management, monitoring ship traffic, and military security. While ship detection techniques with SAR imagery are well established, ship classification is still an open issue. One of the main reasons may be ascribed to the difficulties on acquiring the required quantities of real data of vessels under different observation and environmental conditions with precise ground truth. Therefore, simulation of SAR images with high scenario flexibility and reasonable computation costs is compulsory for ship classification algorithms development. However, the simulation of SAR imagery of ship over sea surface is challenging. Though great efforts have been devoted to tackle this difficult problem, it is far from being conquered. This paper proposes a novel scheme for SAR imagery simulation of ship over sea surface. The simulation is implemented based on high frequency electromagnetic calculations methods of PO, MEC, PTD and GO. SAR imagery of sea clutter is modelled by the representative K-distribution clutter model. Then, the simulated SAR imagery of ship can be produced by inserting the simulated SAR imagery chips of ship into the SAR imagery of sea clutter. The proposed scheme has been validated with canonical and complex ship targets over a typical sea scene

  11. A comprehensive inventory of ship traffic exhaust emissions in the European sea areas in 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions originating from ship traffic in European sea areas were modelled using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM, which uses Automatic Identification System data to describe ship traffic activity. We have estimated the emissions from ship traffic in the whole of Europe in 2011. We report the emission totals, the seasonal variation, the geographical distribution of emissions, and their disaggregation between various ship types and flag states. The total ship emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, and PM2.5 in Europe for year 2011 were estimated to be 121, 3.0, 1.2, 0.2, and 0.2 million tons, respectively. The emissions of CO2 from the Baltic Sea were evaluated to be more than a half (55 % of the emissions of the North Sea shipping; the combined contribution of these two sea regions was almost as high (88 % as the total emissions from ships in the Mediterranean. As expected, the shipping emissions of SOx were significantly lower in the SOx Emission Control Areas, compared with the corresponding values in the Mediterranean. Shipping in the Mediterranean Sea is responsible for 40 and 49 % of the European ship emitted CO2 and SOx emissions, respectively. In particular, this study reported significantly smaller emissions of NOx, SOx, and CO for shipping in the Mediterranean than the EMEP inventory; however, the reported PM2.5 emissions were in a fairly good agreement with the corresponding values reported by EMEP. The vessels registered to all EU member states are responsible for 55 % of the total CO2 emitted by ships in the study area. The vessels under the flags of convenience were responsible for 25 % of the total CO2 emissions.

  12. The contribution of ship emissions to air pollution in the North Sea regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthias, Volker, E-mail: volker.matthias@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Bewersdorff, Ines [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Aulinger, Armin, E-mail: armin.aulinger@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Quante, Markus, E-mail: markus.quante@gkss.d [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As a consequence of the global distribution of manufacturing sites and the increasing international division of labour, ship traffic is steadily increasing and is becoming more and more important as an origin of air pollution. This study investigates the impact of ship emissions in coastal areas of the North Sea under conditions of the year 2000 by means of a regional chemistry transport model which runs on a sufficiently high resolution to study air pollution in coastal regions. It was found that northern Germany and Denmark in summer suffer from more than 50% higher sulphate, nitrate and ammonium aerosol concentrations due to contributions from ships. The implementation of a sulphur emission control area (SECA) in the North Sea, as it was implemented at the end of 2007, directly results in reduced sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol concentrations while nitrate aerosol concentrations are slightly increased. - Ship emissions lead to significantly enhanced air pollution by secondary inorganic aerosols in North Sea coastal areas.

  13. Ship Sensor Observations for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploration of the Gulf of Mexico" expedition...

  14. Model calculations of the effects of present and future emissions of air pollutants from shipping in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Jonson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Land-based emissions of air pollutants in Europe have steadily decreased over the past two decades, and this decrease is expected to continue. Within the same time span emissions from shipping have increased in EU ports and in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, defined as SECAs (sulfur emission control areas, although recently sulfur emissions, and subsequently particle emissions, have decreased. The maximum allowed sulfur content in marine fuels in EU ports is now 0.1%, as required by the European Union sulfur directive. In the SECAs the maximum fuel content of sulfur is currently 1% (the global average is about 2.4%. This will be reduced to 0.1% from 2015, following the new International Maritime Organization (IMO rules. In order to assess the effects of ship emissions in and around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, regional model calculations with the EMEP air pollution model have been made on a 1/4° longitude × 1/8° latitude resolution, using ship emissions in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea that are based on accurate ship positioning data. The effects on depositions and air pollution and the resulting number of years of life lost (YOLLs have been calculated by comparing model calculations with and without ship emissions in the two sea areas. In 2010 stricter regulations for sulfur emissions were implemented in the two sea areas, reducing the maximum sulfur content allowed in marine fuels from 1.5 to 1%. In addition ships were required to use fuels with 0.1 % sulfur in EU harbours. The calculations have been made with emissions representative of 2009 and 2011, i.e. before and after the implementation of the stricter controls on sulfur emissions from 2010. The calculations with present emissions show that per person, an additional 0.1–0.2 years of life lost is estimated in areas close to the major ship tracks with current emission levels. Comparisons of model calculations with emissions before and after the implementation of stricter

  15. Ship detection using STFT sea background statistical modeling for large-scale oceansat remote sensing image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixia; Pei, Jihong; Xie, Weixin; Liu, Jinyuan

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale oceansat remote sensing images cover a big area sea surface, which fluctuation can be considered as a non-stationary process. Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT) is a suitable analysis tool for the time varying nonstationary signal. In this paper, a novel ship detection method using 2-D STFT sea background statistical modeling for large-scale oceansat remote sensing images is proposed. First, the paper divides the large-scale oceansat remote sensing image into small sub-blocks, and 2-D STFT is applied to each sub-block individually. Second, the 2-D STFT spectrum of sub-blocks is studied and the obvious different characteristic between sea background and non-sea background is found. Finally, the statistical model for all valid frequency points in the STFT spectrum of sea background is given, and the ship detection method based on the 2-D STFT spectrum modeling is proposed. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can detect ship targets with high recall rate and low missing rate.

  16. Nuclear-powered icebreaking container ship via the Northern Sea Route in its economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Koichi; Takamasa, Tomoji

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, major maritime nations such as Japan, Russia and Norway have been investigating the use of the Northern Sea Route (NSR) as a sea route between the Far East and Europe, linking the eastern and western parts of the Eurasian continent. In this study, as part of the examination of suitable merchant ships for the NSR, we make an economic comparison between diesel container ships taking the Suez Canal route and NSR nuclear-powered icebreaking container ship carrying the Marine Reactor X (MRX), which is currently being developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Compared to diesel container ships going via the Suez Canal, the first-year transportation cost of NSR nuclear-powered container ship after commissioning is 30-70% higher and the required freight rate (RFR) is 8-40% higher. If the nuclear reactor in nuclear-powered container ship, which is the reason for higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce this cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. The study also shows that in terms of the total cost including sales opportunity costs, NSR nuclear-powered container ship can compete sufficiently with diesel container ships on the Suez Canal route. (author)

  17. The ships' ballast water impact on the Black Sea marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acomi, Nicoleta; Acomi, Ovidiu

    2015-04-01

    Ships use ballast water to provide stability during voyages. This type of seawater loaded on board from one geographical area and discharged in very different port areas as ballasting practice, turned into a vector for spreading the non-native sea life species. The reduction and limitation of invasive species is a problem that the modern world addresses. Thus, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) developed the BWM 2004 Convention. Adopting international regulations influences the socio-economic sector and this is the reason why the ballast water, the subject of this paper, has been on the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee's agenda for more than 10 years, while the Convention has not yet been ratified and enforced. Although the Black Sea was subject to incidents regarding the invasive species the Romanian Government, as member of the IMO, did not ratify the Convention. The Black Sea was the subject of four major incidents regarding the ships' ballast water. One of them refers to the North American Comb Jelly, native from the Eastern Seaboard of America, introduced in the Black, Azov and Caspian Seas and seriously affecting the Romanian coastal environment in the 1990's. This invasive species has negative impacts: it reproduces rapidly under favourable conditions, it feeds excessively on zooplankton, it depletes zooplankton stocks, altering the food web and the ecosystem functionality, and contributed significantly to the collapse of Black and Azov Sea fisheries in the 1990s, with massive economic and social impact. There are studies for identifying the invasive species for the Black sea, structured in a database for marine species - the Black Sea Red Data Book. For these invasive species, there have been identified and developed charts to emphasize their ways of migration into the Black Sea. This paper aims to analyse the marine traffic in Romanian ports, broken down according with seasons and types of vessels, and to assess its relationship with

  18. The Coselle CNG carrier : a new way to ship natural gas by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, D.

    1999-01-01

    Coselle CNG carriers represent an emerging technology option for water-borne natural gas transportation. The idea behind the Coselle is to create a large but compact CNG storage system using pipe coiled into a carousel. The system promises to significantly improve the economics of shipping natural gas over short sea routes. This would unlock many gas reserves which are stranded because of the high costs associated with shipping natural gas by conventional tankers. The innovative patented technology for Coselle CNG carriers was described in this paper. The completed work on the technology is sufficient to allow a pilot project to proceed before the next step of commercialization of the technology. The technology can be applied in the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, Sakhalin Island, Canada's east coast, Deepwater offshore Brazil and Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  19. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  20. Container Shipping Network Efficiency Comparison in Indonesia: Nusantara Pendulum and Sea Tollway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafida Fahmiasari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The disparity of the trading activities in Indonesia has triggered Indonesia Port Corporation to come up with the plan of Nusantara Pendulum, the future network of container shipping in Indonesia. The Sea Tollway plan is the modification of Nusantara Pendulum that is also envisioned by Indonesia President for Indonesia future backbone container plan. Both networks were designed to increase Indonesia container shipping flow from west to east and vice versa like a pendulum, thus results the reduced transport cost. This paper depicts the comparison of network efficiency analysis between these networks: Nusantara Pendulum, Sea Tollway, and the existing network. Two main methods that are used are Nagurney-Qiang and Jenelius-Peterson-Mattson. Mainly, these two methods use the efficiency calculation by considering parameters of demand (goods flow between each region and maritime transportation cost. It is concluded afterward that: 1 Sea Tollway is 8% more efficient than Nusantara Pendulum; 2 Sea Tollway and Nusantara Pendulum are ten times more efficient than current network; 3 Eastern ports in Indonesia (Bitung and Sorong urgently requisite a development.

  1. Ship Track for Deep Sea Medicines 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the Ronald H. Brown during the "Deep Sea Medicines 2003: Exploring the Gulf of Mexico" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  2. Well-faring towards Uncertain Futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Pedersen, Susanne Højlund; Meinert, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how societal contexts create different possibilities for faring well towards the future for young marginalized people. Based on a comparative project including ethnographies from Brazil, Uganda, Georgia and Denmark the authors discuss well-faring as a time-oriented process...... based on individual as well as societal conditions. The article argues that in order to understand well-faring it is important to analyse how visions and strategies for the future are shaped in relation to local circumstances. Whether it is possible to envision the future as hopeless or hopeful...

  3. Sea-ice monitoring by ship-based visual observation during JARE ―Simplification of observation method based on the ASPeCt protocol―

    OpenAIRE

    Kay I. Ohshima; Shuki Ushio; Akihisa S. Otsuki

    2006-01-01

    A protocol for ship-based visual observation of sea ice is proposed for the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE). The protocol is a simplified version of the ASPeCt protocol, used for extracting quantitative information on sea ice. The ship-based visual observations started from JARE-46. In the pack ice region, ice thickness, ratio of deformed ice, and total ice volume increased toward the coast. Continuous monitoring of sea ice, particularly its thickness, by ship-based observation ...

  4. Ship Track for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ship track of the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of...

  5. Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René

    2014-01-01

    Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639......Book review of: Rose George: Deep Sea and Foreign Going: Inside Shipping, the Invisible Industry that Brings you 90% of Everything. London :Portobello Books, 2013. 320 pp. ISBN 9781846272639...

  6. Consumer Airfare Report: Table 5 - Detailed Fare Information For Highest and Lowest Fare Markets Under 750 Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides detailed fare information for highest and lowest fare markets under 750 miles. For a more complete explanation, please read the introductory information at...

  7. Marine traffic model based on cellular automaton: Considering the change of the ship's velocity under the influence of the weather and sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Le; Zheng, Zhongyi; Gang, Longhui

    2017-10-01

    It was found that the ships' velocity change, which is impacted by the weather and sea, e.g., wind, sea wave, sea current, tide, etc., is significant and must be considered in the marine traffic model. Therefore, a new marine traffic model based on cellular automaton (CA) was proposed in this paper. The characteristics of the ship's velocity change are taken into account in the model. First, the acceleration of a ship was divided into two components: regular component and random component. Second, the mathematical functions and statistical distribution parameters of the two components were confirmed by spectral analysis, curve fitting and auto-correlation analysis methods. Third, by combining the two components, the acceleration was regenerated in the update rules for ships' movement. To test the performance of the model, the ship traffic flows in the Dover Strait, the Changshan Channel and the Qiongzhou Strait were studied and simulated. The results show that the characteristics of ships' velocities in the simulations are consistent with the measured data by Automatic Identification System (AIS). Although the characteristics of the traffic flow in different areas are different, the velocities of ships can be simulated correctly. It proves that the velocities of ships under the influence of weather and sea can be simulated successfully using the proposed model.

  8. An Efficiency Optimizing Shaft Speed Control for Ships in Moderate Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Pivano, Luca; Johansen, Tor Arne

    2007-01-01

    Ships in moderate sea experience time-varying thrust and torque load on the shaft of their prime mover. The reason is the varying inflow velocity to the propeller during the passage of a wave. This variation has been considered a nuisance to the main engine control where the induced fluctuations...

  9. Ship Sensor Observations for Mountains in the Sea 2003 - Office of Ocean Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly measurements made by selected ship sensors on the R/V Atlantis during the "Mountains in the Sea 2003" expedition sponsored by the National Oceanic and...

  10. Conditions Of Safe Ship Operations And Sea Waterway Parameters Based On The Reconstruction Of Świnoujście-Szczecin Fairway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Stanisław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the state vector of safe ship operation on sea waterways. The author determines relationships between the state vector of safe ship operation and parameters of sea waterway system elements. These include three subsystems: area, navigation and traffic control. These relationships have been exemplified with the 68-kilometre Świnoujście-Szczecin fairway, presently under reconstruction. A systematic approach to sea waterway design is globally unique.

  11. The Procedures for Transit of Ships Carrying Radioactive Materials in Regional Waters and Sea Ports of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, F.A.; Riad, N.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Egyptian Legislation related to the safe transport of radioactive materials, a license is required for transit of ships carrying radioactive materials in the Egyptian territorial water and sea harbors of Egypt including Suez Canal. The License is granted, upon a written application to NCNSRC-AEA. All the procedures and conditions for granting the license have been developed according to the International and Egyptian Legislation. The procedures for transit of ships carrying radioactive material in Suez Canal are also constructed. The NCNSRC-AEA experts are entitled to accept or refuse the transit of ships carrying radioactive material in the Egyptian territorial water and its sea harbors including Suez Canal according to the national and international regulations

  12. RELATIONS OF DISTRIBUTION OF THE LOW SULPHUR SHIPPING FUELS IN REGION OF THE BALTIC SEA IN THE BUNKERING BOAT-SHIP SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Matejski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents relations of distribution of the low sulphur marine fuels as result of being in force the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78, especially the record establishing the region of the Baltic Sea and the North See as sulphur emission control areas (SECA. There are presented obligatory regulations and their influence on sale of the particular kinds of fuels in this region. There are also presented chosen procedures of care about cargo in relation bunker boat – harbour – ship, the delivery fuel procedures in relation bunker boat–ship and the quantitative analysis of distributed fuels on an example of chosen bunker boat.

  13. THE METHOD OF TRANSHIPMENT OF GOODS BETWEEN SHIPS IN OPEN SEA (STS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BAIAZIT

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The transhipment method is using a cable trolley system. The two ships are moving on parallel way inthe same direction, between them is suspended carrying the trolley wire. Transhipment of goods is made usingcontainer boxes which are caught by the trolley load jacks. The method offers the advantage of highproductivity, regardless of sea conditions. Basically, the system is usable at high degree of agitation of the sea.Slack in the cable carrier is assured by an automatic tension-adjusting device.

  14. Evaluation of Deep Discount Fare Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This report evaluates the success of a fare pricing strategy known as deep discounting, that entails the bulk sale of transit tickets or tokens to customers at a significant discount compared to the full fare single ticket price. This market-driven s...

  15. 14 CFR 399.31 - Standard industry fare level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard industry fare level. 399.31... Standard industry fare level. (a) Generally. Except as set forth in paragraph (d) of this section, the standard industry fare level (“SIFL”) for coach/standard service in a market is equal to the predominant...

  16. The occurrence of pathogenic bacteria in some ships' ballast water incoming from various marine regions to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altug, Gulsen; Gurun, Sevan; Cardak, Mine; Ciftci, Pelin S; Kalkan, Samet

    2012-10-01

    The composition and frequency of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria, the abundance of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (HPC) and possible in-situ use of chromogenic agar were investigated in the ships' ballast water coming from different regions of the world to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey for the first time. The samples that were taken from 21 unit ships coming from various marine environments of the Southern China Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean and the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara, Turkey in 2009 and 2010 were tested. 38 bacteria species, 27 of them pathogenic bacteria belonging to 17 familia, were detected. Vibrio cholera was not detected in the samples. However, the presence of a high number of HPC, including a cocktail of pathogenic bacteria showed that the ships carry a potential risk for the Sea of Marmara. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 14 CFR 399.37 - Joint fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Joint fares. 399.37 Section 399.37 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.37 Joint fares. There...

  18. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Zheng; Ge, Ying-En; Cao, Kai; Jiang, Xi; Meng, Lingyun; Liu, Ding; Gao, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies. The flat fare strategy is applied to determine a reference level of social welfare and obtain the general passenger flow along transit lines, which is used to divide areas or zones along the corridor. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program, of which the upper level maximizes the social welfare and the lower level capturing traveler choice behavior is a variable-demand stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the bi-level program while the method of successive averages is adopted to solve the lower-level model. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the models and solution methods. Numerical results indicate that all three differential fare strategies play a better role in enhancing the social welfare than the flat fare strategy and that the fare structure under the combined fare strategy generates the highest social welfare and the largest resulting passenger demand, which implies that the more equity factors a differential fare strategy involves the more desirable fare structure the strategy has.

  19. Optimizing a desirable fare structure for a bus-subway corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Zheng; Ge, Ying-En; Cao, Kai; Jiang, Xi; Meng, Lingyun; Liu, Ding; Gao, Yunfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to optimize a desirable fare structure for the public transit service along a bus-subway corridor with the consideration of those factors related to equity in trip, including travel distance and comfort level. The travel distance factor is represented by the distance-based fare strategy, which is an existing differential strategy. The comfort level one is considered in the area-based fare strategy which is a new differential strategy defined in this paper. Both factors are referred to by the combined fare strategy which is composed of distance-based and area-based fare strategies. The flat fare strategy is applied to determine a reference level of social welfare and obtain the general passenger flow along transit lines, which is used to divide areas or zones along the corridor. This problem is formulated as a bi-level program, of which the upper level maximizes the social welfare and the lower level capturing traveler choice behavior is a variable-demand stochastic user equilibrium assignment model. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the bi-level program while the method of successive averages is adopted to solve the lower-level model. A series of numerical experiments are carried out to illustrate the performance of the models and solution methods. Numerical results indicate that all three differential fare strategies play a better role in enhancing the social welfare than the flat fare strategy and that the fare structure under the combined fare strategy generates the highest social welfare and the largest resulting passenger demand, which implies that the more equity factors a differential fare strategy involves the more desirable fare structure the strategy has. PMID:28981508

  20. Evaluating the loss of a LWR spent fuel or plutonium shipping package into the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Baker, D.A.

    1976-06-01

    As the nations of the world turn to nuclear power for an energy source, commerce in nuclear fuel cycle materials will increase. Some of this commerce will be transported by sea. Such shipments give rise to the possibility of loss of these materials into the sea. This paper discusses the postulated accidental loss of two materials, light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel and plutonium, at sea. The losses considered are that of a single shipping package which is either undamaged or damaged by fire prior to the loss. The containment failure of the package in the sea,

  1. Effect of Shipping Emissions on Present and Future Atmospheric Composition Over the Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, N.; Raut, J. C.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Onishi, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is undergoing unprecedented changes as a result of rapid warming and socio-economic drivers. Even though the region is a receptor for anthropogenic pollution from the highly populated mid-latitudes, there are also local sources of pollution, such as shipping, that are already perturbing atmospheric composition. The Barents Sea, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia, has year-round shipping traffic and is likely to grow in a warming Arctic because of the economic benefits related to the opening up of the North-East passage placing it in a strategic position for the transport of goods between Europe and Asia. An increase in the marine traffic has already been observed over the past years in this region, resulting in increased emissions of pollutants. In this work, we investigate the impact of the shipping emissions in the Barents Sea on atmospheric composition for the summer period (July/August) with high traffic using the regional chemistry-aerosol transport model WRF-Chem run at high resolution over the region. We quantify the effects of shipping pollution on aerosol concentrations, such as black carbon, sulphate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-), and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) as well as deposition of potentially important nutrients (NO3-, SO42-). The model is run using an analytical chemical mechanism for gas phase and aerosols (SAPRC99 coupled with VBS and MOSAIC) for present-day (2012) and future (2050) conditions with ECLIPSE anthropogenic emissions and Winther et al. (2014) shipping emissions. Present-day simulations are evaluated against available data. We examine different future growth scenarios taking into account current and proposed ship operation regulations, such as CLE (current legislation) and HGS (high growth scenario), to investigate possible future changes in surface concentrations, tropospheric burdens and deposition fluxes. Potential chemistry-climate feedbacks are also examined such as those related to aerosol

  2. Investigation of Range Profiles from a Simplified Ship on Rough Sea Surface and Its Multipath Imaging Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siyuan He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The range profiles of a two-dimension (2 D perfect electric conductor (PEC ship on a wind-driven rough sea surface are derived by performing an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT on the wide band backscattered field. The rough sea surface is assuming to be a PEC surface. The back scattered field is computed based on EM numerical simulation when the frequencies are sampled between 100 MHz and 700 MHz. Considering the strong coupling interactions between the ship and sea, the complicated multipath effect to the range profile characteristics is fully analyzed based on the multipath imaging mechanisms. The coupling mechanisms could be explained by means of ray theory prediction and numerical extraction of the coupling currents. The comparison of the range profile locations between ray theory prediction and surface current simulation is implemented and analyzed in this paper. Finally, the influence of different sea states on the radar target signatures has been examined and discussed.

  3. Comparisons of Means for Estimating Sea States from an Advancing Large Container Ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Koning, Jos

    2013-01-01

    to ship-wave interactions in a seaway. In the paper, sea state estimates are produced by three means: the wave buoy analogy, relying on shipboard response measurements, a wave radar system, and a system providing the instantaneous wave height. The presented results show that for the given data, recorded...

  4. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremar, Björn; Haglund, Karin; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km × 50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for the marine environment are largely unknown

  5. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Claremar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km  ×  50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for

  6. Necessity of Proper Lashing of Containers on the Ship's Deck as Part of Optimization of the Sea Voyage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Radišić

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available These days we are witnessing an increase of container trafficin general and at sea in particular. In order to economizetheir business the ship owners are building bigger container vesselswhich can carry up to 8000 TEUs (Maersk line and otherbig carriers are following suit. On the drawing board is the vesselof 12000 TEUs from the mentioned ship owner. Obviously,such large quantity of containers requires highly efficient lashingequipment in order to secure them, particularly thosestowed on the deck Under the deck, almost as a rule all contemporarycontainer ships have cell guides as securing devices.Attention in this work is focused on container lashing systemexposed on the ship's deck and the relevant forces acting on thelash system during transportation at sea. Once containers areloaded on the ship's deck they should be safely secured by oneof the lashing systems in order to prevent damage and that is theprincipal task of the lashing equipment engaged within theframe of the lash system. In order to fulfill its objective theforces acting on the container should be properly calculated.The acting forces, their influence and the way of calculatingthem have been explained for all the major ship movementsand suggestions for optimum lashing equipment are given.

  7. Analysis of the competitive position of short sea shipping : Development of policy measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, C.; Verbeke, A.; Declercq, E.; Wijnolst, N.

    1995-01-01

    This study on the potentialof Short Sea Shipping (SSS) in Europe, with a focus on four corridors, consists of four parts. In the first part (Chapter I) the existing intra-European SSS-traffic is identified and analyzed for each relevant category of goods and transport corridor. In the second part

  8. An assessment of simplified methods to determine damage from ship-to-ship collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is studying the safety of shipping, radioactive materials (RAM) by sea, the SeaRAM project (McConnell, et al. 1995), which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project is concerned with the potential effects of ship collisions and fires on onboard RAM packages. Existing methodologies are being assessed to determine their adequacy to predict the effect of ship collisions and fires on RAM packages and to estimate whether or not a given accident might lead to a release of radioactivity. The eventual goal is to develop a set of validated methods, which have been checked by comparison with test data and/or detailed finite element analyses, for predicting the consequences of ship collisions and fires. These methods could then be used to provide input for overall risk assessments of RAM sea transport. The emphasis of this paper is on methods for predicting- effects of ship collisions

  9. Standard Industry Fare Level

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Standard Industry Fare Level was establish after airline deregulation to serve as the standard against which a statutory zone of operating expense reasonableness was...

  10. Statistical Analysis of SSMIS Sea Ice Concentration Threshold at the Arctic Sea Ice Edge during Summer Based on MODIS and Ship-Based Observational Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Li, Fei; Pang, Xiaoping; Luo, Cong

    2018-04-05

    The threshold of sea ice concentration (SIC) is the basis for accurately calculating sea ice extent based on passive microwave (PM) remote sensing data. However, the PM SIC threshold at the sea ice edge used in previous studies and released sea ice products has not always been consistent. To explore the representable value of the PM SIC threshold corresponding on average to the position of the Arctic sea ice edge during summer in recent years, we extracted sea ice edge boundaries from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea ice product (MOD29 with a spatial resolution of 1 km), MODIS images (250 m), and sea ice ship-based observation points (1 km) during the fifth (CHINARE-2012) and sixth (CHINARE-2014) Chinese National Arctic Research Expeditions, and made an overlay and comparison analysis with PM SIC derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager Sounder (SSMIS, with a spatial resolution of 25 km) in the summer of 2012 and 2014. Results showed that the average SSMIS SIC threshold at the Arctic sea ice edge based on ice-water boundary lines extracted from MOD29 was 33%, which was higher than that of the commonly used 15% discriminant threshold. The average SIC threshold at sea ice edge based on ice-water boundary lines extracted by visual interpretation from four scenes of the MODIS image was 35% when compared to the average value of 36% from the MOD29 extracted ice edge pixels for the same days. The average SIC of 31% at the sea ice edge points extracted from ship-based observations also confirmed that choosing around 30% as the SIC threshold during summer is recommended for sea ice extent calculations based on SSMIS PM data. These results can provide a reference for further studying the variation of sea ice under the rapidly changing Arctic.

  11. Economic potential of nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship via the northern sea route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kondo, Koichi

    2000-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the JAERI is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  12. Effect of the Northern Sea Route Opening to the Shipping Activities at Malacca Straits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opening of the Northern Sea Route as an alternative route for transporting cargoes between the Far East and Europe seems highly acceptable by shipping companies due to the great saving in fuel consumption, bunker cost, operating cost, emissions and journey time. This situation will not only affect the maritime business activity in the Straits of Malacca but also, the Malaysian economy in different perspectives when the vessels sail via the Suez Canal and the Indian Ocean are expected to decrease. The objective of this study is to analyse the implication in the opening of the Northern Sea Route on Maritime Sector of the Malaysian economy by using PESTEL analysis. The main scope is focusing more on the Malacca Straits shipping activity by using a number of parameters that have been obtained from Port Klang and Port Klang Authority through a set of questionnaires and interview sessions with industrial experts.

  13. Comparison of sea surface flux measured by instrumented aircraft and ship during SOFIA and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Pierre; Dupuis, HéLèNe; Lambert, Dominique; BéNech, Bruno; Druilhet, Aimé; Katsaros, Kristina; Taylor, Peter K.; Weill, Alain

    1998-10-01

    Two major campaigns (Surface of the Oceans, Fluxes and Interactions with the Atmosphere (SOFIA) and Structure des Echanges Mer-Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherche Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE)) devoted to the study of ocean-atmosphere interaction were conducted in 1992 and 1993, respectively, in the Azores region. Among the various platforms deployed, instrumented aircraft and ship allowed the measurement of the turbulent flux of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum. From coordinated missions we can evaluate the sea surface fluxes from (1) bulk relations and mean measurements performed aboard the ship in the atmospheric surface layer and (2) turbulence measurements aboard aircraft, which allowed the flux profiles to be estimated through the whole atmospheric boundary layer and therefore to be extrapolated toward the sea surface level. Continuous ship fluxes were calculated with bulk coefficients deduced from inertial-dissipation measurements in the same experiments, whereas aircraft fluxes were calculated with eddy-correlation technique. We present a comparison between these two estimations. Although momentum flux agrees quite well, aircraft estimations of sensible and latent heat flux are lower than those of the ship. This result is surprising, since aircraft momentum flux estimates are often considered as much less accurate than scalar flux estimates. The various sources of errors on the aircraft and ship flux estimates are discussed. For sensible and latent heat flux, random errors on aircraft estimates, as well as variability of ship flux estimates, are lower than the discrepancy between the two platforms, whereas the momentum flux estimates cannot be considered as significantly different. Furthermore, the consequence of the high-pass filtering of the aircraft signals on the flux values is analyzed; it is weak at the lowest altitudes flown and cannot therefore explain the discrepancies between the two platforms but becomes

  14. Research and development of spent-fuel shipping casks and the criteria for sea-going vessels carrying them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Since the transport of spent fuel will increase rapidly and extensively in the near future, the Japanese Atomic Energy Committee enacted the Technical Standard for Transportation of Radioactive Materials, based on the IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1973 Revised Edition. The authorities concerned have begun to review the former ordinances for transporting radioactive materials and to develop a unified system of relevant laws and standards. For ten years the Atomic Energy Bureau has invested in research and development to obtain data for the design and licence of a spent-fuel shipping cask. Different scale models of a prototype weighing 80t were used to clarify the scale effect of drop, puncture and fire tests, which are a feature of Japanese research and development. Also an immersion test in water at pressures up to about 500 bar is now carried out to investigate the integrity of the cask body and sealing structure to prevent leakage of radioactive contents to the surroundings should the cask fall into deep sea. In Japan, depending on the site of nuclear plants, almost all transport of unirradiated and spent fuels is by sea. Therefore, to secure safe transport, the design criteria of ships for the exclusive transport of spent-fuel shipping casks, namely full-load shipping, have been enacted, which aim to make the likelihood of sinking on collision, stranding, and other unforeseen accidents at sea highly improbable and also to keep radiation exposure of the crew as low as possible. (author)

  15. Navigational threats by derelict fishing gear to navy ships in the Korean seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Lim, Sehan

    2017-06-30

    This study assessed the impact of derelict fishing gear (DFG) on navigation. The Republic of Korea's navy (ROKN) recorded every case of approximately 170 naval ships associated with propeller entanglement by DFG from January 2010 to December 2015. The frequency of cases was 2.3 per ship and 397.7 (±37.5) per year. The amount of DFG disentangled was 0.025tons per ship and 10.0 (±1.7) tons per year. The frequency temporally decreased whereas the amount increased over these six years. To disentangle propellers, 3.1 divers were needed on average per case. Propeller entanglement occurred in all local seas and some of these areas showed increases over time. Our study highlights that the impact of DFG on navigational threats has been persistent and ubiquitous and can potentially be reduced by preventing DFG in fishing areas, with a focus on improved management by fishermen and government and with more efficient retrieval of DFG. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Wind stress over the Arabian Sea from ship reports and Seasat scatterometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perigaud, C.; Minster, J. F.; Delecluse, P.

    1989-01-01

    Seasat scatterometer data over the Arabian Sea are used to build wind-stress fields during July and August 1978. They are first compared with 3-day wind analyses from ship data along the Somali coast. Seasat scatterometer specifications of 2-m/s and 20-deg accuracy are fulfilled in almost all cases. The exceptions are for winds stronger than 14 m/s, which are underestimated by the scatterometer by 15 percent. Wind stress is derived from these wind data using a bulk formula with a drag coefficient depending on the wind intensity. A successive-correction objective analysis is used to build the wind-stress field over the Arabian Sea with 2 x 2-deg and 6-day resolution. The final wind-stress fields are not significantly dependent on the objective analysis because of the dense coverage of the scatterometer. The combination of scatterometer and coastal ship data gives the best coverage to resolve monsoon wind structures even close to the coast. The final wind stress fields show wind features consistent with other monthly mean wind stress field. However, a high variability is observed on the 6-day time scale.

  17. Use of electronic fare transaction data for corridor planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This report documents the initial phase of a project that developed, tested, and used a methodology and tool set for converting electronic transit agency fare card transaction data, the Puget Sound regions ORCA electronic fare card, into informati...

  18. Towards seasonal Arctic shipping route predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    In our previous work [1] we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here [2] we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations

  19. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  20. Recent situations around nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The philosophy when the safety standard for nuclear ships is drawn up and the international rules specifically for nuclear ships are summarized. As for the safety standard for nuclear ships, the safety requirements for ordinary ships, for the ships transporting nuclear reactors, for ordinary nuclear reactors, and for the reactors moving around the seas must be included. As for the international rules for nuclear ships, there are chapter 8 ''Nuclear ships'' in the International Convention on the Safety of Life at Sea, 1960 and 1974, and Safety Consideration in the Use of Ports and Approaches by Nuclear Merchant Ships. Also there are national rules and standards in Japan and foreign countries. One of the means to explore the practicality of nuclear ships is the investigation of the economy. At this time, the social merits and demerits of nuclear ships must be compared with conventional ships by taking total expenses into account without omission. When oil is depleted, the age of nuclear ships will not necessarily begin, and the will be still some competitors. The investigations concerning the economy of nuclear ships have been carried out in various countries. The present state of the development of nuclear ships in Japan and foreign countries is explained. Many conferences and symposia have been held concerning nuclear ships, and those held recently are enumerated. The realization of nuclear ship age cannot be anticipated from existing papers and shipbuilding projects. (Kako, I.)

  1. Integrated Optimization of Bus Line Fare and Operational Strategies Using Elastic Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization approach for designing a transit service system is proposed. Its objective would be the maximization of total social welfare, by providing a profitable fare structure and tailoring operational strategies to passenger demand. These operational strategies include full route operation (FRO, limited stop, short turn, and a mix of the latter two strategies. The demand function is formulated to reflect the attributes of these strategies, in-vehicle crowding, and fare effects on demand variation. The fare is either a flat fare or a differential fare structure; the latter is based on trip distance and achieved service levels. This proposed methodology is applied to a case study of Dalian, China. The optimal results indicate that an optimal combination of operational strategies integrated with a differential fare structure results in the highest potential for increasing total social welfare, if the value of parameter ε related to additional service fee is low. When this value increases up to more than a threshold, strategies with a flat fare show greater benefits. If this value increases beyond yet another threshold, the use of skipped stop strategies is not recommended.

  2. Decision Making Model for Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping Operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Md Arof

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a decision-making model for determining the potential of interstate Ro-Ro Short Sea Shipping (SSS operations in Archipelagic Southeast Asia (ASEA. It is expected to assist SSS authorities, private investors and financial institutions focus their limited resources on several key factors that could ensure the success of their undertakings. This study will begin with identifying the relevant factors that have contributed towards successful SSS operations through a process of literature review. Subsequently, a Delphi survey was conducted with sub-regional experts to identify any new determinants and assess their opinions on the relative importance of all the determinants involved. Finally the weightages of the determinants were ascertained through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Twenty expert respondents from Brunei Darussalam. Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines were involved in the Delphi survey while 18 expert respondents continue to participate in the AHP survey. This study concludes with the development of a decision-making model that was tested on three interstate Ro-Ro SSS routes within the ASEA sub-region. Keywords: Archipelagic Southeast Asia, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, ASEAN, Delphi, Ro-Ro, Short Sea Shipping (SSS

  3. Investigation of composite electromagnetic scattering from ship-like target on the randomly rough sea surface using FDTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Li; Li-Xin, Guo; Hao, Zeng; Xu-Biao, Han

    2009-01-01

    Composite electromagnetic scattering from a two-dimensional (2D) ship-like target on a one-dimensional sea surface is investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A uniaxial perfectly matched layer is adopted for truncation of FDTD lattices. The FDTD updated equations can be used for the total computation domain by choosing the uniaxial parameters properly. To validate the proposed numerical technique, a 2D infinitely long cylinder over the sea surface is taken into account first. The variation of angular distribution of the scattering changing with incident angle is calculated. The results show good agreement with the conventional moment method. Finally, the influence of the incident angle, the polarization, and the size of the ship-like target on the composite scattering coefficient is discussed in detail. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  4. Nuclear ships and their safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-04-15

    Several aspects of nuclear ship propulsion, with special reference to nuclear safety, were discussed at an international symposium at Taormina, Italy, from 14-18 November 1960. Discussions on specific topics are conducted, grouped under the following headings: Economics and National Activities in Nuclear Ship Propulsion; International Problems and General Aspects of Safety for Nuclear Ships; Nuclear Ship Projects from the Angle of Safety; Ship Reactor Problems; Sea Motion and Hull Problems; Maintenance and Refuelling Problems; and Safety Aspects of Nuclear Ship Operation.

  5. Analysis of a ship-to-ship collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, V.L.; Ammerman, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is involved in a safety assessment for the shipment of radioactive material by sea. One part of this study is investigation of the consequences of ship-to-ship collisions. This paper describes two sets of finite element analyses performed to assess the structural response of a small freighter and the loading imparted to radioactive material (RAM) packages during several postulated collision scenarios with another ship. The first series of analyses was performed to evaluate the amount of penetration of the freighter hull by a striking ship of various masses and initial velocities. Although these analyses included a representation of a single RAM package, the package was not impacted during the collision so forces on the package could not be computed. Therefore, a second series of analyses incorporating a representation of a row of seven packages was performed to ensure direct package impact by the striking ship. Average forces on a package were evaluated for several initial velocities and masses of the striking ship. In addition to. providing insight to ship and package response during a few postulated ship collisions scenarios, these analyses will be used to benchmark simpler ship collision models used in probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  6. Domestic airlines fares consumer report. Third report : first quarter 1997 passenger and fare information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    In response to an increasing number of inquires about domestic airline prices, the Department of Transportation decided to release a quarterly fare report. This is the third report and is based on data for the first quarter of 1997. For each market, ...

  7. Domestic airlines fares consumer report. Fourth report : second quarter 1997 passenger and fare information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In response to an increasing number of inquires about domestic airline prices, the Department of Transportation decided to release a quarterly fare report. This is the fourth report and is based on data for the second quarter of 1997. For each market...

  8. Ship dynamics for maritime ISAR imaging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2008-02-01

    Demand is increasing for imaging ships at sea. Conventional SAR fails because the ships are usually in motion, both with a forward velocity, and other linear and angular motions that accompany sea travel. Because the target itself is moving, this becomes an Inverse- SAR, or ISAR problem. Developing useful ISAR techniques and algorithms is considerably aided by first understanding the nature and characteristics of ship motion. Consequently, a brief study of some principles of naval architecture sheds useful light on this problem. We attempt to do so here. Ship motions are analyzed for their impact on range-Doppler imaging using Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR). A framework for analysis is developed, and limitations of simple ISAR systems are discussed.

  9. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  10. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  11. The Research on Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the constant deepening of the railway reform in China, the competition between railway passenger transportation and other modes of passenger transportation has been getting fiercer. In this situation, the existing unitary and changeless fare structure gradually becomes the prevention of railway revenue increase and railway system development. This paper examines a new method for ticket fare optimization strategy based on the revenue management theory. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each OD at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to determine the number of fare grades and the price of each fare grade. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, we build a ticket fare optimization model. After transforming this model to a convex program, we solve the original problem by finding the Kuhn-Tucker (K-T point of the convex program. Finally, we verify the proposed method by real data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line. The calculating result shows that our pricing strategy can not only increase the revenue, but also play a part in regulating the existing demand and stimulating potential demand.

  12. Temperature profile data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Bering Sea and other Sea areas from 1987-02-25 to 1987-07-27 (NODC Accession 8700280)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Bering Sea and other Sea areas from 25 February...

  13. Can we always ignore ship-generated food waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polglaze, John

    2003-01-01

    Considerable quantities of food waste can be generated at a rapid rate in ships, particularly those with large numbers of people onboard. By virtue of the amounts involved and its nature, food waste is potentially the most difficult to manage component of a ship's garbage stream, however, in most sea areas it may be dealt with by the simple expedient of direct discharge to sea. As a consequence, only minimal attention is paid to food waste management by many ship and port operators and advisory bodies, and there is a paucity of information in the available literature. The determination that management of ships' food waste is inconsequential is, however, incorrect in many circumstances. Disposal to sea is not always possible due to restrictions imposed by MARPOL 73/78 and other marine pollution control instruments. Effective management of food waste can be critical for ships that operate in areas where disposal is restricted or totally prohibited

  14. Providing Student Health Services at Sea: A Survey of Chief Complaints Onboard a Maritime Academy Training Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Ricky; Cukor, Jeffrey; Fredrickson, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the epidemiology of infirmary chief complaints aboard a collegiate maritime training ship. Participants: They assessed patients (N = 646 visits) evaluated by the "USTS Enterprise" medical department during a 44-day sea term from January to February 2007. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of…

  15. The Opening of the Northern Sea Routes: The Implications for Global Shipping and for Canada’s Relations with Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Stephens

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All the excitement around the great possibilities that the opening of the Northwest Passage could offer the shipping industry — and Canada — could not last. Just a few years ago, as sea ice in the North seemed to be steadily melting away, observers were eagerly tallying up the savings in time, fuel and costs that a reliably ice-free route across the top of the planet would provide for shippers. A couple of trial runs only confirmed that for shipments from Asia to Europe or North America, or the other way around, the route could shave thousands of kilometres off each trip, compared to journeys through the Suez or Panama canals. Rapid growth in shipping traffic across the Northwest Passage and its sister route, the Northern Sea Route, seemed not just inevitable, but imminent. Just a short while later, it now seems neither imminent nor inevitable. The retreat in sea ice may persist, but it is evident that due to regular fluctuations in ice coverage, the Northwest Passage will not be reliably ice-free for many, many years, if ever. Shipping may be more possible through the Northwest Passage than it was in the past, but it will not be consistently unobstructed. The challenges of ice combined with Arctic weather conditions may well mean that any shipping through the passage is slower than expected. Other complicating factors include uncharted or poorly charted sea lanes and the difficulty in securing insurance for Arctic shipping. At the same time, the competition from alternate routes is only becoming more intense, with expansions in both the Suez and Panama Canals and the potential for a new canal across Nicaragua. Regarding the Northwest Passage, Canada lacks much of the infrastructure in the North that would make Arctic passage a strong competitor, including multiple ports enroute and sufficient icebreaking equipment. There are still advantages that might draw some shipping away from traditional routes to the northern passages, particularly

  16. The costs of transit fare prepayment programs : a parametric cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the renewed interest in transit fare prepayment plans over the past : 10 years, few transit managers have a clear idea of how much it costs to operate : and maintain a fare prepayment program. This report provides transit managers : with the ...

  17. Nuclear ship accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report available information on 28 nuclear ship accident and incidents is considered. Of these 5 deals with U.S. ships and 23 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions and sea water leaks into the submarines are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that much of the available information is of a rather dubious nature. consequently some of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  18. Marginal revenue transformation in airline seat inventory control with two fare families and two markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallehauge, Brian

    to not offering any lower classes for sale. Furthermore, let Q(S) denote the total probability of purchase of set S and R(S) the total expected revenue from offering set S. The application of the MR transformation to the scenario with two fare families and two markets can be described in three overall principles....... 1) MR transformation from fare families to fare classes The first principle is that given a specific market the adjusted fare defined by the MR transformation is calculated for the subsets of fare classes on the efficient frontier of the set of points {Q(S),R(S)}, for all S. In the case of two fare...... families the sets on the efficient frontier does not necessarily represent nested policies. 2) Nesting of fare family policies The second principle is that given a specific market the subsets on the efficient frontier are forced to be nested. The primary purpose of this principle is that it enables...

  19. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  20. Ticket Fare Optimization for China’s High-Speed Railway Based on Passenger Choice Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzi Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although China’s high-speed railway (HSR is maturing after more than ten years of construction and development, the load factor and revenue of HSR could still be improved by optimizing the ticket fare structure. Different from the present unitary and changeless fare structure, this paper explores the application of multigrade fares to China’s HSR. On the premise that only one fare grade can be offered for each origin-destination (O-D at the same time, this paper addresses the questions of how to adjust ticket price over time to maximize the revenue. First, on the basis of piecewise pricing strategy, a ticket fare optimization model is built, which could be transformed to convex program to be solved. Then, based on the analysis of passenger arrival regularity using historical ticket data of Beijing-Shanghai HSR line, several experiments are performed using the method proposed in the paper to explore the properties of the optimal multigrade fare scheme.

  1. LCA-ship. Design tool for energy efficient ships. A Life Cycle Analysis Program for Ships. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiven, Karl; Sjoebris, Anders [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Nilsson, Maria [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Stiftelsen TEM; Ellis, Joanne; Traegaardh, Peter; Nordstroem, Malin [SSPA Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    In order to make it easier to include aspects during ship design that will improve environmental performance, general methods for life cycle calculations and a prototype tool for LCA calculations of ships and marine transportation have been developed. The base of the life cycle analyses is a comprehensive set of life cycle data that was collected for the materials and consumables used in ship construction and vessel operations. The computer tool developed makes it possible to quickly and simply specify (and calculate) the use of consumables over the vessel's life time cycle. Special effort has been made to allow the tool to be used for different types of vessels and sea transport. The main result from the project is the computer tool LCA ship, which incorporates collected and developed life cycle data for some of the most important materials and consumables used in ships and their operation. The computer application also contains a module for propulsion power calculations and a module for defining and optimising the energy system onboard the vessel. The tool itself is described in more detail in the Computer application manual. The input to the application should, as much as possible, be the kind of information that is normally found in a shipping company concerning vessel data and vessel movements. It all starts with defining the ship to be analysed and continues with defining how the ship is used over the lifetime. The tool contains compiled and processed background information about specific materials and processes (LCA data) connected to shipping operations. The LCA data is included in the tool in a processed form. LCA data for steel will for example include the environmental load from the steel production, the process to build the steel structure of the ship, the scrapping and the recycling phase. To be able to calculate the environmental load from the use of steel the total amount of steel used over the life cycle of the ship is also needed. The

  2. Evaluating the Impacts of Bus Fare on Social Equity Based on IC Card Data in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowu Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bus fare equity has attracted significant attention in China in the past few years. Compared with developed countries, China’s intelligent transportation systems are in their infancy, with immature bus fare policies being used in many public transit systems. The methods used for evaluating public transit fare equity in developed countries compare different fare policies based on rich data and cannot be directly applied in developing countries like China. In this paper, we present a method that uses IC card data, bus-mounted GPS data, and relevant statistical yearbook data to evaluate the equity of flat bus fare. The method ranks the factors that influence the impacts of bus fare on social equity for different passenger groups and indicates that trip distance and passenger boarding time are the two primary factors for bus fare equity from a resource allocation perspective. Finally, we present a case study that evaluates the flat fare policy for route 204 in Suzhou using the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method is feasible.

  3. Analysis of Methods of Determining the Safe Ship Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Lisowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes six methods of optimal and game theory and artificial neural network for synthesis of safe control in collision situations at sea. The application of optimal and game control algorithms to determine the own ship safe trajectory during the passing of other encountered ships in good and restricted visibility at sea is presented. The comparison of the safe ship control in collision situation: multi-step matrix non-cooperative and cooperative games, multi-stage positional non-cooperative and cooperative games have been introduced. The considerations have been illustrated with examples of computer simulation of the algorithms to determine safe of own ship trajectories in a navigational situation during passing of eight met ships.

  4. Transnucleaire's experience in ship adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachet, Y.; Vallette-Fontaine, M.

    2000-01-01

    Due to the application of the new IMDG regulations for the transport of radioactive material by sea, the conditions of transport of MTR spent fuel have drastically changed five years ago. In this paper, TRANSNUCLEAIRE analyses the necessary modifications to apply to existing ships in order to comply with the IMDG/INF regulations as well as with the Japanese KAISA 520 regulation. In the MTR spent fuel transport market characterized by a competitive approach, TRANSNUCLEAIRE has carried out many transports by sea in full compliance with the regulations at a price which is as close as possible to that of other industrial goods and without the need to fully dedicate the BOUGUENAIS ship to nuclear transports. Innovative ship design solutions have been implemented and accepted by different Authorities uncluding the Advisory Committee of the Japanese MOT. Due to efficient finite element calculations, benchmarked by laboratory large scale tests, high performances crushing materials have been developed in order to absorb the energy of collision between ships. These developments have led ta propose an efficient ship design complying with all the existing worldwide nuclear regulations. (author)

  5. INFLUENCE OF OPERABILITY CRITERIA LIMITING VALUES ON SHIP SPEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Prpić-Oršić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the ship is caught in heavy seas, there are two manoeuvres that the shipmaster can undertake to avoid excessive ship motion and hull damage: changing course or voluntary speed reduction. This paper presents a study of the effect of the various voluntary speed reduction criteria to attainable speed of ship on seaway. The speed loss is calculated by taking into account wind and wave effect on ship speed, the engine and propeller performance in actual seas as well as the mass inertia of the ship. The attainable ship speed for ship in head, following and beam waves by accounting for voluntary speed reduction is estimated for various significant wave height. The criteria of slamming, deck wetness, propeller emergence, excessive accelerations and roll are taken into account. The impact of variations of the limiting values of certain criteria due to which the captain intentionally reduces the ship speed is analysed and discussed.

  6. Climate change and sea ice: Shipping accessibility on the marine transportation corridor through Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (1980–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Andrews

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shipping traffic has been increasing in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay and the shipping route through these waters to the Port of Churchill may soon become a federally-designated transportation corridor. A dataset on passive microwave-based sea ice concentration was used to characterize the timing of the ice on the shipping corridor to the Port between 1980 and 2014. Efforts were made to produce results in a readily accessible format for stakeholders of the shipping industry; for example, open water was defined using a sea ice concentration threshold of ≤ 15% and results are presented in terms of real dates instead of anomalies. Between 1980 and 2014, the average breakup date on the corridor was July 4, the average freeze-up date was November 25, and the average length of the open water season was 145 days. However, each of these three variables exhibited significant long-term trends and spatial variability over the 34-year time period. Regression analysis revealed significant linear trends towards earlier breakup (–0.66 days year–1, later freeze-up (+0.52 days year–1, and a longer open water season (+1.14 days year–1 along the shipping corridor between 1980 and 2014. Moreover, the section of the corridor passing through Hudson Strait displayed significantly stronger trends than the two sections in Hudson Bay (i.e., “Hudson Islands” and “Hudson Bay”. As a result, sea ice timing in the Hudson Strait section of the corridor has diverged from the timing in the Hudson Bay sections. For example, the 2010–2014 median length of the open water season was 177 days in Hudson Strait and 153 days in the Hudson Bay sections. Finally, significant linear relationships were observed amongst breakup, freeze-up, and the length of the open water season for all sections of the corridor; correlation analysis suggests that these relationships have greatest impact in Hudson Strait.

  7. The Northern Sea Routes and Korea's Trade with Europe: Implications for Korea's Shipping Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong-Seok Ha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Melting Arctic waters have brought about global opportunities and challenges. One distinctive opportunity presented by the increasingly ice-free Arctic Ocean is its availability for shipping cargos between Europe and Asia. In adopting highly simplified assumptions of the Northern Sea Route (NSR being navigable and economical enough for shipping and NSR completely substituting for the incumbent Suez Canal route, this paper analyzes the maximum number of voyages possible for the transshipment of container cargo throughput for Korea's trade with Europe, particularly with Europe-17 and Europe-7. Our analysis shows the number of voyages range from over 2,900 to as little as 237 for Europe-17, depending on vessel sizes, when NSR is available for the whole year. With NSR opening for three months, the corresponding figures vary between 727 and 60 for Europe-17, and the figures for Europe-7 are between 2,725 and 222 and 682 and 56 voyages, respectively.

  8. Green vessel scheduling in liner shipping: Modeling carbon dioxide emission costs in sea and at ports of call

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A. Dulebenets

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering a substantial increase in volumes of the international seaborne trade and drastic climate changes due to carbon dioxide emissions, liner shipping companies have to improve planning of their vessel schedules and improve energy efficiency. This paper presents a novel mixed integer non-linear mathematical model for the green vessel scheduling problem, which directly accounts for the carbon dioxide emission costs in sea and at ports of call. The original non-linear model is linearized and then solved using CPLEX. A set of numerical experiments are conducted for a real-life liner shipping route to reveal managerial insights that can be of importance to liner shipping companies. Results indicate that the proposed mathematical model can serve as an efficient planning tool for liner shipping companies and may assist with evaluation of various carbon dioxide taxation schemes. Increasing carbon dioxide tax may substantially change the design of vessel schedules, incur additional route service costs, and improve the environmental sustainability. However, the effects from increasing carbon dioxide tax on the marine container terminal operations are found to be very limited.

  9. 14 CFR 399.32 - Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to Rates and Tariffs § 399.32 Zone of limited suspension for domestic passenger fares. (a) Applicability. This section sets forth the Board's policy on passenger fares for scheduled service by certificated air...

  10. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.; Vinken, G.C.M.; Tournadre, J.

    2015-01-01

    Weaddress the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived shipNOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based onOMI observed troposphericNO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European shipNOx

  11. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  12. 76 FR 82115 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...] RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Full Fare Price Advertising Requirements AGENCY... amending the time period for compliance with the full fare and other advertising requirements in 14 CFR 399... advertising requirements from January 24, 2012, to January 26, 2012, to provide regulatory relief to...

  13. 46 CFR 176.910 - Passenger Ship Safety Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. 176.910 Section 176... 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as Amended (SOLAS) § 176.910 Passenger Ship Safety Certificate. (a) A vessel, which carries more than...

  14. HEURISTIC METHOD OF SHIPS SELECTION FOR THE COORDINATED WORK OF WATER TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shcherbina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The study aims to develop a formulation methodology for ship selection in the coordinated work of sea and river transport using a heuristic approach. Methodology. To realize the purpose set in the study, the authors carried out an analysis of domestic and foreign literature sources on the current topic, studied specifics and conditions for the effective operation of marine mono-hulled ships and composite tug/barge towing ones. Findings. The analysis results allowed formulating the heuristics methods that ensure the selection of the type sizes of tug/barge towing ships for the mixed «river-sea» navigation from the priority range of ships of the existing fleet. The proposed method makes it possible to select ships in a more appropriate manner according to the established scheme of work. Rational combinations of technical and operational characteristics of such pairs as «barges and tows», «tug/barge towing ship and sea-going ship», «tug/barge towing ship and restrictive characteristics of the area of navigation» are a prerequisite for the shipping company profit growth by increasing the capacity of ships. Originality. For the first time, the authors applied a heuristic approach to the selection of tug/barge towing ships and sea-going ones for coordinated work with the performance of cargo operations on the raid of the estuary port when transporting bulk goods. The basis of the approach is the selection of a rational mix of technical and operational characteristics of barges and tugs. The proposed approach allows determining the best combination of ship type sizes in the organization of coordinated work of sea and river transport. At the same time, the continuity of the goods transportation process from the sea ports to the river ones located in the depth of the country (and in the opposite direction is ensured. Practical value. The presented methodology is a logical continuation of the cycle of studies performed by the authors. The

  15. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions: changes in 2005-2012 ship exhaust inferred from satellite measurements over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkert Boersma, K.; Vinken, Geert C. M.; Tournadre, Jean

    2015-07-01

    We address the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived ship NOx emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based on OMI observed tropospheric NO2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European ship NOx emissions increased by ˜15% from 2005 to 2008. This increase was followed by a reduction of ˜12% in 2009, a direct result of the global economic downturn in 2008-2009, and steady emissions from 2009 to 2012. Observations of ship passages through the Suez Canal and satellite altimeter derived ship densities suggests that ships in the Mediterranean Sea have reduced their speed by more than 30% since 2008. This reduction in ship speed is accompanied by a persistent 45% reduction of average, per ship NOx emission factors. Our results indicate that the practice of ‘slow steaming’, i.e. the lowering of vessel speed to reduce fuel consumption, has indeed been implemented since 2008, and can be detected from space. In spite of the implementation of slow steaming, one in seven of all NOx molecules emitted in Europe in 2012 originated from the shipping sector, up from one in nine in 2005. The growing share of the shipping contributions to the overall European NOx emissions suggests a need for the shipping sector to implement additional measures to reduce pollutant emissions at rates that are achieved by the road transport and energy producing sectors in Europe.

  16. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  17. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  18. Study on process design of partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting vertical ship lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Shen; Xiaofeng, Xu; Lu, Zhang; Bing, Zhu; Fei, Li

    2017-11-01

    The hub ship lift in Panjin is the first navigation structure in China for the link between the inland and open seas, which adopts a novel partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting ship lift; it can meet such requirements as fast and sharp water level change in open sea, large draft of a yacht, and launching of a ship reception chamber; its balancing weight system can effectively reduce the load of the primary lifting cylinder, and optimize the force distribution of the ship reception chamber. The paper provides an introduction to main equipment, basic principles, main features and system composition of a ship lift. The unique power system and balancing system of the completed ship lift has offered some experience for the construction of the tourism-type ship lifts with a lower lifting height.

  19. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  20. Modelling ship operational reliability over a mission under regular inspections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christer, A.H.; Lee, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A ship is required to operate for a fixed mission period. Should a critical item of equipment fail at sea, the ship is subject to a costly event with potentially high risk to ship and crew. Given warning of a pending defect, the ship can try to return to port under its own power and thus attempt to

  1. The legal position of nuclear ships according to the drafts of the third UN-conference on the law of the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    At the end of the 6th session of the Third UN-Conference on the Law of the Sea an Informal Composite Negotiating text has emerged. Art. 19 ICNT, which defines innocent passage, contains no express limitation on nuclear shipping, while Art. 23 presupposes that nuclear ships have this right, provided they carry documents and observe special precautionary measures established by international agreements. A certificate of nuclear safety pursuant to Chapter VIII of SOLAS must be recognized by contracting states and coastal states may require liability coverage. Coastal state lack competences to regulate design, construction, manning or equipment of foreign ships or to impose requirements which have the practical effect of denying innocent passage. The right of passage also prevails in the special economic zones and in archipelagic waters

  2. SAR Image Simulation of Ship Targets Based on Multi-Path Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Wang, H.; Ma, H.; Li, K.; Xia, Z.; Hao, Y.; Guo, H.; Shi, H.; Liao, X.; Yue, H.

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) plays an important role in the classification and recognition of ship targets because of its all-weather working ability and fine resolution. In SAR images, besides the sea clutter, the influence of the sea surface on the radar echo is also known as the so-called multipath effect. These multipath effects will generate some extra "pseudo images", which may cause the distortion of the target image and affect the estimation of the characteristic parameters. In this paper,the multipath effect of rough sea surface and its influence on the estimation of ship characteristic parameters are studied. The imaging of the first and the secondary reflection of sea surface is presented . The artifacts not only overlap with the image of the target itself, but may also appear in the sea near the target area. It is difficult to distinguish them, and this artifact has an effect on the length and width of the ship.

  3. CAS (CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS SOCIETY) PARAMETER CODES and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Caribbean Sea and Others from 19790205 to 19890503 (NCEI Accession 9100017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Chemical Abstracts Society (CAS) parameter codes and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico from February 5,...

  4. A quantitative assessment of Arctic shipping in 2010–2014

    KAUST Repository

    Eguíluz, Victor M.

    2016-08-01

    Rapid loss of sea ice is opening up the Arctic Ocean to shipping, a practice that is forecasted to increase rapidly by 2050 when many models predict that the Arctic Ocean will largely be free of ice toward the end of summer. These forecasts carry considerable uncertainty because Arctic shipping was previously considered too sparse to allow for adequate validation. Here, we provide quantitative evidence that the extent of Arctic shipping in the period 2011–2014 is already significant and that it is concentrated (i) in the Norwegian and Barents Seas, and (ii) predominantly accessed via the Northeast and Northwest Passages. Thick ice along the forecasted direct trans-Arctic route was still present in 2014, preventing transit. Although Arctic shipping remains constrained by the extent of ice coverage, during every September, this coverage is at a minimum, allowing the highest levels of shipping activity. Access to Arctic resources, particularly fisheries, is the most important driver of Arctic shipping thus far.

  5. Continuous monitoring of noise levels in the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea). Study of correlation with ship traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, S; Grammauta, R; Sciacca, V; Bellia, G; Beranzoli, L; Buscaino, G; Caruso, F; Chierici, F; Cuttone, G; D'Amico, A; De Luca, V; Embriaco, D; Favali, P; Giovanetti, G; Marinaro, G; Mazzola, S; Filiciotto, F; Pavan, G; Pellegrino, C; Pulvirenti, S; Simeone, F; Speziale, F; Riccobene, G

    2017-08-15

    Acoustic noise levels were measured in the Gulf of Catania (Ionian Sea) from July 2012 to May 2013 by a low frequency (<1000Hz) hydrophone, installed on board the NEMO-SN1 multidisciplinary observatory. NEMO-SN1 is a cabled node of EMSO-ERIC, which was deployed at a water depth of 2100m, 25km off Catania. The study area is characterized by the proximity of mid-size harbors and shipping lanes. Measured noise levels were correlated with the passage of ships tracked with a dedicated AIS antenna. Noise power was measured in the frequency range between 10Hz and 1000Hz. Experimental data were compared with the results of a fast numerical model based on AIS data to evaluate the contribution of shipping noise in six consecutive 1/3 octave frequency bands, including the 1/3 octave frequency bands centered at 63Hz and 125Hz, indicated by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Ships going slow in reducing their NOx emissions: changes in 2005–2012 ship exhaust inferred from satellite measurements over Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, K Folkert; Vinken, Geert C M; Tournadre, Jean

    2015-01-01

    We address the lack of temporal information on ship emissions, and report on rapid short-term variations of satellite-derived ship NO x emissions between 2005 and 2012 over European seas. Our inversion is based on OMI observed tropospheric NO 2 columns and GEOS-Chem simulations. Average European ship NO x emissions increased by ∼15% from 2005 to 2008. This increase was followed by a reduction of ∼12% in 2009, a direct result of the global economic downturn in 2008–2009, and steady emissions from 2009 to 2012. Observations of ship passages through the Suez Canal and satellite altimeter derived ship densities suggests that ships in the Mediterranean Sea have reduced their speed by more than 30% since 2008. This reduction in ship speed is accompanied by a persistent 45% reduction of average, per ship NO x emission factors. Our results indicate that the practice of ‘slow steaming’, i.e. the lowering of vessel speed to reduce fuel consumption, has indeed been implemented since 2008, and can be detected from space. In spite of the implementation of slow steaming, one in seven of all NO x molecules emitted in Europe in 2012 originated from the shipping sector, up from one in nine in 2005. The growing share of the shipping contributions to the overall European NO x emissions suggests a need for the shipping sector to implement additional measures to reduce pollutant emissions at rates that are achieved by the road transport and energy producing sectors in Europe. (letter)

  7. 46 CFR 91.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 91.60-5... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  8. 46 CFR 189.60-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. 189.60-10... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-10 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  9. 46 CFR 189.60-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. 189.60-5... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-5 Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage...

  10. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    depth for a container vessel. The results show that if the water depth is less than two times the draft of the vessel, the wave-induced bending moment becomes significant larger than in deep water with the same sea state description. The peak in the frequency response function for the wave bending......The wave-induced bending moment in ships is the most important sea load parameter for ships larger than 100m in length. Hence, any rational ship design procedure must include a reasonable accurate determination of this load and a large amount of various hydrodynamic formulations have been published......, ranging from semi-empirical formulas to three-dimensional non-linear procedures. A review of the state-of-the art can be found in ISSC.VI.1 (2000). These procedures must be combined with operational and sea state information to predict the probability distribution of the maximum wave-induced bending...

  11. Ship-to-Ship Radiocommunication Trial by Using Wireless LAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Niwa

    2015-12-01

    In a former field radiocommunication trial, omni-directional antennas were used and a few hundred kbps throughput between two ships was measured, which was not enough for our research target (over 1Mbps. In order to get faster throughput, a field radiocommunication trial was carried out again with a few types of directional antennas and RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indication and the throughput between two ships was measured simultaneously. As a result, multi-path (2-path model affected by the reflection of the sea surface was confirmed and also the characteristics of the directional antennas such as half-power angle were confirmed, but the measured throughput was fast enough to meet our expectation.

  12. Effect of ship motion on spinal loading during manual lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, G.S.; Kingma, I.; Delleman, N.; Dieën, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of ship motion on peak spinal loading during lifting. All measurements were done on a ship at sea. In 1-min trials, which were repeated over a wide range of sailing conditions, subjects lifted an 18 kg box five times. Ship motion, whole body kinematics, ground

  13. 46 CFR 189.60-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. 189.60-15 Section... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 189.60-15 Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. Every vessel equipped with a radio installation...

  14. 46 CFR 91.60-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. 91.60-10... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-10 Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate. (a) All vessels on an international voyage are...

  15. The world's largest and cleanest cruise ship; Verdens stoerste og reneste cruiseskip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2008-07-01

    The water dropped from ships all over the world, contribute to ruining the seas. The 'Independence of the sea' however has constructed a five step cleaning system that purifies the water well under the recommended level. This is a new technology, which makes the 'Independence of the sea' on of the worlds most environmental friendly ships in the world

  16. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, E.; Jager, W.; Schafstall, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The operation of about 300 nuclear naval vessels has proven the feasibility of nuclear ship propulsion. Until now six non military ships have been built or are under construction. In the Soviet Union two nuclear icebreakers are in operation, and a third one is under construction. In the western world three prototype merchant ships have been built. Of these ships only the NS OTTO HAHN is in operation and provides valuable experience for future large scale use of nuclear merchant ship propulsion. In many countries studies and plans are made for future nuclear merchant ships. Types of vessels investigated are large containerships, tankers and specialized ships like icebreakers or ice-breaking ships. The future of nuclear merchant ship propulsion depends on three interrelated items: (1) nuclear ship technology; (2) economy of nuclear ship propulsion; (3) legal questions. Nuclear merchant ship technology is based until now on standard ship technology and light water reactor technology. Except for special questions due to the non-stationary type of the plant entirely new problems do not arise. This has been proven by the recent conceptual licensing procedure for a large nuclear containership in Germany. The economics of nuclear propulsion will be under discussion until they are proven by the operation of privately owned lead ships. Unsolved legal questions e.g. in connection with port entry permissions are at present another problem for nuclear shipping. Efforts are made to solve these questions on an international basis. The future development of nuclear energy electricity production in large land based plants will stimulate the employment of smaller units. Any future development of long distance sea transport will have to take this opportunity of a reliable and economic energy supply into account

  17. 46 CFR 91.60-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. 91.60-15 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 91.60-15 Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate. Every vessel equipped with a radio installation on...

  18. Potential risks of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report represents an attempt to evaluate the potential risks of nuclear ships. Firstly reasons are given why nuclear ship accidents will not lead to accidents of the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. This is due to much lower content of radioactive material and to different reactor designs. Next a review is given of the types of accidents which have actually occurred. Of these the reactor accidents which may lead to serious consequences for the crew and the environment are considered further. These are reactivity accidents and loss of coolant accidents. In addition the long term risks of sunken nuclear ships and sea disposed reactor compartments etc. are also discussed. Based on available accident data an attempt is made to estimate the probability of serious nuclear ship accidents. (au)

  19. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R P; Wan Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani

    2012-01-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  20. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  1. Ship Design and Construction. An Integrated University Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated course in design and construction of merchant ships taught at the Department of Naval Architecture andOffshore Engineering, the Technical University of Denmark. During the course, the students make a preliminary design of a ship of selected type and also design...... its engine room. The teaching combines lectures with laboratory work at the drawing tables and computer terminals. During the summer holiday, sea time on board ships of the relevant types are offered. Experienced naval architects from shipyards and ship consultancies give lectures and instructions...

  2. 46 CFR 31.40-10 - Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Equipment Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-10 Section 31.40-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-10 Cargo Ship...

  3. 46 CFR 31.40-5 - Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Construction Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-5 Section 31.40-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-5 Cargo Ship...

  4. 46 CFR 31.40-15 - Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Ship Safety Radio Certificate-T/ALL. 31.40-15 Section 31.40-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 31.40-15 Cargo Ship...

  5. Safety during sea transport of radioactive materials. Probabilistic safety analysis of package fro sea surface fire accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Obara, Isonori; Akutsu, Yukio; Aritomi, Masanori

    2000-01-01

    The ships carrying irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes(INF materials) are designed to keep integrity of packaging based on the various safety and fireproof measures, even if the ship encounters a maritime fire accident. However, granted that the frequency is very low, realistic severe accidents should be evaluated. In this paper, probabilistic safety assessment method is applied to evaluate safety margin for severe sea fire accidents using event tree analysis. Based on our separate studies, the severest scenario was estimated as follows; an INF transport ship collides with oil tanker and induces a sea surface fire. Probability data such as ship's collision, oil leakage, ignition, escape from fire region, operations of cask cooling system and water flooding systems were also introduced from above mentioned studies. The results indicate that the probability of which packages cannot keep their integrity during the sea surface fire accident is very low and sea transport of INF materials is carried out very safely. (author)

  6. Merchant shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    When this Act comes into force, it will enable the United Kingdom to ratify and to give effect to the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (the SOLAS Convention) which replaces the SOLAS Convention of 1960. Under the Act, the Secretary of State may make such rules as he considers appropriate regarding ships provided with nuclear power plants in accordance with Chapter VIII of the Annex to the 1974 Convention and to Recommendations attached to it, dealing with nuclear ships, and insofar as those provisions have not been implemented by the Merchant Shipping Acts 1894 to 1974. (NEA) [fr

  7. Real-Time Simulation of Ship Impact for Crew Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    Real-time simulation of marine accidents and representation in a realistic, virtual environment may be an efficient way to train emergency procedures for ship?s crews and thus improve safety at sea. However, although various fast, simplified methods have been presented over the past decades...

  8. Air sea ratio reduction initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberle, Jean

    2010-09-15

    Airfreight is the most expensive mode of transportation as well as the most impacting in terms of CO{sup 2} emissions. It is 7 times more expensive on average to ship by air than shipping by sea 1. Airfreight transportation mode emits 30 times more CO{sup 2} than sea freight mode 2. These elements provided a compelling platform to design a global logistics program to initiate a modal shift from air to sea freight without compromising service to customers.

  9. Ship Detection in Gaofen-3 SAR Images Based on Sea Clutter Distribution Analysis and Deep Convolutional Neural Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Quanzhi; Pan, Zongxu; You, Hongjian

    2018-01-24

    Target detection is one of the important applications in the field of remote sensing. The Gaofen-3 (GF-3) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite launched by China is a powerful tool for maritime monitoring. This work aims at detecting ships in GF-3 SAR images using a new land masking strategy, the appropriate model for sea clutter and a neural network as the discrimination scheme. Firstly, the fully convolutional network (FCN) is applied to separate the sea from the land. Then, by analyzing the sea clutter distribution in GF-3 SAR images, we choose the probability distribution model of Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) detector from K-distribution, Gamma distribution and Rayleigh distribution based on a tradeoff between the sea clutter modeling accuracy and the computational complexity. Furthermore, in order to better implement CFAR detection, we also use truncated statistic (TS) as a preprocessing scheme and iterative censoring scheme (ICS) for boosting the performance of detector. Finally, we employ a neural network to re-examine the results as the discrimination stage. Experiment results on three GF-3 SAR images verify the effectiveness and efficiency of this approach.

  10. Price Elasticity of Demand and Capacity-Restraint Transit Fare Strategy: A Case Study of Bangkok Mass Transit System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackchai Sirikijpanichkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion is a chronic problem of Bangkok. Similar to other metropolises, the city perpetually seeks for alternatives to road travel. Mass rapid transit seems to be the only way out that is expected to mitigate traffic congestion in the city. However, without common fare system, travelers need to pay an initial entrance fee every time they enter each transit system. This excess cost tapers the demand and affects the efficient use of the system. This research investigates the influence of fare price on transit use which is measured by price elasticity of demand and proposes the optimum fare price if the common fare is used. The analysis is based on the findings from the stated preference survey techniques. Finally, the conclusion on fare level that encourage more patronage, maintain service quality and operator revenue is addressed.

  11. Impact of future Arctic shipping on high-latitude black carbon deposition (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, J. J.; Browse, J.; Carslaw, K. S.; Schmidt, A.

    2013-12-01

    The retreat of Arctic sea-ice has led to renewed calls to exploit Arctic shipping routes. The diversion of ship traffic through the Arctic will shorten shipping routes and possibly reduce global shipping emissions. However, deposition of black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted by additional Arctic ships could cause a reduction in the albedo of snow and ice, accelerating snow-melt and sea-ice loss. We use recently compiled Arctic shipping emission inventories for 2004 and 2050 together with a global aerosol microphysics model GLOMAP coupled to the chemical transport model TOMCAT to quantify the contribution of future Arctic shipping to high-latitude BC deposition. Emission rates of SOx (SO2 and SO4) and particulate matter (PM) were estimated for 2050 under both business-as-usual and high-growth scenarios. BC particles are assumed to be water-insoluble at emission but can become active in cloud drop formation through soluble material accumulation. After BC particles become cloud-active they are more efficiently wet scavenged, which accounts for 80% of modeled BC deposition. Current-day Arctic shipping contributes 0.3% to the BC mass deposited north of 60N (250 Gg). About 50% of modelled BC deposition is on open ocean, suggesting that current Arctic ship traffic may not significantly contribute to BC deposition on central Arctic sea ice. However, 6 - 8% of deposited BC on the west coast of Greenland originates from local ship traffic. Moreover, in-Arctic shipping contributes some 32% to high-latitude ship-sourced deposition despite accounting for less than 1.0% of global shipping emissions. This suggests that control of in-Arctic shipping BC emissions could yield greater decrease in high-latitude BC deposition than a similar control strategy applied only to the extra-Arctic shipping industry. Arctic shipping in 2050 will contribute less than 1% to the total BC deposition north of 60N due to the much greater relative contribution of BC transported from non-shipping sources

  12. Ships as future floating farm systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2018-04-03

    Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.

  13. RM Methods for Multiple Fare Structure Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    110 9 LIST OF FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION Figure 1-1: Revenue Losses due to Overprotection and Dilution... overprotection or dilution. If an airline’s objective is to focus on high-yield business travelers and charge only a single high fare for the...Lost Revenue from Customer Surplus Captured Revenue Rejected Passengers Overprotection Dilution Figure 1-1: Revenue Losses due to Overprotection

  14. Smart Cards for Transit : Multi-Use Remotely Interrogated Stored-Data Cards for Fare and Toll Payment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This project developed relevant information on existing and future, stored readable/writable data card technology for fare and toll payments. The project supports the FTA objective of developing a plan for a common standard card-based fare payment sy...

  15. The Ship Movement Trajectory Prediction Algorithm Using Navigational Data Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Piotr

    2017-06-20

    It is essential for the marine navigator conducting maneuvers of his ship at sea to know future positions of himself and target ships in a specific time span to effectively solve collision situations. This article presents an algorithm of ship movement trajectory prediction, which, through data fusion, takes into account measurements of the ship's current position from a number of doubled autonomous devices. This increases the reliability and accuracy of prediction. The algorithm has been implemented in NAVDEC, a navigation decision support system and practically used on board ships.

  16. Model for Environmental Assessment of Container Ship Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Hans Otto Holmegaard

    2012-01-01

    of these parameters on the EEDI. It is found possible to reduce EEDI by roughly 20 % without reducing ship speed, but only by changing some of the design parameters, such as reducing the sea margin by using a derated main engine, increasing the length of the ship by 5 %, and reducing steel weight by 3 % via steel...

  17. ANALYSIS OF INA-CBG’S FARE AND GOVERNOR REGULATION FAREON SURGERY AT INPATIENT ROOM OF UNDATA REGIONAL PUBLIC HOSPITAL IN PALU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Ryman Napirah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In order to determine the fares of surgery, there are two types of fares used by hospitals namely Indonesian Case Based Groups fare (INA-CBG s and Governor Regulation fare. This study aimed to identify and analyze both types of fares in orthopedic surgery, general, eyes, midwifery, mouth, ENT, urology at inpatient room of Undata Regional Public Hospital in Palu during year 2014. Method: This was a quantitative study with descriptive approach with 46 cases as the number of surgery. Data were collected through observation and analysis of secondary data were gotten from medical record, pharmaceutical installation of IBS/IDR, inpatient therapy room (Matahari, Aster, and Teratai pavilions and cashier of inpatient room in form of cost details and patient data from January to December 2014. Data Presentation was formed on tables, where the existing fares are grouped based on the component of each cost then summed and calculated the deviation between the two types of fares. Results: This study indicated that orthopedic surgery with deviation of Rp 11.311.365, general surgery with deviation of Rp 6.438.409, eyes surgery with deviation of Rp 45.173.741, midwifery surgery with deviation of Rp 6.645.765, oral surgery with deviation of Rp 6.105.659, and urological surgery with deviation of Rp. 3.809.959. Conclusion: It can be concluded that INA-CBG's fares are higher than Governor Regulation fares except orthopedic surgery, where the Governor Regulation faresare higher than INA-CBG’s fares.

  18. Electronic fare collection options for commuter railroads : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This research is designed to support FTA in its efforts to disseminate knowledge of new technologies within the transit community, in this case focusing on issues associated with automated fare collection (AFC) for commuter rail. By identifying le...

  19. Modeling and Measurements of Alternating Magnetic Signatures of Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Wu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The alternating electric and magnetic fields are new contributors to the global electromagnetic silencing of ships. Thus, modeling and measurements of alternating magnetic signatures should be a research priority in maritime engineering. In this paper, an alternating horizontal electric dipole is adopted to model the electromagnetic fields related with corrosion. Formulas for alternating magnetic fields generated in shallow sea by horizontal electric dipole are derived based on an air-sea-seabed three-layered model and a numerical computer is also applied. In addition, the alternating magnetic fields of a ship are measured using a tri-axis fluxgate magnetometer fixed in a swaying platform. The characteristics of these fields are analyzed. Finally, the equivalent dipole moment of the trial ship is predicted by contrasting the model results and the observed data.

  20. Collision simulations of an exclusive ship of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Ou; Endo, Hisayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Exclusive ships for sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuels operating in Japanese territorial waters are required to be built with the special hull structure against collision. To comply with the official notice 'KAISA No. 520' issued by the Ministry of Transport, the side structure of any such exclusive ship must be designed to secure the specified energy absorption capability based on Minorsky's ship collision model. The Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) has studied the safety in sea transport of nuclear fuels intermittently for these several decades. Recently, the adoption of finite element method has made detailed collision analyses practicable. Since 1998, the regulation research panel No. 46 of JSRA has carried out a series of finite element collision simulations in order to estimate the realistic damage to a typical exclusive ship of spent nuclear fuels. The expected structural responses, global motions and energy absorption capabilities of both colliding and struck ships during collision were investigated. The results of the investigations have shown that the ship is very likely to withstand the collision even with one of the world's largest ship. This is due mainly to her hull structure specially strengthened beyond the crushing strength of the colliding bow structures. (author)

  1. Simulation-Based Analysis of Ship Motions in Short-Crested Irregular Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kıvanç Ali ANIL

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Demonstration of the seakeeping calculation results other than polar diagrams and Cartesian plots is important during the initial and detail design stages of naval platforms due to the necessity of numerical simulations (time series data for the design and validation of the systems on board. These time series simulations are called as “real time computer experiments”. Similar simulation algorithms for ship motions and wave elevation are also used by ship-handling simulators for realistic visualization. The goal of this paper is to create a basis for the simulation-based analysis of ship motions and wave elevation for future design and validation studies for both the naval platform itself and the systems on board. The focus of this paper is the clarification of the theoretical background of this process, i.e. all formulations required to create and validate a ship motion and wave surface simulation are given in detail. The results of this study may also be used in ship-handling simulators or helicopter landing on ship simulations.

  2. The Human Element and Autonomous Ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauli Ahvenjärvi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous ship technology has become a “hot” topic in the discussion about more efficient, environmentally friendly and safer sea transportation solutions. The time is becoming mature for the introduction of commercially sensible solutions for unmanned and fully autonomous cargo and passenger ships. Safety will be the most interesting and important aspect in this development. The utilization of the autonomous ship technology will have many effects on the safety, both positive and negative. It has been announced that the goal is to make the safety of an unmanned ship better that the safety of a manned ship. However, it must be understood that the human element will still be present when fully unmanned ships are being used. The shore-based control of a ship contains new safety aspects and an interesting question will be the interaction of manned and unmanned ships in the same traffic area. The autonomous ship technology should therefore be taken into account on the training of seafarers. Also it should not be forgotten that every single control algorithm and rule of the internal decision making logic of the autonomously navigating ship has been designed and coded by a human software engineer. Thus the human element is present also in this point of the lifetime navigation system of the autonomous ship.

  3. Wake-based ship route estimation in high-resolution SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, M. Daniela; Rufino, Giancarlo; D'Errico, Marco

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for wake detection in Synthetic Aperture Radar images of the sea. The algorithm has been conceived as part of a ship traffic monitoring system, in charge of ship detection validation and to estimate ship route features, such as heading and ground speed. In addition, it has been intended to be adequate for inclusion in an automatic procedure without human operator supervision. The algorithm exploits the Radon transform to identify the images ship wake on the basis of the well known theoretical characteristics of the wakes' geometry and components, that are the turbulent wake, the narrow-V wakes, and the Kelvin arms, as well as the typical appearance of such components in Synthetic Aperture Radar images of the sea as bright or dark linear feature. Examples of application to high-resolution X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar products (COSMOSkymed and TerraSAR-X) are reported, both for wake detection and ship route estimation, showing the achieved quality and reliability of wake detection, adequacy to automatic procedures, as well as speed measure accuracy.

  4. Nuclear ship accidents, description and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1993-03-01

    In this report available information on 44 reported nuclear ship events is considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships and 38 with USSR ships. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/ explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. Comments are made on each of the events, and at the end of the report an attempt is made to point out the weaknesses of the submarine designs which have resulted in the accidents. It is emphasized that some of the information of which this report is based, may be of dubious nature. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  5. Internationalisation Within Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prockl, Günter; Kinra, Aseem; Kotzab, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    , the degree of internationalisation, measured on the basis of sea-oriented operations, differs from that measured according to land-oriented front-end marketing and sales activities. The purpose of this study is to further examine the internationalisation patterns of shipping lines. An examination...... of the front-end activities and the structures of leading container-shipping companies is conducted. The sales office networks of the sector’s 20 largest companies worldwide (by twenty-foot equivalent unit capacity) are analysed as key indicators. The numbers of sales offices are measured by analysing...... the websites of the sample (20 companies), as well as annual reports and other publicly available data sources. The findings show that not all shipping companies are international, by virtue of the industry. While it is difficult to observe differences in the overall patterns of the sales networks at a macro...

  6. Benthic organisms data collected using sediment sampler casts from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the Chukchi Sea from 1986-09-06 to 1987-10-05 (NODC Accession 8900299)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic organisms data were collected using sediment sampler casts from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the Chukchi Sea from 06 September 1986 to 05 October 1987. Data...

  7. The Ship of Classics: The Ark, the Titanic, or the Good Ship Lollipop?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, Robert E.

    Various problems confronting teachers of the classics are explored through frequent reference to the metaphor of the classics viewed as a sailing ship in a sea of troubled waters. Several of the difficulties confronting classics teachers are seen to be related to an anti-intellectual mood prevailing in academe, scheduling problems, shifting school…

  8. 76 FR 78145 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...] RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price Advertising AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... regarding the time period for compliance with a portion of the full fare and other advertising requirements...

  9. Social optimal shifts and fares of taxi services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salanova Grau, J.M.; Estrada Romeu, M.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model for supporting the decision and policy making related to the optimal determination of shifts and fares of taxi services in a major city. The model is based on the system’s generalized cost function and uses continuous approximations and geometric probabilities for estimating the key performance indicators of the taxi market, which are waiting and access time for the customers (in-vehicle travel time does not depend on the offer side) and benefits for the drivers. The model is based on an econometric model with the inclusion of an elastic demand, which allows the estimation of the optimal values for the two decision variables of the problem: fare structure and the taxi fleet size. The model also accounts for a full-day time period instead of the one-hour time frame models used in most of the taxi models, which allows for providing insights on the daily duration and distribution of the shifts that should be defined by the policy makers. (Author)

  10. Risk Analysis on Ship Wreck and Container Cargo to Ship Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Badrus Zaman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m. These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP. To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this

  11. Modeling of Ship Propulsion Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Benjamin Pjedsted; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Full scale measurements of the propulsion power, ship speed, wind speed and direction, sea and air temperature, from four different loading conditions has been used to train a neural network for prediction of propulsion power. The network was able to predict the propulsion power with accuracy...

  12. Design study of ship based nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su'ud, Zaki; Fitriyani, Dian

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary design study of ship based nuclear power reactors has been performed. In this study the results of thermohydraulics analysis is presented especially related to behaviour of ship motion in the sea. The reactors are basically lead-bismuth cooled fast power reactors using nitride fuels to enhance neutronics and safety performance. Some design modification are performed for feasibility of operation under sea wave movement. The system use loop type with relatively large coolant pipe above reactor core. The reactors does not use IHX, so that the heat from primary coolant system directly transferred to water-steam loop through steam generator. The reactors are capable to be operated in difference power level during night and noon. The reactors however can also be used totally or partially to produce clean water through desalination of sea water. Due to the influence of sea wave movement the analysis have to be performed in three dimensional analysis. The computation time for this analysis is speeded up using Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) Based multi processor system

  13. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  14. Artificial Neural Network-Based Clutter Reduction Systems for Ship Size Estimation in Maritime Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Jarabo-Amores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of clutter in maritime radars deteriorates the estimation of some physical parameters of the objects detected over the sea surface. For that reason, maritime radars should incorporate efficient clutter reduction techniques. Due to the intrinsic nonlinear dynamic of sea clutter, nonlinear signal processing is needed, what can be achieved by artificial neural networks (ANNs. In this paper, an estimation of the ship size using an ANN-based clutter reduction system followed by a fixed threshold is proposed. High clutter reduction rates are achieved using 1-dimensional (horizontal or vertical integration modes, although inaccurate ship width estimations are achieved. These estimations are improved using a 2-dimensional (rhombus integration mode. The proposed system is compared with a CA-CFAR system, denoting a great performance improvement and a great robustness against changes in sea clutter conditions and ship parameters, independently of the direction of movement of the ocean waves and ships.

  15. The Ship Movement Trajectory Prediction Algorithm Using Navigational Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Borkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential for the marine navigator conducting maneuvers of his ship at sea to know future positions of himself and target ships in a specific time span to effectively solve collision situations. This article presents an algorithm of ship movement trajectory prediction, which, through data fusion, takes into account measurements of the ship’s current position from a number of doubled autonomous devices. This increases the reliability and accuracy of prediction. The algorithm has been implemented in NAVDEC, a navigation decision support system and practically used on board ships.

  16. Fast iterative censoring CFAR algorithm for ship detection from SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dandan; Yue, Hui; Zhang, Yuan; Gao, Pengcheng

    2017-11-01

    Ship detection is one of the essential techniques for ship recognition from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. This paper presents a fast iterative detection procedure to eliminate the influence of target returns on the estimation of local sea clutter distributions for constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detectors. A fast block detector is first employed to extract potential target sub-images; and then, an iterative censoring CFAR algorithm is used to detect ship candidates from each target blocks adaptively and efficiently, where parallel detection is available, and statistical parameters of G0 distribution fitting local sea clutter well can be quickly estimated based on an integral image operator. Experimental results of TerraSAR-X images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  17. Accidents in nuclear ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelgaard, P L [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10{sup -3} per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au).

  18. Accidents in nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelgaard, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    This report starts with a discussion of the types of nuclear vessels accidents, in particular accidents which involve the nuclear propulsion systems. Next available information on 61 reported nuclear ship events in considered. Of these 6 deals with U.S. ships, 54 with USSR ships and 1 with a French ship. The ships are in almost all cases nuclear submarines. Only events that involve the sinking of vessels, the nuclear propulsion plants, radiation exposures, fires/explosions, sea-water leaks into the submarines and sinking of vessels are considered. For each event a summary of available information is presented, and comments are added. In some cases the available information is not credible, and these events are neglected. This reduces the number of events to 5 U.S. events, 35 USSR/Russian events and 1 French event. A comparison is made between the reported Soviet accidents and information available on dumped and damaged Soviet naval reactors. It seems possible to obtain good correlation between the two types of events. An analysis is made of the accident and estimates are made of the accident probabilities which are found to be of the order of 10 -3 per ship reactor years. It if finally pointed out that the consequences of nuclear ship accidents are fairly local and does in no way not approach the magnitude of the Chernobyl accident. It is emphasized that some of the information on which this report is based, may not be correct. Consequently some of the results of the assessments made may not be correct. (au)

  19. Estimation of PV output power in moving and rocking hybrid energy marine ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hongda; Zhang, Qing; Qi, Xiaoxia; Han, Yang; Lu, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A mathematical model for characterizing the ship PV output power is developed. •The impacts of the sea condition and ship type on the PV output power are analyzed. •The hybrid energy storage system is used to stabilize the PV fluctuation powers. •A SC configuration method based on maximum half period is applied. -- Abstract: In recent years, the application of solar energy and energy storage to ship power systems has shown promise as a method for both reducing annual carbon and nitrogen oxide emissions and improving ship energy efficiency in the maritime shipping industry. When a ship navigates at sea, it encounters a constant rocking motion that is affected by both the surrounding sea conditions and the ship’s navigation parameters. This motion increases the uncertainty involved in using solar energy and accelerates the aging of the ship’s energy storage battery to some extent. In this study, a universal mathematical model is established for the power generation by photovoltaic (PV) modules in which both the sea conditions and the ship’s integrated motion, including its basic movement along with the motion caused by rocking, are taken into account. Based on this model, the fluctuation characteristics of a ship’s PV output power are studied and determined using three different simulation scenarios. A binary energy storage scheme based on a decoupled PV output power is proposed in order to both stabilize the small-period PV power fluctuations and slow the aging of the actual battery caused by rocking. In addition, a super-capacitor (SC) configuration is constructed based on a maximum half cycle. Finally, the optimal energy storage capacities for this green ship are compared under both rocking and moving motion. In the case of rocking motion, the SCs are able to achieve an approximately 24.8–35.0% reduction in battery replacement. A shipping route between Shanghai, China and Sydney, Australia is considered to validate the practicality

  20. Ship

    OpenAIRE

    Keuning, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The invention concerns a ship designed for use at high speed and heavy seas having a single long and slender hull with a narrow beam and a more or less vertical bow, whereby the front half of the hull has more or less vertical sides, minimal flare in the bow sections and towards the bow an increase in draught at its center line combined with a more or less similar increase of freeboard and whereby the aft end of the hull has a flat or slightly V-shaped bottom with one or more propellers and/o...

  1. Examining Diverse World Examples in Transit Fare Collection Systems for Bus and a Model System for Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Hatipoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The migration from the rural to urban areas since Industrial Revolution up to present has resulted in a global and significant urbanization phenomenon. Transportation, due to the increasing population in the cities, stands out as one of the major problems. Convenient transportation in the cities depends primarily on an efficient and productive public transportation system. Enable to use public transportation system in efficient, pricing varieties and fare payment options/ medias are applied in the transportation are very important. In order public transportation system to be efficient pricing variations and fare payment collection methods should be considered. Pricing varieties increase demands for public transportation and the ease of fare payment increases speed and capacity of public transportation. In this study, bus pricing policies and fare payment options in the cities of Geneva, London, Tokyo and Curitiba which are prominent with successful public transportation policies are examined and practice proposals are presented for the city of Ankara City.

  2. Some concepts of future nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujino, Masataka

    2000-01-01

    Characteristic features of nuclear power generation are as follows: (1) Thermal energy can be continuously extracted for a long time without fuel feed, (2) Nuclear energy is suitable for generating huge power, (3) Oxygen is unnecessary for combustion of fuel, and (4) Unlike fossil fuel, nuclear power generation does not exhaust NOx, SOx, and CO 2 : it can be considered environmentally friendly. In view of these features, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute commissioned the Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan (JSRA) to survey what kinds of nuclear ship would be put to practical use in the near future. For this purpose, a research committee was organized in 1992 by the JSRA, and concluded its investigation in 1996. The main aim of this research was to clarify the requirements of ship performance as nuclear ships, and then to extract the technical issues of the marine reactor installed in nuclear ships to be solved. As a result of the survey, it was suggested that displacement-type large high-speed container ship would be one of the promising future nuclear merchant ships, and 6500 m deep-sea and 600 m undersea scientific research submersibles would be other promising nuclear special purpose ships. At the same time, various requirements of marine reactors, which are expected to be installed in these ships, were clarified mainly from the technical viewpoints. (author)

  3. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  4. The complex network of global cargo ship movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Kölzsch, Andrea; Gastner, Michael T; Blasius, Bernd

    2010-07-06

    Transportation networks play a crucial role in human mobility, the exchange of goods and the spread of invasive species. With 90 per cent of world trade carried by sea, the global network of merchant ships provides one of the most important modes of transportation. Here, we use information about the itineraries of 16 363 cargo ships during the year 2007 to construct a network of links between ports. We show that the network has several features that set it apart from other transportation networks. In particular, most ships can be classified into three categories: bulk dry carriers, container ships and oil tankers. These three categories do not only differ in the ships' physical characteristics, but also in their mobility patterns and networks. Container ships follow regularly repeating paths whereas bulk dry carriers and oil tankers move less predictably between ports. The network of all ship movements possesses a heavy-tailed distribution for the connectivity of ports and for the loads transported on the links with systematic differences between ship types. The data analysed in this paper improve current assumptions based on gravity models of ship movements, an important step towards understanding patterns of global trade and bioinvasion.

  5. Estimation of waves and ship responses using onboard measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montazeri, Najmeh

    This thesis focuses on estimation of waves and ship responses using ship-board measurements. This is useful for development of operational safety and performance efficiency in connection with the broader concept of onboard decision support systems. Estimation of sea state is studied using a set...... of measured ship responses, a parametric description of directional wave spectra (a generalised JONSWAP model) and the transfer functions of the ship responses. The difference between the spectral moments of the measured ship responses and the corresponding theoretically calculated moments formulates a cost...... information. The model is tested on simulated data based on known unimodal and bimodal wave scenarios. The wave parameters in the output are then compared with the true wave parameters. In addition to the numerical experiments, two sets of full-scale measurements from container ships are analysed. Herein...

  6. Ship Domain Model for Multi-ship Collision Avoidance Decision-making with COLREGs Based on Artificial Potential Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TengFei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A multi-ship collision avoidance decision-making and path planning formulation is studied in a distributed way. This paper proposes a complete set of solutions for multi-ship collision avoidance in intelligent navigation, by using a top-to-bottom organization to structure the system. The system is designed with two layers: the collision avoidance decision-making and the path planning. Under the general requirements of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLREGs, the performance of distributed path planning decision-making for anti-collision is analyzed for both give-way and stand-on ships situations, including the emergency actions taken by the stand-on ship in case of the give-way ship’s fault of collision avoidance measures. The Artificial Potential Field method(APF is used for the path planning in details. The developed APF method combined with the model of ship domain takes the target ships’ speed and course in-to account, so that it can judge the moving characteristics of obstacles more accurately. Simulation results indicate that the system proposed can work effectiveness.

  7. A new technology for the reduction of particulate matter from diesel engines in ships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rens, G.L.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis the focus is on the particulate matter reduction of ships, as ships contribute significantly to the particulate matter concentration in ambient air. Because the fuel of sea ships contains a lot of ash, the emitted particulate matter will also contain a lot of ash. In car and truck

  8. Designing Indonesian Liner Shipping Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armand Omar Moeis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the largest archipelago nation in the world, Indonesia’s logistics system has not shown excellence according to the parameters of logistics performance index and based on logistics costs percentages from overall GDP. This is due to the imbalances of trading on the western and eastern regions in Indonesia, which impacts the transportation systems costs to and from the eastern regions. Therefore, it is imperative to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian maritime logistics through maritime logistics network design. This research will focus on three levels of decision making in logistics network design, which include type of ships in the strategic level, shipping routes in the tactical level, and container allocation in the operational level with implementing butterfly routes in Indonesia’s logistics networking problems. Furthermore, this research will analyze the impact of Pendulum Nusantara and Sea Toll routes against the company profits and percentages of containers shipped. This research will also foresee how demand uncertainties and multi-period planning should affect decision making in designing the Indonesian Liner Shipping Network.

  9. AIDS cannot be an exception to offer of lower bus fares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-28

    U.S. District Judge Joe Billy McDade ruled that the Metro Link bus system of Rock Island, IL cannot exclude people with AIDS from a special rate program afforded to those with mobility, visual, or hearing impairments. The suit was brought by the American Civil Liberties Union on behalf of [name removed] who wished to obtain a reduced-fare card because his AIDS condition severely impaired his ability to walk. Metro Link's application for reduced fare explicitly states that those whose sole disability is AIDS are ineligible for the program. Judge McDade ruled that the application violates the American Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Rehabilitation Act because it discriminated against [name removed] exclusively because of his disability. The policy also violated [name removed]'s right to equal protection under the 14th Amendment.

  10. ``Out To Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship'' - Production of a Video and Teachers Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, F. R.; Tauxe, K.

    2004-12-01

    In May 2002, Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI) received a proposal entitled "Motivating Middle School Students with the JOIDES Resolution", from a middle school teacher in New Mexico named Katie Tauxe. Katie was a former Marine Technician who has worked aboard the R/V JOIDES Resolution in the early years of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). She proposed to engage the interest of middle school students using the ODP drillship as the centerpiece of a presentation focused on the lives of the people who work aboard the ship and the excitement of science communicated through an active shipboard experience. The proposal asked for travel funds to and from the ship, the loan of video camera equipment from JOI, and a small amount of funding to cover expendable supplies, video editing, and production at the local Public Broadcasting Station in Los Alamos, NM. Katie sailed on the transit of the JOIDES Resolution through the Panama Canal, following the completion of ODP Leg 206 in late 2002. This presentation will focus on the outcome of this video production effort, which is a 19 minute-long video entitled "Out to Sea: Life as a Crew Member Aboard a Geologic Research Ship", and a teacher's guide that can be found online.

  11. Noise source analysis of nuclear ship Mutsu plant using multivariate autoregressive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Shimazaki, J.; Shinohara, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the noise sources in N.S. Mutsu reactor plant. The noise experiments on the Mutsu plant were performed in order to investigate the plant dynamics and the effect of sea condition and and ship motion on the plant. The reactor noise signals as well as the ship motion signals were analyzed by a multivariable autoregressive (MAR) modeling method to clarify the noise sources in the reactor plant. It was confirmed from the analysis results that most of the plant variables were affected mainly by a horizontal component of the ship motion, that is the sway, through vibrations of the plant structures. Furthermore, the effect of ship motion on the reactor power was evaluated through the analysis of wave components extracted by a geometrical transform method. It was concluded that the amplitude of the reactor power oscillation was about 0.15% in normal sea condition, which was small enough for safe operation of the reactor plant. (authors)

  12. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluk, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  13. An approach to high speed ship ride quality simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, W. L.; Vickery, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The high speeds attained by certain advanced surface ships result in a spectrum of motion which is higher in frequency than that of conventional ships. This fact along with the inclusion of advanced ride control features in the design of these ships resulted in an increased awareness of the need for ride criteria. Such criteria can be developed using data from actual ship operations in varied sea states or from clinical laboratory experiments. A third approach is to simulate ship conditions using measured or calculated ship motion data. Recent simulations have used data derived from a math model of Surface Effect Ship (SES) motion. The model in turn is based on equations of motion which have been refined with data from scale models and SES of up to 101 600-kg (100-ton) displacement. Employment of broad band motion emphasizes the use of the simulators as a design tool to evaluate a given ship configuration in several operational situations and also serves to provide data as to the overall effect of a given motion on crew performance and physiological status.

  14. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  15. Methanol plant ship: implementation study. Export trade information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The study compiled the economic, commercial and financing requirements of a floating plant ship with a production capacity of 3,000 tons of methanol a day. The raw material for the methanol production would be supplied from a natural gas reserve off the coast of Trinidad. The report has a separate section for each aspect of the plant ship project, such as methanol storage; logistics of transporting methanol to the United States; the required sub-sea installation to bring natural gas to the plant ship; and plant ship design and equipment. It gives a detailed description of a proposed organizational structure and its tax consequences. The project's financial requirements and economic impact are examined. The environmental consequences and other operator issues are analyzed. Tables and figures accompany the report

  16. MODEL PENDANAAN ARMADA KAPAL NASIONAL FUNDING MODEL of NATIONAL SHIP ARMADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Ridwan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Domination of Foreign ship armada in trading activity of exsport/import and interisland in Indonesia,couse deficit state 99 trilium rupiah per year. The national shipping armada can not serve sea transportto support commercial activity. They have not provides enough ship armada capacity for tradingcommodity, and dosent enaugh funding development of new ship armada, so that national armada freightcapacity always downwards along increasingly ship age. Economic from transportation sector of seawhich capital intensive, labour intensive and high tech, requires a policy of government which insubvention with funding especially from banking sector and finance companies non bank. It is requiredmodel or funding pattern which to support the sector, expected later national ship armada can transportall commerce commodity of exsport/import and interisland in country

  17. CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship : Validation and impact of geometrical simplifactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, W.D.; Blocken, B.J.E.; van Wijhe, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the increasing windage area of container ships, wind loads are playing a more important role in navigating the ship at open sea and especially through harbor areas. This paper presents 3D steady RANS CFD simulations of wind loads on a container ship, validation with wind-tunnel measurements

  18. Reactors at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, Colin

    1988-01-01

    The Greenpeace Nuclear Free Seas Campaign is outlined. The campaign aims to bring the environmental hazards from nuclear submarines and naval ships carrying nuclear weapons to public attention. Worldwide there are 544 nuclear reactor ships or submarines each with the potential to meltdown with serious environmental consequences. One meltdown is known to have occurred. Five reactors have been abandoned on the sea bed. Nuclear powered submarines are based at Rosyth, Faslane, Holy Loch, Plymouth and Portsmouth and routinely come into and out of those harbours. There have also been accidents involving nuclear weapons on board submarines, aircraft carriers or destroyers which carry nuclear depth bombs and free fall bombs. The Royal Navy's accident emergency plans for nuclear naval bases are inadequate. There is a threat to the environment when the reactors are decommissioned. There are no clear plans as to how to deal with the decommissioning of the submarines or ships although the fuel rods have been removed from the first British nuclear submarine, Dreadnought. (U.K.)

  19. Arctic shipping emissions inventories and future scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Corbett

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents 5 km×5 km Arctic emissions inventories of important greenhouse gases, black carbon and other pollutants under existing and future (2050 scenarios that account for growth of shipping in the region, potential diversion traffic through emerging routes, and possible emissions control measures. These high-resolution, geospatial emissions inventories for shipping can be used to evaluate Arctic climate sensitivity to black carbon (a short-lived climate forcing pollutant especially effective in accelerating the melting of ice and snow, aerosols, and gaseous emissions including carbon dioxide. We quantify ship emissions scenarios which are expected to increase as declining sea ice coverage due to climate change allows for increased shipping activity in the Arctic. A first-order calculation of global warming potential due to 2030 emissions in the high-growth scenario suggests that short-lived forcing of ~4.5 gigagrams of black carbon from Arctic shipping may increase global warming potential due to Arctic ships' CO2 emissions (~42 000 gigagrams by some 17% to 78%. The paper also presents maximum feasible reduction scenarios for black carbon in particular. These emissions reduction scenarios will enable scientists and policymakers to evaluate the efficacy and benefits of technological controls for black carbon, and other pollutants from ships.

  20. The investigation of ship maneuvering with hydrodynamic effects between ships in curved narrow channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ki Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic interaction between two large vessels can't be neglected when two large vessels are closed to each other in restricted waterways such as in a harbor or narrow channel. This paper is mainly concerned with the ship maneuvering motion based on the hydrodynamic interaction effects between two large vessels moving each other in curved narrow channel. In this research, the characteristic features of the hydrodynamic interaction forces between two large vessels are described and illustrated, and the effects of velocity ratio and the spacing between two vessels are summarized and discussed. Also, the Inchon outer harbor area through the PALMI island channel in Korea was selected, and the ship maneuvering simulation was carried out to propose an appropriate safe speed and distance between two ships, which is required to avoid sea accident in confined waters. From the inspection of this investigation, it indicates the following result. Under the condition of SP12≤0.5L, it may encounter a dangerous tendency of grounding or collision due to the combined effect of the interaction between ships and external forces. Also considering the interaction and wind effect as a parameter, an overtaken and overtaking vessel in narrow channel can navigate while keeping its own original course under the following conditions; the lateral separation between two ships is about kept at 0.6 times of ship length and 15 degrees of range in maximum rudder angle. On the other hand, two ships while overtaking in curved narrow channel such as Inchon outer harbor in Korea should be navigated under the following conditions; SP12 is about kept at 1.0 times of ship length and the wind velocity should not be stronger than 10 m/s.

  1. Structural analysis of a ship on global aspect using ANSYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Kamol, Rajia Sultana; Islam, Reyana

    2017-12-01

    Ship is a complex geometry which undergoes a combination of loadings such as hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, wind, wave etc. at sea and thus adequate strength in a ship has always been one of the most challenging tasks for the ship designers. International Maritime Organization (IMO) and classification societies are providing the standards to ensure the adequacy of strength for the ship against all demands throughout its service life. Thus, structural analysis is needed to assess the overall strength of hull, and the means in this regard are based on finite element method which may be applied either local or global aspect of the ship. This paper is an attempt to carry out the structural analysis of a ship in global aspect using ANSYS software to locate the most stress concentration and deformed area, which will have ultimate effect on fatigue fracture.

  2. FARE-CAFE: a database of functional and regulatory elements of cancer-associated fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korla, Praveen Kumar; Cheng, Jack; Huang, Chien-Hung; Tsai, Jeffrey J P; Liu, Yu-Hsuan; Kurubanjerdjit, Nilubon; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Yi; Ng, Ka-Lok

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation (CT) is of enormous clinical interest because this disorder is associated with various major solid tumors and leukemia. A tumor-specific fusion gene event may occur when a translocation joins two separate genes. Currently, various CT databases provide information about fusion genes and their genomic elements. However, no database of the roles of fusion genes, in terms of essential functional and regulatory elements in oncogenesis, is available. FARE-CAFE is a unique combination of CTs, fusion proteins, protein domains, domain-domain interactions, protein-protein interactions, transcription factors and microRNAs, with subsequent experimental information, which cannot be found in any other CT database. Genomic DNA information including, for example, manually collected exact locations of the first and second break points, sequences and karyotypes of fusion genes are included. FARE-CAFE will substantially facilitate the cancer biologist's mission of elucidating the pathogenesis of various types of cancer. This database will ultimately help to develop 'novel' therapeutic approaches. Database URL: http://ppi.bioinfo.asia.edu.tw/FARE-CAFE. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Sinekia Palatum Molle dan Pilar Tonsil ke Dinding Faring Posterior pada Pasien Tuberkulosis Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desno Marbun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tuberkulosis paru masih merupakan penyakit infeksi yang sering dijumpai dan masalah kesehatan di dunia. Sinekia yang disebabkan oleh infeksi kronik tuberkulosis pada daerah faring merupakan kasus yang jarang terjadi. Pembentukan sinekia ini menyebabkan obstruksi saluran napas bagian atas dan dapat menyebabkan gangguan menelan. Laporan kasus ini dimaksudkan untuk memaparkan penatalaksanaan pasien tuberkulosis paru disertai kelainan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior. Seorang pasien laki-laki usia 40 tahun terdiagnosis tuberkulosis milier yang telah mendapatkan pengobatan antituberkulosis 4 bulan datang dengan keluhan hidung tersumbat, suara sengau, dan gangguan menelan sejak 2 bulan sebelum masuk rumah sakit. Dilakukan pelepasan sinekia dengan cara reseksi dan insisi palatum molle pendekatan intraoral dengan panduan endoskopi, didapatkan massa jaringan granuloma pada tepi sinekia tersebut. Hasil pemeriksaan histopatologi berupa jaringan granuloma tuberkulosis. Pascaoperasi pasien dapat bernapas lancar melalui hidung dan gangguan menelan menghilang. Simpulan, operasi pelepasan sinekia diputuskan mengingat gangguan obstruksi saluran napas atas. Penatalaksanaan sinekia palatum molle dan pilar tonsil ke dinding faring posterior dengan operasi memberikan hasil yang baik untuk patensi jalan napas dan fungsi menelan.

  4. Six cyclopic ships with the death of one of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-09-01

    Given the knowledge of cyclopic humans and animals and their lethal nature, and given the negative way in which the cyclops is portrayed in mythology and in art, it is unusual that six naval ships--four English and two American--were named "Cyclops." However, there are also important positive attributes of the Cyclopes in Greek mythology, which explain the reasons the ships were given this name. One ship, the USS "Cyclops," with 306 men aboard, was lost at sea in the "Bermuda Triangle" in 1918 without a trace and no wreckage has ever been found.

  5. The along track scanning radiometer - an analysis of coincident ship and satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, I. J.; Prata, A. J.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1993-05-01

    Following the successful launch of the ERS-1 satellite in July 1991 we have undertaken several geophysical validation cruises in the Coral Sea. The prime aim of these cruises was to compare the sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) with that measured using precision radiometers mounted on the ships. On most occasions when simultaneous satellite and ship measurements were taken we also launched a radiosonde from one of the research vessels. The results suggest that the ATSR is able to measure the ``skin'' temperature of the sea surface with an accuracy suitable for climate research applications. A case study comparison between the AVHRR and ATSR SST products will also be presented.

  6. Estimation of shipping emissions in Candarli Gulf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Cengiz; Kilic, Alper; Civkaroglu, Gökhan

    2010-12-01

    Ships are significant air pollution sources as their high powered main engines often use heavy fuels. The major atmospheric components emitted are nitrogen oxides, particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxide gases, carbon oxides, and toxic air pollutants. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. Candarli Gulf is one of the major industrial regions on the Aegean side of Turkey. The marine environment of the region is affected by emissions from ships calling to ten different ports. In this study, NO( x ), SO(2), CO(2), hydrocarbons (HC), and PM emissions from 7,520 ships are estimated during the year of 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. Annual shipping emissions are estimated as 631.2 t year(-1) for NO(x), 573.6 t year(-1) for SO(2), 33,848.9 t year(-1) for CO(2), 32.3 t year(-1) for HC, and 57.4 t year(-1) for PM.

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE - PARTIAL PRESSURE (pCO2) - SEA and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19890101 to 19891231 (NODC Accession 9500075)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea/air gas ratios data was collected in TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1989 during cruises conducted using ships...

  8. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  9. Student's vacation travel: a reference dependent model of airline fares preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigolon, A.B.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the results of student vacation travel choice analysis using a reference dependent model of airline fare preferences. Findings suggests, as expected, that the preferences/utility decreases with increasing levels of cost. The evaluation of the airfare, however, becomes

  10. Evaluation of Composite-Hull Ships Operating in Arctic Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    COMPOSITE- HULL SHIPS OPERATING IN ARCTIC ICE by Ryan M. Tran June 2016 Thesis Advisor: Young W. Kwon Co-Advisor: Jarema M. Didoszak THIS...Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE- HULL SHIPS OPERATING IN ARCTIC ICE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR Ryan M. Tran 7...melting ice caps. Extensive research is thus being conducted to determine the interaction between ice and steel- hulls in anticipation of opening sea

  11. LC-MS-MS aboard ship: tandem mass spectrometry in the search for phycotoxins and novel toxigenic plankton from the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; John, Uwe; Cembella, Allan

    2008-11-01

    Phycotoxins produced by various species of toxigenic microalgae occurring in the plankton are a global threat to the security of seafood resources and the health of humans and coastal marine ecosystems. This has necessitated the development and application of advanced methods in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for monitoring of these compounds, particularly in plankton and shellfish. Most such chemical analyses are conducted in land-based laboratories on stored samples, and thus much information on the near real-time biogeographical distribution and dynamics of phycotoxins in the plankton is unavailable. To resolve this problem, we conducted ship-board analysis of a broad spectrum of phycotoxins collected directly from the water column on an oceanographic cruise along the North Sea coast of Scotland, Norway, and Denmark. We equipped the ship with a triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap hybrid LC-MS-MS system for detection and quantitative analysis of toxins, such as domoic acid, gymnodimine, spirolides, dinophysistoxins, okadaic acid, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, and azaspiracids (AZAs). We focused particular attention on the detection of AZAs, a group of potent nitrogenous polyether toxins, because the culprit species associated with the occurrence of these toxins in shellfish has been controversial. Marine toxins were analyzed directly from size-fractionated plankton net tows (20 microm mesh size) and Niskin bottle samples from discrete depths, after rapid methanolic extraction but without any further clean-up. Almost all expected phycotoxins were detected in North Sea plankton samples, with domoic acid and 20-methylspirolide G being most abundant. Although AZA was the least abundant of these toxins, the high sensitivity of the LC-MS-MS enabled detailed quantification, indicating that the highest amounts of AZA-1 were present in the southern Skagerrak in the 3-20 microm size-fraction. The direct on-board toxin measurements enabled isolation

  12. Monitoring shipping emissions in the German Bight using MAX-DOAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2017-04-01

    Shipping is generally the most energy efficient transportation mode, but, at the same time, it accounts for four fifths of the worldwide total merchandise trade volume. As a result, shipping contributes a significant part to the emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of shipping emissions occurs within 400 km of land, impacting on air pollution in coastal areas and harbor towns. The North Sea has one of the highest ship densities in the world and the vast majority of ships heading for the port of Hamburg sail through the German Bight and into the river Elbe. A three-year time series of ground-based MAX-DOAS measurements of NO2 and SO2 on the island Neuwerk in the German Bight has been analyzed for contributions from shipping emissions. Measurements of individual ship plumes as well as of background pollution are possible from this location, which is 6-7 kilometers away from the main shipping lane towards the harbor of Hamburg. More than 2000 individual ship plumes have been identified in the data and analyzed for the emission ratio of SO2 to NO2, yielding an average ratio of 0.3 for the years 2013/2014. Contributions of ships and land-based sources to air pollution levels in the German Bight have been estimated, showing that despite the vicinity to the shipping lane, the contribution of shipping sources to air pollution is only about 40%. Since January 2015, much lower fuel sulfur content limits of 0.1% (before: 1.0%) apply in the North and Baltic Sea Emission Control Area (ECA). Comparing MAX-DOAS measurements from 2015/2016 (new regulation) to 2013/2014 (old regulation), a large reduction in SO2/NO2 ratios in shipping emissions and a significant reduction (by a factor of eight) in ambient coastal SO2 levels have been observed. In addition to that, selected shipping emission measurements from other measurement sites and campaigns are presented. This study is part of the project MeSMarT (Measurements of Shipping emissions in the Marine Troposphere

  13. Cleaner shipping. Trade off between air pollution, costs and refinery CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wilde, H.P.J.; Kroon, P.

    2008-05-01

    Still subject to final approval in October 2008, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) agreed on a maximum sulphur content of 0.5% for shipping fuels in 2020. This target will induce major changes in the global refinery industry. We have estimated the impact on the Dutch refinery industry, which annually produces about 8 million tons of heavy fuel oil for sea shipping, with refinery residues as main component. It is technically possible to convert all residues, although this process will cause an additional energy use of about one million tons of crude oil and a related CO2 emission of about 4 million tons. The investment costs for these major changes in the Dutch refinery industry are estimated at about 1.5 tot 2 billion euros. The recent IMO agreement enables a gradual introduction of cleaner shipping fuels, which will reduce market disruptions and peak prices. Nevertheless, Rotterdam may not necessarily be able to develop a similar position in import, export and bunkering of future low sulphur fuels, compared to its present strong position in the market of heavy marine bunkers. Extrapolation of our national study to the global scale suggests that the deep conversion of 350 million tons of heavy fuel oil for shipping would require refinery investments in the order of 70-100 billion euros. The associated CO2 emissions would amount up to 175 Mton. The net additional CO2 emission, however, would be smaller since lighter shipping fuels result in less CO2 emissions at sea. On balance, we expect that the improvements in fuel economy, driven by the expensive low-carbon shipping fuels, will decrease CO2 emissions more than the increase in CO2 emissions from additional desulphurization in the refineries. Nevertheless CO2 emissions from sea shipping will continue to increase since marine transport is rapidly growing

  14. Validation of Atmospheric Water Vapor Derived from Ship-Borne GPS Measurements in the Chinese Bohai Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Fan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapor (AWV was investigated for the first time in the Chinese Bohai Sea using a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver aboard a lightweight (300-ton ship. An experiment was conducted to retrieve the AWV using the state-of-the-art GPS precise point positioning (PPP technique. The effects of atmospheric weighted mean temperature model and zenith wet delay constraint on GPS AWV estimates were discussed in the PPP estimation system. The GPS-derived precipitable water vapor (PWV and slant-path water vapor (SWV were assessed by comparing with those derived from the Fifth Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5. The results showed the PWV and SWV differences between those derived from both GPS and MM5 are 1.5 mm root mean square (RMS with a bias of 0.2 and 3.9 mm RMS with a bias of -0.7 mm respectively. These good agreements indicate that the GPS-derived AWV in dynamic environments has a comparable accuracy with that of the MM5 model. This suggests that high accuracy and high spatio-temporal resolution humidity fields can be obtained using GPS in the Chinese Bohai Sea, which offers significant potential for meteorological applications and climate studies in this region.

  15. Ship Detection and Measurement of Ship Motion by Multi-Aperture Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    otherwise they would break. Both transverse and torsional modes are present and are driven by the ship structure, the shape of the sea surface, bow slamming...used, the ship’s loading and the ship’s operation [11], [16]. Very large vessels are the most flexible . The schematic shown in Figure 4 [12] provides...different orientations and thin (with respect to a radar wavelength) rods and cables act as linear diffraction centers. The orientation of the

  16. Modeling and optimization of the single-leg multi-fare class ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a static overbooking model for a single-leg multi-fare class flight. A realistic distribution of no-show data in modeling the cost function was considered using data collected from the Ethiopian airlines. The overbooking model developed considers the interaction (i.e. the transfer of an extra passenger in a ...

  17. Constraints on Eurasian ship NOx emissions using OMI NO2 observations and GEOS-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinken, Geert C. M.; Boersma, Folkert; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Zhang, Lin

    2013-04-01

    Ships emit large quantities of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), important precursors for ozone (O3) and particulate matter formation. Ships burn low-grade marine heavy fuel due to the limited regulations that exist for the maritime sector in international waters. Previous studies showed that global ship NOx emission inventories amount to 3.0-10.4 Tg N per year (15-30% of total NOx emissions), with most emissions close to land and affecting air quality in densely populated coastal regions. Bottom-up inventories depend on the extrapolation of a relatively small number of measurements that are often unable to capture annual emission changes and can suffer from large uncertainties. Satellites provide long-term, high-resolution retrievals that can be used to improve emission estimates. In this study we provide top-down constraints on ship NOx emissions in major European ship routes, using observed NO2 columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and NO2 columns simulated with the nested (0.5°×0.67°) version of the GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. We use a plume-in-grid treatment of ship NOx emissions to account for in-plume chemistry in our model. We ensure consistency between the retrievals and model simulations by using the high-resolution GEOS-Chem NO2 profiles as a priori. We find evidence that ship emissions in the Mediterranean Sea are geographically misplaced by up to 150 km and biased high by a factor of 4 as compared to the most recent (EMEP) ship emission inventory. Better agreement is found over the shipping lane between Spain and the English Channel. We extend our approach and also provide constraints for major ship routes in the Red Sea and Indian Ocean. Using the full benefit of the long-term retrieval record of OMI, we present a new Eurasian ship emission inventory for the years 2005 to 2010, based on the EMEP and AMVER-ICOADS inventories, and top-down constraints from the satellite retrievals. Our work shows that satellite retrievals can

  18. Indonesian Sea Accident Analysis (Case Study From 2003 – 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya Dewanto, Y.; Faturachman, D.

    2018-03-01

    There are so many accidents in sea transportation in Indonesia. Most of the accidents happen because of low concern aspects of the safety and security of the crew. In sailing, a man as transport users to interact with the ship and the surrounding environment (including other ships, cruise lines, ports, and the situation of local conditions). These interactions are sometimes very complex and related to various aspects of. Aware of the multiplicity of aspects related to the third of these factors, seeking the safety of cruise through a reduction in the number of accidents and the risk of death and serious injuries due to accidents and goods transported is certainly not enough attempted through mono-sector approach, but rather takes a multi-sector approach to the efforts. In this paper, we described the Indonesian Sea Transportation accident analysis for eleven years divided into four items: total of ship accident type, ship accident factor, total of casualties, region of ship accidents. All data founded from Marine Court (Mahkamah Pelayaran). From that 4 items we can find Indonesia Sea Accident Analysis from 2003-2013.

  19. Revision of the basic plans of the first nuclear-powered ship development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Along with the law for Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency, the basic plans of development of the first nuclear-powered ship have been revised. After explaining the basic policy concerning the matter, the development program is described as follows: ship type/kind, nuclear power plant, construction, training of ship crew, experimental voyage, compilation of the development results, and works after the experimental voyage. The first nuclear-powered ship of about 8,000 tons gross tonnage, 10,000 horsepower main engine output, and about 16 knots, sea speed will be the ship for special cargo transport and crew training. A pressurized water reactor is used for the power plant. Following the repair of shielding and the overall inspection of safety, the ship is to be completed as early as possible. After completion of the ship, its experimental voyage will be carried out, aiming at the aspects of operational familiarization, ship performance, reliability, port call experience, etc. (Mori, K

  20. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea and others from 1999-01-14 to 1999-12-02 (NODC Accession 0081013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081013 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea, Bay of Bengal,...

  1. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  2. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  3. Marine mammal observations collected by aircraft and ship and submitted as part of the ConocoPhillips and Shell Joint Monitoring Program in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2006-2007 (NODC Accession 0120531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was collected as part of the Joint Monitoring Program during seismic activities in the Chukchi Sea. The 2006 data was collected by ship and aircraft as...

  4. New start of nuclear-powered ship `Mutsu`. 1. Decommissioning works of `Mutsu` and research and development of nuclear-powered ships hereafter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Shoichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    The nuclear-powered ship `Mutsu` was launched in June, 1969, and used Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, as its home port. The initial criticality of the reactor was attained in August, 1974. However, radiation leak occurred, and the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup were carried out in Sasebo since 1980. The ship moved to the new home port Sekinehama in 1988, and after the trial, it received the certificate of inspection from Science and Technology Agency and Ministry of Transport. Thus `Mutsu` was completed as the nuclear-powered ship. The experimental voyage was begun in February, 1991, and finished in January, 1992. The reconstruction works are in progress to change `Mutsu` to a large ocean observation and research ship. The course of the research and development, the reactor power raising test and the sea trial, the experimental voyage and the results attained by `Mutsu` are reported. One of the important items is the training of the crew who operate nuclear-powered ships and nuclear reactors, and about 400 seamen took part in the operation of `Mutsu`. (K.I.).

  5. New start of nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu'. 1. Decommissioning works of 'Mutsu' and research and development of nuclear-powered ships hereafter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shoichiro

    1996-01-01

    The nuclear-powered ship 'Mutsu' was launched in June, 1969, and used Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, as its home port. The initial criticality of the reactor was attained in August, 1974. However, radiation leak occurred, and the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup were carried out in Sasebo since 1980. The ship moved to the new home port Sekinehama in 1988, and after the trial, it received the certificate of inspection from Science and Technology Agency and Ministry of Transport. Thus 'Mutsu' was completed as the nuclear-powered ship. The experimental voyage was begun in February, 1991, and finished in January, 1992. The reconstruction works are in progress to change 'Mutsu' to a large ocean observation and research ship. The course of the research and development, the reactor power raising test and the sea trial, the experimental voyage and the results attained by 'Mutsu' are reported. One of the important items is the training of the crew who operate nuclear-powered ships and nuclear reactors, and about 400 seamen took part in the operation of 'Mutsu'. (K.I.)

  6. BALTIC CONTAINER SHIPPING MARKET GOES GLOBAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Czermański

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at summarizing the last period of the Baltic container shipping mar-ket’s development, especially after 2000. The author, taking especially into account changes that have occurred in 2010, ultimately demonstrate that through the analyzed changes, this market has become a global one - thus being shaped by global determinants influencing its further development. Author selected and analyzed some chosen, most important factors influencing future market development. Secondly, some chances and threats resulting from the described changes were presented, either for the entire market as a base for international trade of Baltic Sea Region countries, and for its actors, mainly shipping owners and operators acting as a supply side of the Baltic container market. Finally, author has tried to verify and questioned the doubts and strong concerns about the future of the Baltic container shipping, especially about the feeder services, as because there are real indications and arguments against these concern.

  7. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir, E-mail: luciano.ondir@gmail.com; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  8. Historic survey on nuclear merchant ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Luciano Ondir; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nuclear merchants ships already built are described and studied. • Their history and main architectural choices are presented, focusing nuclear domain. • The typical problems in those projects are discussed. • Some key factors for developing successful nuclear merchant ships are identified. - Abstract: This work provides a survey on past nuclear merchant ships experience. On light of new regulations on CO 2 , SO x and NO x , the options for clean naval propulsion need to be studied. Despite many efforts, the only already sea proven emissions-free energy is nuclear power of pressurized water reactor type. Given the past experience on the field, this work provides some information on history, architectures and hints of reasons for the success or failures of each project. It is found that adequate requirements identification must be done keeping economics always in the center of design. Experience shows, except after major catastrophic accidents, public trust may be earned by open dialog and sound engineering practices.

  9. Marine toxic substances and pollutants data from sediment corer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other platforms in the Caribbean Sea from 1980-07-16 to 1987-11-29 (NODC Accession 8800013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine toxic substance and pollutants data were collected using sediment corer and other instruments in the Caribbean Sea from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER and other...

  10. Optimization and Simulation of a Maritime Transportation System with Transshipments at Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Magnus Bolstad; Medbøen, Carl Axel Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This Master's thesis presents an operations research study of the Short Sea Pioneer logistics system which is a conceptual maritime logistics system between continental Europe and the Norwegian coastline. The aim is to make short sea shipping more cost efficient and attractive by having transshipments at sea between mother and daughter ships. Few guidelines regarding system designed are determined, and this Master's thesis presents a modeling framework to establish a deeper understanding ...

  11. Trace of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' required the long period of about 30 years from 1963 to 1992. When this period is looked back, it is roughly divided into the period from the initial planning to the construction, the period of the power increase test and the occurrence of radiation leak, the period of the repair of shielding and the general safety checkup as the countermeasures, the period of the checkup and maintenance based on the new research plan, the period of the power increase test and the sea trial, and the period of the experimental voyage after the completion. The course of the development of the nuclear powered ship 'Mutsu' is shown. The design of Mutsu, the incidental land facilities for Mutsu, the power increase test and the experimental voyage of Mutsu, the law system for nuclear powered ships, the research and development of an improved marine nuclear reactor and the development of nuclear powered ships in the world are reported. Nuclear powered warships are operated in USA, USSR, UK, France and China. (K.I.)

  12. Plankton and other data collected from net casts in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN from 1976-04-26 to 1976-05-31 (NCEI Accession 7700419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Plankton and other data were collected using net casts in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea from NOAA Ship MILLER FREEMAN from 26 April 1976 to 31 May 1976. Data...

  13. Intercomparison of passive microwave sea ice concentration retrievals over the high-concentration Arctic sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    andersen, susanne; Tonboe, R.; Kaleschke, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Measurements of sea ice concentration from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) using seven different algorithms are compared to ship observations, sea ice divergence estimates from the Radarsat Geophysical Processor System, and ice and water surface type classification of 59 wide...... with sensor noise between 1.3 and 1.8%. This is in accord with variability estimated from analysis of SSM/I time series. Algorithms, which primarily use 85 GHz information, consistently give the best agreement with both SAR ice concentrations and ship observations. Although the 85 GHz information is more...... sensitive to atmospheric influences, it was found that the atmospheric contribution is secondary to the influence of the surface emissivity variability. Analysis of the entire SSM/I time series shows that there are significant differences in trend between sea ice extent and area, using different algorithms...

  14. Hydrogen sulfide generation in shipboard oily-water waste. Part 3. Ship factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgeman, D.K.; Fletcher, L.E.; Upsher, F.J.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical and microbiological composition of bilge-water in ships of the Royal Australian Navy has been investigated in relation to the formation of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were found in most ships in populations up to 800,000 per mL. Sulfate in the wastes is provided by sea-water. Sea-water constitutes up to 60% (median 20%) of the wastes analysed. Evidence for generation of hydrogen sulfide in the ships was found directly as sulfide or indirectly as depressed sulfate concentrations. The low levels of sulfide found in bilge-water from machinery spaces suggested the ventilation systems were effectively removing the gas from the working area. The effect of storage of the wastes under conditions which simulated the oily- water holding tanks of ships were also investigated. Some wastes were found to produce large quantities of hydrogen sulfide on storage. The wastes that failed to produce hydrogen sulfide were investigated to identify any specific nutritional deficiencies. Some organic substances present in bilge-water, such as lactate or biodegradable cleaning agents, and phosphate strongly influenced the generation of hydrogen sulfide in stored oily-water wastes.

  15. Sea King SHOL Support for Post-HCM/FELEX HALIFAX Class Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    modernisation de mi-durée. Les modifica- tions techniques apportées aux navires pendant le radoub ont entraïné des changements im- portants à la...classe Halifax connaissent une modernisation (MCH) de mi-durée. Les modifications techniques apportées aux navires pendant le radoub ont entraïné des...ship DAQ components were distributed about the ship at the bow, mast, port bridge wing, port breezeway, howdah (a.k.a. LSO compartment), Flyco (a.k.a

  16. The SUMO Ship Detector Algorithm for Satellite Radar Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harm Greidanus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Search for Unidentified Maritime Objects (SUMO is an algorithm for ship detection in satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images. It has been developed over the course of more than 15 years, using a large amount of SAR images from almost all available SAR satellites operating in L-, C- and X-band. As validated by benchmark tests, it performs very well on a wide range of SAR image modes (from Spotlight to ScanSAR and resolutions (from 1–100 m and for all types and sizes of ships, within the physical limits imposed by the radar imaging. This paper describes, in detail, the algorithmic approach in all of the steps of the ship detection: land masking, clutter estimation, detection thresholding, target clustering, ship attribute estimation and false alarm suppression. SUMO is a pixel-based CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate detector for multi-look radar images. It assumes a K distribution for the sea clutter, corrected however for deviations of the actual sea clutter from this distribution, implementing a fast and robust method for the clutter background estimation. The clustering of detected pixels into targets (ships uses several thresholds to deal with the typically irregular distribution of the radar backscatter over a ship. In a multi-polarization image, the different channels are fused. Azimuth ambiguities, a common source of false alarms in ship detection, are removed. A reliability indicator is computed for each target. In post-processing, using the results of a series of images, additional false alarms from recurrent (fixed targets including range ambiguities are also removed. SUMO can run in semi-automatic mode, where an operator can verify each detected target. It can also run in fully automatic mode, where batches of over 10,000 images have successfully been processed in less than two hours. The number of satellite SAR systems keeps increasing, as does their application to maritime surveillance. The open data policy of the EU

  17. Size matters: Exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Conor; Bows, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ship emission baselines can be used to inform studies but require prior knowledge. ► Region specific conditions alter average shipping emission factors. ► Region specific conditions are clearer when individual callings are examined. ► Relationship between ship size and emissions frustrates estimating mean emissions. -- Abstract: The decarbonisation agenda is placing increasing pressure on retailers to directly and indirectly influence greenhouse gas emissions associated with full supply chains. Transportation by sea is an important and significant element of these supply chains, yet the emissions associated with shipping, particularly international shipping, are often poorly accounted for. The magnitude of emissions embodied in a product is directly related to the distances involved in globalised product chains, where shipping can represent the most emission intensive stage per tonne of goods transported. Specifically, limited choice of ship type and size within assessment tools negates a fair estimate of product chain emissions. To address this, the correlation between ship emissions and size is quantified for a sample of United Kingdom (UK) port callings to estimate typical UK emission factors by ship type and size and to determine how well existing global data and available databases represent UK shipping activity. The results highlight that although ship type is a crucial determinant of emissions, vessel size is also important, particularly for smaller ships where the variance in emission factors is greatest. Existing, globally averaged data correlating ship size with emissions agree well with the UK data. However, the relatively higher proportion of smaller ships satisfying a UK demand for short sea shipping results in a skew towards higher typical emission factors, principally within the general cargo, product and chemical tanker categories. This bias is most visible when emissions per individual ship calling are estimated. Incorporating

  18. Investigation of hydroelastic ship responses of an ULOC in head seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-liang; Temarel, Pandeli; Hu, Jia-jun; Gu, Xue-kang

    2016-10-01

    Investigation of hydroelastic ship responses has been brought to the attention of the scientific and engineering world for several decades. There are two kinds of high-frequency vibrations in general ship responses to a large ocean-going ship in its shipping line, so-called springing and whipping, which are important for the determination of design wave load and fatigue damage as well. Because of the huge scale of an ultra large ore carrier (ULOC), it will suffer seldom slamming events in the ocean. The resonance vibration with high frequency is springing, which is caused by continuous wave excitation. In this paper, the wave-induced vibrations of the ULOC are addressed by experimental and numerical methods according to 2D and 3D hydroelasticity theories and an elastic model under full-load and ballast conditions. The influence of loading conditions on high-frequency vibration is studied both by numerical and experimental results. Wave-induced vibrations are higher under ballast condition including the wave frequency part, the multiple frequencies part, the 2-node and the 3-node vertical bending parts of the hydroelastic responses. The predicted results from the 2D method have less accuracy than the 3D method especially under ballast condition because of the slender-body assumption in the former method. The applicability of the 2D method and the further development of nonlinear effects to 3D method in the prediction of hydroelastic responses of the ULOC are discussed.

  19. The Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rules 1978 (Statutory Instrument 1543, 25 October 1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These Rules supersede the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) Rule of 1965 as amended by the Merchant Shipping (Dangerous Goods) (Amendment) Rules of 1968 and 1972. The Rules now define 'dangerous goods' by reference to goods classified as dangerous for carriage by sea as well as any other goods whose properties might be dangerous it they were carried by sea. This classification is based on that of the 1978 Report of the Standing Advisory Committee on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods of the Department of Trade, and the 1977 Edition of the International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code published by the Intergovernmental Maritime consultative Organisation. (NEA) [fr

  20. 41 CFR 301-53.5 - Are there exceptions to the mandatory use of contract city-pair fares and an agency's travel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the mandatory use of contract city-pair fares and an agency's travel management service? 301-53.5 Section 301-53.5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY... the mandatory use of contract city-pair fares and an agency's travel management service? Yes, the...

  1. Local region power spectrum-based unfocused ship detection method in synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Chong, Jinsong

    2018-01-01

    Ships on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images will be severely defocused and their energy will disperse into numerous resolution cells under long SAR integration time. Therefore, the image intensity of ships is weak and sometimes even overwhelmed by sea clutter on SAR image. Consequently, it is hard to detect the ships from SAR intensity images. A ship detection method based on local region power spectrum of SAR complex image is proposed. Although the energies of the ships are dispersed on SAR intensity images, their spectral energies are rather concentrated or will cause the power spectra of local areas of SAR images to deviate from that of sea surface background. Therefore, the key idea of the proposed method is to detect ships via the power spectra distortion of local areas of SAR images. The local region power spectrum of a moving target on SAR image is analyzed and the way to obtain the detection threshold through the probability density function (pdf) of the power spectrum is illustrated. Numerical P- and L-band airborne SAR ocean data are utilized and the detection results are also illustrated. Results show that the proposed method can well detect the unfocused ships, with a detection rate of 93.6% and a false-alarm rate of 8.6%. Moreover, by comparing with some other algorithms, it indicates that the proposed method performs better under long SAR integration time. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method and the way of parameters selection are also discussed.

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Arabian Sea, Arafura Sea and others from 1995-02-13 to 1996-01-29 (NCEI Accession 0157103)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157103 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Arabian Sea,...

  3. DEPTH - OBSERVATION and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS (NODC Accession 9700185)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — STD and other data were collected from the Mediterranean Sea and other locations from multiple ships. Data include profiles of temperature, salinity, and oxygen...

  4. Analysis for the amplitude oscillatory movements of the ship in response to the incidence wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiţu, M. G.; Zăgan, R.; Manea, E.

    2015-11-01

    Event of major accident navigation near offshore drilling rigs remains unacceptably high, known as the complications arising from the problematic of the general motions of the ship sailing under real sea. Dynamic positioning system is an effective instrument used on board of the ships operating in the extraction of oil and gas in the continental shelf of the seas and oceans, being essential that the personnel on board of the vessel can maintain position and operating point or imposed on a route with high precision. By the adoption of a strict safety in terms of handling and positioning of the vessel in the vicinity of the drilling platform, the risk of accidents can be reduced to a minimum. Possibilities in anticipation amplitudes of the oscillatory movements of the ships navigating in real sea, is a challenge for naval architects and OCTOPUS software is a tool used increasingly more in this respect, complementing navigational facilities offered by dynamic positioning systems. This paper presents a study on the amplitudes of the oscillations categories of supply vessels in severe hydro meteorological conditions of navigation. The study provides information on the RAO (Response Amplitude Operator) response operator of the ship, for the amplitude of the roll movements, in some incident wave systems, interpreted using the energy spectrum Jonswap and whose characteristics are known (significant height of the wave, wave period, pulsation of the wave). Ship responses are analyzed according to different positioning of the ship in relation to the wave front (incident angle ranging from 10 to 10 degree from 0 to 180), highlighting the value of the ship roll motion amplitude. For the study, was used, as a tool for modeling and simulation, the features offered by OCTOPUS software that allows the study of the computerized behavior of the ship on the waves, in the real conditions of navigation. Program library was used for both the vessel itself and navigation modeling

  5. Adaptation to carbon dioxide tax in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    This note discusses the consequences for the sea transport sector between Norway and continental Europe of levying a carbon dioxide tax on international bunker. The influence of such a tax on the operational costs of various types of ship and various transport routes is calculated. The profit obtainable from the following ways of adapting to an increased tax level is assessed: (1) Reducing the speed, (2) Rebuilding the engine to decrease fuel consumption, (3) Changing the design speed for new ships. It is found that a carbon dioxide tax of NOK 200 per tonne of CO 2 will increase the transport costs by 3 - 15 percent. In the long run much of this may be transferred to the freight rates since so much of the sea transport are in segments in which the demand for the service is not sensitive to the prices. Even if the freight rates are not changed, a tax this size will not make it necessary to reduce the speed of the existing fleet. The income lost by taking fewer trips will exceed the costs saved in reducing the speed. However, the optimum design speed for new ships may be somewhat reduced (0.5 knots). Rebuilding engines to reduce the fuel consumption would pay off were it not for the fact that the remaining life of the present fleet is probably too short for this to be interesting

  6. A Study on the Propulsion Performance in the Actual Sea by means of Full-scale Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kayano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The IMO has adopted Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI, Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP and Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator (EEOI in order to reduce GHG emissions from international shipping. And, the shipping industry is required to develop and improve the energy saving ship operation technologies to meet the above IMO guideline. The weather routing is one of the energy saving navigation technologies and widely adopted by oceangoing merchant ships. The effectiveness of the weather routing mainly depends on the accuracy of weather forecast data and the ship’s propulsion performance prediction. The propulsion performance in the actual sea is usually predicted using the Self Propulsion Factors obtained by model tests. It is necessary to understand the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea conditions for the improvement of propulsion performance prediction. From the above points of view, the authors performed full-scale experiments using a training ship in order to investigate the propulsion performance characteristics in the actual sea. This paper describes the analysis results on the characteristics of Power Curves and Self Propulsion Factors under various weather and sea conditions.

  7. National Differences in Reporting of Work Accidents at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Sisse; Knudsen, Fabienne

    National Differences in Reporting of Work Accidents at Sea Grøn, S and Knudsen, F Centre for Maritime Health and Safety, University of Southern Denmark Filipinos working on Danish ships experience less work accidents than their Danish colleagues if we are to believe the various statistics available...... notification practices, and whether there are special conditions applicable to seafarers of other nationality than Danish. It will also explore the multicultural element of safety culture in selected Danish ships. There are different ways and channels for notification of an accident at sea, which means....... There are indications suggesting that this is due to differences in reporting and safety culture alike. In a new project, Safety Culture and Reporting Practice on Danish ships in the Danish International Ship Register (SADIS), we will therefore seek answers to what factors act as incentives or barriers for proper...

  8. Employing Land-Based Anti-Ship Missiles in the Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    an extreme sea- skim flight mode) and more lethal (such as a high penetration capability, advanced guidance systems, and easier mission planning...longer-range ASMs on the world market could effectively cover more than 1,200 km of the Strait of Malacca and the sea approaches around it. Finally, the...should be straightforward.11 With respect to procurement, the global market for anti-ship cruise missiles is wide- reaching and complex. With

  9. Radionuclides in the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1971-07-01

    Water covers a little more than two-thirds of the earth's surface. What is thrown into the sea from a ship may be washed up on a shore thousands of miles away; wastes discharged into the seas or into rivers flowing into them can affect marine life and possibly also the health of man. The study, prevention and control of pollution of the seas and oceans by radionuclides introduced as by-products of man's use of nuclear energy is thus of global interest. (author)

  10. The importance of ship log data: reconstructing North Atlantic, European and Mediterranean sea level pressure fields back to 1750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuettel, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Xoplaki, E. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); EEWRC, The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus); Gallego, D. [Universidad Pablo de Olavide de Sevilla, Departamento de Sistemas Fisicos, Quimicos y Naturales, Sevilla (Spain); Luterbacher, J. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), and Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Garcia-Herrera, R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica de la Tierra II, Facultad de CC Fisicas, Madrid (Spain); Allan, R. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); Barriendos, M. [University of Barcelona, Department of Modern History, Barcelona (Spain); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Wheeler, D. [University of Sunderland, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Sunderland (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Local to regional climate anomalies are to a large extent determined by the state of the atmospheric circulation. The knowledge of large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) variations in former times is therefore crucial when addressing past climate changes across Europe and the Mediterranean. However, currently available SLP reconstructions lack data from the ocean, particularly in the pre-1850 period. Here we present a new statistically-derived 5 x 5 resolved gridded seasonal SLP dataset covering the eastern North Atlantic, Europe and the Mediterranean area (40 W-50 E; 20 N-70 N) back to 1750 using terrestrial instrumental pressure series and marine wind information from ship logbooks. For the period 1750-1850, the new SLP reconstruction provides a more accurate representation of the strength of the winter westerlies as well as the location and variability of the Azores High than currently available multiproxy pressure field reconstructions. These findings strongly support the potential of ship logbooks as an important source to determine past circulation variations especially for the pre-1850 period. This new dataset can be further used for dynamical studies relating large-scale atmospheric circulation to temperature and precipitation variability over the Mediterranean and Eurasia, for the comparison with outputs from GCMs as well as for detection and attribution studies. (orig.)

  11. 75 FR 38073 - Information Collection; Commodity Request (Food Aid Request Entry System (FARES))

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development (USAID), private voluntary organizations (PVOs), the World Food Program (WFP), the Foreign... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Farm Service Agency Information Collection... Chain Management system (WBSCM) is a new procurement system in development to replace FARES at a later...

  12. Temperature profile and chemical data collected using BT and XBT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 1987-04-07 to 1987-09-30 (NODC Accession 8700382)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using XBT and BT casts from NOAA Ship RESEARCHER in the North/South Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea from 07...

  13. Study of Radiation Shielding Analysis for Low-Intermediate Level Waste Transport Ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyung; Lee, Unjang; Song, Yangsoo; Kim, Sukhoon; Ko, Jaehoon [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In Korea, it is planed to transport Low-Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILW) from each nuclear power plant site to Kyongju LILW repository after 2009. Transport through the sea using ship is one of the most prospective ways of LILW transport for current situation in Korea. There are domestic and international regulations for radiation dose limit for radioactive material transport. In this article, radiation shielding analysis for LILW transport ship is performed using 3-D computer simulation code, MCNP. As a result, the thickness and materials for radiation shielding walls next to cargo in the LILW transport ship are determined.

  14. Wastes disposal on board a ship. Disposal of sewage and waste water; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. Osui oyobi haisui no shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-25

    This paper describes technologies and devices suitable for disposing of sewage and waste water produced in a ship. Methods for disposing of sewage in a ship include such physico-chemical disposition methods as disinfection and sterilization, and such biological disposition methods as activated sludge sewage disposition and catalytic oxidation (biological membrane treatment). Sewage treatment devices include a storage tank type sewage treatment device often used in inner sea liners such as ferry boats, and a biological treatment device (aeration device) used as a mainstream in merchant ships, large passenger liners, and governmental ships. With the storage tank type sewage treatment device, sewage is stored in a storage tank provisionally while a ship is cruising in a discharge prohibited sea area, and discharged in a sea area allowing the discharge or when the ship enters a port. The method is simple, but limited in storage volume. An activated sludge sewage treatment device consists of a tank divided into an aeration chamber, a sedimentation chamber and a disinfection chamber, an air compressor, a chlorine dissolving apparatus, and a screen. Sewage is digested and decomposed by activated sludge, and the top clear water is disinfected by chlorine, and then discharged. 1 tab.

  15. Analysis of Polluted Oily Water Management in Klaipėda Sea Port Klaipėda sea port contaminated oily water management analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Goda Zobėlaitė; Jolanta Dvarionienė; Gediminas Stonkus

    2010-01-01

    Lithuania is one of the countries that have ratified the Marpol 73/78 Convention which foresees the tools of reduction and prevention of sea pollution with bilge water and other substances. The Directive of the European Parliament and Council 2000/59/EB is addressed to the reduction of waste on board of ships and its wash overboard..
    Analysis of the ships entering Klaipėda Sea Port has estimated that oil waste comprises about 74 % of the whole collected waste amount. The analysis o...

  16. Temporal variatiions of Sea ice cover in the Baltic Sea derived from operational sea ice products used in NWP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Martin; Paul, Gerhard; Potthast, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Sea ice cover is a crucial parameter for surface fluxes of heat and moisture over water areas. The isolating effect and the much higher albedo strongly reduces the turbulent exchange of heat and moisture from the surface to the atmosphere and allows for cold and dry air mass flow with strong impact on the stability of the whole boundary layer and consequently cloud formation as well as precipitation in the downstream regions. Numerical weather centers as, ECMWF, MetoFrance or DWD use external products to initialize SST and sea ice cover in their NWP models. To the knowledge of the author there are mainly two global sea ice products well established with operational availability, one from NOAA NCEP that combines measurements with satellite data, and the other from OSI-SAF derived from SSMI/S sensors. The latter one is used in the Ostia product. DWD additionally uses a regional product for the Baltic Sea provided by the national center for shipping and hydrografie which combines observations from ships (and icebreakers) for the German part of the Baltic Sea and model analysis from the hydrodynamic HIROMB model of the Swedish meteorological service for the rest of the domain. The temporal evolution of the three different products are compared for a cold period in Februar 2012. Goods and bads will be presented and suggestions for a harmonization of strong day to day jumps over large areas are suggested.

  17. The Red Sea: An Arena for Wind-Wave Modeling in Enclosed Seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-01-01

    weather and climate is crucial for a wide range of applications, including oceanographic studies, maritime activities and ocean engineering. Despite being one of the important world shipping routes, the wind-wave characteristics in the Red Sea are yet

  18. Effect of fare and travel time on the demand for domestic air transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, S. E.; Liu, E. W.

    1979-01-01

    An econometric travel demand model was presented. The model was used for analyzing long haul domestic passenger markets in the United States. The results showed the sensitivities of demand to changes in fares and speed reflecting technology through more efficient aircraft designs.

  19. Sewage Treatment Systems of Cruise Ships and The Parameters Affect on Dilution of Effluent at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan ŞAHİN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cruise ships play an inevitable role in tourism sector across the world. Increasing in cruise ship tourism accompanies with significant environmental problems. Due to both size of cruise ships and the amount of passengers and consumables, cruise ships have a great potential for producing considerable amounts of wastes. Various types of wastes are produced in cruise ships depending on the daily consumptions of these wastes. Sewage, which consists mainly the toilet wastes, is the most important problem. Sewage contains various types of heavy metal, chemicals and pathogens that have harmful effects on marine species and ecosystem. Many national and international regulations and conventions are established in order to prevent the harmful effects of wastes. Studies on preventing and minimizing ship-related pollution contribute to both developing new waste management systems and forming new procedures for removing the wastes in both ship and port. In this study, Marine Sanitation Device (MSD and Advanced Wastewater Treatment (AWT and treatment procedures are investigated. ‘Dilution factor’ obtained by theoretical and experimental studies is explained in detail and variation of dilution factor depending on ship dimensions and velocity is investigated.

  20. Reliability-based assessment of deteriorating ship structures operating in multiple sea loading climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moan, Torgeir [Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: tormo@marin.ntnu.no; Ayala-Uraga, Efren [Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-03-15

    A reliability-based model for assessment of deteriorating ships subjected to multiple environmental conditions is established. Deterioration due to combined crack growth and corrosion in structural components of a ship hull is accounted for based on a fracture mechanics formulation. The model enables to take into account the corrosion-induced increased crack growth rate in two ways: (1) the increased stress range produced by the plate thinning (wastage) effect and (2) corrosion fatigue itself. Sensitivity studies are carried out to evaluate the effect of inspection updating on a production ship subjected to two different climate conditions. The hazard rate concept is adopted as a measure of reliability and emphasized throughout the different case studies.

  1. Impact of shipping emissions on ozone levels over Europe: assessing the relative importance of the Standard Nomenclature for Air Pollution (SNAP) categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Stergiou, Ioannis; Sotiropoulou, Rafaella-Eleni P

    2017-06-01

    The impact of shipping emissions on ozone mixing ratio over Europe is assessed for July 2006 using the Community Multiscale Air Quality modeling system and the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research anthropogenic emission inventory. Results suggest that ship-induced ozone contribution to the total surface ozone exceeds 5% over the sea and near the coastline, while an increase up to 5% is simulated over a large portion of the European land. The largest impact (i.e., an increase up to 30%) is simulated over the Mediterranean Sea. In addition, shipping emissions are simulated to increase NO 2 mixing ratio more than 90%, locally, and to modify the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere through hydroxyl radical formation (increase by 20-60% over the sea along the European coasts and near the coastal zone). Therefore, emissions from ships may counteract the benefits derived from the anthropogenic emissions reduction strategies over the continent. Simulations suggest regions where shipping emissions have a major impact on ozone mixing ratio compared to individual anthropogenic emission sector categories. Shipping emissions are estimated to play an important role on ozone levels compared to road transport sector near the coastal zone. The impact of shipping emissions on ozone formation is also profound over a great part of the European land compared to the rest of anthropogenic emission categories.

  2. Europe's Southeastern Gateway: Responding to Rapidly Changing Patterns of World Shipping. The University's Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available World trade and transportation are changing dramatically. Energy prices and transport sustainability concerns are reinvigorating ocean freighter shipping. An ever-increasing portion of trade is in containers, and container ships are getting larger quickly. Many ports, nations and continents are not keeping up with ship size increases putting them at a trade disadvantage. Major canals and seaways must also upgrade or be rendered obsolete, causing a change in the pattern of world trade. Ports have to do more than expand vessel size limits. Port regions must also invest in infrastructure that improves multi-modal access to the port and augments hand-off of containers to smaller seaway ships, trains and trucks. With heightened security and evolving emphasis on flexible and efficient logistics, ports must become high-tech logistics hubs with improved real-time data about port throughput. Constanţa, Romania provides an example of an attempt to respond to this rapid change. Near the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea, Constanţa offers a potential southeastern gateway to Europe for the Black Sea, the Eastern Mediterranean and beyond. Ships from Asia, entering via the Suez Canal can easily access Constanţa, and thus save more than ten days of shipping time for destinations in southeastern Europe compared to shipping through Rotterdam or Hamburg. But Constanţa needs to make all the improvements mentioned above. Universities have several roles in this endeavor, including identifying and forecasting trends, providing the technical knowledge to develop high-tech logistics hubs, pursing publicprivate partnerships for infrastructure development and offering training.

  3. Low-resolution ship detection from high-altitude aerial images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shengxiang; Wu, Jianmin; Zhou, Qing; Kang, Minyang

    2018-02-01

    Ship detection from optical images taken by high-altitude aircrafts such as unmanned long-endurance airships and unmanned aerial vehicles has broad applications in marine fishery management, ship monitoring and vessel salvage. However, the major challenge is the limited capability of information processing on unmanned high-altitude platforms. Furthermore, in order to guarantee the wide detection range, unmanned aircrafts generally cruise at high altitudes, resulting in imagery with low-resolution targets and strong clutters suffered by heavy clouds. In this paper, we propose a low-resolution ship detection method to extract ships from these high-altitude optical images. Inspired by a recent research on visual saliency detection indicating that small salient signals could be well detected by a gradient enhancement operation combined with Gaussian smoothing, we propose the facet kernel filtering to rapidly suppress cluttered backgrounds and delineate candidate target regions from the sea surface. Then, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to compute the orientation of the target axis, followed by a simplified histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) descriptor to characterize the ship shape property. Finally, support vector machine (SVM) is applied to discriminate real targets and false alarms. Experimental results show that the proposed method actually has high efficiency in low-resolution ship detection.

  4. Analysis of ship maneuvering data from simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frette, V.; Kleppe, G.; Christensen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze complex manuevering histories of ships obtained from training sessions on bridge simulators. Advanced ships are used in fields like offshore oil exploration: dive support vessels, supply vessels, anchor handling vessels, tugs, cable layers, and multi-purpose vessels. Due to high demands from the operations carried out, these ships need to have very high maneuverability. This is achieved through a propulsion system with several thrusters, water jets, and rudders in addition to standard propellers. For some operations, like subsea maintenance, it is crucial that the ship accurately keeps a fixed position. Therefore, bridge systems usually incorporate equipment for Dynamic Positioning (DP). DP is a method to keep ships and semi submersible rigs in a fixed position using the propulsion systems instead of anchors. It may also be used for sailing a vessel from one position to another along a predefined route. Like an autopilot on an airplane, DP may operate without human involvement. The method relies on accurate determination of position from external reference systems like GPS, as well as a continuously adjusted mathematical model of the ship and external forces from wind, waves and currents. In a specific simulator exercise for offshore crews, a ship is to be taken up to an installation consisting of three nearby oil platforms connected by bridges (Frigg field, North Sea), where a subsea inspection is to be carried out. Due to the many degrees of freedom during maneuvering, including partly or full use of DP, the chosen routes vary significantly. In this poster we report preliminary results on representations of the complex maneuvering histories; representations that allow comparison between crew groups, and, possibly, sorting of the different strategic choices behind.

  5. Ship Anti Ballistic Missile Response (SABR)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Allen P.; Breeden, Bryan; Duff, Willard Earl; Fishcer, Paul F.; Hornback, Nathan; Leiker, David C.; Carlisle, Parker; Diersing, Michael; Devlin, Ryan; Glenn, Christopher; Hoffmeister, Chris; Chong, Tay Boon; Sing, Phang Nyit; Meng, Low Wee; Meng, Fann Chee

    2006-01-01

    Includes supplementary material. Based on public law and Presidential mandate, ballistic missile defense development is a front-burner issue for homeland defense and the defense of U.S. and coalition forces abroad. Spearheaded by the Missile Defense Agency, an integrated ballistic missile defense system was initiated to create a layered defense composed of land-, air-, sea-, and space-based assets. The Ship Anti-Ballistic Response (SABR) Project is a systems engineering approach t...

  6. A Study on Parametric Wave Estimation Based on Measured Ship Motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Iseki, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics of the param......The paper studies parametric wave estimation based on the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and data and results obtained from the training ship Shioji-maru are compared with estimates of the sea states obtained from other measurements and observations. Furthermore, the estimating characteristics...... of the parametric model are discussed by considering the results of a similar estimation concept based on Bayesian modelling. The purpose of the latter comparison is not to favour the one estimation approach to the other but rather to highlight some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two approaches....

  7. Green Shipping Practices of Shipping Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Tae Chang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to provide an empirical research using structural equation modeling to identify the factors that motivate shipping firms to adopt green shipping practices (GSP. Furthermore, it also examines if adopting GSP can enhance the shipping firms’ environmental and productivity performance. The findings show that shipping firms are motivated to adopt GSP mostly by industrial norms set by institutionalized associations. They are also motivated by customers’ demand for environmental friendliness and their own strategy to make good image. Unlike our expectation, government regulations and international environmental laws are not significant in influencing shipping firms to adopt GSP. Moreover, adoption of green shipping practices can improve the environmental and productivity performance of the shipping firms.

  8. Maritime Pre-Positioning Force-Future: Bill Payer or Sea Basing Enabler?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotewold, William R

    2008-01-01

    .... The Maritime Prepositioning Force-Future (MPF-F) program, envisioned as a key enabler of sea basing, may be funded through further cuts in amphibious ships or fall victim to an untenable Navy ship building plan...

  9. A step towards risk-based decision support for ships - Evaluation of limit states using parallel system analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Friis-Hansen, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    Onboard decision support systems (DSS) are used to increase the operational safety of ships. Ideally, DSS can estimate future ship responses within a time scale of the order of 1–3 h taking into account speed and course changes, assuming stationary sea states. In principle, the calculations depen...

  10. Modelling the atmospheric transport of trace metals from Europe to the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G; Weber, H; Grassl, H [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht G.m.b.H., Geesthacht-Tesperhude (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Physik

    1989-01-01

    Within the framework of a research contract with the German Federal Environmental Agency the long range transport of trace metals over Europe and the deposition of trace metals into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea are estimated using the EMEP- (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) trajectory model. The methodology for the model calculations is explained. Preliminary results for the total deposition of lead into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea show, that the calculated values are lower than previous estimates based on extrapolations from measurements at coastal sites and ship measurements in the southern Baltic Sea, respectively. (orig.).

  11. Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui

    1997-01-01

    free surface flow. The general interface boundary condition is used in the mathematical formulation of the fluid motion around the flexible structure. The general time-domain theory is simplified to a slender-body theory for the analysis of wave-induced global responses of monohull ships. The structure...... is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...

  12. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  13. The Bad Old Days: How Higher Education Fared during the Great Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    It is hard to predict exactly how academe should respond to the most serious economic crisis since the 1930s. In this article, the author suggests the possibility of assessing some possible options by looking at how higher education fared during the Great Depression. After all, despite its enormous growth since World War II, academe's…

  14. Satellite Eye for the Galathea 3 ship expedition: Global tour 2006-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Sørensen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Satellite Eye for Galathea 3 (www.satellitecye.dk contains education at the internet for secondary and upper secondary schools and the public. The Galathea 3 ship expedition circumnavigated the globe starting from Denmark 11 August 2006, visiting Greenland, Azores, South Africa, Australia, Solomon...... of the expedition and these classes in particular used the Satellite Eye teaching material. In Google Earth satellite images of many themes are shown. These include sea ice, sea surface temperature, ocean wind, wave height, sea surface level, ozone, clouds and radar images of ocean and land. Also high spatial...

  15. Study and project of a radiation monitoring system in ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado, Mario Monteiro

    1998-01-01

    In this work we present the project and the development of a radiation detection system for use in ships, called RADINAC. This system was developed to measure the radiation in several points of the ship and to give the dose rates and total dose. The radioactive activity of the sea water is also measured. The project was based on a system developed in the middle of the seventies which is not working due to the lack of some mechanical and electronic components. The RADINAC system was developed in order to nationalize and modernize the old project. The detectors used are plastic scintillator to measure the sea water radioactive activity and ionization chambers to measure the dose rates. The nuclear instrumentation has only three imported items: acquisition data board, picoamperimeter and photomultiplier tube. All the other items are made in Brazil. With regard to the data acquisition, we used the Labwindows software to create the 'virtual instruments' in order to display the data on the computer monitor. (author)

  16. Kiel Canal: Past and future threats for shipping resulting from precipitation, wind surge and sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Anette; Hüttl-Kabus, Sabine; Möller, Jens; Schade, Nils; Heinrich, Hartmut; Tinz, Birger

    2017-04-01

    The Kiel Canal is the most frequented artificial waterway in the world. It connects the North Sea and the Hamburg Harbor with the Baltic Sea and has a length of about 100 km. The Canal receives its water from the upper catchment of the river Eider. Discharge from the Canal towards the North Sea is via the sluices at Brunsbüttel (90%) into river Elbe and into the Baltic Sea via the sluices at Kiel-Holtenau. A risk of closure of the Canal occurs when high precipitation in the catchment meets high water levels in the river Elbe and/or the Baltic preventing the discharge of excess Canal water. Future sea level rise jointly with other effects such as possibly increasing wind surge and precipitation will close the gap between the inner and outer water levels, so that someday the outside levels will surmount the inner one. The German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI) tasked its internal Network of Experts to run a case study on the evolution of critical water levels in order to estimate risks and vulnerabilities for adaptation measures. First step of the investigation is a search for factors or combination of factors responsible for closures in the past. Candidates are factors such as higher water levels at low tides, high precipitation events on land, soil moisture and human factors like preventive water management measures. Second step will be the search for the natural criteria in climate projections. Here we report on the results of the first step of the case study with a focus on the exit towards the North Sea. There, discharge is possible only during low tide. Presently still sufficient difference in height exists between the levels in the Canal and the river Elbe allowing for a free flow of excess Canal water. Shipping is ceased when levels in the Canal surpass safety limits due to high precipitation events in the catchment jointly with high outer water levels. We used atmospheric data from ERA-Interim reanalysis instead of gauge data

  17. Maritime supply chain security: navigating through a sea of compliance requirements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maspero, EL

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available MTSA Maritime Transportation Security Act RFID Radio Frequency Identification SAFE Security and Accountability For Every port SOLAS Safety Of Life At Sea SST Smart and Secure Tradelane UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development... for increased security within maritime shipping and so the SOLAS (the Safety of Lives at Sea) Convention Chapter 11 was amended to provide for the inclusion of the International Ships and Port Facilities Security Code (ISPS Code), which was internationally...

  18. Present state of Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Yoshio

    1981-01-01

    The Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency held the annual report meeting on April 8, 1981. The main contents were the plan of research and development of nuclear ships hereafter, the present state of the repair works for the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'', the progress of the selection of the new home port and others. In the last year, the function of research was given to the Agency by the revision of the related law. The full-scale repair works for Mutsu were started in August, 1980, and various equipments and shields in the containment vessel and the upper shields of the containment vessel have been removed. Subsequently, new shields are being installed. According to the report by the committee of nuclear ship research and development, the development of Mutsu, which is valuable as the experimental ship, is continued. Moreover, it is proposed to do the research and development of an improved marine nuclear plant for the purposes of securing the economic efficiency, the proving of the reliability of nuclear merchant ships, and the establishment of safety. As the home port for Mutsu, the new port will be constructed on the open sea side in Aomori Prefecture, and as a candidate, Sekine beach in Mutsu City was named. Till the completion of the new home port, Mutsu will be berthed in Ominato home port. The conditions for entering and berthing in Ominato port will be decided later. (Kako, I.)

  19. Detecting terrorist nuclear weapons at sea: The 10th door problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaughter, D R

    2008-09-15

    While screening commercial cargo containers for the possible presence of WMD is important and necessary smugglers have successfully exploited the many other vehicles transporting cargo into the US including medium and small vessels at sea. These vessels provide a venue that is currently not screened and widely used. Physics limits that make screening of large vessels prohibitive impractical do not prohibit effective screening of the smaller vessels. While passive radiation detection is probably ineffective at sea active interrogation may provide a successful approach. The physics limits of active interrogation of ships at sea from standoff platforms are discussed. Autonomous platforms that could carry interrogation systems at sea, both airborne and submersible, are summarized and their utilization discussed. An R&D program to investigate the limits of this approach to screening ships at sea is indicated and limitations estimated.

  20. Melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data - Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Heygster, G.; Huntemann, M.; Schwarz, P.; Birnbaum, G.; Scharien, R.; Polashenski, C.; Perovich, D.; Zege, E.; Malinka, A.; Prikhach, A.; Katsev, I.

    2015-08-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences for the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo from Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, shipborne and in situ campaign data. The results show the best correlation for landfast and multiyear ice of high ice concentrations. For broadband albedo, R2 is equal to 0.85, with the RMS (root mean square) being equal to 0.068; for the melt pond fraction, R2 is equal to 0.36, with the RMS being equal to 0.065. The correlation for lower ice concentrations, subpixel ice floes, blue ice and wet ice is lower due to ice drift and challenging for the retrieval surface conditions. Combining all aerial observations gives a mean albedo RMS of 0.089 and a mean melt pond fraction RMS of 0.22. The in situ melt pond fraction correlation is R2 = 0.52 with an RMS = 0.14. Ship cruise data might be affected by documentation of varying accuracy within the Antarctic Sea Ice Processes and Climate (ASPeCt) protocol, which may contribute to the discrepancy between the satellite value and the observed value: mean R2 = 0.044, mean RMS = 0.16. An additional dynamic spatial cloud filter for MERIS over snow and ice has been developed to assist with the validation on swath data.

  1. Performance of Ships and Offshore Structures in Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Liu

    2012-01-01

    for predicting large amplitude motions of ships and floating structures in response to incoming waves in the frame of potential theory. The developed alternative set of time domain methods simulate the hydrodynamic forces acting on ships advancing in waves with constant speed. For motions’ simulation, the diffraction forces and radiation forces are calculated up to the mean wetted surface, while the Froude-Krylov forces and hydrostatic restoring forces are calculated up to the undisturbed incident wave surface in case of large incident wave amplitude. This enables the study of the above waterline hull form effect. Characteristic case studies on simulating the hydrodynamic forces and motions of standard type of ships have been conducted for validation purpose. Good agreement with other numerical codes and experimental data has been observed. Furthermore, the added resistance of ships in waves can be calculated by the presented methods. This capability supports the increased demand of this type of tools for the proper selection of engine/propulsion systems accounting for ship’s performance in realistic sea conditions, or when optimizing ship’s sailing route for minimum fuel consumption and toxic gas emissions.

  2. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Saraçoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for , 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings.

  3. An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emissions in Izmir Port, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraçoğlu, Halil; Kılıç, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Maritime transportation is a major source of climate change and air pollution. Shipping emissions cause severe impacts on health and environment. These effects of emissions are emerged especially in territorial waters, inland seas, canals, straits, bays, and port regions. In this paper, exhaust gas emissions from ships in Izmir Port, which is one of the main ports in Turkey, are calculated by the ship activity-based methodology. Total emissions from ships in the port is estimated as 1923 ton y−1 for NOx, 1405 ton y−1 for SO2, 82753 ton y−1 for CO2, ton y−1 for HC, and 165 ton y−1 for PM in the year 2007. These emissions are classified regarding operation modes and types of ships. The results are compared with the other studies including amounts of exhaust pollutants generated by ships. According to the findings, it is clear that the ships calling the Izmir Port are important air polluting causes of the Izmir city and its surroundings. PMID:24198720

  4. Numerical analysis of viscous effect on ship rolling motions based on CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the ship design procedure, the analysis of ship rolling motions is of great significance because the rolling motions have extraordinary effects on the sea-keeping, maneuverability and stability of a ship. It is difficult to simulate rolling motions due to the effect of viscosity, which causes many nonlinear components in computation. As such, the potential theory used for other ship motions cannot be used for rolling motions. This paper simulates the rolling motions of the DTMB 5512 ship model and the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model with a naoe-FOAM-SJTU solver using the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes(RANSmethod based on the OpenFOAM. The results of rolling motions are compared with the experimental data, which confirms the reliability of the meshes and results. For the ship transverse section of the S60 ship model, the damping coefficient is divided into three parts with the Euler and RANS methods:friction, vorticity and wave parts. For the DTMB 5512 ship model, the damping coefficient is also respectively analyzed, including the friction, vorticity, wave and bilge keel parts. The results in this paper show that the vorticity part accounts for the greatest proportion, while the friction part accounts for the least, and the bilge keels reduces the damping moment to a certain extent which shows the effect of rolling parameters on rolling motions and moments.

  5. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  6. There goes the sea ice: following Arctic sea ice parcels and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Tooth, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice distribution has changed considerably over the last couple of decades. Sea ice extent record minimums have been observed in recent years, the distribution of ice age now heavily favors younger ice, and sea ice is likely thinning. This new state of the Arctic sea ice cover has several impacts, including effects on marine life, feedback on the warming of the ocean and atmosphere, and on the future evolution of the ice pack. The shift in the state of the ice cover, from a pack dominated by older ice, to the current state of a pack with mostly young ice, impacts specific properties of the ice pack, and consequently the pack's response to the changing Arctic climate. For example, younger ice typically contains more numerous melt ponds during the melt season, resulting in a lower albedo. First-year ice is typically thinner and more fragile than multi-year ice, making it more susceptible to dynamic and thermodynamic forcing. To investigate the response of the ice pack to climate forcing during summertime melt, we have developed a database that tracks individual Arctic sea ice parcels along with associated properties as these parcels advect during the summer. Our database tracks parcels in the Beaufort Sea, from 1985 - present, along with variables such as ice surface temperature, albedo, ice concentration, and convergence. We are using this database to deduce how these thousands of tracked parcels fare during summer melt, i.e. what fraction of the parcels advect through the Beaufort, and what fraction melts out? The tracked variables describe the thermodynamic and dynamic forcing on these parcels during their journey. This database will also be made available to all interested investigators, after it is published in the near future. The attached image shows the ice surface temperature of all parcels (right) that advected through the Beaufort Sea region (left) in 2014.

  7. Response-based estimation of sea state parameters - Influence of filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2007-01-01

    Reliable estimation of the on-site sea state parameters is essential to decision support systems for safe navigation of ships. The wave spectrum can be estimated from procedures based on measured ship responses. The paper deals with two procedures—Bayesian Modelling and Parametric Modelling...

  8. Research combines with public outreach on a cruise ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elizabeth; Prager, Ellen; Wilson, Doug

    An innovative partnership among academia, government, and private industry has created a unique opportunity for oceanographic and meteorological research on a cruise ship. The University of Miami's Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Royal Caribbean International, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Office of Naval Research have collaborated to establish two modern laboratories for oceanic and atmospheric research on the 142,000-ton Royal Caribbean ship Explorer of the Seas.The Explorer of the Seas combines extensive research capabilities with public outreach. Hundreds of passengers experience the planet's atmosphere-ocean systems through laboratory tours and presentations given by experienced guest scientists and graduate students. In addition to weekly public lectures, guided tours of the ocean and atmospheric laboratories are available, and ocean-related films are shown during selected afternoons. Two interactive eco-learning areas onboard are equipped with a series of interactive displays and large informational touch screens that illustrate marine and atmospheric concepts as well as the onboard research program.

  9. Petroleum activity in the Russian Barents Sea: constraints and options for Norwegian offshore and shipping companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Arild; Rowe, Lars

    2008-09-15

    Presently most attention in the Barents Sea is given to the Shtokman project. Experience from development of this field, where there are still many uncertainties, will have large consequences for the further development program and relations with foreign companies. The exploration activity going on is fairly limited, but over the last few years there has been a struggle over licenses and control over exploration capacity. In the medium term the goal of rapid development of the Arctic continental shelf has become intertwined with a comprehensive government effort to modernise the domestic shipbuilding industry to make it able to cover most of the needs offshore. With the shipbuilding industry in a deep crisis these goals are not fully reconcilable. Russia will either have to accept more foreign involvement, or scale down its offshore ambitions. We believe a combination of the two alternatives is likely. This means that there will still be room for foreign offshore and shipping companies, but that the total amount of activity on the continental shelf will not be as great as stated in official plans. (author). 100 refs., map

  10. Safe transport of irradiated fuel by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    The development is described of a transport system dedicated to the sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. The background is reviewed of why shipments were required and the establishment of a specialist shipping company, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited. A description of the ships, flasks and other equipment utilised is provided, together with details of key procedures implemented to ensure safety and customer satisfaction. (Author)

  11. The sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a transport system dedicated to the sea transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. It reviews the background to why shipments were required and the establishment of a specialist shipping company, Pacific Nuclear Transport Limited. A description of the ships, flasks and other equipment utilized is provided, together with details of key procedures implemented to ensure safety and customer satisfaction

  12. Wave Height Distribution Observed by Ships in the North Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anders Smærup; Schrøter, Carsten; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    for the significant wave height, the relative speed and the ship heading relative to the wave direction is given. This distribution shows that for higher waves the crews avoid sailing in following sea and as expected the speed is decreased in higher waves. There is, however, still a relatively high probability...

  13. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, Veronika; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Berntsen, Terje; Collins, William J.; Corbett, James J.; Endresen, Oyvind; Grainger, Roy G.; Moldanova, Jana; Schlager, Hans; Stevenson, David S.

    2010-12-01

    Emissions of exhaust gases and particles from oceangoing ships are a significant and growing contributor to the total emissions from the transportation sector. We present an assessment of the contribution of gaseous and particulate emissions from oceangoing shipping to anthropogenic emissions and air quality. We also assess the degradation in human health and climate change created by these emissions. Regulating ship emissions requires comprehensive knowledge of current fuel consumption and emissions, understanding of their impact on atmospheric composition and climate, and projections of potential future evolutions and mitigation options. Nearly 70% of ship emissions occur within 400 km of coastlines, causing air quality problems through the formation of ground-level ozone, sulphur emissions and particulate matter in coastal areas and harbours with heavy traffic. Furthermore, ozone and aerosol precursor emissions as well as their derivative species from ships may be transported in the atmosphere over several hundreds of kilometres, and thus contribute to air quality problems further inland, even though they are emitted at sea. In addition, ship emissions impact climate. Recent studies indicate that the cooling due to altered clouds far outweighs the warming effects from greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO 2) or ozone from shipping, overall causing a negative present-day radiative forcing (RF). Current efforts to reduce sulphur and other pollutants from shipping may modify this. However, given the short residence time of sulphate compared to CO 2, the climate response from sulphate is of the order decades while that of CO 2 is centuries. The climatic trade-off between positive and negative radiative forcing is still a topic of scientific research, but from what is currently known, a simple cancellation of global mean forcing components is potentially inappropriate and a more comprehensive assessment metric is required. The CO 2 equivalent emissions using

  14. Physical and biological data collected with CDT, fluorometer, and SeaSoar aboard the ship WECOMA as part of Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) in the North Pacific Ocean from May 30 to June 16 2000 (NODC Accession 0000986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and biological data collected with CDT, fluorometer, and SeaSoar aboard the ship WECOMA in the North Pacific Ocean from May 30 to June 16 2000. These data...

  15. Wake Component Detection in X-Band SAR Images for Ship Heading and Velocity Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Daniela Graziano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for ship wake detection is developed with the aim of ship heading and velocity estimation. It exploits the Radon transform and utilizes merit indexes in the intensity domain to validate the detected linear features as real components of the ship wake. Finally, ship velocity is estimated by state-of-the-art techniques of azimuth shift and Kelvin arm wavelength. The algorithm is applied to 13 X-band SAR images from the TerraSAR-X and COSMO/SkyMed missions with different polarization and incidence angles. Results show that the vast majority of wake features are correctly detected and validated also in critical situations, i.e., when multiple wake appearances or dark areas not related to wake features are imaged. The ship route estimations are validated with truth-at-sea in seven cases. Finally, it is also verified that the algorithm does not detect wakes in the surroundings of 10 ships without wake appearances.

  16. Nonlinear Container Ship Model for the Study of Parametric Roll Resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Holden

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Parametric roll is a critical phenomenon for ships, whose onset may cause roll oscillations up to +-40 degrees, leading to very dangerous situations and possibly capsizing. Container ships have been shown to be particularly prone to parametric roll resonance when they are sailing in moderate to heavy head seas. A Matlab/Simulink parametric roll benchmark model for a large container ship has been implemented and validated against a wide set of experimental data. The model is a part of a Matlab/Simulink Toolbox (MSS, 2007. The benchmark implements a 3rd-order nonlinear model where the dynamics of roll is strongly coupled with the heave and pitch dynamics. The implemented model has shown good accuracy in predicting the container ship motions, both in the vertical plane and in the transversal one. Parametric roll has been reproduced for all the data sets in which it happened, and the model provides realistic results which are in good agreement with the model tank experiments.

  17. The pollution of the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the North Sea and its rivers; the uses of the North Sea (shipping; exploitation of oil and gas; fishing; recreation; land reclamation; industrial islands; waste dumping); the nature of the dumping problem (nuclear waste; organic chemicals; inorganic chemicals; oil; sewage; rubble and dredged spoils; ash); pollution legislation; Greenpeace activities in the North Sea (the nuclear campaigns (Windscale; Cap de la Hague; Atlantic waste dumping); the chemical campaigns); what is needed in the future; references; the Oslo Convention. (U.K.)

  18. Full Scale Measurements of the Hydro-Elastic Response of Large Container Ships for Decision Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    scale measurements from four container ships of 4,400 TEU, 8,600 TEU, 9,400 TEU and 14,000 TEU Primarily, strains measured near the deck amidships are used. Furthermore, measurements of motions and the encountered sea state are available for one of the ships. The smallest ship is in operation...... frequency with the waves. Together with the relatively high design speed and often pronounced bow flare this makes large container ship more sensitive to slamming and, consequently, the effects of wave-induced hull girder vibrations. From full scale strain measurements of individual, measured hull girder......The overall topic of this thesis is decision support for operation of ships and several aspects are covered herein. However, the main focus is on the wave-induced hydro-elastic response of large container ships and its implications on the structural response. The analyses are based mainly on full...

  19. 77 FR 47692 - Notice of Transportation Services' Transition From Paper to Electronic Fare Media Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... and effective electronic fare media transition to its participating transit benefit agencies... New Program Distribution Methodology for Transit Benefits This section presents a summary of the..., 2012 on TRANServe's adoption of a new program distribution methodology for transit benefits and...

  20. Second Best Decision Making of Railway Operators: How to fix Fares, Frequency and Vehicle Size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, Piet; Woudenberg, van Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Railway networks are characterised by variations in demand on different links. Optimal strategies therefore call for a differentiated treatment of fares, frequencies and vehicle sizes in various links. However, for several reasons, railway operators may apply uniform levels for these decision

  1. Identification and quantification of shipping emissions in Bohai Rim, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Wang, Xiaoping; Huang, Guopei; Fang, Yin; Zong, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Rapid development of port and shipbuilding industry in China has badly affected the ambient air quality of coastal zone due to shipping emissions. A total of 60 ambient air samples were collected from background site of Tuoji Island in Bohai Sea strait. The air samples were analyzed for PM 2.5 , organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), inorganic elements, and water-soluble ions. The maximum concentration of PM 2.5 was observed during spring (73.6 μg·m −3 ) compared to winter (39.0 μg·m −3 ) with mean of 54.6 μg·m −3 . Back trajectory air mass analysis together with temporal distribution of vanadium (V) showed that V could be the typical tracer of shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. Furthermore, the ratios of vanadium to nickel (V/Ni), vanadium to lead (V/Pb) and vanadium to zinc (V/Zn) also suggest shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. The annual average primary PM 2.5 estimate of shipping emissions was 0.65 μg·m −3 at Tuoji Island, accounting for 2.94% of the total primary PM 2.5 , with a maximum of 3.16% in summer and a minimum of 2.39% in autumn. - Highlights: • Tracers of shipping emissions in coastal zone of northern China were identified. • Contributions of shipping emissions on primary PM 2.5 were estimated. • Shipping emissions accounted for 2.94% of primary PM 2.5 apart from fishing boats. • Impact of shipping emissions on coastal zone increased rapidly in recent years

  2. Radiation doses in accidents at sea-transportation of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Bergstroem, U.; Devell, L.

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the consequences of shipping accidents, a release of activity is assumed. This report presents the calculations of individual and collective doses from the two most severe postulated accidents which are given in a special accident analysis. One of the accidents is a ship collision together with fire on-board, the ship is floating after the collision and a certain quantity volatile fission products gives airborne activity. In the other case, it is a fire on-board, the ship will sink and cause a certain leakage to the sea

  3. Contribution of ship emissions to the concentration and deposition of air pollutants in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aksoyoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from the marine transport sector are one of the least-regulated anthropogenic emission sources and contribute significantly to air pollution. Although strict limits were introduced recently for the maximum sulfur content in marine fuels in the SECAs (sulfur emission control areas and in EU ports, sulfur emissions outside the SECAs and emissions of other components in all European maritime areas have continued to increase in the last two decades. We have used the air quality model CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions with and without ship emissions for the year 2006 to determine the effects of international shipping on the annual as well as seasonal concentrations of ozone, primary and secondary components of PM2.5, and the dry and wet deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds in Europe. The largest changes in pollutant concentrations due to ship emissions were predicted for summer. Concentrations of particulate sulfate increased due to ship emissions in the Mediterranean (up to 60 %, the English Channel and the North Sea (30–35 %, while increases in particulate nitrate levels were found especially in the north, around the Benelux area (20 %, where there were high NH3 land-based emissions. Our model results showed that not only are the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants affected by ship emissions, but also depositions of nitrogen and sulfur compounds increase significantly along the shipping routes. NOx emissions from the ships, especially in the English Channel and the North Sea, cause a decrease in the dry deposition of reduced nitrogen at source regions by moving it from the gas phase to the particle phase which then contributes to an increase in the wet deposition at coastal areas with higher precipitation. In the western Mediterranean region, on the other hand, model results show an increase in the deposition of oxidized nitrogen (mostly HNO3 due to the ship traffic. Dry deposition of SO2 seems to

  4. Development of Nuclear ship Engineering Simulation SYstem (NESSY)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kyouya, Masahiko; Takahashi, Teruo; Kobayashi, Hideo; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1993-11-01

    NESSY has been developed for design studies of advanced marine reactors as a part of nuclear ship research and development since 1987. Engineering simulation model of the Mutsu, which is the first nuclear ship in Japan, was completed in March of 1993. In this report we concentration on detail description of softwares for Mutsu modeling. The aims of development of NESSY are as follows; (1) Assessment and confirmation on plant performance of an advanced marine reactor in each step of nuclear ship design (2) Development of abnormality diagnosis system and operator support system as a part of enhanced automization study, and study of human interface with hardware The characteristics of NESSY are the followings. (1) Total engineering simulation system simulate simultaneously ship motions, propulsion system behavior, and nuclear plant behavior under given weather and sea conditions. (2) Models based on physical theory as far as possible. (3) The simulator has high extensibility and flexibility. It is able to apply to other reactors, as the simulation model consists of the part of basic model and the part of plant data which are easy to change. After completion of Mutsu modeling, we are planning to utilize this system as one of design tools for an advanced marine reactor. (author)

  5. Results of the power-up test of the nuclear-powered ship MUTSU and test programs of her experimental voyages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Masa-aki; Ishida, Toshihisa; Itagaki, Masafumi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Kyouya, Masahiko

    1991-01-01

    The power-up test of N.S. MUTSU was performed successfully almost on schedule in spite of minor troubles resolved in a short time, and the results of various areas were satisfactory. The official sea trial was well carried out. Then, the ship was officially designated the first nuclear ship in Japan. Experimental voyages are to be performed to yield profitable data for further research on nuclear ships in the future. (author)

  6. Replenishment at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Pac

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Replenishment at sea is a process which plays the key role in the contemporary naval logistics during military and crisis operations. As the last element of the supply chain, it must use specific standards within the areas of procedures, technical equipment, logistic assets and resources, as well as safety, especially in multinational operations. The methods applied enable ships to operate at sea in the long term without logistic support provided by sea ports. The paper explains all the methods of the solids and liquids replenishment, and also gives an idea how to estimate the resupply process, using the measures. The level of standardization of procedures and assets implemented by NATO, the EU and other willing states has been described.

  7. INFLUENCE OF SERVICE QUALITY AND FARE TOWARD CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND ITS IMPACT ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY OF EXPRESS TAXI IN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rizan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to: to examine empirically the effect of service quality to customer satisfaction on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of fare to customer satisfaction on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of customer satisfaction to customer loyalty on Express taxi, to examine empirically the effect of service quality to customer loyalty on Express taxi, and to examine empirically the effect of fare to customer loyalty on Express taxi. Data collection using survey methods. Sample of this study are 200 respondents who have using services of Express taxi more than two times in last three months. Data analysis using SPSS version 23 and SEM (Structural Equation Modeling LISREL version 8.7. Results of hypothesis testing showed: service quality have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, fare have positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction, customer satisfaction have positive and significant effect on customer loyalty, service quality have positive and not significant effect to on customer loyalty. fare have positive and significant effect to on customer loyalty. Rated fit model with value of RMSEA 0.043, value of RMR 0.043, value of CMIN/DF 1.88, value of NFI 0.96, value of NNFI 0.98, and value of CFI 0.98. The results of this research beneficial to transportation company, especially Express taxi in Jakarta, to create better strategy in improving customer loyalty.

  8. Fulmar Litter EcoQO monitoring along Durch and North Sea coasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franeker, van J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Wastes from ships are an important source of litter in the marine environment in the Southern North Sea and cause serious economic and ecological damage. Inadequacies in the ship to shore waste delivery procedures are considered a major factor in illegal discharges. The European Union addressed the

  9. Cloud amount/frequency, NITRATE and other data from ALPHA HELIX in the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea from 1993-09-09 to 1993-10-10 (NODC Accession 9400036)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea. Data was collected from Ship ALPHA HELIX. The data was...

  10. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean and others from 1987-06-06 to 1987-07-05 (NCEI Accession 0160542)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160542 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship OCEANOGRAPHER in the Coral Sea, North Pacific Ocean,...

  11. Statistics of meteorology for dose evaluation of crews of nuclear ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Kazuhiko; Chino, Masamichi

    1981-01-01

    For the purpose of the dose evaluation of crews of a nuclear ship, the statistics of wind speed and direction relative to the ship is discussed, using wind data which are reported from ships crusing sea around Japan Island. The analysis on the data shows that the occurrence frequency of wind speed can be fitted with the γ-distribution having parameter p around 3 and wind direction frequency can be treated as a uniform distribution. Using these distributions and taking the ship speed u 3 and the long-term mean speed of natural wind anti u as constant parameters, frequency distribution of wind speed and direction relative to the ship was calculated and statistical quantities necessary for dose evaluation were obtained in the way similar to the procedure for reactor sites on land. The 97% value of wind speed u 97 , which should be used in the dose evaluation for accidental releases may give conservative doses, if it is evaluated as follows, u 97 = 0.64 u sub(s) in the cases u sub(s) > anti u, and u 97 = 0.86 anti u in the cases u sub(s) < anti u including u sub(s) = 0. (author)

  12. Mixed layer heat budget of Kuroshio-Tango Triangle using satellite and ship observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Akiyama, M.; Sugimori, Y.; Wuwa, J.; Okada, Y.; Siripong, A.

    heat flux across the air-sea boundary both satellite (NIMBUS-7 SMMR) and ship observations are used. The advective fluxes across the lateral boundaries of the system are derived from sequential images of AVHRR. The net heat divergence of the triangular...

  13. Demands for Modern Shipping and SUiveillance of the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lakota

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work modem navigation and Adriatic control demandcharacteristics are developed. It correlates the modemnavigation characteristics and the Adriatic sea control. Thepresent operating procedures used for sea control are mentionedas well as the new systems and procedures based on newcomputer and communication technologies (automatic identificationsystems, GPS, computer networks, Internet/Intranetstandards. It discusses unmanned aerial vehicles characteristicsaccording to demands and grading standards for picture/scene interpretation (NIIRS grading scale.

  14. Identification and quantification of shipping emissions in Bohai Rim, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Yingjun, E-mail: yjchen@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Tian, Chongguo, E-mail: cgtian@yic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); Wang, Xiaoping [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China); Huang, Guopei; Fang, Yin; Zong, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Coastal Zone Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2014-11-01

    Rapid development of port and shipbuilding industry in China has badly affected the ambient air quality of coastal zone due to shipping emissions. A total of 60 ambient air samples were collected from background site of Tuoji Island in Bohai Sea strait. The air samples were analyzed for PM{sub 2.5}, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), inorganic elements, and water-soluble ions. The maximum concentration of PM{sub 2.5} was observed during spring (73.6 μg·m{sup −3}) compared to winter (39.0 μg·m{sup −3}) with mean of 54.6 μg·m{sup −3}. Back trajectory air mass analysis together with temporal distribution of vanadium (V) showed that V could be the typical tracer of shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. Furthermore, the ratios of vanadium to nickel (V/Ni), vanadium to lead (V/Pb) and vanadium to zinc (V/Zn) also suggest shipping emissions at Tuoji Island. The annual average primary PM{sub 2.5} estimate of shipping emissions was 0.65 μg·m{sup −3} at Tuoji Island, accounting for 2.94% of the total primary PM{sub 2.5}, with a maximum of 3.16% in summer and a minimum of 2.39% in autumn. - Highlights: • Tracers of shipping emissions in coastal zone of northern China were identified. • Contributions of shipping emissions on primary PM{sub 2.5} were estimated. • Shipping emissions accounted for 2.94% of primary PM{sub 2.5} apart from fishing boats. • Impact of shipping emissions on coastal zone increased rapidly in recent years.

  15. International dissemination of epidemic Vibrio cholerae by cargo ship ballast and other nonpotable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, S A; Khambaty, F M

    1994-07-01

    In 1991 and 1992, toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, biotype El Tor, was recovered from nonpotable (ballast, bilge, and sewage) water from five cargo ships docked in ports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Four of these ships had taken on ballast water in cholera-infected countries; the fifth took on ballast in a noninfected country. Isolates examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis were indistinguishable from the Latin American epidemic strain, C6707; however, they differed significantly from the endemic Gulf Coast strain (VRL 1984), the sixth-pandemic strain (569-B), and a V. cholerae non-O1 strain isolated from a ship arriving from a foreign port. On the basis of our findings, the Food and Drug Administration recommended that the U.S. Coast Guard issue an advisory to shipping agents and captains requesting that ballast waters be exchanged on the high seas before entry of ships into U.S. ports.

  16. Ship Emission Inventories in Estuary of the Yangtze River Using Terrestrial AIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary forms a transition zone between inland river and open sea. In China, the estuary of the Yangtze River plays a vital role in connecting the inland and oversea shipping, and witnesses heavy vessel traffic in the recent decades. Nowadays, more attentions have been directed to the issue of ship pollution in busy waterways. In order to investigate the ship emission inventory, this paper presents an Automatic Identification System(AIS based method. AIS data is the realistic data of vessel traffic including dynamic information (position, speed, course, etc. and static information (ship type, dimensions, name, etc.. According to ship dimensions, the power of engines is estimated for different ship types. By using AIS based bottom-up approach, ship emission inventories and shares of air pollutants and GHGs (Greenhouse gases are developed. Spatial distribution of ship emissions is illustrated in the form of heat map. As a case study, the emission inventories are analyzed using AIS data of 2010 in the estuary, and following results are made:(1 shares of the emission are cruise ships 6.59%, bulk carriers 5.16%, container ships 52.96%, tankers 15.16%, fishing ships 9.16%, other ships 10.97%; (2 CO2 is the dominant part of the emission. (3 Areas of highest emission intensity are generally clustered around the South Channel, the North Channel and ports in the vicinity. The proposed method is promising because it is derived from the AIS data which contains not only real data of individual ship but also vessel traffic situation in the study area. It can server as a reference for other researchers and policy makers working in this field.

  17. Receipt and use of half-fare airline coupons at selected Department of Energy field locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-11

    The receipt and use of half-fare coupons obtained by employees of DOE field offices and DOE contractors while traveling at DOE expense were reviewed. These coupons, issued by United Airlines and American Airlines, provided for air travel at half-fare if used before December 15, 1979. Potential savings to DOE through coupon use ranging from $50,000 to $100,000 were lost, because of ineffective management action by both federal and contractor officials. Recommendations were that DOE ascertain the extent of the failure of contractors to recover coupons from their employees and recover from the contractors the amounts lost. IG submitted a draft of this final report for comment and received the comments of the Controller, the Director of Administration, and the Director of Procurement and Contracts Management. The comments included useful information; and where appropriate, the final report was changed to reflect the comments. In addition, the comments in their entirety are contained in the appendices.

  18. Towards Real Time Simulation of Ship-Ship Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present recent and preliminary work directed towards the development of a simplified, physics-based model for improved simulation of ship-ship interaction that can be used for both analysis and real-time computing (i.e. with real-time constraints due to visualization). The goal is to implement...... accurate (realistic) and much faster ship-wave and ship-ship simulations than are currently possible. The coupling of simulation with visualization should improve the visual experience such that it can be perceived as more realistic in training. Today the state-of-art in real-time ship-ship interaction...... is for efficiency reasons and time-constraints in visualization based on model experiments in towing tanks and precomputed force tables. We anticipate that the fast, and highly parallel, algorithm described by Engsig-Karup et al. [2011] for execution on affordable modern high-throughput Graphics Processing Units...

  19. Development of a Shipboard Remote Control and Telemetry Experimental System for Large-Scale Model's Motions and Loads Measurement in Realistic Sea Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jialong; Ren, Huilong; Adenya, Christiaan Adika; Chen, Chaohe

    2017-10-29

    Wave-induced motion and load responses are important criteria for ship performance evaluation. Physical experiments have long been an indispensable tool in the predictions of ship's navigation state, speed, motions, accelerations, sectional loads and wave impact pressure. Currently, majority of the experiments are conducted in laboratory tank environment, where the wave environments are different from the realistic sea waves. In this paper, a laboratory tank testing system for ship motions and loads measurement is reviewed and reported first. Then, a novel large-scale model measurement technique is developed based on the laboratory testing foundations to obtain accurate motion and load responses of ships in realistic sea conditions. For this purpose, a suite of advanced remote control and telemetry experimental system was developed in-house to allow for the implementation of large-scale model seakeeping measurement at sea. The experimental system includes a series of technique sensors, e.g., the Global Position System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) module, course top, optical fiber sensors, strain gauges, pressure sensors and accelerometers. The developed measurement system was tested by field experiments in coastal seas, which indicates that the proposed large-scale model testing scheme is capable and feasible. Meaningful data including ocean environment parameters, ship navigation state, motions and loads were obtained through the sea trial campaign.

  20. SeaRAM: an evaluation of the safety of RAM transport by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, P.; Sorenson, K.B.; Carter, M.H.; Keane, M.P.; Keith, V.F.; Heid, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    SeaRAM is a multi-year Department of Energy (DOE) project designed to validate the safety of shipping radioactive materials (RAM) by sea. The project has an ultimate goal of developing and demonstrating analytic tools for performing comprehensive analyses to evaluate the risks to humans and the environment due to sea transport of plutonium, vitrified high-level waste (VHLW), and spent fuel associated with reprocessing and research reactors. To achieve this end, evaluations of maritime databases and structural an thermal analyses of particular severe collision and fire accidents have been and will continue to be conducted. Program management for SeaRAM is based at the DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration. Technical activities for the project are being conducted at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Several private organizations are also involved in providing technical support, notably Engineering Computer Optecnomics, Inc. (ECO). The technical work performed for SeaRAM also supports DOE participation in an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Cooperative Research Program (CRP) entitled Accident Severity at Sea During Transport of Radioactive Material. This paper discusses activities performed during the first year of the project

  1. A concise account of techniques available for shipboard sea state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam

    2017-01-01

    This article gives a review of techniques applied to make sea state estimation on the basis of measured responses on a ship. The general concept of the procedures is similar to that of a classical wave buoy, which exploits a linear assumption between waves and the associated motions. In the frequ......This article gives a review of techniques applied to make sea state estimation on the basis of measured responses on a ship. The general concept of the procedures is similar to that of a classical wave buoy, which exploits a linear assumption between waves and the associated motions...

  2. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Banda Sea, Celebes Sea and others from 1994-04-16 to 1994-09-25 (NODC Accession 0117715)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0117715 includes Surface underway, biological, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Banda Sea,...

  3. Investigations of the magnetic fields from ships due to corrosion and its countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Peter J.

    Corrosion is one of the main concerns for the shipping industry. The enormous cost associated with the corrosion of ships means that operators are more than ever seeking methods to provide optimal protection. Another problem which results from the corrosion of ships is that the electric currents produced give rise to a corrosion related magnetic field which adds to the ships overall electromagnetic field which can trigger underwater mines. Hence for the Admiralty to protect their fleet, they need to understand, predict and reduce these electromagnetic signatures. This will also be a concern for operators of merchant ships if, as recently suggested, terrorists begin to target them. There are a number of factors contributing to the electromagnetic signature of a ship. The work presented in this study is concerned with the magnetic field arising due to corrosion and the countermeasures employed against it (namely Impressed Current Cathodic Protection (ICCP) systems]. This field is called the Corrosion Related Magnetic (CRM) field. Since this field is directly related to the rate of corrosion of a ship, it may also be used as an indicator as to the efficiency of the corrosion protection measures, This work presents a range of techniques which may be used to model the CRM field. Simple dipole models are used to investigate the general behaviour of a corroding ship in sea water. These investigations result in an expression for an approximation of the CRM field from a dipole-wire configuration which can be used to estimate the CRM field from a corroding ship with an active ICCP system. A second, more detailed, method was then developed using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to model a ship corroding in a tank of sea water. The BEM uses a large set of simultaneous equations, the coefficients of which are calculated by numerical integration using a new method based around the moments of triangular surface elements which discretise the boundary of the domain. By using a

  4. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  5. Are nuclear ships environmentally safer than conventionally powered ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, C.A.; Molgaard, C.A.; Helmkamp, J.C.; Golbeck, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An epidemiologic analysis was conducted to determine if risk of hospitalization varied by age, ship type, or occupation between nuclear and conventional powered ship crews in the U.S. Navy. Study cohorts consisted of all male enlisted personnel who served exclusively aboard conventional or nuclear powered aircraft carriers and cruisers during the years 1975-1979; cases were those men hospitalized during this period (N = 48,242). Conventional ship personnel showed significantly elevated rates of injury and disease when compared to nuclear ship personnel. The largest relative risks by age occurred for conventional ship crewmen less than 30 years old. Seaman, logistics (supply), and healthcare personnel serving aboard conventional ships comprised the occupational groups exhibiting the highest hospitalization rate differentials. The results strongly suggest that nuclear ships provide a healthier, safer working and living environment than conventional ships

  6. Shipping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at

  7. Maritime NOx Emissions Over Chinese Seas Derived From Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Johansson, L.; Levelt, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    By applying an inversion algorithm to NOx satellite observations from Ozone Monitoring Instrument, monthly NOx emissions for a 10 year period (2007 to 2016) over Chinese seas are presented for the first time. No effective regulations on NOx emissions have been implemented for ships in China, which is reflected in the trend analysis of maritime emissions. The maritime emissions display a continuous increase rate of about 20% per year until 2012 and slow down to 3% after that. The seasonal cycle of shipping emissions has regional variations, but all regions show lower emissions during winter. Simulations by an atmospheric chemistry transport model show a notable influence of maritime emissions on air pollution over coastal areas, especially in summer. The satellite-derived spatial distribution and the magnitude of maritime emissions over Chinese seas are in good agreement with bottom-up studies based on the Automatic Identification System of ships.

  8. Update on emissions and environmental impacts from the international fleet of ships: the contribution from major ship types and ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dalsøren

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A reliable and up-to-date ship emission inventory is essential for atmospheric scientists quantifying the impact of shipping and for policy makers implementing regulations and incentives for emission reduction. The emission modelling in this study takes into account ship type and size dependent input data for 15 ship types and 7 size categories. Global port arrival and departure data for more than 32 000 merchant ships are used to establish operational profiles for the ship segments. The modelled total fuel consumption amounts to 217 Mt in 2004 of which 11 Mt is consumed in in-port operations. This is in agreement with international sales statistics. The modelled fuel consumption is applied to develop global emission inventories for CO2, NO2, SO2, CO, CH4, VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds, N2O, BC (Black Carbon and OC (Organic Carbon. The global emissions from ships at sea and in ports are distributed geographically, applying extended geographical data sets covering about 2 million global ship observations and global port data for 32 000 ships. In addition to inventories for the world fleet, inventories are produced separately for the three dominating ship types, using ship type specific emission modelling and traffic distributions.

    A global Chemical Transport Model (CTM was used to calculate the environmental impacts of the emissions. We find that ship emissions is a dominant contributor over much of the world oceans to surface concentrations of NO2 and SO2. The contribution is also large over some coastal zones. For surface ozone the contribution is high over the oceans but clearly also of importance over Western North America (contribution 15–25% and Western Europe (5–15%. The contribution to tropospheric column ozone is up to 5–6%. The overall impact of ship emissions on global methane lifetime is large due to the high NOx emissions. With

  9. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from DERWENT, HOBART and other platforms in the Coral Sea, Tasman Sea and other waters from 1984-09-02 to 1993-01-31 (NODC Accession 9300047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The water depth and temperature data was collected in Coral Sea, Indian Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Tasman Sea from multiple Australian and New Zealand ships by...

  10. A prepaid case study: Ready Credit’s general-purpose & transit-fare programs

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Keitel

    2012-01-01

    Today, prepaid cards are used in dozens of payment applications. To examine the most recent developments, the Payment Cards Center of the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia hosted a workshop on August 22, 2011. Leading the workshop was Tim Walsh, president and chief executive officer of Ready Credit Corporation, a firm that developed network-branded prepaid cards for use in transit-fare systems and also markets general-purpose, reloadable prepaid cards to consumers. Walsh discussed the uniq...

  11. ENERGY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND ISO 50001 ACCREDITATION IN SHIPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV DRAGOVIŠ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The shipping sector is facing new challenges in energy consumption and management. In a recent study conducted by the European Sea Ports Organization (ESPO has shown that energy consumption has risen from 7th place in 2009, to 2nd in 2016, as far as the 10 environmental priorities of European ports. Energy management is seen as the greatest risk for shipping companies, due to the variability existing in the oil and gas markets, in recent decades. Unsuccessful energy management strategies have been shown to have serious consequences for the natural environment, as well as for the companies themselves, which include the enhancement of global warming, and the destruction of a positive corporate image/reputation. Due to this, shipping companies now consider energy as an integral part of their overall strategy and adopt risk management assessments in order to attain the best returns on their investments. The ISO 50001 standard provides a useful tool to companies that are eager to develop and apply an efficient energy strategy consistent with modern Social Corporate Responsibility requirements and aspirations.

  12. The Planning, Licensing, Modifications, and Use of a Russian Vessel for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel by Sea in Support of the DOE RRRFR Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyacke, Michael; Bolshinsky, Igor; Tomczak, Wlodzimierz; Naletov, Sergey; Pichugin, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, under the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Threat Reduction Initiative, began returning Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia in January 2006. During the first years of making HEU SNF shipments, it became clear that the modes of transportation needed to be expanded from highway and railroad to include sea and air to meet the extremely aggressive commitment of completing the first series of shipments by the end of 2010. The first shipment using sea transport was made in October 2008 and used a non-Russian flagged vessel. The Russian government reluctantly allowed a one-time use of the foreign-owned vessel into their highly secured seaport, with the understanding that any future shipments would be made using a vessel owned and operated by a Russian company. ASPOL-Baltic of St. Petersburg, Russia, owns and operates a small fleet of vessels and has a history of shipping nuclear materials. ASPOL-Baltic's vessels were licensed for shipping nuclear materials; however, they were not licensed to transport SNF materials. After a thorough review of ASPOL Baltic's capabilities and detailed negotiations, it was agreed that a contract would be let with ASPOL-Baltic to license and refit their MCL Trader vessel for hauling SNF in support of the RRRFR Program. This effort was funded through a contract between the RRRFR Program, Idaho National Laboratory, and Radioactive Waste Management Plant of Swierk, Poland. This paper discusses planning, Russian and international maritime regulations and requirements, Russian authorities reviews and approvals, licensing, design, and modifications made to the vessel in preparation for SNF shipments. A brief summary of actual shipments using this vessel, experiences, and lessons learned also are described.

  13. The Planning, Licensing, Modifications, and Use of a Russian Vessel for Shipping Spent Nuclear Fuel by Sea in Support of the DOE RRRFR Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Tyacke; Dr. Igor Bolshinsky; Wlodzimierz Tomczak; Sergey Naletov; Oleg Pichugin

    2001-10-01

    The Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return (RRRFR) Program, under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative, began returning Russian-supplied high-enriched uranium (HEU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), stored at Russian-designed research reactors throughout the world, to Russia in January 2006. During the first years of making HEU SNF shipments, it became clear that the modes of transportation needed to be expanded from highway and railroad to include sea and air to meet the extremely aggressive commitment of completing the first series of shipments by the end of 2010. The first shipment using sea transport was made in October 2008 and used a non-Russian flagged vessel. The Russian government reluctantly allowed a one-time use of the foreign-owned vessel into their highly secured seaport, with the understanding that any future shipments would be made using a vessel owned and operated by a Russian company. ASPOL-Baltic of St. Petersburg, Russia, owns and operates a small fleet of vessels and has a history of shipping nuclear materials. ASPOL-Baltic’s vessels were licensed for shipping nuclear materials; however, they were not licensed to transport SNF materials. After a thorough review of ASPOL Baltic’s capabilities and detailed negotiations, it was agreed that a contract would be let with ASPOL-Baltic to license and refit their MCL Trader vessel for hauling SNF in support of the RRRFR Program. This effort was funded through a contract between the RRRFR Program, Idaho National Laboratory, and Radioactive Waste Management Plant of Swierk, Poland. This paper discusses planning, Russian and international maritime regulations and requirements, Russian authorities’ reviews and approvals, licensing, design, and modifications made to the vessel in preparation for SNF shipments. A brief summary of actual shipments using this vessel, experiences, and lessons learned also are described.

  14. Validation of physics model of FARE-Tool by comparison of RFSP flux simulations with measurements at discrete refuelling steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    In CANDU 6 the on-power refuelling is done in the direction of the coolant flow through the channel, flow being in alternate direction in adjacent channels. The channel flow pushes the fuel string (a total of 20 bundles with the 8-bundle fuelling scheme) towards the downstream Fuelling Machine (FM), obviating the need for the upstream FM to insert the rams into the active core to push the fuel. In some channels of the outer core region, however, the coolant flow is low and the hydraulic drag is not enough to push the fuel string. In these channels a Flow Assist Ram Extension (FARE) tool is used during refuelling to augment the flow and hence enhance the hydraulic drag required to push the fuel string. The FARE-Tool is a strong neutron absorber and its use results in a severe local flux depression. During the refuelling process, when the FARE-Tool travels in the immediate vicinity of a Reactor Regulating System (RRS) detector, the spatial control system causes a short-term zone-fill reduction in an attempt to maintain the reference zone powers. This short term zone drain may in turn result in a single channel ROP trip of the SDS l or SDS2 reactor protection system. Therefore, the control room operator is always interested in minimizing the occurrence of this category of trip for obvious economic reasons. The physics modelling of the FARE-Tool used in the 2-neutron-energy-group 3-dimensional diffusion code RFSP is validated by comparing the simulated response of the in-core detectors with the measured response of the same detectors during refuelling. These measurements were recorded during a specially scheduled refuelling of channel B09 at the Point Lepreau Generating Station on 1993 July 6 at 3591 Equivalent Full Power Days (EFPDs). 3 refs., 10 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Sea Piracy in Southeast Asia: Implications for Countering Maritime Terrorism in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geragotelis, John M

    2006-01-01

    Sea piracy has infested the seven seas throughout history. In modern times, the United States has paid little attention to piracy because the nation's isolated vastness has protected the shipping industry from maritime crime...

  16. On the Global Ship Hull Bending Energy in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Y.

    2004-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can be stored in elastic...... hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic energy in global...... ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship-ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing is confined...

  17. A Semi-Analytical Method for the PDFs of A Ship Rolling in Random Oblique Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-qin; Liu, Ya-liu; Xu, Wan-hai; Li, Yan; Tang, You-gang

    2018-03-01

    The PDFs (probability density functions) and probability of a ship rolling under the random parametric and forced excitations were studied by a semi-analytical method. The rolling motion equation of the ship in random oblique waves was established. The righting arm obtained by the numerical simulation was approximately fitted by an analytical function. The irregular waves were decomposed into two Gauss stationary random processes, and the CARMA (2, 1) model was used to fit the spectral density function of parametric and forced excitations. The stochastic energy envelope averaging method was used to solve the PDFs and the probability. The validity of the semi-analytical method was verified by the Monte Carlo method. The C11 ship was taken as an example, and the influences of the system parameters on the PDFs and probability were analyzed. The results show that the probability of ship rolling is affected by the characteristic wave height, wave length, and the heading angle. In order to provide proper advice for the ship's manoeuvring, the parametric excitations should be considered appropriately when the ship navigates in the oblique seas.

  18. Research progress of anti-icing/deicing technologies for polar ships and offshore platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The polar regions present adverse circumstances of high humidity and strong air-sea exchange. As such, the surfaces of ships and platforms (oil exploiting and drilling platforms serving in polar regions can easily be frozen by ice accretion, which not only affects the operation of the equipment but also threatens safety. This paper summarizes the status of the anti-icing/deicing technologies of both China and abroad for polar ships and offshore platforms, and introduces the various effects of ice accretion on polar ships and offshore platforms, and the resulting safety impacts. It then reviews existing anti-icing/deicing technologies and methods of both China and abroad, including such active deicing methods as electric heating, infrared heating and ultrasonic guided wave deicing, as well as such passive deicing methods as super hydrophobic coating, sacrificial coating, aqueous lubricating layer coating and low cross-link density (with interfacial slippage coating, summarizes their applicability to polar ships and offshore platforms, and finally discusses their advantages/disadvantages.

  19. Wave Climate and Wave Mixing in the Marginal Ice Zones of Arctic Seas, Observations and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    measured by R/V Lance ( black solid line) and predicted by SWAN ( black dashed line) and the ship velocity (grey solid line). (c) BFI ( black solid line) and...and potential future trends; and WAVEWATCH-III® and SWAN wave models with new physics, adapted and validated for the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas...nondimensional spectral width ν ( black dashed line). (d–i) Selected photographs from the ship show local sea ice state. Fig. 6 illustrates a

  20. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina

    2016-01-01

    system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...... an electromagnetic induction (EM) system from the bow of RV Lance and another EM-system towed below the helicopter. Polar 5 was equipped among others with the L-band radiometer EMIRAD-2. The experiment yielded a comprehensive data set allowing the evaluation of the operational forecast and route optimisation system...

  1. Waste treatment of ships. Change in understanding of wastes and trend of waste treatment systems; Senjo no haikibutsu shori. 1. Haikibutsu ni taisuru ninshiki no henka to shori hoshiki no doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inatomi, M. [Hitachi Zosen Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-07-25

    This paper explains treatment of wastes produced in ships. Wastes produced in ships should be essentially treated on ships. Since storage and transport of difficult-to-treat wastes to harbor for land treatment is expensive, wastes produced in ships are treated on ships as much as possible. Combustibles such as waste oil, plastics, paper and wood fiber waste are treated by incinerator. Food waste is dumped into the sea after crushing by disposer. Excrement and urine are dumped into the sea through a waste water treatment plant. Oil content in oily bilge is burned after heating and vapor separation. Food waste is temporarily stored in ships because its dumping along the coast and into harbor is impossible. Kitchen refuse decomposer utilizing bacteria was proposed for ships. Press for used cans and crushing/thermal compaction/storage equipment for plastics were also put on the market. The primary regulation on diesel engine exhaust gas may be cleared by improvement of engine bodies. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Methods in mooring deep sea sediment traps

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkatesan, R.; Fernando, V.; Rajaraman, V.S.; Janakiraman, G.

    The experience gained during the process of deployment and retrieval of nearly 39 sets of deep sea sediment trap moorings on various ships like FS Sonne, ORV Sagarkanya and DSV Nand Rachit are outlined. The various problems encountered...

  3. EIA cites importance of key world shipping routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A disruption of crude oil or products shipments through any of six world chokepoints would cause a spike in oil prices, the US Energy Information Administration (EIA) warns. The strategic importance of each major shipping lane varies because of differing oil volumes and access to other transportation routes. But nearly half of the 66 million b/d of oil consumed worldwide flows through one or more of these key tanker routes, involving: 14 million b/d through the Strait of Hormuz from the Persian Gulf to the Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea; 7 million b/d through the Strait of Malacca from the northern Indian Ocean into the South China Sea and Pacific Ocean; 1.6 million b/d through the Bosporus from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; 900,000 b/d through the Suez Canal from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea; 600,000 b/d through Rotterdam Harbor from the North Sea to Dutch and German refineries on or near the Rhine River; and 500,000 b/d through the Panama Canal from the Pacific Ocean to the Caribbean Sea. In today's highly interdependent oil markets, the mere perception of less secure oil supplies is enough to boost oil prices, EIA said. Growing oil and product tanker traffic is increasing the likelihood of supply disruptions through oil arteries because of bad weather, tanker collisions, or acts of piracy, terrorism, or war. What's more, the increasing age of the world tanker fleet and dependability of navigational equipment could increase chances of accidents and, therefore, oil supply disruptions

  4. Development of an oil skimming and separating system to combat oil spills at sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, R.; Clauss, G.

    1983-02-01

    For efficiently combatting oil pollution at sea, it is intended to combine a hopper dredger with two oil skimmers. This system consists of two oil skimmers, which are permanently stowed on deck of the ship. In case of operation, the oil skimmers work connected beside the ship, but decoupled from the ship concerning motions of sea. Hopper dredgers have already sufficient pump and tank capacity and are well-suited for operation in offshore areas and river deltas. They are characterized by low draught and are capable of lightening their cargo very quickly so that they are ready for oil skimming operation within 2 hours. Model tests with regard to the behaviour and function of the oil skimmer system were carried out at scales of 1:15, 1:10, and 1:5. Tests with the system ship/oil skimmer were performed at a scale of 1:15.

  5. On two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of emission control areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerholt, Kjetil; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with two speed optimization problems for ships that sail in and out of Emission Control Areas (ECAs) with strict limits on sulfur emissions. For ships crossing in and out of ECAs, such as deep-sea vessels, one of the common options for complying with these limits is to burn heavy...... fuel oil (HFO) outside the ECA and switch to low-sulfur fuel such as marine gas oil (MGO) inside the ECA. As the prices of these two fuels are generally very different, so may be the speeds that the ship will sail at outside and inside the ECA. The first optimization problem examined by the paper...

  6. On the global ship hull bending energy in ship collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Li, Yujie

    2009-01-01

    During ship collisions part of the kinetic energy of the involved vessels immediately prior to contact is absorbed as energy dissipated by crushing of the hull structures, by friction and by elastic energy. The purpose of this report is to present an estimate of the elastic energy that can...... be stored in elastic hull vibrations during a ship collision. When a ship side is strengthened in order to improve the crashworthiness it has been argued in the scientific literature that a non-trivial part of the energy released for structural deformation during the collision can be absorbed as elastic...... energy in global ship hull vibrations, such that with strong ship sides less energy has to be spent in crushing of the striking ship bow and/or the struck ship side. In normal ship–ship collision analyses both the striking and struck ship are usually considered as rigid bodies where structural crushing...

  7. 41 CFR 301-10.107 - Are there any exceptions to the use of a contract city-pair fare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regard to scheduling travel during normal working hours; (c) A non-contract carrier offers a lower fare... mission requirements; or (e) Smoking is permitted on the contract air carrier and the nonsmoking section...

  8. Prediction of noise in ships by the application of “statistical energy analysis.”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John Ødegaard

    1979-01-01

    If it will be possible effectively to reduce the noise level in the accomodation on board ships, by introducing appropriate noise abatement measures already at an early design stage, it is quite essential that sufficiently accurate prediction methods are available for the naval architects...... or for a special noise abatement measure, e.g., increased structural damping. The paper discusses whether it might be possible to derive an alternative calculation model based on the “statistical energy analysis” approach (SEA). By considering the hull of a ship to be constructed from plate elements connected...

  9. Advantages and limitations of remotely operated sea floor drill rigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenthal, T.; Smith, D. J.; Wefer, G.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of research targets in marine sciences including the investigation of gas hydrates, slope stability, alteration of oceanic crust, ore formation and palaeoclimate can be addressed by shallow drilling. However, drill ships are mostly used for deep drillings, both because the effort of building up a drill string from a drill ship to the deep sea floor is tremendous and control on drill bit pressure from a movable platform and a vibrating drill string is poor especially in the upper hundred meters. During the last decade a variety of remotely operated drill rigs have been developed, that are deployed on the sea bed and operated from standard research vessels. These developments include the BMS (Bentic Multicoring System, developed by Williamson and Associates, operated by the Japanese Mining Agency), the PROD (Portable Remotely Operated Drill, developed and operated by Benthic Geotech), the Rockdrill 2 (developed and operated by the British geological Survey) and the MeBo (German abbreviation for sea floor drill rig, developed and operated by Marum, University of Bremen). These drill rigs reach drilling depths between 15 and 100 m. For shallow drillings remotely operated drill rigs are a cost effective alternative to the services of drill ships and have the major advantage that the drilling operations are performed from a stable platform independent of any ship movements due to waves, wind or currents. Sea floor drill rigs can be deployed both in shallow waters and the deep sea. A careful site survey is required before deploying the sea floor drill rig. Slope gradient, small scale topography and soil strength are important factors when planning the deployment. The choice of drill bits and core catcher depend on the expected geology. The required drill tools are stored on one or two magazines on the drill rig. The MeBo is the only remotely operated drill rig world wide that can use wire line coring technique. This method is much faster than conventional

  10. North Sea oil directory 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This edition of the North Sea Oil Directory has been revised to keep pace with the ever-changing North Sea industry. The information is grouped under the following topics: exploration and production; group licensees; Dutch and Norwegian licensees; UK Offshore Operators Association Committees; drilling contractors; offshore exploration and surveys; cement, drilling fluids, and related equipment; drilling equipment; prime mover, transmission equipment; production and process equipment; rig and platform equipment suppliers; rig builders, ship builders; rig and platform logistics; ports, supply bases; marine civil engineering; specialized equipment and services; classified index; and an alphabetical index. (MCW)

  11. Sea ice classification using dual polarization SAR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiying, Liu; Huadong, Guo; Lu, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is an indicator of climate change and also a threat to the navigation security of ships. Polarimetric SAR images are useful in the sea ice detection and classification. In this paper, backscattering coefficients and texture features derived from dual polarization SAR images are used for sea ice classification. Firstly, the HH image is recalculated based on the angular dependences of sea ice types. Then the effective gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) texture features are selected for the support vector machine (SVM) classification. In the end, because sea ice concentration can provide a better separation of pancake ice from old ice, it is used to improve the SVM result. This method provides a good classification result, compared with the sea ice chart from CIS

  12. A decision support system for mission-based ship routing considering multiple performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, You; Frangopol, Dan M.; Sabatino, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the risk associated with marine vessels subjected to inclement weather and sea conditions when developing a decision support system for ship routing. The generalized decision making framework developed in this paper performs a variety of tasks, including, but not limited to quantifying the flexural and fatigue performance of ship structures and employing multi-attribute utility theory to evaluate ship mission performance. A structural reliability approach is utilized to compute the probability of failure considering the uncertainties in structural capacity and load effects; specifically, effects of flexural and fatigue damage are investigated. The expected repair cost, cumulative fatigue damage, total travel time, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with ship routing are considered as consequences within the risk assessment procedure adopted in this paper. Additionally, the decision maker’s risk attitude is integrated into the presented approach by employing utility theory. The presented methodology can assist decision makers in making informed decisions concerning ship routing. In order to illustrate its capabilities the approach is applied to the Joint High-speed Sealift Ship. - Highlights: • Multi-attribute utility theory is proposed for the ship routing decision making. • Spectral-based fatigue damage and repair loss are computed. • Travel time and CO_2 emissions are incorporated within the decision making process. • The attitude of the decision maker has significant effects on the utility value.

  13. Gamming Chairs and Gimballed Beds: Seafaring Women on Board Nineteenth-Century Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborn, Laurel

    2017-04-01

    During the nineteenth century, many captains' wives from New England took up residence on the ships their husbands commanded. This article focuses on how those women at sea attempted to use material culture to domesticate their voyaging space. While writing in their journals, they referred to not only the small personal things such as books and knitting needles that they brought in their trunks, but also large items, built for and used by women, such as gamming chairs, deckhouses, parlor organs, sewing machines, and gimballed beds. Mary Brewster attempted to retreat from the ship's officers in her small deckhouse, Annie Brassey slept in the gimballed bed, and Lucy Lord Howes disembarked in a gamming chair when captured by Confederates during the Civil War. Evidence of these artifacts found during shipwreck archaeology could be used to further what is known of the culture aboard ships on which women lived. Analysis of the material culture reveals how a captain's wife domesticated space, altered her environment, and made a home on the ship for her family.

  14. Estimation of annual heat flux balance at the sea surface from sst (NOAA-satellite and ships drift data off southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimine Ikeda

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to study the possibility of estimating the heat flux balance at the sea surface from GOSSTCOMP (Global Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Computation developed by NOAA/NESS, USA, and sea surface current data based from ships drift information obtained from Pilot Charts, published by the Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (DHN, Brazilian Navy. The annual mean value of the heat flux balance at the sea surface off southeast Brazil for 1977, is estimated from data on the balance between the heat transported by the currents and that transported by eddy diffusion for each volume defined as 2º x 2º (Lat. x Long. square with a constant depth equivalent to an oceanic mixed layer, 100 m thick. Results show several oceanic areas where there are net flows of heat from atmosphere towards the sea surface. In front of Rio de Janeiro the heat flow was downward and up to 70 ly day-1 and is probably related to the upwellirug phenomenon normally occurring in that area. Another coastal area between Lat. 25ºS to 28ºS indicated an downward flow up to 50 ly day-1; and for an area south of Lat. 27ºS, Long. 040ºW - 048ºW an downward flow up to 200 ly day-1, where the transfer was probably due to the cold water of a nortward flux from the Falkland (Malvinas Current. Results also show several oceanic areas where net flows of heat (of about -100 ly day-1 were toward the atmosphere. In the oceanic areas Lat. 19ºS - 23ºS and Lat. 24ºS - 30ºS, the flows were probably due to the warm water of a southward flux of the Brazil Current. The resulting fluxes from the warm waters of the Brazil Current when compared with those from warm waters of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio, indicate that the Gulf Stream carries about 3.3 times and the Kuroshio 1.7 times more heat than the Brazil Current. These values agree with those of data available on the heat fluxes of the above mentioned Currents calculated by different methods (Budyko, 1974.

  15. Application of Artificial Neural Networks to Ship Detection from X-Band Kompsat-5 Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-In Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For ship detection, X-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR imagery provides very useful data, in that ship targets look much brighter than surrounding sea clutter due to the corner-reflection effect. However, there are many phenomena which bring out false detection in the SAR image, such as noise of background, ghost phenomena, side-lobe effects and so on. Therefore, when ship-detection algorithms are carried out, we should consider these effects and mitigate them to acquire a better result. In this paper, we propose an efficient method to detect ship targets from X-band Kompsat-5 SAR imagery using the artificial neural network (ANN. The method produces the ship-probability map using ANN, and then detects ships from the ship-probability map by using a threshold value. For the purpose of getting an improved ship detection, we strived to produce optimal input layers used for ANN. In order to reduce phenomena related to the false detections, the non-local (NL-means filter and median filter were utilized. The NL-means filter effectively reduced noise on SAR imagery without smoothing edges of the objects, and the median filter was used to remove ship targets in SAR imagery. Through the filtering approaches, we generated two input layers from a Kompsat-5 SAR image, and created a ship-probability map via ANN from the two input layers. When the threshold value of 0.67 was imposed on the ship-probability map, the result of ship detection from the ship-probability map was a 93.9% recall, 98.7% precision and 6.1% false alarm rate. Therefore, the proposed method was successfully applied to the ship detection from the Kompsat-5 SAR image.

  16. Review of interdisciplinary devices for detecting the quality of ship ballast water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The results of the ship ballast water treatment systems neutralization need to be verified in a transparent and trustful way before the ship enters a port. Some researches and results, explained in this article, confirm a need for a good verification. If there is no good methodology agreed, then it would not be accepted the solution that the BWMC (Ballast Water Management Convention) 2004 did protect the sea environment in full meaning. The main problem of ballast neutralization are remaining microorganisms (algae blooms, bacteria) ≥10 and PROMETHEE II (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations) and results were shown by D-Sight software projections.

  17. Legal education at sea via ATS-1. An evaluation of the T/S Golden Bear experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    A course in maritime law was provided via ATS satellite to law students onboard ship. Classes were received while the ship was on the open seas and in the various ports visited. A half duplex audio channel provided the primary communication mode. All participants judged this pilot study to be extremely useful. Students were able to pursue their course work and to have the benefits of research guidance from academic advisors, while gaining practical, hands on experience at sea.

  18. A Dynamic Model for Roll Motion of Ships Due to Flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented of the roll motion of damaged RoRo vessels which couples the internal cross-flooding flow and the air action in the equalizing compartment. The cross flooding flow and the air motion are modelled by a modified Bernoulli equation, where artificial damping is introduced...... to avoid modal instability based on the original Bernoulli equation. The fluid action of the flooded water on the ship is expressed by its influence on the moment of inertia of the ship and the heeling moment, which is a couple created by the gravitational force of the flooded water and the change...... of buoyancy of the ship.Two limiting flooding cases are examined in the present analysis: The sudden ingress of a certain amount of water to the damaged compartment with no further water exchange between the sea and the flooded compartment during the roll motion, and the continuous ingress of water through...

  19. SeaRAM: A DOE evaluation of maritime accident risk assessment data and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprung, J.L.; Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The SeaRAM Program conducted for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Laboratories has developed estimates of the frequencies of occurrence of ship fires and ship collisions, the fraction of all ship fires and ship collisions that might be sufficiently severe to challenge the integrity of a Type B spent fuel transportation cask, the magnitude of the radioactive source terms that might be released from a Type B spent fuel transportation cask due to loss of cask integrity, and the magnitude of the radiological consequences that might be caused by the radioactive release.

  20. SeaRAM: A DOE evaluation of maritime accident risk assessment data and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, J.L.; Ammerman, D.J.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-03-01

    The SeaRAM Program conducted for the US Department of Energy by Sandia National Laboratories has developed estimates of the frequencies of occurrence of ship fires and ship collisions, the fraction of all ship fires and ship collisions that might be sufficiently severe to challenge the integrity of a Type B spent fuel transportation cask, the magnitude of the radioactive source terms that might be released from a Type B spent fuel transportation cask due to loss of cask integrity, and the magnitude of the radiological consequences that might be caused by the radioactive release

  1. Prediction of Vertical-Plane Wave Loading and Ship Responses in High Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Xia, J.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2000-01-01

    The non-linearities in wave- and slamming-induced rigid-body motions and structural responses of ships such as heave, pitch and vertical bending moments are consistently investigated based on a rational time-domain strip method. A hydrodynamic model for predicting sectional green water force is a...

  2. The French Contribution to the Voluntary Observing Ships Network of Sea Surface Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcroix, T. C.; Alory, G.; Téchiné, P.; Diverrès, D.; Varillon, D.; Cravatte, S. E.; Gouriou, Y.; Grelet, J.; Jacquin, S.; Kestenare, E.; Maes, C.; Morrow, R.; Perrier, J.; Reverdin, G. P.; Roubaud, F.

    2016-02-01

    Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) is an essential climate variable that requires long term in situ observation. The French SSS Observation Service (SSS-OS) manages a network of Voluntary Observing Ships equipped with thermosalinographs (TSG). The network is global though more concentrated in the tropical Pacific and North Atlantic oceanic basins. The acquisition system is autonomous with real time transmission and is regularly serviced at harbor calls. There are distinct real time and delayed time processing chains. Real time processing includes automatic alerts to detect potential instrument problems, in case raw data are outside of climatic limits, and graphical monitoring tools. Delayed time processing relies on a dedicated software for attribution of data quality flags by visual inspection, and correction of TSG time series by comparison with daily water samples and collocated Argo data. A method for optimizing the automatic attribution of quality flags in real time, based on testing different thresholds for data deviation from climatology and retroactively comparing the resulting flags to delayed time flags, is presented. The SSS-OS real time data feed the Coriolis operational oceanography database, while the research-quality delayed time data can be extracted for selected time and geographical ranges through a graphical web interface. Delayed time data have been also combined with other SSS data sources to produce gridded files for the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. A short review of the research activities conducted with such data is given. It includes observation-based process-oriented and climate studies from regional to global scale as well as studies where in situ SSS is used for calibration/validation of models, coral proxies or satellite data.

  3. Environmental Impacts of Shipping to and from Citronen Fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boertmann, D.

    . The waters off Citronen Fjord are covered by ice throughout the year. Fast ice covers Frederick E. Hyde Fjord and the coastal waters off the outer coast, and pack ice covers the Wandel Sea and the majority of the Greenland Sea. Sailing in these waters will require powerful icebreaking capabilities...... Henrik Krøyer Holme are the most sensitive to sailing and icebreaking. Sailing and icebreaking in these areas should be avoided. The movement of icebreakers through the fast ice of Frederick E. Hyde Fjord may alter the habitat of a population of ringed seals that inhabit the fiord. Incidental oil spills...... from the ships sailing to and from Citronen Fjord poses the most serious threats to the wildlife in the area covered by this report....

  4. Comprehensive simultaneous shipboard and airborne characterization of exhaust from a modern container ship at sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shane M; Agrawal, Harshit; Sorooshian, Armin; Padró, Luz T; Gates, Harmony; Hersey, Scott; Welch, W A; Lung, H; Miller, J W; Cocker, David R; Nenes, Athanasios; Jonsson, Haflidi H; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2009-07-01

    We report the first joint shipboard and airborne study focused on the chemical composition and water-uptake behavior of particulate ship emissions. The study focuses on emissions from the main propulsion engine of a Post-Panamax class container ship cruising off the central coast of California and burning heavy fuel oil. Shipboard sampling included micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDI) with subsequent off-line analysis, whereas airborne measurements involved a number of real-time analyzers to characterize the plume aerosol, aged from a few seconds to over an hour. The mass ratio of particulate organic carbon to sulfate at the base of the ship stack was 0.23 +/- 0.03, and increased to 0.30 +/- 0.01 in the airborne exhaust plume, with the additional organic mass in the airborne plume being concentrated largely in particles below 100 nm in diameter. The organic to sulfate mass ratio in the exhaust aerosol remained constant during the first hour of plume dilution into the marine boundary layer. The mass spectrum of the organic fraction of the exhaust aerosol strongly resembles that of emissions from other diesel sources and appears to be predominantly hydrocarbon-like organic (HOA) material. Background aerosol which, based on air mass back trajectories, probably consisted of aged ship emissions and marine aerosol, contained a lower organic mass fraction than the fresh plume and had a much more oxidized organic component. A volume-weighted mixing rule is able to accurately predict hygroscopic growth factors in the background aerosol but measured and calculated growth factors do not agree for aerosols in the ship exhaust plume. Calculated CCN concentrations, at supersaturations ranging from 0.1 to 0.33%, agree well with measurements in the ship-exhaust plume. Using size-resolved chemical composition instead of bulk submicrometer composition has little effect on the predicted CCN concentrations because the cutoff diameter for CCN activation is larger than the

  5. Effects of shipping on marine acoustic habitats in Canadian Arctic estimated via probabilistic modeling and mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulanier, Florian; Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie; Gervaise, Cédric; Bandet, Marion

    2017-12-15

    Canadian Arctic and Subarctic regions experience a rapid decrease of sea ice accompanied with increasing shipping traffic. The resulting time-space changes in shipping noise are studied for four key regions of this pristine environment, for 2013 traffic conditions and a hypothetical tenfold traffic increase. A probabilistic modeling and mapping framework, called Ramdam, which integrates the intrinsic variability and uncertainties of shipping noise and its effects on marine habitats, is developed and applied. A substantial transformation of soundscapes is observed in areas where shipping noise changes from present occasional-transient contributor to a dominant noise source. Examination of impacts on low-frequency mammals within ecologically and biologically significant areas reveals that shipping noise has the potential to trigger behavioral responses and masking in the future, although no risk of temporary or permanent hearing threshold shifts is noted. Such probabilistic modeling and mapping is strategic in marine spatial planning of this emerging noise issues. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trends in oil spills from tanker ships 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijer, K.

    2005-01-01

    The trends in oil spills around the world over from 1995 to 2004 were examined and analyzed for possible influences on spill volumes and frequencies for incidents of 3 spill size classes. The International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation (ITOPF) has maintained a database since 1974 of all oil spills from tankers, combined carriers and barges. The number of oil spills has decreased significantly in the last 30 years despite a steady increase in maritime oil trade since the 1980s. The recent trends were identified by causes, locations, oil type, and shipping legislation. The causes include ship loading/discharging, bunkering, collisions, groundings, hull failures and fires. The types of oil spilt include bunker, crude, cargo fuel, white product and some unknowns. It was concluded that the decline in oil spills is due to a range of initiatives taken by governments and the shipping industry rather than any one factor. Some notable influences towards reduced number of spills include: the international convention for the prevention of pollution from ships of 1972, as modified by the Protocol of 1978; the international convention for the safety of life at sea of 1974; and the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Results of investigations into the causes of spills serve the purpose of informing the international process to further prevent and reduce marine oil pollution due to tankers. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 12 figs

  7. The economic potential of a cassette-type-reactor-installed nuclear ice-breaking container ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Koichi; Takamasa, Tomoji

    1999-01-01

    An improved cassette-type marine reactor MRX (Marine Reactor X) which is currently researched and developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is designed to be easily removed and transferred to another ship. If the reactor in a nuclear-powered ship, which is the reason for its higher cost, were replaced by the cassette-type-MRX, the reusability of the MRX would reduce the cost difference between nuclear-powered and diesel ships. As an investigation of one aspect of a cassette-type MRX, we attempted in this study to do an economic review of an MRX-installed nuclear-powered ice-breaking container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean. The transportation cost between the Far East and Europe to carry one TEU (twenty-foot-equivalent container unit) over the entire life of the ship for an MRX (which is used for a 20-year period)-installed container ship sailing via the Arctic Ocean is about 70% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship, carrying 8,000 TEU and sailing at 25 knots, and about 10% higher than the Suez Canal diesel ship carrying 4,000 TEU and sailing at 34 knots. The cost for a cassette-type-MRX (which is used for a 40-year period, removed and transferred to a second ship after being used for 20 years in the first ship)-installed nuclear-powered container ship is about 7% lower than that for the one operated for 20 years. Considering any loss or reduction in sales opportunities through the extension of the transportation period, the nuclear-powered container ship via the Arctic Sea is a more suitable means of transportation than a diesel ship sailing at 25 knots via the Suez Canal when the value of the commodities carried exceeds 2,800 dollars per freight ton. (author)

  8. 50-Year Window to Establish a Space Faring Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Humankind may only have a short window of 50 years to become a space-faring civilization, after which time the opportunity to do so may become too difficult or impractical to pursue. Current policies for space exploration and infrastructure development implicitly assume a gradualistic approach to technology, budgets, and mission execution -- the common thought has been that there will be plenty of time in humankind's future to become a space-based species, and whatever we are unable to accomplish will be borne by the generations that follow. However, considering natural events, available energy, and human tendencies, the timing to make the most effective effort to achieve multi-planet status might be now, before momentum is lost and we become distracted by Peak Oil and changing energy economies -- restarting a space program after such turmoil may be more difficult than would be practical without cheap, storable, high-energy density petroleum. "Space-faring civilization" is defined as an economically profitable space-based economy that demands the presence of humans off-world in order to sustain a high level of prosperity. An initial foothold for a space-based economy that would fit within the 50-year window might include Earth dependence on rare-earth elements or other hard-to-obtain minerals mined from moons or asteroids, or a permanent settlement on another planet. Using published sources, notional mass and energy requirements for a minimal self-sustaining Mars settlement is calculated, and the number of launch vehicles discussed. Setting the launch schedule to match that of current NASA projections, it could take more than 26 years of semi-annual launches to build up such a self-sustaining human settlement -- a cost and commitment that has not been acknowledged nor planned for. Considering the time required to establish a multi-planet species, this paper frames the required window of decision that, if not taken, could condemn the species to Earth subject to

  9. Ship detection based on rotation-invariant HOG descriptors for airborne infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guojing; Wang, Jinyan; Qi, Shengxiang

    2018-03-01

    Infrared thermal imagery is widely used in various kinds of aircraft because of its all-time application. Meanwhile, detecting ships from infrared images attract lots of research interests in recent years. In the case of downward-looking infrared imagery, in order to overcome the uncertainty of target imaging attitude due to the unknown position relationship between the aircraft and the target, we propose a new infrared ship detection method which integrates rotation invariant gradient direction histogram (Circle Histogram of Oriented Gradient, C-HOG) descriptors and the support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In details, the proposed method uses HOG descriptors to express the local feature of infrared images to adapt to changes in illumination and to overcome sea clutter effects. Different from traditional computation of HOG descriptor, we subdivide the image into annular spatial bins instead of rectangle sub-regions, and then Radial Gradient Transform (RGT) on the gradient is applied to achieve rotation invariant histogram information. Considering the engineering application of airborne and real-time requirements, we use SVM for training ship target and non-target background infrared sample images to discriminate real ships from false targets. Experimental results show that the proposed method has good performance in both the robustness and run-time for infrared ship target detection with different rotation angles.

  10. Towards a probabilistic model for predicting ship besetting in ice in Arctic waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Shanshan; Zhang, Di; Montewka, Jakub; Yan, Xinping; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the melting of sea ice due to global warming has made it possible for merchant ships to navigate through Arctic Waters. However, Arctic Marine Transportation System remains a very demanding, dynamic and complex system due to challenging hydro-meteorological conditions, poorly charted waters and remoteness of the area resulting in lack of appropriate response capacity in case of emergency. In order to ensure a proper safety level for operations such as ship transit within the area, a risk analysis should be carried out, where the relevant factors pertaining to a given operation are defined and organized in a model. Such a model can assist onshore managers or ships’ crews in planning and conducting an actual sea passage through Arctic waters. However, research in this domain is scarce, mainly due to lack of data. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of a dataset and expert judgment to determine the risk influencing factors and develop a probabilistic model for a ship besetting in ice along the Northeast Passage. For that purpose, we adopt Bayesian belief Networks (BBNs), due to their predominant feature of reasoning under uncertainty and their ability to accommodate data from various sources. The obtained BBN model has been validated showing good agreement with available state-of-the-art models, and providing good understanding of the analyzed phenomena.

  11. A Multi-Polarization Study on Ship Detection over X-Band Full-Resolution COSMO SkyMed SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Maurizio; Nunziata, Ferdinando; Sorrentio, Antonio; Ferrara, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Ship detection over marine Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images is a key application for global monitoring for environment and security. In this paper, a physically-based filter which exploits a proper combination of GK parameters is conceived to unambiguously observe ships over sea surface in HV-polarized Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR data. Experiments accomplished over a meaningful set of X-band SLC CosmoSkyMed StripMap SAR data confirm the physical soundness of the proposed approach.

  12. Comparison of shipping, handling, and shock instrumentation results for two 3.5-m-class primary mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killpatrick, Don H.; Mayo, James W.

    1998-08-01

    Packing, shipping, and handling procedures employed during several transportation activities for two large telescope primary mirrors are presented along with detailed shock recording results. Operations monitored included craning, forklifting, and shipping by air, sea, and land during all phases of manufacture and installation. The mirrors monitored were the SOR 3.5-m Telescope spun cast borosilicate primary mirror and the AEOS 3.67-m Telescope Zerodur thin meniscus primary mirror. Shock recording instrumentation included 2-, 5-, and 10-g Omni-G(superscript TM) impact indicators, 10-g Impact o-graph(superscript TM) 3-axis recording accelerometers, and high-resolution 3-axis accelerometers with Astromed Dash 8 eight-channel chart recorders and audio indicators. Shock results for some operations were monitored to the 0.01-g level. In-shipment temperature data are also presented and discussed. Effects of lifting operations, road conditions via truck, flight conditions via C-5B aircraft, and transportation via sea- going barge are discussed. Data are presented for three different crate designs and configurations and, in some cases, include mirror-in-cell shipping data. Shock results were observed from as low as a few hundredths-g to over 3- g's during various operations.

  13. A New Perspective at the Ship-Air-Sea-Interface: The Environmental Impacts of Exhaust Gas Scrubber Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Endres

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Shipping emissions are likely to increase significantly in the coming decades, alongside increasing emphasis on the sustainability and environmental impacts of the maritime transport sector. Exhaust gas cleaning systems (“scrubbers”, using seawater or fresh water as cleaning media for sulfur dioxide, are progressively used by shipping companies to comply with emissions regulations. Little is known about the chemical composition of the scrubber effluent and its ecological consequences for marine life and biogeochemical processes. If scrubbers become a central tool for atmospheric pollution reduction from shipping, modeling, and experimental studies will be necessary to determine the ecological and biogeochemical effects of scrubber wash water discharge on the marine environment. Furthermore, attention must be paid to the regulation and enforcement of environmental protection standards concerning scrubber use. Close collaboration between natural scientists and social scientists is crucial for progress toward sustainable shipping and protection of the marine environment.

  14. Green shipping management

    CERN Document Server

    Lun, Y H Venus; Wong, Christina W Y; Cheng, T C E

    2016-01-01

    This book presents theory-driven discussion on the link between implementing green shipping practices (GSP) and shipping firm performance. It examines the shipping industry’s challenge of supporting economic growth while enhancing environmental performance. Consisting of nine chapters, the book covers topics such as the conceptualization of green shipping practices (GSPs), measurement scales for evaluating GSP implementation, greening capability, greening and performance relativity (GPR), green management practice, green shipping network, greening capacity, and greening propensity. In view of the increasing quest for environment protection in the shipping sector, this book provides a good reference for firms to understand and evaluate their capability in carrying out green operations on their shipping activities.

  15. Comparison of chlorophyll in the Red Sea derived from MODIS-Aqua and in vivo fluorescence

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J W

    2013-09-01

    The Red Sea is a unique marine environment but relatively unexplored. The only available long-term biological dataset at large spatial and temporal scales is remotely-sensed chlorophyll observations (an index of phytoplankton biomass) derived using satellite measurements of ocean colour. Yet such observations have rarely been compared with in situ data in the Red Sea. In this paper, satellite chlorophyll estimates in the Red Sea from the MODIS instrument onboard the Aqua satellite are compared with three recent cruises of in vivo fluorometric chlorophyll measurements taken in October 2008, March 2010 and September to October 2011. The performance of the standard NASA chlorophyll algorithm, and that of a new band-difference algorithm, is found to be comparable with other oligotrophic regions in the global ocean, supporting the use of satellite ocean colour in the Red Sea. However, given the unique environmental conditions of the study area, regional algorithms are likely to fare better and this is demonstrated through a simple adjustment to the band-difference algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  16. Consequences of postulated losses of LWR spent fuel and plutonium shipping packages at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Baker, D.A.; Beyer, C.E.; Friley, J.R.; Mandel, S.; Peterson, P.L.; Sominen, F.A.

    1977-10-01

    The potential consequences of the loss of a large spent fuel cask and of a single 6M plutonium shipping package into the sea for two specific accident cases are estimated. The radiation dose to man through the marine food chain following the loss of undamaged and fire-damaged packages to the continental shelf and in the deep ocean are conservatively estimated. Two failure mechanisms that could lead to release of radioactive material after loss of packages into the ocean have been considered: corrosion and hydrostatic pressure. A third possible mechanism is thermal overpressurization following burial in marine sediments. It was determined that the seals or pressure relief devices on an undamaged spent fuel cask might fail from hydrostatic forces for losses on the continental shelf although some cask designs would retain their integrity at this depth. The population dose to man through the marine food chain following these scenarios has been estimated. The dose estimates are made relating the radioactive material released and the seafood productivity in the region of the release. Doses are based on a one-year consumption of contaminated seafood. The loss of a single plutonium package on the continental shelf is estimated to produce a population dose commitment of less than 250 man-rem for recycle plutonium. The dose commitment to the average individual is less than one millirem. Doses for losses of undamaged casks to the continental shelf and deep ocean and for loss of a fire-damaged cask to the deep ocean were determined to be several orders of magnitude smaller. 22 tables, 10 figures

  17. Mitigating the Security Risks in the South China Sea Island Disputes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-13

    third of the global crude oil and more than half of global gas shipping passes through the South China Sea. 2 For the United States, $1.2 trillion...China Sea. China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia , and Brunei contest the sovereignty of these islands. In recent years, China has become...Administration estimates that the South China Sea holds approximately 11 billion barrels of oil 2 and 190 trillion cubic feet of natural gas

  18. The Swedish sea transportation system for safety reasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybeck, P.

    1993-01-01

    Sweden began to design and build a sea transportation system. The ship M/S SIGYN is specially designed for transports of radioactive waste. It is a combined roll-on/roll-off and lift-on/lift-off vessel. It is built for world wide operation and with the highest requirements of two independent classification societies, Lloyds Register of Shipping and Bureau Veritas. The ship is also designed to conform to the Swedish/Finish ice class 1A. The transport cask for spent fuel, TN 17/2, and core component TN 17-CC are designed as type (B) casks and manufactured to comply with the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials, 1973. (J.P.N.)

  19. Impact of increasing ship emissions on air quality and deposition over Europe by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Bill; Sanderson, Michael G.; Johnson, Colin E. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A global chemistry-transport model has been used to study the effect of shipping emissions on air quality and ecosystems over Europe, through changes in surface ozone and surface sulphate aerosols, and changes in the deposition of sulphur and oxidised nitrogen. Scenarios are chosen to determine the impact of current (2000) shipping emissions, and the combined impact of changes in land-based and shipping emissions by 2030. The effects of shipping on ozone are small, compared to land-based emissions changes, and can be both positive and negative. Due to the non-linear nature of ozone chemistry, the effects of shipping depend on the magnitude of the emission change, and on the choice of scenario for the land-based emissions. The effects on sulphate aerosol levels and deposition fluxes of sulphate aerosols and oxidised nitrogen species are larger, and are comparable to expected changes in land-based emissions. This is particularly true for SO{sub 2} emissions from shipping. SO{sub 2} has a sufficiently short lifetime that most of the impacts are felt within the European region, although much of that is over the sea. The increase in sulphate aerosols and sulphur deposition due to the SO{sub 2} from shipping will offset 75 % of the benefits in air quality that would be expect from land-based emission controls under the SRES A2 scenario. (orig.)

  20. Niche public transport operational and capital investment strategies to minimize fares in the light of increased energy costs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fuel costs are a significant component of a public transport fare. It is therefore of critical importance for measures aimed at containing household public transport expenditure to explore alternative ways of reducing fuel consumption or fuel...

  1. Analysis of High Energy Laser Weapon Employment from a Navy Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Free Electron Laser, Fiber Laser, Littoral Combat Ship 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 87 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT...tunability, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) could offer defense against high maneuverability, sea- skimming supersonic missiles. This paper studies three...most direct approach would be lasing the beam on the IED, if it is exposed, causing it to explode (Approach A). The next approach is to penetrate

  2. Ship Detection Based on Multiple Features in Random Forest Model for Hyperspectral Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, N.; Ding, L.; Zhao, H.; Shi, J.; Wang, D.; Gong, X.

    2018-04-01

    A novel method for detecting ships which aim to make full use of both the spatial and spectral information from hyperspectral images is proposed. Firstly, the band which is high signal-noise ratio in the range of near infrared or short-wave infrared spectrum, is used to segment land and sea on Otsu threshold segmentation method. Secondly, multiple features that include spectral and texture features are extracted from hyperspectral images. Principal components analysis (PCA) is used to extract spectral features, the Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to extract texture features. Finally, Random Forest (RF) model is introduced to detect ships based on the extracted features. To illustrate the effectiveness of the method, we carry out experiments over the EO-1 data by comparing single feature and different multiple features. Compared with the traditional single feature method and Support Vector Machine (SVM) model, the proposed method can stably achieve the target detection of ships under complex background and can effectively improve the detection accuracy of ships.

  3. How propeller suction is the dominant factor for ship accidents at shallow water conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Ozeren, Sinan

    2017-04-01

    The laminar flow comes to the fore with the disappearance of the several other directions in the internal displacements in the water current. Due to the dominant speed direction during the straightforward motion of the ship, the underwater hull is associated with the continuous flow of laminar currents. The open marine environment acts as a compressible liquid medium because of the presence of many variables about water volume overflow boundaries where the ship is associated. Layers of water rising over the sea surface due to ship's body and the propeller's water push provides loss of liquid lifting force for the ship. These situations change the well-known sea-floor morphology and reliable depth limits, and lead to probable accidents. If the ship block coefficient for the front side is 0.7 or higher, the "squat" will be more on the bow, because the associated factor "displacement volume" causes to the low-pressure environment due to large and rapid turbulence. Thus, the bow sinks further, which faced with liquid's weaker lift force. The vessels Gerardus Mercator, Queen Elizabeth and Costa Concordia had accidents because of unified reasons of squat, fast water mass displacement by hull push and propeller suction interaction. In the case of water mass displacement from the bow side away, that accident occurred in 2005 by the vessel Gerardus Mercator with excessive longitudinal trim angularity in the shallow water. The vessel Costa Concordia (2012), voluminous water displaced from the rear left side was an important factor because of the sharp manoeuvre of that the captain made before the accident. Observations before the accident indicate that full-speed sharp turn provided listed position for the ship from left (port side) in the direction of travel before colliding and then strike a rock on the sloping side of the seabed. The reason why the ship drifted to the left depends mainly the water discharge occurred at the left side of the hull during left-hand rudder

  4. Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnolst, N.; Wergeland, T.

    1996-01-01

    Shipping is a multi-faceted industry which is rather complex to define from an academic point of view. This book attempts to grasp these complexities and provide the reader with an overview of the main topics and terminology in shipping. The book is based on material from our courses in shipping at the universities in Delft and Bergen. As with our lectures, we draw upon quite a va ried material, from research studies at a high academic level to lower level student work and purely descriptive ...

  5. Compact Polarimetric SAR Ship Detection with m-δ Decomposition Using Visual Attention Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A few previous studies have illustrated the potentials of compact polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP SAR in ship detection. In this paper, we design a ship detection algorithm of CP SAR from the perspective of computer vision. A ship detection algorithm using the pulsed cosine transform (PCT visual attention model is proposed to suppress background clutter and highlight conspicuous ship targets. It is the first time that a visual attention model is introduced to CP SAR application. The proposed algorithm is a quick and complete framework for practical use. Polarimetric features—the relative phase δ and volume scattering component—are extracted from m-δ decomposition to eliminate false alarms and modify the PCT model. The constant false alarm rate (CFAR algorithm based on lognormal distribution is adopted to detect ship targets, after a clutter distribution fitting procedure of the modified saliency map. The proposed method is then tested on three simulated circular-transmit-linear-receive (CTLR mode images, which covering East Sea of China. Compared with the detection results of SPAN and the saliency map with only single-channel amplitude, the proposed method achieves the highest detection rates and the lowest misidentification rate and highest figure of merit, proving the effectiveness of polarimetric information of compact polarimetric SAR ship detection and the enhancement from the visual attention model.

  6. A massive ingression of the alien species Mytilus edulis L. (Bivalvia: Mollusca into the Mediterranean Sea following the Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. CASOLI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Costa Concordia cruise-ship disaster occurred just off the coast of Italy on January 13th, 2012, and entailed the largest marine salvage operation in history. The salvage employed vessels from different European harbours, providing an unexpected means for transporting alien species into the Mediterranean. In this work we identified mussel species using fragments length polymorphism of a nuclear locus and report the first evidence of the transport of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758 (Bivalvia: Mollusca, into the Mediterranean Sea, as a part of the fouling community of the hull of an accommodation barge arrived from a NE Atlantic location in October 2012. Furthermore, we describe the rapid growth of this species, under the ASV Pioneer, until its almost total extinction during the summer of 2013, which left a covering of mussel shells on the underlying Posidonia oceanica (Linnaeus Delile, 1813. meadow. This high mortality rate indicated that M. edulis had been exposed to high stress conditions, probably due to different salinity, temperature, and oligotrophic conditions from its place of origin, and there was no spawning event or known settlement on the nearest infralittoral natural habitats. This event reminds us of how the Mediterranean Sea is constantly under alien-species pressure, due to human activities.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Hull Girder Vibrations and Bow Impact of a Large Ship Sailing in Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance to evaluate the hull structural vibrations response of large ships in extreme seas. Studies of hydroelastic response of an ultra large ship have been conducted with comparative verification between experimental and numerical methods in order to estimate the wave loads response considering hull vibration and water impact. A segmented self-propelling model with steel backbone system was elaborately designed and the experiments were performed in a tank. Time domain numerical simulations of the ship were carried out by using three-dimensional nonlinear hydroelasticity theory. The results from the computational analyses have been correlated with those from model tests.

  8. Designing Adaptable Ships: Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    with motors, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles , and switches. If ship installation is not installed, the system will be status quo. Ship...Impact: the current centrifugal purifiers (Alfa-Laval) have experienced frequent failures with motor, belts, shafts , seals, valves, hose spindles ... Designing Adaptable Ships Modularity and Flexibility in Future Ship Designs John F. Schank, Scott Savitz, Ken Munson, Brian Perkinson, James

  9. Reliability analysis of emergency decay heat removal system of nuclear ship under various accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    A reliability analysis is given for the emergency decay heat removal system of the Nuclear Ship ''Mutsu'' and the emergency sea water cooling system of the Nuclear Ship ''Savannah'', under ten typical nuclear ship accident conditions. Basic event probabilities under these accident conditions are estimated from literature survey. These systems of Mutsu and Savannah have almost the same reliability under the normal condition. The dispersive arrangement of a system is useful to prevent the reduction of the system reliability under the condition of an accident restricted in one room. As for the reliability of these two systems under various accident conditions, it is seen that the configuration and the environmental condition of a system are two main factors which determine the reliability of the system. Furthermore, it was found that, for the evaluation of the effectiveness of safety system of a nuclear ship, it is necessary to evaluate its reliability under various accident conditions. (author)

  10. Electronic countermeasures (ECM) and acoustic countermeasures (ACM) supported protection for merchant ships against SSM/ASM missiles and mines

    OpenAIRE

    Wallander, Bo L.

    1989-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The necessity for merchant ship self protection has become more and more obvious during recent years. This thesis will investigate the threat (missiles and mines) and associated counter-measures that might be installed to provide a reasonable degree of protection. The results indicate that it is possible to get protection against a sea-skimming missile with a combination of ECM and ESM deployed aboard the ship. For protection against the ...

  11. WATER TEMPERATURE and other data from MULTIPLE SHIPS from 1983-01-01 to 1992-12-31 (NODC Accession 9400224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected as part of Shipboard Environmental data Acquisition System (SEAS) II program. The cruises were conducted using multiple ships....

  12. Report of the Committee on the Survey of Hull Bottom of Nuclear Ship Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear ship Mutsu arrived the Sasebo Shipyard, Sasebo Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., in October, 1978, to repair the shielding for the reactor and to inspect generally the safety. The docking works were not carried out since 1972 for the Mutsu, therefore it was decided to admit the Mutsu in a dock to put the hull in order. To prepare for starting the output test again, it is necessary to grasp the state of the hull part below water line and take appropriate measures as occasions demand, therefore the Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency established the Committee on the Survey of Hull Bottom of Nuclear Ship Mutsu in July, 1979. Three meetings of the committee were held from July 2 to September 19, and the draft of the report was drawn up. The Mutsu entered No. 5 dock of the Sasebo Shipyard on July 9, and left on July 23, and the survey of the hull bottom was carried out during that period. The results of the survey are reported as follows: the state of bottom shell plates, the state of aft part and the propeller, the state of sea chests, the state of the electrical corrosion protection of bottom shell plates and the state of sea valves. The problem to be specially mentioned was not found, and it was recognized that the sound maintenance has been carried out. (Kako, I.)

  13. Technical Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle System Using Low-Temperature Source to Generate Electricity in Ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Faisal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the shipping sector has growth rapidly as followed by the increasing of world population and the demands for public transportation via sea. This issue entails the large attention on emission, energy efficiency and fuel consumption on the ship. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR is one of the solution to overcome the mentioned issue and one of the WHR method is by installing Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system in ship. ORC demonstrate to recover and exploit the low temperature waste heat rejected by the ship power generation plant. The main source of heat to be utilized is obtained from container ship (7900 kW BHP, DWT 10969 mt ship jacket water cooling system and use R-134a as a refrigerant. The main equipment consists of evaporator, condenser, pump and steam turbine to generate the electricity. The main objective is to quantifying the estimation of electrical power which can be generated at typical loads of the main engine. As the final result of analysis, the ORC system is able to generate the electricity power ranged from 77,5% - 100% of main engine load producing power averagely 57,69 kW.

  14. Unstable roll motions by parametric resonance in following seas. Keisu reiki shindo ni motozuku oinamichu fuantei yokoyure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, T.; Ito, A.; Mizoguchi, S. (Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    The unstable rolling region and angle in the regular waves were studied by both tank test modeling a large container ship and theoretical calculation based on Mathieu{prime}s equation. Further research was made on the influence of metacentric height (GM) under the calm sea condition, ship speed and bilge keel dimension on the unstable rolling region. To avoid the unstable roll motion in the waves caused by the parametric resonance, the fluctuation in GM is designed to be diminished on the waves by U-shaping the hull fore and aft like a fat large ship hull, or the fluctuation in dynamic stability is done to be diminished by increasing the GM on the calm sea. However, the ship with a U-shaped hull fore and aft is large in rolling angle due to the smallness in righting arm at the large heeling angle. Generally regardless of oceanic condition and ship speed, it is impossible to establish the GM absolutely without the primary and secondary synchronizing points. To avoid the unstable roll motion with a low ship speed, it is desirable to do it by the ship speed to be as high as possible. 11 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Estimates of fire environments in ship holds containing radioactive material packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Cole, J.K.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.; Wix, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fire environments that occur on cargo ships differ significantly from the fire environments found in land transport. Cargo ships typically carry a large amount of flammable fuel for propulsion and shipboard power, and may transport large quantities of flammable cargo. As a result, sea mode transport accident records contain instances of long lasting and intense fires. Since Irradiated Nuclear Fuel (INF) casks are not carried on tankers with large flammable cargoes, most of these dramatic, long burning fires are not relevant threats, and transport studies must concentrate on those fires that are most likely to occur. By regulation, INF casks must be separated from flammable cargoes by a fire-resistant, liquid-tight partition. This makes a fire in an adjacent ship hold the most likely fire threat. The large size of a cargo ship relative to any spent nuclear fuel casks on board, however, may permit a severe, long lasting fire to occur with little or no thermal impact on the casks. Although some flammable materials such as shipping boxes or container floors may exist in the same hold with the cask, the amount of fuel available may not provide a significant threat to the massive transport casks used for radioactive materials. This shipboard fire situation differs significantly from the regulatory conditions specified in 10 CFR 71 for a fully engulfing pool fire. To learn more about the differences, a series of simple thermal analyses has been completed to estimate cask behavior in likely marine and land thermal accident situations. While the calculations are based on several conservative assumptions, and are only preliminary, they illustrate that casks are likely to heat much more slowly in shipboard hold fires than in an open pool fire. The calculations also reinforce the basic regulatory concept that for radioactive materials, the shipping cask, not the ship, is the primary protection barrier to consider

  16. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; de Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-04-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems.

  17. Sperm whale long-range echolocation sounds revealed by ANTARES, a deep-sea neutrino telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, M.; Caballé, A.; van der Schaar, M.; Solsona, A.; Houégnigan, L.; Zaugg, S.; Sánchez, A. M.; Castell, J. V.; Solé, M.; Vila, F.; Djokic, D.; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite dedicated research has been carried out to adequately map the distribution of the sperm whale in the Mediterranean Sea, unlike other regions of the world, the species population status is still presently uncertain. The analysis of two years of continuous acoustic data provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope revealed the year-round presence of sperm whales in the Ligurian Sea, probably associated with the availability of cephalopods in the region. The presence of the Ligurian Sea sperm whales was demonstrated through the real-time analysis of audio data streamed from a cabled-to-shore deep-sea observatory that allowed the hourly tracking of their long-range echolocation behaviour on the Internet. Interestingly, the same acoustic analysis indicated that the occurrence of surface shipping noise would apparently not condition the foraging behaviour of the sperm whale in the area, since shipping noise was almost always present when sperm whales were acoustically detected. The continuous presence of the sperm whale in the region confirms the ecological value of the Ligurian sea and the importance of ANTARES to help monitoring its ecosystems. PMID:28401960

  18. Design and modelling of innovative machinery systems for large ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik

    Eighty percent of the growing global merchandise trade is transported by sea. The shipping industry is required to reduce the pollution and increase the energy efficiency of ships in the near future. There is a relatively large potential for approaching these requirements by implementing waste heat...... consisting of a two-zone combustion and NOx emission model, a double Wiebe heat release model, the Redlich-Kwong equation of state and the Woschni heat loss correlation. A novel methodology is presented and used to determine the optimum organic Rankine cycle process layout, working fluid and process......, are evaluated with regards to the fuel consumption and NOx emissions trade-off. The results of the calibration and validation of the engine model suggest that the main performance parameters can be predicted with adequate accuracies for the overall purpose. The results of the ORC and the Kalina cycle...

  19. Heterogeneity in pre-monsoon aerosol types over the Arabian Sea deduced from ship-borne measurements of spectral AODs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Kaskaoutis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ship-borne sunphotometer measurements obtained in the Arabian Sea (AS in the pre-monsoon season (18 April–10 May 2006 during a cruise campaign (ICARB have been used to retrieve the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD; τ and the Ångström wavelength exponent (α. The continents surrounding the AS produce natural and anthropogenic aerosols that have distinctive influences on α and its spectral distribution. The α values were estimated by means of the least-squares method over the spectral bands 340–1020 nm and 340–870 nm. The spectral distribution of AOD in logarithmic co-ordinates could be fit using a 2nd order polynomial with higher accuracy in the wavelength band 340–1020 nm than in the 340–870 nm band. A polynomial fit analytically parameterizes the observed wavelength dependencies of AOD with least errors in spectral variation of α and yields accurate estimates of the coefficients (a1 and a2. The coarse-mode (positive curvature in the lnτλ vs. lnλ aerosols are mainly depicted in the Northern part of the AS closely associated with the nearby arid areas while fine-mode aerosols are mainly observed over the far and coastal AS regions. In the study period the mean AOD at 500 nm is 0.25±0.11 and the α340-1020 is 0.90±0.19. The α340-870 exhibits similar values (0.92±0.18, while significant differences revealed for the constant terms of the polynomial fit (a1 and a2 proportionally to the wavelength band used for their determination. Observed day-to-day variability in the aerosol load and optical properties are direct consequence of the local winds and air-mass trajectories along with the position of the ship.

  20. How Do the Elderly Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Saunders; Timothy M. Smeeding

    1998-01-01

    This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study How Do the Elderly in Taiwan Fare Cross-Nationally? Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study Project Peter Saunders and Timothy M. Smeeding Social Policy Research Centre, Discussion Paper, No.81 Abstract This paper uses microdata from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) to estimate and compare four dimensions of the well-being of the aged in Taiwan and eight other countries - the United States, Japan, Australia, Poland, Finland, German...

  1. Classification of Ship Routing and Scheduling Problems in Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Karina Hjortshøj

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a classification scheme for ship routing and scheduling problems in liner shipping in line with the current and future operational conditions of the liner shipping industry. Based on the classification, the literature is divided into groups whose main characteristics...

  2. The watch on the sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The film introduces the International Atomic Energy Agency's Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco. Established to conduct a special programme of research, the Monaco Laboratory is maintained through the cooperation of the Monaco and the French authorities and with the participation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The work of the Laboratory in surveying the radioactivity in seawater as well as the rate of absorption of radioactivity in the sea bed is described. Also shown is the laboratory's ship 'Winaretta Singer' as it trawls for specimens of sea life from the seabed and the method by which it obtains samples of seawater at various depths

  3. The watch on the sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1968-12-31

    The film introduces the International Atomic Energy Agency`s Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco. Established to conduct a special programme of research, the Monaco Laboratory is maintained through the cooperation of the Monaco and the French authorities and with the participation of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The work of the Laboratory in surveying the radioactivity in seawater as well as the rate of absorption of radioactivity in the sea bed is described. Also shown is the laboratory`s ship `Winaretta Singer` as it trawls for specimens of sea life from the seabed and the method by which it obtains samples of seawater at various depths

  4. Underway pCO2 and other measurements aboard NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown during the 2007 cruises (NODC Accession 0081023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081023 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  5. Joint sea studies of the IAEA and European Union mediterranean partner ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; Boisson, F.

    1998-01-01

    Several oceanographic and geographic features of the Mediterranean Sea render it particularly vulnerable to the potential effects of anthropogenic pollutants. The sea is a relatively shallow, semi-enclosed body of water with only limited water exchange taking place at Straits of Gibraltar and through the Bosphorus. Less saline Atlantic surface water enters at Gibraltar and slowly circulates counter clockwise around the Mediterranean basin. There it gradually becomes warmer and more saline due to insolation and intense evaporation. The weak coastal current systems and general lack of tides combine to reduce dispersion of pollutants entering its coastal water. Furthermore, recent construction of dams on some major rivers have substantially reduced spring runoff which tends to cleanse the shelf region of deposited contaminants. Given the Sea's special geographical setting and potential sensitivity to human activity, it is not surprising that over the last decade much effort has been put into studying its biogeochemical structure and functioning. Furthermore, the Sea's restricted size affords marine scientists the opportunity to study, on a reduced scale, processes typical of the world's oceans. Recent trends in oceanography have shown that the degree of our understanding these processes significantly improves when the questions to be answered are addressed in a multidisciplinary way. Recognizing this fact, the European Union (EU) has mounted various large-scale multidisciplinary marine programmes, several of which have focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Because of its long history of collaborative work in the Mediterranean, the IAEA's Marine Environmental Laboratory (MEL) in Monaco has been invited by several EU partner institutes to contribute to these programmes, usually in the area of employing nuclear techniques to study key oceanic processes. These EU-supported programmed have been instrumental in broadening MEL's extrabugetary funding base, which is often

  6. EX0909 Legs 1 through 4 Mapping Field Trials V through VIII Hawaiian Islands (EX0909, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands, Necker Ridge, Mauna Kea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer arrived in Honolulu, HI on 7 August, 2009. The ship planned to stay and work in Hawaii till March / April 2009. A total of 77 days-at-sea...

  7. Rn 222 in the Black Sea waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzova, A.P.; Batrakov, G.F.; Eremeev, V.N.; Zemlyanoj, A.D.; Ivanova, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    Results of Rn 222 concentration measurements in the Black Sea waters obtained in the summer of 1986 during the expedition of the Akademik Vernadskij research ship are presented. It is ascertained that the intensity of vertical turbulent exchange produces the main effect on Rn 222 distribution in the sea surface waters. The vertical distribution in a 200 m layer is characterized by the growth of concentration with depth, which is caused by the presence of Ra 226 increased concentration region, that coincides with the boundary layer between oxygen and hydrogen sulfide

  8. Pushing the Envelope: Ship to Shore Events and High-Bandwidth Telepresence Engages Scientists and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S. K.; Coleman, D. F.; Fisher, A. T.; Livelybrooks, D.; Mulder, G.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2009, the drillship JOIDES Resolution has engaged in an extensive program of live ship-to-shore events during its two-month scientific expeditions using a range of software applications and formats. The University of Rhode Island's Inner Space Center has utilized a high bandwidth 'telepresence' from ships such as the Ocean Exploration Trust's E/V Nautilus and the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, to bring live feeds from underwater exploration vehicles directly into museums, aquaria, science centers, boys and girls clubs, and K-16 classrooms. Both of these strategies have employed close partnerships between scientists and educators to bring cutting edge research and the excitement of exploration and discovery directly to the public in close to real time, but telepresence provides unique opportunities. Participants have been able to experience, live, launches of remotely operated vehicle systems including Jason/Medea on R/V Atlantis and Hercules/Argus on Nautilus, see scientific samples come up on deck for the very first time, observe previously-undiscovered shipwrecks at the same time as those on ship, and watch amazing deep sea creatures swim past deep water cameras. There are many benefits from high-bandwidth telepresence, including improved quality of images, video, and sound; the ability to move large data sets and files between ship and shore, allowing collaboration among individuals who are not on the ship; the ability to stage spontaneous "web events" among scientific, educational, and technical personnel at essentially any time; and more intensive interactions through use of social media, such as blogging, posting of multimedia products, and frequent question/answer sessions. These telepresence-enhanced activities assist the public in understanding the significance and excitement of these discoveries, the challenges of working in the deep sea, and the true nature of scientific processes. These interactions have significant impacts on their audiences, and

  9. Right of innocent passage of ships carrying ultra-hazardous cargoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Ferro, M.

    2006-01-01

    The analysis carried out in this paper suggests that coastal states would probably fail to persuade an international tribunal of the existence of the right to deny passage of ships carrying ultra-hazardous cargoes through their territorial seas, much less through their exclusive economic zones. The same applies to the obligation to provide (or right to require) prior notification of such passage. This may partly explain why no international litigation concerning these issues has so far taken place, even though there have been a number of conflicts between coastal states and shipping states, widely published in the media. Still, evidence suggests that officers at the head of authorities in several coastal states, often non legal experts, firmly believe in the existence of these rights and obligations, at least insofar as concerns the territorial sea; The gap between the law and practice seems to be widening. At the same time, several states are clearly pursuing a policy of pushing for an evolution of customary law, either by claiming that this evolution has already taken place, or that the letter of this or that treaty already allows for claims. It would not be surprising if this strategy should succeed eventually. For the time being, however, one must not be too hasty to confuse diplomatic concessions with an evolution of the law. (author)

  10. The melt pond fraction and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data: validation and trends of sea ice albedo and melt pond fraction in the Arctic for years 2002–2011

    OpenAIRE

    L. Istomina; G. Heygster; M. Huntemann; P. Schwarz; G. Birnbaum; R. Scharien; C. Polashenski; D. Perovich; E. Zege; A. Malinka; A. Prikhach; I. Katsev

    2014-01-01

    The presence of melt ponds on the Arctic sea ice strongly affects the energy balance of the Arctic Ocean in summer. It affects albedo as well as transmittance through the sea ice, which has consequences on the heat balance and mass balance of sea ice. An algorithm to retrieve melt pond fraction and sea ice albedo (Zege et al., 2014) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) data is validated against aerial, ship borne and in situ campaign data. The result sho...

  11. Effects of ship's vibration and motion on plant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Tsunemi; Kitamura, Toshikatsu; Mizushima, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Nakahara, Takeshi; Kamiya, Eisei; Kudou, Takahiro; Naitoh, Akira; Tominaga, Mineo.

    1992-03-01

    Present report was written about the study of the effects of ship's vibration and motion on reactor plant performances measured and analyzed to confirm the total balance for control systems of reactor to propulsion. On July 10, 1990, or on the first day of the first voyage for the power up test, the sea trials of MUTSU, nuclear ship made first in Japan, started from the anchoring test. The trial tests had finished through the third voyage between October 30 and November 9 to the fourth voyage between 7 and 14 of December. The trial tests had been conducted over ten items or so containing in-house tests of the measurements of ship's vibration and motion in order to research the effects on reactor performance. We here call the in-house tests the plant correlation tests. In regard to the correlation with ship's vibration, we confirmed that the inherent vibrations of hull and reactor containment arisen from ship structure had precisely been measured and that the plant correlations due to the hull and local vibrations arising from propeller revolutions are very small. Concerning the correlation with ship's motion, it was shown that her rolling motion strongly had affected on the propulsion system such as shaft power and shaft revolutions. About the correlation with reactor systems it was found that her pitching motion had given effect on the water level in pressurizer, primary coolant average temperature, ε-signal of the auto-control of reactor power and primary coolant pressure etc, particularly, most-strongly on the water level in pressurizer; her rolling and pitching motions had given effect on nuclear characteristics such as reactivity and startup rate; in addition the fluctuation of 0.06 Hz, we think the response inherent in (MUTSU) reactor systems, had been observed on her reactor parameters like reactivity and startup rate, and her propulsion systems like shaft horse power. (author)

  12. US Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) - International Maritime Meteorological Tape (IMMT) data from SEAS version 9.1 E-Logbook Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The US Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) report surface marine observations in both real-time (FM-13 ship format) and delayed-mode (International Maritime...

  13. Development of a Shipboard Remote Control and Telemetry Experimental System for Large-Scale Model’s Motions and Loads Measurement in Realistic Sea Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced motion and load responses are important criteria for ship performance evaluation. Physical experiments have long been an indispensable tool in the predictions of ship’s navigation state, speed, motions, accelerations, sectional loads and wave impact pressure. Currently, majority of the experiments are conducted in laboratory tank environment, where the wave environments are different from the realistic sea waves. In this paper, a laboratory tank testing system for ship motions and loads measurement is reviewed and reported first. Then, a novel large-scale model measurement technique is developed based on the laboratory testing foundations to obtain accurate motion and load responses of ships in realistic sea conditions. For this purpose, a suite of advanced remote control and telemetry experimental system was developed in-house to allow for the implementation of large-scale model seakeeping measurement at sea. The experimental system includes a series of technique sensors, e.g., the Global Position System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS module, course top, optical fiber sensors, strain gauges, pressure sensors and accelerometers. The developed measurement system was tested by field experiments in coastal seas, which indicates that the proposed large-scale model testing scheme is capable and feasible. Meaningful data including ocean environment parameters, ship navigation state, motions and loads were obtained through the sea trial campaign.

  14. FY 2015 Report: Developing Remote Sensing Capabilities for Meter-Scale Sea Ice Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    albedo retrieval from MERIS data–Part 2: Case studies and trends of sea ice albedo and melt ponds in the Arctic for years 2002–2011. The Cryosphere, 9...and spectral sea ice albedo retrieval from MERIS data-Part 1: Validation against in situ, aerial, and ship cruise data. The Cryosphere, 9, 1551-1566. ...1 FY 2015 Report: Developing Remote Sensing Capabilities for Meter-Scale Sea Ice Properties Chris Polashenski USACE-CRREL Building 4070

  15. Compensation of Wave-Induced Motion and Force Phenomena for Ship-Based High Performance Robotic and Human Amplifying Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, LJL

    2003-09-24

    The decrease in manpower and increase in material handling needs on many Naval vessels provides the motivation to explore the modeling and control of Naval robotic and robotic assistive devices. This report addresses the design, modeling, control and analysis of position and force controlled robotic systems operating on the deck of a moving ship. First we provide background information that quantifies the motion of the ship, both in terms of frequency and amplitude. We then formulate the motion of the ship in terms of homogeneous transforms. This transformation provides a link between the motion of the ship and the base of a manipulator. We model the kinematics of a manipulator as a serial extension of the ship motion. We then show how to use these transforms to formulate the kinetic and potential energy of a general, multi-degree of freedom manipulator moving on a ship. As a demonstration, we consider two examples: a one degree-of-freedom system experiencing three sea states operating in a plane to verify the methodology and a 3 degree of freedom system experiencing all six degrees of ship motion to illustrate the ease of computation and complexity of the solution. The first series of simulations explore the impact wave motion has on tracking performance of a position controlled robot. We provide a preliminary comparison between conventional linear control and Repetitive Learning Control (RLC) and show how fixed time delay RLC breaks down due to the varying nature wave disturbance frequency. Next, we explore the impact wave motion disturbances have on Human Amplification Technology (HAT). We begin with a description of the traditional HAT control methodology. Simulations show that the motion of the base of the robot, due to ship motion, generates disturbances forces reflected to the operator that significantly degrade the positioning accuracy and resolution at higher sea states. As with position-controlled manipulators, augmenting the control with a Repetitive

  16. Information About Dynamics of the Sea Surface as a Means to Improve Safety of the Unmanned Vessel at Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przyborski Marek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental states of the sea surface is its heave. Despite of years of the intense scientific inquiry, no clear understanding of the influence of this aspect on the dynamics of the sea environment has emerged. The separation of two nearby fluid elements which one may observed for example as a free floating of small objects on the sea surface (rescuers on the rough sea or small research vessels is caused by the interaction of different components. On the other hand one may say that the heave of the sea is also a summary interaction of a few components describing the dynamics of the sea. Therefore it is the most important aspect, which influenced the dispersion phenomenon. This observation has important consequences for many different problems as for example conducting Search and Rescue missions and using unmanned ships. We would like to present results of our experiment focused on finding the answer to question about nature of the heave of the sea and its influence on safety of Unmanned Surface Vessels (USV.

  17. Monitoring of Radionuclides in Ship Ballast Water Following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak; Wo, Y.M.; Muhamat Omar

    2011-01-01

    Ballast water is the waters taken into the ship compartment to provide stability. It is taken on board at the port before the voyage begins and discharged at the port of call (arrival) while loading cargoes. Ballast is primarily composed of water and is full of stones, sediment, and thousands of living species. The quantity of water taken depends on the size of the ship and it can reach up to 10,000 tonnes. As a well known fact, Daiichi nuclear plant in Fukushima had released radioactive contaminated water into its surrounding sea and being dispersed by currents and tides. Therefore, ships travel between Malaysia and Japan in particular those from the affected regions and travel to Malaysia without cargoes will have a risk of transporting back radioactive contaminated water from Japan and released it at local ports. Malaysian Marine Department with the cooperation of Malaysian Nuclear Agency have been analysing the concentrations of several radionuclides in the ship's ballast water and sediment. This is to ensure the effective dosage is safe to the crews and general public as well to fulfill the permissible limit of 1 mSv/yr gazetted by the authorities. It is also to monitor that the contaminated water is not discharged into our marine environment. (author)

  18. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  19. International legal problems of topical interest concerning the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.; Rudolf, W.

    1975-01-01

    The lack of internationally accepted laws on the operation of nuclear ships has proved so far perhaps a more serious obstacle to further development than the problems of a technical-economic kind, although international law by no means that inadequate that it could not, at least basically, do justice to the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships. The unsatisfactory legal situation has been caused in the first place by the conduct of the majority of states which, out of fear of the risks of nuclear ships, also questioned those articles of international maritime law which had been undisputed up to then. This goes in particular for the SOLAS convention, the principles of the peaceful crossing of territorial waters and of calling at ports. On the other hand, it ought to be pointed out, too, that the states obviously do not assume that the operation of nuclear ships is using the sea inadmissably under international law. One could see this as a continuation of the strict Trail-Smelter-doctrine which forbids states to allow activities which might have harmful effects on other national territories. There is no doubt, that the uses of nuclear energy belong to these dangerous activites. At the same time, they are accepted under international law, provided that they are supervised legally and provided that appropriate liability arrangments under civil law are at hand. This is the starting point for over coming the legal difficulties in the peaceful navigation of nuclear ships: it is to be treated as a matter of urgency to elaborate and to put into force comprehensive international conventions for the licensing and supervision of nuclear ships and concerning liablilty under civil law of the operators of nuclear ships. The required freedom in the navigation of nuclaer ships can only be achieved by further reglementation under maritime law. (orig./LN) [de

  20. Ships on the sea are responsible for enormous emissions. A sea journey which is sooty...; Schiffe auf dem Meer sind fuer gewaltige Emissionen verantwortlich. Eine Seefahrt, die ist russig...

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehleisen, Martin

    2012-03-15

    Since the conversion from sailing ships to steamships at the end of the 18th century, ships emit large amounts of sulfur, nitrogen oxides and soot into the air. Environment, passengers and residents of port cities constantly are exposed to health hazards. The conversion to environmentally friendly propulsion technology at the maritime shipping as well as the inland waterway transport is a tough process.

  1. Diesel fueled ship propulsion fuel cell demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, W.H. [Arctic Energies Ltd., Severna Park, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper describes the work underway to adapt a former US Navy diesel electric drive ship as a 2.4 Megawatt fuel cell powered, US Coast Guard operated, demonstrator. The Project will design the new configuration, and then remove the four 600 kW diesel electric generators and auxiliaries. It will design, build and install fourteen or more nominal 180 kW diesel fueled molten carbonate internal reforming direct fuel cells (DFCs). The USCG cutter VINDICATOR has been chosen. The adaptation will be carried out at the USCG shipyard at Curtis Bay, MD. A multi-agency (state and federal) cooperative project is now underway. The USCG prime contractor, AEL, is performing the work under a Phase III Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) award. This follows their successful completion of Phases I and II under contract to the US Naval Sea Systems (NAVSEA) from 1989 through 1993 which successfully demonstrated the feasibility of diesel fueled DFCs. The demonstrated marine propulsion of a USCG cutter will lead to commercial, naval ship and submarine applications as well as on-land applications such as diesel fueled locomotives.

  2. Viking FellowSHIP: Norwegian hydrogen ship on the right course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larssen-Aas, Kari

    2006-01-01

    In the future fuel cells will change the world of shipping's economical conditions, and environmental effects from this industry. A new model of a hydrogen fuelled ship was presented at the ONS exhibition in Stavanger 2006. The technology may revolutionize the shipping industry. A brief description of the project is presented (ml)

  3. Safety of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Interest in the utilization of nuclear steam supply systems for merchant ships and icebreakers has recently increased considerably due to the sharp rise in oil prices and the continuing trend towards larger and faster merchant ships. Canada, for example, is considering construction of an icebreaker in the near future. On the other hand, an accident which could result in serious damage to or the sinking of a nuclear ship is potentially far more dangerous to the general public than a similar accident with a conventional ship. Therefore, it was very important to evaluate in an international forum the safety of nuclear ships in the light of our contemporary safety philosophy, taking into account the results of cumulative operating experience with nuclear ships in operation. The philosophy and safety requirement for land-based nuclear installations were outlined because of many common features for both land-based nuclear installations and nuclear ships. Nevertheless, essential specific safety requirements for nuclear ships must always be considered, and the work on safety problems for nuclear ships sponsored by the NEA was regarded as an important step towards developing an international code of practice by IMCO on the safety of nuclear merchant ships. One session was devoted to the quantitative assessment of nuclear ship safety. The probability technique of an accident risk assessment for nuclear power plants is well known and widely used. Its modification, to make it applicable to nuclear propelled merchant ships, was discussed in some papers. Mathematical models for describing various postulated accidents with nuclear ships were developed and reported by several speakers. Several papers discussed a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) with nuclear steam supply systems of nuclear ships and engineering design features to prevent a radioactive effluence after LOCA. Other types of postulated accidents with reactors and systems in static and dynamic conditions were also

  4. Use of reactor plants of enhanced safety for sea water desalination, industrial and district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, Yu.; Polunichev, V.; Zverev, K.

    1997-01-01

    Russian designers have developed and can deliver nuclear complexes to provide sea water desalination, industrial and district heating. This paper provides an overview of these designs utilizing the ABV, KLT-40 and ATETS-80 reactor plants of enhanced safety. The most advanced nuclear powered water desalination project is the APVS-80. This design consists of a special ship equipped with the distillation desalination plant powered at a level of 160 MW(th) utilizing the type KLT-40 reactor plant. More than 20 years of experience with water desalination and reactor plants has been achieved in Aktau and Russian nuclear ships without radioactive contamination of desalinated water. Design is also proceeding on a two structure complex consisting of a floating nuclear power station and a reverse osmosis desalination plant. This new technology for sea water desalination provides the opportunity to considerably reduce the specific consumption of power for the desalination of sea water. The ABV reactor is utilized in the ''Volnolom'' type floating nuclear power stations. This design also features a desalinator ship which provides sea water desalination by the reverse osmosis process. The ATETS-80 is a nuclear two-reactor cogeneration complex which incorporates the integral vessel-type PWR which can be used in the production of electricity, steam, hot and desalinated water. (author). 9 figs

  5. Promoting International Energy Security. Volume 3: Sea-Lanes to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    set off tsunamis, as occurred in the Indian Ocean on December 26, 2004, when an earthquake and tsunami killed over 225,000 people. Natural events...in Somalia, the ability to counter the menagerie of gangs that currently plough the seas off the Horn of Africa will be minimal. Further, the...Promoting International Energy Security: Volume 3, Sea-Lanes to Asia sunk several Vietnamese ships, killing 70 Vietnamese sailors (EIA, 2008b). As states

  6. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from MULTIPLE SHIPS From Sea of Japan from 19930101 to 19930630 (NODC Accession 9300173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature data in this accession was collected in Sea of Japan. Data in this accession was collected over a six month period from thermistor. The...

  7. Nonlinear surge motions of a ship in bi-chromatic following waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Kostas J.; Themelis, Nikos; Kontolefas, Ioannis

    2018-03-01

    Unintended motions of a ship operating in steep and long following waves are investigated. A well-known such case is ;surf-riding; where a ship is carried forward by a single wave, an event invoking sometimes lateral instability and even capsize. The dynamics underlying this behavior has been clarified earlier for monochromatic waves. However, the unsteadiness of the phase space associated with ship behavior in a multichromatic sea, combined with the intrinsically strong system nonlinearity, pose new challenges. Here, current theory is extended to cover surging and surf-riding behavior in unidirectional bi-chromatic waves encountering a ship from the stern. Excitation is provided by two unidirectional harmonic wave components having their lengths comparable to the ship length and their frequencies in rational ratio. The techniques applied include (a) continuation analysis; (b) tracking of Lagrangian coherent structures in phase space, approximated through a finite-time Lyapunov exponents' calculation; and (c) large scale simulation. A profound feature of surf-riding in bi-chromatic waves is that it is turned oscillatory. Initially it appears as a frequency-locked motion, ruled by the harmonic wave component dominating the excitation. Transformations of oscillatory surf-riding are realized as the waves become steeper. In particular, heteroclinic tanglings are identified, governing abrupt transitions between qualitatively different motions. Chaotic transients, as well as long-term chaotic motions, exist near to these events. Some extraordinary patterns of ship motion are discovered. These include a counterintuitive low speed motion at very high wave excitation level; and a hybrid motion characterized by a wildly fluctuating velocity. Due to the quite generic nature of the core mathematical model of our investigation, the current results are believed to offer clues about the behavior of a class of nonlinear dynamical systems having in their modeling some analogy with

  8. Romanian contribution to the regional study of Black Sea radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologa, S.

    1993-01-01

    In the Black Sea area, polluting mineral exploitation, abusive fishing, unrestricted shipping activities and dumping of toxic wastes were done. Pollutant load carried by the Danube and other northern rivers, such as: Dnieper, Dniester, Bug, etc to the Black Sea, industrial and municipal discharges of air and water pollutants, pollution from ship traffic (particularly in the Constanta harbour area) contributed to the ecological degradation of the sea. Radioactivity monitoring as well as radioecological research are part of environmental assessments and protection strategies in Romania. The Romanian contribution consisted in participation in research contracts and coordinated research programs with IAEA-Vienna/Marine Environment Laboratory-Monaco between 1987-1992, in the program 'Global Inventory of Radioactivity in the Mediterranean Sea' (GIRMED) launched by IAEA after the XXXIst Congress and General assembly of the International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea by the Committee of Marine Radioactivity in 1988 and in the Co-operative Marine Science Program for the Black Sea (CoMSBlack) trough its Working group on radiochemistry and radioecology. This group includes Bulgaria, Romania, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Natural and artificial radionuclide (K-40, Ac-228, Ra-226, Ru-106, Ag-110m, Cs-137 and, starting in 1992, Sr-90) space and time distribution data were used for computation of in situ distribution coefficients and concentration factors (CFs) as well as for external and internal dose assessments in the Romanian sector. CFs of marine sediments, seaweeds and molluscs were measured in laboratory conditions. (author)

  9. Oil spills in open seas and harbours - impact on marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this article the environmental impacts of sea water near Karachi (Pakistan) harbour (Arabian Sea) are discussed. The water pollution is caused due to oil leakage from ships. The toxicity of various oils (crude oils and refined oils) to different species of marine varies greatly. The second main source of water is municipal waste water. For the control of sea water pollution, there must be education as lack of awareness of the public to ask for clean beaches and absence of coordination between concerned oil companies, tanker operating agencies, port authorities and government (A.B.)

  10. BAROMETRIC PRESSURE and Other Data from ALPHA HELIX From Chukchi Sea and Others from 19930709 to 19930807 (NODC Accession 9400062)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea. Data was collected from Ship ALPHA HELIX cruise Aleutian...

  11. Civil ships propulsion reactor plants development and operation experience, and prospects for their improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasyukov, V.I.; Kiryushin, A.I.; Panov, Yu.K.; Polunichev, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    Russia is alone country in the World possessing nuclear-powered icebreaker fleet. Phases of creation in Russia of several propulsion nuclear reactor plant generations are considered. By present 8 nuclear ice-breakers and a nuclear-powered cargo ship (lighter carrier) have been constructed, for which three of propulsion NSSS generations were developed. Their brief description, main performance indicators and results of operation since 1959 are given. It is shown that gradual evolution of NSSS design features has ensured creation of reliable, safe and environmentally friendly propulsion reactor plants. Issues of the propulsion NSSS life extension and improvement for new generation of nuclear ice-breakers, cargo ships, floating heat and power plants, sea water desalination and power generating complexes are considered with account for the gained operating experience. Activities on creation of new generation nuclear-powered ships and floating NPPs are considered as prospective sphere of Russia's collaboration with other countries of the World community. (author)

  12. Ship track observations of a reduced shortwave aerosol indirect effect in mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M. W.; Suzuki, K.; Zambri, B.; Stephens, G. L.

    2014-10-01

    Aerosol influences on clouds are a major source of uncertainty to our understanding of forced climate change. Increased aerosol can enhance solar reflection from clouds countering greenhouse gas warming. Recently, this indirect effect has been extended from water droplet clouds to other types including mixed-phase clouds. Aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds are important because of their fundamental role on sea ice loss and polar climate change, but very little is known about aerosol effects on these clouds. Here we provide the first analysis of the effects of aerosol emitted from ship stacks into mixed-phase clouds. Satellite observations of solar reflection in numerous ship tracks reveal that cloud albedo increases 5 times more in liquid clouds when polluted and persist 2 h longer than in mixed-phase clouds. These results suggest that seeding mixed-phase clouds via shipping aerosol is unlikely to provide any significant counterbalancing solar radiative cooling effects in warming polar regions.

  13. Sea state estimation from an advancing ship – A comparative study using sea trial data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; Stredulinsky, David C.

    2012-01-01

    of a traditional wave rider buoy. The paper studies the ‘wave buoy analogy’, and a large set of full-scale motion measurements is considered. It is shown that the wave buoy analogy gives fairly accurate estimates of integrated sea state parameters when compared to corresponding estimates from real wave rider buoys...

  14. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas

    to creating a more efficient shipping industry, and a number of critical issues are identified. These include that shipments depend on shipping information, that shipments often are delayed due to issues with documentation, that EDI messages account for only a minor part of the needed information......This thesis applies theoretical perspectives from the Information Systems (IS) research field to propose how Information Technology (IT) can improve containerized shipping. This question is addressed by developing a set of design principles for an information infrastructure for sharing shipping...... information named the Shipping Information Pipeline (SIP). Review of the literature revealed that IS research prescribed a set of meta-design principles, including digitalization and digital collaboration by implementation of Inter-Organizational Systems based on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) messages...

  15. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Bird Spring Formation in the Ship Mountains, southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul; Stevens, Calvin H.; Howard, Keith A.; Hoisch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    A thick sequence of limestone, dolomite, and minor sandstone assigned to the Pennsylvanian and lower Permian Bird Spring Formation is exposed in the Ship Mountains about 85 kilometers (km) southwest of Needles, California, in the eastern Mojave Desert. These strata provide a valuable reference section of the Bird Spring Formation in a region where rocks of this age are not extensively exposed. This section, which is about 900 meters (m) thick, is divided into five informal members. Strata of the Bird Spring Formation in the Ship Mountains originated as shallow-water marine deposits on the broad, southwest-trending continental shelf of western North America. Perpendicular to the shelf, the paleogeographic position of the Ship Mountains section is intermediate between those of the thicker, less terrigenous, more seaward section of the Bird Spring Formation in the Providence Mountains, 55 km to the northwest, and the thinner, more terrigenous, more landward sections of the Supai Group near Blythe, 100 km to the southeast. Parallel to the shelf, the Ship Mountains section is comparable in lithofacies and inferred paleogeographic position to sections assigned to the Callville Limestone and overlying Pakoon Limestone in northwestern Arizona and southeastern Nevada, 250 km to the northeast. Deposition of the Bird Spring Formation followed a major rise in eustatic sea level at about the Mississippian- Pennsylvanian boundary. The subsequent depositional history was controlled by episodic changes in eustatic sea level, shelf subsidence rates, and sediment supply. Subsidence rates could have been influenced by coeval continental-margin tectonism to the northwest.

  16. A novel ship CFAR detection algorithm based on adaptive parameter enhancement and wake-aided detection in SAR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Siqi; Ren, Kan; Lu, Dongming; Gu, Guohua; Chen, Qian; Lu, Guojun

    2018-03-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is an indispensable and useful method for marine monitoring. With the increase of SAR sensors, high resolution images can be acquired and contain more target structure information, such as more spatial details etc. This paper presents a novel adaptive parameter transform (APT) domain constant false alarm rate (CFAR) to highlight targets. The whole method is based on the APT domain value. Firstly, the image is mapped to the new transform domain by the algorithm. Secondly, the false candidate target pixels are screened out by the CFAR detector to highlight the target ships. Thirdly, the ship pixels are replaced by the homogeneous sea pixels. And then, the enhanced image is processed by Niblack algorithm to obtain the wake binary image. Finally, normalized Hough transform (NHT) is used to detect wakes in the binary image, as a verification of the presence of the ships. Experiments on real SAR images validate that the proposed transform does enhance the target structure and improve the contrast of the image. The algorithm has a good performance in the ship and ship wake detection.

  17. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Indian Ocean and Laccadive Sea from 1995-09-22 to 1995-10-25 (NODC Accession 0114478)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0114478 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from NOAA Ship MALCOLM BALDRIGE in the Indian Ocean and Laccadive Sea...

  18. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, N.; Yanagi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured

  19. Radiation safety in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, N. [National Maritime Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, H. [Nuclear Fuel Transport Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Radiation safety for sea transport of radioactive material in Japan has been discussed based on records of the exposed dose of sea transport workers and measured data of dose rate equivalents distribution inboard exclusive radioactive material shipping vessels. Recent surveyed records of the exposed doses of workers who engaged in sea transport operation indicate that exposed doses of transport workers are significantly low. Measured distribution of the exposed dose equivalents inboard those vessels indicates that dose rate equivalents inside those vessels are lower than levels regulated by the transport regulations of Japan. These facts clarify that radiation safety of inboard environment and handling of transport casks in sea transport of radioactive material in Japan are assured.

  20. Deep Sea Gazing: Making Ship-Based Research Aboard RV Falkor Relevant and Accessible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, C.; Zykov, V.; Miller, A.; Pace, L. J.; Ferrini, V. L.; Friedman, A.

    2016-02-01

    Schmidt Ocean Institute (SOI) is a private, non-profit operating foundation established to advance the understanding of the world's oceans through technological advancement, intelligent observation, and open sharing of information. Our research vessel Falkorprovides ship time to selected scientists and supports a wide range of scientific functions, including ROV operations with live streaming capabilities. Since 2013, SOI has live streamed 55 ROV dives in high definition and recorded them onto YouTube. This has totaled over 327 hours of video which received 1,450, 461 views in 2014. SOI is one of the only research programs that makes their entire dive series available online, creating a rich collection of video data sets. In doing this, we provide an opportunity for scientists to make new discoveries in the video data that may have been missed earlier. These data sets are also available to students, allowing them to engage with real data in the classroom. SOI's video collection is also being used in a newly developed video management system, Ocean Video Lab. Telepresence-enabled research is an important component of Falkor cruises, which is exemplified by several that were conducted in 2015. This presentation will share a few case studies including an image tagging citizen science project conducted through the Squidle interface in partnership with the Australian Center for Field Robotics. Using real-time image data collected in the Timor Sea, numerous shore-based citizens created seafloor image tags that could be used by a machine learning algorithms on Falkor's high performance computer (HPC) to accomplish habitat characterization. With the use of the HPC system real-time robot tracking, image tagging, and other outreach connections were made possible, allowing scientists on board to engage with the public and build their knowledge base. The above mentioned examples will be used to demonstrate the benefits of remote data analysis and participatory engagement in

  1. A numerical study on ship-ship interaction in shallow and restricted waterway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwook Lee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a numerical prediction method on the hydrodynamic interaction force and moment between two ships in shallow and restricted waterway is presented. Especially, the present study proposes a methodology to overcome the limitation of the two dimensional perturbation method which is related to the moored-passing ship interaction. The validation study was performed and compared with the experiment, firstly. Afterward, in order to propose a methodology in terms with the moored-passing ship interaction, further studies were performed for the moored-passing ship case with a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS calculation which is using OpenFOAM with Arbitrary Coupled Mesh Interface (ACMI technique and compared with the experiment result. Finally, the present study proposes a guide to apply the two dimensional perturbation method to the moored-passing ship interaction. In addition, it presents a possibility that the RANS calculation with ACMI can applied to the ship-ship interaction without using a overset moving grid technique.

  2. Nuclear ship engineering simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yasuyoshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hashidate, Koji

    1991-01-01

    The nuclear ship engineering simulator, which analyzes overall system response of nuclear ship numerically, is now being developed by JAERI as an advanced design tool with the latest computer technology in software and hardware. The development of the nuclear ship engineering simulator aims at grasping characteristics of a reactor plant under the situation generated by the combination of ocean, a ship hull and a reactor. The data from various tests with the nuclear ship 'MUTSU' will be used for this simulator to modulate and verify its functions of reproducing realistic response of nuclear ship, and then the simulator will be utilized for the research and development of advanced marine reactors. (author)

  3. Environmental innovation through transport policy. The implementation of the free fare policy on public transport in Tallinn, Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon-Estevan, D.

    2016-07-01

    Urban areas are of increasing relevance when it comes to sustainability: First, about half of the world’s population now lives in cities (increasing to 60% by 2030). Second, cities are nowadays responsible for levels of resource consumption and waste generation that are higher beyond their share on world population. Third, cities are more vulnerable to disruptive events that can lead to restrictions on the provision of resources and to changes on the environment caused by climate change. And fourth, because they concentrate key resources (political, social, cultural…), cities are seen as strategic scenarios where to experiment and develop solutions to cope with the prevailing sustainability challenges driven by the major social and environmental transformations. Urban agglomerations can be seen as complex innovation systems where human activities are shaped in order to transform societies towards sustainable development. For this paper, we focus on the case of an environmental innovation regarding transport policy, the implementation of the fare-free policy on public transport for all inhabitants of Tallinn, Estonia. Tallinn, with 414,000 inhabitants in 2015, is the capital of Estonia and the largest city in the country. Over the last two decades the share of public transport trips decreased dramatically. After a public opinion poll in 2012, in which over 75% of the participants voted for a fare-free public transportation system (FFPTS) in Tallinn, the new policy was implemented on 1st January 2013. From that date on inhabitants of Tallinn could use all public transport services (busses, trams, trolly-busses) operated by city-run operators for free. Later the fare-free system was implemented also on trains within Tallinn. In this paper we analyze the context, in which this policy was implemented, the main characteristics of its implementation and its actual situation. (Author)

  4. The use of helicopter-borne neutron detectors to detect nuclear warheads in the USSR-US Black Sea experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, S.T.; Lebedev, V.I.; Obinyakov, B.A.; Zemlyakov, M.V.; Ryazantsev, V.A.; Armashov, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Soviet Navy used a helicopter/ship system called Sovietnik to detect a cruise-missile warhead in the joint USSR-US experiment on the Black Sea, which took place on 5 July 1989. The system consists of a ship-based helicopter, equipped with a neutron detector and processing equipment, associated ship-based equipment. The neutron detector, together with instrumentation for recording preliminary processing, and analysis of initial information, is located on the helicopter, which carries out the measurement while flying slowly past the ship in question

  5. Application of OMI tropospheric NO2 for air quality monitoring in Northern Europe: shipping and land-based case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Iolanda; Hakkarainen, Janne; Jalkanen, Jukka-Pekka; Johansson, Lasse; Boersma, Folkert; Krotkov, Nickolay; Tamminen, Johanna

    2014-05-01

    Satellite-based data are very important for air quality applications in the Baltic Sea area, because they provide information on air pollution over sea and there where ground-based network and aircraft measurements are not available. Both the emissions from urban sites over land and ships over sea, contribute to the tropospheric NO2 levels. The tropospheric NO2 monitoring at high latitudes using satellite data is challenging because of the reduced light hours in winter and the snow-covered surface, which make the retrieval complex, and because of the reduced signal due to low Sun. This work presents a detailed characterization of the tropospheric NO2 columns focused on part of the Baltic Sea region using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) tropospheric NO2 standard product. Previous works have focused on larger seas and lower latitudes. The results showed that, despite the regional area of interest, it is possible to distinguish the signal from the main coastal cities and from the ships by averaging the data over a seasonal time range. The summertime NO2 emission and lifetime values (E = (1.0 ± 0.1)x1028 molec. and τ = (3.0 ± 0.5) h, respectively) in Helsinki were estimated from the decay of the signal with distance from the city center. The method developed for megacities was successfully applied to a smaller scale source, in both size and intensity (i.e., the city of Helsinki), which is located at high latitudes (~ 60oN). The same methodology could be applied to similar scale cities elsewhere, as far as they are relatively isolated from other sources. The transport by the wind plays an important role in the Baltic Sea area. The NO2 spatial distribution is mainly determined by the contribution of strong westerly winds, which dominate the wind patterns during summer. The comparison between the emissions from model calculations and OMI NO2 tropospheric columns confirmed the applicability of satellite data for ship emission monitoring. In particular, both the

  6. Crushing Strength of Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerup-Simonsen, Bo; Abramowicz, W.; Høstgaard-Brene, C.N.S.

    1999-01-01

    The crushing response of ship structures is of primary importance to the designers and practicing engineers concerned with accidental loading and accident reconstruction of marine vehicles. Ship to-ship collisions, ship-harbor infrastructure interaction or ship-offshore structure interaction are ...

  7. Reliability analysis of production ships with emphasis on load combination and ultimate strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaozhi

    1995-05-01

    This thesis deals with ultimate strength and reliability analysis of offshore production ships, accounting for stochastic load combinations, using a typical North Sea production ship for reference. A review of methods for structural reliability analysis is presented. Probabilistic methods are established for the still water and vertical wave bending moments. Linear stress analysis of a midships transverse frame is carried out, four different finite element models are assessed. Upon verification of the general finite element code ABAQUS with a typical ship transverse girder example, for which test results are available, ultimate strength analysis of the reference transverse frame is made to obtain the ultimate load factors associated with the specified pressure loads in Det norske Veritas Classification rules for ships and rules for production vessels. Reliability analysis is performed to develop appropriate design criteria for the transverse structure. It is found that the transverse frame failure mode does not seem to contribute to the system collapse. Ultimate strength analysis of the longitudinally stiffened panels is performed, accounting for the combined biaxial and lateral loading. Reliability based design of the longitudinally stiffened bottom and deck panels is accomplished regarding the collapse mode under combined biaxial and lateral loads. 107 refs., 76 refs., 37 tabs.

  8. High-spatiotemporal-resolution ship emission inventory of China based on AIS data in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Yue; Lang, Jianlei; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Xiurui; Zhao, Yuehua

    2017-12-31

    Ship exhaust emissions have been considered a significant source of air pollution, with adverse impacts on the global climate and human health. China, as one of the largest shipping countries, has long been in great need of in-depth analysis of ship emissions. This study for the first time developed a comprehensive national-scale ship emission inventory with 0.005°×0.005° resolution in China for 2014, using the bottom-up method based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data of the full year of 2014. The emission estimation involved 166,546 unique vessels observed from over 15billion AIS reports, covering OGVs (ocean-going vessels), CVs (coastal vessels) and RVs (river vessels). Results show that the total estimated ship emissions for China in 2014 were 1.1937×10 6 t (SO 2 ), 2.2084×10 6 t (NO X ), 1.807×10 5 t (PM 10 ), 1.665×10 5 t (PM 2.5 ), 1.116×10 5 t (HC), 2.419×10 5 t (CO), and 7.843×10 7 t (CO 2 , excluding RVs), respectively. OGVs were the main emission contributors, with proportions of 47%-74% of the emission totals for different species. Vessel type with the most emissions was container (~43.6%), followed by bulk carrier (~17.5%), oil tanker (~5.7%) and fishing ship (~4.9%). Monthly variations showed that emissions from transport vessels had a low point in February, while fishing ship presented two emission peaks in May and September. In terms of port clusters, ship emissions in BSA (Bohai Sea Area), YRD (Yangtze River Delta) and PRD (Pearl River Delta) accounted for ~13%, ~28% and ~17%, respectively, of the total emissions in China. On the contrast, the average emission intensities in PRD were the highest, followed by the YRD and BSA regions. The establishment of this high-spatiotemporal-resolution ship emission inventory fills the gap of national-scale ship emission inventory of China, and the corresponding ship emission characteristics are expected to provide certain reference significance for the management and control of the ship

  9. Investigation of environmental radioactivity around the mooring port of the atomic power ship 'Mutsu'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Yoshiro

    1977-01-01

    The environmental radio activity around the mooring port of the atomic power ship ''Mutsu'' has been investigated as the continuation of work in the last year. On the continuous measurements at the three monitoring posts in the port premises and at the three monitoring stations in Mutsu City, and on the measurements by monitoring cars and ships, no abnormality has been observed on the spatial radioactive dose-rate also in this year. No abnormality has also been detected on the radioactivity in sea water measured by the sea-water monitor. On the measurements of β-radioactivity of surface soil, river-bed soil, river water, drinking water and milk, there was no difference from that in the last year. The total β-radioactivity measurement by the low background 2 π gas flow counter and the nuclide analysis by the γ-spectrometer with a Ge (Li) semiconductor detector showed no abnormality. Although 137 Cs was detected in almost all samples, this isotope seemed to be the fallout from nuclear explosion experiments, and the activity was almost same as the values in various districts in Japan. (Kobatake, H.)

  10. Development of the nuclear ship MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, M.; Umeda, M.; Nawata, Y.; Sato, H.; Honami, M.; Nomura, T.; Ohashi, M.; Higashino, A.

    1989-01-01

    After the planned trial voyage (4700 MWD/MTU) of the nuclear ship MUTSU in 1990, her spent fuel assemblies, initially made of two types of enriched UO 2 (3.2wt% and 4.4wt%), will be transferred to the reprocessing plant soon after cooling down in the ship reactor for more than one year. For transportation, the MUTSU spent fuel shipping casks will be used. Prior to transportation to the reprocessing plant, the cooled spent fuel assemblies will be removed from the reactor to the shipping casks and housed at the spent fuel storage facility on site. In designing the MUTSU spent fuel shipping cask, considerations were given to make the leak-tightness and integrity of the cask confirmable during storage. The development of the cask and the storage function demonstration test were performed by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI). One prototype cask for the storage demonstration test and licensed thirty-five casks were manufactured between 1987 and 1988

  11. Methodology and techniques of early detection anomalies 85Kr and 3H in near bottom layer of sea water by water infiltration in spent nuclear fuel in dumpsites of the ship and submarine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soyfer, V.N.; Goryachev, V.A.; Andreev, D.V.; Barabanov, I.R.; Yanovich, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of the future radioactive environmental contamination threat by releases from the dumped submarine and ship reactors with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a project goal. The methodology of search and detection of traces of noble gases ( 85 Kr, 222 Rn) and 3 H (which leaking the first from the SNF) on them plume on a bottom in dumpsites of ship nuclear reactors is advanced. Investigation of releases from the dumped ship reactors with SNF of icebreaker enin in Kara Sea is launched (September 2003). Research has multi-plane character: experiments with SNF, creation of techniques and expeditions. Preliminary observation of current field and hydrological characteristics in zone of marked dumpsites on the shelf has been fulfilled. For an estimation of a gas fission products release (including Kr-85) from the irradiated fuel during the corrosion in conditions a near-bottom layer of the sea in Arctic the special installation has been created in the RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' hot laboratory. Then the following experiment (modeling the conditions a near-bottom layer of the sea in Arctic) was made: First, samples of irradiated VVER-1000 type reactor fuel (UO 2 ) are loaded into capsules filled with pure sea water or sea water with the silt sampled in Kara Sea. The fuel samples have been selected due to similarity of its burnup level (62 MWd/kg) and other parameters to the one of icebreaker 'Lenin' reactor, that had been buried (1965) in Kara sea. The average sample activity was about 1 GBq for 137 Cs. Second, the capsules and the vacuum system are pumped out and checked on tightness by the helium leak tester. Then capsules are filled with the artificial gas mixture without traces of 85 Kr. Temperature of capsules are maintained in a range 0;1 deg C. Each 1-2 month gas samples are taken from the capsules into the previously pumped out flask, then capsules are refilled by the gas mixture. The measurements of 85 Kr concentration in the samples are carried out on low

  12. Ship emission inventory and its impact on the PM2.5 air pollution in Qingdao Port, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiaotong; Nelson, Peter; Li, Yue; Zhao, Na; Zhao, Yuehua; Lang, Jianlei; Zhou, Ying; Guo, Xiurui

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a first high temporal-spatial ship emission inventory in Qingdao Port and its adjacent waters has been developed using a ;bottom-up; method based on Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. The total estimated ship emissions for SO2, NOX, PM10, PM2.5, HC and CO in 2014 are 3.32 × 104, 4.29 × 104, 4.54 × 103, 4.18 × 103, 1.85 × 103 and 3.66 × 103 tonnes, respectively. Emissions of SO2 and NOX from ships account for 9% and 13% of the anthropogenic totals in Qingdao, respectively. The main contributors to the ship emissions are containers, followed by fishing ships, oil tankers and bulk carriers. The inter-monthly ship emissions varied significantly due to two reasons: stopping of the fishing ship activities during the fishing moratorium and the reduction of freight volume around the Chinese New Year Festival. Emissions from transport vessels concentrated basically along the shipping routes, while fishing ships contributed to massive irregular spatial emissions in the sea. The impact of ship emissions on the ambient air quality was further investigated using the Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model. The results reveal that the contribution of ship emissions to the PM2.5 concentrations in Qingdao is the highest in summer (13.1%) and the lowest in winter (1.5%). The impact was more evident over densely populated urban areas, where the contributions from ship emissions could be over 20% in July due to their close range to the docks. These results indicated that the management and control of the ship emissions are highly demanded considering their remarkable influence on the air quality and potential negative effects on human health.

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2006-02-16 to 2006-12-02 (NODC Accession 0081021)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081021 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  14. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2003-02-06 to 2003-11-21 (NODC Accession 0081017)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081017 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  15. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean from 2013-04-30 to 2013-12-07 (NODC Accession 0117689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117689 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, North...

  16. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2004-02-12 to 2004-12-22 (NODC Accession 0081018)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0081018 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological, optical and physical data collected from NOAA Ship RONALD H. BROWN in the Caribbean Sea,...

  17. Research and development of spent fuel shipping casks and the criteria for seagoing vessel carrying casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Ando, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Considering that the transportation of spent fuel will increase rapidly and extensively in the near future, Japanese Atomic Energy Committee enacted ''Technical Standard for Transportation of Radioactive Materials'' based on ''IAEA Regulation for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials 1973 Revised Edition''. Coping with the recommendation of AEC, Atomic Energy Bureau in Science and Technology Agency and other authorities concerned started to review the former ordinances for transportation of radioactive materials and to consolidate a unified system of relevant laws and standards. On the other hand, Atomic Energy Bureau has invested in research and development since ten years ago in order to obtain the data for design and licensing work of spent fuel shipping casks. In those studies some different scale models of a prototype of 80 t in weight have been used to make clear the scale effect at the drop, pucture and fire tests, which are one of the features of Japanese research and development. And also the immersion test in high pressure water up to about 500 bars is now carried out to investigate the integrity of cask body and sealing structure to prevent leakage of radioactive contents to the ambient when the cask falls into deep sea. In Japan, depending on the site conditions of nuclear plants, almost all transportations of unirradiated and spent fuels are done on the sea. Therefore, in order to secure the safety of transportation, the design criteria of the seagoing vessels for exclusive transportation of spent fuel shipping casks, namely full load shipping, has been enacted, which aims to make minimum the probability of sinking at collison, stranding and other unforeseen accidents at sea and also to restrain radiation exposure of the crew as low as possible

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of a cruise ship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldi, Francesco; Ahlgren, Fredrik; Nguyen, Tuong-Van

    2015-01-01

    but increasing share of the industry. The complexity of the energy system of a s hip where the energy required by propulsion is no longer the trivial main contributor to the whole energy use thus makes this kind of ship of particular interest for the analysis of how energy is converted from its original form...... destruction is generated in the Diesel engines and in the oil - fired boilers) and in the sea water cooler (5.4%) ; the main exergy losses happen instead in the exhaust gas, mostly from the main engines (6 7% of total losses) and particularly from those not equipped with heat recovery devices . The improved...

  19. The FARE: A new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  20. The FARE: a new way to express FAlls Risk among older persons including physical activity as a measure of exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijlhuizen, G.J.; Chorus, A.M.J.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Common expressions of falls risk do not include exposure to hazards. We compared two expressions: the commonly used population incidence (fallers per 1000 person-years) and the FARE (FAlls Risk by Exposure): the number of fallers per 1000 physically active person-days. Methods:

  1. Preparing for Science at Sea - a Chief Scientists Training Cruise on Board the RV Sikuliaq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, B.; Pockalny, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    As part of their education, marine geology and geophysics students spend time at sea, collecting, processing and interpreting data to earn their degrees. While this is a critical component of their preparation, it is an incomplete introduction to the process of doing science at sea. Most students are unfamiliar with the proposal process. Many students spend their time at sea performing assigned tasks without responsibility or participation in cruise planning and execution. In December 2016, we conducted a two-week-long, NSF-funded "Chief Scientist Training Cruise" aboard the R/V Sikuliaq designed to complete their introduction to seagoing science by giving the students the opportunity to plan and execute surveys based hypotheses they formulated. The educational process began with applicants responding to a request for proposals (RFP), which provided a framework for the scientific potential of the cruise. This process continued training through two days of workshops and presentations at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics. The students used existing data to define hypotheses, plan surveys, and collect/analyze data to test their hypothesis. The survey design was subject to the time constraints imposed by the ship schedule and the physical constraints imposed by the ship's equipment. The training and sea time made it possible to address all of steps of the scientific process, including proposal writing. Once underway, the combination of conducting the planned surveys and attending daily presentations helped familiarize the students with at-sea operations, the equipment on board the RV Sikuliaq, and the process of writing proposals to NSF for sea-going science. Questionnaires conducted prior to the cruise and in the final days before arriving in port document the success of this training program for developing the abilities and confidence in identifying significant scientific problems, preparing proposals to secure funding, and planning and directing ship surveys.

  2. Ships on hero stones from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    tossed their cargo in the waves of the sea in times of danger and promised their Gods to make a donation if ever He brought them safely out of this peril. The Buddhist goddess ?Tara? is the protectress and a number of ?Tara? images have been found... of Naval Warfare in India Boats were not only engaged for transportation of cargo, crossing rivers and lakes pleasure trips for noble people but also for naval warfare. This practice also appears to be very old. The art of employing boats and ships...

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Ethos, Role and Function of Implied Obligations in Shipping Law and General Law of Contract

    OpenAIRE

    Ndi, George; Alawneh, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    The law governing the international carriage of goods by sea is deeply rooted in the doctrine of freedom of contract. The historical origins of the shipping industry itself can be traced to the era of 'laissez faire' in which contractual practice, based on negotiated terms and conditions, was free from the regulatory constraints of the state. It is for this reason that to this day modern shipping law is still rooted in the common law and customary trade usages with very limited statutory infl...

  4. Analysis of added resistance and seakeeping responses in head sea conditions for low-speed full ships using URANS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Chul Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The KVLCC2 and its modified hull form were investigated in regular head waves using Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS methods. The modified KVLCC2 (named KWP-bow KVLCC2 is designed for reducing wave reflection from the bow. Firstly, the original KVLCC2 is studied for verification of the present code and methodology and the computed time history of total resistance and 2DOF motions (heave and pitch for the selected two wave length conditions are directly compared with the results obtained from KRISO towing tank experiment under the identical condition. The predicted added resistance, heave and pitch motion RAOs show relatively good agreement with the experimental results. Secondly, the comparison of performance in waves between KVLCC2 and KWP-bow KVLCC2 is carried out. We confirmed that newly designed hull form shows better performances in all the range of wave length conditions through both the computation and the experiment. The present URANS method can capture the difference of performance in waves of the two hull forms without any special treatment for short wave length conditions. It can be identified that KWP-bow KVLCC2 gives about 8% of energy saving in sea state 5 condition. Keywords: Added resistance in waves, Ship motion, URANS, KVLCC2

  5. Ship Vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1997-01-01

    Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board......Methods for calculating natural frequencies for ship hulls and for plates and panels.Evaluation of the risk for inconvenient vibrations on board...

  6. Sea-ice thickness from field measurements in the northwestern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian; Haas, Christian; Hendricks, Stefan; Kaleschke, Lars; Wang, Caixin

    2017-02-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the fastest changing regions of the Arctic, and has experienced the strongest decline in winter-time sea-ice area in the Arctic, at -23±4% decade-1. Sea-ice thickness in the Barents Sea is not well studied. We present two previously unpublished helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) ice thickness measurements from the northwestern Barents Sea acquired in March 2003 and 2014. The HEM data are compared to ice thickness calculated from ice draft measured by ULS deployed between 1994 and 1996. These data show that ice thickness varies greatly from year to year; influenced by the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that govern local formation vs long-range advection. In a year with a large inflow of sea-ice from the Arctic Basin, the Barents Sea ice cover is dominated by thick multiyear ice; as was the case in 2003 and 1995. In a year with an ice cover that was mainly grown in situ, the ice will be thin and mechanically unstable; as was the case in 2014. The HEM data allow us to explore the spatial and temporal variability in ice thickness. In 2003 the dominant ice class was more than 2 years old; and modal sea-ice thickness varied regionally from 0.6 to 1.4 m, with the thinner ice being either first-year ice, or multiyear ice which had come into contact with warm Atlantic water. In 2014 the ice cover was predominantly locally grown ice less than 1 month old (regional modes of 0.5-0.8 m). These two situations represent two extremes of a range of possible ice thickness distributions that can present very different conditions for shipping traffic; or have a different impact on heat transport from ocean to atmosphere.

  7. Powering and Motion Predictions of High Speed Sea Lift (HSSL) Ships

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorski, Joseph; Miller, Ronald; Carrica, Pablo; Kandasamy, Mani; Stern, Fred

    2007-01-01

    High Speed Sea Lift (HSSL) is an important area of in terest for the US Navy. Computational tools are needed to predict the hydrodynamics of these configurations for their proper design and analysis in many areas including...

  8. Early Chinese Voyaging in the South China Sea: Implications on Territorial Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Flecker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine historically issues of territorial claims over the South China Sea. As it is known that at present there are at least six countries claiming part or all of South China Sea territory. In this case China is the most ambitious country to control all areas in the South China Sea. This has led to political and military tensions in the region. It is strange that the South China Sea waters has actually been a shipping thoroughfare for the last two millennia. Therefore, this historical study will contribute to an understanding of the issues that could provoke international conflict.

  9. Exploration and development of offshore oil and gas fields. [North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    In the last 9 years, the British companies, based on their rich engineering and commercial experience, have directed a considerable part of their material and manpower resources at developing oil and gas fields in the North Sea. The technological innovations used by British industry are: aero- and marine surveys to prospect for oil, underwater laying of pipelines, arrangement of platforms, etc.; exploratory drilling in the open sea and on dry land; design of platforms with regard for the depth of the water and unique weather conditions of the North Sea, their assembly and development; use of auxiliary ships and helicopters, and diving equipment.

  10. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  11. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.

    2009-04-01

    , 30 m3/h) at a rate of 2 samples per week for each size fraction. This resulted in 78 and 77 valid PM10 and PM2.5 samples, respectively. All samples were weighed and analysed for major and trace elements following the methodology described by Querol et al. (2004). The data collected over the annual period was analysed as a function of the wind sectors defining the main PM sources: 0-45° (open sea), 45-135° (harbour) and 135-360° (land). PM levels and chemical composition were evaluated for each of these sectors, and initial results on hourly PM levels (24000 data points) showed striking similarities between the results from the open sea (46 µgPM10/m3, 22 µgPM2.5/m3, 14 µgPM1/m3) and the harbour (44 µgPM10/m3, 21 µgPM2.5/m3, 13 µgPM1/m3) sectors, which were markedly different from those recorded from the land (37 µgPM10/m3, 16 µgPM2.5/m3, 11 µgPM1/m3). This indicated that the impact of shipping emissions on urban background PM levels do not represent only harbour emissions, but also emissions produced during vessel traffic into and out of the harbour, and also across from Melilla and through the Gibraltar Strait. The same kind of analysis was carried out for the levels of tracers species and tracer ratios, in search for a marker of shipping emissions. Results showed that the V/Ni ratio followed a similar pattern to that detected for PM levels, with similar values for the open sea and harbour sectors (4.1 and 4.0, respectively), which differed widely from the ratio obtained from land (12.4). These results evidence the value of the V/Ni ratio as a marker for shipping emissions in Melilla. Further research is ongoing in search of other tracer species and/or tracer ratios. Furthermore, a source apportionment analysis will be carried our by means of PMF, which will be followed by a Multi-linear Engine (ME) analysis with pulling towards the marker V/Ni ratio and aimed at quantifying the impact on urban PM levels of shipping emissions in Melilla. Acknowledgements

  12. The salvaging of the Mont Louis cargo ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vastel, D.

    1985-01-01

    On Saturday the 25th of August 1984, at 2:20 P.M., the German car ferry Olau Britannia with 800 passengers aboard rammed the rear starboard side of the French cargo ship Mont Louis. The collision occurred in the English Channel at a point 18 kilometers north of Ostend. At 7:00 P.M. the Mont Louis sank to a depth of 15 meters at a distance of several miles by rail from Antwerp. Half the ship's hull lay uncovered at low tide. The cargo included 30 type 48-Y containers, each filled with 12 tons of UF 6 , and 22 empty type 30-B containers for return of the enriched uranium. The UF 6 was to be enriched to 4% in the Soviet Union for use as fuel in nuclear power plants. The table below details the nature of the UF 6 . After salvaging operation the containers have been inspected and no damage or leaks have been detected. The accident involved no risk of radioactive or chemical contamination of the sea water. The systematic misinformation campaign by Greenpeace and news media is briefly described. (orig./HP)

  13. Google Earth Visualizations of the Marine Automatic Identification System (AIS): Monitoring Ship Traffic in National Marine Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwehr, K.; Hatch, L.; Thompson, M.; Wiley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The Automatic Identification System (AIS) is a new technology that provides ship position reports with location, time, and identity information without human intervention from ships carrying the transponders to any receiver listening to the broadcasts. In collaboration with the USCG's Research and Development Center, NOAA's Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) has installed 3 AIS receivers around Massachusetts Bay to monitor ship traffic transiting the sanctuary and surrounding waters. The SBNMS and the USCG also worked together propose the shifting the shipping lanes (termed the traffic separation scheme; TSS) that transit the sanctuary slightly to the north to reduce the probability of ship strikes of whales that frequent the sanctuary. Following approval by the United Nation's International Maritime Organization, AIS provided a means for NOAA to assess changes in the distribution of shipping traffic caused by formal change in the TSS effective July 1, 2007. However, there was no easy way to visualize this type of time series data. We have created a software package called noaadata-py to process the AIS ship reports and produce KML files for viewing in Google Earth. Ship tracks can be shown changing over time to allow the viewer to feel the motion of traffic through the sanctuary. The ship tracks can also be gridded to create ship traffic density reports for specified periods of time. The density is displayed as map draped on the sea surface or as vertical histogram columns. Additional visualizations such as bathymetry images, S57 nautical charts, and USCG Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) can be combined with the ship traffic visualizations to give a more complete picture of the maritime environment. AIS traffic analyses have the potential to give managers throughout NOAA's National Marine Sanctuaries an improved ability to assess the impacts of ship traffic on the marine resources they seek to protect. Viewing ship traffic

  14. Alien parasitic copepods in mussels and oysters of the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsner, N.O.; Jacobsen, S.; Thieltges, D.W.; Reise, K.

    2011-01-01

    Molluscan intestinal parasites of the genus Mytilicola, specifically M. intestinalis, were initially introduced into bivalves in the North Sea in the 1930s. It was presumably introduced from the Mediterranean with ship-fouling mussels, then attained epidemic proportions in Mytilus edulis in the

  15. A Sensitivity Approach to Identification of Ship Dynamics From Sea Trial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.; Knudsen, Morten

    1998-01-01

    Non-linear mathematical models of ships comprise one hundred parameters, or more, and differences between full-scale trials and model tests are difficult to associate with individual terms. Direct identification of parameters would be advantageous. The paper employs a sensitivity approach...... in an attempt to achieve this. Using the method on full-scale data from a containership, a good fit in roll and yaw is obtained, but the method reveals that this does not imply good determination of individual parameters. The sensitivity method is found to be easily applied for both identification...

  16. Models for Comparing Air-Only and Sea/Air Transportation of Wartime Deployment Cargo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theres, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ...) to an overseas Port of Debarkation (POD). This thesis evaluates a proposal to load air-transportable cargo aboard vessels at CONUS seaports and to ship that cargo to an appropriately located sea-air-interface (SAI...

  17. SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE and Other Data from 19940301 to 19940331 (NCEI Accession 9400060)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) data for March 1994 was provided by Kunio Sakurai of Japan Meteorological Agency, Tokyo, Japan. SST were collected from ships in El...

  18. Approximate Method of Calculating Forces on Rudder During Ship Sailing on a Shipping Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zelazny

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Service speed of a ship in real weather conditions is a basic design parameter. Forecasting of this speed at preliminary design stage is made difficult by the lack of simple but at the same accurate models of forces acting upon a ship sailing on a preset shipping route. The article presents a model for calculating forces and moment on plane rudder, useful for forecasting of ship service speed at preliminary stages of ship design.

  19. Knowledge-based full-automatic control system for a nuclear ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, J.; Nakazawa, T.; Yabuuchi, N.

    2000-01-01

    Plant operations aboard nuclear ships require quick judgements and actions due to changing marine conditions such as wind, waves and currents. Furthermore, additional human support is not available for nuclear ship operation at sea, so advanced automatic operations are necessary to reduce the number of operators required finally. Therefore, an advanced automatic operating system has been developed based on operational knowledge of nuclear ship 'Mutsu' plant. The advanced automatic operating system includes both the automatic operation system and the operator-support system which assists operators in completing actions during plant accidents, anomaly diagnosis and plant supervision. These system are largely being developed using artificial intelligent techniques such as neural network, fuzzy logic and knowledge-based expert. The automatic operation system is fundamentally based upon application of an operator's knowledge of both normal (start-up to rated power level) and abnormal (after scram) operations. Comparing plant behaviors from start-up to power level by the automatic operation with by 'Mutsu' manual operation, stable automatic operation was obtained almost same as manual operation within all operating limits. The abnormal automatic system was for hard work of manual operations after scram or LOCA accidents. An integrating system with the normal and the abnormal automatic systems are being developed for interacting smoothly both systems. (author)

  20. Tolerance and potential for adaptation of a Baltic Sea rockweed under predicted climate change conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugiu, Luca; Manninen, Iita; Rothäusler, Eva; Jormalainen, Veijo

    2018-03-01

    Climate change is threating species' persistence worldwide. To predict species responses to climate change we need information not just on their environmental tolerance but also on its adaptive potential. We tested how the foundation species of rocky littoral habitats, Fucus vesiculosus, responds to combined hyposalinity and warming projected to the Baltic Sea by 2070-2099. We quantified responses of replicated populations originating from the entrance, central, and marginal Baltic regions. Using replicated individuals, we tested for the presence of within-population tolerance variation. Future conditions hampered growth and survival of the central and marginal populations whereas the entrance populations fared well. Further, both the among- and within-population variation in responses to climate change indicated existence of genetic variation in tolerance. Such standing genetic variation provides the raw material necessary for adaptation to a changing environment, which may eventually ensure the persistence of the species in the inner Baltic Sea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hashidate, Kouji

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author).

  2. Development of the Nuclear Ship Database. 1. Outline of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyouya, Masahiko; Ochiai, Masa-aki; Hashidate, Kouji.

    1995-03-01

    We obtained the experimental data on the effects of the ship motions and the change in load and caused by the ship operations, the waves, the winds etc., to the nuclear power plant behavior, through the Power-up Tests and Experimental Voyages of the Nuclear Ship MUTSU. Moreover, we accumulated the techniques, the knowledge and others on the Nuclear Ship development at the each stage of the N.S. MUTSU Research and Development program, such as the design stage, the construction stage, the operation stage and others. These data, techniques, knowledge and others are the assembly of the experimental data and the experiences through the design, the construction and the operation of the first nuclear ship in JAPAN. It is important to keep and pigeonhole these products of the N.S. MUTSU program in order to utilize them effectively in the research and development of the advanced marine reactor, since there is no construction plan of the nuclear ship for the present in JAPAN. We have been carrying out the development of the Nuclear Ship Database System since 1991 for the purpose of effective utilization of the N.S. MUTSU products in the design study of the advanced marine reactors. The part of the Nuclear Ship Database System on the experimental data, called Nuclear Ship Experimental Database, was already accomplished and utilized since 1993. This report describes the outline and the use of the Nuclear Ship Experimental Database.The remaining part of the database system on the documentary data, called Nuclear Ship Documentary Database, are now under development. (author)

  3. First experiment on liquid hydrogen transportation by ship inside Osaka bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, K.; Takeda, M.; Hamaura, T.; Suzuki, K.; Miyake, Y.; Matsuno, Y.; Fujikawa, S.; Kumakura, H.

    2017-12-01

    A project to import a large amount of liquid hydrogen (LH2) from Australia by a cargo carrier, which is equipped with two 1250 m3 tanks, is underway in Japan. It is important to understand sloshing and boil-off characteristics inside the LH2 tank during marine transportation. However, the LH2 sloshing and boil-off characteristics on the sea have not yet been clarified. First experiment on the LH2 transportation of 20 liter with magnesium diboride (MgB2) level sensors by the training ship “Fukae-maru”, which has 50 m long and 449 ton gross weight, was carried out successfully inside Osaka bay on February 2, 2017. In the experiment, synchronous measurements of liquid level, temperature, pressure, ship motions, and accelerations as well as the rapid depressurization test were done. The increase rate of the temperature and the pressure inside the LH2 tank were discussed under the rolling and the pitching conditions.

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Florida and others from 2011-03-24 to 2011-11-12 (NCEI Accession 0157279)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157279 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal Waters of Mississippi and others from 2010-04-08 to 2010-11-23 (NCEI Accession 0157268)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157268 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from NOAA Ship GORDON GUNTER in the Caribbean Sea, Coastal...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from NOAA Ship OSCAR DYSON in the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2014-03-03 to 2014-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0144980)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144980 includes Surface underway data collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR DYSON in the Bering Sea, Gulf of Alaska and North Pacific Ocean from 2014-03-03...

  7. Dutch Ships and Sailors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Victor; Hoekstra, F.G.; Leinenga, Jurjen; van Rossum, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Dutch Ships and Sailors provides an infrastructure for maritime historical datasets, linking correlating data through semantic web technology. It brings together datasets related to recruitment and shipping in the East-India trade (mainly 18th century) and in the shipping of the northern provinces

  8. Reactors. Nuclear propulsion ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fribourg, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This article has for object the development of nuclear-powered ships and the conception of the nuclear-powered ship. The technology of the naval propulsion P.W.R. type reactor is described in the article B.N.3 141 'Nuclear Boilers ships'. (N.C.)

  9. Ship Acquisition of Shipping Companies by Sale & Purchase Activities for Sustainable Growth: Exploratory Fuzzy-AHP Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-Sik Park

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening sale and purchase (S&P capacity has become a fundamental requirement for sustainable growth and corporate competitiveness in the modern shipping market. However, there is a lack of research related to S&P and its priority when shipping companies attempt to implement ship acquisition through S&P activities. To fill this gap, this paper conducts an empirical analysis to analyze priority factors during the acquisition of second-hand ships from the perspective of shipping companies. Business criteria are considered to be the most important factors in the analysis of the priority of ship acquisition and investment in shipping companies. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first exploration covering Korean shipping companies’ ship acquisition through S&P activities. This study is expected to contribute to the better understanding of the role of S&P in ensuring the sustainability of shipping companies and to provide stakeholders with valuable insights.

  10. Proceedings of ICETECH 2008 : the 8. international conference and exhibition on performance of ships and structures in ice. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bercha, F. (ed.) [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Bercha, S. (comp.) [Bercha Group, Calgary, AB (Canada); Pilkington, R. [CANATEC Associates International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-09-15

    The rapid growth and renewed interest in oil and gas exploration and production in Arctic offshore regions has resulted in an increase in maritime transport through northern sea routes, including the Canadian Northwest Passage. This conference included both plenary and technical sessions which addressed issues facing offshore resource development in ice-covered areas, such as construction of offshore platforms; pipelines and facilities; and ice-structure interactions in terms of ice loads and ice mechanics. New offshore developments in ice-covered areas were discussed with reference to potential damage caused by dynamic ice loads, risk assessment, personnel safety, and emergency evacuation rescue. The global warming implications to the Arctic were also discussed along with Arctic geopolitics. The technical session on ships addressed ship performance in ice; propulsion systems; offshore operations; ice loads and hull strength; and icebreaker designs. Ice properties and observations were reviewed along with ice detection and mapping techniques. Developments in the Sakhalin Sea were reviewed along with codes, regulations and standards. Other technical sessions included ice scour and gouging; Arctic escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) operations; oil spill protection and response; and a special session on Arctic marine shipping assessment (AMSA). The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Proceedings of ICETECH 2008 : the 8. international conference and exhibition on performance of ships and structures in ice. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bercha, F.; Bercha, S.; Pilkington, R.

    2008-09-01

    The rapid growth and renewed interest in oil and gas exploration and production in Arctic offshore regions has resulted in an increase in maritime transport through northern sea routes, including the Canadian Northwest Passage. This conference included both plenary and technical sessions which addressed issues facing offshore resource development in ice-covered areas, such as construction of offshore platforms; pipelines and facilities; and ice-structure interactions in terms of ice loads and ice mechanics. New offshore developments in ice-covered areas were discussed with reference to potential damage caused by dynamic ice loads, risk assessment, personnel safety, and emergency evacuation rescue. The global warming implications to the Arctic were also discussed along with Arctic geopolitics. The technical session on ships addressed ship performance in ice; propulsion systems; offshore operations; ice loads and hull strength; and icebreaker designs. Ice properties and observations were reviewed along with ice detection and mapping techniques. Developments in the Sakhalin Sea were reviewed along with codes, regulations and standards. Other technical sessions included ice scour and gouging; Arctic escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) operations; oil spill protection and response; and a special session on Arctic marine shipping assessment (AMSA). The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 24 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Shipping and the environment: Smokestack emissions, scrubbers and unregulated oceanic consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Turner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available While shipping has long been recognised as a very carbon-efficient transport medium, there is an increasing focus on its broader environmental consequences. The International Maritime Organisation is responsible for the regulation of ship emissions arising from fuel combustion. Their current regulations are, however, much less strict than those applying to land-based transport within the European Union. Five different groups of pollutant emission from ship smokestacks are addressed in this paper: sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, organic matter and metals. The reduction of sulphur oxide emissions into the atmosphere using scrubber technology adds another dimension to the discussion, as this approach results in focused discharge of some pollutants to the surface water. A scoping calculation shows that an open-loop scrubber on a medium-sized ship could discharge more copper and zinc daily to the surface water than the ship’s antifouling paint. The use of antifouling paint in the European Union is subject to a prior risk assessment, but scrubber discharges are not subject to any such risk assessment. This situation presents a problem from the perspective of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, as environmental monitoring programmes in some coastal areas of the Baltic Sea have shown that levels of both copper and zinc exceed environmental quality standards. To fulfil the Marine Strategy Framework Directive requirements and achieve Good Environmental Status, having knowledge of the magnitude of different anthropogenic pressures is important. Metal inputs from open-loop scrubbers have been largely neglected until now: some metals have the potential to serve as tracers for monitoring scrubber discharges.

  13. Seasonal Climate Associated with Major Shipping Routes in the North Pacific and North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jau-Ming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The major shipping routes in the North Pacific (NP and North Atlantic (NA are analyzed via ship-reported records compiled by the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS. The shipping route seasonal characteristics and associated climatic features are also examined. In the NP, the dominant cross-basin route takes a great-circle path between East Asia and North America along 54°N north of the Aleutian Islands throughout the year. This route penetrates the Aleutian low center where ocean waves and winds are relatively weaker than those in the low¡¦s southern section south of 50°N. Moreover, the Earth¡¦s spherical shape makes a higher-latitude route shorter in navigational distance across the NP than a lower-latitude route. Two additional mid-latitude routes through the 40° - 50°N region appear in summer when the Aleutian low vanishes. In the NA, the major shipping routes form an X-shaped pattern in the oceans south of 40°N to connect North America/the Panama Canal and the Mediterranean Sea/the British Isles and Europe. These major shipping routes are far from the influence of the Icelandic low and thus are used throughout the year due to the stability in marine conditions and their general efficiency. A third and more zonal route appears to the north of the X-shaped routes in the 40° - 50°N region. Weak influence from the Icelandic low on marine conditions during summer and spring means that more ships take this route in summer and spring than in winter and fall.

  14. Simultaneous Fleet Deployment and Network Design of Liner Shipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelareh, Shahin; Pisinger, David

    A mixed integer linear programming formulation is proposed for the simultaneous design of network and fleet deployment of a liner service providers for deep-sea shipping. The underlying network design problem is based on a 4-index (5-index by considering capacity type) formulation of the hub...... location problem which are known for their tightness. The demand is considered to be elastic in the sense that the service provider can accept any fraction of the origin-destination demand. We then propose a primal decomposition method to solve instances of the problem to optimality. Numerical results...... confirm superiority of our approach in comparison with a general-purpose mixed integer programming solver....

  15. Features of Load and Wear of Main Propulsion Devices on Sea-Going Ships with Piston Combustion Engines and Their Impact on Changes in Technical States of the Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girtler Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the specificity of operation of propulsion systems of seagoing ships which causes the need to control the load on them, especially on their engines called main engines. The characteristics of the load on the propulsion systems, especially on the main engines as well as on the shaft lines and propellers driven by the engines, along with the process of wear in tribological joints (sliding tribological systems of the machines have been described herein. Using examples of typical types of wear (both linear and volumetric for the tribological systems of this sort, interpretation of states of their wear has been provided with regards to the wear levels defined as acceptable, unacceptable and catastrophic. The following hypotheses have been formulated: 1 hypothesis explaining necessity to consider the loads on the systems under operation as stochastic processes; 2 hypothesis explaining a possibility of considering the processes as stationary; and 3 hypothesis explaining why it can be assumed that a given technical state of any tribological system can be considered as dependent only on the directly preceding state and stochastically independent of the states that existed earlier. Accepting the hypotheses as true, a four-state continuous-time semi-Markov process has been proposed in the form of a model of changes in condition of a propulsion system (PS of any ship. The model includes the most significant states affecting safety of a ship at sea, such as: s0 - PS ability state, s1 - PS disability state due to damage to the main engine (ME, s2 - PS disability state due to damage to the shaft line (SL and s3 - PS disability state due to damage to the propeller (P. Probability of occurrence (changes of the states has also been demonstrated.

  16. Barents sea: laboratory of a new energy diplomacy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castel, Viviane du

    2010-01-01

    The Barents Sea is currently carried on the international scene as a real laboratory for a new diplomacy, based on energy and whose actors are more businesses than states. In this context, the opening of new shipping routes, as a result of melting ice and the intrusion of new actors will they not change the current geopolitical and geostrategic balance?

  17. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisions with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding structures....

  18. Handbook of nuclear ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    First, the government organs and other organizations related to nuclear ships and their tasks are described. The fundamental plan for the development of nuclear ships had been determined in July, 1963, and was revised three times thereafter. However in December, 1980, new determination to carry out the research works also was made. The course of the construction of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' from 1955 to 1980, the main particulars of the nuclear ship ''Mutsu'' and the drawing of the general arrangement are shown. The designated port for berthing the Mutsu was completed in 1972 in Ominato, Aomori Prefecture, but after the happening of radiation leak during the trial operation of the Mutsu in 1974, it was agreed to remove the port. The main works to be carried out at the port and the port facilities are explained. The progress of the examination of safety of the Mutsu and the result, the test of raising the power output carried out in 1974, and the course of selecting the port for making the repair works of the Mutsu are described. The law concerning Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency had been instituted in 1963, and was revised four times thereafter. The change of the budget for the tests and researches related to nuclear ships in Japan is shown. The state of development of nuclear ships in foreign countries, the international organs related to atomic energy, shipping, shipbuilding and energy, and chronological table are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  19. Safe Maritime Autonomous Path Planning in a High Sea State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masahiro; Quadrelli, Marco; Huntsberger, Terrance L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a path planning method for sea surface vehicles that prevents capsizing and bow-diving in a high sea-state. A key idea is to use response amplitude operators (RAOs) or, in control terminology, the transfer functions from a sea state to a vessel's motion, in order to find a set of speeds and headings that results in excessive pitch and roll oscillations. This information is translated to arithmetic constraints on the ship's velocity, which are passed to a model predictive control (MPC)-based path planner to find a safe and optimal path that achieves specified goals. An obstacle avoidance capability is also added to the path planner. The proposed method is demonstrated by simulations.

  20. Outer Dynamics of Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these notes is to present analysis procedures for the motion of ships during ship-ship collisions and for ship collisons with offshore structures. The aim is to estimate that part of the lost kinetic energy which will have to be absorbed by rupture and plastic damage of the colliding...

  1. Sea spray aerosol fluxes in the Baltic Sea region: Comparison of the WAM model with measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markuszewski, Piotr; Kosecki, Szymon; Petelski, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    Sea spray aerosol flux is an important element of sub-regional climate modeling. The majority of works related to this topic concentrate on open ocean research rather than on smaller, inland seas, e.g., the Baltic Sea. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, where major inflows of oceanic waters are rare. Furthermore, surface waves in the Baltic Sea have a relatively shorter lifespan in comparison with oceanic waves. Therefore, emission of sea spray aerosol may differ greatly from what is known from oceanic research and should be investigated. This article presents a comparison of sea spray aerosol measurements carried out on-board the s/y Oceania research ship with data calculated in accordance to the WAM model. The measurements were conducted in the southern region of the Baltic Sea during four scientific cruises. The gradient method was used to determinate aerosol fluxes. The fluxes were calculated for particles of diameter in range of 0.5-47 μm. The correlation between wind speed measured and simulated has a good agreement (correlation in range of 0.8). The comparison encompasses three different sea spray generation models. First, function proposed by Massel (2006) which is based only on wave parameters, such as significant wave height and peak frequency. Second, Callaghan (2013) which is based on Gong (2003) model (wind speed relation), and a thorough experimental analysis of whitecaps. Third, Petelski et al. (2014) which is based on in-situ gradient measurements with the function dependent on wind speed. The two first models which based on whitecaps analysis are insufficient. Moreover, the research shows strong relation between aerosol emission and wind speed history.

  2. Signs of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers and fare collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malú de Oliveira Freire

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To describe the signs of musculoskeletal disorders (SMD in drivers and fare ollectors and to investigate their association with hours worked per day, nutritional status and level of physical activity (PA. A cross-sectional study undertaken with 40 bus drivers and 39 fare collectors working intercity routes. The “Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire” was used to identify SMD. The working day was defi ned according to median values ( ABSTRACT O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever os sintomas de distúrbios osteomusculares (SDO em motoristas e cobradores de ônibus e investigar sua associação com jornada de trabalho, estado nutricional e nível de atividade física. Estudo transversal realizado com 40 motoristas e 39 cobradores de ônibus de viagens intermunicipais. Os SDO foram verificados, utilizando-se o Questionário Nórdico de Sintomas Osteomusculares. A jornada de trabalho foi categorizada a partir dos valores da mediana (< 8 horas e ≥ 8 horas. O índice de massa corporal (IMC foi usado para verificar o estado nutricional. O nível de atividade física foi avaliado, usando-se o Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física (versão curta. As associações foram verifi cadas por teste qui-quadrado. A freqüência de dor em alguma região do corpo (últimos 12 meses foi de 70,0% e 76,9% para motoristas e cobradores respectivamente; 30,0% dos motoristas e 33,3% dos cobradores referiram dor nos últimos 7 dias; 26,6% e 33,3% dos motoristas e cobradores, respectivamente, tiveram que evitar o trabalho devido às dores. As maiores prevalências (últimos 12 meses foram observadas nas seguintes regiões anatômicas: ombros (32,5%, para motoristas e; lombar (48,7%, para cobradores. Houve diferença significativa (p = 0,029 entre motoristas e cobradores quanto ao relato de dor na região “lombar”. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi maior nos motoristas (72,0% do que nos cobradores (33,3%, as diferenças foram signifi cativas (p = 0

  3. On Impact Mechanics in Ship Collisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present analytical, closed-form expressions for the energy released for crushing and the impact impulse during ship collisions. Ship-ship collisions, ship collisions with rigid walls and ship collisions with flexible offshore structures are considered. The derived ...

  4. Towards a nuclear merchant ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, R.L.R.; Llewelyn, G.I.W.; Farmer, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of nuclear merchant ships is likely to be attended by a number of constraints and requirements. Not all of these can be fully resolved until such ships come into use and the necessary experience and confidence have been acquired. But the timing of commercial introduction, if it comes about, will depend on the relative economics of nuclear versus fossil fuel propulsion, and the differences in turn depend in part on the operating costs particular to nuclear ships. A review of operation aspects is essential not only to commercial appraisal; each country whose trade may be carried in nuclear ships - whether it will build such ships or not - will have occasion to give some attention to the problems. It is an international problem and is, as noted later, being considered internationally. This paper; i) reviews some of the operational aspects as seen in the U.K.; ii) summarizes views received by the Nuclear Merchant Ship Unit (NMSU) from U.K. shipping, shipbuilding and nuclear industries on the prospects of a U.K. nuclear merchant ship. (author)

  5. Living and Working Beneath the Sea – Next Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowiński Lech

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of living beneath the sea is very new if compared with millennia of shipping activity. In fact, ocean surface was considered mainly as medium suitable for transport of persons and goods as well as aggression and robbery. More practical attempts to live “on” the water surface are limited to well protected internal waters.

  6. Airborne emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles from individual ships using sniffer technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecken, J.; Mellqvist, J.; Salo, K.; Ekholm, J.; Jalkanen, J.-P.

    2013-12-01

    A dedicated system for airborne ship emission measurements of SO2, NOx and particles has been developed and used from several small aircrafts. The system has been adapted for fast response measurements at 1 Hz and the use of several of the instruments is unique. The uncertainty of the given data is about 20.3% for SO2 and 23.8% for NOx emission factors. Multiple measurements of 158 ships measured from the air on the Baltic and North Sea during 2011 and 2012 show emission factors of 18.8 ± 6.5 g kgfuel-1, 66.6 ± 23.4 g kgfuel-1, and 1.8 ± 1.3 × 1016 particles kgfuel-1 for SO2, NOx and particle number respectively. The particle size distributions were measured for particle diameters between 15 and 560 nm. The mean sizes of the particles are between 50 and 62 nm dependent on the distance to the source and the number size distribution is mono-modal. Concerning the sulfur fuel content 85% of the ships comply with the IMO limits. The sulfur emission has decreased compared to earlier measurements from 2007 to 2009. The presented method can be implemented for regular ship compliance monitoring.

  7. Montenegro on the Path to Paris MoU Accession: Towards Achieving a Sustainable Shipping Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Nikcevic

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the sustainability of the shipping industry and marine ecosystem of Montenegro, it is necessary that Montenegro becomes a full member of the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (Paris MoU on Port State Control. The reasons for doing so are numerous: the full adoption of standards stipulated by the Memorandum in relation to ship control; continuously keeping pace with, and development of, new standards in compliance with turbulent changes in the maritime industry and operation (including the increasing scope of maritime transport; the decrease in the number of detained ships which meet the requirements stipulated in international Conventions and the elimination of substandard ships in perspective; and the prevention of environmental pollution, and sea and port incidents. This justified endeavour is supported by the fact that Montenegro is one of two countries in Europe that are not full members of the Paris MoU. Additionally, in this context it is necessary to emphasise the fact that the marine ecosystem of Montenegro is an integral part of the world ocean. Accordingly, the improvement of the quality of national legislation which is compliant with international requirements is an imperative which has positive implications on regional and global sustainability.

  8. Oil pollution in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Lavrova, Olga Yu.

    2014-01-01

    This thorough review is based on observational satellite, airborne and in-situ data, scientific literature and technical reports, as well as the substantial experience of the authors, who hail from several Baltic Sea countries. They pay special attention to national practices, HELCOM and EMSA CleanSeaNet activities in oil pollution monitoring, and show different applications of the Seatrack Web model for oil spill drift prediction and the identification of illegal polluters, as well as for environmental risk assessment. Furthermore, some of the results on satellite monitoring of the Nord Stream gas pipeline construction in the Gulf of Finland are presented. This volume addresses the needs of specialists working in different fields of marine, environmental, and remote sensing sciences. It is a useful handbook on oil pollution for international and governmental agencies, as well as for policy makers who plan and manage oil and gas projects, the construction of ports and terminals, shipping, fishery, recreation, and tourist activities in the Baltic Sea.

  9. Mortality of seabirds in high-seas salmon gillnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, D.G.; DeGange, A.R.; Jones, L.L.; Beach, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Since 1952, the Japanese have operated a large salmon driftnet.fishery in the northern North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea. This fishery is divided into two components: the high-seas mothership fleet, which consists of several processing ships and their numerous, smaller catcher boats that remain at sea during the entire fishing season, and the land-based fleet, which consists of independent fishing boats that catch and store their own fish and return to Japan at more frequent intervals (Sanger 1976; Fredin et al. 2 ). A similar fishery in the North Atlantic between 1965 and 1976 was responsible for the deaths of large numbers of the thick-billed murre, Uria lomvia, and significant reductions in its breeding populations (Tull et al. 1972). Recent work in the North Pacific and Bering Sea by Sana (1978) and King et al. (1979) indicated that large numbers of seabirds are killed annually in the Japanese salmon fishery also.

  10. Sea Ice Prediction Has Easy and Difficult Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Bitz, Cecilia M.; Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward; Cutler, Matthew; Kay, Jennifer; Meier, Walter N.; Stroeve, Julienne; Wiggins, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Arctic sea ice follows an annual cycle, reaching its low point in September each year. The extent of sea ice remaining at this low point has been trending downwards for decades as the Arctic warms. Around the long-term downward trend, however, there is significant variation in the minimum extent from one year to the next. Accurate forecasts of yearly conditions would have great value to Arctic residents, shipping companies, and other stakeholders and are the subject of much current research. Since 2008 the Sea Ice Outlook (SIO) (http://www.arcus.org/search-program/seaiceoutlook) organized by the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) (http://www.arcus.org/search-program) has invited predictions of the September Arctic sea ice minimum extent, which are contributed from the Arctic research community. Individual predictions, based on a variety of approaches, are solicited in three cycles each year in early June, July, and August. (SEARCH 2013).

  11. Ship-Iceberg Discrimination in Sentinel-2 Multispectral Imagery by Supervised Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peder Heiselberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The European Space Agency Sentinel-2 satellites provide multispectral images with pixel sizes down to 10 m. This high resolution allows for fast and frequent detection, classification and discrimination of various objects in the sea, which is relevant in general and specifically for the vast Arctic environment. We analyze several sets of multispectral image data from Denmark and Greenland fall and winter, and describe a supervised search and classification algorithm based on physical parameters that successfully finds and classifies all objects in the sea with reflectance above a threshold. It discriminates between objects like ships, islands, wakes, and icebergs, ice floes, and clouds with accuracy better than 90%. Pan-sharpening the infrared bands leads to classification and discrimination of ice floes and clouds better than 95%. For complex images with abundant ice floes or clouds, however, the false alarm rate dominates for small non-sailing boats.

  12. a Novel Ship Detection Method for Large-Scale Optical Satellite Images Based on Visual Lbp Feature and Visual Attention Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigang, Sui; Zhina, Song

    2016-06-01

    Reliably ship detection in optical satellite images has a wide application in both military and civil fields. However, this problem is very difficult in complex backgrounds, such as waves, clouds, and small islands. Aiming at these issues, this paper explores an automatic and robust model for ship detection in large-scale optical satellite images, which relies on detecting statistical signatures of ship targets, in terms of biologically-inspired visual features. This model first selects salient candidate regions across large-scale images by using a mechanism based on biologically-inspired visual features, combined with visual attention model with local binary pattern (CVLBP). Different from traditional studies, the proposed algorithm is high-speed and helpful to focus on the suspected ship areas avoiding the separation step of land and sea. Largearea images are cut into small image chips and analyzed in two complementary ways: Sparse saliency using visual attention model and detail signatures using LBP features, thus accordant with sparseness of ship distribution on images. Then these features are employed to classify each chip as containing ship targets or not, using a support vector machine (SVM). After getting the suspicious areas, there are still some false alarms such as microwaves and small ribbon clouds, thus simple shape and texture analysis are adopted to distinguish between ships and nonships in suspicious areas. Experimental results show the proposed method is insensitive to waves, clouds, illumination and ship size.

  13. Coastal seas as resource for Blue Growth - SmartSea project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilainen, Aarno; Alvi, Kimmo; Boman, Anton; Hämäläinen, Jyrki; Kaskela, Anu; Rantataro, Jyrki; Vallius, Henry; Virtasalo, Joonas

    2017-04-01

    Blue growth is a long term strategy of the European Union (EU) to enhance the sustainable growth of the maritime sector. Our surrounding seas have been drivers for the European economy for a long time, but still they have great potential for further exploiting of natural resources and economic growth. Especially if the growth can be achieved in an environmentally sustainable way, benefits are obvious. It has been estimated that improvement of the state of the Baltic Sea would until 2030 create 900 000 jobs in the whole Baltic Sea area, mainly in Blue Tech, tourism, real estate and building businesses (Dahlgren et al. 2015). However, coastal seas already experience multiple stressors like off-shore construction, pollution, eutrophication, shipping, over-fishing, and climate change. In order to obtain sustainable Blue Growth, it is necessary to localize and assess the current maritime activities, estimate their growth potential, and investigate their present and future effects on each other and on the marine environment. The purpose of the SmartSea project is to support the growth of commercial marine activities in the Gulf of Bothnia region, in the northern Baltic Sea. The Gulf of Bothnia is an essential resource in terms of fish farming and wind power, for example, and it is also possible to make use of the geological resources of the gulf. Moreover, the rapid growth of the commercial marine activities and the consequences of the climate change may lead to conflicts between the different activities and harm the marine ecosystem of the Gulf of Bothnia. The SmartSea project aims to identify these risks and find solutions for the sustainable use of the sea. SmartSea project is funded by the Strategic Research Council of Academy of Finland, grant No: 292 985. The project will last for six years (2015-2020) and its funding totals nearly 8 million euros. The project involves close to 40 researchers from eight different institutions: the Finnish Meteorological Institute

  14. Assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits of a nitrogen emission control area in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammingh, P.; Geilenkirchen, G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Maas, R. [National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Holland, M.R. [Ecometrics Research and Consulting EMRC, Reading (United Kingdom); Jonson, J.E. [The Meteorological Synthesizing Centre - West MSC-W, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    In the last five to ten years, concerns about the health and ecosystem effects of air polluting emissions from ships have grown in international policy debate regarding further air pollutant emissions control. As an outcome of the debate, the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) adopted more stringent emission standards in 2008 to further control air pollution from sea shipping. For example, their most stringent nitrogen oxide emission standards are about 75 per cent lower than the standards for current ships. However, these most stringent standards are only mandatory in specific emission control areas designated by the IMO. Such specific areas aim to protect densely populated areas and sensitive ecosystems from air pollution from nearby international shipping. Prior to a possible application for designation of a nitrogen oxide emission control area, the eight North Sea countries commissioned an assessment of the environmental impacts and health benefits (this report) and the economic impacts and costs (Danish EPA, 2012). The main conclusions of this assessment are presented and concisely explained below. A detailed elaboration of the work carried out, the results and the uncertainties can be found in 'Full results'.

  15. Surface Ocean Dispersion Observations from the Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier; Ozgokmen, Tamay; Novelli, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    Oil slicks and sheens reside at the air-sea interface, a region of the ocean that is notoriously difficult to measure and, therefore, little is known about the velocity field at the sea surface. The Ship-Tethered Aerostat Remote Sensing System (STARSS) was developed to measure Lagrangian velocities...... of experiments in the northern Gulf of Mexico in January- February 2016. STARSS was equipped with a GPS and inertial navigation system (INS) that was used to directly georectify the aerial images. A relative rectification technique was developed that translates and rotates the drift cards to minimize the total...... movement of all drift cards from one frame to the next. Rectified drift card positions were used to quantify scale-dependent dispersion by computing relative dispersion, relative diffusivity, and velocity structure functions. STARSS was part of a nested observational framework, which included deployments...

  16. Women at Sea: modesty, privacy, and sexual misconduct of passengers and sailors aboard Islamic ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilieh, Hassan S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the attitude of Islamic law towards the carriage of women by water and how Muslim judicial authorities viewed their presence on ships. It discusses the conditions under which women were carried, accommodated and treated, in addition to their personal and social behavior in ships. To apply Islamic religious ethics and navigational regulations during maritime journeys, jurists instructed owners of ships, crews, and passengers how to act in the event of an immoral behavior on the part of both or either party. Women could protect themselves against temptation and sexual harassment by dressing modestly, behaving properly, and traveling with mahrams. Even though this work focuses on the Islamic Mediterranean, the article briefly describes the punishment of sexual misconduct as established in the thirteenth century C.E. in Islamic Malay. Lastly, it touches the Islamic legal position on the transportation of Muslims aboard Christian ships.

    Este artículo trata de la actitud de la ley islámica acerca del transporte marítimo de las mujeres y de cómo las autoridades jurídicas musulmanas consideraban su presencia en los barcos. Discute las condiciones bajo las cuales las mujeres eran acomodadas y tratadas en los barcos así como el comportamiento personal y social que se esperaba de ellas. Con el fin de aplicar la ética islámica y las normas marítimas, los juristas informaban a los armadores, tripulaciones y pasajeros de cómo actuar en el caso de comportamiento inmoral por alguna o varias de las partes. El trabajo se centra en el Mediterráneo Islámico, pero trata brevemente el castigo de la conducta

  17. In situ phytoplankton distributions in the Amundsen Sea Polynya measured by autonomous gliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Schofield

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Amundsen Sea Polynya is characterized by large phytoplankton blooms, which makes this region disproportionately important relative to its size for the biogeochemistry of the Southern Ocean. In situ data on phytoplankton are limited, which is problematic given recent reports of sustained change in the Amundsen Sea. During two field expeditions to the Amundsen Sea during austral summer 2010–2011 and 2014, we collected physical and bio-optical data from ships and autonomous underwater gliders. Gliders documented large phytoplankton blooms associated with Antarctic Surface Waters with low salinity surface water and shallow upper mixed layers (< 50 m. High biomass was not always associated with a specific water mass, suggesting the importance of upper mixed depth and light in influencing phytoplankton biomass. Spectral optical backscatter and ship pigment data suggested that the composition of phytoplankton was spatially heterogeneous, with the large blooms dominated by Phaeocystis and non-bloom waters dominated by diatoms. Phytoplankton growth rates estimated from field data (≤ 0.10 day−1 were at the lower end of the range measured during ship-based incubations, reflecting both in situ nutrient and light limitations. In the bloom waters, phytoplankton biomass was high throughout the 50-m thick upper mixed layer. Those biomass levels, along with the presence of colored dissolved organic matter and detritus, resulted in a euphotic zone that was often < 10 m deep. The net result was that the majority of phytoplankton were light-limited, suggesting that mixing rates within the upper mixed layer were critical to determining the overall productivity; however, regional productivity will ultimately be controlled by water column stability and the depth of the upper mixed layer, which may be enhanced with continued ice melt in the Amundsen Sea Polynya.

  18. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    and national borders within international shipping which is a rather complex domain. The intellectual objective is to generate and evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of design principles for inter-organizational information infrastructures in the international shipping domain that can have positive...

  19. High-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS; DGPS ni yoru sensoku keisoku no koseidoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S; Koterayama, W [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-04-10

    The differential global positioning system (DGPS) can eliminate most of errors in ship velocity measurement by GPS positioning alone. Through two rounds of marine observations by towing an observation robot in summer 1995, the authors attempted high-accuracy measurement of ship velocities by DGPS, and also carried out both positioning by GPS alone and measurement using the bottom track of ADCP (acoustic Doppler current profiler). In this paper, the results obtained by these measurement methods were examined through comparison among them, and the accuracy of the measured ship velocities was considered. In DGPS measurement, both translocation method and interference positioning method were used. ADCP mounted on the observation robot allowed measurement of the velocity of current meter itself by its bottom track in shallow sea areas less than 350m. As the result of these marine observations, it was confirmed that the accuracy equivalent to that of direct measurement by bottom track is possible to be obtained by DGPS. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Application of photovoltaic generating system to electric power in large ship; Taiyoko hatsuden system no ogata senpaku eno oyo ni kansuru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagi, T; Ogawa, S; Nishikawa, E; Hashimoto, T [Kobe University of Mercantile Marine, Kobe (Japan); Ishida, K

    1996-10-27

    This paper describes the design of electric power system in a ship with photovoltaic power generating system, to examine applicability of the photovoltaic power generating system to the inboard power source. It also discusses effectiveness of the system for sea environment. At first, the actual route of a car carrier, meteorological data, and quantity of power consumption were picked up from the deck logbook and engine logbook. Then, the installation area of photovoltaic arrays, the quantity of photovoltaic power generation derived from the quantity of solar radiation, and the capacities of batteries and inverters were calculated, to design the electric power system in the ship with photovoltaic power generation system. Moreover, the NOx and SOx emissions were compared between the present power system and the usual power system using diesel power generator, to discuss the effectiveness of the present system for sea environment. Consequently, it was found that the emission of NOx was reduced by about 33% and the emission of SOx was reduced by about 28% compared to the usual power system. The effectiveness for sea environment was confirmed. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.