WorldWideScience

Sample records for sea cod fisheries

  1. 50 CFR Table 5 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pacific Cod Fisheries Restrictions 5 Table 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 5 Table 5 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion...

  2. Pacific halibut bycatch in Pacific cod fisheries in the Bering Sea: an analysis to evaluate area-time management

    Adlerstein, Sara A.; Trumble, Robert J.

    1998-03-01

    Mortality of discarded Pacific halibut bycatch from Pacific cod fisheries in the Bering Sea leads to significant losses in the halibut setline and in the Pacific cod fisheries. The commercial halibut fishery loses yield because of catch limit reductions to compensate the resource for lost spawning potential and because halibut killed as bycatch will not be available for subsequent harvest, and the cod fisheries may lose harvest if they reach a bycatch mortality limit before reaching allowed catch. In this study, significant differences in Pacific halibut bycatch rates and associated yield losses were found among months and areas of the Bering Sea in the longline and trawl fisheries for Pacific cod in 1990-1992. Bycatch rates were usually highest in late spring and early summer and in areas close to the Unimak Pass. With the exception of 1992, yield loss in the longline fishery was around 1 kg per kg of bycatch mortality, irrespective of where or when bycatch occurred. In the trawl fishery, loss of halibut yield varied from 1 to 4 kg per kg of bycatch mortality. Highest halibut net yield losses per tonne of groundfish harvest usually coincided with highest bycatch rates. When both fisheries operated in one area, trawl bycatch often imposed higher yield losses than longline bycatch, despite lower bycatch rates. Bycatch was affected by the strong 1987 halibut year class. Highest bycatch and yield loss rates occurred in the trawl fishery in 1990 and 1991 when the population was dominated by halibut age-3 and -4, and in the longline fishery in 1992 as fish reached age-5.

  3. 76 FR 66655 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod and Octopus in the Bering Sea...

    2011-10-27

    ... Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... catch of octopus by vessels using pot gear to fish for Pacific cod the BSAI. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs... and management measures prevent overfishing. The 2011 octopus overfishing level in the BSAI is 528...

  4. Causes and consequences of fleet diversity in fisheries: The case of the Norwegian Barents Sea cod fishery

    Arne Eide

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fisheries operate under fluctuating environmental conditions, targeting fish stocks that appear in varying densities in different areas, often with abrupt and unexpected local changes. Physical conditions, markets and management regulations constrain vessels in different and varying ways. These factors all contribute to forming the fleet diversity we find in most fisheries. Here, a simulation model of the Northeast Arctic cod fishery is used in order to investigate how this diversity is formed and maintained, assuming rational economic behaviour under varying combined constraints. The study also focuses on how the ability of vessels to find fish influences fleet diversity, profitability, stock development and seasonal profiles of the fishery. Results indicate that an increased ability to target the most profitable fishing grounds may influence fleet diversity positively or negatively, depending on overall exploitation level. High exploitation rates also increase the temporal fluctuations in fleet diversity and profits, which are amplified as the fish-finding ability increases.

  5. Do North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries maintain high catch rates at low stock size?

    Rindorf, Anna; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard

    2008-01-01

    This study presents all investigation of the relationship between stock size of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) and catch rates in seven commercial fishing fleets. The shape of the relationship was estimated using a model allowing both density-dependent changes in catchability and bias...

  6. Time changes in fishing power in the Danish cod fisheries of the Baltic Sea

    Marchal, P.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Hovgård, Holger

    2001-01-01

    Using nominal fishing effort to control fishing mortality and using cpue data from commercial fisheries as abundance indices require ability to correct fishing power for temporal development. It is often assumed in ICES stock assessments that fishing power Is constant over time. However, experience...... has suggested that this assumption may be false. This study investigates the time dynamics of an Index of Fishing Power (IFP). This index is based on the fleets cpue. relative to the cpue of a subset of vessels from the same fleet. The primary characteristic of the reference vessels...

  7. Northeast arctic cod stock and fishery dynamics

    Oleg Bulatov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Northeast arctic cod stock is one of a most valuable target of fisheries in the Barents Sea. The catches of cod for the period 1960-2014 are widely changed. The minimum level of catches is marked in 1990 (212 thousands ton, and the maximum values of catches were observed in 1969 – 1.2 mill. ton. In the recent years international catch of cod exceeded 1 mill. ton. Fishable and spawning stock biomass (SSB also widely changed in this period. According to ICES data, SSB had a minimum in 1965 (102 thousand tons, and extremely high level in 2013 – 2 150 thousand tons. Fishable biomass changed also widely. The maximum level is registered in 2013 – 3 636 thousand tons, and minimum value was 5 times less, 739 thousand tons (1983. The ratio between historical high level of SSB and catch in 2013 was 2.2:1.0, due to low value of fishing mortality. Possibility to increase catch will be discussed.

  8. 137CS in cod from Barents sea

    Kellermann, H.-J.; Kanisch, G.; Krueger, A.

    2003-01-01

    After publication of the Yablovkov report about dumping of radioactive waste by the former Soviet Union the Institute for Fishery Ecology has analysed fish from Barents Sea for radioactivity. In all studies 137 Cs concentrations in cod fillet showed a clear dependance from fish length. Results from an analysis of covariance for cod of 70 cm length have minor changes within Barents Sea and indicate a rapid decay to a value as is expected for marine fish which is only influenced by global fallout. (orig.)

  9. Connectivity of larval cod in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic Sea and potential implications for fisheries management

    Huwer, Bastian; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Hüssy, Karin

    2016-01-01

    in the transition area between North Sea and Baltic were investigated to (i) determine long-term trends and variability in advective transport of larvae from spawning grounds to juvenile nursery areas, (ii) estimate the degree of exchange between different management areas, and (iii) compare the results...

  10. 75 FR 19561 - Fisheries of the Economic Exclusive Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2010-04-15

    ... is opening directed fishing for Pacific cod by catcher vessels less than 60 feet (18.3 meters) length... meters) length overall using hook-and-line or pot gear in the BSAI under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March... 400 metric tons of Pacific cod remain in the 2010 Pacific cod apportionment for catcher vessels less...

  11. Escape windows to improve the size selectivity in the Baltic cod trawl fishery

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Foldager, L.

    2002-01-01

    A rapid decrease of the stock of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) has provided the incentive to improve the size selectivity in the trawl fishery. Use of escape windows is permitted in the legislation to give means of improving the size selectivity of cod as an alternative to a traditional standard codend....... The history of the use of escape windows in the Baltic Sea cod fishery is reviewed. The present escape windows do not function optimally. The objective of this new experiment was to compare an improved design of escape window, which is placed in the upper panel, with that of standard codend. Three standard...... of the codend selectivity was formulated to analyse the results and determine the effects of codend type, mesh size and other recorded variables. L50 and SR increased significantly with the mesh size. L50 was significantly increased and SR significantly reduced for a window codend with the same window mesh size...

  12. The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kraus, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86.......The eastern Baltic cod fishery: a fleet-based management strategy evaluation framework to assess the cod recovery plan of 2008. - ICES Journal of Marine Science, 67: 71-86....

  13. Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan

    Kraak, S.B.M.; Bailey, N.; Cardinale, M.

    2013-01-01

    Member States to 'buy back' or increase fishing effort for fleet segments engaged in cod-avoidance measures. The stipulated fishing mortality reductions have not been achieved. On the positive side, the 'buy-back' instrument has led to increased uptake of selective gear and implementation of permanent...... in targeted fisheries, although fishers experienced them as prohibiting the full uptake of other quotas. Recommendations for future plans include (i) management through catch rather than landings quotas, (ii) the internalisation of the costs of exceeding quotas, (iii) use of more selective gear types, (iv...

  14. International Agreements in the Multispecies Baltic Sea Fisheries

    Nieminen, Emmi; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2016-01-01

    between the three countries can be stabilised when the most efficient country compensates the other countries. This solution is not feasible when using a single-species model for the cod population; thus, taking into account the multispecies nature of the Baltic Sea fisheries, the scope of cooperation...

  15. Development of international fisheries for the eastern Baltic cod ( Gadus morhua ) from the late 1880s until 1938

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Karlsdottir, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    of indicators of fishing effort and qualitative information on developments in fishing technology. This information has been assembled for different countries and locations in the Baltic Sea. We first summarize the multi-decadal development of national cod fisheries and their relative importance during......The paper provides an overview of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fisheries from the end of the 1880s until 1938, in order to improve the knowledge of long-term stock dynamics. The data compiled and included in the study comprise catches and economic values of exploited fish species, time series...... the first decades of the 20th century. We then assess whether these data can be used to estimate the relative roles of fishing and ecosystem changes on variations in catches. We conclude that the assembled data reveal biologically meaningful variations in the state of the cod stock and that some...

  16. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    have been published in scientific journals and Paper 3 has been submitted to Fisheries Research. This review will take a broader perspective and will examine the capturing process, which is the basis for the selection process. Moreover, it discusses the existing methods and knowledge in the fields...... different species, including cod, are caught together. Demersal trawling is the predominant fishing method in Denmark, as measured by both catch value and volume. Demersal trawls also account for the highest discard rates of juvenile fish, including cod. The focus of this work was on improving......, and openings. The results show that the morphology-based simulations of size selectivity of cod can be used to explain a large part of both the within-haul and the between-haul variations previously reported from sea trials. The method can further predict the selection parameters (L50 and SR) for cod...

  17. 76 FR 44699 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    2011-07-26

    ... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Parts 679 and 680 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska... 0648-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of... competition among sectors and support stability in the Pacific cod fishery. This rule would also limit access...

  18. Understanding Global Supply Chains and Seafood Markets for the Rebuilding Prospects of Northern Gulf Cod Fisheries

    Ahmed S. Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Although fisheries production and seafood trade are global in scope, with billions of dollars in exports, the rebuilding of collapsed fisheries often focus on national fisheries policy and management measures, with little attention to global supply chains and international consumer markets. Even with two moratoria and two decades of policy changes since the Northern Gulf cod fisheries collapsed in eastern Canada, rebuilding has stalled and the fishing industry and coastal communities continue to undergo challenges with economic viability and resource sustainability. This paper examines and analyzes the global supply chain and marketing dimension of Northern Gulf cod fisheries. Drawing upon fisheries bioeconomics and governance theory, a pre- and post-collapse analysis is undertaken to understand key drivers and institutional mechanisms along global fish supply chains for an effective and successful rebuilding. Findings indicate that the collapse of the cod fishery has cascading effects that go beyond ecosystem changes to new harvesting activities, industry restructuring, supply chain reorganization, new global markets and consumer preference for certified seafood. This suggests that a holistic rebuilding approach is necessary, one that integrates institutional and behavioral changes for both producers and consumers at various scales of fisheries production, political economy issues, as well as cross-scale policies on marine conservation and regional economic development.

  19. Multi-decadal scale variability in the eastern Baltic cod fishery 1550-1860 - Evidence and causes

    MacKenzie, Brian; Bager, M.; Ojaveer, H.

    2007-01-01

    in the Baltic as developed and implemented by organisations such as the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM), the nine coastal countries and the European Union includes recovery of the cod population, a reduction in nutrient...... is unknown, as is the relative role of fishing, climate variability/regimes, eutrophication and reduction of marine mammal predator populations. We have begun to investigate whether historical fisheries information (landings, effort, distribution) from before the 1880s is available in Baltic archives...

  20. 75 FR 52478 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2010-08-26

    ... a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from trawl catcher... catcher vessel Pacific cod fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry... and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to...

  1. 76 FR 37763 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    2011-06-28

    ...-AY53 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of Alaska... the uncertainty regarding the distribution of Pacific cod catch, enhance stability among the sectors... available for public review and comment. The groundfish fisheries in the exclusive economic zone of the Gulf...

  2. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in the Cod Fisheries of the North Atlantic

    Anne Hayden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic Cod Gadus morhua has been subject to commercial exploitation since the thirteenth century. An analysis of cod fisheries over space and time reveals a pattern of serial depletion that reflects the cross-scale interaction of fish population structure, economic incentives, developments in fishing technology, and government efforts to limit access to fishing areas. Three case studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, the larger Northwest Atlantic, and the Gulf of Maine illustrate a pattern of fish population depletion followed by expansion of fishing activity that repeats at a range of scales. The meta-population structure of cod populations allows overharvesting, even when strict but broadscale controls are in place. The results argue for the reform of fisheries management to incorporate governance that more closely reflects the scale of the local components of metapopulations.

  3. 76 FR 12293 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2011-03-07

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  4. 77 FR 53152 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2012-08-31

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from other... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  5. 75 FR 13444 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2010-03-22

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod.... Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the... operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential...

  6. 77 FR 76425 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    2012-12-28

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from catcher...-line gear. Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as... efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid...

  7. 78 FR 9327 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2013-02-08

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  8. 77 FR 8176 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2012-02-14

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  9. 75 FR 19562 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2010-04-15

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from jig... fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  10. Discarding of cod in the Danish Fully Documented Fisheries trials

    Ulrich, Clara; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Bergsson, Heidrikur

    2015-01-01

    Denmarkwas the first nation in Europe to promote the use of Fully Documented Fisheries (FDF) through Remote Electronic Monitoring (REM) and CCTV camera systems, with pilot schemes in place since 2008. In theory, such a scheme could supplement and even potentially replace expensive control...... and monitoring programmes; and when associated with a catch quota management (CQM) system, incentivize positive changes in fishing patterns in a results-based management approach. Newdata flows are, however, required to ensure the practical implementation of such a scheme. This paper reviews the quality...... have remained. Regular validation of weight estimation methods and close collaboration between scientific monitoring and control are important to support the use of reported discards as a reliable source of information. We discuss the potential of electronic monitoring in the context of the EU landing...

  11. A bio-economic analysis of harvest control rules for the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Richter, Andries P; Dankel, Dorothy J; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Dieckmann, Ulf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-05-01

    Harvest control rules (HCRs) have been implemented for many fisheries worldwide. However, in most instances, those HCRs are not based on the explicit feedbacks between stock properties and economic considerations. This paper develops a bio-economic model that evaluates the HCR adopted in 2004 by the Joint Norwegian-Russian Fishery Commission to manage the world's largest cod stock, Northeast Arctic cod (NEA). The model considered here is biologically and economically detailed, and is the first to compare the performance of the stock's current HCR with that of alternative HCRs derived with optimality criteria. In particular, HCRs are optimized for economic objectives including fleet profits, economic welfare, and total yield and the emerging properties are analyzed. The performance of these optimal HCRs was compared with the currently used HCR. This paper show that the current HCR does in fact comes very close to maximizing profits. Furthermore, the results reveal that the HCR that maximizes profits is the most precautionary one among the considered HCRs. Finally, the HCR that maximizes yield leads to un-precautionary low levels of biomass. In these ways, the implementation of the HCR for NEA cod can be viewed as a success story that may provide valuable lessons for other fisheries.

  12. 76 FR 73513 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    2011-11-29

    ... term of the permit. Third, it requires an operator of any Federally permitted pot or hook-and-line C/P... catching a greater amount of Pacific cod in the parallel fishery than has been allocated to their sector from the BSAI total allowable catch. Maintaining Pacific cod catch amounts within BSAI sector...

  13. 77 FR 8177 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    2012-02-14

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  14. 77 FR 14305 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Jig Gear in the...

    2012-03-09

    ... Using Jig Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using jig gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using jig gear in...

  15. 77 FR 6683 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    2012-02-09

    ... Using Pot Gear in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific cod by vessels using pot gear in the... season allowance of the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in...

  16. 75 FR 64955 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Correction to Cod...

    2010-10-21

    ... GOM cod. By an administrative error, the inseason action published on September 27, 2010, reduced the... effectiveness would further disadvantage vessels subject to the lower trip limits implemented on September 27...

  17. Stable isotope evidence for late medieval (14th-15th C origins of the eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua fishery.

    David C Orton

    Full Text Available Although recent historical ecology studies have extended quantitative knowledge of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua exploitation back as far as the 16th century, the historical origin of the modern fishery remains obscure. Widespread archaeological evidence for cod consumption around the eastern Baltic littoral emerges around the 13th century, three centuries before systematic documentation, but it is not clear whether this represents (1 development of a substantial eastern Baltic cod fishery, or (2 large-scale importation of preserved cod from elsewhere. To distinguish between these hypotheses we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis to determine likely catch regions of 74 cod vertebrae and cleithra from 19 Baltic archaeological sites dated from the 8th to the 16th centuries. δ(13C and δ(15N signatures for six possible catch regions were established using a larger sample of archaeological cod cranial bones (n = 249. The data strongly support the second hypothesis, revealing widespread importation of cod during the 13th to 14th centuries, most of it probably from Arctic Norway. By the 15th century, however, eastern Baltic cod dominate within our sample, indicating the development of a substantial late medieval fishery. Potential human impact on cod stocks in the eastern Baltic must thus be taken into account for at least the last 600 years.

  18. 78 FR 73454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    2013-12-06

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from catcher... is currently ongoing, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  19. 78 FR 53076 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2013-08-28

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod... industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and...

  20. 76 FR 76903 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2011-12-09

    ... the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod... industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and...

  1. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René

    2010-01-01

    Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused particul......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...... particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......, but no improvement was observed for cod that came into contact with the window after reducing the distance from the window to the codline. The sorting box also showed a high reduction of flatfish and other roundfish species. The retention of Norway lobster above minimum landing size in the sorting box was higher...

  2. Assessing impacts of simulated oil spills on the Northeast Arctic cod fishery.

    Carroll, JoLynn; Vikebø, Frode; Howell, Daniel; Broch, Ole Jacob; Nepstad, Raymond; Augustine, Starrlight; Skeie, Geir Morten; Bast, Radovan; Juselius, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    We simulate oil spills of 1500 and 4500m 3 /day lasting 14, 45, and 90days in the spawning grounds of the commercial fish species, Northeast Arctic cod. Modeling the life history of individual fish eggs and larvae, we predict deviations from the historical pattern of recruitment to the adult population due to toxic oil exposures. Reductions in survival for pelagic stages of cod were 0-10%, up to a maximum of 43%. These reductions resulted in a decrease in adult cod biomass of <3% for most scenarios, up to a maximum of 12%. In all simulations, the adult population remained at full reproductive potential with a sufficient number of juveniles surviving to replenish the population. The diverse age distribution helps protect the adult cod population from reductions in a single year's recruitment after a major oil spill. These results provide insights to assist in managing oil spill impacts on fisheries. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Filling regulatory gaps in high seas fisheries: discrete high seas fish stocks, deep-sea fisheries and vulnerable marine ecosystems

    Takei, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the legal regime of high seas fisheries with a view to identifying regulatory gaps. The main research questions are as follows: 1. What general principles are applicable to high seas fisheries?; 2. What implications do these general principles have for new challenges in

  4. Assessment of Competition between Fisheries and Steller Sea Lions in Alaska Based on Estimated Prey Biomass, Fisheries Removals and Predator Foraging Behaviour.

    Tabitha C Y Hui

    Full Text Available A leading hypothesis to explain the dramatic decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus in western Alaska during the latter part of the 20th century is a change in prey availability due to commercial fisheries. We tested this hypothesis by exploring the relationships between sea lion population trends, fishery catches, and the prey biomass accessible to sea lions around 33 rookeries between 2000 and 2008. We focused on three commercially important species that have dominated the sea lion diet during the population decline: walleye pollock, Pacific cod and Atka mackerel. We estimated available prey biomass by removing fishery catches from predicted prey biomass distributions in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska; and modelled the likelihood of sea lions foraging at different distances from rookeries (accessibility using satellite telemetry locations of tracked animals. We combined this accessibility model with the prey distributions to estimate the prey biomass accessible to sea lions by rookery. For each rookery, we compared sea lion population change to accessible prey biomass. Of 304 comparisons, we found 3 statistically significant relationships, all suggesting that sea lion populations increased with increasing prey accessibility. Given that the majority of comparisons showed no significant effect, it seems unlikely that the availability of pollock, cod or Atka mackerel was limiting sea lion populations in the 2000s.

  5. 77 FR 66564 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    2012-11-06

    ... fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Pacific cod specified from catcher... open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate... the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption to the fishing fleet as...

  6. Improving the size- and species selectivity of cod (Gadus morhua) in demersal mixed-species trawl fisheries

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    reduce the catch of cod without simultaneously reduce the catch of the target species. To optimise the trade-off between discard and loss of marketable catch, solutions have to be specific to particular fisheries or populations of fish. Papers 1 and 3 provide specific examples of how size- and species...

  7. Explaining the catch efficiency of different cod pots using underwater video to observe cod entry and exit behaviour

    Hedgärde, Maria; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Cod pots are considered seal-safe fishing gear and are proposed as a solution to mitigate the ongoing seal-fisheries conflict in the Baltic Sea. This study examined various factors which could affect the entry and exit behaviour of cod in relation to cod pots. Statistical modelling was used...

  8. 75 FR 7435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    2010-02-19

    .... 100105009-0053-01] RIN 0648-AY51 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes 2010 specifications for the Atlantic deep-sea red crab fishery, including...

  9. 75 FR 49420 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    2010-08-13

    .... 100513223-0289-02] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine...-sea (DAS) allocation for the Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery that were implemented in May 2010...

  10. 75 FR 35435 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    2010-06-22

    .... 100513223-0254-01] RIN 0648-AY88 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Specifications In- season Adjustment AGENCY: National Marine... deep-sea red crab fishery, including a target total allowable catch (TAC) and a fleet-wide days-at-sea...

  11. Mixed fisheries forecasts—lessons learned from their initial application to North Sea fisheries

    Holmes, S.J.; Ulrich, Clara; Reeves, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    the work with the existing single‐stock assessments. The explicit representation of the complexity of the fisheries also raises questions about the extent to which mixed fisheries science can be used to give ”advice” in the traditional sense. This paper addresses the challenges and issues that have arisen......Mixed fisheries and technical interactions in European fisheries have been a subject of research for many years. The establishment in 2010 of an ICES Working Group tasked with producing annual mixed fisheries forecasts and advice for North Sea demersal fisheries represents a commitment to use...... these approaches in routine scientific advice for the first time. The demersal fisheries of the North Sea provide a particularly interesting context for this work because of their high complexity in terms of the numbers of fleets, gears, métiers, and species involved, and also because mixedfishery effects have...

  12. Towards sustainable fisheries of the Öresund cod (Gadus morhua) through sub-stock-specific assessment and management recommendations

    Lindegren, Martin; Waldo, Staffan; Nilsson, P. Anders

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries management traditionally relies on stock assessments assuming discrete populations within large administrational areas. However, failing to account for sub-stock structuring may result in overestimation of the stocks' true harvest potential and unsustainable exploitation of small stock...... elements. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) frequently occurs in spatially segregated populations, some of which exhibit fine-scaled stock structuring within current management boundaries. Here we use the locally spawning cod stock in the Sound (“Öresund”) as a case study, and perform a sub-stock......-specific assessment to evaluate biological and economic effects of managing the Sound cod as a separate stock. Our results indicate that reducing exploitation pressure, particularly through technical regulations i.e. increasing gill-net mesh sizes, would not only enhance the stock age distribution, but yield long...

  13. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid...... nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other...... anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since...

  14. Could seals prevent cod recovery in the Baltic Sea?

    MacKenzie, Brian; Eero, Margit; Ojaveer, Henn

    2011-01-01

    Fish populations are increasingly affected by multiple human and natural impacts including exploitation, eutrophication, habitat alteration and climate change. As a result many collapsed populations may have to recover in ecosystems whose structure and functioning differ from those in which...... these goals will also depend on how climate change affects cod recruitment....

  15. 76 FR 23940 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 22

    2011-04-29

    ... the LA fleet, Amendment 15 proposes a management uncertainty buffer based on the F associated with a... to implement Framework Adjustment 22 (Framework 22) to the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which was developed and adopted by the New England Fishery Management Council (Council) and...

  16. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management ...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....... plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological......The long term management plan for cod in the eastern Baltic Sea was introduced in 2007 to ensure the full reproductive capacity of cod and an economically viable fishing industry. If these goals are to be fulfilled under changing environmental conditions, a readjustment of the current management...

  17. Competition for marine space: modelling the Baltic Sea fisheries and effort displacement under spatial restrictions

    Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2015-01-01

    DISPLACE model) to combine stochastic variations in spatial fishing activities with harvested resource dynamics in scenario projections. The assessment computes economic and stock status indicators by modelling the activity of Danish, Swedish, and German vessels (.12 m) in the international western Baltic...... Sea commercial fishery, together with the underlying size-based distribution dynamics of the main fishery resources of sprat, herring, and cod. The outcomes of alternative scenarios for spatial effort displacement are exemplified by evaluating the fishers’s abilities to adapt to spatial plans under...... various constraints. Interlinked spatial, technical, and biological dynamics of vessels and stocks in the scenarios result in stable profits, which compensate for the additional costs from effort displacement and release pressure on the fish stocks. The effort is further redirected away from sensitive...

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of the North Sea cod recruitment in relation to temperature and zooplankton.

    Delphine Nicolas

    Full Text Available The North Sea cod (Gadus morhua, L. stock has continuously declined over the past four decades linked with overfishing and climate change. Changes in stock structure due to overfishing have made the stock largely dependent on its recruitment success, which greatly relies on environmental conditions. Here we focus on the spatio-temporal variability of cod recruitment in an effort to detect changes during the critical early life stages. Using International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS data from 1974 to 2011, a major spatio-temporal change in the distribution of cod recruits was identified in the late 1990s, characterized by a pronounced decrease in the central and southeastern North Sea stock. Other minor spatial changes were also recorded in the mid-1980s and early 1990s. We tested whether the observed changes in recruits distribution could be related with direct (i.e. temperature and/or indirect (i.e. changes in the quantity and quality of zooplankton prey effects of climate variability. The analyses were based on spatially-resolved time series, i.e. sea surface temperature (SST from the Hadley Center and zooplankton records from the Continuous Plankton Recorder Survey. We showed that spring SST increase was the main driver for the most recent decrease in cod recruitment. The late 1990s were also characterized by relatively low total zooplankton biomass, particularly of energy-rich zooplankton such as the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, which have further contributed to the decline of North Sea cod recruitment. Long-term spatially-resolved observations were used to produce regional distribution models that could further be used to predict the abundance of North Sea cod recruits based on temperature and zooplankton food availability.

  19. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means.

    Fox, Clive J; Taylor, Martin; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Fossum, Petter; Kraus, Gerd; Rohlf, Norbert; Munk, Peter; van Damme, Cindy J G; Bolle, Loes J; Maxwell, David L; Wright, Peter J

    2008-07-07

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey to cover the whole North Sea. Also, this survey, conducted in 2004, was the first to make extensive use of DNA-based molecular methods to unambiguously identify early developmental stage cod eggs. We compare the findings from the plankton survey with estimated egg production inferred from the distribution of mature cod in contemporaneous trawl surveys. Results from both approaches were in general agreement and showed hot spots of egg production around the southern and eastern edges of the Dogger Bank, in the German Bight, the Moray Firth and to the east of the Shetlands. These areas broadly coincide with known spawning locations from the period 1940 to 1970. We were, however, unable to directly detect significant numbers of cod eggs at the historic spawning ground off Flamborough (northeast coast of England). The results demonstrate that most of the major spawning grounds of cod in the North Sea are still active but that some localized populations may have been reduced to the point where it is now difficult to detect the presence of eggs in the plankton.

  20. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    the scientific advice, the development in recent years has been towards this gap being reduced. Management of the fisheries has undergone a number of structural and behavioral changes, and these have already yielded some positive results as the state of the demersal stocks in the North Sea have globally improved......, at least in the prosperous countries around the North Sea, provides only few jobs. Despite the above trends indicating positive effects of the most recent fisheries management of the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries there are a row of general problems in the present management. Population dynamics...... states’ ministers in the Council have exercised strong control over the fisheries management measures which have been developed and adopted on the background of proposals from the Commission and the Parliament, though since the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty the Parliament has assumed a role of co...

  1. Acoustic alarms reduce bycatch of harbour porpoises in Danish North Sea gillnet fisheries

    Larsen, Finn; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    that cod cpue was not affected negatively by pingers. It was furthermore estimated that the stony ground fishery had significantly lower (p cpue values (a factor 0.47) compared to the wreck fishery. The results of this experiment led to the introduction of pingers in Danish gillnet fisheries...

  2. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua ) by direct and indirect means

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey...

  3. Mapping the spawning grounds of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) by direct and indirect means

    Fox, C.J.; Taylor, M.; Dickey-Collas, M.; Fossum, P.; Kraus, G.; Rohlf, N.; Damme, van C.J.G.; Bolle, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite recent evidence for sub-stock structuring, North Sea cod are assessed as a single unit. As a consequence, knowledge of sub-stock trends is poor. In particular, there are no recent evaluations of which spawning grounds are active. Here we report results from the first ichthyoplankton survey

  4. Rationale for restocking the Eastern Baltic cod stock

    Støttrup, Josianne; Overton, Julia Lynne; Paulsen, Helge

    2008-01-01

    The Danish Institute for Fisheries Research and Bornholm's Salmon Hatchery examined the potential for restocking Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) in the eastern Baltic Sea. This cod population has adapted to the unique brackish water conditions where successful spawning depends on regular i...

  5. Growth changes in plaice, cod, haddock and saithe in the North Sea: a comparison of (post-)medieval and present-day growth rates based on otolith measurements

    Bolle, Loes J.; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; van Neer, Wim; Millner, Richard S.; van Leeuwen, Piet I.; Ervynck, Anton; Ayers, Richard; Ongenae, Ellen

    2004-05-01

    Fishing effort has strongly increased in the North Sea since the mid-19th century, causing a substantial reduction in the population size of exploited fish stocks. As fisheries research has developed simultaneously with the industrialisation of the fisheries, our knowledge of population dynamics at low levels of exploitations is limited. Otoliths retrieved from archaeological excavations offer a unique opportunity to study growth rates in the past. This study compares historical and present-day growth rates for four commercially important demersal fish species. A total of 2532 modern otoliths (AD 1984-1999) and 1286 historical otoliths (AD 1200-1925) obtained from archaeological excavations in Belgium and Scotland were analysed. Comparison of the growth patterns between eras revealed a major increase in growth rate of haddock, whereas growth changes were not observed in saithe and only in the smaller size classes of plaice and cod. Comparison of our results with literature data indicates that the observed growth rate changes in plaice and cod occurred within the 20th century. Apparently the onset of industrialised fisheries has not greatly affected the growth of plaice, cod and saithe populations in the North Sea. This result contradicts the expectation of density-dependent limitation of growth during the era of pre-industrialised fishing, but is in agreement with the concentration hypothesis of Beverton (Neth. J. Sea Res. 34 (1995) 1) stating that species which concentrate spatially into nursery grounds during their early life-history may 'saturate' the carrying capacity of the juvenile habitat even though the adult part of the population is not limited by the adult habitat.

  6. Evaluation of otolith shape as a tool for stock discrimination in marine fishes using Baltic Sea cod as a case study

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Albertsen, Christoffer Moesgaard

    2016-01-01

    demonstrate theinterplay of environmental, ontogenetic and genetic influences on otolith shape, which complicates theapplication of otolith shape for stock discrimination in mixed-stock scenarios. Rigours genetic validationand further studies on the temporal dynamics of shape formation are necessary.......In the Western Baltic Sea two genetically distinct cod stocks “Eastern Baltic cod” and “Western Balticcod” occur with considerable mixing of stocks. In this study we evaluated the applicability of otolithshape analysis for classification of individuals caught in the mixed stock cod fishery, using...... SNP (singlenucleotide polymorphism) based genetic assignment of otolith shape baselines. We further developeda management aimed approach for mixed stock assignment by robust stochastic baseline selection andposterior bias correction by individual reassignment of the least likely classifications...

  7. Fisheries management responses to climate change in the Baltic Sea

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans S.

    2015-01-01

    plan may be needed. Therefore, this paper investigates the economic impacts of managing the cod, sprat and herring stocks in the eastern Baltic Sea, given on-going climate change, which is known to affect cod recruitment negatively. It is shown that climate change may have severe biological...... scenarios in which the economic consequences of different management objectives for the fishing fleets are assessed through a dynamic multi-species and multi-fleet bio-economic assessment model that include both species interactions and climate change....

  8. 50 CFR Table 6 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Atka Mackerel Fisheries Restrictions 6 Table 6 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 6 Table 6 to Part 679—Steller Sea Lion...

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Hinrichsen, H.-H.; von Dewitz, B.; Lehmann, A.; Bergström, U.; Hüssy, K.

    2017-06-01

    In this study the drift of eastern Baltic cod larvae and juveniles spawned within the historical eastern Baltic cod spawning grounds was investigated by detailed drift model simulations for the years 1971-2010, to examine the spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental suitability in the nursery areas of juvenile cod settlement. The results of the long-term model scenario runs, where juvenile cod were treated as simulated passively drifting particles, enabled us to find strong indications for long-term variations of settlement and potentially the reproduction success of the historically important eastern Baltic cod nursery grounds. Only low proportions of juveniles hatched in the Arkona Basin and in the Gotland Basin were able to settle in their respective spawning ground. Ocean currents were either unfavorable for the juveniles to reach suitable habitats or transported the juveniles to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep. In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, transport of juveniles surviving to the age of settlement with origin in the Bornholm Basin contributed on average 13 and 11% to the total settlement in the Arkona Basin and in the Gdansk Deep, respectively. The time-series of the simulated occupied juvenile cod habitat in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat

  10. Lipid biomarkers : Linking the utilization of frontal plankton biomass to enhanced condition of juvenile North Sea cod

    St. John, Michael; Lund, T.

    1996-01-01

    , hatched and the N1 nauplii from these different feeding regimes fed to post yolk-sac larval North Sea cod. Post yolk-sac larval cod required 8 d on either a Heterocapsa- or Skeletonema-based food chain before tracer Lipid signals (the ratio of the lipids 16:1 omega 7 to 16:0) in the larvae began to change...

  11. Quarterly Fishery Surveys - Salton Sea [ds428

    California Natural Resource Agency — In the spring of 2003, California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) personnel began quarterly sampling of Salton Sea fish at fourteen stations around the sea, as...

  12. Critical report of current fisheries management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries

    Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Ulrich, Clara; Hegland, Troels J.

    The present report is an EU-FP7-SOCIOEC Report giving an overview and critical evaluation of the current management measures implemented for the North Sea mixed demersal fisheries and the fish stocks involved in this. Also, this involves review and critical evaluation of the scientific advice...

  13. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Contrasting coastal and shelf nursery habitats of Pacific cod in the southeastern Bering Sea

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study examining the use of demersal and pelagic habitats in the southeast Bering Sea by age-0 Pacific cod, based on 4 years of demersal trawl...

  14. Oceanographic influences on the distribution of Baltic cod, Gadus morhua , during spawning in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea

    Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Lehmann, K.M.; St. John, Michael

    1998-01-01

    proportion of males to females. On the basin slopes, aggregations of cod were found near the bottom. These individuals were mainly immature and maturing stages with an increasing proportion of females to males with size. Salinity and oxygen conditions were found to be the major factors influencing...... the vertical and horizontal distribution of adult cod. Abundance of immature cod was also positively related to decreasing bottom depths. The effect of temperature was minor. The observed size- and sex-dependent spawning aggregation patterns, in association with habitat volume and stock size, may influence cod......The Baltic Sea is a stratified, semi-enclosed sea typified by a low-salinity surface layer and a deep saline layer of varying volume, salinity, temperature and oxygen concentration. The relationships between these oceanographic factors and the distribution of Baltic cod are presented, utilizing...

  15. An abundance estimate of ling ( Molva molva ) and cod ( Gadus morhua ) in the Skagerrak and the northeastern North Sea, 1872

    Poulsen, R.T.; Cooper, A.B.; Holm, P.

    2007-01-01

    that long-term, historical abundance estimates are relevant to the determination of biomass reference points in fisheries management. Situated within the field of historical ecology, this paper presents findings on the abundance of ling and cod in 1872. Calculations are based on historical CPUE and catch...

  16. Fishing cod in the Baltic Sea - Gambling with the ecosystem services

    Björkman, Sven; Nordlöf, Anders

    2014-05-01

    The population of cod in the Baltic sea has over the last decades decreased due to overfishing. To make the students aware of this problem and also to find a solution they are introduced to a game. The purpose of the game is to let the students know how to use renewable natural resources in these aspects; 1 Fishing cod without using it up 2 That solidarity is needed if you are sharing a resource 3 That cooperation is the key to keeping a natural resource healthy. The students are fishermen in group of four and are equipped with a boat. The playing board is a map over the Baltic sea. The rules of the game include the carrying capacity of the sea, how much fish one fishing boat is allowed to pick up, how much it costs to have a boat, and possibilities to buy a bigger boat. The game has two rounds: In round one the students in the group are competing against each other, they are not allowed to talk to each other and they are supposed to get as much fish as they can. As a consequence after round one the sea will become empty. In round two the groups compete with each other and they are coworking within the group. After this round the result is different from the first round. The catches are bigger than in round one and still there are cod left in the sea, which will generate a good fishing in the future.. The discussions after the game can be about why the two rounds ended so different, general discussion about "tragedy of the commons", sustainable use of ecosystem services and discussions about resources in common.

  17. A study of fish and shellfish radioactivity levels within the Cumbria Sea Fisheries District

    McKay, W.A.; Latawiec, D.

    1986-11-01

    Fish (cod, plaice, whiting and skate), crustacea (shrimp and Nephrops) and mollusc (winkle) samples have been collected from the Cumbria Sea Fisheries District between November 1984 and end of December 1985. The samples have been counted for total beta activity, and a range of gamma and alpha emitters have been determined. The mean levels over the study period are, in general, of the same order as found by MAFF in 1984 in Cumbrian coastal waters and thus the dose from these nuclides on eating this seafood would be expected to be similar to 1984, within the ICRP principal dose limit of 1 mSv year -1 , assuming similar consumption rates. Most of the radiation dose to the critical group within the Cumbrian community comes through winkle consumption. (author)

  18. Social sustainability of cod and haddock fisheries in the northeast Atlantic: what issues are important?

    Veldhuizen, L.J.L.; Berentsen, P.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the sustainability of capture fisheries has focused more on environmental and economic sustainability than on social sustainability. To assess social sustainability, first relevant and important social sustainability issues need to be identified. The objective of this study was to

  19. 77 FR 34334 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii...

    2012-06-11

    ... Interactions in the Hawaii Shallow-Set Longline Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... occur between the Hawaii-based shallow-set pelagic longline fishery and leatherback and loggerhead sea... Fisheries, NMFS PIR, 808-944-2248. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaii-based shallow-set pelagic longline...

  20. Sea Turtle Bycatch Mitigation in U.S. Longline Fisheries

    Yonat Swimmer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Capture of sea turtles in longline fisheries has been implicated in population declines of loggerhead (Caretta caretta and leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea turtles. Since 2004, United States (U.S. longline vessels targeting swordfish and tunas in the Pacific and regions in the Atlantic Ocean have operated under extensive fisheries regulations to reduce the capture and mortality of endangered and threatened sea turtles. We analyzed 20+ years of longline observer data from both ocean basins during periods before and after the regulations to assess the effectiveness of the regulations. Using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs, we investigated relationships between the probability of expected turtle interactions and operational components such as fishing location, hook type, bait type, sea surface temperature, and use of light sticks. GAMMs identified a two to three-fold lower probability of expected capture of loggerhead and leatherback turtle bycatch in the Atlantic and Pacific when circle hooks are used (vs. J hook. Use of fish bait (vs. squid was also found to significantly reduce the capture probability of loggerheads in both ocean basins, and for leatherbacks in the Atlantic only. Capture probabilities are lowest when using a combination of circle hook and fish bait. Influences of light sticks, hook depth, geographic location, and sea surface temperature are discussed specific to species and regions. Results confirmed that in two U.S.-managed longline fisheries, rates of sea turtle bycatch significantly declined after the regulations. In the Atlantic (all regions, rates declined by 40 and 61% for leatherback and loggerhead turtles, respectively, after the regulations. Within the NED area alone, where additional restrictions include a large circle hook (18/0 and limited use of squid bait, rates declined by 64 and 55% for leatherback and loggerhead turtles, respectively. Gains were even more pronounced for the Pacific shallow set fishery

  1. A Bioeconomic Analysis of Traditional Fisheries in the Red Sea

    Jin, Di

    2012-06-15

    We undertake a bioeconomic analysis of the aggregate traditional fisheries in the Northern and Central areas of Red Sea off the coast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Results of our analysis using a Fox model and the Clarke-Yoshimoto-Pooley (CY&P) estimation procedure suggest that the aggregate traditional fisheries have been overfished since the early 1990s. The estimated stock size in recent years is as low as 6,400 MT, while the estimated stock size associated with the maximum economic yield (MEY) is 19,300 MT. The socially optimal level of fishing effort is about 139,000 days. Thus, the current effort level of 300,000 to 350,000 days constitutes a problem of overfishing. The estimated current total gross revenue from the traditional fisheries is Saudi Rials (SR) 147 million with zero net benefit. If total fishing effort is reduced to the socially optimal level, then we estimate gross revenue would be SR 167 million and the potential net benefit from the KSA Red Sea traditional fisheries could be as large as SR 111 million. Copyright © 2012 MRE Foundation, Inc.

  2. Fish market surveys indicate unsustainable elasmobranch fisheries in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    ), information on any aspects of these fisheries are very limited. Here we document the structure, composition and biological characteristics of eastern Red Sea elasmobranch fisheries based on genetic identification and market survey data over an intensive two

  3. Stock recruitment relationships for cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the central Baltic Sea incorporating environmental variability

    Jarre, Astrid; Wieland, Kai; MacKenzie, Brian

    2000-01-01

    of investigations on recruitment, which were continued through a partial recovery of the stock in the mid-1990s. The principal factors influencing recruitment and recognized at present are: (i) the volume of water with temperature, oxygen and salinity conditions which meet the minimum requirements for successful......Recruitment of central/eastern Baltic cod critically depends on favourable oceanographic conditions in the deeper basins of the Baltic Sea creating a suitable habitat for the development of early life stages. The decline in the size of the spawning stock since the mid-1980s initiated a series...

  4. Controls of Multiple Stressors on the Black Sea Fishery

    Temel Oguz

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Black Sea is one of the most severely degraded and exploited large marine ecosystems in the world. For the last 50 years after the depletion of large predatory fish stocks, anchovy (with the partial contribution of sprat has been acting as the main top predator species and experienced a major stock collapse at the end of 1990s. After the collapse, eastern part of the southern Black Sea became the only region sustaining relatively high anchovy catch (400,000 tons whereas the total catch within the rest of the sea was reduced to nearly its one-third. The lack of recovery of different fish stocks under a slow ecosystem rehabilitation may be attributed, on the one hand, to inappropriate management measures and the lack of harmonized fishery policy among the riparian countries. On the other hand, impacts of multiple stressors (eutrophication, alien species invasions, natural climatic variations on the food web may contribute to resilience of the system toward its recovery. The overfishing/recovery problem therefore cannot be isolated from rehabilitation efforts devoted to the long-term chronic degradation of the food web structure, and alternative fishery-related management measures must be adopted as a part of a comprehensive ecosystem-based management strategy. The present study provides a data-driven ecosystem assessment, underlines the key environmental issues and threats, and points to the critical importance of holistic approach to resolve the fishery-ecosystem interactions. It also stresses the transboundary nature of the problem.

  5. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  6. Spatio-temporal dynamics of a fish predator: Density-dependent and hydrographic effects on Baltic Sea cod population.

    Valerio Bartolino

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of spatial population dynamics is crucial for the successful management of exploited species and ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms of spatial distribution are generally complex due to the concurrent forcing of both density-dependent species interactions and density-independent environmental factors. Despite the high economic value and central ecological importance of cod in the Baltic Sea, the drivers of its spatio-temporal population dynamics have not been analytically investigated so far. In this paper, we used an extensive trawl survey dataset in combination with environmental data to investigate the spatial dynamics of the distribution of the Eastern Baltic cod during the past three decades using Generalized Additive Models. The results showed that adult cod distribution was mainly affected by cod population size, and to a minor degree by small-scale hydrological factors and the extent of suitable reproductive areas. As population size decreases, the cod population concentrates to the southern part of the Baltic Sea, where the preferred more marine environment conditions are encountered. Using the fitted models, we predicted the Baltic cod distribution back to the 1970s and a temporal index of cod spatial occupation was developed. Our study will contribute to the management and conservation of this important resource and of the ecosystem where it occurs, by showing the forces shaping its spatial distribution and therefore the potential response of the population to future exploitation and environmental changes.

  7. Incentivising selective fishing under catch quotas: using an FCube modelling approach to evaluate management options for North Sea mixed fisheries

    Condie, Harriet M.; Dolder, Paul J.; Catchpole, Thomas L.

    Reforms of EU Common Fisheries Policy will make fundamental changes to European fisheries management, including a discard ban with catch quotas for regulated species and management to achieve MSY. We evaluate the impact of these changes on revenue of North Sea demersal finfish fleets and fish...... stocks. With no change in behaviour, revenue is reduced by a mean of 31% compared to current management in the first year, but partly recovers by year 3, as fishing mortality is reduced and stocks increase. There are large differences in revenue changes between fleets, varying from -99% to +36...... in revenue create a strong incentive to avoid catching the limiting species, particularly if it is not a primary target. Selectivity changes that avoid 30% cod catch reduced the economic impact for some fleets in moving to catch quotas. Increased flexibility will therefore be important in maintaining...

  8. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries: a management approach for the North Sea demersal fisheries

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    . An objective method is suggested that provides an optimal set of fishing mortality within the range, minimizing the risk of total allowable catch mismatches among stocks captured within mixed fisheries, and addressing explicitly the trade-offs between the most and least productive stocks........ Recent paths towards operationalizing MSY at the regional scale have suggested the expansion of the concept into a desirable area of “pretty good yield”, implemented through a range around FMSY that would allow for more flexibility in management targets. This article investigates the potential of FMSY...... ranges to combine long-term single-stock targets with flexible, short-term, mixed-fisheries management requirements applied to the main North Sea demersal stocks. It is shown that sustained fishing at the upper bound of the range may lead to unacceptable risks when technical interactions occur...

  9. The fish and fisheries of Jones Bank and the wider Celtic Sea

    Martinez, I.; Ellis, J. R.; Scott, B.; Tidd, A.

    2013-10-01

    The Celtic Sea is a diverse fishing ground that supports important commercial fisheries for a range of demersal fish, large and small-bodied pelagic fish and a variety of cephalopods and other shellfish. A regional overview of the main commercial fish stocks of the Celtic Sea and of the fish that occur in the vicinity of Jones Bank are provided through analyses of landings data from English and Welsh vessels, and from scientific trawl surveys. Dedicated smaller scale sampling via trawl surveys combined with baited cameras on and around the Jones Bank were also analysed to investigate the importance of sandbank habitats with attention paid to the differences in the species occurring on the top of the bank in comparison to adjacent off-bank habitats. Official landing statistics for UK (English and Welsh) vessels indicated that the predominant commercial demersal species in ICES Divisions VIIg,h (in terms of quantities landed) were anglerfish, megrim, pollack and skates (Rajidae). There were, however, regional differences in the distribution of fish and fisheries, and the area surrounding Jones Bank (ICES Rectangles 28E1 and 28E2) supports fisheries for megrim, anglerfish, skates, hake, ling and turbot, with otter trawl, gillnet and beam trawl the main gears used. Recent survey data collected with GOV (Grande Ouverture Verticale) trawl from the Celtic Sea (ICES Divisions VIIe-h, 2007-2010) were used to highlight the broad scale distribution of the main fish assemblages in the Celtic Sea. Analyses of the fish and cephalopod catches from these surveys indicated that there were four broad assemblages in the area, including (i) a region around the Cornwall (which will also be partly influenced by the necessity to use rockhopper ground gear on these rough grounds), (ii) the shallower regions of the north-western Celtic Sea (including parts of the Bristol Channel), (iii) the deeper parts of the outer shelf and (iv) the central Celtic Sea. These data also provided

  10. Impact assessment of a fisheries closure with effort and landings spatial analyses: A case study in the Western Baltic Sea

    Miethe, Tanja; Bastardie, Francois; Dorrien, Christian von

    2014-01-01

    Commercial fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea (WBS; ICES Subdivisions 22–24) are dominated by Danishand German vessels. By combining and processing logbook and Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data forGermany and Denmark, we compare patterns of spatial effort allocation and the origin of the landi......Commercial fisheries in the Western Baltic Sea (WBS; ICES Subdivisions 22–24) are dominated by Danishand German vessels. By combining and processing logbook and Vessel Monitoring System (VMS) data forGermany and Denmark, we compare patterns of spatial effort allocation and the origin...... landedin the WBS decreased, and the origin of these landings shifted farther east without affecting the seasonaleffort allocation. Landings of cod have also decreased in the Fehmarn Belt area, and since 2008, sprat hasbeen the species most landed there. The planned construction of the Fehmarn Belt Fixed...... of sprat distribution in the area. Becausehigh effort did not lead to large sprat landings in all locations, effort displacement to high effort areas maynot compensate for lost sprat landings, particularly for mixed fishery métiers that also landed herring...

  11. The importance of predator–prey overlap: predicting North Sea cod recovery with a multispecies assessment model

    Kempf, Alexander; Dingsør, Gjert Endre; Huse, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The overlap between predator and prey is known as a sensitive parameter in multispecies assessment models for fish, and its parameterization is notoriously difficult. Overlap indices were derived from trawl surveys and used to parametrize the North Sea stochastic multispecies model. The effect...... of time-invariant and year- and quarter-specific overlap estimates on the historical (1991–2007) and predicted trophic interactions, as well as the development of predator and prey stocks, was investigated. The focus was set on a general comparison between single-species and multispecies forecasts...... and the sensitivity of the predicted development of North Sea cod for the two types of overlap implementation. The spatial–temporal overlap between cod and its predators increased with increasing temperature, indicating that foodweb processes might reduce the recovery potential of cod during warm periods...

  12. Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance

    Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the attempt to consider the relationship between sea surface anomalies of temperature (SST anomalies °C) in spawning area of the Norwegian Arctic cod off the Lofoten islands in coastal zone of the Norwegian Sea and modern cod total stock biomass including forecasting assessment of future cod generation success. Continuous long-term database of the sea surface temperature (SST) was created on the NOAA satellites data. Mean monthly SST and SST anomalies are computed for the selected area on the basis of the weekly SST maps for the period of 1998-2012. These maps were plotted with the satellite SST data, as well as information of vessels, byoies and coastal stations. All data were classified by spawning seasons (March-April) and years. The results indicate that poor and low middle generations of cod (2001, 2006, 2007) occurred in years with negative or extremely high positive anomalies in the spawning area. The SST anomalies in years which were close to normal or some more normal significances provide conditions for appearance strong or very strong generations of cod (1998, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2009). Temperature conditions in concrete years influence on different indexes of cod directly. So, the mean temperature in spawning seasons in years 1999-2005 was ≈5,0°C and SST anomaly - +0,35°C, by the way average year significances indexes of cod were: total stock biomass - 1425,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 460,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 535,0 mln. units and landings - 530,0 th.t. In spawning seasons 2006-2012 years the average data were following: mean SST ≈6,0°C, SST anomaly - +1,29°C, total stock biomass - 2185,0 th.t., total spawning biomass - 1211,0 th.t., recruitment (age 3+) - 821,0 mln. units and landings - 600,0 th.t. The SST and SST anomalies (the NOAA satellite data) characterize increase of decrease in input of warm Atlantic waters which form numerous eddies along the flows of the main warm currents thus creating

  13. Contracaecum osculatum and other anisakid nematodes in grey seals and cod in the Baltic Sea: molecular and ecological links.

    Zuo, S; Kania, P W; Mehrdana, F; Marana, M H; Buchmann, K

    2018-01-01

    Populations of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), sprats (Sprattus sprattus) and cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea are relatively stationary. The present work, applying classical and molecular helminthological techniques, documents that seals and cod also share a common parasite, the anisakid nematode Contracaecum osculatum, which uses seals as the final host and fish as transport hosts. Sequencing mitochondrial genes (COX1 and COX2) in adult worms from seals and third-stage larvae from livers of Baltic fish (sprats and cod), showed that all gene variants occur in both seals and fish. Other anisakid nematodes Pseudoterranova decipiens and Anisakis simplex are also found in both seals and cod in the Baltic Sea, but at much lower rates. The Baltic grey seal population was left at a critically low level (comprising a few hundred individuals) during the latter part of the 20th century, but since the year 2000 a marked increase in the population has been observed, reaching more than 40,000 individuals at present. Ecological consequences of the increased seal abundance may result from increased predation on fish stocks, but recent evidence also points to the influence of elevated parasitism on fish performance. Contracaecum osculatum larvae preferentially infect the liver of Baltic cod, considered a vital organ of the host. Whereas low prevalences and intensities in cod were reported during the 1980s and 1990s, the present study documents 100% prevalence and a mean intensity of above 80 worms per fish. Recent studies have also indicated the zoonotic potential of C. osculatum larvae in fish, following the consumption of raw or under-cooked fish. Therefore the present work discusses the impact of parasitism on the cod stock and the increasing risk for consumer health, and lists possible solutions for control.

  14. Distribution of the early larval stages of cod, plaice and lesser sandeel across haline fronts in the North Sea

    Munk, Peter; Wright, P.J.; Pihl, Niels Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    A number of commercially important fish species spawn in the coastal areas of the North Sea in the late winter, including cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and lesser sandeel (Ammodytes marinus). The distribution of the early stages of these species overlap to some extent...... Influence (ROFI), predominantly in the Dogger Bank and German Bight areas. There was a high degree of overlap between the distributions of cod and plaice, while the maximal abundance of lesser sandeel was found inshore of the other species. Larval distributions were to a large extent confined by the frontal...

  15. 78 FR 69592 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2013-11-20

    ... interest as it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and.... Since these fisheries are currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the... operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential...

  16. 77 FR 72243 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2012-12-05

    ... would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay... the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the revised... this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential disruption...

  17. 76 FR 54137 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2011-08-31

    ... it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would... pot gear. Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as... efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid...

  18. 77 FR 67579 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    2012-11-13

    ... from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation... using jig gear. Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry... and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to...

  19. 77 FR 54838 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    2012-09-06

    ... it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would... jig gear. Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as... efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid...

  20. 76 FR 24403 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2011-05-02

    ... prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the.... Since the fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the... operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential...

  1. Variations in the drift of larval cod ( Gadus morhua L.) in the Baltic Sea : combining field observations and modelling

    Voss, R.; Hinrichsen, H.H.; St. John, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Coupled three-dimensional (3-D) physical oceanographic modelling and field sampling programmes were carried out in May 1988 and August 1991 to investigate the potential drift of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) in the Bornholm Basin of the Baltic Sea. The goals were to predict the transport of cod...... larvae, thus aiding the identification of physical processes influencing larval retention/dispersal. Numerical simulations were performed using a 3-D eddy-resolving baroclinic model based on the Bryan-Cox-Semtner code adapted for the Baltic Sea. Within the Bornholm Basin, the model was initialized...... for the time periods considered. Larval drift was simulated either by incorporation of passive drifters, or as the initial horizontal distribution of larvae implemented into the model. Drift model simulations of larval transport agreed relatively well with field observations. The influence of variations...

  2. The History and Characteristics of the Mobulid Ray Fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines.

    Acebes, Jo Marie V; Tull, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products. This paper also analyses the changes that occurred through time, the management of the fishery and the drivers of the fishery. A multi-disciplinary approach was employed by combining ethno-historical research methods and catch landing monitoring in four primary sites within the Bohol Sea. This fishery began as an artisanal fishery using sail and row boats equipped with harpoons and gaff hooks practiced in at least four coastal villages in Bohol, Camiguin and Limasawa. The fishing fleet has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century however, with the motorization of the fishery and shift to the use of gillnets, the extent of the fishing grounds and market of the products have expanded. Four species of mobulid rays are caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted by a fishing community off Dinagat as an off-shoot of the Bohol fishery is most likely the Manta alfredi. Currently, the fishery for mobulids is centered in Bohol Province where it has been practiced longest. The monetary value of mobulids in this region has increased and the dependence of fishing communities for their livelihood is significant. The unique characteristics of this fishery and the socio-cultural context within which it operates merits a thorough investigation in order to design the appropriate management strategy.

  3. The History and Characteristics of the Mobulid Ray Fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines.

    Jo Marie V Acebes

    Full Text Available The fishery for mobulid rays, also known as devil rays, has been practiced in the Bohol Sea for over a century yet very little is known about its history and characteristics. This study provides the first detailed description of the mobulid ray fishery in the Bohol Sea, Philippines. It describes the history and evolution of the fishery from the 19th century to 2013. It characterizes the fishery based on the species targeted, gears used, the organization, catch distribution, processing, monetary value, and the market of its by-products. This paper also analyses the changes that occurred through time, the management of the fishery and the drivers of the fishery. A multi-disciplinary approach was employed by combining ethno-historical research methods and catch landing monitoring in four primary sites within the Bohol Sea. This fishery began as an artisanal fishery using sail and row boats equipped with harpoons and gaff hooks practiced in at least four coastal villages in Bohol, Camiguin and Limasawa. The fishing fleet has decreased since the beginning of the 20th century however, with the motorization of the fishery and shift to the use of gillnets, the extent of the fishing grounds and market of the products have expanded. Four species of mobulid rays are caught in the Bohol Sea: Manta birostris, Mobula japanica, Mobula thurstoni and Mobula tarapacana. A fifth species, targeted by a fishing community off Dinagat as an off-shoot of the Bohol fishery is most likely the Manta alfredi. Currently, the fishery for mobulids is centered in Bohol Province where it has been practiced longest. The monetary value of mobulids in this region has increased and the dependence of fishing communities for their livelihood is significant. The unique characteristics of this fishery and the socio-cultural context within which it operates merits a thorough investigation in order to design the appropriate management strategy.

  4. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7894] Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in... programs to reduce the incidental capture of sea turtles in their shrimp fisheries comparable to the... other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental taking of sea turtles protected...

  5. 75 FR 27219 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fisheries; 2010 Atlantic...

    2010-05-14

    .... Whereas a limited market has been responsible for the shortfall in landings compared to the target TAC... final specifications for the 2010 Atlantic deep- sea red crab fishery, including a target total... specify the target TAC and other management measures in order to manage the red crab resource for fishing...

  6. 77 FR 68723 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    2012-11-16

    ... flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total... of butterfish; and 715,830 lb of bluefish. For 2014, projects may collectively be awarded up to 587... Atlantic bluefish, and assessment-quality data for weakfish, Atlantic croaker, spot, several skate and ray...

  7. 75 FR 70192 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    2010-11-17

    ... squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish fisheries. If the total amount of RSA is not awarded, NMFS will...; 727,527 lb (330 mt) of Loligo squid; 818,790 lb (371 mt) of bluefish; and 33,069 lb (15 mt) of... stock assessment data for summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, Loligo squid, butterfish, bluefish...

  8. Optimal management under institutional constraints: : Determining a total allowable catch for different fleet segments in the northeast arctic cod fishery

    Richter, Andries; Eikeset, Anne Maria; Van Soest, Daan; Diekert, Florian Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    Many real world fisheries have an individual vessel quota system with restrictions on transferability of quota or entrance of new vessels into the fishery. While the standard economic reasoning is that these institutional constraints lead to welfare losses, the size of those losses and optimal

  9. 76 FR 29671 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2011-05-23

    ... prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the... the industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing...

  10. 75 FR 55690 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific cod in the Bering...

    2010-09-14

    ... prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the... industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and...

  11. 78 FR 73454 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Central...

    2013-12-06

    ... interest as it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and... the industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing...

  12. 78 FR 55228 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Western...

    2013-09-10

    ... interest as it would prevent NMFS from responding to the most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and... industry as to the revised allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and...

  13. 76 FR 13331 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revisions to Pacific Cod Fishing in the...

    2011-03-11

    ... guideline harvest level (GHL), rather than a Federal TAC. Currently, non-parallel State fisheries for BSAI... Aleutian Islands Subarea (AI). Federal groundfish fisheries in the EEZ from 3 to 200 nm off the coast of... Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) through emergency order under the authority of State regulations at 5 AAC...

  14. Groundfish overfishing, diatom decline, and the marine silica cycle: Lessons from Saanich Inlet, Canada, and the Baltic Sea cod crash

    Katz, Timor; Yahel, Gitai; Yahel, Ruthy; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Herut, Barak; Snelgrove, Paul; Crusius, John; Lazar, Boaz

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we link groundfish activity to the marine silica cycle and suggest that the drastic mid-1980s crash of the Baltic Sea cod (Gadus morhua) population triggered a cascade of events leading to decrease in dissolved silica (DSi) and diatom abundance in the water. We suggest that this seemingly unrelated sequence of events was caused by a marked decline in sediment resuspension associated with reduced groundfish activity resulting from the cod crash. In a study in Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada, we discovered that, by resuspending bottom sediments, groundfish triple DSi fluxes from the sediments and reduce silica accumulation therein. Using these findings and the available oceanographic and environmental data from the Baltic Sea, we estimate that overfishing and recruitment failure of Baltic cod reduced by 20% the DSi supply from bottom sediments to the surface water leading to a decline in the diatom population in the Baltic Sea. The major importance of the marginal ocean in the marine silica cycle and the associated high population density of groundfish suggest that groundfish play a major role in the silica cycle. We postulate that dwindling groundfish populations caused by anthropogenic perturbations, e.g., overfishing and bottom water anoxia, may cause shifts in marine phytoplankton communities.

  15. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Hurst: Distributional patterns of 0-group Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in the eastern Bering Sea under variable recruitment and thermal conditions

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a study that analyzed the late summer distribution of juvenile Pacific cod in the eastern Bering Sea for 6 cohorts (2004-2009), based on catches...

  16. Guidelines for developing an at-sea fishery observer programme

    Davies, Sandy I; Reynolds, J. Eric

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines are intended to help those involved in managing fisheries to understand the range of objectives that an observer programme can meet and how these contribute towards the management of a fishery...

  17. The Barents Sea, its fisheries and past and present status of radioactive contamination, and its impacts on fisheries

    Foeyn, L.; Svaeren, I.

    1995-01-01

    For Norway and Russia the fisheries in the Barents Sea is of great importance. When the Chernobyl accident happened, almost two decades had passed without any systematic monitoring of the radioactivity in the Sea. The accident initiated new activity in this field at the Norwegian Institute of Marine Research. In 1990 a programme of sampling sediments, biota and water was started for, in the first hand, determination of radiocesium. The obtained results have shown that the fish resources as such of the Barents Sea have not yet been affected by anthropogenic radioactivity, neither during the nuclear bomb tests in the fifties and sixties, nor during recent years due to accidental releases. The fisheries may, however, be dramatically affected by the fact that the focus of media on radioactive contamination frightens people from eating fish. 11 refs., 1 fig

  18. 77 FR 65837 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2012-10-31

    ... Administrator has also determined that this unharvested amount is unlikely to be harvested through the hierarchy.... Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery...

  19. 78 FR 58955 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2013-09-25

    ... harvested through the hierarchy set forth in Sec. 679.20(a)(7)(iii)(A). Therefore, in accordance with Sec... operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing season, and to avoid potential...

  20. 78 FR 52868 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pacific Cod in the Bering...

    2013-08-27

    ... this unharvested amount is unlikely to be harvested through the hierarchy set forth in Sec. 679.20(a)(7... orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery, to allow the industry to plan for the fishing...

  1. 77 FR 62464 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod by Vessels Using Pot Gear in the...

    2012-10-15

    ... Vessels Using Pot Gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National Marine... gear in the Central Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 Pacific cod total allowable catch apportioned to vessels using pot gear in the Central...

  2. Thawed chilled Barents Sea cod fillets in modified atmosphere packaging-application of multivariate data analysis to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice

    Bøknæs, Niels; Jensen, K.N.; Guldager, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to select key parameters in good manufacturing practice for production of thawed chilled modified atmosphere packed (MAP) cod (Gadus morhua) fillets. The effect of frozen storage temperature (-20 and -30 C), frozen storage period (3, 6, 9 and 12 mo) and chill...... storage periods up to 21 d at 2 C were evaluated for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod fillets. Sensory, chemical, microbiological and physical quality attributes were evaluated and multivariate data analysis (principal component analysis and partial least- squares regression) applied for identification of key...... storage was low for thawed MAP Barents Sea cod and this fish raw material seemed the more appropriate for production of thawed chilled MAP products. Frozen storage inactivation of the spoilage bacteria of Photobacterium phosphorcum was modest in Barnets Sea cod, possibly due to high trimethylamine oxide...

  3. Assessment of the sea cucumber resource and fishery in the Bolinao-Anda reef system

    Ronald Dionnie D. Olavides

    Full Text Available Fishery-independent and -dependent surveys were conducted to assess the status of the sea cucumber resource and fishery in Bolinao and Anda, Pangasinan. Thirty-five species of holothurians were recorded in 25 sampling stations within seagrass beds, coral reefs and mixed habitats. The estimated total population density of all aspidochirote sea cucumber species is 63 ind. ha-1. The artisanal multi-species fishery is at present primarily based on Holothuria scabra, Stichopus horrens and Bohadschia marmorata although there are indications that other high-value species were fished to local extinction. Taken together, the small sizes (<20 cm body length of the majority of aspidochirote sea cucumbers, their low population densities, and the continuous decrease in catches are clear signs of an overexploited fishery that will likely collapse without management intervention. Adaptive management strategies for Bolinao and Anda are recommended based on the findings of this survey.

  4. Corals, Canyons, and Conservation: Science Based Fisheries Management Decisions in the Eastern Bering Sea

    Steve A. MacLean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When making science matter for conservation, marine conservation practitioners, and managers must be prepared to make the appropriate decision based on the results of the best available science used to inform it. For nearly a decade, many stakeholders encouraged the North Pacific Fishery Management Council to enact protections for deep-sea corals in several canyons in the Eastern Bering Sea slope. In 2014, at the request of the Council, the National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center conducted a strip-transect survey along the Eastern Bering Sea slope to validate the results of a model predicting the occurrence of deep-sea coral habitat. More than 250,000 photos were analyzed to estimate coral, sponge, and sea whip abundance, distribution, height, and vulnerability to anthropogenic damage. The results of the survey confirmed that coral habitat and occurrence was concentrated around Pribilof Canyon and the adjacent slope. The results also confirmed that the densities of corals in the Eastern Bering Sea were low, even where they occurred. After reviewing the best available scientific information, the Council concluded that there is no scientific evidence to suggest that deep-sea corals in the Eastern Bering Sea slope or canyons are at risk from commercial fisheries under the current management structure, and that special protections for deep-sea corals were not warranted.

  5. 76 FR 45219 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2011-07-28

    ...-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP) would amend the Bering Sea and...

  6. 75 FR 81921 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2010-12-29

    .... 101006495-0498-01] RIN 0648-BA31 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... interim final rule pertaining to Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... Register on December 13, 2010 (75 FR 77535), to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure...

  7. 77 FR 52 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 23

    2012-01-03

    ... Fishery Management Plan, which was developed and adopted by the New England Fishery Management Council and... limited access general category Northern Gulf of Maine management program; and modify the scallop vessel monitoring system trip notification procedures to improve flexibility for the scallop fleet. DATES: Comments...

  8. 77 FR 20728 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 23

    2012-04-06

    ... to the proposed rule from: A representative from Nordic Fisheries, a family-owned company that runs... Nordic Fisheries generally supports the proposed measures in Framework 23, but commented that the final... regulatory language describing the TDD requirement. However, FSF continue to note their opinion that the TDD...

  9. Multi-national industry capacity in the North Sea fishery

    Lindebo, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries managers often see the management of regional fisheries as a more pertinent approach than managing separate national fleet units that exploit numerous fish stocks. This article considers an industry approach, using data envelopement analysis (DEA), to shed light on the exploitation of t...

  10. 76 FR 74670 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Cod Allocations in the Gulf of...

    2011-12-01

    ... the regulatory text to restrict stationary floating processors in the GOA from mothership and C/P... apportioned on the basis of processor component (inshore and offshore) and season, as implemented under.../offshore processing components of the fishery and not divided among gear or operation types, there is a...

  11. Fish market surveys indicate unsustainable elasmobranch fisheries in the Saudi Arabian Red Sea

    Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Elasmobranch populations worldwide are severely threatened due to overexploited and unregulated fisheries. Despite the fact that sharks and rays are captured in fisheries operating along the Red Sea coast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), information on any aspects of these fisheries are very limited. Here we document the structure, composition and biological characteristics of eastern Red Sea elasmobranch fisheries based on genetic identification and market survey data over an intensive two-year sampling period at the biggest Red Sea fish market in the KSA (Jeddah). Market surveys conducted two times per month between 2011 and 2013 revealed that 24 previously confirmed elasmobranch species for the Red Sea were landed by fishers and offered for sale. Genetic identification revealed two potentially undescribed guitarfish species as well as four batoid species not formerly reported from the Red Sea. Five coastal carcharhinid species dominated the landings-. Carcharhinus sorrah, C. amblyrhynchos, C. falciformis, C. limbatus, Rhizoprionodon acutus, together comprising 73% numerically of the total catch. Targeted shark fisheries reportedly exist in shark nursery areas. Most elasmobranchs outside of these areas were reportedly landed as bycatch. Most strikingly, the large majority of landed elasmobranchs were immature males or females below their reported size of sexual maturity, which suggests potential for both growth and recruitment overfishing and emphasizes the urgent need to implement region-specific management and conservation strategies to avoid the loss of these critical predators.

  12. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    Worsøe Clausen, Lotte; Rindorf, Anna; van Deurs, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    productivity. Furthermore, from an ecosystem-based fisheries management perspective, a link between functional complementarity and productivity, indicates that ecosystem resilience may decline with productivity. Based on this, we advise that system productivity, perhaps monitored as forage fish growth, becomes......1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature......, the associated bottom-up effects and consequences for fisheries remain largely unidentified. 2. We investigated the temporal development in forage fish productivity and the associated influence on fisheries yield of herring, sprat, Norway pout and sandeel in the North Sea. Using principal component analysis, we...

  13. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-11-14

    .... 130306200-3200-01] RIN 0648-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 102 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) National.... SUMMARY: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 102 to the Fishery Management Plan for...

  14. 78 FR 65602 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-11-01

    ...-BD03 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of availability of fishery management plan amendment; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted...

  15. 76 FR 68354 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2011-11-04

    .... 100819383-1652-02] RIN 0648-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries.... SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations implementing Amendment 93 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish...

  16. Multispecies fisheries management in the Mediterranean Sea: application of the Fcube methodology

    Maravelias, C.D.; Damalas, D.; Ulrich, Clara

    2012-01-01

    The ecosystem approach (EA) advocates that advice should be given based on a holistic management of the entire marine ecosystem and all fisheries and fleets involved. Recent developments have advanced to multi‐species, multi‐fisheries advice, rather than on a single‐species/fleet/area stock basis...... and socioeconomic parameters were used for coastal and trawl fisheries in the Aegean Sea. Results pointed out the strengths and weaknesses of alternative management strategies from both a biological and socioeconomic perspective. Fcube revealed the importance of effort control in the coastal fisheries...... that are still managed with no effort restrictions. The present findings, although preliminary, revealed that stringent cuts to effort and catch levels are required if EA management goals are to be met. The Fcube methodology, initially developed for mixed fisheries advice in northern European waters...

  17. 50 CFR Table 4 to Part 679 - Steller Sea Lion Protection Areas Pollock Fisheries Restrictions

    2010-10-01

    ....05 N 150°15.40 W 10 Seal Rocks (Kenai) Gulf of Alaska 59°31.20 N 149°37.50 W 10 Chiswell Islands Gulf..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE... Sea 60°37.00 N 173°00.00 W 20 St. Paul I./Sea Lion Rock Bering Sea 57°06.00 N 170°17.50 W 3 St. Paul I...

  18. 77 FR 56798 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retained Amounts for...

    2012-09-14

    ... arrowtooth flounder fishery from zero to 20 percent for deep-water flatfish, rex sole, flathead sole, shallow... catching and processing fish at sea during an open Pacific cod directed fishery would convert the processed... with finding, processing, and retaining the species closed to directed fishing. Prior to 1994, a vessel...

  19. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Rocklin, Delphine; Levrel, Harold; Drogou, Mickaël; Herfaut, Johanna; Veron, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish) were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  20. Combining telephone surveys and fishing catches self-report: the French sea bass recreational fishery assessment.

    Delphine Rocklin

    Full Text Available Fisheries statistics are known to be underestimated, since they are mainly based on information about commercial fisheries. However, various types of fishing activities exist and evaluating them is necessary for implementing effective management plans. This paper assesses the characteristics and catches of the French European sea bass recreational fishery along the Atlantic coasts, through the combination of large-scale telephone surveys and fishing diaries study. Our results demonstrated that half of the total catches (mainly small fish were released at sea and that the mean length of a kept sea bass was 46.6 cm. We highlighted different patterns of fishing methods and type of gear used. Catches from boats were greater than from the shore, both in abundance and biomass, considering mean values per fishing trip as well as CPUE. Spearfishers caught the highest biomass of sea bass per fishing trip, but the fishing rod with lure was the most effective type of gear in terms of CPUE. Longlines had the highest CPUE value in abundance but not in biomass: they caught numerous but small sea bass. Handlines were less effective, catching few sea bass in both abundance and biomass. We estimated that the annual total recreational sea bass catches was 3,173 tonnes of which 2,345 tonnes were kept. Since the annual commercial catches landings were evaluated at 5,160 tonnes, recreational landings represent 30% of the total fishing catches on the Atlantic coasts of France. Using fishers' self-reports was a valuable way to obtain new information on data-poor fisheries. Our results underline the importance of evaluating recreational fishing as a part of the total amount of fisheries catches. More studies are critically needed to assess overall fish resources caught in order to develop effective fishery management tools.

  1. Growth changes in plaice, cod, haddock and saithe in the North Sea: a comparison of (post-)medieval and present-day growth rates based on otolith measurements

    Bolle, L.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Neer, van W.; Millner, R.S.; Leeuwen, van P.I.; Ervynck, A.

    2004-01-01

    Fishing effort has strongly increased in the North Sea since the mid-19th century, causing a substantial reduction in the population size of exploited fish stocks. As fisheries research has developed simultaneously with the industrialisation of the fisheries, our knowledge of population dynamics at

  2. 78 FR 42890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery and Northeast...

    2013-07-18

    ...: Emily Gilbert, Fishery Policy Analyst, 978-281-9244; fax 978-281-9135. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... paragraph (b)(4) is revised to read as follows: Sec. 648.53 Acceptable biological catch (ABC), annual catch...

  3. Challenges in integrating shrot-term behaviour in a mixed-fishery Management Strategies Evaluation frame: a case study of the North Sea flatfish fishery

    Andersen, B.S.; Vermard, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Hutton, T.; Poos, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents a fleet-based bioeconomic simulation model to the international mixed flatfish fishery in the North Sea. The model uses a Management Strategies Evaluation framework including a discrete choice model accounting for short-term temporal changes in effort allocation across fisheries.

  4. Distribution and diet of larval and juvenile Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) in the shallow Canadian Beaufort Sea

    Walkusz, Wojciech; Paulic, Joclyn E.; Williams, William J.; Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Papst, Michael H.

    2011-02-01

    The distribution and diet of larval and juvenile Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida) were studied during summer 2005 in the coastal Canadian Beaufort Sea. A total of 275 individuals were captured and the highest abundance was observed at station depths of 20-30 m. This corresponds well with the location of the frontal zone where the Mackenzie River plume water and open sea water meet. Diet examinations were performed on 220 Arctic cod, which were found undamaged from sampling. We observed a gradual decrease in prey number per fish and increase in prey size as larvae grew which corresponded to a shift from Rotifera and nauplii towards larger copepodid stages. However, at all sizes, the larvae remain generalists and feed on a broad range of organisms. Environmental changes due to climate warming could have a two-fold impact on fish larvae feeding in the studied region. First, the potential for increased primary production may lead to increased zooplankton production that may impact the feeding and nutrition positively. On the other hand, greater discharge of turbid water from the Mackenzie River may reduce light penetration in the water column that may negatively influence the ability of visual predators to successively forage.

  5. Industry Based Survey (IBS) Cod

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The "Gulf of Maine Atlantic Cod Industry-Based Survey" was a collaboration of the Massachusetts Division of Marine Fisheries and the fishing industry, with support...

  6. 76 FR 49417 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2011-08-10

    .... 100819383-0386-01] RIN 0648-BA18 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area; Limited Access Privilege Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (FMP). This proposed...

  7. 76 FR 36511 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    2011-06-22

    ...-BA22 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3 AGENCY... the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP) (Amendment 3), incorporating a draft... current trap limit regulations state that red crab may not be harvested from gear other than a marked red...

  8. 76 FR 60379 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab; Amendment 3

    2011-09-29

    .... 100903433-1531-02] RIN 0648-BA22 Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab... approved in Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The New England... ABC control rule.'' The NS1 guidelines further state that ``ABC may not exceed OFL,'' and that ``the...

  9. 77 FR 34350 - November 2010 Biological Opinion on the Effects of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries on Steller Sea...

    2012-06-11

    ... 2010 Biological Opinion on the Effects of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries on Steller Sea Lions and... the Alaska groundfish fisheries on Steller sea lions and other endangered species (Final Biop). The... for fish and marine mammals. The structure and operation of the CIE are designed to ensure the quality...

  10. Integrating Fisheries Dependent and Independent Approaches to assess Fisheries, Abundance, Diversity, Distribution and Genetic Connectivity of Red Sea Elasmobranch Populations

    Spaet, Julia L.

    2014-05-01

    The Red Sea has long been recognized as a global hotspot of marine biodiversity. Ongoing overfishing, however, is threatening this unique ecosystem, recently leading to the identification of the Red Sea as one of three major hotspots of extinction risk for sharks and rays worldwide. Elasmobranch catches in Saudi Arabian Red Sea waters are unregulated, often misidentified and unrecorded, resulting in a lack of species-specific landings information, which would be vital for the formulation of effective management strategies. Here we employed an integrated approach of fisheries dependent and independent survey methods combined with molecular tools to provide biological, ecological and fisheries data to aid in the assessment of the status of elasmobranch populations in the Red Sea. Over the course of two years, we conducted market surveys at the biggest Saudi Arabian fish market in Jeddah. Market landings were dominated by, mostly immature individuals - implying both recruitment and growth overfishing. Additionally, we employed baited remote underwater video (BRUVS) and longline surveys along almost the entire length of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia as well as at selected reef systems in Sudan. The comparison of catch per unit effort (CPUE) data for Saudi Arabian Red Sea BRUVS and longline surveys to published data originating from non-Red Sea ocean systems revealed CPUE values several orders of magnitude lower for both survey methods in the Red Sea compared to other locations around the world. Finally, we infered the regional population structure of four commercially important shark species between the Red Sea and the Western Indian Ocean.We genotyped nearly 2000 individuals at the mitochondrial control region as well as a total of 20 microsatellite loci. Genetic homogeneity could not be rejected for any of the four species across the spatial comparison. Based on high levels of region-wide exploitation, we suggest that, for management purposes, the population

  11. Modelling and simulation of size selectivity in diamond mesh trawl cod-ends

    Herrmann, Bent

    of the fishing gear. The cod-end is the rearmost part of a trawl where catch accumulates and in which most of the size selection is known to take place. To date, the main method used to assess the selectivity of trawl cod-ends has been to run sea trials followed by statistical analysis of the obtained......Within many fisheries there is a widespread discard of fish. Furthermore, there are several fisheries where fish are caught before reaching the optimal size, leading to an adverse exploitation of the resources. One way to achieve a more optimal exploitation is to improve the size selectivity...

  12. A Centurial Development of the North Sea Fish Megafauna as Reflected by the Historical Swedish Longlining Fisheries

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Bartolino, Valerio; Svedäng, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    , offshore longlining became concentrated north and west of the Shetlands and Hebrides, and after the WWII, the fishery expanded to Iceland and Rockall. In the offshore fishery, CPUE for the main target species, ling, remained stable, whereas for the other species, with the exception of tusk (Brosme brosme......), CPUE showed a dramatic decline over time. In contrast, in the coastal longlining fishery, severe declines were revealed for all major target species except cod. We argue that the constant search for new fishing grounds in the Northeast Atlantic reflects a dwindling resource, where the fishermen kept...

  13. Potential economic impacts of achieving good environmental status in Black Sea fisheries

    Ian C. Goulding

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD mandates that European Union (EU member states achieve Good Environmental Status (GEnS based on an ecosystem-based approach to management. For commercial fisheries, the primary target under the MSFD is one of maximum sustainable yield. Of Black Sea riparian nations, only Romania and Bulgaria are EU member states. Focusing at the supranational level, we review institutions and instruments relevant to management of the Black Sea. The economic values of current fish catches are assessed, and the results of a recent analytical assessment of fish stocks are used to estimate potential future values based on maximum sustainable yields. In the Black Sea region, despite long-standing attempts to improve fisheries management, there remains a lack of effective regional cooperation. Evidence from the scenario analysis suggests that achieving GEnS would not have an undue negative impact on overall fishery sector incomes, and could, with appropriate investments in processing and marketing, deliver increased economic benefits for Black Sea countries. The ongoing policy debate between and within Black Sea coastal states needs to be extended to include recognition of the potential economic and social benefits of effective fisheries management. More work is required to assess returns on investment in interim management measures to deliver GEnS.

  14. 76 FR 2027 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2011-01-12

    .... 101006495-0498-01] RIN 0648-BA31 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... 13, 2010, to implement Steller sea lion protection measures to ensure that the Bering Sea and... existence of the western distinct population segment of Steller sea lions or adversely modify its designated...

  15. 75 FR 77535 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion Protection Measures for the...

    2010-12-13

    ... (Steller sea lion sites). A lottery system assigned vessels to platoons that were allowed to fish inside.... 101006495-0498-01] RIN 0648-BA31 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Steller Sea Lion... sea lion protection measures to insure that the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI...

  16. 77 FR 28311 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Closure of the...

    2012-05-14

    ...'s Scallop Plan Development Team (PDT) meeting on January 5, 2012, staff from the Northeast Fisheries... area rotation program for future years. New Information Regarding Current Scallop Biomass Levels in CAI... this area is essential for the future success of area rotation to maximize yield and economic benefits...

  17. 78 FR 27088 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery and Northeast...

    2013-05-09

    ... Thomas Nies, Executive Director, New England Fishery Management Council, 50 Water Street, Newburyport, MA... associated with a 25-percent probability of exceeding the OFL. The Council's Scientific and Statistical... IFQ). In situations where a vessel leases out its IFQ to multiple vessels, only the vessel(s) that, in...

  18. Historical marine ecology: examining the role of fisheries in changes in North Sea benthos.

    Robinson, Leonie A; Frid, Chris L J

    2008-07-01

    The organisms living on and in the sea floor, the benthos, represent an important ecological group. Although some (shellfish) have an economic value, most do not, and so little long-term data are available. We have identified three sources of historic benthic data for the North Sea, a regional sea that has been subjected to multiple human impacts for at least several hundred years. Each dataset has its limitations, but by their use together some issues emerge. Wider community shifts were observed in the shorter term and a number of extirpations at the scale of the North Sea were seen over longer time scales. The extirpated taxa share a number of characteristics consistent with an effect of fisheries such as fragile morphology. We must concentrate now on furthering our understanding of the ecological significance of shifts in dominance of particular functional units and protecting those habitats and species most vulnerable to fisheries-driven extirpation.

  19. A Bioeconomic Analysis of Traditional Fisheries in the Red Sea

    Jin, Di; Kite-Powell, Hauke; Hoagland, Porter; Solow, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    &P) estimation procedure suggest that the aggregate traditional fisheries have been overfished since the early 1990s. The estimated stock size in recent years is as low as 6,400 MT, while the estimated stock size associated with the maximum economic yield (MEY

  20. Impact of 21st century climate change on the Baltic Sea fish community and fisheries

    MacKenzie, Brian; Gislason, Henrik; Möllmann, C.

    2007-01-01

    reviewed. We then use recent regional - scale climate - ocean modelling results to consider how climate change during this century will affect the fish community of the Baltic and fisheries management. Expected climate changes in northern Europe will likely affect both the temperature and salinity...... some of the uncertainties and complexities associated with forecasting how fish populations, communities and industries dependent on an estuarine ecosystem might respond to future climate change.......The Baltic Sea is a large brackish semienclosed sea whose species-poor fish community supports important commercial and recreational fisheries. Both the fish species and the fisheries are strongly affected by climate variations. These climatic effects and the underlying mechanisms are briefly...

  1. AFSC/REFM: Beaufort Sea Marine Fish Survey, Beaufort Sea, Alaska, August 2008, Fisheries Interaction Team

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska Fisheries Science Center's Status of Stocks and Multispecies Assessment (SSMA) Programs Fishery Interaction Team (FIT) conducted a fish survey in the...

  2. Trophic Interactions in the Baltic Sea: Predation on cod eggs by clupeids

    Neumann, Viola

    datasets on stomach contents of sprat and herring, ambient hydrographic conditions, ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance as well as predator distribution and abundance from hydroacoustic data for the 1990s and 2004-2008. Changes in diet composition of sprat and herring were investigated, including....... As a next step, predation pressure was quantified separately for egg development stages, both for cod and sprat (Paper III). Furthermore, ichthyoplankton prey selection by clupeids was investigated, with specific focus of predation on different fish egg species and development stages, to improve our...

  3. The representativeness of trade unions and employer associations in the sea fisheries sector

    Grünell, M.

    2012-01-01

    The quantitative relevance of the small sea fisheries sector has declined over the last ten years, both in the number of ships and, more dramatically, of fishermen, although the catch in volume has probably increased. Industrial relations are restricted to the fleet of 14 trawlers, owned by four

  4. Shifts in North Sea forage fish productivity and potential fisheries yield

    Clausen, Lotte W.; Rindorf, Anna; Deurs, van Mikael; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Hintzen, Niels T.

    2018-01-01

    1. Forage fish populations support large scale fisheries and are key components of marine ecosystems across the world, linking secondary production to higher trophic levels. While climate-induced changes in the North Sea zooplankton community are described and documented in literature, the

  5. What attracts Baltic sea grey seals to seal-safe cod pots and when do they attempt to attack fish in the pots?

    Stavenow, Jasmine; Ljungberg, Peter; Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    and camera-equipped cod pots of three designs including three netting types were set out close to a seal haul-out site east of the island of Gotland in the Baltic Sea. The behaviour of visiting seals filmed with underwater cameras was observed and analysed using a generalized linear model (GLM). As well...

  6. Potential bias in estimates of abundance and distribution of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) due to strong winds prevailing prior or during a survey

    Wieland, Kai; Olesen, Hans Jakob; Pedersen, Eva Maria

    2011-01-01

    The impact of strong winds on catches of cod (Gadus morhua) was studied using different fishing methods during small-scale surveys with commercial fishing vessels in the north-eastern central North Sea. Catch per unit effort of a flyshooter and a trawler were considerably lower in the shallower c...

  7. Annual and spatial variability in endo- and ectoparasite infections of North Sea cod (Gadus morhua Linnaeus, 1758) larvae, post-larvae and juveniles

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Skovgaard, Alf

    2014-01-01

    A parasitological investigation was performed on a total of 5380 Atlantic cod larvae, post-larvae and small juveniles sampled from the North Sea during a period of five years. The copepod Caligus elongatus (Von Nordmann, 1832) and the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802) were found ...

  8. 75 FR 6586 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United; Black Sea Bass Fishery; 2010 Black Sea Bass Specifications...

    2010-02-10

    ... Federal eRulemaking Portal http://www.regulations.gov (978) 281-9135. Send the fax to the attention of the... Regional Office, 55 Great Republic Drive, Gloucester, MA 01930. Mark the outside of the envelope... remaining 3,589,000 lb (1,628 mt) is divided 49 percent for the revised commercial fishery quota and 51...

  9. Biogeochemical analysis of ancient Pacific Cod bone suggests Hg bioaccumulation was linked to paleo sea level rise and climate change

    Maribeth S. Murray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Deglaciation at the end of the Pleistocene initiated major changes in ocean circulation and distribution. Within a brief geological time, large areas of land were inundated by sea-level rise and today global sea level is 120 m above its minimum stand during the last glacial maximum. This was the era of modern sea shelf formation; climate change caused coastal plain flooding and created broad continental shelves with innumerable consequences to marine and terrestrial ecosystems and human populations. In Alaska, the Bering Sea nearly doubled in size and stretches of coastline to the south were flooded, with regional variability in the timing and extent of submergence. Here we suggest how past climate change and coastal flooding are linked to mercury bioaccumulation that could have had profound impacts on past human populations and that, under conditions of continued climate warming, may have future impacts. Biogeochemical analysis of total mercury (tHg and 13C/15N ratios in the bone collagen of archaeologically recovered Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus bone shows high levels of tHg during early/mid-Holocene. This pattern cannot be linked to anthropogenic activity or to food web trophic changes, but may result from natural phenomena such as increases in productivity, carbon supply and coastal flooding driven by glacial melting and sea-level rise. The coastal flooding could have led to increased methylation of Hg in newly submerged terrestrial land and vegetation. Methylmercury is bioaccumulated through aquatic food webs with attendant consequences for the health of fish and their consumers, including people. This is the first study of tHg levels in a marine species from the Gulf of Alaska to provide a time series spanning nearly the entire Holocene and we propose that past coastal flooding resulting from climate change had the potential to input significant quantities of Hg into marine food webs and subsequently to human consumers.

  10. 75 FR 17618 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Black Sea Bass Recreational Fishery; Emergency Rule...

    2010-04-07

    ... Analyst, (978) 281-9104. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction Rule NMFS published an emergency rule to... reconsider their previous recommendations regarding the Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) for black sea bass for the 2010 fishing year. The SSC concluded that the ABC for black sea bass could be increased from 2...

  11. New Fisheries-related data from the Mediterranean Sea (November, 2016

    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this fourth Collective Article, with fisheries-related data from the Mediterranean, we present weight-length relationships for eight deep-sea fish species (Brama brama, Conger conger, Etmopterus spinax, Molva macrophthalma, Mora moro, Pagellus bogaraveo, Phycis blennoides from the Eastern Ionian Sea; Scyliorhinus canicula from various locations in the Mediterranean Sea and weight-length relationships and condition factor of five Mugilidae species (Liza aurata, Liza saliens, Liza ramada, Mugil cephalus, Chelon labrosus from a Mediterranean lagoon in the Ionian Sea. Moreover, we present otolith weight, fish length and otolith length relationships of the red mullet (Mullus barbatus in the Aegean and Ionian Sea and otolith weight relationships in European hake (Merluccius merluccius from the Greek Seas.

  12. Spatio-temporal dynamics of cod nursery areas in the Baltic Sea

    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Dewitz, B. von; Lehmann, M.

    2017-01-01

    in the Bornholm Basin and in the Gdansk Deep showed a similar declining trend as the Fulton's K condition factor of demersal 1-group cod, which may confirm the importance of oxygen-dependent habitat availability and its effect on density dependence as a process relevant for recruitment success....... to nursery grounds of neighboring subdivisions. Juveniles which hatched in the Bornholm Basin were most widely dispersed and showed the highest settlement probability, while the second highest settlement probability and horizontal dispersal was observed for juveniles originating from the Gdansk Deep....... In a long-term perspective, wind-driven transport of larvae/juveniles positively affected the settlement success predominately in the Bornholm Basin and in the Bay of Gdansk. The Bornholm Basin has the potential to contribute on average 54% and the Bay of Gdansk 11% to the production of juveniles...

  13. AFSC FIT Pacific cod tagging data from the Bering Sea, 2002-2006

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from opportunistic tagging studies in the southest Bering Sea 2002-2003. Individually numbered loop spaghetti tags released during research cruises; all...

  14. Modelling the beginning and end of a planktonic life stage — the distribution of cod eggs and settled juveniles in the North Sea

    Höffle, Hannes; Munk, Peter

    2012-01-01

    distribution of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Findings indicated that in the egg stage, the environment is more important for the probability of occurrence, while abundance is more under the control of spatial dependency. Modelling......The North Sea cod stock is close to the southern limit of the species’ range. Therefore, it might be vulnerable to future climate change. Direct as well as indirect effects of climate forcing may have the greatest effects on early life stages. Here we present a study on the distribution of cod...

  15. 78 FR 49200 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    2013-08-13

    ... most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of Aleutian Islands... industry as to the final Bering Sea subarea pollock allocations. Immediate notification is necessary to allow for the orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery; allow the industry to plan for...

  16. 78 FR 5143 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    2013-01-24

    ... a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of AI pollock. Since the pollock fishery opens January 20, 2013, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the final Bering Sea subarea... operation of this fishery; allow the industry to plan for the fishing season and avoid potential disruption...

  17. Elasmobranch fisheries in the Arabian Seas Region: Characteristics, trade and management

    Jabado, Rima W

    2017-05-23

    The Arabian Seas Region plays an important role in the global landings and trade of sharks and rays. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Yemen, two countries with stark socio-economic differences, serve as major regional trade hubs for shark and ray products and four countries (Oman, Pakistan, UAE and Yemen) supply nearly 11% of dried fin exports to Hong Kong. Yet, little information is available on the characteristics of this trade and the fisheries contributing to it. Here, we review the fisheries characteristics, trade, utilization and distribution chain of sharks and rays in 15 countries of the Arabian Seas Region based on published and grey literature, landing surveys, field observations and interviews with fishermen and traders. Although regional shark fisheries remain mostly artisanal, reported shark and ray landings represent 28% of the regional total fish production, reaching 56,074 mt in 2012 (7.3% of total world catches), with Iran, Oman, Pakistan and Yemen ranking as the primary catchers. Utilization and distribution patterns are complex, vary between landing sites and countries, and remain unmonitored. Based on widespread over-exploitation of most teleost fisheries, current exploitation levels for most sharks and rays are potentially unsustainable. The situation is exacerbated by limited research and political will to support policy development, the incomplete nature of fisheries data, as well as insufficient regulations and enforcement. A better understanding of shark and ray fisheries will be key for regulating trade, promoting conservation and developing management initiatives to secure food security, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in the region.

  18. Multi-decadal responses of a cod (Gadus morhua) population to human-induced trophic changes, fishing, and climate

    Eero, Margit; MacKenzie, Brian; Köster, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    to changes in fish populations can be analyzed with empirical data. In this study we investigate how climate variability and multiple human impacts (fishing, marine mammal hunting, eutrophication) have affected multi-decadal scale dynamics of cod in the Baltic Sea during the 20th century.We document...... significant climate-driven variations in cod recruitment production at multi-annual timescales, which had major impacts on population dynamics and the yields to commercial fisheries. We also quantify the roles of marine mammal predation, eutrophication, and exploitation on the development of the cod...

  19. Viability and Management Targets of Mediterranean Demersal Fisheries: The Case of the Aegean Sea.

    George Tserpes

    Full Text Available Management of the Mediterranean demersal stocks has proven challenging mainly due to the multi-species character of the fisheries. In the present work, we focus on the multi-species demersal fisheries of the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean aiming to study the effects of different management measures on the main commercial stocks, as well as to explore the economic viability of the fisheries depending upon these resources, by means of simulated projections. Utilizing the limited available data, our results demonstrated that, under the current exploitation pattern, the economic viability of the fleets is threatened, particularly if fuel prices increase. Additionally, the biological targets set for the most exploited species, such as hake, will not be met under the current management regime. The projections also showed that the only management scenario under which both resource sustainability and economic viability of the fisheries are ensured is the decrease of fleet capacity in terms of vessel numbers. In this case, however, measures to support the fisheries-dependent communities need to be implemented to prevent the collapse of local economies due to employment decrease. Scenarios assuming selectivity improvements would be also beneficial for the stocks but they showed low economic performance and their application would threaten the viability of the fleets, particularly that of the trawlers.

  20. 75 FR 36559 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 21

    2010-06-28

    ... of the fishing year (FY). Framework 21 specifies measures only for FY 2010. Amendment 15 to the FMP... trips in the Elephant Trunk Access Area (ETAA), and one trip in the Delmarva Access Area (Delmarva). A... through October 31 into other areas and times of year when sea turtle interactions are less likely. This...

  1. Stock-based vs. fleet-based evaluation of the multi-annual management plan for the cod stocks in the Baltic Sea

    Bastardie, Francois; Vinther, Morten; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    parameters are assumed constant. For the Eastern Baltic stock, additional sources of uncertainties from fishery adaptation to the plan are tested using a fleet-based and spatially explicit version of the model which leads to higher reductions in F and no significant change in management robustness......This study evaluated the EU 2008 multi-annual plan for Baltic cod stock recovery. The plan combines harvest control rules that set TACs with reductions in direct effort (E) and fishing mortality (F). Performance and robustness of the plan are tested with a management strategy evaluation model (MSE...

  2. On rational usage of catches during the trap fishery in the Barents Sea

    Sokolov K. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the search for resources to increase the fullness and complexity of using commercial catches of the red king crab and snow crab in the Barents Sea. The causes of the by-catches during the new trap fishery for commercial crustaceans in the Barents Sea have been analyzed and discards from the catches have been estimated. The main portion of discards is crab processing wastes, including the cephalothorax and internal organs and tissues placed in. According to estimations in 2006–2015 during the Russian trap fishery of red king crab and snow crab, the annual weight of discards ranged from 1.3 to 4.6 thou. t. These years about 2.8 thou. t of biological materials have been thrown back at sea annually. About 85 % of the total mass of wastes in 2006–2015 has been the red king crabs body parts. Due to the high abundance and biomass of the red king crab stock observed in the recent years accompanied by an increase of the snow crab commercial stock, some increase in the total mass of discards of two crabs can be expected, as well as some increase in the portion of discards from snow crab fishery. Current circumstances preventing the full processing of crabs catches are the technical limitations of fishing vessels, as well as the absence of onshore enterprises capable for processing waste from crab fishery. The full use of catches of the red king crab and the snow crab in the Barents Sea could provide the raw materials for production of food products, as well as a wide range of pharmaceuticals for humans and animals.

  3. The discard ban and its impact on the MSY objective on fisheries-the North Sea

    Ulrich, Clara

    2016-01-01

    North Sea fisheries are characterised by numerous biological and technical interactions, which create difficulties in identifying MSY targets and achieving those for all stocks simultaneously. The landing obligation may reinforce these issues, as ‘choke’ effects might be triggered by the least...... productive stocks. A flexible management approach can help achieve the multiple objectives, but this requires trade-offs to be made. The ecological benefits of reducing fishing mortality are likely larger than those from the landing obligation itself...

  4. Comparative technical aspects of the Nephrops norvegicus (L. fishery in the northern Mediterranean Sea

    Francesc Sarda

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of the technical characteristics of the Norway lobster fishery in the Mediterranean Sea is presented. The different trawl vessels, trawl gears, trawling manoeuvres, and status of the statistics compiled by the administrations are described. The main conclusions are that catchability has increased with technological advances, official landings statistics are flawed in most of the Mediterranean, and fishing methods differed from country to country.

  5. Social-Ecological Scale Mismatches and the Collapse of the Sea Urchin Fishery in Maine, USA

    Teresa R. Johnson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Scale mismatches result in incomplete or ambiguous feedback that impairs the ability to learn and adapt and, ultimately, to sustain natural resources. Our aim is to examine the sea urchin fishery in Maine, USA to better understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that are important for the design of institutions that might be able to sustain the resource. During the late 1980s and 1990s, the Maine sea urchin fishery was a classic gold rush fishery. In the beginning, the fishery was characterized by an abundant resource with little to no harvesting activity, followed by a period of rapid increase in landings and effort that led to a subsequent and persistent decline in the sea urchin population and a significant reduction in effort. We conducted semistructured interviews with scientists and experienced fishermen to understand the multiscale, social, and biophysical conditions that influence fishermen's harvesting strategies, and the implications of this for the design of institutions for successful resource management. The current co-management system includes an advisory body made up of industry members and scientists it also includes limited entry, and additional input control mechanisms. Many of these measures are implemented at a very broad scale; however, we find that the ecological conditions relevant to the sustainable processes occur at the scale of individual fishing sites or ledges, which is a much finer scale than current management. Therefore, the co-management system maintains an open access system and leaves few incentives for the development of sustainable harvesting strategies among fishermen. The clear suggestion is that the appropriate management system would be one that directly addresses the fine scale ecological and social dynamics within this fishery and gives fishermen property rights over individual ledges (for example, leases. After having briefly reviewed experiences in Canada and Chile, we found that

  6. Fishery

    Muhammad Abu Bakar Siddik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to establish the baseline data on fishery biology of Sillaginopsis panijus which is very endemic in the southern coastal waters of Bangladesh. Altogether 300 individuals of S. panijus were sampled from five catchment areas within the Ganges delta in which males represent 46% and females 54% of the total sampled population. The overall sex ratio in the populations agrees with the expected value of 1:1 in normal population. The values of allometric coefficient (b of the LWRs indicated positive allometric growth (b > 3 in female and combined sexes, while male showed a negative allometric growth (b 0.900. The mean values of CFs for males were higher than those of females in all different length classes. The study would expedite future studies on population assessment and sustainable conservation of the fish species along the southern coastal region of Bangladesh.

  7. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-08-04

    ... the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program... program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands crab fisheries managed under the BSAI Crab Rationalization... Center Web site at http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/ . For further information on the Crab Rationalization...

  8. What are the needs for sufficient protection of fisheries

    Misund, Ole Arve

    2006-01-01

    The presentation discusses various aspects of the fisheries in the Northern hemisphere and focuses on key fish species such as cod, haddock, herring and whiting particularly in the North Sea, North Atlantic and the Barents Sea. Effects of seismic exploration, pollution from offshore oil production and oil spills both in short and long term, are of particular interest. Various indicators are measured and the biological effects of alkylated phenols are discussed (tk)

  9. 76 FR 80782 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Proposed...

    2011-12-27

    ... Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA), and the Supplemental IRFA prepared for this action may be... OFLs, ABCs and TACs for the Bering Sea subarea and the Aleutian Island districts. This split is... levels (OFL), acceptable biological catches (ABC), and total allowable catches (TAC) for Pacific cod on...

  10. Cod reproductive ecology

    Røjbek, Maria

    In recent decades, Baltic cod has experienced a period of low recruitment. In the same period the pelagic Baltic Sea ecosystem experienced a regime shift, due to hydrographic changes, affecting all trophic levels. The rationale for the thesis is built on the hypothesis that the regime shift has r...

  11. Assessment of blue mussel Mytilus edulis fisheries and waterbird shellfish-predator management in the Danish Wadden Sea

    Laursen, Karsten; Kristensen, Per Sand; Clausen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    biomass and mussel bed areas in zones closed to fishery, (ii) decrease in eiders Somateria mollissima numbers and increase or stable numbers for oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus and herring gull Larus argentatus and (iii) that energy estimations based on ecological food requirements for the mussel-eating......We assessed the blue mussel Mytilus edulis fishery management scheme introduced in 1994 in the Danish Wadden Sea that regulate fishing vessels, fishery quota, set-aside for mussel-eating birds and established zones closed to mussel fishery. The results showed (i) a reduction in the blue mussel......, it is recommended to revise the present blue mussel management scheme in the Danish Wadden Sea, to continue and improve mussel stock and bird surveys, and to consider novel studies of the mussel-eating birds’ energetics for improved set-aside estimates and future assessments....

  12. The Sea Around Us Project: documenting and communicating global fisheries impacts on marine ecosystems.

    Pauly, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    The Sea Around Us Project, initiated by the Pew Charitable Trusts in Philadelphia, PA, and located at the Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, started in mid 1999. Its goal was (and still is) to investigate the impact of fisheries on marine ecosystems and to propose policies to mitigate these impacts. Although conceived as a global activity, the project first emphasized the data-rich North Atlantic as a test bed for developing its approaches, which rely on mapping of catch data and indicators of ecosystem health derived from the analysis of long catch time series data. Initial achievements included mapping the decline, throughout the North Atlantic basin, of high-trophic level fishes from 1900 to the present and the presentation of compelling evidence of change in the functioning of the North Atlantic ecosystems, summarized in a 2003 book. The Central and South Atlantic were the next basins to be tackled, with emphasis on the distant-water fleet off West Africa, culminating in a major conference in Dakar, Senegal, in 2002. The project then emphasized the North Pacific, Antarctica, and marine mammals and the multiplicity of tropical Indo-Pacific fisheries before it turned completely global, with all our major analyses and reports (e.g., on the interactions between marine mammals and fisheries, on fuel consumption by fleets, on the catches of small-scale fisheries, on subsidies to fisheries) being based on global studies. Broadly, the work of the project is aimed at a reappraisal of fisheries, from the benign activity that many interested people still perceive them to be, to a realization that they have become the driver for massive loss of biodiversity in the ocean. Moreover, the emphasis on global estimates (rather than local estimates of dubious generality) has allowed the project to contribute to various global initiatives (e.g., developing the Marine Trophic Index for the Convention on Biological Diversity, quantifying marine

  13. Potential effects of sea-level rise on the depth to saturated sediments of the Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses on Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    Walter, Donald A.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.

    2016-05-25

    In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Association to Preserve Cape Cod, the Cape Cod Commission, and the Massachusetts Environmental Trust, began an evaluation of the potential effects of sea-level rise on water table altitudes and depths to water on central and western Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Increases in atmospheric and oceanic temperatures arising, in part, from the release of greenhouse gases likely will result in higher sea levels globally. Increasing water table altitudes in shallow, unconfined coastal aquifer systems could adversely affect infrastructure—roads, utilities, basements, and septic systems—particularly in low-lying urbanized areas. The Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses on Cape Cod are the largest and most populous of the six flow lenses that comprise the region’s aquifer system, the Cape Cod glacial aquifer. The potential effects of sea-level rise on water table altitude and depths to water were evaluated by use of numerical models of the region. The Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses have a number of large surface water drainages that receive a substantial amount of groundwater discharge, 47 and 29 percent of the total, respectively. The median increase in the simulated water table altitude following a 6-foot sea-level rise across both flow lenses was 2.11 feet, or 35 percent when expressed as a percentage of the total sea-level rise. The response is nearly the same as the sea-level rise (6 feet) in some coastal areas and less than 0.1 foot near some large inland streams. Median water table responses differ substantially between the Sagamore and Monomoy flow lenses—at 29 and 49 percent, respectively—because larger surface water discharge on the Sagamore flow lens results in increased dampening of the water table response than in the Monomoy flow lens. Surface waters dampen water table altitude increases because streams are fixed-altitude boundaries that cause hydraulic gradients and streamflow to increase as sea

  14. Historical ecology provides new insights for ecosystem management: Eastern Baltic cod case study

    MacKenzie, Brian; Ojaveer, Henn; Eero, Margit

    2011-01-01

    A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass and recru......A recent historical marine ecological case study (cod in the eastern Baltic Sea) is used to show how long-term data and knowledge of fluctuations can contribute to revisions of fishery management policy. The case study first developed new longer analytical time series of spawner biomass...... catch data from the late 1500s to early 1600s also contributed new perspectives to cod population dynamics under alternative ecosystem forcings. These new perspectives have contributed, and will likely continue to contribute to new management policies (e.g., revision of fishery management reference...... points), which should lead to higher sustainability of the population and fishery yields, and improved overall ecosystem health. These perspectives will likely continue to provide baseline information as ICES and the EU develop new policies based on maximum sustainable yield concepts....

  15. Bell-shaped size selection in a bottom trawl: A case study for Nephrops directed fishery with reduced catches of cod

    Lövgren, Johan; Herrmann, Bent; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    and size selectivity have motivated the development of selective systems in trawl fisheries that utilize more than one selective device simultaneously. An example can be found in the Swedish demersal trawl fishery targeting Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), which simultaneously aims at avoiding catches...

  16. Evaluating the promise and pitfalls of a potential climate change-tolerant sea urchin fishery in southern California.

    Sato, Kirk N; Powell, Jackson; Rudie, Dave; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-05-01

    Marine fishery stakeholders are beginning to consider and implement adaptation strategies in the face of growing consumer demand and potential deleterious climate change impacts such as ocean warming, ocean acidification, and deoxygenation. This study investigates the potential for development of a novel climate change - tolerant sea urchin fishery in southern California based on Strongylocentrotus fragilis (pink sea urchin), a deep-sea species whose peak density was found to coincide with a current trap-based spot prawn fishery ( Pandalus platyceros ) in the 200-300-m depth range. Here we outline potential criteria for a climate change - tolerant fishery by examining the distribution, life-history attributes, and marketable qualities of S. fragilis in southern California. We provide evidence of seasonality of gonad production and demonstrate that peak gonad production occurs in the winter season. S. fragilis likely spawns in the spring season as evidenced by consistent minimum gonad indices in the spring/summer seasons across 4 years of sampling (2012-2016). The resiliency of S. fragilis to predicted future increases in acidity and decreases in oxygen was supported by high species abundance, albeit reduced relative growth rate estimates at water depths (485-510 m) subject to low oxygen (11.7-16.9 µmol kg -1 ) and pH Total (climate-tolerant fishery development in an attempt to inform future urchin fishery stakeholders.

  17. Nephrops norvegicus (L.: Comparative biology and fishery in the Mediterranean Sea. Introduction, conclusions and recommendations

    Francesc Sardà

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The project, financed by the Directorate General XIV of the EC, has undertaken a comparative study on the biology and fisheries techniques of the Norway lobster in Mediterranean member states and adjoining Atlantic areas. The ultimate goal of the project has been to assess the conditions for a global regulation in the area and determine possible differences among exploited stocks. The areas selected are characterised by their importance in Norway lobster catch. The overall duration of the project has been three years. Sampling was concentrated in the first two years. Data analysis was conducted during the second and third years (1993-1995. The countries (areas involved in the study, together with their target areas, were: Portugal (south coast of Algarve, Spain (Alboran and Catalan Seas, Italy (Ligurian, Tyrrhenian and Adriatic Seas and Greece (Gulf of Euboikos. In order to make results perfectly comparable, each scientific subject has been developed by a specialised team using a unified and standardised methodology. From the biological standpoint, Norway lobster growth, reproduction, moult and feeding have been compared. Special studies on distribution and genetics have been also conducted. In the fisheries context, a comparison of fishing techniques has been undertaken. The fisheries studies have been complemented with reconstruction of virgin populations, comparison of yield per recruit, sensitivity analysis and transition analysis. Selectivity issues have been object of specific analyses. As a result of these studies, it is evident that Norway lobster populations in the Mediterranean follow a common life-cycle model. The differences among areas reported in this project respond to environmental variation and differential fishing pressure in each area. All populations are exploited near its carrying limit, although overexploitation is unlikely at this stage. However we identified varying levels of exploitation according to study areas: The

  18. Robustness of egg production methods as a fishery independent alternative to assess the Eastern Baltic cod stock (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    Kraus, Gerd; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Voss, Rüdiger

    2012-01-01

    potential (SRP). Eastern Baltic cod (Gad us morhua callarias L) has severely declined throughout the 2nd half of the 1980s and 1st half of the 1990s due to climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and high fishing intensity. Since 2007 the stock is managed under a long-term management plan and showed...... signs of recovery in most recent years. Since 1986. egg surveys have been carried! out regularly in the Bornholm Basin, the most important spawning area of Eastern Baltic cod since mid-1980s. In the present paper the robustness of EPM towards simplification of spawning parameters and toward; reduction...... of the number of egg surveys is tested applying three different methods requiring different numbers of egg surveys. We applied the annual egg production method (AEPM) requiring full egg survey coverage of the spawning season to estimate cod abundances in the Bornholm Basin. In addition, the daily fecundity...

  19. Fish, fishing, and pollutant reduction in the Baltic Sea

    MacKenzie, Brian; Almesjö, L.; Hansson, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s, and conc......The Baltic Sea is heavily polluted yet supports major Commercial fisheries for cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Emissions of persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT, were high during the 1960s and 1970s...

  20. Genomics of Arctic cod

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sage, George K.; Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Gravley, Megan C.; Menning, Damian; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    The Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) is an abundant marine fish that plays a vital role in the marine food web. To better understand the population genetic structure and the role of natural selection acting on the maternally-inherited mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), a molecule often associated with adaptations to temperature, we analyzed genetic data collected from 11 biparentally-inherited nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and nucleotide sequence data from from the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cytochrome b (cytb) gene and, for a subset of individuals, the entire mitogenome. In addition, due to potential of species misidentification with morphologically similar Polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis), we used ddRAD-Seq data to determine the level of divergence between species and identify species-specific markers. Based on the findings presented here, Arctic cod across the Pacific Arctic (Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas) comprise a single panmictic population with high genetic diversity compared to other gadids. High genetic diversity was indicated across all 13 protein-coding genes in the mitogenome. In addition, we found moderate levels of genetic diversity in the nuclear microsatellite loci, with highest diversity found in the Chukchi Sea. Our analyses of markers from both marker classes (nuclear microsatellite fragment data and mtDNA cytb sequence data) failed to uncover a signal of microgeographic genetic structure within Arctic cod across the three regions, within the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, or between near-shore or offshore habitats. Further, data from a subset of mitogenomes revealed no genetic differentiation between Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas populations for Arctic cod, Saffron cod (Eleginus gracilis), or Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus). However, we uncovered significant differences in the distribution of microsatellite alleles between the southern Chukchi and central and eastern Beaufort Sea samples of Arctic cod. Finally, using ddRAD-Seq data, we

  1. Biomarker candidate discovery in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) continuously exposed to North Sea produced water from egg to fry

    Bohne-Kjersem, Anneli; Bache, Nicolai; Meier, Sonnich

    2010-01-01

    were able to compare the induced changes by PW to the mode of action of oestrogens. Changes in the proteome in response to exposure in whole cod fry (approximately 80 days post-hatching, dph) were detected by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and image analysis and identified by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass...... spectrometry, using a newly developed cod EST database and the NCBI database. Many of the protein changes occurred at low levels (0.01% and 0.1% PW) of exposure, indicating putative biological responses at lower levels than previously detected. Using discriminant analysis, we identified a set of protein...... changes that may be useful as biomarker candidates of produced water (PW) and oestradiol exposure in Atlantic cod fry. The biomarker candidates discovered in this study may, following validation, prove effective as diagnostic tools in monitoring exposure and effects of discharges from the petroleum...

  2. Temporal trends in age and size at maturation of four North Sea gadid populations: cod, haddock, whiting, and Norway pout

    Marty, Lise; Rochet, Marie-Joëlle; Ernande, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    , phenotypic plasticity, and evolution to these trends were assessed. First, maturation trends were extricated from demographic effects and growth-dependent plasticity by estimating probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). PMRN midpoints have significantly shifted downwards at most ages for cod......, haddock, and whiting, but not for Norway pout. Second, increased temperature and food abundance, loosened trophic competition, and relaxed social pressure may also trigger growth-independent plasticity in maturation. Principal component regression of PMRN midpoints on annual estimates of relevant...... environmental variables exhibiting a temporal trend suggest that, despite some evidence of environmental effects, PMRN trends were mostly independent of growth-independent plasticity in haddock, whiting, and male cod, but not in female cod. According to these findings, evolution of maturation, potentially...

  3. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)—Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Nahrgang, J.; Brooks, S.J.; Evenset, A.; Camus, L.; Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J.; Lukina, J.; Frantzen, M.; Giarratano, E.; Renaud, P.E.

    2013-01-01

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  4. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Nahrgang, J., E-mail: jasmine.m.nahrgang@uit.no [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Brooks, S.J. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Lukina, J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University of Tromso, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Department of Arctic and Marine Biosciences, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Giarratano, E. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT-CONICET), AR-9120 Puerto Madryn (Argentina); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2013-02-15

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  5. Ecological forecasting under climate change: the case of Baltic cod

    Lindegren, Martin; Möllmann, Christian; Nielsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Good decision making for fisheries and marine ecosystems requires a capacity to anticipate the consequences of management under different scenarios of climate change. The necessary ecological forecasting calls for ecosystem-based models capable of integrating multiple drivers across trophic levels...... and properly including uncertainty. The methodology presented here assesses the combined impacts of climate and fishing on marine food-web dynamics and provides estimates of the confidence envelope of the forecasts. It is applied to cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea, which is vulnerable to climate......-related decline in salinity owing to both direct and indirect effects (i.e. through species interactions) on early-life survival. A stochastic food web-model driven by regional climate scenarios is used to produce quantitative forecasts of cod dynamics in the twenty-first century. The forecasts show how...

  6. Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation.

    Svedäng, Henrik; Hornborg, Sara

    2017-08-01

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

  7. Fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A.

    Adimey, Nicole M; Hudak, Christine A; Powell, Jessica R; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Foley, Allen; Farmer, Nicholas A; White, Linda; Minch, Karrie

    2014-04-15

    Documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. This study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus truncatus), Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green turtle (Chelonia mydas), leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) stranding in Florida waters during 1997-2009. Fishery gear interactions for all species combined were 75.3% hook and line, 18.2% trap pot gear, 4.8% fishing nets, and 1.7% in multiple gears. Total reported fishery gear cases increased over time for dolphins (pgear interaction hotspots were identified and generalized linear regression modeling was conducted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. 77 FR 59852 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2012-10-01

    ... made by this final rule to the management of the Amendment 80 fleet and an explanation of any... Aleutian Islands Management Area; Amendment 97 ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS publishes regulations to implement Amendment 97 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  9. 77 FR 62482 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2012-10-15

    ... Aleutian Islands Management Area; Groundfish Retention Standard AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... standard (GRS) program in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area by removing certain... the Amendment 80 fleet. This action is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the Magnuson...

  10. 78 FR 12627 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-02-25

    ... Aleutian Islands Management Area; Groundfish Retention Standard AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area (BSAI). This final rule removes certain regulatory... monitoring requirements for the Amendment 80 fleet and establishes a new requirement for Amendment 80...

  11. 76 FR 35772 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-06-20

    ... Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Tanner Crabs. Amendment 34 amends the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program to... for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site at http...

  12. 76 FR 35781 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-06-20

    ... Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Amendment 37 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Tanner Crabs (FMP). This action amends the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by... Assessment prepared for the Crab Rationalization Program are available from the NMFS Alaska Region Web site...

  13. 78 FR 28523 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2013-05-15

    ...; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... Rationalization Program (CR Program) by establishing a process whereby holders of regionally designated individual... scope of this action. Comment 9: One comment generally supported the Crab Rationalization Program...

  14. The co-production of power and knowledge around the mussel fisheries transition in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    van der Molen, Franke; Puente Rodriguez, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Governance practices are places where knowledge and power interconnect. In this paper, the stabilization of a governance practice concerning mussel fisheries in the Dutch Wadden Sea is described and analyzed in terms of the co-production of knowledge and power. In this governance practice,

  15. 76 FR 17360 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2011-03-29

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA322 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... allowable catch of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary to allow... subpart H of 50 CFR part 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2011 initial total allowable catch (ITAC) of octopus...

  16. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    2011-09-07

    .... 101126521-0640-02] RIN 0648-XA683 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering... retention of octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch of octopus in the BSAI has been reached. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  17. 78 FR 36122 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2013-06-17

    ... the harvesting and processing sectors'' and to monitor the ``economic stability for harvesters.... 120806311-3530-02] RIN 0648-BC25 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and... Tanner Crabs (FMP). These regulations revise the annual economic data reports (EDRs) currently required...

  18. 76 FR 59924 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2011-09-28

    .... 101126521-0640-2] RIN 0648-XA733 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering... prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES...

  19. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    2013-09-17

    .... 121018563-3418-02] RIN 0648-XC872 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering... prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area (BSAI). This action is necessary because the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of sharks in the BSAI has been reached. DATES...

  20. 75 FR 51185 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock Sole in the Bering Sea...

    2010-08-19

    ... 600 and 50 CFR part 679. The 2010 rock sole TAC specified for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands ICA... Amendment 80 Allocations of The Aleutian Islands Pacific Ocean Perch, And BSAI Flathead Sole, Rock Sole, And.... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XY29 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Rock...

  1. The globalization of naval provisioning: ancient DNA and stable isotope analyses of stored cod from the wreck of the Mary Rose, AD 1545

    Hutchinson, William F.; Culling, Mark; Orton, David C.; Hänfling, Bernd; Lawson Handley, Lori; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; O'Connell, Tamsin C.; Richards, Michael P.; Barrett, James H.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of ancient DNA (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope evidence suggests that stored cod provisions recovered from the wreck of the Tudor warship Mary Rose, which sank in the Solent, southern England, in 1545, had been caught in northern and transatlantic waters such as the northern North Sea and the fishing grounds of Iceland and Newfoundland. This discovery, underpinned by control data from archaeological samples of cod bones from potential source regions, illuminates the role of naval provisioning in the early development of extensive sea fisheries, with their long-term economic and ecological impacts. PMID:26473047

  2. The globalization of naval provisioning: ancient DNA and stable isotope analyses of stored cod from the wreck of the Mary Rose, AD 1545.

    Hutchinson, William F; Culling, Mark; Orton, David C; Hänfling, Bernd; Lawson Handley, Lori; Hamilton-Dyer, Sheila; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Richards, Michael P; Barrett, James H

    2015-09-01

    A comparison of ancient DNA (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope evidence suggests that stored cod provisions recovered from the wreck of the Tudor warship Mary Rose, which sank in the Solent, southern England, in 1545, had been caught in northern and transatlantic waters such as the northern North Sea and the fishing grounds of Iceland and Newfoundland. This discovery, underpinned by control data from archaeological samples of cod bones from potential source regions, illuminates the role of naval provisioning in the early development of extensive sea fisheries, with their long-term economic and ecological impacts.

  3. A comparison of three indices of fishing power on some demersal fisheries of the North Sea

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Korsbrekke, K.

    2002-01-01

    mortality estimates from XSA (eXtended Survivors Analysis) are accurate. IFP2 is derived from the GLM analysis of the difference between the Log-CPUE of a vessel and the average Log-CPUE of a set of reference vessels, which are chosen with regards to the stability of their Log-CPUE over time. IFP3...... is derived from the GLM analysis of the Log-CPUE of a vessel relative to some external survey abundance index. Particular attention is paid to the horsepower and year effects in IFP1, IFP2, and IFP3. This methodology is applied to the Danish, Dutch, English and Norwegian demersal fisheries of the North Sea...

  4. Reconciling single-species TACs in the North Sea demersal fisheries using the Fcube mixed-fisheries advice framework

    Ulrich, Clara; Reeves, Stuart A.; Vermard, Youen

    2011-01-01

    be exhausted before the TAC of another, leading to catches of valuable fish that cannot be landed legally. This important issue is, however, usually not quantified and not accounted for in traditional management advice. A simple approach using traditional catch and effort information was developed, estimating...... catch potentials for distinct fleets (groups of vessels) and métiers (type of activity), and hence quantifying the risks of over- and underquota utilization for the various stocks. This method, named Fcube (Fleet and Fisheries Forecast), was applied successfully to international demersal fisheries...... other stocks and corresponding effort reductions are applied....

  5. Reconstructing historical stock development of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the eastern Baltic Sea before the beginning of intensive exploitation

    Eero, Margit; Köster, Fritz; MacKenzie, Brian

    2008-01-01

    mortality before the 1940s was below 0.2, but reached moderate levels during the Second World War. The stock size before the war may be considered as a reference level of biomass at low fishing impact, providing important information for the management of fisheries and the Baltic ecosystem....

  6. 75 FR 81498 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    2010-12-28

    ..., Gloucester, MA 01930-2298. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michael Ruccio, Fishery Policy Analyst, (978) 281... stock was declared rebuilt in 2009; however, the SSC provided a clear rationale for its 2011 ABC... recommending ABC if the stock status remains robust, thereby moving landing levels to near or at MSY. [[Page...

  7. Impact of deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) on non-commercial fish species off West Greenland

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Bastardie, Francois; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, a deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has been developing gradually in West Greenland. Deep-sea fish species are generally long-lived and characterized by late age of maturity, low fecundity, and slow growth, features that probably cause low....... During the period 1988–2011, population abundance and size composition changed as catch and effort in the Greenland halibut fishery increased. Two species showed a significant decrease in abundance, and four populations showed a significant reduction in mean weight of individuals (p , 0.05). Correlation...... analyses show that most of the observed trends in abundance are probably not related to increasing fishing effort for Greenland halibut. The analysis did, however, show that most of the observed decreases in mean weight were significantly correlated with fishing effort during the 24-year period...

  8. Assessment of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum, 1792 fishery in the eastern Mediterranean basin (North Aegean Sea

    K. ANTONAKAKIS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the biometric characteristics of the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus catches and assess the current status of sardine stock in North Aegean Sea based on population characteristics and abundance trends. The stock was dominated by age groups 1 and 2, not exceeding age group 4. The sardine stock in this area was assessed through an Integrated Catch-at-Age model which implements a separable Virtual Population Analysis on catch at age data with weighted tuning indices. Sardine landings data derived from the commercial purse seine fishery over the period 2000-2008 were combined with the age structure of the stock as resulted from fisheries independent acoustic surveys. Sensitivity analysis of the impact of natural mortality values on stock assessment results was applied. Additionally forecast of the sardine population parameters and catches under different exploitation scenarios was implemented in a medium term basis. Results indicated that the North Aegean Sea sardine stock is considered fully exploited with the fishery operating close but over the empirical exploitation level for sustainability. Finally, the status of the sardine stock in N. Aegean Sea is discussed in relation to the sardine stocks from the western and the central Mediterranean basin.

  9. Fishery-independent surface abundance and density estimates of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from aerial surveys in the Central Mediterranean Sea

    Lauriano, Giancarlo; Pierantonio, Nino; Kell, Laurence; Cañadas, Ana; Donovan, Gregory; Panigada, Simone

    2017-07-01

    Fishery-independent surface density and abundance estimates for the swordfish were obtained through aerial surveys carried out over a large portion of the Central Mediterranean, implementing distance sampling methodologies. Both design- and model-based abundance and density showed an uneven occurrence of the species throughout the study area, with clusters of higher density occurring near converging fronts, strong thermoclines and/or underwater features. The surface abundance was estimated for the Pelagos Sanctuary for Mediterranean Marine Mammals in the summer of 2009 (n=1152; 95%CI=669.0-1981.0; %CV=27.64), the Sea of Sardinia, the Pelagos Sanctuary and the Central Tyrrhenian Sea for the summer of 2010 (n=3401; 95%CI=2067.0-5596.0; %CV=25.51), and for the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea during the winter months of 2010-2011 (n=1228; 95%CI=578-2605; %CV=38.59). The Mediterranean swordfish stock deserves special attention in light of the heavy fishing pressures. Furthermore, the unreliability of fishery-related data has, to date, hampered our ability to effectively inform long-term conservation in the Mediterranean Region. Considering that the European countries have committed to protect the resources and all the marine-related economic and social dynamics upon which they depend, the information presented here constitute useful data towards the international legal requirements under the Marine Strategy Framework Directory, the Common Fisheries Policy, the Habitats and Species Directive and the Directive on Maritime Spatial Planning, among the others.

  10. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) – Opinion by written procedure – Review of scientific advice for 2013- part I – Advice on stocks in the Baltic Sea

    The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission......The scientific advice on the stocks and fisheries in the Baltic Sea in 2013 evaluated and endorsed by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) by written procedure in June 2012 on a request by the European Commission...

  11. Fish and fishery historical data since the 19th century in the Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean

    Fortibuoni, Tomaso; Libralato, Simone; Arneri, Enrico; Giovanardi, Otello; Solidoro, Cosimo; Raicevich, Saša

    2017-09-01

    Historic data on biodiversity provide the context for present observations and allow studying long-term changes in marine populations. Here we present multiple datasets on fish and fisheries of the Adriatic Sea covering the last two centuries encompassing from qualitative observations to standardised scientific monitoring. The datasets consist of three groups: (1) early naturalists' descriptions of fish fauna, including information (e.g., presence, perceived abundance, size) on 255 fish species for the period 1818-1936 (2) historical landings from major Northern Adriatic fish markets (Venice, Trieste, Rijeka) for the period 1902-1968, Italian official landings for the Northern and Central Adriatic (1953-2012) and landings from the Lagoon of Venice (1945-2001) (3) trawl-survey data from seven surveys spanning the period 1948-1991 and including Catch per Unit of Effort data (kgh-1 and/or nh-1) for 956 hauls performed at 301 stations. The integration of these datasets has already demonstrated to be useful to analyse historical marine community changes over time, and its availability through open-source data portal will facilitate analyses in the framework of marine historical ecology.

  12. 77 FR 52674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish Fisheries in the Bering Sea and...

    2012-08-30

    ... Dillingham/Katmai room at the Hilton Hotel, 500 West 3rd Street, Anchorage, AK. You may submit comments on... the legal authority, history of the Steller sea lion protection measures, litigation, potential...

  13. 76 FR 82189 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Fisheries...

    2011-12-30

    ..., 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of butterfish, and 200,000 lb (90,718 kg) of bluefish. Project awards are... species, including summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, longfin squid, butterfish, and Atlantic bluefish...

  14. Genetic differentiation among Parastichopus regalis populations from Western Mediterranean Sea: potential effects of its fishery and current connectivity.

    C. MAGGI

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parastichopus regalis (Cuvier, 1817 is the most expensive seafood product on the catalonian market (NE Spain, with prices around 130 €/Kg (fresh weight. Despite its ecological and economic importance, biological and genetic information on this sea cucumber species is scarce. We provided the first insight on the genetic structure of P. regalis using sequences of cytochrome oxidase I (COI and 16S genes, as well as a morphological description of its populations. Individuals were collected in six locations along the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including an area under fishery pressure (Catalonia. We found high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity for both genes, with higher levels of genetic diversity observed on COI gene. Population pairwise fixation index (FST, AMOVA and correspondence analysis (CA based on COI, revealed significant genetic differentiation among some locations. However, further analysis using nuclear markers (e.g. microsatellites would be necessary to corroborate these results. Moreover, the genetic and morphological data may indicate fishery effects on the Catalonian population with decrease of the size and weight average and lower genetic diversity compared to locations without fishery pressure. For an appropriate management of this species, we suggest: 1 an accurate assessment of the stocks status along the Spanish coasts; 2 the study of the reproductive cycle of this target species and the establishment of a closed fishery season according to it; 3 the founding of protected areas (i.e. not take zones to conserve healthy populations and favour the recruitment on the nearby areas.

  15. How cod shapes its world

    van Leeuwen, A.; de Roos, A.M.; Persson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Cod stocks in the North West Atlantic and the Baltic Sea have shown similar dynamics in recent decades with a rapid decline in abundance and a lack of stock recovery following a period of large biomass. We explore whether the lack of recovery can be ascribed to an emergent Allee effect, which is a

  16. From food to feed: Assessment of the stationary lift net fishery of East Hainan, Northern South China Sea

    Krumme, Uwe; Wang, Tian C.; Wang, Dao R.

    2013-04-01

    In the Asia-Pacific region, the increasing demand for low value/trash fish as feed for mariculture drives unsustainable fisheries on already overexploited marine resources. The mariculture demand may also affect artisanal nearshore fisheries operating in shallow nursery grounds, e.g., lift net fisheries, but little is known about how they work. We describe the stationary lift net artisanal fishery on the East coast of Hainan Island (northern South China Sea). A trapezoidal blanket net (mean surface area: 478 m2), stretched between four upright poles at the corners, is lowered and lifted via a rope system from a tower by a single fisher. In 2009 ˜200 households depended on 288 lift nets, 82% of which were located in the Wenchang/Wenjiao estuary. The number of lift nets decreased by 15% from 2007 to 2009. Presently, it is mainly an early retirement activity of fishers with a median age of 52 years and younger men rarely enter the fishery due to low catch rates. However, not one fisher would stop fishing even at 50% hypothetical decline in catch — due to lack of alternatives. Mean catch weight per fishing day is 12 kg (range: 0-1.7 t). In the past, the entire catch was used as food. Presently, an average of 52% of the catch is sold as feed to local pond and floating net cage mariculturists who, subsequently, supply the live food trade to markets as far as Hong Kong. Larger dead fishes are sold at village markets or at Qinglan harbor and are locally or regionally consumed. The density of lift-net operation is highest around the Wenchang/Wenjiao lagoon due to the presence of an extensive sheltered, shallow subtidal area in proximity to mariculture and export markets in Qinglan. Thus, the modern mariculture demand for low value/trash fish supports the continuation of an ancient artisanal fishery despite severe resource depletion. The existence of similar lift nets in Vietnam points to an exchange in the artisanal fishing knowledge between Vietnam and Hainan

  17. Elasmobranch fisheries in the Arabian Seas Region: Characteristics, trade and management

    Jabado, Rima W; Spaet, Julia L.Y.

    2017-01-01

    products and four countries (Oman, Pakistan, UAE and Yemen) supply nearly 11% of dried fin exports to Hong Kong. Yet, little information is available on the characteristics of this trade and the fisheries contributing to it. Here, we review the fisheries

  18. The MSY concept in a multi-objective fisheries environment – lessons learned from the North Sea

    Kempf, Alexander; Mumford, John; Levontin, Polina

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important goals in current fisheries management is to maintain or restore stocks above levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield (MSY). However, it may not be feasible to achieve MSY simultaneously for multiple species because of trade-offs that result from interactions...... with stakeholders as well as scenario modelling with bio-economic and multi-species models. It is difficult to intuitively anticipate the consequences of complex trade-offs and it is also complicated to address them from a political point of view. However, scenario modelling showed that the current approach...... of treating each stock separately and ignoring trade-offs may result in unacceptable ecosystem, economic or social effects in North Sea fisheries. Setting FMSY as a management target without any flexibility for compromises may lead to disappointment for some of the stakeholders. To treat FMSY no longer...

  19. Catch rates as indicators of ecosystem health and exploitation status in the shrimp fishery in the South China sea

    Christensen, Steen; van Thi, Dang

    2008-01-01

    that might reflect seasonality in shrimp recruitment was found, making this resource potentially suitable for a fishery management system based on closed seasons. Further, the data indicate that the major part of the catches are comprised of low value species belonging to the genera Parapenaeopsis; whereas......Based on catch and effort data analyses covering the period 1996-2002, time series of catch rates in the trawl fisheries in the South China Sea along the coasts of Bac Lieu and Ca Mau in South East Vietnam were estimated. The indicators include catch rates for total shrimp catch, five major shrimp...... the most valuable species, i.e. the Penaeus and Metapenaeus catch groups have been significantly depleted during the period investigated. Based on the experiences from the present analysis, recommendations are presented with regard to adjustments of the enumerator data collection programme to fulfil...

  20. Supply regimes in fisheries

    Nielsen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Supply in fisheries is traditionally known for its backward bending nature, owing to externalities in production. Such a supply regime, however, exist only for pure open access fisheries. Since most fisheries worldwide are neither pure open access, nor optimally managed, rather between the extremes......, the traditional understanding of supply regimes in fisheries needs modification. This paper identifies through a case study of the East Baltic cod fishery supply regimes in fisheries, taking alternative fisheries management schemes and mesh size limitations into account. An age-structured Beverton-Holt based bio......-economic supply model with mesh sizes is developed. It is found that in the presence of realistic management schemes, the supply curves are close to vertical in the relevant range. Also, the supply curve under open access with mesh size limitations is almost vertical in the relevant range, owing to constant...

  1. A Holistic Approach to Fishery Management: Evidence and Insights from a Central Mediterranean Case Study (Western Ionian Sea

    Tommaso Russo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The new Common Fisheries Policy (CFP is designed to represent an appropriate response to the uncertainties and challenges facing the fisheries sector. It also adopts a holistic approach to fisheries management, considering all factors driving fishers' behavior, and ultimately, the long-term maintenance of living resources. The most reliable way to pursue these aims could be represented by a change in the exploitation pattern, in order to guarantee the sustainability of fisheries without compromising their socioeconomic viability. In this paper, the demersal fisheries of the Ionian Sea [Geographic Sub-area (GSA 19] were analyzed with respect to their spatial, temporal, economic, and biological characteristics in terms of four key species for fisheries, namely European hake, red mullet, giant red shrimp, and deep-water rose shrimp. Specifically, (1 a quantitative procedure was applied to break down the whole system (including small-scale fleet components into a series of fishing grounds using input data about fishing efforts; (2 the different fleet segments were defined as a combination of main gear and fishing grounds; (3 the effort and production by fleet segment were derived according to biological samplings of commercial data (Data Collection Framework for the collection and management of fisheries data, DCF, information on localization of nursery and spawning grounds, and expert knowledge; and (4 all this information was used to feed a bioeconomic modeling tool (BEMTOOL, and to explore alternative exploitation patterns. A series of scenarios including the status quo were defined, starting from the actual management approach based on temporal fishing closure. The results showed that significant improvements in the exploitation pattern could be achieved by setting up spatial and/or temporal gear-specific bans of the fishing activity. More specifically, scenarios based on a 3-month fishing ban for trawlers are expected to provide high rebuilding

  2. California sea lion interactions with commercial passenger fishing vessel fisheries: a review of log book data from 1994, 1995, and 1996.

    Fluharty, Marilyn J.

    1992-01-01

    Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel (CPFV) logs were analyzed to determine the degree of sea lion interactions in the CPFV fishery. From 1994 to 1996, sea lions depredated over 152,000 fish representing more than 40 different species. Although the depredation total seems high, it is still less than 10% of the fish caught by anglers. In southern California, sea lions primarily depredated California barracuda and mackerels, while in central and northern California, they depredated salmonids. De...

  3. A single-dose pharmacokinetic study of emamectin benzoate in cod, Gadus morhua L., held in sea water at 9 degrees C.

    Samuelsen, O B

    2010-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic profile of the antiparasitic agent emamectin benzoate was studied in plasma after intravenous (i.v.) injection and in plasma, muscle and skin following oral (p.o.) administration to cod, Gadus morhua, held in sea water at 9 degrees C and weighing 100-200 g. Following i.v. injection, the plasma drug concentration-time profile showed two distinct phases. The plasma distribution half-life (t(1/2)alpha) was estimated as 2.5 h, the elimination half-life (t(1/2)beta) as 216 h, the total body clearance (Cl(T)) as 0.0059 L kg(-1) h(-1) and mean residence time (MRT) as 385 h. The volume of distribution at steady state, V(d(ss)), was calculated to be 1.839 L kg(-1). Following p.o. administration the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) was 15 ng mL(-1), the time to peak plasma concentration (T(max)) was 89 h and t(1/2)beta was 180 h. The highest concentration in muscle (21 ng g(-1)) was measured after 7 days and t(1/2)beta was calculated to be 247 h. For skin, a peak concentration of 28 ng g(-1) at 3 days was observed and a t(1/2)beta of 235 h was determined. The bioavailability following p.o. administration was calculated to be 38%.

  4. Cod Liver Oil

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  5. Investigation of plastic debris ingestion by four species of sea turtles collected as bycatch in pelagic Pacific longline fisheries.

    Clukey, Katharine E; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Balazs, George H; Work, Thierry M; Lynch, Jennifer M

    2017-07-15

    Ingestion of marine debris is an established threat to sea turtles. The amount, type, color and location of ingested plastics in the gastrointestinal tracts of 55 sea turtles from Pacific longline fisheries from 2012 to 2016 were quantified, and compared across species, turtle length, body condition, sex, capture location, season and year. Six approaches for quantifying amounts of ingested plastic strongly correlated with one another and included: number of pieces, mass, volume and surface area of plastics, ratio of plastic mass to body mass, and percentage of the mass of gut contents consisting of plastic. All olive ridley (n=37), 90% of green (n=10), 80% of loggerhead (n=5) and 0% of leatherback (n=3) turtles had ingested plastic; green turtles ingested significantly more than olive ridleys. Most debris was in the large intestines. No adverse health impacts (intestinal lesions, blockage, or poor body condition) due directly to plastic ingestion were noted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Temporal dynamics of top predators interactions in the Barents Sea.

    Durant, Joël M; Skern-Mauritzen, Mette; Krasnov, Yuri V; Nikolaeva, Natalia G; Lindstrøm, Ulf; Dolgov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The Barents Sea system is often depicted as a simple food web in terms of number of dominant feeding links. The most conspicuous feeding link is between the Northeast Arctic cod Gadus morhua, the world's largest cod stock which is presently at a historical high level, and capelin Mallotus villosus. The system also holds diverse seabird and marine mammal communities. Previous diet studies may suggest that these top predators (cod, bird and sea mammals) compete for food particularly with respect to pelagic fish such as capelin and juvenile herring (Clupea harengus), and krill. In this paper we explored the diet of some Barents Sea top predators (cod, Black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, Common guillemot Uria aalge, and Minke whale Balaenoptera acutorostrata). We developed a GAM modelling approach to analyse the temporal variation diet composition within and between predators, to explore intra- and inter-specific interactions. The GAM models demonstrated that the seabird diet is temperature dependent while the diet of Minke whale and cod is prey dependent; Minke whale and cod diets depend on the abundance of herring and capelin, respectively. There was significant diet overlap between cod and Minke whale, and between kittiwake and guillemot. In general, the diet overlap between predators increased with changes in herring and krill abundances. The diet overlap models developed in this study may help to identify inter-specific interactions and their dynamics that potentially affect the stocks targeted by fisheries.

  7. Caught in the Same Net? Small-Scale Fishermen's Perceptions of Fisheries Interactions with Sea Turtles and Other Protected Species

    Aliki Panagopoulou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale fisheries are responsible for high numbers of animals caught as bycatch, such as turtles, cetaceans, and seals. Bycatch and its associated mortality is a major conservation challenge for these species and is considered undesirable by fishermen. To gain insights on the impact of bycatch on small-scale fishermen and put it in context with other financial and environmental challenges they face, we conducted questionnaire-based interviews on fishermen working on Crete, Greece. We investigated fishermen's perceptions of sea turtle and other protected species interactions, and the impacts of such interactions on their profession and livelihoods. Our results indicate a connection between declining fish stocks, related increased fishing effort, and reported increased frequency of interactions between fishermen and sea turtles. Respondents believed that their livelihoods were endangered by industrial fishing and environmental problems, but thought that combined interactions with turtles and other marine megafauna species were a larger problem. Responses suggested that extending compensation to fishermen may be a good conservation intervention. Small-scale fishermen hold a wealth of knowledge about the marine environment and its resources. This may be of help to researchers and policy makers as it could be used to achieve a better managed, sustainable fishery. Including small-scale fishermen in the process of developing regulations will both enhance those regulations and increase compliance with them.

  8. The use of CPR data in fisheries research [review article

    Corten, A.; Lindley, J. A.

    2003-08-01

    The Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey was initiated partly to contribute to our understanding of the variability of fish stocks and as a potential method for predicting fish distributions from the abundance and composition of the plankton. The latter objective has been superseded by technological developments in fish detection, but the former has been the subject of continuing, and in recent years expanding use of the CPR data. Examples are presented of application of the data to studies on North Sea herring, cod, mackerel, blue whiting and redfish as well as more general plankton studies relevant to fisheries research. Variations in the migration patterns of herring as well as recruitment have been related to abundances and species composition of the plankton in the CPR survey. Extensive use has been made of the CPR data in relation to cod, particularly in the development and testing of the ‘match-mismatch’ hypothesis. Advection of sufficient numbers of Calanus from the core oceanic areas of its distribution into the areas where the cod stocks occur may partly determine the success of those stocks. The analysis of the distribution and abundances of mackerel larvae in the CPR survey have shown contrasting variations between the North Sea and Celtic Sea. The expansion of the horse mackerel fishery in the north-eastern North Sea since 1987 has been related to physical events and a ‘regime shift’ in the plankton, described from CPR data. The oceanic spawning areas of the blue whiting and redfish were highlighted by the expansion of the CPR survey into the north-eastern and north-western Atlantic respectively. These results helped to focus the attention of fisheries scientists on stocks that have subsequently become the targets for commercial exploitation. The results of the CPR survey, particularly those on Calanusfinmarchicus, the phytoplankton standing stock as measured by the CPR colour index, the overall patterns of trends in plankton abundance and

  9. Fishing strategies and the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Christos D. Maravelias

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of aquatic living resources is the cornerstone of the ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAF. Excess fishing effort leading to the degradation of fishery resources and significant economic waste is globally recognized by resource managers as a major problem for the implementation of the EAF and European’s Union Common Fisheries Policy (CFP. Knowledge of how fishers allocate their fishing effort in space and time is essential to understand how a fishery develops. Understanding fishing strategies is also vital for predicting how a fishery might respond to proposed management changes such as effort/area restrictions and introduction of a marine protected area, and for drawing up a management policy. Random utility models were used to examine the factors affecting fishers’ behaviour in the NE Mediterranean. The probability of selecting a specific fishing rectangle was estimated using monthly purse seine data. The predictive inputs concerned both subjective behavioural and objective seasonal and technical-economic characteristics. The present study provided direct evidence of the important role that the strategic decision-making behaviour of fishers could play in understanding the way the industry will respond to changes in resource availability, market conditions and management measures under the EAF principle.

  10. Harvesting Atlantic Cod under Climate Variability

    Oremus, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Previous literature links the growth of a fishery to climate variability. This study uses an age-structured bioeconomic model to compare optimal harvest in the Gulf of Maine Atlantic cod fishery under a variable climate versus a static climate. The optimal harvest path depends on the relationship between fishery growth and the interest rate, with higher interest rates dictating greater harvests now at the cost of long-term stock sustainability. Given the time horizon of a single generation of fishermen under assumptions of a static climate, the model finds that the economically optimal management strategy is to harvest the entire stock in the short term and allow the fishery to collapse. However, if the biological growth of the fishery is assumed to vary with climate conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, there will always be pulses of high growth in the stock. During some of these high-growth years, the growth of the stock and its economic yield can exceed the growth rate of the economy even under high interest rates. This implies that it is not economically optimal to exhaust the New England cod fishery if NAO is included in the biological growth function. This finding may have theoretical implications for the management of other renewable yet exhaustible resources whose growth rates are subject to climate variability.

  11. Understanding and predicting size selection in diamond-mesh cod ends for danish seining: A study based on sea trials and computer simulations

    Herrmann, Bent; Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Feekings, Jordan P.

    2016-01-01

    described by a double logistic selection curve, implying that two different size selection processes occur in the cod end. The double selection process could be explained by an additional selection process occurring through slack meshes. The results imply that the escapement of 46% and 34% of the larger...... Atlantic Cod and Haddock (those above 48 cm), respectively, would be through wide-open or slack meshes. Since these mesh states are only likely to be present in the latest stage of the fishing process (e.g., when the cod end is near the surface), a large fraction of the bigger fish probably escaped near...

  12. 77 FR 60637 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii...

    2012-10-04

    ..., effect on the loggerhead sea turtle population. This meets the regulatory definition of an action that is...: Hawaii's sea turtles and monk seals are important for tourism, because people enjoy diving and swimming...

  13. Implications of stock recovery for a neighbouring management unit: experience from the Baltic cod

    Eero, Margit; Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Hüssy, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cod in the Baltic Sea is assessed and managed as two separate stocks, i.e. eastern and western Baltic cod. The eastern Baltic cod has recently started to recover after several decades of severe depletion. In the present study, we suggest that the recovery of the eastern Baltic cod population has ...

  14. Rapid shifts in catch composition in the artisanal Red Sea reef fisheries of Eritrea

    Tsehaye, I.W.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in catch composition were registered in the Eritrean artisanal fisheries, which were launched into a renewed development after the end of the independence war in 1991. Our analysis of catch and effort data showed that total fishing effort as well as total annual catch increased more than

  15. Cod: a challenge for sustainable fisheries

    Jantzen, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Fast die Hälfte aller Nutzfischbestände befindet sich auf einem nicht-nachhaltigen Niveau. Das bedeutet, dass die von einem Fischbestand abgefischte Menge die Anzahl der Jungfische in diesem Bestand so stark vermindert hat, dass die eigene Reproduktionsrate nicht ausreicht, um die Populationsgröße langfristig zu erhalten. Wenn die starke Befischungsintensität über einer zugelassenen nachhaltigen Höchstmenge bestehen bleibt, wird es zukünftig keine gewinnbringende Fischerei mehr geben. Besonde...

  16. Implementing ecosystem-based fisheries management: from single-species to integrated ecosystem assessment and advice for Baltic Sea fish stocks

    Möllmann, Christian; Lindegren, Martin; Blenckner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    -economic factors, in relation to specified management objectives. Here, we focus on implementing the IEA approach for Baltic Sea fish stocks. We combine both tactical and strategic management aspects into a single strategy that supports the present Baltic Sea fish stock advice, conducted by the International...... Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). We first review the state of the art in the development of IEA within the current management framework. We then outline and discuss an approach that integrates fish stock advice and IEAs for the Baltic Sea. We intentionally focus on the central Baltic Sea...... and its three major fish stocks cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat (Sprattus sprattus), but emphasize that our approach may be applied to other parts and stocks of the Baltic, as well as other ocean areas...

  17. Selective haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) trawling: Avoiding cod (Gadus morhua) bycatch

    Krag, Ludvig Ahm; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    The critical condition of the North Sea cod stocks has resulted in restrictions on not only cod, but also haddock and other species that are caught together with cod. Thus full exploitation of the haddock stock is unachievable unless cod can be excluded from the haddock catch. We designed a selec...... dependent: smaller cod escaped the trawl in greater numbers than did larger individuals. Whiting, saithe. lemon sole, and plaice were included in the analysis. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. Multi-Annual Climate Predictions for Fisheries: An Assessment of Skill of Sea Surface Temperature Forecasts for Large Marine Ecosystems

    Desiree Tommasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions made by fishers and fisheries managers are informed by climate and fisheries observations that now often span more than 50 years. Multi-annual climate forecasts could further inform such decisions if they were skillful in predicting future conditions relative to the 50-year scope of past variability. We demonstrate that an existing multi-annual prediction system skillfully forecasts the probability of next year, the next 1–3 years, and the next 1–10 years being warmer or cooler than the 50-year average at the surface in coastal ecosystems. Probabilistic forecasts of upper and lower seas surface temperature (SST terciles over the next 3 or 10 years from the GFDL CM 2.1 10-member ensemble global prediction system showed significant improvements in skill over the use of a 50-year climatology for most Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs in the North Atlantic, the western Pacific, and Indian oceans. Through a comparison of the forecast skill of initialized and uninitialized hindcasts, we demonstrate that this skill is largely due to the predictable signature of radiative forcing changes over the 50-year timescale rather than prediction of evolving modes of climate variability. North Atlantic LMEs stood out as the only coastal regions where initialization significantly contributed to SST prediction skill at the 1 to 10 year scale.

  19. Integrating stochastic age-structured population dynamics into complex fisheries economic models for management evaluations: the North Sea saithe fishery as a case study

    Simons, S.L.; Bartelings, H.; Hamon, K.G.; Kempf, A.J.; Doring, R.; Temming, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in bioeconomic models as tools for understanding pathways of fishery behaviour in order to assess the impact of alternative policies on natural resources. A model system is presented that combines stochastic age-structured population dynamics with complex fisheries

  20. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  1. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  2. Fish stories: cod, oil and gas turn about to be hard to mix

    Reid, W.

    2000-01-01

    In 1992 the Government of Canada gave the green light for the start of construction of the Hibernia oil platform; in the same year moratorium on cod fishing was declared. Hibernia ushered in a new era of growth in Atlantic Canada, the moratorium put an end to cod exports for a period of seven years. Environmental activist believe that the two events are not unrelated; after-effects of the Hibernia development played a role in reducing fish stocks and likely to inhibit their recovery. The environmental group 'Save our Seas and Shores' (SOSS) claims that seismic work and drilling are likely to interfere with the migration patterns of young cod, forcing them to spawn in areas that are not safe for egg maturity. According to SOSS, the future of cod fishing is in danger of destruction by further exploration and development in spawning nursery and migratory areas. The group is claiming support from a Nova Scotia government review of two marine ecosystems both of which were declared too delicate to withstand the effects of oil and gas activity. SOSS, supported by a coalition of fishery, native, environmental and tourism groups is determined to halt petroleum exploration along the western coast of Cape Breton Island. In the meantime, the Atlantic Petroleum Institute, first opened in Nova Scotia, and now in the process of expanding into Newfoundland, supported by industry and the Canada Atlantic Opportunities Council, has been assured of funding for a period of five years to develop education and training programs, organize forums for discussion, debate and problem solving, and coordinate research and development. The Institute hopes that SOSS will want to participate in finding solutions to the problems of fisheries that are acceptable to both petroleum and fishing industry interests

  3. Danish experiments with a grid system tested in the North Sea shrimp fishery

    Madsen, Niels; Hansen, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    can retain marketable catches of roundfish and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus). The grid system was made of polyamide with a fish escape hole at the top and a Norway lobster escape hole at the bottom. Hinges made the grid flexible. The grid system was developed acid tested in a flume tank......), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). whiting (Merlangius merlangus), saithe (Pollachius virens), Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarki). Norway lobster, herring (Clupea harengus) and witch (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus) but no significant difference in weight of shrimp and monkfish (Lophius piscatorius......) in the first experiment. The grid system was altered in experiment 2 resulting in no significant difference in the catch of cod and saithe above the minimum landing size while the catch of Norway lobster and shrimp improved significantly. Experiments with collecting bags indicated that most fish went through...

  4. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries of the west coast of India

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.

    of poten tial fishery resources from the E x- clusive Economic Zone of India (EEZ) are about 3.5 to 4.7 mt (million tonnes) 1 ? 4 . The recent estimates on a n- nual marine landings from the I n dian coast show that they fluctuate between 2.2 and 2...., John, S. and Somavanshi, V. S., Bull. Fish. Surv. India , 1990, 20 , 1 ? 37. 2. Bhargava, R. M. S., in India's Exclusive Economic Zone ( eds Qasim, S. Z. and Roonal, G. S.), Omega Scientific, New Delhi, 1996, pp. 122 ? 131. 3. Goswami, S...

  5. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami; Öztürk, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  6. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  7. Zooplankton standing stock assessment and fishery resources in the indian seas

    Goswami, S.C.; Sarupria, J.S.; Bhargava, R.M.S.

    of Bengal, Lakshadweep (Laccadive) Sea and Andaman Sea. The zooplankton biomass values fluctuated between 0.1 to 12 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.664 plus or minus 1.36 ml m sup(-3)), 0.1 to 8.0 ml m sup(-3) (av. = 0.355 plus or minus 0.761 ml m sup(-3)), 0.1 to 1...

  8. MERCURY IN FISHERY PRODUCTS FROM CENTRAL ADRIATIC SEA (OFFICIAL CONTROLS FROM 1995 TO 2009

    C. Ciccarelli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its properties, methylmercury is the most bioavailable form of mercury compounds. In fact, it causes the most toxic effects on the immune, cardiovascular, renal and central nervous systems, in particular the fetal brain. Seafood consumption is recognized as being the largest environmental mercury source to most human populations. So, fishery products are the most important source of methylmercury exposure in human. As the mercury burden of fish increases for transference to upper trophic levels (biomagnification, piscivors have the potential to accumulate extremely high mercury loads, in the methylated form, 70 to 100% in the muscular tissues. Reg. CE 1881/2006 sets, lastly, allowed maximum levels of mercury in seafood. Several authors found out an increase of mercury levels with size of carnivorous fishes. But this relationship strictly depends on fish species, and is a result of the interaction between environmental and physiological effects. This paper describes the results of a monitoring of mercury levels in fishery products, from 1995 to 2009, before they were sold by auction in the Wholesale Fish Market in the town of San Benedetto del Tronto. The authors’aim was to set a correlation between increasing fish size (weight and loads of the metal up to maximum levels by law.

  9. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean

  10. Use of existing hydrographic infrastructure to forecast the environmental spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod.

    von Dewitz, Burkhard; Tamm, Susanne; Höflich, Katharina; Voss, Rüdiger; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald

    2018-01-01

    The semi-enclosed nature and estuarine characteristics, together with its strongly alternating bathymetry, make the Baltic Sea prone to much stronger interannual variations in the abiotic environment, than other spawning habitats of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Processes determining salinity and oxygen conditions in the basins are influenced both by long term gradual climate change, e.g. global warming, but also by short-term meteorological variations and events. Specifically one main factor influencing cod spawning conditions, the advection of highly saline and well-oxygenated water masses from the North Sea, is observed in irregular frequencies and causes strong interannual variations in stock productivity. This study investigates the possibility to use the available hydrographic process knowledge to predict the annual spawning conditions for Eastern Baltic cod in its most important spawning ground, the Bornholm Basin, only by salinity measurements from a specific location in the western Baltic. Such a prediction could serve as an environmental early warning indicator to inform stock assessment and management. Here we used a hydrodynamic model to hindcast hydrographic property fields for the last 40+ years. High and significant correlations were found for months early in the year between the 33m salinity level in the Arkona Basin and the oxygen-dependent cod spawning environment in the Bornholm Basin. Direct prediction of the Eastern Baltic cod egg survival in the Bornholm Basin based on salinity values in the Arkona Basin at the 33 m depth level is shown to be possible for eggs spawned by mid-age and young females, which currently predominate the stock structure. We recommend to routinely perform short-term predictions of the Eastern Baltic cod spawning environment, in order to generate environmental information highly relevant for stock dynamics. Our statistical approach offers the opportunity to make best use of permanently existing infrastructure in the

  11. NPRB 1117 Cooperative research to develop new trawl footrope designs to reduce mortality of southern Tanner and snow crabs (Chionoecetes bairdi and C. opilio) incidental to Bering Sea bottom trawl fisheries

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Alaska’s Bering Sea is home to some of the world’s most productive groundfish and crab stocks and the fisheries that depend on them. Their spatial overlap creates...

  12. Hind-casting the quantity and composition of discards by mixed demersal fisheries in the North Sea.

    Michael R Heath

    Full Text Available Many commercial fisheries seek to maximise the economic value of the catch that they bring ashore and market for human consumption by discarding undersize or low value fish. Information on the quantity, size and species composition of discarded fish is vital for stock assessments and for devising legislation to minimise the practice. However, except for a few major species, data are usually extremely sparse and reliant on observers aboard a small sample of fishing vessels. Expanding these data to estimate total regional discards is highly problematic. Here, we develop a method for utilising additional information from scientific trawl surveys to model the quantities of fish discarded by the commercial fisheries. As a case-study, we apply the model to the North Sea over the period 1978-2011, and show a long-term decline in the overall quantity of fish discarded, but an increase in the proportion of catch which is thrown away. The composition of discarded catch has shifted from predominantly (∼80% roundfish, to >50% flatfish. Undersized plaice constitute the largest single fraction of discards, unchanged from the beginning of the 20th century. Overall, around 60% of discarded fish are rejected on the basis of size rather than for reasons of species value or quota restrictions. The analysis shows that much more information can be gained on discarding by utilising additional sources of data rather than relying solely on information gathered by observers. In addition, it is clear that reducing fishing intensity and rebuilding stocks is likely to be more effective at reducing discards in the long term, than any technical legislation to outlaw the practice in the short term.

  13. Deep-Sea Mega-Epibenthic Assemblages from the SW Portuguese Margin (NE Atlantic Subjected to Bottom-Trawling Fisheries

    Sofia P. Ramalho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-trawling fisheries are a common threat to the health of continental margins worldwide. Together with numerous environmental and biological processes, physical disturbance induced by trawlers can largely shape the benthic habitats and their associated assemblages. At the SW Portuguese Margin, crustacean bottom trawlers have exploited deep-sea habitats for a few decades, but its effects on the benthic biodiversity are practically unknown. During the spring-summer of 2013 and 2014, several Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV video transects were used to investigate mega-epibenthic abundance, composition, and diversity in soft-sediment areas subjected to varying trawling pressures off Sines and Setúbal (200–800 m. Differences in mega-epibenthic assemblages were linked with environmental changes (depth, grain size, primary productivity and trawling disturbance. The effect of trawling was assessed between segments with similar habitat characteristics, i.e., muddy-sand bottoms between 300 and 500 m. Areas subjected to intensive trawling pressure showed a generally flattened seabed, with abundant recent trawl marks (up to 3 scars.100 m−1, indicating that the seabed physical integrity was compromised. Significant negative correlations were detected between various mega-epibenthic diversity indices [S, H′, and ET(20] and trawling pressure (h.cell−1.y−1. Furthermore, the distinct mega-epibenthic assemblages and absence of several sessile erect morphospecies at both low and highly disturbed locations by trawling off Sines, namely all seapen morphospecies found in non-trawled areas, demonstrates the negative influence of trawling fisheries on the benthic component of the study area. Also, low dissimilarity between assemblages from the main fishing grounds and the adjacent low-disturbance locations, suggests that the potentially negative influence of trawling can extend beyond the targeted areas (e.g., by the plumes of re-suspended sediments. The

  14. 78 FR 59908 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-09-30

    ... Area; Amendment 99 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... comments. SUMMARY: The North Pacific Fishery Management Council submitted Amendment 99 to the Fishery... review. If approved, Amendment 99 would enable the holders of license limitation program (LLP) licenses...

  15. 78 FR 14932 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Pollock in the Bering Sea...

    2013-03-08

    ... most recent fisheries data in a timely fashion and would delay the reallocation of AI pollock. Since the pollock fishery is currently open, it is important to immediately inform the industry as to the... orderly conduct and efficient operation of this fishery; allow the industry to plan for the fishing season...

  16. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-11-04

    ... action is necessary to improve the quality and timeliness of market information used to conduct... Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the FMP, and other applicable law. DATES: Effective December 5... Fishery Management Council (Council) under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act...

  17. The Two-sector Economic Problem Of Persistent Organic Pollution and Baltic Sea Salmon Fisheries

    Hutniczak, Barbara; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk

    2011-01-01

    sector. The paper sets up a general social planner model and demonstrates it in simple functional form, using the problem of persistent organic pollution in the Baltic Sea and its effects on the regulation and economic value of the Baltic Salmon. The paper illustrates how a modified golden rule can...

  18. REVIEW OF THE FISHERIES OF THE SALTON SEA, CALIFORNIA, USA: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE. (R826552)

    The Salton Sea is an endorheic, 980-km2 salt lake in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. The historical fish community switched from freshwater to marine species as salinity increased due to evaporation and brackish water inflows. Three species, bairdiella (<...

  19. Discovering where bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, might go: using environmental and fishery data to map potential tuna habitat in the eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Dimitrios Damalas; Persefoni Megalofonou

    2012-01-01

    Based on a dataset derived from commercial fisheries in the eastern Mediterranean Sea in 1998-2005, we applied generalized additive models (GAMs) to investigate the relative influence of a range of environmental factors on catch rates of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus Linnaeus, 1785). GAM analyses were conducted by separately modelling (1) the probability of making a catch (encountering a school), and (2) the positive catch rates (school size). Results suggested intra-annual variation...

  20. Overfishing Drivers and Opportunities for Recovery in Small-Scale Fisheries of the Midriff Islands Region, Gulf of California, Mexico: the Roles of Land and Sea Institutions in Fisheries Sustainability

    Ana Cinti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Institutions play an important role in shaping individual incentives in complex social-ecological systems, by encouraging or discouraging resource overuse. In the Gulf of California, Mexico, there is widespread evidence of declines in small-scale fishery stocks, largely attributed to policy failures. We investigated formal and informal rules-in-use regulating access and resource use by small-scale fishers in the two most important fishing communities of the Midriff Islands region in the Gulf of California, which share several target species and fishing grounds. The Midriff Islands region is a highly productive area where sustainable use of fisheries resources has been elusive. Our study aimed to inform policy by providing information on how management and conservation policies perform in this unique environment. In addition, we contrast attributes of the enabling conditions for sustainability on the commons in an effort to better understand why these communities, albeit showing several contrasting attributes of the above conditions, have not developed sustainable fishing practices. We take a novel, comprehensive institutional approach that includes formal and informal institutions, incorporating links between land (i.e., communal land rights and sea institutions (i.e., fisheries and conservation policies and their effects on stewardship of fishery resources, a theme that is practically unaddressed in the literature. Insufficient government support in provision of secure rights, enforcement and sanctioning, and recognition and incorporation of local arrangements and capacities for management arose as important needs to address in both cases. We highlight the critical role of higher levels of governance, that when disconnected from local practices, realities, and needs, can be a major impediment to achieving sustainability in small-scale fisheries, even in cases where several facilitating conditions are met.

  1. A Novel Method for Predicting Anisakid Nematode Infection of Atlantic Cod Using Rough Set Theory.

    Wąsikowska, Barbara; Sobecka, Ewa; Bielat, Iwona; Legierko, Monika; Więcaszek, Beata

    2018-03-01

    Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) is one of the most important fish species in the fisheries industries of many countries; however, these fish are often infected with parasites. The detection of pathogenic larval nematodes is usually performed in fish processing facilities by visual examination using candling or by digesting muscles in artificial digestive juices, but these methods are both time and labor intensive. This article presents an innovative approach to the analysis of cod parasites from both the Atlantic and Baltic Sea areas through the application of rough set theory, one of the methods of artificial intelligence, for the prediction of food safety in a food production chain. The parasitological examinations were performed focusing on nematode larvae pathogenic to humans, e.g., Anisakis simplex, Contracaecum osculatum, and Pseudoterranova decipiens. The analysis allowed identification of protocols with which it is possible to make preliminary estimates of the quantity and quality of parasites found in cod catches before detailed analyses are performed. The results indicate that the method used can be an effective analytical tool for these types of data. To achieve this goal, a database is needed that contains the patterns intensity of parasite infections and the conditions of commercial fish species in different localities in their distributions.

  2. 77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    2012-08-01

    ... for species caught incidentally in the whiting fishery (including lingcod, Pacific cod, canary... allocations. The process of ``holding'' back sufficient QP is similar to the current process of starting the...

  3. Fisheries oceanography of northern pelagic fish species

    Tsoukali, Stavroula

    for marine organisms. One of the impacts will be the time that species start to spawn, and there is already evidence for earlier spawning in some North Sea fish species. A change like that may likely have a chain reaction, affecting larval stages and whether they will live in environments with high food...... of the species they consume now and increased availability of new species. In addition, there will likely be economic impacts on the local fishing communities. How species respond to climate change is a field of research that receives great attention because the responses will affect the management of fisheries......People are familiar with marine fish species and the great variety of different species that are available in the market, such as herring, cod and sole. What may not be well known is that every individual fish goes through a long, risky journey during its life before reaching maturity. Most...

  4. Geologic history of Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    ,

    1976-01-01

    Cape Cod, a sandy peninsula built mostly during the Ice Age, juts into the Atlantic Ocean like a crooked arm. Because of its exposed location, Cape Cod was visited by many early explorers. Although clear-cut evidence is lacking, the Vikings may have sighted this land about 1,000 years ago. It was visited by Samuel de Champlain in 1605, and his detailed descriptions and charts have helped present-day scientists to determine the rate of growth of Nauset Beach marsh and Nauset spit. Bartholomew Gosnold, a lesser known explorer, settled for a short time on the Elizabeth Islands to the southwest and gave Cape Cod its name in 1602. The Pilgrims first landed in America on the tip of Lower Cape Cod after they were turned back from their more southerly destination by shoals between Cape Cod and Nantucket Island. On Cape Cod they found potable water and food and had their first fight with the natives. The Pilgrims, however, decided that this land was too isolated, too exposed, and too sandy to support them, and they sailed across Cape Cod Bay to establish Plymouth. These features remain today. Small villages are separated by large areas of forest, dune, beach, and marsh. This unspoiled natural beauty makes Cape Cod one of the most favored vacation areas for the people living in the thickly settled Northeastern States. Cape Cod is of particular interest to geologists because it was formed by glaciers very recently in terms of geologic time. During the Great Ice Age, (the Pleistocene Epoch which began 2 to 3 million years ago), glaciers advanced from the north into the temperate regions of the Earth. Glacial ice covered the land at least four times. Each advance was accompanied by a worldwide lowering of sea level because the source of the ice was water from the seas. When the glaciers melted, the climate and sea level were probably much like they are today. In fact, some scientists believe that the Earth is presently between glacial episodes and that ice once again will

  5. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults.

    Loi, Barbara; Guala, Ivan; Pires da Silva, Rodrigo; Brundu, Gianni; Baroli, Maura; Farina, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm) seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure. The areas were located at Su Pallosu Bay, where pressure is high and Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo, a marine protected area where sea urchin harvesting is low. Reproductive potential was estimated by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI) from June 2013 to May 2014 both for individuals of commercial size (diameter without spines, TD ≥ 50 mm) and the undersized ones with gonads (30 ≤ TD sea urchins than on their size. However, since population survival in the high-pressure zone is supported by the high density of undersized sea urchins between 30 and 50 mm, management measures should be addressed to maintain these sizes and to shed light on the source of the larval supply.

  6. Paralytic shellfish toxins in the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus on Georges Bank: Implications for an offshore roe-on and whole scallop fishery

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Vanegas, Camilo; Conrad, Stephen

    2014-05-01

    To protect public health from the potential risk of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in sea scallops, Placopecten magellanicus, from the Atlantic offshore U.S. waters of Georges Bank, harvesting of roe-on or whole scallops is banned. Only adductor muscles may be sold if harvested from Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, or the PSP closure areas as far west as 71° West Longitude. Given the limited toxicity data available for sea scallops from this region both prior to and subsequent to implementation of this management strategy, this study sought a more extensive spatial and temporal evaluation of sea scallop gonad and viscera toxicities that would inform management decisions related to the roe-on and whole scallop fishery. Both overall toxicity and toxin composition were measured for sea scallop gonads and viscera collected from 232 stations in 2007 and 23 in 2010. Overall toxicity was assessed using two screening methods: field-deployable Jellett Rapid Tests (JRT) and quantitative, laboratory-based receptor binding assays (in 2007). Additionally, a quantitative liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) method was used to determine toxin composition and overall toxicity (in 2010). The at-sea qualitative JRT screening tool results, whereby a positive indicated the sample contained at least 40 μg saxitoxin (STX) equivalents 100 g-1, were often inconsistent with results obtained using the quantitative methods. Sea scallop viscera toxicity represented the majority of toxin load in the organism and was often in excess of the regulatory guidance level. Sea scallop gonads accounted for a small percentage of total toxicity, but at times reached unsafe levels. Toxin composition in both the gonads and viscera was dominated by STX and gonyautoxin 2/3, as has been reported in previous studies. No predictive indices of gonad toxicity were found. Results at this time do not support a roe-on or whole scallop fishery on Georges Bank. While access restrictions to

  7. 78 FR 17341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2013-03-21

    ... Purchased. contracting custom processing must report. Raw pounds by crab fishery. Product and processes by... purchased (raw Purchased. pounds) by crab fishery. Custom processing services purchased (product and process... greatest information value to the management decision making process. The EDR is required to be submitted...

  8. 78 FR 63951 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2013-10-25

    ... Sebastian. Mail comments to P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK 99802-1668. Fax: Address written comments to Glenn....47(a) and (c). These vessels are able to participate in the fishery because they received a fishery... management measures in accordance with regulations implementing the AFA at 46 CFR 356.47, to allow vessels...

  9. Bottom trawl fishery discards in the Black Sea coast of Turkey

    Y. CEYLAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the amount of bycatch and discardfish caught by bottom trawlers used in the Black Sea coasts of Turkey anddiscard changes depending on the depth. The study was conducted during theSeptember 2009 – April 2010 fishing season. Twenty-one bottom trawleroperations were sampled and the catch composition was determined. A total of 26species were caught, which included 22 species of fish, 2 species of arthropods,1 species of gastropods and 1 species of bivalves. Two of these were targetspecies (Mullusbarbatus, Merlangius merlangus, while 25 species werediscarded including trash fish and specimens below the legal size. A total of2142.76 kg of biomass was caught during the operations, of which 53.99 % bycatch.The weighted discard rate was determined as 42.06% and two different groupswere identified in discards (T1: 10-57 m, T2: 72-118 m based on the depth. Significantdifferences were identified between these depth groups (p0.05 between theecological parameters of landings.

  10. Eel, cod and seatrout harvest in Danish recreational fishing during 2011

    Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    , it was estimated that 80 t [Relative standard error (RSE)=6%] eel, close to 1,300 t (RSE=5 %) cod and 400 t (RSE=5 %) seatrout (including freshwater catches) was harvested in the recreational fishery. Eel is almost exclusively taken in the passive gear fykenet fishery and seatrout was mainly caught by anglers...

  11. Genetic variation and local differences in Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus around Japan.

    Suda, A; Nagata, N; Sato, A; Narimatsu, Y; Nadiatul, H H; Kawata, M

    2017-01-01

    The population structure of the Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus was examined using 15 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (ND2 region). In total, 274 individuals were sampled from 16 locations around Japan to estimate the level of genetic differentiation and effective population size (N e ). Pairwise F ST , analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering analysis suggested the presence of two genetically distinct groups in waters around Japan, with a higher N e value in the eastern group than in the western group. A possible factor that restricts gene flow between groups may be related to the water temperature differences in the south-western part of the Sea of Japan, where the Tsushima Warm Current flows around the area inhabited by the western group, which may limit migration between the west and east. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Does history have a future Forecasting climate change effects on fisheries by analogy

    Glantz, M.H. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA))

    Fisheries represent an important aspect of economic, social, political, and cultural life in developed as well as developing societies. The relationship between biological productivity in the marine environment and climate variability and change has not been adequately addressed. There are many instances in recent times in which climate-related environmental stress (or analogies to such stress) combined to varying degrees with current fisheries management practices to bring about adverse changes in biological productivity. Changes in sea surface temperature, for example, can cause a reduction in biomass or a shift in the location of fish stocks, creating local, national, and international political, economic, and social problems. Assessing societal responses to recent instances of decline in specific fisheries can serve to identify weaknesses as well as strengths that may exist in society's ability to cope with anomalies in biological productivity in the marine environment. Important fisheries from around the world have been reviewed with the purpose of investigating response to change (slow as well as abrupt) in the abundance of living resources. Two examples are provided: the collapse of the Peruvian anchoveta fishery (early 1970s) and the Anglo-Icelandic Cod Wars (1951-77). Such cases may be directly relevant to attempts to improve our understanding of how well society might be able to cope with the effects on fisheries resources of possible regional climate changes that might be associated with a global warming.

  13. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2010-08-10

    ... exclusion memorandum may be obtained from the Alaska Region website at http://alaskafisheries.noaa.gov... 680-SHELLFISH FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 1. The authority citation for part...

  14. NPRB 1319 Assessment of the benthic impacts of raised groundgear for the Eastern Bering Sea pollock fishery.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Alaska pollock fishing industry, in collaboration with scientists at Alaska Pacific University, the Alaska Fisheries Science Center, and members of the fishing...

  15. 75 FR 5541 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2009...

    2010-02-03

    ...\\ BSAI trawl limited access fisheries Red king crab C. opilio C. bairdi (animals) Halibut mortality (mt..., skates, and octopus. Classification This action is authorized under 50 CFR 679.20 and is exempt from...

  16. 77 FR 10669 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2012...

    2012-02-23

    ... developing an age-structured model for the Aleutian Islands Pacific cod stock assessment that will be.... This is due to model changes for the calculation of octopuses OFL and ABC, and recommendations by the... the Council's recommendation. Based on 2011 survey data, Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi) abundance...

  17. 78 FR 74063 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; 2014 and...

    2013-12-10

    ... Analysis (IRFA) prepared for this action may be obtained from http://www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska... degrees west longitude in the BS subarea equal to 3 percent of the Pacific cod ABC in the BSAI. The action... TAC because the combined TAC and GHL (252,381 mt) are less than the proposed ABC of 300,390 mt. For...

  18. Does by-catch pose a threat for the conservation of seabird populations in the southern Ionian Sea (eastern Mediterranean? A questionnaire based survey of local fisheries

    G. KARRIS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of studies worldwide have shown that incidental catches (by-catch of seabirds in fishing gear might pose a considerable risk for the conservation of their populations. Nevertheless reliable data on by-catch rates of seabirds in European marine ecosystems are patchy and need to be improved. This study constitutes a first attempt at the evaluation of by-catch rates in the southern Ionian Sea. Data were obtained by distributing a specific questionnaire to the fishers of Zakynthos Island. 150 professional fishers (representing 90% of the local fishing fleet participated in the research, and were interviewed during July-December 2010. The information collected showed that commercial longline and (to a lesser extent gillnet fishery gears caused incidental catches mostly of Scopoli’s Shearwater and Mediterranean Shag. The temporal analysis of the incidental bird mortality showed that seabirds were more susceptible to be trapped in fishery gears set around sunrise during spring and summer whereas spatial analysis of by-catch data indicated variations in the number of seabirds caught in different fishery areas.

  19. CURRENT STATE OF FISHERIES AND ASSESSMENT OF FISH STOCKS IN THE WESTERN MIDDLE OF THE CASPIAN SEA. PROSPECTS FOR THE USE OF THE FISH RESOURCES

    A. S. Abdusamadov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To aim is to assess stocks and the fisheries of aquatic biological resources in the western part of the middle Caspian Sea and perspectives for the use of their resource potential.Methods. On the basis of the literature sources and our own data on the fish inventory in the western part of the Middle Caspian, we discuss possible reasons for emerging environmental, economic and other problems in the use of biological resources.Results. The main negative factors are the large-scale poaching, resulting in a catastrophic reduction in stocks of sturgeon and other valuable fish species of the Caspian Sea, a natural penetration of alien organisms (Mnemiopsis and overfishing of some species. The potential danger is large-scale development of oil and gas fields in the Caspian Sea, which can lead to even worse situation for the biological resources of the sea.Conclusions. In order to preserve the biological resources of the sea it is necessary to create conditions for steadily developing fishing and fish processing enterprises, thus ensuring the satisfaction of the constant demand for fish products and an increase in the revenue base of the budget and the well-being of the Russian population.

  20. Fisheries economics and fisheries management

    Andersen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    spent too much time on fundamentals in fisheries economics at the expense of the development of applicable models for fisheries managers? Of course, this question is relevant only IF fisheries economics and fisheries economists have a role to play in fisheries management.......Professor Rögnvaldur Hannesson's influence on the development and history of fisheries economics is unquestionable. Also, he has strongly pointed out the potential gains from a more active use of fisheries economics in fisheries management. In light of this, one may ask if fisheries economists have...

  1. Development and testing of a separator frame in a Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fishery

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René

    2017-01-01

    Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus fisheries are often characterized by high bycatch and discard rates. However, fisheries species exhibit differences in vertical behaviour that can be used to develop selective devices. We developed a separator frame that can be inserted into the forward part...... the separator frame and ending up in the bottom cod-end, the top cod-end, or penetrating the window. The majority of Norway lobster and flatfish entered the bottom cod-end, and most gadoids entered the top cod-end. A relatively high proportion of gadoids and flatfish that entered the top cod-end penetrated...

  2. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries - towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...

  3. Modelling the effects of climate change, species interactions and fisheries – towards Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the Central Baltic Sea

    Lindegren, Martin

    aim of this thesis is to develop a decision-support tool fit for achieving EBFM in the Central Baltic Sea, an ecosystem heavily impacted by overfishing and climate change. To that end, a theoretical approach for modelling multispecies population dynamics was combined with advanced statistical methods...

  4. Application of a bioeconomic model for supporting the management process of the small pelagic fishery in the Veneto Region, northern Adriatic Sea, Italy

    Silvia Silvestri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We explore the sustainability of the small pelagics fishery in the northern Adriatic sea, northeastern Italy, by means of a bioeconomic simulation model. This model reproduces the biological and economic conditions in which the fisheries occur. Starting from an initial condition (2004, the simulation model incorporates the biological and economic processes of the resources and the fishing fleet and computes the most probable future trajectory of the system under different management conditions. We analysed the projection of selected indicators (biomass, recruitment, catches, profits under four different management scenarios based on effort control, and we assessed the performance of these management measures against the current situation. The four scenarios were: i increase in fuel price, ii reduction in fuel price, iii limiting the number of days at sea, and iv extending the fishing period. Each management event was introduced in the third year of the simulation. For each scenario a stochastic simulation was carried out. Our results show that the impact of each management measure tested was not homogeneous across the fleet. In particular, comparatively smaller vessels generally display narrower profit margins and tend to be more sensitive to negative shocks, reinforcing the idea that management measures should be calibrated by stratifying the fleet before implementation.

  5. 78 FR 57106 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    2013-09-17

    ... Reductions Total proposed reduction Reduction second year Reduction third year (2016 Sector or fishery... the deep-water fishery until the third season deep-water fishery halibut PSC limit becomes available... established gear and sector apportionments for the GOA Pacific cod fisheries. It also implemented formulas to...

  6. Ocean Acidification Effects on Atlantic Cod Larval Survival and Recruitment to the Fished Population.

    Stiasny, Martina H; Mittermayer, Felix H; Sswat, Michael; Voss, Rüdiger; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Chierici, Melissa; Puvanendran, Velmurugu; Mortensen, Atle; Reusch, Thorsten B H; Clemmesen, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    How fisheries will be impacted by climate change is far from understood. While some fish populations may be able to escape global warming via range shifts, they cannot escape ocean acidification (OA), an inevitable consequence of the dissolution of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in marine waters. How ocean acidification affects population dynamics of commercially important fish species is critical for adapting management practices of exploited fish populations. Ocean acidification has been shown to impair fish larvae's sensory abilities, affect the morphology of otoliths, cause tissue damage and cause behavioural changes. Here, we obtain first experimental mortality estimates for Atlantic cod larvae under OA and incorporate these effects into recruitment models. End-of-century levels of ocean acidification (~1100 μatm according to the IPCC RCP 8.5) resulted in a doubling of daily mortality rates compared to present-day CO2 concentrations during the first 25 days post hatching (dph), a critical phase for population recruitment. These results were consistent under different feeding regimes, stocking densities and in two cod populations (Western Baltic and Barents Sea stock). When mortality data were included into Ricker-type stock-recruitment models, recruitment was reduced to an average of 8 and 24% of current recruitment for the two populations, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of including vulnerable early life stages when addressing effects of climate change on fish stocks.

  7. Rebuilding the eastern Baltic cod stock under environmental change (part II): taking into account the costs of a marine protected area

    Roeckmann, C.; Tol, R.S.J.; Schneider, U.A.; St.John, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study adds a cost analysis of the Eastern Baltic cod fishery to the existing model presented in Röckmann et al. [2007a]. As cost data on this international fishery do not exist, data from Denmark are extrapolated to the whole international fishery. Additionally, unit and total variable costs

  8. An Empty Donut Hole: the Great Collapse of a North American Fishery

    Kevin M. Bailey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma is North America's most abundant and lucrative natural fishery, and is the world's largest fishery for human food. The little-known demise of the "Donut Hole" stock of pollock in the Aleutian Basin of the central Bering Sea during the 1980s is the most spectacular fishery collapse in North American history, dwarfing the famous crashes of the northern cod and Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax. This collapse has received scant recognition and became evident only in 1993 when fishing was banned by an international moratorium; nearly 20 years later it has not recovered. The history of fishing in the North Pacific Ocean after World War II offers some insights into how the Donut Hole pollock fishery developed, and the societal and economic pressures behind it that so influenced the stock's fate. Overfishing was, without a doubt, the greatest contributor to the collapse of the Aleutian Basin pollock fishery, but a lack of knowledge about population biocomplexity added to the confusion of how to best manage the harvest. Unfortunately, the big scientific questions regarding the relationship of Donut Hole fish to other stocks are still unanswered.

  9. 77 FR 13253 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    2012-03-06

    ... Fisheries Division, Alaska Region NMFS, Attn: Ellen Sebastian. Mail comments to P.O. Box 21668, Juneau, AK... comments to 709 West 9th Street, Room 420A, Juneau, AK. Instructions: Comments must be submitted by one of... certificate of documentation consistent with 46 U.S.C. 12113 and MARAD regulations at 46 CFR 356.47. Under...

  10. 76 FR 49423 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-08-10

    ... market information used to conduct arbitration proceedings. This action is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the FMP, and other... Conservation and Management Act. Amendments 18 and 19 to the FMP implemented the CR Program. Regulations...

  11. Decision analysis applied to the fishery of the sea snail Concholepas concholepas from central northern coast of Chile

    Tam, J.; Palma, W.; Riofrio, M.; Aracena, O.; Lepez, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Formal decision analysis was applied to the management of loco (Concholepas concholepas, Fam. Muricidae) in Chile, 29-35 degrees S. Four interested groups were considered "Fishers", "Scientists", "Buyers" and the "State", along with three fishing effort levels and four subobjectives. The method was found to encourage the emergence of a consensus (here: halving of effort), and is recommended for use in other fisheries.

  12. 78 FR 6279 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2013-01-30

    ... conditions could potentially be at a disadvantage when negotiating terms of the exemption. Once the parties... Department of Fish and Game for five of the six CR Program fisheries subject to this proposed rule. NMFS..., and understand English; the ability to use a personal computer and the Internet; and the authority to...

  13. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    2010-04-26

    ... Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) pursuant to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act.... ACTION: Notification of a call for proposals for Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPCs) and... specific types or areas of habitat within EFH as HAPCs based on the following considerations: (1) the...

  14. Achieving maximum sustainable yield in mixed fisheries

    Ulrich, Clara; Vermard, Youen; Dolder, Paul J.; Brunel, Thomas; Jardim, Ernesto; Holmes, Steven J.; Kempf, Alexander; Mortensen, Lars O.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Rindorf, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Achieving single species maximum sustainable yield (MSY) in complex and dynamic fisheries targeting multiple species (mixed fisheries) is challenging because achieving the objective for one species may mean missing the objective for another. The North Sea mixed fisheries are a representative example

  15. Coastal fisheries in the Eastern Baltic Sea (Gulf of Finland and its basin from the 15 to the Early 20th centuries.

    Julia Lajus

    Full Text Available The paper describes and analyzes original data, extracted from historical documents and scientific surveys, related to Russian fisheries in the southeastern part of the Gulf of Finland and its inflowing rivers during the 15- early 20(th centuries. The data allow tracing key trends in fisheries development and in the abundance of major commercial species. In particular, results showed that, over time, the main fishing areas moved from the middle part of rivers downstream towards and onto the coastal sea. Changes in fishing patterns were closely interrelated with changes in the abundance of exploited fish. Anadromous species, such as Atlantic sturgeon, Atlantic salmon, brown trout, whitefish, vimba bream, smelt, lamprey, and catadromous eel were the most important commercial fish in the area because they were abundant, had high commercial value and were easily available for fishing in rivers. Due to intensive exploitation and other human-induced factors, populations of most of these species had declined notably by the early 20(th century and have now lost commercial significance. The last sturgeon was caught in 1996, and today only smelt and lamprey support small commercial fisheries. According to historical sources, catches of freshwater species such as roach, ide, pike, perch, ruffe and burbot regularly occurred, in some areas exceeding half of the total catch, but they were not as important as migrating fish and no clear trends in abundance are apparent. Of documented marine catch, Baltic herring appeared in the 16(th century, but did not become commercially significant until the 19(th century. From then until now herring have been the dominant catch.

  16. 75 FR 11778 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands; Final 2010...

    2010-03-12

    ... near future. For 2011, the model produces an ABC 15,000 mt higher than the proposed ABC. The SSC...,110,000 815,000 295,000 AI 19,000 19,000 0 19,000 19,000 0 Bogoslof 50 10 40 50 10 40 Pacific cod BSAI 168,780 193,030 -24,250 207,580 193,030 14,550 Sablefish BS 2,790 2,520 270 2,500 2,520 -20 AI 2,070 2...

  17. Ecological hypotheses for a historical reconstruction of upper trophic level biomass in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak

    MacKenzie, Brian; Alheit, J.; Conley, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    - documented long-term fisheries in this region are the herring (Clupea harengus) fisheries near Bohuslan, western Sweden, and in the Oresund. These fisheries have been important since at least the 1200s and appear to be partly climatically driven. However, in the rest of the Baltic, information about......Fish and marine mammal populations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak have undergone major fluctuations over the past five centuries. We summarize how these fluctuations may have depended on various forms of predation (e.g., cannibalism, fishing, hunting) and environmental processes. The best...... fisheries for herring and other fish species is rare until after 1900. During the 20th century, while the Baltic underwent eutrophication, the biomass and landings of three fish species (cod (Gadus morhua), herring, and sprat (Sprattus sprattus)) all increased, whereas the biomass of marine mammals (grey...

  18. Detection of Fish Bones in Cod Fillets by UV Illumination.

    Wang, Sheng; Nian, Rui; Cao, Limin; Sui, Jianxin; Lin, Hong

    2015-07-01

    The presence of fish bones is now regarded as an important hazard in fishery products, and there is increasing demand for new analytical techniques to control it more effectively. Here, the fluorescent properties of cod bones under UV illumination were investigated, and the maximal wavelengths for excitation and emission were determined to be 320 nm and 515 nm, respectively, demonstrating significantly different fluorescence characteristics and much higher fluorescence intensity compared to those of fillet muscles. Based on the results, UV fluorescence-assisted candling for the detection of bones in fishery products was developed for the first time. Using cod fillets as samples, the detection ratio of this technique was calculated as 90.86%, significantly higher than that of traditional candling under daylight (76.78%). Moreover, the working efficiency of the new technique was about 26% higher than that of the traditional method. A UV fluorescence imaging framework was also developed, and a method for automatic identification of the fish bones in the cod fillets based on the linear discriminant analysis proposed by Fisher was preliminarily realized, but the detection ratio was demonstrated to be relatively poor compared to those of candling techniques. These results allow us to suggest UV-based methods as new and promising approaches for routine monitoring of bones in fishery products.

  19. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prioritizing fishery management for loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) conservation in the northern Adriatic Sea from reproductive value analysis

    Lazar, Bojan; Heppell, Selina S.

    2013-01-01

    Fisheries bycatch often affects particular size classes of turtles. Because of the late age at maturity, the reproductive value (RV) of small juvenile, large juvenile and adult loggerheads vary by orders of magnitude. RV provides a relative measure of value for individuals, thereby allowing us to estimate the effects of different stressors based on the number of animals killed. Using RV as a comparative index, we assessed the relative impact of trawl and gillnet fi sheries operating in the no...

  1. The effect of external dummy transmitters on oxygen consumption and performance of swimming Atlantic cod

    Steinhausen, M.F.; Andersen, Niels Gerner; Steffensen, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Decreased critical swimming speed and increased oxygen consumption (Mo-2) was found for externally tagged Atlantic cod Gadus morhua swimming at a high speed of 0 center dot 9 body length (total length, L-Gamma) s(-1). No difference was found in the standard metabolic rate, indicating...... that the higher Mo-2 for tagged cod was due to drag force rather than increased costs to keep buoyancy. (c) 2006 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2006 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  2. Planktonic stages of small pelagic fishes (Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus) in the central Mediterranean Sea: The key role of physical forcings and implications for fisheries management

    Torri, Marco; Corrado, Raffaele; Falcini, Federico; Cuttitta, Angela; Palatella, Luigi; Lacorata, Guglielmo; Patti, Bernardo; Arculeo, Marco; Mifsud, Roberta; Mazzola, Salvatore; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2018-03-01

    Multidisciplinary studies are recently aiming to define diagnostic tools for fishery sustainability by coupling ichthyoplanktonic datasets, physical and bio-geochemical oceanographic measurements, and ocean modelling. The main goal of these efforts is to understand those processes that control the dispersion and fate of fish larvae and eggs, and thus tuning the inter-annual variability of the biomass of small pelagic fish species. In this paper we analyse the distribution of eggs and larvae as well as the biological features of the two species of pelagic fish, Engraulis encrasicolus and Sardinella aurita in the north-eastern sector of the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea) from ichthyoplanktonic data collected during the 2010 and 2011 summer cruises. We use Lagrangian simulations and satellite data (i.e., sea surface temperature, wind, and chlorophyll-a concentration) to recognize the main oceanographic patterns that mark eggs and larvae transport processes. We provide a mechanistic explanation of a cross-shore transport process by using a potential vorticity (PV) model that takes into account the role of wind stress in generating cold filaments. Our results show that the strong offshore transport towards Malta occurred in 2010 was likely due to a persistent Mistral wind forcing that generated high-PV cold filaments. This phenomenon was not found in the 2011 analysis, which indeed showed an along-shore transport towards the retention area of Capo Passero. Since, for the first time, we describe the spatial distribution of the early life stage of Sardinella aurita in the northern part of the Sicily Channel and we clarify the link between the ocean dynamics and the fate of small pelagic fish larvae, this work provides a useful, diagnostic tool for the sustainable management of fishery resources.

  3. 77 FR 19138 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan...

    2012-03-30

    ..., Acting Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries Service. For the... recruitment; virtual population analysis results and other estimates of stock size; sea sampling, port...

  4. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M.; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Livers of cod from the Barents Sea have been analysed for dioxins, PCBs and PBDEs. • The overall mean concentration of dioxins and DL-PCBs was 14.2 ng TEQ WHO-2005 /kg ww. • The concentrations of dioxins and DL-PCBs varied between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. • 20% of the samples had concentrations higher than 20 ng TEQ/kg ww. • The highest concentrations of dioxins and PCB were found in samples from the east area of the Barents Sea. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB 6 ) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009–2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005 /kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low

  5. STUDY ON OCEANGRAFHIC AND WEATHER CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN NATUNA SEA USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Teguh Prayogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian waters have abundance of natural resources; the potential of small pelagic fish in Natuna Sea and SouthChina Sea have not been optimized yet explores. Unfortunately, it was caused by lacking in the data of environmentalconditions that have been changed and the information of appropriate fishing ground. Hence, dynamical oceanographicinformation and weather condition is necessary to optimize small pelagic fish exploitation.Research location in Natuna Sea and its surrounding with geographical position is 08°N–03°S; 103°–111°E. Theoceanographic condition representative by monthly SST, Chl-a, SSH that derived from satellite data and Dipole ModeIndex for 2002-2007 from FRCGC website. Monthly wind data is variable for weather condition. Small pelagic fishabundance representative by annual fish production (2002-2005 and monthly Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE ofGoldstripe sardinella, Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2006. It was data collected from Directorate General of CaptureFisheries (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and daily fishing operation (2007 used to calculate match-up ratiothat was collected from Pemangkat fishing port in West Kalimantan. Research process consists of image processing,descriptive correlation analysis and GIS analysis to predict fishing ground map and match-up ratio calculation.Result of this research is the annual fish catch production of Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2002-2005 is tend toincrease and the monthly CPUE of both species is high during SE Monsoon (May-Sep that is condition contrarily in NWMonsoon (Nov-Apr. Meanwhile, the annual fish catch production of Goldstripe sardinella production is tend to decreasefrom 2002-2005, it has CPUE is high in early SE Monsoon (May. During the SE Monsoon (May-Sep when DM Index ispositive (+ the Indian scad and Bigeye scad production is high, for Goldstripe sardinella the fish production is highwhen DM Index is positive (+ in May. The accuracy of prediction map of

  6. [Effect of climate change on the fisheries conununity pattern in the overwintering ground of open waters of northern East China Sea].

    Liu, Zun-lei; Yuan, Xing-wei; Yang, Lin-lin; Yan, Li-ping; Tian, Yong-jun; Chen, Jia-hua

    2015-03-01

    Data sets of 26 fisheries target species from the fishery-depen-dent and fishery-independent surveys in the overwintering ground of open waters of northern East China Sea (OW-NECS), combined sea surface temperature (SST), were used to examine the links between diversity index, pattern of common variability and climate changes based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and generalized additive model (GAM). The results showed that the shift from a cold regime to a warm regime was detected in SST during the 1970s-2011 with step changes around 1982/ 1983. SST increased during the cold regime and the warm regime before 1998 (warming trend period, 1972-1998), and decreased during the warm regime after 1998 (cooling trend period, 1999-2011). Shannon diversity index was largely dependent on the filefish, which contributed up to 50% of the total production as a single species, with low diversity in the waters of the OW-NECS, during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Excluding the filefish, the diversity index linearly increased and decreased during 1972-1998 and 1999-2011, respectively. The variation pattern generally corresponds with the trend in water temperature, strongly suggesting the effect of the SST on the diversity. The first two components (PC1 and PC2) of PCA for target species, which accounted for 32.43% of the total variance, showed evident decadal variation patterns with a step change during 1992-1999 and inter-annual variability with short-period fluctuation, respectively. It seems that PC1 was associated with large scale climatic change, while PC2 was related to inter-annual oceanographic variability such as ENSO events. Linear fitting results showed winEOF1 had significant effect on PC1, and GAM analysis for PC1 showed that winter EOF1 (winEOF1) and summer EOF2 (sumEOF2) can explain 88.9% of the total variance. Nonlinear effect was also found between PC2 and win EOF1, indicating that the fish community structure, which had predominantly decadal

  7. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults

    Barbara Loi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure. The areas were located at Su Pallosu Bay, where pressure is high and Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo, a marine protected area where sea urchin harvesting is low. Methods Reproductive potential was estimated by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI from June 2013 to May 2014 both for individuals of commercial size (diameter without spines, TD ≥ 50 mm and the undersized ones with gonads (30 ≤ TD < 40 mm and 40 ≤ TD < 50 mm. Gamete output was calculated for the commercial-size class and the undersized individuals with fertile gonads (40 ≤ TD < 50 mm in relation to their natural density (gamete output per m2. Results The reproductive potential of populations was slightly different at the beginning of the sampling period but it progressed at different rates with an early spring spawning event in the high-pressure zone and two gamete depositions in early and late spring in the low-pressure zone. For each fertile size class, GSI values changed significantly during the year of our study and between the two zones. Although the multiple spawning events determined a two-fold higher total gamete output of population (popTGO in the low-pressure zone, the population mean gamete output (popMGO was similar in the two zones. In the high-pressure zone, the commercial-sized individuals represented approximatively 5% of the population, with almost all the individuals smaller than 60 mm producing an amount of gametes nearly three times lower than the

  8. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Detailed Crab Data From NOAA Fisheries Service 2012 Chukchi Sea Bottom Trawl Surveys

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detailed crab data collected from the 2012 NOAA/NMFS/AFSC/RACE crab-groundfish bottom trawl survey of the Chukchi Sea. 71 survey stations were...

  9. Fishery status, growth, reproduction biology and feeding habit of two scombrid fish from the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea

    Al-Zibdah, M.; Odat, N.

    2007-01-01

    The fishery and some biological aspects of two Scombrid fish species, Katsuwonus pelamis and Euthynnus affinis from the Gulf of Aqaba were studied during one year period (1999-2000). Monthly samples of the two species were collected to investigate growth, reproduction and feeding habit. Results showed that the Scombridae family form more than 60% of the total catch of Jordanian fishery. The length-weight relationships (LWr) in the two fish species demonstrated thatthe growth is of an allometric type (around 3). The condition factor (k) showed relatively consistent values in both species but revealed slight variability in growth periods. This could be attributed to the limited food availability in fish natural habitat. Different age classes were observed in the catch of the two species irrespective of season. The mean GSI exhibited similar change pattern with season in both sexes of the two fish. Spawning behavior and planktonic larvae of both fish were not observed in the field. This could be inferred that these fish are not migrating to the region for reproduction. The food composition of K. pelamis and E. affinis suggests that the fish compete for the same food items. These are the fish At herinomorous lacunosus, crustacean and molluscans. Prey occurrence in fish stomachs is attributed mainly to the seasonal availability of food in the Gulf of Aqaba. High abundance of food items in winter may indicate that the two species migrate at the climax of primary productivity in the Gulf. (author)

  10. Vultures of the seas: hyperacidic stomachs in wandering albatrosses as an adaptation to dispersed food resources, including fishery wastes.

    David Grémillet

    Full Text Available Animals are primarily limited by their capacity to acquire food, yet digestive performance also conditions energy acquisition, and ultimately fitness. Optimal foraging theory predicts that organisms feeding on patchy resources should maximize their food loads within each patch, and should digest these loads quickly to minimize travelling costs between food patches. We tested the prediction of high digestive performance in wandering albatrosses, which can ingest prey of up to 3 kg, and feed on highly dispersed food resources across the southern ocean. GPS-tracking of 40 wandering albatrosses from the Crozet archipelago during the incubation phase confirmed foraging movements of between 475-4705 km, which give birds access to a variety of prey, including fishery wastes. Moreover, using miniaturized, autonomous data recorders placed in the stomach of three birds, we performed the first-ever measurements of gastric pH and temperature in procellariformes. These revealed surprisingly low pH levels (average 1.50±0.13, markedly lower than in other seabirds, and comparable to those of vultures feeding on carrion. Such low stomach pH gives wandering albatrosses a strategic advantage since it allows them a rapid chemical breakdown of ingested food and therefore a rapid digestion. This is useful for feeding on patchy, natural prey, but also on fishery wastes, which might be an important additional food resource for wandering albatrosses.

  11. Regime shifts, resilience and recovery of a cod stock

    Lindegren, Martin; Diekmann, Rabea; Möllmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the North and Baltic seas Atlantic cod Gadus morhua stocks collapsed as part or one of the major factors inducing large-scale ecosystem regime shifts. Determining the relative contribution of overfishing and climate variability in causing these shifts has proven difficult. While facing similar...

  12. Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) in the active upwelling zone on the west coast of South Africa 1969-12-02 to 1969-12-16 (NODC Accession 0071850)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton biomass data (displacement volume, wet mass, and dry mass) collected by South African the Sea Fisheries Research Institute (SFRI) during SFRI upwelling...

  13. Suitability of otolith microchemistry for stock separation of Baltic cod

    Heidemann, F; Marohn, L; Hinrichsen, HH

    2012-01-01

    differences between individuals from the eastern and the western Baltic Sea and between North Sea and Baltic Sea samples. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Y/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zr/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios had the strongest discriminatory power. A further separation of individuals caught in 3 different spawning grounds of the eastern Baltic......, however, was not possible. Elemental compositions from the core regions of otoliths from young of the year cod caught in eastern and western Baltic Sea spawning grounds showed significant differences in Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mg/Ca concentrations. Analyses of similarities again showed significant differences...

  14. Recovery in eastern Baltic cod: is increased recruitment caused by decreased predation on early life stages?

    Neumann, Viola; Köster, Fritz; Schaber, M.

    2014-01-01

    Cod (Gadus morhua) recruitment in the eastern Baltic Sea is influenced by predation on early life stages by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus), which is considered as one of the mechanisms preventing cod recovery in the 1990s. In the light of improved cod recruitment...... in the second half of the 2000s, new analyses of stomach content of sprat and herring were conducted, to elucidate the contribution of changes in predation pressure on cod recruitment. Comparison of stomach contents of sprat and herring in 2004–2008 with data from the 1990s showed a similar diet composition...

  15. Status and trends of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic fish stocks in the North Sea : Thirty-year overview

    Serchuk, F.M.; Kirkegaard, Eskild; Daan, N.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the status of the major roundfish, flatfish, and pelagic stocks in the North Sea over the past 30 years are reviewed. Synopses are presented on trends in catches, fishing mortality, spawning-stock biomass, and recruitment for eight stocks (cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice, sole......, herring, and mackerel), together with an evaluation of the current state of these resources and the most resent management advice provided by the ICES Advisory, Committee on Fishery Management. (C) 1996 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea...

  16. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod genetics in the Aleutian Islands 2004-2007

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Landscape genetics of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus within the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) management area of Alaska was examined in samples from nine...

  17. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2010-07-23

    ... of a 2.67-percent fee for cost recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so they can calculate the required payment for cost recovery fees...-Stevens Act). The Program includes a cost recovery provision to collect fees to recover the actual costs...

  18. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2013-08-01

    ... of a 0.69-percent fee for cost recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so they can calculate the required payment for cost recovery fees... Program includes a cost recovery provision to collect fees to recover the actual costs directly related to...

  19. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2011-07-21

    ... of a 1.23-percent fee for cost recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so they can calculate the required payment for cost recovery fees...-Stevens Act). The Program includes a cost recovery provision to collect fees to recover the actual costs...

  20. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    2012-07-27

    ... of a zero (0) percent fee for cost recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... Program includes a cost recovery provision to collect fees to recover the actual costs directly related to... processing sectors to each pay half the cost recovery fees. Catcher/processor quota share holders are...

  1. Historical changes of the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem: modelling the role and impact of primary productivity and fisheries changes over time

    Piroddi, Chiara; Coll, Marta; Liquete, Camino; Macias, Diego; Greer, Krista; Buszowski, Joe; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Danovaro, Roberto; Christensen, Villy

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been defined “under siege” because of intense pressures from multiple human activities; yet there is still insufficient information on the cumulative impact of these stressors on the ecosystem and its resources. We evaluate how the historical (1950-2011) trends of various ecosystems groups/species have been impacted by changes in primary productivity (PP) combined with fishing pressure. We investigate the whole Mediterranean Sea using a food web modelling approach. Results indicate that both changes in PP and fishing pressure played an important role in driving species dynamics. Yet, PP was the strongest driver upon the Mediterranean Sea ecosystem. This highlights the importance of bottom-up processes in controlling the biological characteristics of the region. We observe a reduction in abundance of important fish species (~34%, including commercial and non-commercial) and top predators (~41%), and increases of the organisms at the bottom of the food web (~23%). Ecological indicators, such as community biomass, trophic levels, catch and diversity indicators, reflect such changes and show overall ecosystem degradation over time. Since climate change and fishing pressure are expected to intensify in the Mediterranean Sea, this study constitutes a baseline reference for stepping forward in assessing the future management of the basin.

  2. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size,

  3. Thermal niche of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: limits, tolerance and optima

    Righton, David A.; Andersen, Ken Haste; Neat, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse, but thi......Recent studies in the marine environment have suggested that the limited phenotypic plasticity of cold-adapted species such as Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. will cause distributions to shift toward the poles in response to rising sea temperatures. Some cod stocks are predicted to collapse...... niche of approximately 12°C, but latitudinal differences in water temperature meant that cod in the warmer, southern regions experienced 3 times the degree days (DD; ~4000 DD yr–1) than individuals from northern regions (~1200 DD yr–1). Growth rates increased with temperature, reaching a maximum...

  4. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    , lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby...... affect the cod stock in the North Sea. The objective of the present study was to elucidate if infections are associated with a decrease or an increase of fish size when examining fish of the same age. We investigated effects of H. aduncum infections on the growth rate of cod larvae by using the otolith...

  5. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    2012-05-21

    ..., and for species caught incidentally in the whiting fishery (including lingcod, Pacific cod, canary..., depending on the formula used, there may be new QS permit owners, while some current QS permit owners who.... The current regulations give QS permit owners with excess QS two years after QS transfer begins to...

  6. 75 FR 15625 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    2010-03-30

    ... Multispecies Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and is intended to increase the likelihood of harvesting the total... action is being taken to allow vessels to fully harvest the TACs for transboundary stocks of GB cod... Management Area through April 30, 2010, to facilitate the harvest of the TAC while ensuring that the TAC will...

  7. Radioactive contamination in the Barents Sea, past and present status, uptake of radinuclides in fish and its impact on fisheries

    Føyn, Lars

    1994-01-01

    During the atmospheric nuclear bomb test at the end of the fifties and in the beginning of the sixties the Institute of Marine Research, IMR, monitored the radioactive contamination in commercial landed fish from the Barents Sea. There were indications of an immediate response in uptake of radionuclides depending on the time of the year, probably due to the food situation for the fish. There was also indications of species dependant uptake of radionuclides in fish. Even duri...

  8. Loggerhead sea turtle bycatch data in artisanal fisheries within a marine protected area: fishermen surveys versus scientific observations

    Lozano, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Loggerhead sea turtles can be incidentally captured by artisanal gears but information about the impact of this fishing is inconsistent and scarce. Recent studies have observed that the bycatch, or incidental catch rate, in fishermen surveys is irregular. The aim of this study was to compare direct data (onboard observers concerning the incidental catch of loggerhead sea turtles by the artisanal vessels versus data from fishermen surveys. The study area was the Cabo de Gata-Níjar marine protected area, situated in the western Mediterranean (southeast of the Iberian peninsula. We observed two loggerhead turtles that were incidentally caught in a total of 165 fishing operations. According to fishermen surveys, a total of nine loggerheads were incidentally caught in 861 fishing operations. The differences between the loggerhead sea turtle bycatch reported by fishermen surveys and scientific observations versus random distribution (x2 = 0.3146, P = 0.575, df = 1 were not significant. We conclude that the surveys are useful but that findings should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Northeast Regional Cod Tagging Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Scientific justification: Canadian and US stock assessments for Atlantic cod indicate considerable fluctuation in stock abundance and recruitment over the last 20...

  10. Effects of Technological Parameters and Fishing Ground on Quality Attributes of Thawed, Chilled Cod Fillets Stored in Modified Atmosphere Packaging

    Bøknæs, Niels; Østerberg, Carsten; Sørensen, Rie

    2001-01-01

    . The parameters investigated were: (1) packaging in modified atmosphere during frozen storage, (2)frozen storage period and temperature, (3),fishing ground and chill storage temperature, together with (4) the addition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) to cod fillets before freezing......Effects were studied of various technological parameters and fishing ground on quality attributes of thawed, chilled cod fillets stored in modified atmosphere packaging Frozen fillets of Baltic Sea and Barents Sea cod, representing two commercial fishing grounds, were used as raw material...... of Baltic Sea cod. Therefore, addition of trimethylamine oxide and NaCl to Baltic Sea cod fillets was evaluated and shown to protect P, phosphoreum against fro::en storage inactivation and this explained the observed differences in growth of the spoilage bacteria and trimethylamine production between thawed...

  11. Developing Baltic cod recruitment models I : Resolving spatial and temporal dynamics of spawning stock and recruitment for cod, herring, and sprat

    Köster, Fritz; Möllmann, C.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    The Baltic Sea comprises a heterogeneous oceanographic environment influencing the spatial and temporal potential for reproductive success of cod (Gadus morhua) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) in the different spawning basins. Hence, to quantify stock and recruitment dynamics, it is necessary......-disaggregated multispecies virtual population analyses (MSVPA) were performed for interacting species cod, herring (Clupea harengus), and sprat in the different subdivisions of the Central Baltic. The MSVPA runs revealed distinct spatial trends in population abundance, spawning biomass, recruitment, and predation...

  12. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  13. Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua benefits from the availability of seagrass (Zostera marina nursery habitat

    Richard J. Lilley

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is a species of significant economic and historic importance but infamous for its decline. Apart from overfishing, the causes of this decline and its subsequent lack of recovery remain largely unresolved. Indeed, the degree to which specific habitats are important for this species remains unquantified at the scale of North Atlantic. Here, the literature on the role of eelgrass meadows (Zostera marina as valuable nursery habitat for the Atlantic cod is reviewed and synthesized. Evidence is presented on relative densities of Atlantic cod in shallow water environments and in eelgrass meadows in comparison to alternative habitats. In addition, evidence pertaining to the ’viability gains’ attributed to the use of eelgrass meadows as nursery habitat (growth and survival by juvenile Atlantic cod is analyzed. Although juvenile Atlantic cod use of Z. marina is found to be facultative, when possible, available literatures indicates that they may select Z. marina as a nursery habitat where they are found in high density (average of at least 246 ha−1. From their use of Z. marina habitat the juvenile Atlantic cod receives viability benefits from it, improving their chances of reaching maturation. This paper provides strong evidence that eelgrass meadows are of significant importance to contributing to Atlantic cod stocks. Keywords: Zostera marina, Eelgrass, Gadus morhua, Fisheries, Juveniles, Nursery habitat

  14. [Assessment of production of eggs of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) on the basis of long-term ichthyoplankton data].

    Karaseva, E M

    2011-01-01

    Proceeding from long-term data on the numbers of eggs of cod in ichthyoplankton, the total annual production of cod eggs at four main spawning grounds of the Baltic Sea was calculated. It was shown that the long-term fluctuations of cod egg production were positively related to the dynamics of the volume of waters coming to the Baltic Sea in years of the North Sea advections. It is suggested that this dependence was determined by a set of adaptations providing the extension of cod reproduction upon the improvement of the environment.

  15. Fisheries regulation

    Jensen, Frank; Frost, Hans Staby; Abildtrup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Economists normally claim that a stock externality arises within fisheries because each individual fisherman does not take the effect on stock size into account when making harvest decisions. Due to the stock externality, it is commonly argued that fisheries regulation is necessary, but regulatory...... decisions are complicated by a tremendous amount of uncertainty and asymmetric information. This paper provides an overview of selected parts of the literature on the regulation of fisheries under uncertainty and asymmetric information, and possible areas for future research are identified. Specifically...

  16. Co-location of passive gear fisheries in offshore wind farms in the German EEZ of the North Sea: A first socio-economic scoping

    Stelzenmüller, V.; Diekmann, Rabea; Bastardie, Francois

    2016-01-01

    and size selectivityhave motivated the development of selective systems in trawl fisheries that utilize more than one selec-tive device simultaneously. An example can be found in the Swedish demersal trawl fishery targetingNorway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), which simultaneously aims at avoiding catches...

  17. 75 FR 58337 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    2010-09-24

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery published on.... 090511911-0307-02] RIN 0648-AX89 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...

  18. Fishery Co-Management: A Practical Handbook

    Collaborative Surveys and Analysis in the Sea Egg Fishery of Barbados. ..... While it is useful to have representation of all stakeholders, a line must be drawn or the ...... Plan and prepare handouts and material to be distributed and presented.

  19. American Fisheries Act (AFA) Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning January 1, 2000, all vessels and processors wishing to participate in the non-CDQ Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) pollock fishery are required to...

  20. Fisheries Districts

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  1. Biological aspects of the Sailfin dory Zenopsis conchifer (Lowe, 1852 caught by deep-sea trawling fishery off southern Brazil

    Rodrigo Silvestre Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological aspects of sailfin dory, Zenopsis conchifer, were studied from 839 individuals obtained from deep-sea commercial bottom trawling off southern Brazil at depths up to 526 m in 2002 and 2003. Samples included fish from 101 mm Lt and 15 g up to 640 mm Lt and 2,9 g. The sex-ratio was 50% at 150 mm Lt and between 300-350 mm Lt, with females outnumbering males in the remaining size classes. Reproductive activity seems to peak between July and August (austral winter. Size at attainment of 50% maturity (Lt50 was 311 mm Lt in females. The mean length and maturity of the specimens increased with depth, suggesting that larger fish concentrate in deeper waters.Aspectos biológicos do peixe-galo-de-profundidade, Zenopsis conchifer, foram estudados a partir de 839 peixes amostrados na pesca comercial de arrasto de profundidade (até 526 m no sul do Brasil entre 2002 e 2003. As amostras incluíram peixes entre 101 mm TL e 15 g até 640 mm TL e 2.952 g. A proporção sexual foi próxima à paridade na classe de tamanho de 150 mm TL e entre 300-350 mm TL, sendo que as fêmeas predominaram nas demais classes. A atividade reprodutiva apresentou um pico durante o inverno. O tamanho de primeira maturação (TL50 nas fêmeas foi de 311 mm TL. Os comprimentos corporais e a maturidade sexual aumentaram com a profundidade, sugerindo que os maiores exemplares se concentram águas profundas.

  2. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts...... for these parasites. Here, we report from an investigation of 368 cod (total length [TL] 6-49 cm; caught in ICES Subdivision 25) that the infection level of juvenile cod (TL 6-30 cm) with larvae of C. osculatum and P. decipiens is absent or very low, whereas it increases drastically in larger cod (TL 31-48 cm...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  3. Diet of Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) studied by using citizen science

    Enoksen, Siri Elise; Reiss, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The Norwegian coastal cod (Gadus morhua) is a keystone species in the food web of northern Norwegian fjords. Their relatively stationary populations might specifically depend on local food resources, but the diet of cod has rarely been studied in fjord systems. Using a citizen science approach, where recreational anglers and tourists participated in the sampling, we studied small-scale differences in the diet composition of cod in a fjord system in northern Norway. We compared the cod diet from the MPA Saltstraumen, characterised by strong tidal currents and a highly diverse and abundant fauna, with the inner fjord area of Skjerstadfjord. The diet composition of cod significantly differed between both areas within the fjord. Although fish was the dominant prey in both areas, cod consumed > 40% invertebrates in terms of weight, even in the cod size class of 70-99 cm. The invertebrate prey also caused the observed spatial differences. In Saltstraumen, brittle stars (Ophiuroidea), crabs (Brachyura) and sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) were important food sources for cod, while sea urchins (Echinoidea), clams (Bivalvia), shrimps (Caridea) and krill (Euphausiacea) dominated the diet in the inner Skjerstadfjord. The high densities of sessile fauna in the dynamic environment of Saltstraumen, was only partly reflected in the diet of cod, with only Holothuroidea found in 17% of the stomachs. High rates of empty stomachs (24%), cannibalism as well as a higher proportion of low-energy prey in the diet of large cod, may indicate a shortage of high quality food in Skjerstadfjord. The samples for this study were collected through a citizen science campaign. This approach might provide opportunities to be used for coastal ecological monitoring with potential applications in local ecosystem management strategies through public involvement.

  4. AFSC/ABL: Intra-annual growth in body weight of chum salmon captured incidentally in the Bering Sea commercial fishery for walleye pollock

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires the development of physical and biological time series that index ocean productivity for stock assessment and...

  5. Threshold-dependent climate effects and high mortality limit recruitment and recovery of the Kattegat cod

    Lindegren, Martin; Eero, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Cod in the Kattegat is one of the most dramatic examples of stock collapse, where despite large management efforts, almost no signs of recovery have been observed. We investigate how multiple physical and biological factors could potentially influence recruitment and recovery of Kattegat cod, using...... non-additive threshold models. In contrast to previous studies on recruitment dynamics of Kattegat cod Gadus morhua, we found that recruitment variability may be explained by a combination of the size of the spawning stock and external conditions (i.e. sea surface temperature and oxygen concentrations...

  6. Cod monitoring; results 2015, quarter 3

    Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Trapman, B.K.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  7. Cod monitoring : results 2015, quarter 2

    Teal, L.R.; Reijden, van der K.J.; Machiels, M.A.M.; Kraan, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cod monitoring program is part of the Dutch cod avoidance plan developed by the Dutch Government together with the Dutch fishing sector. The aim of this cod monitoring program is to provide information on the Catch per Unit Effort (CpUE) in the TR fleet (bottom trawls and seines). This is needed

  8. Radiation analysis in the major areas of marine fisheries research

    Murty, A.V.S.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation analysis has been a proven technique to solve, relatively easily and quickly, some of the pressing problems in marine fisheries to the utmost satisfaction. Major areas of marine fisheries research - namely, the determination of sea water characteristics, the productivity studies, the pollution effects, the population dynamics and the preservation of sea foods - wherein the radiation treatment is fully helpful are discussed in detail. The problems encountered in the marine fisheries in India in this context are also outlined. (author)

  9. 50 CFR 660.720 - Interim protection for sea turtles.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim protection for sea turtles. 660.720 Section 660.720 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... Migratory Fisheries § 660.720 Interim protection for sea turtles. (a) Until the effective date of §§ 660.707...

  10. Reproductive biology of black seabream Acanthopagrus schlegelii, threadfin porgy Evynnis cardinalis and red pargo Pagrus major in the northern South China Sea with consideration of fishery status and management needs.

    Law, C S W; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Y

    2017-07-01

    The reproductive biology of three commercially significant seabream species (family: Sparidae) Acanthopagrus schlegelii, Evynnis cardinalis and Pagrus major, taken from Hong Kong and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS) waters, were investigated for their sexual patterns, spawning seasons, length at maturity and exploitation in relation to their conservation and management status. Histological analysis showed E. cardinalis and P. major to be functionally gonochoristic, the latter having a bisexual juvenile stage and being a rudimentary hermaphrodite. Acanthopagrus schlegelii is a protandric hermaphrodite. Standard length (L S ) at 50% sex change for A. schlegelii is 291 mm. L S at 50% female maturity for E. cardinalis and P. major are 117 and 332 mm, respectively. For all three species, the spawning period falls between November and March. The study highlights geographical differences in reproductive biology among the species and a paucity of fishery or other population-related data. While heavy fishing pressure, life-history characteristics and absence of effective management throughout the geographic ranges of these species make them susceptible to overfishing, they nonetheless appear to be generally more resilient than many other taxa that comprise the multi-species fisheries of the region, possibly due to their relatively rapid sexual maturation and spatial movement patterns. Overall, however, little is known of the biology, fishing history and current fishery status of sparids in general in the northern SCS and the current study is one of the first to examine such aspects of this family in the region and to consider appropriate management options. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Archived DNA reveals fisheries and climate induced collapse of a major fishery

    Bonanomi, Sara; Pellissier, Loïc; Therkildsen, Nina Overgaard

    2015-01-01

    Fishing and climate change impact the demography of marine fishes, but it is generally ignored that many species are made up of genetically distinct locally adapted populations that may show idiosyncratic responses to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Here, we track 80 years of Atlantic...... cod (Gadus morhua) population dynamics in West Greenland using DNA from archived otoliths in combination with fish population and niche based modeling. We document how the interacting effects of climate change and high fishing pressure lead to dramatic spatiotemporal changes in the proportions...... and abundance of different genetic populations, and eventually drove the cod fishery to a collapse in the early 1970s. Our results highlight the relevance of fisheries management at the level of genetic populations under future scenarios of climate change...

  12. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.; Haridas, P.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    The physical and chemical forcing which drive the Arabian production is now fairly well understood. The main attributes, which contribute to the productivity are (1) the boundary processes which manifest as upwelling during summer monsoon and (2...

  13. Socio-economic Impacts—Fisheries

    Pinnegar, John K.; Engelhard, Georg H.; Jones, Miranda C.

    2016-01-01

    Fishers and scientists have known for over 100 years that the status of fish stocks can be greatly influenced by prevailing climatic conditions. Based on historical sea surface temperature data, the North Sea has been identified as one of 20 ‘hot spots’ of climate change globally and projections......—one of the most important fishing grounds in the world—as well as available projections for North Sea fisheries in the future. Discussion focuses on biological, operational and wider market concerns, as well as on possible economic consequences. It is clear that fish communities and the fisheries that target them...

  14. Mixed fisheries management: protecting the weakest link

    Batsleer, J.; Poos, J.J.; Marchal, P.; Vermard, Y.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2013-01-01

    North Sea cod Gadus morhua stock is outside safe biological limits, and total allowable catch (TAC) management has proved ineffective to rebuild the stock. The European Commission is considering the imposition of a discard ban to preserve vulnerable and economically important fish stocks. We

  15. Deep-sea seamount fisheries: a review of global status and future prospects Pesquerías de aguas profundas realizadas en montes submarinos: revision global de su estado y perspectivas futuras

    Malcolm R Clark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Seamounts support a large number and wide diversity of fish species. A number of these spe-cies can form aggregations for spawning or feeding and are the target of large-scale trawl fisheries. Since the 1970s, seamounts throughout the worlds' oceans have been explored for commercial resources, starting with efforts by the Soviet Union and Japan, which deployed distant water fleets around the world. Since then, a large number of countries have pursued fisheries on seamounts, especially in the deep sea. The total cumula-tive catch from seamount trawl fisheries exceeds two million tonnes. Catch histories for many deep-sea species show rapidly declining landings, and careful management is required to increase the chances of sustain-able fisheries. The low productivity of many seamount species limits the prospects for the large-scale exploita-tion of fish and invertebrate resources on seamounts.Los montes submarinos constituyen el habitat de una vasta y amplia variedad de especies ícticas. Parte de estas especies pueden formar agregaciones reproductivas o alimenticias, siendo objeto de importantes pesquerías de arrastre. A partir de la década de los 70' los montes submarinos en los diversos océanos fueron explorados en busca de recursos comerciales, labores que se iniciaron con la expansion de flotas de aguas distantes de la Unión Soviética y Japón alrededor del mundo. Desde ese momento, un gran número de otros países ha desarrollado pesquerías en montes submarinos, especialmente en aguas profundas. La captura total acumulada que se ha extraído en los montes submarinos excede a dos millones de toneladas. La historia de las faenas pesqueras realizadas en numerosas especies de aguas profundas muestra una rápida disminución en los desembarques, razón por la cual requieren de un cuidadoso manejo para incrementar la oportunidad de lograr la condición de pesquerías sustentables. La baja productividad observada en diversas especies indica

  16. Inversion of CDOM and COD in water using HJ-1/CCD data

    Huang, Miaofen; Xing, Xufeng; Zhao, Zulong; Li, Zhanqiang; Wang, Xinxing

    2014-01-01

    With the in-situ measurement data including the absorption coefficient of the CDOM, apparent optical properties and the COD, a regression model was established for retrieving ag(440) based on the remote sensing reflectance of the first and the third band of the environment satellite HJ-1/CCD. The measurement data were obtained at the regions of Panjin, Liaoning province in May 2008 and August 2009. Secondly, the remote sensing regression model was created based on the correlation of the CDOM optical properties and the COD. Finally, using the HJ-1/CCD data from 2009 to 2011 in Liaodong bay, the thematic snapshots of water environmental parameters in coastal waters, such as the CDOM and the COD, were calculated and analyzed. The results showed that: (1) the distribution of the CDOM tends to decrease from offshore areas to distant sea with some zonated character; (2) Most of the retrieved CDOM values vary between 0.2–1.7m-1, which is consistent with the measured value in 2009 and 2010 years; (3) the spatial distribution of the COD has good consistency with the CDOM, also shows a certain zonated distribution in coastal-offshore areas; (4) in September 2009 and September 2011, the values of the COD was basically below 40 mg/L while the values of the COD in September 2010 are relatively higher, mostly above 55 mg/L; (5) in June 2011 and May 2010, the COD values are nearly all larger than 55 mg/L

  17. 50 CFR Figure 20 to Part 679 - Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steller sea lion conservation area (SCA) of the Bering Sea 20 Figure 20 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 20 Figure 20 to Part 679—Steller sea lion conservation area...

  18. Host size-dependent anisakid infection in Baltic cod Gadus morhua associated with differential food preferences

    Zuo, Shaozhi; Huwer, Bastian; Bahlool, Qusay

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the infection level of Baltic cod Gadus morhua with the anisakid nematode larvae Contracaecum osculatum and Pseudoterranova decipiens has been recorded during recent years due to the expanding local population of grey seals Halichoerus grypus, which act as final hosts......). A third nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum was rarely found. The study indicates that the prey animals for large cod act as transport hosts for the parasite larvae. Analyses of stomach contents of cod caught in the same area (2007-2014) showed that small benthic organisms (including polychaetes Harmothoë...... suggest that the C. osculatum life cycle in the Baltic Sea includes grey seals as final hosts, sprat as the first transport host and cod as second transport host. It may be speculated that sprat obtain infection by feeding on copepods and/or cladocerans, which could serve as the first intermediate hosts...

  19. The seascape of demersal fish nursery areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a first step towards the implementation of spatial planning for trawl fisheries.

    Francesco Colloca

    Full Text Available The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%. This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006 aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy

  20. The seascape of demersal fish nursery areas in the North Mediterranean Sea, a first step towards the implementation of spatial planning for trawl fisheries.

    Colloca, Francesco; Garofalo, Germana; Bitetto, Isabella; Facchini, Maria Teresa; Grati, Fabio; Martiradonna, Angela; Mastrantonio, Gianluca; Nikolioudakis, Nikolaos; Ordinas, Francesc; Scarcella, Giuseppe; Tserpes, George; Tugores, M Pilar; Valavanis, Vasilis; Carlucci, Roberto; Fiorentino, Fabio; Follesa, Maria C; Iglesias, Magdalena; Knittweis, Leyla; Lefkaditou, Eugenia; Lembo, Giuseppe; Manfredi, Chiara; Massutí, Enric; Pace, Marie Louise; Papadopoulou, Nadia; Sartor, Paolo; Smith, Christopher J; Spedicato, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The identification of nursery grounds and other essential fish habitats of exploited stocks is a key requirement for the development of spatial conservation planning aimed at reducing the adverse impact of fishing on the exploited populations and ecosystems. The reduction in juvenile mortality is particularly relevant in the Mediterranean and is considered as one of the main prerequisites for the future sustainability of trawl fisheries. The distribution of nursery areas of 11 important commercial species of demersal fish and shellfish was analysed in the European Union Mediterranean waters using time series of bottom trawl survey data with the aim of identifying the most persistent recruitment areas. A high interspecific spatial overlap between nursery areas was mainly found along the shelf break of many different sectors of the Northern Mediterranean indicating a high potential for the implementation of conservation measures. Overlap of the nursery grounds with existing spatial fisheries management measures and trawl fisheries restricted areas was also investigated. Spatial analyses revealed considerable variation depending on species and associated habitat/depth preferences with increased protection seen in coastal nurseries and minimal protection seen for deeper nurseries (e.g. Parapenaeus longirostris 6%). This is partly attributed to existing environmental policy instruments (e.g. Habitats Directive and Mediterranean Regulation EC 1967/2006) aiming at minimising impacts on coastal priority habitats such as seagrass, coralligenous and maerl beds. The new knowledge on the distribution and persistence of demersal nurseries provided in this study can support the application of spatial conservation measures, such as the designation of no-take Marine Protected Areas in EU Mediterranean waters and their inclusion in a conservation network. The establishment of no-take zones will be consistent with the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy applying the ecosystem

  1. Introduction to fisheries oceanography

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Fisheries oceanography can be applied to fisheries ecology, fisheries management and practical fishing. Physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, currents, waves, light, oxygen and salinity) have profound effect on fish...

  2. North Atlantic ecosystem shifts revealed by cod otolith δ15N and δ13C chronologies

    Pedersen, Jens Brøgger; Nielsen, Jens Munk; Steingrund, Petur

    . To study the link between environmental changes and ecosystem trophic structure we developed δ15N and δ13C chronologies by analyzing the organic matrix of cod otoliths from the Faroe Shelf cod population (1950-2010) and the Nuuk Fjord cod population (1927-2009). Significant correlations between δ15N & δ13C...... of organic matrix of otolith core material (Nuuk Fjord) and annual growth increments in Ocean Quahog (A. Islandica) shells will be included.......Changes in climate and exploitation have caused large fluctuations in the productivity of many North Atlantic cod populations and the collapse of many cod fisheries. These fluctuations are most likely due to a combined effect of physical processes and changes in ecosystem trophic structure...

  3. Regional metier definition: a comparative investigation of statistical methods using a workflow applied to international otter trawl fisheries in the North Sea

    Deporte, Nicolas; Ulrich, Clara; Mahevas, Stephanie; Demaneche, Sebastien; Bastardie, Francois

    2012-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy recognizes the importance of accounting for heterogeneity in fishing practices, and metier-based sampling is now at the core of the EU Data Collection Framework. The implementation of such an approach would require Member States to agree on the standard regional metier definitions and on practical rules to categorize logbook records into metiers. Several alternative approaches have been used in the past to categorize landings profiles, but no consensus has...

  4. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  5. 77 FR 14304 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    2012-03-09

    .... 110207103-2041-02] RIN 0648-BA80 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection published on February 3, 2012. This...

  6. 75 FR 1023 - International Fisheries Regulations; Fisheries in the Western Pacific; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii...

    2010-01-08

    ...; Pelagic Fisheries; Hawaii-based Shallow-set Longline Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... process is preserved for closing the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery as a result of the fishery...

  7. Fishery stock assessment of Kiddi shrimp ( Parapenaeopsis stylifera) in the Northern Arabian Sea Coast of Pakistan by using surplus production models

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Mu, Yongtong; Memon, Aamir Mahmood; Kalhoro, Muhammad Talib; Shah, Syed Baber Hussain

    2017-07-01

    Pakistani marine waters are under an open access regime. Due to poor management and policy implications, blind fishing is continued which may result in ecological as well as economic losses. Thus, it is of utmost importance to estimate fishery resources before harvesting. In this study, catch and effort data, 1996-2009, of Kiddi shrimp Parapenaeopsis stylifera fishery from Pakistani marine waters was analyzed by using specialized fishery software in order to know fishery stock status of this commercially important shrimp. Maximum, minimum and average capture production of P. stylifera was observed as 15 912 metric tons (mt) (1997), 9 438 mt (2009) and 11 667 mt/a. Two stock assessment tools viz. CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were used to compute MSY (maximum sustainable yield) of this organism. In CEDA, three surplus production models, Fox, Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson, along with three error assumptions, log, log normal and gamma, were used. For initial proportion (IP) 0.8, the Fox model computed MSY as 6 858 mt (CV=0.204, R 2 =0.709) and 7 384 mt (CV=0.149, R 2 =0.72) for log and log normal error assumption respectively. Here, gamma error produced minimization failure. Estimated MSY by using Schaefer and Pella-Tomlinson models remained the same for log, log normal and gamma error assumptions i.e. 7 083 mt, 8 209 mt and 7 242 mt correspondingly. The Schafer results showed highest goodness of fit R 2 (0.712) values. ASPIC computed MSY, CV, R 2, F MSY and B MSY parameters for the Fox model as 7 219 mt, 0.142, 0.872, 0.111 and 65 280, while for the Logistic model the computed values remained 7 720 mt, 0.148, 0.868, 0.107 and 72 110 correspondingly. Results obtained have shown that P. stylifera has been overexploited. Immediate steps are needed to conserve this fishery resource for the future and research on other species of commercial importance is urgently needed.

  8. Challenging ICES age estimation protocols: lessons learned from the eastern Baltic cod stock

    Hüssy, Karin; Radtke, Krzysztof; Plikshs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    Over the recent decades, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) has set guidelines for best practise quality control of age estimation procedures. The applicability of these guidelines is assessed by reviewing the ageing issues of eastern Baltic cod (EBC) as a case study....

  9. A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)

    Kraus, Gerd; Pelletier, Dominique; Dubreuil, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore......, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data...

  10. AFSC/REFM: Pacific cod Localized Depletion Study

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data from Localized Depletion study for Pacific cod 2001-2005. Study was conducted using cod pot gear to measure localized abundance of Pacific cod inside and...

  11. Climate induced temperature effects on growth performance, fecundity and recruitment in marine fish: developing a hypothesis for cause and effect relationships in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) and common eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus)

    Pörtner, H. O.; Berdal, B.; Blust, R.; Brix, O.; Colosimo, A.; De Wachter, B.; Giuliani, A.; Johansen, T.; Fischer, T.; Knust, R.; Lannig, G.; Naevdal, G.; Nedenes, A.; Nyhammer, G.; Sartoris, F. J.; Serendero, I.; Sirabella, P.; Thorkildsen, S.; Zakhartsev, M.

    2001-12-01

    Effects of global warming on animal distribution and performance become visible in many marine ecosystems. The present study was designed to develop a concept for a cause and effect understanding with respect to temperature changes and to explain ecological findings based on physiological processes. The concept is based on a wide comparison of invertebrate and fish species with a special focus on recent data obtained in two model species of fish. These fish species are both characterized by northern and southern distribution limits in the North Atlantic: eelpout ( Zoarces viviparus), as a typical non-migrating inhabitant of the coastal zone and the cod ( Gadus morhua), as a typical inhabitant of the continental shelf with a high importance for fisheries. Mathematical modelling demonstrates a clear significant correlation between climate induced temperature fluctuations and the recruitment of cod stocks. Growth performance in cod is optimal at temperatures close to 10°C, regardless of the population investigated in a latitudinal cline. However, temperature specific growth rates decrease at higher latitudes. Also, fecundity is less in White Sea than in North and Baltic Sea cod or eelpout populations. These findings suggest that a cold-induced shift in energy budget occurs which is unfavorable for growth performance and fecundity. Thermal tolerance limits shift depending on latitude and are characterized by oxygen limitation at both low or high temperatures. Oxygen supply to tissues is optimized at low temperature by a shift in hemoglobin isoforms and oxygen binding properties to lower affinities and higher unloading potential. Protective stimulation of heat shock protein synthesis was not observed. According to a recent model of thermal tolerance the downward shift of tolerance limits during cold adaptation is associated with rising mitochondrial densities and, thus, aerobic capacity and performance in the cold, especially in eurythermal species. At the same time

  12. Influence of trends in fishing power on bioeconomics in the North Sea flatfish fishery regulated by catches or by effort quotas

    Ulrich, Clara; Pascoe, S.; Sparre, Per Johan

    2002-01-01

    model of the dynamics of catchability. Assuming that trends in the catchability may occur through fishing-power creeping linked to increased capital invested and technology, we compare, by stochastic and dynamic simulation modelling, the relative biological and economic benefits and drawbacks of TAEs...... at the most (TAE) or least (TAC) conservative level. Overall, the outcomes are more sensitive to the catchability model when implementing TAEs, especially in the medium and long term, but the variability in catchability has a much greater impact on stock levels than on the fisheries profit....

  13. Regional métier definition: A comparative investigation of statistical methods using a workflow applied to the international otter trawl fisheries in the North Sea

    Deporte, Nicolas; Ulrich, Clara; Mahévas, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy recognizes the importance of accounting for heterogeneity in fishing practices, and métier-based sampling is now at the core of the EU Data Collection Framework. The implementation of such an approach would require Member States to agree on the standard regional...... métier definitions and on practical rules to categorize logbook records into métiers. Several alternative approaches have been used in the past to categorize landings profiles, but no consensus has yet emerged. A generic open-source workflow is developed to test and compare a selection of methods...

  14. 75 FR 32375 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    2010-06-08

    ... associated with the Joint Groundfish/Sea Scallop Committee. The afternoon session will begin with an overview...-year research priorities and an ecosystem-based fisheries management white paper. This report will be... Council meeting will include a review of any experimental fishery permit applications that have been...

  15. AFSC/RACE/SAP: Detailed Crab Data From NOAA Fisheries Service Annual Eastern Bering Sea Summer Bottom Trawl Surveys 1975 - 2015

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains detailed crab data collected from the annual NOAA/NMFS/AFSC/RACE crab-groundfish bottom trawl survey of the eastern Bering Sea continental...

  16. Genomic signatures of local directional selection in a high gene flow marine organism; the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua

    Mittelholzer Christian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for evidence of selection in local populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L. across the species distribution. Results Our global genome scan analysis identified eight outlier gene loci with very high statistical support, likely to be subject to directional selection in local demes, or closely linked to loci under selection. Likewise, on a regional south/north transect of central and eastern Atlantic populations, seven loci displayed strongly elevated levels of genetic differentiation. Selection patterns among populations appeared to be relatively widespread and complex, i.e. outlier loci were generally not only associated with one of a few divergent local populations. Even on a limited geographical scale between the proximate North Sea and Baltic Sea populations four loci displayed evidence of adaptive evolution. Temporal genome scan analysis applied to DNA from archived otoliths from a Faeroese population demonstrated stability of the intra-population variation over 24 years. An exploratory landscape genetic analysis was used to elucidate potential effects of the most likely environmental factors responsible for the signatures of local adaptation. We found that genetic variation at several of the outlier loci was better correlated with temperature and/or salinity conditions at spawning grounds at spawning time than with geographic distance per se. Conclusion These findings illustrate that adaptive population divergence may indeed be prevalent despite seemingly high levels of gene flow, as found in most marine fishes. Thus, results have important implications for our understanding of the interplay of

  17. Recruitment of shrimp ( Pandalus borealis) in the Barents Sea related to spawning stock and environment

    Aschan, Michaela; Ingvaldsen, Randi

    2009-10-01

    The shrimp spawn in autumn, and the females carry their eggs as out roe until spring when the larvae hatch. Within a period of 2 months the shrimp larvae settle to the bottom. It has been claimed that the year-class strength probably is determined during the larval phase. Today's assessment and forecast of the shrimp stock productivity and potential fishing yields are weak. This is partly due to poor knowledge on population dynamics from hatching until the shrimp are caught in the fishery at the age of 3 or 4 years. We, therefore, here identify the most important abiotic and biotic factors that affect recruitment in addition to spawning stock biomass. Since 1995, a net attached to the underbelly of the survey trawl used at the annual cruise in the Barents Sea has caught juvenile shrimp. The abundance of settled shrimp larvae varies in time and space. The recruitment to the fishery has been quite stable with the exception of the 1996 year-class, which was observed as 1-year-olds but has not been registered since. The temporal pattern of the three youngest year-classes is studied in relation to abiotic factors such as sea temperature, ice index and North Atlantic Oscillation, as well as biotic factors such as spawning stock biomass and presence of copepods, euphausiids and predating cod. Recruitment indices and factors identified by the Spearmann correlation to be significantly correlated with recruitment were used as input in a principal component analysis (PCA) and a generalized additive model (GAM) was applied. Abundance of 1-year-old shrimp is positively correlated to spawning stock biomass the previous year and to temperature of the previous winter, and negatively correlated with the number of 1-year-old cod. Two-year-old shrimp show significant correlation with temperature, whereas there is a strong negative correlation with euphausiids. Three-year-old shrimp are significantly correlated with the number of 2-year-old shrimp the previous year but negatively

  18. 77 FR 34024 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    2012-06-08

    ... Bank Scallop Fishery by Maximizing Meat Yield and Minimizing Bycatch; 2011 Sea Scallop Research Set... Genovese, Ph.D. Northeast University; (5) Ecological Role of Adult and Juvenile Anadromous Forage fish in...

  19. Marine fishery possibilities of the west coast of India

    Panikkar, N.K.

    Marine fishery activity of the west coast of India is discussed. Sea fish production from the west coast of India makes three fourths of total fish production from Indian coasts. Kerala accounts for the largest production of fish in India...

  20. Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP)/ Federal Processor Permit (FPP) Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Federal Fisheries Permit (FFP) is required for vessels of the United States which are used to fish for groundfish in the Gulf of Alaska or Bering Sea and...

  1. 75 FR 8674 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    2010-02-25

    ... Central Pacific Fisheries Commission D. Protected Species 1. Japan Sea Turtle Community Network 2. False.... ADDRESSES: The CNMI Community Meetings will be held at the Rota Social Hall, Tinian Elementary School...

  2. Estimating the impact of petroleum substances on survival in ealry life stages of cod (Gadus morhua) using the Dynamic Energy Budget theory

    Klok, T.C.; Nordtug, T.; Tamis, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the impact of accidental oil-spills on cod fisheries a model framework is developed in which a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model is applied to assess mortality caused by petroleum substances in early life stages. In this paper we report on a literature search and DEB analyses, aiming for

  3. Linking lipid dynamics with the reproductive cycle in Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    Røjbek, Maria; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    2012-01-01

    ovaries and decreased in late maturing and spawning fish, most likely due to their antioxidant protection activity. The fatty acid composition of cod liver reflected its clupeid prey. The ratio of 18:1n-9 to DHA was almost twice as high in sprat as in herring and indicated the ratio of sprat and herring...... with cod ovarian development in the central Baltic Sea, and may be associated with the delay in spawning and affect egg and larval survival; however, this needs further verification in experimental studies....

  4. 77 FR 33443 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council (MAFMC); Meeting

    2012-06-06

    ...-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (Council) Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass, and Bluefish... Summer Flounder, Scup, Black Sea Bass, and Bluefish. Although non-emergency issues not contained in this...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR FISH CANNED PATE'S COD-FISH SPECIES

    A. A. Efremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Fish and seafood play an important role in a balanced diet. The most reliable method of preservation is the production of canned fish. Cod fishery considered traditional objects of the North Basin, which catches in recent years stored at a consistently high level. They are represented, mainly cod, haddock, pollack, whiting. Lately there has been a tendency to increase yield loaves (polar bib. The aim of this work - the development of technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. We used the adopted research microbiological, chemical and physical methods. The weight proportion of water, lipids, protein, mineral raw determined according to State standard 7636-85. Developed a technology - canned pate's cod fish species with the addition of plant materials. Optimized formulation is set to sterilization. Experimentally determined parameters of quality canned and given comprehensive assessment nutritional value of new products, organoleptic, physico-chemical, biochemical and microbiological tests showed that canned pates of Gadidae species of fish with vegetables, meet all safety requirements and are characterized, along with excellent consumer properties, high nutritional value. Based on the results of the research complex developed technical documentation for production of canned vegetables, pates of Gadidae species.

  6. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. COD and colour removal from molasses spent wash using activated ...

    The removal of COD and colour from a melanoidin solution with this activated carbon was carried out using an experimental design taking 4 factors into account. These were adsorbent dose, contact time, pH and initial COD concentration, with removal of COD and colour as response variables. COD reduction was ...

  8. The digital frontiers of fisheries governance

    Toonen, Hilde M.; Bush, Simon R.

    2018-01-01

    High seas fisheries remain one of the least transparent global production practices. Distance from shore, coupled with the highly mobile nature of fish stocks, has put attention on new monitoring, control and surveillance technologies to collect spatially referenced data on the location of fishing

  9. Efficiency of fisheries is increasing at the ecosystem level

    Jacobsen, Nis Sand; Burgess, Matthew G; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2017-01-01

    examine the efficiency of North Sea and Baltic Sea fisheries with respect to economic rent and ecosystem impact, finding both to be inefficient but steadily improving. Our results suggest the following: (i) a broad and encouraging trend towards ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries; (ii) that ecosystem......Managing fisheries presents trade-offs between objectives, for example yields, profits, minimizing ecosystem impact, that have to be weighed against one another. These trade-offs are compounded by interacting species and fisheries at the ecosystem level. Weighing objectives becomes increasingly...... regressing at least one other. We investigate the ecosystem-level efficiency of fisheries in five large marine ecosystems (LMEs) with respect to yield and an aggregate measure of ecosystem impact using a novel calibration of size-based ecosystem models. We estimate that fishing patterns in three LMEs (North...

  10. Association between nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum invasion of cod larvae and growth

    Mehrdana, Foojan; Bahlool, Qusay Z. M.; Kuhn, Jesper

    Parasitic nematodes of the superfamily Ascaridoidea are distributed worldwide also with numerous representatives in fish. They have an important role to play in the aquatic environment and may affect survivability of fish. The life cycle of many of these fish infecting roundworm species includes...... invertebrates and fish species and for some species also higher vertebrate hosts. We have recently demonstrated that fry of North Sea cod has a high prevalence of infection with regard to the nematode Hysterothylacium aduncum and it was indicated that these infections could affect survival of cod and thereby......, lapillus otoliths were removed, polished and the number of growth zones in each otolith counted by light microscopy. Each growth zone indicates one day of the fish life span. Covariance analysis demonstrated highly significant differences (p≤ 0.001) between the growth rate of infected and uninfected cod...

  11. 78 FR 52505 - Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    2013-08-23

    ... Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council's (MAFMC) Bluefish Monitoring Committee and Summer Flounder...: The Bluefish Monitoring Committee and Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black Sea Bass Monitoring Committee... associated management measures for the bluefish, summer flounder, scup, and black sea bass fisheries. Multi...

  12. Fishery Performance Indicators

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  13. Reservoir fisheries of Asia

    Silva, S.S. De.

    1990-01-01

    At a workshop on reservoir fisheries research, papers were presented on the limnology of reservoirs, the changes that follow impoundment, fisheries management and modelling, and fish culture techniques. Separate abstracts have been prepared for three papers from this workshop

  14. Using alternative biological information in stock assessment: condition-corrected natural mortality of Eastern Baltic cod

    Casini, Michele; Eero, Margit; Carlshamre, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    ) assumed in the analytical stock assessment model. The results in terms of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB), Fishing mortality (F) and Recruitment (R) in the final year from the stock assessment using M values adjusted for low condition were up to 40% different compared with the assessment assuming a constant......The inclusion of biological and ecological aspects in the assessment of fish population status is one of the bases for an ecosystem-based fisheries management. During the past two decades the Eastern Baltic cod has experienced a drastic reduction in growth and body condition that may have affected...

  15. Prey size spectra and prey availability of larval and small juvenile cod

    Munk, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe the prey preference characteristics of cod larvae and assess preference variability in relation to species and size composition of copepod prey. A further aim is to examine the hypothesis that dietary prey size spectra remain the same during the larval ...... were indicated, dependent on location. The findings illustrate the usefulness of coupling dietary prey size spectra and biomass spectra of available prey sizes during studies of ichthyoplankton feeding ecology. (C) 1997 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  16. Walking the cod: an investigation into the relative robustness of cod, Gadus morhua, skeletal elements

    Andrew K.G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple experiment is described which details what happens to the bones of cod when they are walked on by a man. The pattern of fragmentation for various elements is illustrated and an index of robustness proposed for those elements in a cod skeleton most frequently recovered from archaeological sites.

  17. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  18. KB WOT Fisheries 2017

    Damme, van C.J.G.; Verver, S.W.

    2017-01-01

    The KB WOT Fisheries programme is developed to maintain and advance the expertise needed to carry out the statutory obligations in fisheries monitoring and advice of The Netherlands. The contents of the KB WOT Fisheries programme for 2017 reflects the scientific and management needs of the WOT

  19. Spatially-Resolved Influence of Temperature and Salinity on Stock and Recruitment Variability of Commercially Important Fishes in the North Sea.

    Anna Akimova

    Full Text Available Understanding of the processes affecting recruitment of commercially important fish species is one of the major challenges in fisheries science. Towards this aim, we investigated the relation between North Sea hydrography (temperature and salinity and fish stock variables (recruitment, spawning stock biomass and pre-recruitment survival index for 9 commercially important fishes using spatially-resolved cross-correlation analysis. We used high-resolution (0.2° × 0.2° hydrographic data fields matching the maximal temporal extent of the fish population assessments (1948-2013. Our approach allowed for the identification of regions in the North Sea where environmental variables seem to be more influential on the fish stocks, as well as the regions of a lesser or nil influence. Our results confirmed previously demonstrated negative correlations between temperature and recruitment of cod and plaice and identified regions of the strongest correlations (German Bight for plaice and north-western North Sea for cod. We also revealed a positive correlation between herring spawning stock biomass and temperature in the Orkney-Shetland area, as well as a negative correlation between sole pre-recruitment survival index and temperature in the German Bight. A strong positive correlation between sprat stock variables and salinity in the central North Sea was also found. To our knowledge the results concerning correlations between North Sea hydrography and stocks' dynamics of herring, sole and sprat are novel. The new information about spatial distribution of the correlation provides an additional help to identify mechanisms underlying these correlations. As an illustration of the utility of these results for fishery management, an example is provided that incorporates the identified environmental covariates in stock-recruitment models.

  20. HOW MANY LOBSTERS ARE IN THE SEA?

    Ernest Enns

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A lobster fishery must have a reasonable estimate of the number of lobsters within the fishery in order to regulate the annual harvest. Stereological sampling procedures are used to estimate the number of lobsters in a defined region of the sea. From a given point in the fishery, a selective sample in a random direction to the boundary of the fishery is taken. This is repeated to generate a systematic sample from which the total population is estimated.

  1. Impact of hypoxia on consumption of Baltic cod in a multispecies stock assessment context

    Teschner, E.C.; Kraus, G.; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress for organi......The Baltic Sea is characterised by a heterogeneous oceanographic environment. The deep water layers forming the habitat of Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.) are subjected to frequently occurring pronounced anoxic conditions. Adverse oxygen conditions result in physiological stress...... for organisms living under these conditions. For cod e.g. a direct relationship between oxygen availability and food intake with a decreasing ingestion rate at hypoxia could be revealed. In the present study, the effects of oxygen deficiency on consumption rates were investigated and how these translate...... to stock size estimates in multi-species models. Based on results from laboratory experiments, a model was fitted to evacuation rates at different oxygen levels and integrated into the existing consumption model for Baltic cod. Individual mean oxygen corrected consumption rates were 0.1–10.9% lower than...

  2. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  3. Supply and demand drive a critical transition to dysfunctional fisheries.

    Fryxell, John M; Hilborn, Ray; Bieg, Carling; Turgeon, Katrine; Caskenette, Amanda; McCann, Kevin S

    2017-11-14

    There is growing awareness of the need for fishery management policies that are robust to changing environmental, social, and economic pressures. Here we use conventional bioeconomic theory to demonstrate that inherent biological constraints combined with nonlinear supply-demand relationships can generate threshold effects due to harvesting. As a result, increases in overall demand due to human population growth or improvement in real income would be expected to induce critical transitions from high-yield/low-price fisheries to low-yield/high-price fisheries, generating severe strains on social and economic systems as well as compromising resource conservation goals. As a proof of concept, we show that key predictions of the critical transition hypothesis are borne out in oceanic fisheries (cod and pollock) that have experienced substantial increase in fishing pressure over the past 60 y. A hump-shaped relationship between price and historical harvest returns, well demonstrated in these empirical examples, is particularly diagnostic of fishery degradation. Fortunately, the same heuristic can also be used to identify reliable targets for fishery restoration yielding optimal bioeconomic returns while safely conserving resource abundance. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  4. Management of fisheries by Total Allowable Catch (TAC) regulation ...

    spamer

    1997) and inshore or deep-sea commercial fisheries (Patterson 1998, Hutchings and Ferguson. 2000). Treatment of ... in 2000/01 to restrict fishing effort (days at sea) on the basis of quota size and vessel efficiency. .... fleet was restricted to port after May 2001. The under- reported catch for 1998/99, when the quota was 80.1.

  5. Modeling the cod larvae drift in the Bornholm Basin in summer 1994

    Hinrichsen, H.H.; Lehmann, A.; St. John, Michael

    1997-01-01

    , initial fields of temperature, salinity and cod larvae concentration for the Bornholm Basin were constructed by objective analysis using observations taken during a research survey in early July, 1994. Outside the Bornholm Basin generalized hydrographic features of the Baltic Sea were utilized....... In general, most of the hydrographic features observed during the second research cruise are correctly simulated, with variations mainly attributed to the prescribed initial conditions outside the Bornholm Basin. Results from larval sampling during the second cruise could not entirely confirm the modeled......A combined 3-D physical oceanographic model and a field sampling program was performed in July and August 1994 to investigate the potential drift of larval Baltic cod from the center of spawning effort in the Bornholm Basin, Baltic Sea. The goal of this exercise was to predict the drift...

  6. 75 FR 31321 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead Sole, and “Other...

    2010-06-03

    .... 0910131363-0087-02] RIN 0648-XW74 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Rock Sole, Flathead... participating in the Amendment 80 limited access fishery in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management area... the trawl rock sole, flathead sole, and ``other flatfish'' fishery category by vessels participating...

  7. 75 FR 21189 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    2010-04-23

    ..../Canada Management Area AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... announces a temporary closure of the Eastern U.S./Canada Area to limited access Northeast (NE) multispecies days-at-sea (DAS) vessels and a prohibition on the harvest, possession, and landing of Georges Bank (GB...

  8. 78 FR 76759 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    2013-12-19

    ... amendment changes the accountability measures for the Atlantic mackerel, Atlantic bluefish, summer flounder... catch Atlantic mackerel, butterfish, Atlantic bluefish, summer flounder, scup, black sea bass, golden... bass and a single-year point estimate from MRIP for the Atlantic bluefish and mackerel fisheries...

  9. Occurrence of anisakid nematodes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Greenland cod (Gadus ogac), West Greenland

    Mouritsen, Kim N.; Hedeholm, Rasmus; Schack, Henriette B.

    2010-01-01

    Anisakid nematodes commonly infect gadids, and are of economic and aesthetic importance to the commercial fishing industry in Greenland as some species are pathogenic to humans. However, very little is known about the occurrence of these parasites and their impact on the hosts in Greenland waters....... During a survey in 2005, stomach sample of 227 Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and 64 Greenland cod (Gadus ogac) was collected in Godthaab and Sisimiut fiord systems in West Greenland waters. All cod were dissected for stomach contents and anisakid nematodes were removed from the visceral cavity. Third stage...... nematode species regarding prevalence of infection and mean infection intensity was evident, and there was no relationship between fish condition and the intensity of nematode infections. Standardised for size, capelin-eating cod were in better condition and more heavily infected than fish subsisting...

  10. Assessing the Role of Environmental Factors on Baltic Cod Recruitment, a Complex Adaptive System Emergent Property

    Dionysis Krekoukiotis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades, fish recruitment has been a subject of intensive research with stock–recruitment models commonly used for recruitment prediction often only explaining a small fraction of the inter-annual recruitment variation. The use of environmental information to improve our ability to predict recruitment, could contribute considerably to fisheries management. However, the problem remains difficult because the mechanisms behind such complex relationships are often poorly understood; this in turn, makes it difficult to determine the forecast estimation robustness, leading to the failure of some relationships when new data become available. The utility of machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs for solving complex problems has been demonstrated in aquatic studies and has led many researchers to advocate ANNs as an attractive, non-linear alternative to traditional statistical methods. The goal of this study is to design a Baltic cod recruitment model (FishANN that can account for complex ecosystem interactions. To this end, we (1 build a quantitative model representation of the conceptual understanding of the complex ecosystem interactions driving Baltic cod recruitment dynamics, and (2 apply the model to strengthen the current capability to project future changes in Baltic cod recruitment. FishANN is demonstrated to bring multiple stressors together into one model framework and estimate the relative importance of these stressors while interpreting the complex nonlinear interactions between them. Additional requirements to further improve the current study in the future are also proposed.

  11. Determination of trace elements in fisheries samples by instrumental neutron and photon activation analysis

    Chattopadhyay, A.; Ellis, K.M.; Nimalasiri Desilva, K.

    1979-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace concentrations of up to 23 elements in fisheries samples. The INAA method consists of irradiations of wet and lyophilized cod muscle and liver samples for three different periods at a flux density of 5x10 11 n.cm -2 .s -1 and subsequent measurements after four different decay periods using high-resolution Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry. Concentrations of several essential and toxic elements have been determined. Loss of certain elements during lyophilization has been studied. Elemental distribution in muscles and livers as a function of the age of fish has been investigated. Precision and accuracy of the INAA method have been evaluated by analysing replicate samples, National Bureau of Standards' bovine liver standard reference material, and an intercalibration fish flour sample provided by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea. A few fish samples have also been analysed by an alternative method, namely instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA). Elemental concentrations determined by both INAA and IPAA methods are reported here. (author)

  12. Warm, windy winters drive cod north and homing of spawners keeps them there

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    and human exploitation. This stock has experienced a series of poor recruitments since the late 1990s and, concomitant with the decrease in abundance, the distribution of cod has changed. While it has been suggested that the change in distribution can be linked to increasing temperatures and fishing....... This shift of the spawners further augmented that of the new recruits. 4. Although fishing mortality on a North Sea scale was not directly correlated with the displacement of any of the age groups, fishing has severely decreased the number of fish in older age groups. This increased the sensitivity...... is unlikely to result in improved recruitment to the southern North Sea....

  13. Coastal structures, waste materials and fishery enhancement

    Collins, K.J.; Jensen, A.C.; Lockwood, A.P.M.; Lockwood, S.J. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Oceanography

    1994-09-01

    Current UK practice relating to the disposal of material at sea is reviewed. The use of stabilization technology relating to bulk waste materials, coal ash, oil ash and incinerator ash is discussed. The extension of this technology to inert minestone waste and tailings, contaminated dredged sediments and phosphogypsum is explored. Uses of stabilized wastes are considered in the areas of habitat restoration, coastal defense and fishery enhancement. It is suggested that rehabilitation of marine dump sites receiving loose waste such as pulverized fuel ash (PFA) could be enhanced by the continued dumping of the material but in a stabilized block form, so creating new habitat diversity. Global warming predictions include sea level rise and increased storm frequency. This is of particular concern along the southern and eastern coasts of the UK. The emphasis of coastal defense is changing from hard seawalls to soft options which include offshore barriers to reduce wave energy reaching the coast. Stabilized waste materials could be included in these and other marine constructions with possible economic benefit. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF), the regulatory authority in England and Wales for marine disposal/construction, policy regarding marine structures and fishery enhancement is outlined. A case is made for the inclusion of fishery enhancement features in future coastal structures. Examples of the productivity of man-made structures are given. Slight modification of planned structures and inclusion of suitable habitat niches could allow for the cultivation of kelp, molluscs, crustacea and fish.

  14. 76 FR 70972 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit

    2011-11-16

    ... meeting will be held at the Hilton Hotel, 500 West Third Ave., Anchorage, AK. The agenda for the Council... return to the sea with a minimum of injury. Halibut caught incidentally by catcher/processors in the... the directed fishery. In the case of the Bering Sea flatfish fishery, seasons have been closed before...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1204 - Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. 600.1204 Section 600.1204 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... PROVISIONS Shark Finning § 600.1204 Shark finning; possession at sea and landing of shark fins. (a)(1) No...

  16. Legal Framework and Mechanism of Marine Fisheries Subsidies in the Aspects of International Trade and Sustainable Development

    Adijaya Yusuf; Melda Kamil Ariadno; Arie Afriansyah

    2015-01-01

    Issues in fisheries have been regulated in various International conventions. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (UNCLOS 1982) has builta regime in the field of conservation and management of fishery resources based upon maritime zones or fish species that exist and available in this zone. However, UNCLOS 1982 only focuses on the issue of fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the high seas, thus it was not sufficient to overcome the problems of high frequen...

  17. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  18. Feasibility of Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS of Atlantic Cod with Seafloor Scattering Limitations

    Ankita D. Jain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported declines in the population of Atlantic cod have led to calls for additional survey methods for stock assessments. In combination with conventional line-transect methods that may have ambiguities in sampling fish populations, Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS has been shown to have a potential for providing accurate stock assessments (Makris N.C., et al. Science 2009, 323, 1,734–1,737; 54th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (54th SAW US Department of Commerce, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, 2012. The use of OAWRS technology enables instantaneous wide-area sensing of fish aggregations over thousands of square kilometers. The ratio of the intensity of scattered returns from fish versus the seafloor in any resolution cell typically determines the maximum fish detection range of OAWRS, which then is a function of fish population density, scattering amplitude and depth distribution, as well as the level of seafloor scattering. With the knowledge of oceanographic parameters, such as bathymetry, sound speed structure and attenuation, we find that a Rayleigh–Born volume scattering approach can be used to efficiently and accurately estimate seafloor scattering over wide areas. From hundreds of OAWRS measurements of seafloor scattering, we determine the Rayleigh–Born scattering amplitude of the seafloor, which we find has a ƒ2,4 frequency dependence below roughly 2 kHz in typical continental shelf environments along the US northeast coast. We then find that it is possible to robustly detect cod aggregations across frequencies at and near swim bladder resonance for observed spawningconfigurations along the U.S. northeast coast, roughly the two octave range 150–600 Hzfor water depths up to roughly 100 m. This frequency range is also optimal for long-rangeocean acoustic waveguide propagation, because it enables multimodal acoustic waveguidepropagation with minimal acoustic absorption and forward

  19. Innovative eco-friendly bio- solvent for combating sea surface and sedimented oil pollution

    Theodorou, Paraskevas

    2017-04-01

    The combating of oil spill at sea surface by chemical dispersants accelerates the evaporation and disperse the oil into the water column, where it is broken down by natural processes and/or is sedimented at the sea bottom, especially at near coastal shallow areas, ports and marinas. The usual methodology for cleaning the sedimented oil from the sea bottom is mainly carried out via excavation and dumping of the polluted sediment into deeper sea areas, where the contamination is transferred from one area to another. The eco-friendly bio-solvent MSL Aqua 250 is an innovative new solution based mainly on natural constituents. The action mechanism and the effectiveness of this eco-friendly solvent is based on the high surface tension process. Organic compounds, including hydrocarbons upon coming in contact with MSL Aqua 250 solvent generate a significant surface tension reaction, which is able to alter the organic compounds to liquid form and then to drastically evaporate it. The use of MSL Aqua 250 solvent, both at sea surface and at the bottom, has the following advantages compared to the dispersants: • Efficient solution without transferring the pollution from sea surface to the water column and to the bottom or disturbing the Aquatic Eco System. • Non-Toxic. • Environmentally friendly with a restoration of marine life in the Eco System. • Cost effective. The MSL Aqua 250 solvent has been tested in cooperation with the Cyprus Department of Fisheries and Marine Research and the Technological University of Cyprus and used during the years 2015 and 2016 in marinas and fishing shelters in Cyprus faced oil pollution, with high concentration in the sea water and at the sea bottom of chemical parameters (BOD5, COD, FOG, TKN, TP, TPH), with excellent results.

  20. Influence of twin and multi-rig trawl systems on CPUE in the Danish Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery

    Feekings, Jordan P.; Berg, Casper Willestofte; Krag, Ludvig Ahm

    2016-01-01

    analyse catchrates of four target species, Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectesplatessa) and haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), to try and understand how the use of multi-rig trawlshave altered catch rates within the Danish demersal trawl fishery over the last 16...

  1. Differential Survival among Batches of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L. from Fertilisation through to Post-Metamorphosis.

    Petra E Petersen

    Full Text Available Aquaculture production of cod has decreased from over 20,000 tonnes in 2009 to less than 2,000 tonnes in 2014 and the industry faces many challenges, one of which is high and unpredictably variable mortality rates in the early life stages. Hence, full-cycle farming with hatchery produced juveniles is still considered unprofitable compared to fisheries and on-growing of wild cod. In the present study, potential batch differences in progeny survival of wild-caught, hatchery-spawned Faroe Bank cod (Gadus morhua L. were investigated at two defined periods during early life history; i the embryo stage (60 day degrees post fertilisation and ii the fry stage (110 days post hatch, post metamorphosis. The fry stage experiment was conducted in three replicates (N = 300 per replicate, and a panel of three polymorphic microsatellite markers was used for parental analysis. Mean survival rate at the embryo stage was 69% (± 20% SD. Survival was positively associated with egg diameter (P < 0.01, explaining 90% of the variation in egg survival rates. The data were too scarce to conclude either way concerning a possible correlation between survival rates between the two periods (P < 0.10. Offspring from three batches (from a total of eight dominated in the fry stage, contributing over 90% of the progeny, and results were consistent over all three replicate tanks. The skewed batch representation observed may be of relevance to the effective management of selective breeding programmes for cod.

  2. Radioecological studies in the Barents Sea

    Kellermann, H.J.; Kanisch, G.; Krueger, A.; Vobach, M.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1992 the Institute of Fisheries Ecology has been monitoring radioactivity in fish from Barents Sea, mostly taken as random samples from hauls on board of commercial trawlers in the western part near Bear Island and from Northcap Bank. Soon cod was selected as reference fish because of its widespread existence and because of its always slightly elevated concentrations of 137 Cs compared with other species. Inspecting data referring to the same year but different areas or to the same area but different years, these concentrations in the biological samples show a broad distribution. Statistical data always spread around their mean. That may result from different sources. It can be entirely a random distribution of single values, it can be a not predictable annually or regionally varying influence on the whole ecosystem, or it can be a systematic variations of the investigated objects. All these effects together make it difficult to compare systems based on random samples. Wrong interpretations may follow, which in hypothesis tests are called errors of 1. or 2. type. These errors affect the power of a test

  3. Sustainable Fisheries in Southeast Asia

    Melda Kamil Ariadno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries activity has increased significantly in number. As a result, we might see high investment in fisheries is due to the high demand for fish and fisheries products. Therefore, marine resources as well as other living resources are at risk in being harmed by excessive fisheries activities, for example: the use of trawl. Indonesia, as a Maritime State, need to impose sustainable fisheries because the principle of utilizing sustainable fisheries resources as adopted in the Law on Fisheries (Law No. 31 Year 2004 as amended by Law No. 45 Year 2009 to control fishery activities.Fishery activities are regulated not only by the Law on Fisheries but also international regulation adopted worldwide such as the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (CCRF. CCRF was prepared to include primary principles to elaborate the mechanism of fishery activities which is designated not to cost harmful damages in fisheries activities. CCRF is also accompanied by several technical guidelines that provide certain procedures to be applied to (1 fishing operations; (2 the precautionary approach as applied to capture fisheries and species introductions; (3 integrating fisheries into coastal area management; (4 fisheries management; (5 aquaculture development; and (6 inland fisheries. Consequently, CCRF is intended to cover any kind of fishery anywhere in the world not just marine capture fisheries, but also freshwater fisheries as well as aquaculture both marine and freshwater aquaculture. Excessive fishery activities would then not be harmful if Indonesia is willing to impose regulation which is significantly and effectively to manage these kind of fishery activities. Along with the fact that Indonesia is recognized as a Marine State, there is no reason to hold back in addressing this situation.

  4. Multidimensionality of behavioural phenotypes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua.

    Meager, Justin J; Fernö, Anders; Skjæraasen, Jon Egil; Järvi, Torbjörn; Rodewald, Petra; Sverdrup, Gisle; Winberg, Svante; Mayer, Ian

    2012-06-25

    Much of the inter-individual variation observed in animal behaviour is now attributed to the existence of behavioural phenotypes or animal personalities. Such phenotypes may be fundamental to fisheries and aquaculture, yet there have been few detailed studies of this phenomenon in exploited marine animals. We investigated the behavioural and neuroendocrine responses of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), to situations reflecting critical ecological challenges: predator attacks and territorial challenges. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish were tested and behavioural profiles were compared with baseline conditions. We then used an objective, multivariate approach, rather than assigning individuals along one-dimensional behavioural axes, to examine whether distinct behavioural phenotypes were present. Our results indicate that two distinct behavioural phenotypes were evident in fish from each background. In hatchery-reared fish, phenotypes displayed divergent locomotor activity, sheltering, brain monoamine concentrations and responses to competitive challenges. In wild fish, phenotypes were distinguished primarily by locomotor activity, sheltering and responsiveness to predator stimuli. Hatcheries presumably represent a more stressful social environment, and social behaviour and neuroendocrine responses were important in discerning behavioural phenotypes in hatchery fish, whereas antipredator responses were important in discerning phenotypes in wild fish that have previously encountered predators. In both fish types, behavioural and physiological traits that classified individuals into phenotypes were not the same as those that were correlated across situations. These results highlight the multidimensionality of animal personalities, and that the processes that regulate one suite of behavioural traits may be very different to the processes that regulate other behaviours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparison of fisheries biological reference points estimated from temperature-specific multi-species and single-species climate-enhanced stock assessment models

    Holsman, Kirstin K.; Ianelli, James; Aydin, Kerim; Punt, André E.; Moffitt, Elizabeth A.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-species statistical catch at age models (MSCAA) can quantify interacting effects of climate and fisheries harvest on species populations, and evaluate management trade-offs for fisheries that target several species in a food web. We modified an existing MSCAA model to include temperature-specific growth and predation rates and applied the modified model to three fish species, walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) and arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), from the eastern Bering Sea (USA). We fit the model to data from 1979 through 2012, with and without trophic interactions and temperature effects, and use projections to derive single- and multi-species biological reference points (BRP and MBRP, respectively) for fisheries management. The multi-species model achieved a higher over-all goodness of fit to the data (i.e. lower negative log-likelihood) for pollock and Pacific cod. Variability from water temperature typically resulted in 5-15% changes in spawning, survey, and total biomasses, but did not strongly impact recruitment estimates or mortality. Despite this, inclusion of temperature in projections did have a strong effect on BRPs, including recommended yield, which were higher in single-species models for Pacific cod and arrowtooth flounder that included temperature compared to the same models without temperature effects. While the temperature-driven multi-species model resulted in higher yield MBPRs for arrowtooth flounder than the same model without temperature, we did not observe the same patterns in multi-species models for pollock and Pacific cod, where variability between harvest scenarios and predation greatly exceeded temperature-driven variability in yield MBRPs. Annual predation on juvenile pollock (primarily cannibalism) in the multi-species model was 2-5 times the annual harvest of adult fish in the system, thus predation represents a strong control on population dynamics that exceeds temperature

  6. Towards the implementation of an integrated ecosystem fleet-based management of European fisheries

    Gascuel, D.; Merino, G.; Döring, R.D.; Druon, D.N.; Goti, L.; Guénette, S.; Macher, C.; Soma, K.; Travers-Trolet, M.; Mackinson, S.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Celtic Sea and the North Sea as case studies, the fleet-based approach is shown to be the pathway to implement an effective ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) in European seas. First, a diagnostic on the health of each ecosystem is proposed based on the reconstruction of

  7. Particulate COD balance of particulate cod in eletrocuagulation/flotation reactor treating tannery effluent

    Rodrigo Babora Borri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mass balance or particulate organic matter was studied in terms of COD, by means of electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF reactor treating tannery effluent. Reactor was operated in fill and draw (batch mode. Operating in hydraulic residence time of 65 minutes, ECF reactor reached 55 % COD removal. Although volatile solids were also removed from liquid phase (removal of 40%, fixed solids concentration, and hence total solids concentration, showed to be higher in withdrawn effluent than in ECF’s influent. This was assigned to NaCl added in order to enhance conductivity in wastewater.

  8. Roles of density-dependent growth and life history evolution in accounting for fisheries-induced trait changes.

    Eikeset, Anne Maria; Dunlop, Erin S; Heino, Mikko; Storvik, Geir; Stenseth, Nils C; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2016-12-27

    The relative roles of density dependence and life history evolution in contributing to rapid fisheries-induced trait changes remain debated. In the 1930s, northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), currently the world's largest cod stock, experienced a shift from a traditional spawning-ground fishery to an industrial trawl fishery with elevated exploitation in the stock's feeding grounds. Since then, age and length at maturation have declined dramatically, a trend paralleled in other exploited stocks worldwide. These trends can be explained by demographic truncation of the population's age structure, phenotypic plasticity in maturation arising through density-dependent growth, fisheries-induced evolution favoring faster-growing or earlier-maturing fish, or a combination of these processes. Here, we use a multitrait eco-evolutionary model to assess the capacity of these processes to reproduce 74 y of historical data on age and length at maturation in northeast Arctic cod, while mimicking the stock's historical harvesting regime. Our results show that model predictions critically depend on the assumed density dependence of growth: when this is weak, life history evolution might be necessary to prevent stock collapse, whereas when a stronger density dependence estimated from recent data is used, the role of evolution in explaining fisheries-induced trait changes is diminished. Our integrative analysis of density-dependent growth, multitrait evolution, and stock-specific time series data underscores the importance of jointly considering evolutionary and ecological processes, enabling a more comprehensive perspective on empirically observed stock dynamics than previous studies could provide.

  9. Exploring optimal fishing scenarios for the multispecies artisanal fisheries of Eritrea using a trophic model

    Tsehaye, I.W.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to assess the potential for fisheries in the artisanal Red Sea reef fisheries of Eritrea in an ecosystem context. We used an Ecopath with Ecosim model to integrate known aspects of the ecosystem and its inhabitants into a single framework, with the aim to gain

  10. 76 FR 21861 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    2011-04-19

    ... fishery, including a requirement for independent, third-party dockside and at-sea monitoring of sector...; Approved Sector Monitoring Service Providers AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of NMFS-approved sector...

  11. 76 FR 35408 - Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Components of Fishery Management Plans (Northeast Multispecies...

    2011-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR75 Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Components of Fishery Management Plans (Northeast Multispecies, Atlantic Sea Scallop...: E-mail: Habitat[email protected] . Mail: Paul J. Howard, Executive Director, New England Fishery...

  12. Bycatch and release of pelagic megafauna in industrial trawler fisheries off Northwest Africa

    Zeeberg, J.J.; Corten, A.A.H.M.; Graaf, de E.

    2006-01-01

    The accidental capture of large animals such as sharks, manta rays, sea turtles, and dolphins in pelagic trawler fisheries remains controversial because it threatens biological diversity in many biogeographical regions, including the subtropical eastern North Atlantic. Bycatch rates observed during

  13. Combining performance measures to investigate capacity changes in fisheries

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Pascoe, Sean

    2014-01-01

    the actual fishing capacity. In both cases, the relationship between effort indicators and capacity needs to be resolved in order for the manager to introduce the right interventions. Previous studies have estimated these relationships in multi-species fisheries using either a multi-output distance function......The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) aims to achieve a balance between the European fleet capacity and the resources available. This can be realized either by temporarily reducing the fishing effort (i.e. capacity utilization) or quotas in the hope of increasing the resources available or reducing...... catches of cod, plaice and Nephrops and that gross tonnage is a more consistent indicator of fishing capacity than engine power....

  14. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    S Hoyt Peckham

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna.30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS. We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1 observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2 through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1, rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge.Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in

  15. Small-scale fisheries bycatch jeopardizes endangered Pacific loggerhead turtles.

    Peckham, S Hoyt; Maldonado Diaz, David; Walli, Andreas; Ruiz, Georgita; Crowder, Larry B; Nichols, Wallace J

    2007-10-17

    Although bycatch of industrial-scale fisheries can cause declines in migratory megafauna including seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles, the impacts of small-scale fisheries have been largely overlooked. Small-scale fisheries occur in coastal waters worldwide, employing over 99% of the world's 51 million fishers. New telemetry data reveal that migratory megafauna frequent coastal habitats well within the range of small-scale fisheries, potentially producing high bycatch. These fisheries occur primarily in developing nations, and their documentation and management are limited or non-existent, precluding evaluation of their impacts on non-target megafauna. 30 North Pacific loggerhead turtles that we satellite-tracked from 1996-2005 ranged oceanwide, but juveniles spent 70% of their time at a high use area coincident with small-scale fisheries in Baja California Sur, Mexico (BCS). We assessed loggerhead bycatch mortality in this area by partnering with local fishers to 1) observe two small-scale fleets that operated closest to the high use area and 2) through shoreline surveys for discarded carcasses. Minimum annual bycatch mortality in just these two fleets at the high use area exceeded 1000 loggerheads year(-1), rivaling that of oceanwide industrial-scale fisheries, and threatening the persistence of this critically endangered population. As a result of fisher participation in this study and a bycatch awareness campaign, a consortium of local fishers and other citizens are working to eliminate their bycatch and to establish a national loggerhead refuge. Because of the overlap of ubiquitous small-scale fisheries with newly documented high-use areas in coastal waters worldwide, our case study suggests that small-scale fisheries may be among the greatest current threats to non-target megafauna. Future research is urgently needed to quantify small-scale fisheries bycatch worldwide. Localizing coastal high use areas and mitigating bycatch in partnership with small

  16. Fisheries Reclamation Events

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows waterbodies that have been treated for fish removal(i.e., reclaimed)by DNR Fisheries. Some waterbodies have had multiple treatments. Attributes...

  17. International Fisheries Agreements

    Pintassilgo, Pedro; Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Lindroos, Marko

    2015-01-01

    This paper surveys the application of game theory to the economic analysis of international fisheries agreements. The relevance of this study comes not only from the existence of a vast literature on the topic but especially from the specific features of these agreements. The emphasis of the survey...... is on coalition games, an approach that has become prominent in the fisheries economics literature over the last decade. It is shown that coalition games were first applied to international fisheries agreements in the late 1990s addressing cooperative issues under the framework of characteristic function games...... and stability of international fisheries agreements. A key message that emerges from this literature strand is that self-enforcing cooperative management of internationally shared fish stocks is generally difficult to achieve. Hence, the international legal framework and regulations play a decisive role...

  18. Marine Mammals :: NOAA Fisheries

    Resources Habitat Conservation Science and Technology International Affairs Law Enforcement Aquaculture Application Types Apply Online (APPS) Endangered Species Permits Marine Mammal Permits Public Display of : NMFS Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center North Atlantic right whales North Atlantic Right whales

  19. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  20. Size-dependent social attraction and repulsion explains the decision of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua to enter baited pots.

    Anders, N; Fernö, A; Humborstad, O-B; Løkkeborg, S; Rieucau, G; Utne-Palm, A C

    2017-12-01

    The present study tested whether the presence of already retained fishes inside baited fish pots acted as a social attraction and affected the entrance probability of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in a fjord in northern Norway. Video analysis revealed that the probability of an entrance initially increased with the presence of low numbers of fishes inside the pot, but subsequently decreased at a critical number of caught fishes. The critical number was dependent on the size of the G. morhua attempting to enter. This demonstrates that social attraction and repulsion play a role in G. morhua pot fishing and has important implications for the capture efficiency of fisheries executed with pots. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. 50 CFR 223.205 - Sea turtles.

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sea turtles. 223.205 Section 223.205... Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.205 Sea turtles. (a) The prohibitions of section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to endangered species apply to threatened species of sea turtle, except as...

  2. Stakeholder perceptions in fisheries management - Sectors with benthic impacts

    Soma, K.; Nielsen, J. R.; Papadopoulou, N.

    2018-01-01

    ), fisheries stakeholders are encouraged by the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) reform to contribute to policy formulations. Still, the CFP reform remains unclear about how to possibly incorporate perceptions of specific conservation measures and objectives in practice. Against this background, this article aims...... at exploring a systematic multi-criteria approach that provides information about stakeholder preferences for objectives reflecting on what is more important to aim for (‘what’), mitigation measures as strategies for reaching their objectives (‘how’), and accountability options that can enhance trust...... in the people who carry out management (‘who'). The approach applies a pairwise comparison approach to elucidate the stakeholder preferences, and to estimate the relative importance of the different options. It is conducted in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the North Sea. The outcomes...

  3. Effort allocation of the Dutch beam trawl fleet in response to a temporarily closed area in the North Sea

    Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Piet, G.J.; Poos, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    The spawning stock of North Sea cod is at a historic low level and immediate management measures are needed to improve this situation. As a first step, the European Commission in 2001 closed a large area in the North Sea between February 15 and April 30 to all cod related fishing fleets in order to

  4. Improving the effectiveness of escape windows in directed Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawl fisheries

    Madsen, Niels; Holst, René; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    A substantial improvement in the bycatch selectivity of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus trawls is required, particularly with respect to cod Gadus morhua , whose stocks are at low levels in several areas. Conventional escape windows are not adequate to properly release cod and other bycatch...... species caught in the trawls. To address this issue, we developed a novel sorting box concept consisting of a four-panel section with a window on the top in order to improve the escape of cod and other bycatch species through an escape window while retaining the target catch of Norway lobster. The concept....... The reduction in bycatch decreased with decreasing mesh size and increasing height of the sorting box. Escape of Norway lobster through the escape window was limited. A modified version of the sorting box concept was implemented in the Kattegat fishery from 2009 onwards...

  5. 50 CFR 648.126 - Protection of threatened and endangered sea turtles.

    2010-10-01

    ... sea turtles. 648.126 Section 648.126 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... sea turtles. This section supplements existing regulations issued to regulate incidental take of sea turtles under authority of the Endangered Species Act under 50 CFR parts 222 and 223. In addition to the...

  6. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  7. CodY-Dependent Regulation of Sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Edwards, Adrianne N; Daou, Nadine; Bouillaut, Laurent; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-08-01

    Clostridium difficile must form a spore to survive outside the gastrointestinal tract. The factors that trigger sporulation in C. difficile remain poorly understood. Previous studies have suggested that a link exists between nutritional status and sporulation initiation in C. difficile In this study, we investigated the impact of the global nutritional regulator CodY on sporulation in C. difficile strains from the historical 012 ribotype and the current epidemic 027 ribotype. Sporulation frequencies were increased in both backgrounds, demonstrating that CodY represses sporulation in C. difficile The 027 codY mutant exhibited a greater increase in spore formation than the 012 codY mutant. To determine the role of CodY in the observed sporulation phenotypes, we examined several factors that are known to influence sporulation in C. difficile Using transcriptional reporter fusions and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, we found that two loci associated with the initiation of sporulation, opp and sinR, are regulated by CodY. The data demonstrate that CodY is a repressor of sporulation in C. difficile and that the impact of CodY on sporulation and expression of specific genes is significantly influenced by the strain background. These results suggest that the variability of CodY-dependent regulation is an important contributor to virulence and sporulation in current epidemic isolates. This report provides further evidence that nutritional state, virulence, and sporulation are linked in C. difficile This study sought to examine the relationship between nutrition and sporulation in C. difficile by examining the global nutritional regulator CodY. CodY is a known virulence and nutritional regulator of C. difficile, but its role in sporulation was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that CodY is a negative regulator of sporulation in two different ribotypes of C. difficile We also demonstrate that CodY regulates known effectors of sporulation, Opp and Sin

  8. Ancient DNA reveals the Arctic origin of Viking Age cod from Haithabu, Germany.

    Star, Bastiaan; Boessenkool, Sanne; Gondek, Agata T; Nikulina, Elena A; Hufthammer, Anne Karin; Pampoulie, Christophe; Knutsen, Halvor; André, Carl; Nistelberger, Heidi M; Dierking, Jan; Petereit, Christoph; Heinrich, Dirk; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Jentoft, Sissel; Barrett, James H

    2017-08-22

    Knowledge of the range and chronology of historic trade and long-distance transport of natural resources is essential for determining the impacts of past human activities on marine environments. However, the specific biological sources of imported fauna are often difficult to identify, in particular if species have a wide spatial distribution and lack clear osteological or isotopic differentiation between populations. Here, we report that ancient fish-bone remains, despite being porous, brittle, and light, provide an excellent source of endogenous DNA (15-46%) of sufficient quality for whole-genome reconstruction. By comparing ancient sequence data to that of modern specimens, we determine the biological origin of 15 Viking Age (800-1066 CE) and subsequent medieval (1066-1280 CE) Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua ) specimens from excavation sites in Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Archaeological context indicates that one of these sites was a fishing settlement for the procurement of local catches, whereas the other localities were centers of trade. Fish from the trade sites show a mixed ancestry and are statistically differentiated from local fish populations. Moreover, Viking Age samples from Haithabu, Germany, are traced back to the North East Arctic Atlantic cod population that has supported the Lofoten fisheries of Norway for centuries. Our results resolve a long-standing controversial hypothesis and indicate that the marine resources of the North Atlantic Ocean were used to sustain an international demand for protein as far back as the Viking Age.

  9. Marine fisheries in Tanzania.

    Jiddawi, Narriman S; Ohman, Marcus C

    2002-12-01

    Fishery resources are a vital source of food and make valuable economic contributions to the local communities involved in fishery activities along the 850 km stretch of the Tanzania coastline and numerous islands. Small-scale artisanal fishery accounts for the majority of fish catch produced by more than 43 000 fishermen in the country, mainly operating in shallow waters within the continental shelf, using traditional fishing vessels including small boats, dhows, canoes, outrigger canoes and dinghys. Various fishing techniques are applied using uncomplicated passive fishing gears such as basket traps, fence traps, nets as well as different hook and line techniques. Species composition and size of the fish varies with gear type and location. More than 500 species of fish are utilized for food with reef fishes being the most important category including emperors, snappers, sweetlips, parrotfish, surgeonfish, rabbitfish, groupers and goatfish. Most of the fish products are used for subsistence purposes. However, some are exported. Destructive fishing methods such as drag nets and dynamite fishing pose a serious problem as they destroy important habitats for fish and other organisms, and there is a long-term trend of overharvested fishery resources. However, fishing pressure varies within the country as fishery resources are utilized in a sustainable manner in some areas. For this report more than 340 references about Tanzanian fishery and fish ecology were covered. There are many gaps in terms of information needed for successful fishery management regarding both basic and applied research. Most research results have been presented as grey literature (57%) with limited distribution; only one-fifth were scientific publications in international journals.

  10. Observer and At Sea Monitor Database (OBDBS)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Fisheries Observer Database System (OBDBS) contains data collected on commercial fishing vessels by observers from 1989 - present and at-sea monitors...

  11. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    2010-10-01

    ..., surimi (fish paste with additives), fillets (meat from the side of the fish, behind the head and in front... considered to be a catcher/processor nor is it considered to be processing fish. Such a vessel is considered..., the period(s) when at-sea processing is allowed and the fishery is open for the catcher/processor...

  12. Fishing methods for sustainable shrimp fisheries in the Canary ...

    During the past 20 years, experimental cruises have been conducted around the Canary Islands (North-West Africa) to investigate the biodiversity of the deep-sea ecosystem and to explore new fisheries resources. Although pandalid shrimps were shown to be very abundant in this region, information is lacking regarding ...

  13. 78 FR 69649 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    2013-11-20

    ... Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) consultation update (T)) ADF&G Report (including review of Board of Fisheries...) Report Safety report from National Institute Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) (T) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Report Protected Species Report (including Steller Sea Lion (SSL) Environmental...

  14. 76 FR 2084 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    2011-01-12

    ... Department of Fish & Game Report. International Pacific Halibut Commission Report. United States Coast Guard Report. United States Fish & Wildlife Service Report. Protected Species Report (including update on Steller Sea Lion (SSL); Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed salmon). American Fisheries Act (AFA...

  15. 77 FR 5774 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    2012-02-06

    ... management measures for further development and analysis in Omnibus Essential Fish Habitat Amendment 2. Two... fishing on Essential Fish Habitat and (2) alternatives to protect deep-sea corals from the impacts of... England Fishery Management Council (Council) is scheduling a public meeting of its Habitat/MPA/Ecosystem...

  16. 78 FR 11628 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    2013-02-19

    ... meetings will run as late as necessary to complete scheduled business. 10 a.m.-12 Noon, Monday, March 11... Natural Resources (DLNR) Report 1. Deep Sea to Clouds (fisheries/watershed management) 2. Enforcement 3... Team 4. Noncommercial Advisory Committee F. Meetings and Workshops G. Other Business H. Standing...

  17. Infection levels and species diversity of ascaridoid nematodes in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, are correlated with geographic area and fish size

    Gay, M.; Bao, M.; MacKenzie, K.

    2018-01-01

    2012-2014.Prevalences for Anisakis in whole fish and in fillets in the different fishing areas varied from 16 to 100% and from 12 to 90% respectively. Abundance was also greatly influenced by the sampling area. Generalized additive model results indicate higher numbers of Anisakis in the North Sea......, C. osculatum and H. aduncum. In addition to high prevalence and abundance values, the cod sampled in this study presented a diversity of ascaridoid nematodes with a majority of fish displaying a co-infection. Out of 295 whole infected fish, 269 were co-infected by at least 2 genera.......Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is among the most important commercial fish species on the world market. Its infection by ascaridoid nematodes has long been known, Pseudoterranova even being named cod worm. In the present study, 755 individuals were sampled in the Barents, Baltic and North Seas during...

  18. Solapamiento trófico entre el lobo marino de un pelo Otaria flavescens y la pesquería de arrastre demersal del golfo San Matías, Patagonia, Argentina Trophic overlap between the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens and the demersal trawl fishery in San Matías Gulf, Patagonia, Argentina

    María Alejandra Romero

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A nivel internacional, paralelo a la declinación y al colapso de pesquerías de gran escala, surgió un interés creciente por el estudio de las interacciones entre mamíferos marinos y pesquerías. El golfo San Matías (Patagonia, Argentina es considerado un ecosistema pesquero independiente de las aguas de la Plataforma Continental Argentina, con condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas particulares. La condición de sistema semi-cerrado podría generar escenarios particulares para la interacción entre la flota pesquera de arrastre de fondo y la población de lobos marinos de un pelo Otaria flavescens. En el presente trabajo se caracterizó la dieta del predador y la composición de las capturas pesqueras a fin de evaluar el solapamiento trófico entre ambos componentes. A partir de este análisis y la comparación de las tallas de las presas consumidas, se encontró que la posibilidad de una interacción competitiva entre la flota pesquera y los lobos marinos, a partir de la utilización de recursos similares, sería baja en el ecosistema del golfo San Matías.As world fisheries began to decline and massive collapses were observed, the competition between marine mammals and fisheries became an issue of growing concern. San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina is considered to be a fishery ecosystem independent of the Argentine Continental Shelf waters, with particular oceanographic and biological properties. As a semi-enclosed ecosystem, this gulf may generate particular scenarios for interactions between the demersal trawl fishery fleet and the population of South American sea lions Otaria flavescens. In this paper, the diet of the top predator and the composition of fishery catches were characterized in order to assess the trophic overlap between these two components. This analysis and a comparison of the sizes of prey consumed revealed a low probability of competition for similar resources between the fishing fleet and the marine mammals

  19. Estimating abundances of 0-group western Baltic cod by using pound net fisheries

    Bauer, Robert; Stepputtis, Daniel; Storr-Paulsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    were analysed, particularly concerning the influence of abiotic factors (hydrography, meteorology) and the differences between sampling sites. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) differed by site and location, whereas CPUE were highest at Lolland. Correlation between catch and wind/currents were generally...

  20. Quantifying predation on Baltic cod early life stages

    Neumann, Viola; Schaber, Matthias; Eero, Margit

    2017-01-01

    Predation on cod (Gadus morhua) eggs by sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) is known to be one of the processes influencing reproductive success of the eastern Baltic cod and has been reported to have contributed to lack of recovery of the stock in the 1990s. This study quanti...

  1. Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016

    Hal, van R.; Machiels, M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls

  2. Modelling axisymmetric cod-ends made of different mesh types

    Priour, D.; Herrmann, Bent; O'Neill, F.G.

    2009-01-01

    the selectivity process has become more important. This paper presents a model of the deformation of an axisymmetric cod-end. The twine tension and the catch pressure acting on the knots of each mesh along the cod-end profile are calculated, and a Newton-Raphson scheme is used to estimate the equilibrium position...

  3. 78 FR 33040 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Fisheries of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...

    2013-06-03

    ... will be publicly accessible. Do not submit confidential business information, or otherwise sensitive or... Marmot Bay Area relative to other areas; (2) the observation of mature male and female Tanner crab... performance standard and construction requirements that apply to the Bering Sea flatfish fishery under...

  4. Distribution of water in fresh cod

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Rinnan, A.

    2002-01-01

    Low-field (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation was used to measure water mobility and distribution of water in fresh cod fillets. The NMR relaxations were analysed with the so-called SLICING method giving uni-exponential profiles from which the transverse relaxation time (T(2......)-values) and the relative sizes of the water populations were calculated. Two water populations with the T(2)-values of 50 and 94 ms were obtained. The shortest relaxation time was primarily found near the head, and water with the longest relaxation time was primarily found near the tail. This variation...... can he explained by the smaller muscle cells and muscle fibers in the tail, which may influence the distributions of water into the different pools. The amount of one of the water populations was correlated to the overall water content with a correlation coefficient of -0.94. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science...

  5. Selectivity of Standard, Narrow and Square Mesh Panel Trawl Codends for Hake (Merluccius merluccius) and Poor Cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus)

    ÖZBİLGİN, Hüseyin; TOSUNOĞLU, Zafer; AYDIN, Celalettin; KAYKAÇ, Hakan; TOKAÇ, Adnan

    2005-01-01

    The selectivity of 3 trawl codends, (1) a commercially used standard codend, (2) a narrow codend (100 meshes on its circumference instead of 200) and (3) a square mesh top panel codend, was tested for hake (Merluccius merluccius) and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus capelanus) between 8 and 24 October 2003, in the Aegean Sea. Data were collected using the covered codend technique, and analysed by means of a logistic equation with the maximum likelihood method. The results show that the commer...

  6. Acoustic-Trawl Survey of Walleye Pollock on the Eastern Bering Sea Shelf (DY1407, EK60)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Alaska Fisheries Science Center (AFSC) conducted an acoustic-trawl (AT) stock assessment survey on the eastern Bering Sea...

  7. Cod avoidance by area regulations in Kattegat

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist

    2014-01-01

    fair and the goals should be clear, not least when the descriptors of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, which might be more intangible for the fishers, are part of the goal of the measures. If incentives created by the regulation are stable over at least a few years the fishers and fishers......’ organisations are more capable at being active partners in developing the systems that support the discard ban. An example from the examined initiatives are the outline of a fleet information system, providing the skipper with information about hotspots of unwanted species allowing him to make a better plan...... for the selective fishery based on more qualified information....

  8. USVI commercial fisheries cost data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To assist the Caribbean Fishery Management Council in managing marine living resources in the United States Virgin Islands, the Southeast Fisheries Science Center...

  9. Fisheries and climate

    Brander, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Fish stocks and the fisheries based on them have always experienced variability due to climate. Changes in temperature, salinity, winds, ocean currents, oxygen, and other factors affect their distribution, growth, survival, and recruitment. Examples of such effects are given for several regions...... of the oceans and the processes are described. Poleward distribution shifts have occurred since the 1960s and can be attributed to the effects of anthropogenic climate change with a high degree of confidence. In addition to climate effects, fisheries are subjected to other anthropogenic stresses, including high...... fishing mortality, loss of habitat, pollution, and introduction of alien species. These interact and may reduce the resilience of exploited stocks, although climate change may also increase productivity in some cases. Fisheries production depends on primary production, but to date we have low confidence...

  10. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  11. An empirical model of the Baltic Sea reveals the importance of social dynamics for ecological regime shifts.

    Lade, Steven J; Niiranen, Susa; Hentati-Sundberg, Jonas; Blenckner, Thorsten; Boonstra, Wiebren J; Orach, Kirill; Quaas, Martin F; Österblom, Henrik; Schlüter, Maja

    2015-09-01

    Regime shifts triggered by human activities and environmental changes have led to significant ecological and socioeconomic consequences in marine and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide. Ecological processes and feedbacks associated with regime shifts have received considerable attention, but human individual and collective behavior is rarely treated as an integrated component of such shifts. Here, we used generalized modeling to develop a coupled social-ecological model that integrated rich social and ecological data to investigate the role of social dynamics in the 1980s Baltic Sea cod boom and collapse. We showed that psychological, economic, and regulatory aspects of fisher decision making, in addition to ecological interactions, contributed both to the temporary persistence of the cod boom and to its subsequent collapse. These features of the social-ecological system also would have limited the effectiveness of stronger fishery regulations. Our results provide quantitative, empirical evidence that incorporating social dynamics into models of natural resources is critical for understanding how resources can be managed sustainably. We also show that generalized modeling, which is well-suited to collaborative model development and does not require detailed specification of causal relationships between system variables, can help tackle the complexities involved in creating and analyzing social-ecological models.

  12. Evaluation of three levels of selective devices relevant to management of the Danish Kattegat-Skagerrak Nephrops fishery

    Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René; Madsen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    This study illuminates a range of technological options relevant to present legislation for regulating fish by-catch in a small-meshed Nephrops fishery. The selection of cod, haddock, hake, lemon sole, Nephrops, plaice, saithe, witch, and whiting were evaluated using the twin-trawl technique for...... parameters by species and confidence bands to compare the selective properties of different gear types. For cod, haddock, hake, Nephrops, plaice, and whiting we obtained estimates for all three gear variants, whereas we obtained estimates for lemon sole and witch only with the standard and the SMP codends...

  13. Transitional states in marine fisheries: adapting to predicted global change.

    MacNeil, M Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A J; Cinner, Joshua E; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Loring, Philip A; Jennings, Simon; Polunin, Nicholas V C; Fisk, Aaron T; McClanahan, Tim R

    2010-11-27

    Global climate change has the potential to substantially alter the production and community structure of marine fisheries and modify the ongoing impacts of fishing. Fish community composition is already changing in some tropical, temperate and polar ecosystems, where local combinations of warming trends and higher environmental variation anticipate the changes likely to occur more widely over coming decades. Using case studies from the Western Indian Ocean, the North Sea and the Bering Sea, we contextualize the direct and indirect effects of climate change on production and biodiversity and, in turn, on the social and economic aspects of marine fisheries. Climate warming is expected to lead to (i) yield and species losses in tropical reef fisheries, driven primarily by habitat loss; (ii) community turnover in temperate fisheries, owing to the arrival and increasing dominance of warm-water species as well as the reduced dominance and departure of cold-water species; and (iii) increased diversity and yield in Arctic fisheries, arising from invasions of southern species and increased primary production resulting from ice-free summer conditions. How societies deal with such changes will depend largely on their capacity to adapt--to plan and implement effective responses to change--a process heavily influenced by social, economic, political and cultural conditions.

  14. 77 FR 31327 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    2012-05-25

    ... Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... fisheries, including Columbia River fisheries issues, the NOAA Habitat Blueprint, and the Council's.... Thompson, Acting Director, Office of Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. [FR Doc...

  15. CROATIAN FISHERIES IN 2004

    Irena Jahutka

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with all the relevant statistic data regarding fisheries of Republic of Croatia, including freshwater fisheries data (aquaculture of fish and other aquatic organisms, commercial and sports fisheries, marine fisheries data (mariculture, commercial fisheries, small–scale fisheries and processing of fish and other marine organisms, as well as data about import and export of fish and fish products and the data about financial subventions in fisheries. Regarding aquaculture (freshwater fish farming in 2004 there have been noticed slight changes comparing to 2003. The total freshwater fish production in 2004 was 5,618 tons (4,259 tons of warm–water species and 1,359 tons of cold–water species. Total areas and production areas were increased comparing to 2003 (total areas 1.94% and production areas 5.42%. Total catch of freshwater fish in 2004 was 567 tons. The total marine fish species production was increased cca. 20% comparing to 2003. Mussels farming, which is slightly increasing since 1999, during 2004 was decreased, while oysters farming were stagnating. The catch of marine fish was increased by 9.74% comparing to 2003. The biggest increase is noticed regarding catch of demersal and other fish species. As well as the increase of the total catch, the number of commercial fishermen and fishing vessels was also increased in 2003. The number of fishermen who fish for their own consumption (without the right to sell fish–small scale fishermen in 2004 was 13,700. The total production of fish products in 2004 was 14,270 tons, which is 24.89% less comparing to 2003. Along this decrease, there has been also noticed an increasing trend of the production assortments, specially salted anchovy. The value of import in 2004 was higher than the value of export, although the export/import balance was higher in amount on the import side. Financial subventions payments in 2004 were 67.21% higher comparing to the first year of payments (1997

  16. Forage fish, their fisheries, and their predators: who drives whom?

    Engelhard, Georg H.; Peck, Myron A.; Rindorf, Anna

    2014-01-01

    exist, as in the North Sea. Sandeel appears to be the most important prey forage fish. Seabirds are most dependent on forage fish, due to specialized diet and distributional constraints (breeding colonies). Other than fisheries, key predators of forage fish are a few piscivorous fish species including...... saithe, whiting, mackerel, and horse-mackerel, exploited in turn by fisheries; seabirds and seals have a more modest impact. Size-based foodwebmodelling suggests that reducing fishing mortality may not necessarily lead to larger stocks of piscivorous fish, especially if their early life stages compete...

  17. Structure of chymotrypsin variant B from Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    Leth-Larsen, Rikke; Asgeirsson, B; Thórólfsson, M

    1996-01-01

    The amino-acid sequence of chymotrypsin variant B isolated from the pyloric caeca of Atlantic cod has been elucidated. The characterization of the primary structure is based on N-terminal Edman degradation and mass spectrometry of the native protein and enzymatically derived peptides. Chymotrypsi...... autolysis sites, cod variant B only contains a single autolysis site. The three-dimensional structures of the A- and B-variants of cod has been modelled on the known crystal structure of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin showing almost superimposable structures....

  18. "XANSONS for COD": a new small BOINC project in crystallography

    Neverov, Vladislav S.; Khrapov, Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    "XANSONS for COD" (http://xansons4cod.com) is a new BOINC project aimed at creating the open-access database of simulated x-ray and neutron powder diffraction patterns for nanocrystalline phase of materials from the collection of the Crystallography Open Database (COD). The project uses original open-source software XaNSoNS to simulate diffraction patterns on CPU and GPU. This paper describes the scientific problem this project solves, the project's internal structure, its operation principles and organization of the final database.

  19. 77 FR 5389 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    2012-02-03

    ...; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the Bering Sea Pollock Fishery; Economic Data Collection AGENCY... Management Area (BSAI) in the Exclusive Economic Zone under the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the... Management Program Economic Data Report (Chinook salmon EDR program). (a) Requirements. NMFS developed the...

  20. The COD Model: Simulating Workgroup Performance

    Biggiero, Lucio; Sevi, Enrico

    Though the question of the determinants of workgroup performance is one of the most central in organization science, precise theoretical frameworks and formal demonstrations are still missing. In order to fill in this gap the COD agent-based simulation model is here presented and used to study the effects of task interdependence and bounded rationality on workgroup performance. The first relevant finding is an algorithmic demonstration of the ordering of interdependencies in terms of complexity, showing that the parallel mode is the most simplex, followed by the sequential and then by the reciprocal. This result is far from being new in organization science, but what is remarkable is that now it has the strength of an algorithmic demonstration instead of being based on the authoritativeness of some scholar or on some episodic empirical finding. The second important result is that the progressive introduction of realistic limits to agents' rationality dramatically reduces workgroup performance and addresses to a rather interesting result: when agents' rationality is severely bounded simple norms work better than complex norms. The third main finding is that when the complexity of interdependence is high, then the appropriate coordination mechanism is agents' direct and active collaboration, which means teamwork.