WorldWideScience

Sample records for sd fk80 plasmodium

  1. Plasmodium immunomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria, is an excellent model for immunomic-based approaches to vaccine development. The Plasmodium parasite has a complex life cycle with multiple stages and stage-specific expression of ∼5300 putative proteins. No malaria vaccine has yet been licensed. Many believe that an effective vaccine will need to target several antigens and multiple stages, and will require the generation of both antibody and cellular immune responses. Vaccine efforts to date have been stage-specific and based on only a very limited number of proteins representing Plasmodium parasite life cycle with immune responses implicated in parasite elimination and control. Immunomic approaches which enable the selection of the best possible targets by prioritising antigens according to clinically relevant criteria may overcome the problem of poorly immunogenic, poorly protective vaccines that has plagued malaria vaccine developers for the past 25 years. Herein, current progress and perspectives regarding Plasmodium immunomics are reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. of Plasmodium cynomolgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of. Plasmodium. ... knowledge of detailed structural organization is crucial in ... sional (3D) structure of a protein are of great assistance.

  3. Test characteristics of two rapid antigen detection tests (SD FK50 and SD FK60 for the diagnosis of malaria in returned travellers

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    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two malaria rapid diagnostic tests were evaluated in a travel clinic setting: the SD FK50 Malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum test (a two-band test and the SD FK60 Malaria Ag P. falciparum/Pan test (a three-band test. Methods A panel of stored whole blood samples (n = 452 and n = 614 for FK50 and FK60, respectively from returned travellers was used. The reference method was microscopy with PCR in case of discordant results. Results For both tests, overall sensitivity for the detection of P. falciparum was 93.5%, reaching 97.6% and 100% at parasite densities above 100 and 1,000/μl respectively. Overall sensitivities for Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae for the FK60 test were 87.5%, 76.3% and 45.2%, but they reached 92.6% and 90.5% for P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities above 500/μl. Specificities were above 95% for all species and both tests when corrected by PCR, with visible histidine-rich protein-2 lines for P. malariae (n = 3 and P. vivax and P. ovale (1 sample each. Line intensities were reproducible and correlated to parasite densities. The FK60 tests provided clues to estimate parasite densities for P. falciparum below or above 1,000/μl. Conclusion Both the FK50 and FK60 performed well for the diagnosis of P. falciparum in the present setting, and the FK60 for the diagnosis of P. vivax and P. ovale at parasite densities > 500/μl. The potential use of the FK60 as a semi-quantitative estimation of parasite density needs to be further explored.

  4. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durrheim, Karen Barnes. Objectives. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) after 5 years of use as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and thus guide the selection of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Design. An open-label ...

  6. SD card projects using the PIC microcontroller

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahim, Dogan

    2010-01-01

    PIC Microcontrollers are a favorite in industry and with hobbyists. These microcontrollers are versatile, simple, and low cost making them perfect for many different applications. The 8-bit PIC is widely used in consumer electronic goods, office automation, and personal projects. Author, Dogan Ibrahim, author of several PIC books has now written a book using the PIC18 family of microcontrollers to create projects with SD cards. This book is ideal for those practicing engineers, advanced students, and PIC enthusiasts that want to incorporate SD Cards into their devices. SD cards are che

  7. Plasmodium Sporozoite Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Friedrich; Matuschewski, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Plasmodium sporozoite transmission is a critical population bottleneck in parasite life-cycle progression and, hence, a target for prophylactic drugs and vaccines. The recent progress of a candidate antisporozoite subunit vaccine formulation to licensure highlights the importance of sporozoite transmission intervention in the malaria control portfolio. Sporozoites colonize mosquito salivary glands, migrate through the skin, penetrate blood vessels, breach the liver sinusoid, and invade hepatocytes. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the remarkable sporozoite journey in the invertebrate vector and the vertebrate host can inform evidence-based next-generation drug development programs and immune intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array...

  9. Plasmodium ovale in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Purnomo; Masbar, S

    1990-12-01

    We report 34 infections by Plasmodium ovale found among 15,806 blood film examinations taken between 1973 and 1989 from several sites in Indonesia. Twenty five of the P. ovale infections occurred in a single sample of 514 people living in Owi, Irian Jaya. We detected five additional infections at 3 other sites in Irian Jaya. Other infections by P. ovale occurred at two sites in West Flores. Another infection has already been reported from East Timor. Despite relatively frequent sampling of populations on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi, P. ovale has not been found on those islands. It appears that this parasite occurs only on the easternmost islands of the Indonesian archipelago where it is nonetheless a rare finding.

  10. Are sdAs helium core stars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelisoli Ingrid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolved stars with a helium core can be formed by non-conservative mass exchange interaction with a companion or by strong mass loss. Their masses are smaller than 0.5 M⊙. In the database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, there are several thousand stars which were classified by the pipeline as dwarf O, B and A stars. Considering the lifetimes of these classes on the main sequence, and their distance modulus at the SDSS bright saturation, if these were common main sequence stars, there would be a considerable population of young stars very far from the galactic disk. Their spectra are dominated by Balmer lines which suggest effective temperatures around 8 000-10 000 K. Several thousand have significant proper motions, indicative of distances smaller than 1 kpc. Many show surface gravity in intermediate values between main sequence and white dwarf, 4.75 < log g < 6.5, hence they have been called sdA stars. Their physical nature and evolutionary history remains a puzzle. We propose they are not H-core main sequence stars, but helium core stars and the outcomes of binary evolution. We report the discovery of two new extremely-low mass white dwarfs among the sdAs to support this statement.

  11. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, Ritesh [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064, India and Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia - 723101 (India); Sarkar, S. [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  12. Isospin symmetry breaking in sd shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Y.W.

    2011-12-01

    In the thesis, we develop a microscopic approach to describe the isospin-symmetry breaking effects in sd-shell nuclei. The work is performed within the nuclear shell model. A realistic isospin-conserving Hamiltonian is perfected by a charge-dependent part consisting of the Coulomb interaction and Yukawa-type meson exchange potentials to model charge-dependent forces of nuclear origin. The extended database of the experimental isobaric mass multiplet equation coefficients was compiled during the thesis work and has been used in a fit of the Hamiltonian parameters. The constructed Hamiltonian provides an accurate theoretical description of the isospin mixing nuclear states. A specific behaviour of the IMME (Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation) coefficients have been revealed. We present two important applications: (i) calculations of isospin-forbidden proton emission amplitudes, which is often of interest for nuclear astrophysics, and (ii) calculation on corrections to nuclear Fermi beta decay, which is crucial for the tests of fundamental symmetries of the weak interaction. (author)

  13. Final report of the safety assessment of Alcohol Denat., including SD Alcohol 3-A, SD Alcohol 30, SD Alcohol 39, SD Alcohol 39-B, SD Alcohol 39-C, SD Alcohol 40, SD Alcohol 40-B, and SD Alcohol 40-C, and the denaturants, Quassin, Brucine Sulfate/Brucine, and Denatonium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol Denat. is the generic term used by the cosmetics industry to describe denatured alcohol. Alcohol Denat. and various specially denatured (SD) alcohols are used as cosmetic ingredients in a wide variety of products. Many denaturants have been previously considered, on an individual basis, as cosmetic ingredients by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel, whereas others, including Brucine and Brucine Sulfate, Denatonium Benzoate, and Quassin, have not previously been evaluated. Quassin is a bitter alkaloid obtained from the wood of Quassia amara. Quassin has been used as an insect antifeedant and insecticide and several studies demonstrate its effectiveness. At oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg using rats, Quassin was not toxic in acute and short-term tests, but some reversible piloerection, decrease in motor activity, and a partial loss of righting reflex were found in mice at 500 mg/kg. At 1000 mg/kg given intraperitoneally (i.p.), all mice died within 24 h of receiving treatment. In a cytotoxicity test with brine shrimp, 1 mg/ml of Quassin did not possess any cytotoxic or antiplasmodial activity. Quassin administered to rat Leydig cells in vitro at concentrations of 5-25 ng/ml inhibited both the basal and luteinizing hormone (LH)-stimulated testosterone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Quassin at doses up to 2.0 g/kg in drinking water using rats produced no significant effect on the body weights, but the mean weights of the testes, seminal vesicles, and epididymides were significantly reduced, and the weights of the anterior pituitary glands were significantly increased. The sperm counts and levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were significantly lower in groups treated with Quassin. Brucine is a derivative of 2-hydroxystrychnine. Swiss-Webster mice given Brucine base, 30 ml/kg, had an acute oral LD(50) of 150 mg/kg, with central nervous system depression followed by convulsions and seizures in some cases. In those

  14. MASALAH MOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA SD PADA IPS

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    Erlisnawati Erlisnawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Masalah Motivasi Siswa SD pada ilmu pengetahuan Sosial. Motivasi adalah hal yang sangat penting yang mempengaruhi kegiatan / pekerjaan yang dilakukan oleh individu, termasuk yang mempengaruhi siswa dalam kegiatan belajar. Motivasi adalah salah satu elemen yang paling penting dalam pengajaran yang efektif. Pembelajaran diikuti oleh siswa yang termotivasi untuk menjadi benar-benar menyenangkan, terutama untuk guru. Siswa termotivasi untuk belajar sesuatu akan menggunakan proses kognitif yang lebih tinggi belajar dan menyerap dan mengingat lebih dari itu. Motivasi sebagai proses internal yang memungkinkan, membimbing dan mempertahankan perilaku dari waktu ke waktu. Ada beberapa teori motivasi yaitu: teori perilaku, teori kebutuhan, teori atribusi, teori belajar mandiri dan teori harapan. Motivasi dipengaruhi oleh faktor intrinsik dan faktor ekstinsik. Guru harus mengetahui kondisi ketika siswa termotivasi dan ketika kondisi siswa tidak termotivasi. Untuk itu seorang guru harus memiliki kemampuan untuk memotivasi siswa. Adapun cara yang bisa dilakukan untuk memotivasi guru untuk meningkatkan siswa adalah untuk membangkitkan minat, menjaga rasa ingin tahu, menggunakan berbagai cara yang menarik menyajikan, membantu siswa menentukan target mereka sendiri. Pembelajaran yang dilakukan oleh siswa dengan mitivasi tinggi akan menciptakan proses pembelajaran yang efektif.Kata kunci: masalah, motivasi, ilmu pengetahuan sosial, sekolah dasarMotivation is a very important thing that affects the activities / work performed by the individual, including that affect students in learning activities. Motivation is one of the most important elements in effective teaching. Learning followed by students who are motivated to be really fun, especially for teachers. Students are motivated to learn something will use higher cognitive processes learn and absorb and remember more of it. Motivation as internal processes that enable, guide and sustain behavior over time. There

  15. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ana Cecilia; Ortiz, Andres; Coello, Jorge; Sosa-Ochoa, Wilfredo; Torres, Rosa E Mejia; Banegas, Engels I; Jovel, Irina; Fontecha, Gustavo A

    2012-11-26

    Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite's circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77) for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84) for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35) for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2) was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30) block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33), and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11) (3D7 and FC27) were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  16. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  17. Absence of Plasmodium inui and Plasmodium cynomolgi, but detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax infections in asymptomatic humans in the Betong division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siner, Angela; Liew, Sze-Tze; Kadir, Khamisah Abdul; Mohamad, Dayang Shuaisah Awang; Thomas, Felicia Kavita; Zulkarnaen, Mohammad; Singh, Balbir

    2017-10-17

    Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has become the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Epidemiological data on malaria for Sarawak has been derived solely from hospitalized patients, and more accurate epidemiological data on malaria is necessary. Therefore, a longitudinal study of communities affected by knowlesi malaria was undertaken. A total of 3002 blood samples on filter paper were collected from 555 inhabitants of 8 longhouses with recently reported knowlesi malaria cases in the Betong Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Each longhouse was visited bimonthly for a total of 10 times during a 21-month study period (Jan 2014-Oct 2015). DNA extracted from blood spots were examined by a nested PCR assay for Plasmodium and positive samples were then examined by nested PCR assays for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium inui. Blood films of samples positive by PCR were also examined by microscopy. Genus-specific PCR assay detected Plasmodium DNA in 9 out of 3002 samples. Species-specific PCR identified 7 P. knowlesi and one P. vivax. Malaria parasites were observed in 5 thick blood films of the PCR positive samples. No parasites were observed in blood films from one knowlesi-, one vivax- and the genus-positive samples. Only one of 7 P. knowlesi-infected individual was febrile and had sought medical treatment at Betong Hospital the day after sampling. The 6 knowlesi-, one vivax- and one Plasmodium-infected individuals were afebrile and did not seek any medical treatment. Asymptomatic human P. knowlesi and P. vivax malaria infections, but not P. cynomolgi and P. inui infections, are occurring within communities affected with malaria.

  18. In-Silico detection of chokepoints enzymes in four plasmodium species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the over 156 species of Plasmodium that infect vertebrates, only four infect man: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Other species infect other animals including birds, reptiles and rodents. The rodent malaria parasites are Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium yoelii, ...

  19. SD-PAMs: What, Where, When and How?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This paper examines what ''sustainable development policies and measures'' (SD-PAMs) could be, and how they could be implemented and could fit into a post-2012 climate regime. This paper assumes that the option to implement SD-PAMs instead of quantified GHG emission commitments post-2012 is an option that would be likely to be only open to non-Annex I countries. There are several key, but unanswered, questions related to SD-PAMs. These include policy-related issues such as which countries could take on commitments to implement SD-PAMs (rather than quantified emission commitments)? Why would particular countries decide to take on such commitments? They also include questions related to how SD-PAMs could be implemented. For many other options for possible post-2012 GHG mitigation actions, including by non-Annex I countries, have also been proposed. However, this paper focuses solely on SD-PAMs.

  20. How Changes in Anti-SD Sequences Would Affect SD Sequences in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolbaghaei, Akram; Silke, Jordan R; Xia, Xuhua

    2017-05-05

    The 3' end of the small ribosomal RNAs (ssu rRNA) in bacteria is directly involved in the selection and binding of mRNA transcripts during translation initiation via well-documented interactions between a Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence located upstream of the initiation codon and an anti-SD (aSD) sequence at the 3' end of the ssu rRNA. Consequently, the 3' end of ssu rRNA (3'TAIL) is strongly conserved among bacterial species because a change in the region may impact the translation of many protein-coding genes. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis differ in their 3' ends of ssu rRNA, being GAUC ACCUCCUUA 3' in E. coli and GAUC ACCUCCUU UCU3' or GAUC ACCUCCUU UCUA3' in B. subtilis Such differences in 3'TAIL lead to species-specific SDs (designated SD Ec for E. coli and SD Bs for B. subtilis ) that can form strong and well-positioned SD/aSD pairing in one species but not in the other. Selection mediated by the species-specific 3'TAIL is expected to favor SD Bs against SD Ec in B. subtilis , but favor SD Ec against SD Bs in E. coli Among well-positioned SDs, SD Ec is used more in E. coli than in B. subtilis , and SD Bs more in B. subtilis than in E. coli Highly expressed genes and genes of high translation efficiency tend to have longer SDs than lowly expressed genes and genes with low translation efficiency in both species, but more so in B. subtilis than in E. coli Both species overuse SDs matching the bolded part of the 3'TAIL shown above. The 3'TAIL difference contributes to the host specificity of phages. Copyright © 2017 Abolbaghaei et al.

  1. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

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    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  2. Penerapan Model Beyond Centers and Circle Tme SD Kelas Satu

    OpenAIRE

    FITRIA, EVY

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian bertujuan mengkaji pelaksanaan penerapan model pembelajaran Sentra Model pembelajaran sentra (Beyond Centers and Circle Time) dilaksanakan pada siswa kelas satu SD Islam Jayawinata Kota Tangerang 2013. Penelitian menggunakan metode kualitatitf dengan analisis model Miles and Huberman. Hasil penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa kegiatan SD kelas satu menggunakan model pembelajaran sentra atau BCCT pada tahun ajaran baru sehingga guru memiliki panduan ketika membuat rencana pembelajaran; p...

  3. Positional dependence of the SNPP VIIRS SD BRDF degradation factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Chen, Xuexia; Chang, Tiejun; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2017-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite is a passive scanning radiometer and an imager. The VIIRS regularly performs on-orbit radiometric calibration of its reflective solar bands (RSBs) through observing an onboard sunlit solar diffuser (SD). The reflectance of the SD changes over time and the change is denoted as the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function degradation factor. The degradation factor, measured by an onboard solar diffuser stability monitor, has been shown to be both incident sunlight and outgoing direction dependent. In this Proceeding, we investigate the factor's dependence on SD position. We develop a model to relate the SD degradation factor with the amount of solar exposure. We use Earth measurements to evaluate the effectiveness of the model.

  4. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  5. [Congenital malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, W; Trop, M; Kollaritsch, H; Reinthaler, F

    2000-05-19

    Increasing tourism and growing numbers of immigrants from malaria-endemic countries are leading to a higher importation rate of rare tropical disorders in European countries. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of connatal malaria in Austria. The patient is the first child of a 24 year old mother who was born in Ghana and immigrated to Austria one and a half years before delivery. She did not stay in an endemic region during this period and did not show fever or any other signs of malaria. The boy was healthy for the first six weeks of his life. In the 8th week of life he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent fever of unknown origin. On physical examination he showed only mild splenomegaly. Routine laboratory testing revealed mild hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin value of 8.3 g/l. In the blood smear Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae were detected. Oral therapy with quinine hydrochloride was successful and blood smears became negative for Plasmodia within 6 days. This case shows that congenital malaria can occur in children of clinically healthy women who were born in malaria-endemic areas even one and a half year after they have immigrated to non-endemic regions.

  6. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Severity of thrombocytopenia in patients with plasmodium vivax malaria; a single center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Lodhi, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia has been frequently observed in plasmodium vivax malaria in different studies. Finding out the severity of thrombocytopenia is perhaps equally important, as it has practical as well as prognostic implications. The objective of the study was to assess the severity of thrombocytopenia in patients suffering from malaria caused by plasmodium vivax. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Malir, Karachi, which is a tertiary care Hospital for all military personnel and their families in the province of Sindh. All patients of smear positive Vivax malaria during the study period were included, and those having hrombocytopenia from any other reason were excluded. They were treated with anti-malarial drugs and their platelet counts were monitored till they normalized and discharged from the hospital. Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelets count of <150,000/cu mm. Results were analysed by SPSS 11. Results: Out of 150 cases, 133 (88%) had thrombocytopenia. Their ages ranged from 15 to 55; mean age was 35 with SD ± 20. Low platelet count observed was between 11000 and 146000/cu mm with SD ± 27404. Mean value was 79 832/cu mm. None of the patient had any bleeding episode requiring a blood transfusion. Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax associated thrombocytopenia has a benign outcome irrespective of severity of the platelet counts. (author)

  8. EKSISTENSI SD GMIT DI ROTE NDAO (Studi Deskriptif Penempatan Guru PNS pada SD GMIT Rote Ndao-NTT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melki Manafe

    2013-12-01

    berasal dari Negara. Hasil-hasil inimenempatkan SD GMIT di Rote Ndao pada status quasistate school dimana SD GMIT adalah milik GMIT akan tetapi semua operasional (subsidi pendidikan dan sumber daya manusia/guru selalu bergantung pada Negara.

  9. SdAb heterodimer formation using leucine zippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Ellen R.; Anderson, George P.; Brozozog-Lee, P. Audrey; Zabetakis, Dan

    2013-05-01

    Single domain antibodies (sdAb) are variable domains cloned from camel, llama, or shark heavy chain only antibodies, and are among the smallest known naturally derived antigen binding fragments. SdAb derived from immunized llamas are able to bind antigens with high affinity, and most are capable of refolding after heat or chemical denaturation to bind antigen again. We hypothesized that the ability to produce heterodimeric sdAb would enable reagents with the robust characteristics of component sdAb, but with dramatically improved overall affinity through increased avidity. Previously we had constructed multimeric sdAb by genetically linking sdAb that bind non-overlapping epitopes on the toxin, ricin. In this work we explored a more flexible approach; the construction of multivalent binding reagents using multimerization domains. We expressed anti-ricin sdAb that recognize different epitopes on the toxin as fusions with differently charged leucine zippers. When the initially produced homodimers are mixed the leucine zipper domains will pair to produce heterodimers. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer to confirm heterodimer formation. Surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, and fluid array assays were used to characterize the multimer constructs, and evaluate their utility in toxin detection.

  10. Study of sdO models. Pulsation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-López, C.; Moya, A.; Garrido, R.; MacDonald, J.; Oreiro, R.; Ulla, A.

    2009-01-01

    We have explored the possibility of driving pulsation modes in models of sdO stars in which the effects of element diffusion, gravitational settling and radiative levitation have been neglected so that the distribution of iron-peak elements remains uniform throughout the evolution. The stability of these models was determined using a non-adiabatic oscillations code. We analysed 27 sdO models from 16 different evolutionary sequences and discovered the first ever sdO models capable of driving h...

  11. UTVÄRDERING AV UTVALDA SD-WAN PRODUKTER

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerblom, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Denna jämförelsestudie ämnar att undersöka marknadens leverantörer av nätverksutrustning de- finierade som Software Defined Wide Area Networks(SD-WAN). SD-WAN är en innovativ teknik som applicerar virtualisering och Software defined networking koncept i Wide Area Networks (WAN) för att skapa kostnadseffektiva nätverk. Studien har utförts på företaget Curitiba som idag arbetar med konsulttjänster inom utvalda WAN-optimering och SD-WAN-produkter. Arbetets syfte är att utvärdera SD-WAN-lösningar...

  12. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  13. Sierra/SD User's Notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munday, Lynn Brendon; Day, David M.; Bunting, Gregory; Miller, Scott T; Crane, Nathan K

    2018-03-01

    Sierra/SD provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Sierra/SD. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms.

  14. Identification of Protein Markers in Patients Infected with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kang-Wai Mu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by parasitic protozoans of the genus Plasmodium and is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. For this reason, effective and practical diagnostic methods are urgently needed to control the spread of malaria. The aim of the current study was to identify a panel of new malarial markers, which could be used to diagnose patients infected with various Plasmodium species, including P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum. Sera from malaria-infected patients were pooled and compared to control sera obtained from healthy individuals using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. Mass spectrometry was used to identify serum proteins and quantify their relative abundance. We found that the levels of several proteins were increased in pooled serum from infected patients, including cell adhesion molecule-4 and C-reactive protein. In contrast, the serum concentration of haptoglobin was reduced in malaria-infected individuals, which we verified by western blot assay. Therefore, these proteins might represent infectious markers of malaria, which could be used to develop novel diagnostic tools for detecting P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, these potential malarial markers will need to be validated in a larger population of infected individuals.

  15. Photometric Survey to Search for Field sdO Pulsators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.; Green, E.; Wallace, S.; O'Malley, C.; Amaya, H.; Biddle, L.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of a campaign to search for subdwarf O (sdO) star pulsators among bright field stars. The motivation for this project is the recent discovery by Randall et al. (2011) of four rapidly pulsating sdO stars in the globular cluster ω Cen, with Teff near 50,000 K, 5.4 -0.1 and similar temperatures and gravities. To date, we have found no detectable pulsations at amplitudes above 0.08% (4 times the mean noise level) in any of the 36 field sdO stars that we observed. The presence of pulsations in ω Cen sdO stars and their apparent absence in seemingly comparable field sdO stars is perplexing. While very suggestive, the significance of this result is difficult to assess more completely right now due to remaining uncertainties about the temperature width and purity of the ω Cen instability strip and the existence of any sdO pulsators with weaker amplitudes than the current detection limit in globular clusters.

  16. Combinatorial gene regulation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has a complicated life cycle with large variations in its gene expression pattern, but it contains relatively few specific transcriptional regulators. To elucidate this paradox, we identified regulatory sequences, using an approach that integrates the

  17. Immunoglobulin profile of Nigerian children with Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... IgG correlated positively with the level of malarial parasitaemia (r = 0.99). We deduce that ... stages of Plasmodium falciparum and attempts have con- sequently been ... analysis using Microsoft Excel package. RESULTS.

  18. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  19. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Templeton, Thomas J; Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Tang, Jianxia; Lu, Feng; Naeem, Raeece; Hashish, Yasmeen; Oguike, Mary C; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Clark, Taane G; Sutherland, Colin J; Barnwell, John W; Culleton, Richard; Cao, Jun; Pain, Arnab

    2016-10-01

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Templeton, Thomas J.; Subudhi, Amit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Tang, Jianxia; Lu, Feng; Naeem, Raeece; Hashish, Yasmeen; Oguike, Mary C.; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Clark, Taane G.; Sutherland, Colin J.; Barnwell, John W.; Culleton, Richard; Cao, Jun; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  1. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman

    2016-07-05

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  2. RECORD OF THE BINARY DATA ON SD CARD ARDUINO DUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The short review of microcontrollers of family Arduino, their characteristics and application fields is given. Importance of record of parameters of researched object is marked to produce debugging of control systems on microcontrollers Arduino. Unique possibility of registration of parameters in family Arduino is record on SD a card in an alpha mode with usage of functions print (, write (. The problems connected to record of the binary data on SD a card on microcontroller Arduino Due are considered. The analysis of methods of record of the binary data on SD card Arduino Due, originating problems with neo-cleaning of memory from the previous program leading to possibility of duplication of the data on SD to a card, presence of the erratic point of view about restriction of volumes of data record and necessity of usage become outdated SD cards is carried out. Ways of elimination of the marked lacks are considered. The estimation of high-speed performance of various approaches of a data recording on SD a card is led. On the basis of the led researches the approach of multiplexing of the writeable information at the expense of conversion of the binary data is offered is byte-serial in a character array in code ASCI without magnification of their volume and record by units on 240 byte. It allows to use as much as possible standard function possibilities write ( Arduino and specificity of the organization of memory SD of cards and to increase high-speed performance more than in 1100 times in comparison with record in a character type on one byte.It is marked that usage of decisions of an exception of duplication of the data offered at forums does not provide completeness of their elimination. For Arduino Due for storage cleaning it is necessary usages of the special programmator or setting of the new program of loading.

  3. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  4. Purification, Characterization, and Optimum Conditions of Fermencin SD11, a Bacteriocin Produced by Human Orally Lactobacillus fermentum SD11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannun, Phirawat; Piwat, Supatcharin; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2016-06-01

    Fermencin SD11, a bacteriocin produced by human orally Lactobacillus fermentum SD11, was purified, characterized, and optimized in conditions for bacterial growth and bacteriocin production. Fermencin SD11 was purified using three steps of ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight was found to be 33,000 Da using SDS-PAGE and confirmed as 33,593.4 Da by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fermencin SD11 exhibited activity against a wide range of oral pathogens including cariogenic and periodontogenic pathogens and Candida. The active activity was stable between 60 - 80 °C in a pH range of 3.0 to 7.0. It was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes (proteinase K and trypsin), but it was not affected by α-amylase, catalase, lysozyme, and saliva. The optimum conditions for growth and bacteriocin production of L. fermentum SD11 were cultured at acidic with pH of 5.0-6.0 at 37 or 40 °C under aerobic or anaerobic conditions for 12 h. It is promising that L. fermentum SD11 and its bacteriocin may be an alternative approach for promoting oral health or prevention of oral diseases, e.g., dental caries and periodontitis, which would require further clinical trials.

  5. Clinical and parasitological profiles of patients with non-complicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in northwestern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Knudson-Ospina, Angélica; Sánchez-Pedraza, Ricardo; Pérez-Mazorra, Manuel Alberto; Cortés-Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Guerra-Vega, Ángela Patricia; Nicholls-Orejuela, Rubén Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandarizados po...

  6. Hepatocyte CD81 is required for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvie, O.; Rubinstein, E.; Franetich, J.F.; Prenant, M.; Belnoue, E.; Renia, L.; Hannoun, L.; Eling, W.M.C.; Levy, S.; Boucheix, C.; Mazier, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and first invade the liver of the mammalian host, as an obligatory step of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Within hepatocytes, Plasmodium sporozoites reside in a membrane-bound vacuole, where they differentiate

  7. Efficacy of Artemether in Unresolving Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of possible resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to artemisinin known for its immense benefit in malaria chemotherapy is worrisome. We report a case of unresolving Plasmodium falciparum malaria to Artesunate treatment in a 29- year old man in Enugu Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum count of Giemsa ...

  8. The sdA problem - I. Physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisoli, Ingrid; Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.

    2018-04-01

    The so-called sdA stars are defined by having H-rich spectra and surface gravities similar to hot subdwarf stars, but effective temperature below the zero-age horizontal branch. Their evolutionary history is an enigma: their surface gravity is too high for main-sequence stars, but too low for single evolution white dwarfs. They are most likely byproducts of binary evolution, including blue-stragglers, extremely-low mass white dwarf stars (ELMs) and their precursors (pre-ELMs). A small number of ELMs with similar properties to sdAs is known. Other possibilities include metal-poor A/F dwarfs, second generation stars, or even stars accreted from dwarf galaxies. In this work, we analyse colours, proper motions, and spacial velocities of a sample of sdAs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess their nature and evolutionary origin. We define a probability of belonging to the main sequence and a probability of being a (pre-)ELM based on these properties. We find that 7 per cent of the sdAs are more likely to be (pre-)ELMs than main-sequence stars. However, the spacial velocity distribution suggests that over 35 per cent of them cannot be explained as single metal-poor A/F stars.

  9. Intruder level and deformation in SD-pair shell model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yan'an; Ning Pingzhi; Pan Feng

    2004-01-01

    The influence of intruder level on nuclear deformation is studied within the framework of the nucleon-pair shell model truncated to an SD-pair subspace. The results suggest that the intruder level has a tendency to reduce the deformation and plays an important role in determining the onset of rotational behavior. (authors)

  10. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  11. SD-CAS: Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu

    2010-11-01

    A computer algebra tool for describing the Liouville-space quantum evolution of nuclear 1/2-spins is introduced and implemented within a computational framework named Spin Dynamics by Computer Algebra System (SD-CAS). A distinctive feature compared with numerical and previous computer algebra approaches to solving spin dynamics problems results from the fact that no matrix representation for spin operators is used in SD-CAS, which determines a full symbolic character to the performed computations. Spin correlations are stored in SD-CAS as four-entry nested lists of which size increases linearly with the number of spins into the system and are easily mapped into analytical expressions in terms of spin operator products. For the so defined SD-CAS spin correlations a set of specialized functions and procedures is introduced that are essential for implementing basic spin algebra operations, such as the spin operator products, commutators, and scalar products. They provide results in an abstract algebraic form: specific procedures to quantitatively evaluate such symbolic expressions with respect to the involved spin interaction parameters and experimental conditions are also discussed. Although the main focus in the present work is on laying the foundation for spin dynamics symbolic computation in NMR based on a non-matrix formalism, practical aspects are also considered throughout the theoretical development process. In particular, specific SD-CAS routines have been implemented using the YACAS computer algebra package (http://yacas.sourceforge.net), and their functionality was demonstrated on a few illustrative examples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed to doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum

  13. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  14. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  15. Resonances in collisions between S-D shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betts, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental evidence relating to the existence of resonances in collisions between s-d shell nuclei will be reviewed. The determination of the spins and spectroscopic properties of some of these resonances will be discussed. The behaviour of both the resonance and background cross-sections will be compared with model expectations. Some future directions in this area of study will be indicated and the relationship of this work to other results briefly discussed. (author)

  16. Quasi-molecular states in sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubono, S.; Ikeda, N.; Nomura, T.

    1988-08-01

    Quasi-molecular states near and below the threshold of the molecular configuration in sd-shell nuclei are discussed using recent experimental data with particle-gamma coincidence method and particle-particle coincidence method. Possible quasi-molecular states have been identified in 24 Mg as well as in 28 Si and 32 S. The important role of quasi-molecular states are discussed, specifically for the shape evolution of nuclei as a function of excitation energy and angular momentum. (author)

  17. Sex differences in the stress response in SD rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Wu, Xue-Yan; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Li, Jia; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Juan-Li; Zhang, Qi-Jun; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-05-01

    Sex differences play an important role in depression, the basis of which is an excessive stress response. We aimed at revealing the neurobiological sex differences in the same study in acute- and chronically-stressed rats. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), acute foot shock (FS) and controls, animals in all 3 groups were sacrificed in proestrus or diestrus. Male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: CUMS, FS and controls. Comparisons were made of behavioral changes in CUMS and control rats, plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T) and estradiol (E2), and of the hypothalamic mRNA-expression of stress-related molecules, i.e. estrogen receptor α and β, androgen receptor, aromatase, mineralocorticoid receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin. CUMS resulted in disordered estrus cycles, more behavioral and hypothalamic stress-related molecules changes and a stronger CORT response in female rats compared with male rats. Female rats also showed decreased E2 and T levels after FS and CUMS, while male FS rats showed increased E2 and male CUMS rats showed decreased T levels. Stress affects the behavioral, endocrine and the molecular response of the stress systems in the hypothalamus of SD rats in a clear sexual dimorphic way, which has parallels in human data on stress and depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Elucidating the 16S rRNA 3' boundaries and defining optimal SD/aSD pairing in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis using RNA-Seq data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yulong; Silke, Jordan R; Xia, Xuhua

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial translation initiation is influenced by base pairing between the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence in the 5' UTR of mRNA and the anti-SD (aSD) sequence at the free 3' end of the 16S rRNA (3' TAIL) due to: 1) the SD/aSD sequence binding location and 2) SD/aSD binding affinity. In order to understand what makes an SD/aSD interaction optimal, we must define: 1) terminus of the 3' TAIL and 2) extent of the core aSD sequence within the 3' TAIL. Our approach to characterize these components in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis involves 1) mapping the 3' boundary of the mature 16S rRNA using high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), and 2) identifying the segment within the 3' TAIL that is strongly preferred in SD/aSD pairing. Using RNA-Seq data, we resolve previous discrepancies in the reported 3' TAIL in B. subtilis and recovered the established 3' TAIL in E. coli. Furthermore, we extend previous studies to suggest that both highly and lowly expressed genes favor SD sequences with intermediate binding affinity, but this trend is exclusive to SD sequences that complement the core aSD sequences defined herein.

  19. Functional Identification of the Plasmodium Centromere and Generation of a Plasmodium Artificial Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Shiroh; Khan, Shahid M.; Kaneko, Izumi; Christodoulou, Zoe; Newbold, Chris; Yuda, Masao; Janse, Chris J.; Waters, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The artificial chromosome represents a useful tool for gene transfer, both as cloning vectors and in chromosome biology research. To generate a Plasmodium artificial chromosome (PAC), we had to first functionally identify and characterize the parasite's centromere. A putative centromere (pbcen5) was cloned from chromosome 5 of the rodent parasite P. berghei based on a Plasmodium gene-synteny map. Plasmids containing pbcen5 were stably maintained in parasites during a blood-stage infec...

  20. Piperaquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Juliana; Silva, Miguel; Fofana, Bakary; Sanogo, Kassim; Mårtensson, Andreas; Sagara, Issaka; Björkman, Anders; Veiga, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Gil, José Pedro

    2018-08-17

    Dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) is increasingly deployed as antimalaria drug in Africa. We report the detection in Mali of Plasmodium falciparum infections carrying plasmepsin 2 duplications (associated with piperaquine resistance) in 7/65 recurrent infections within 2 months after DHA/PPQ treatment. These findings raise concerns about the long-term efficacy of DHA/PPQ treatment in Africa.

  1. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of interventions. It exerts tremendous socio-economic and medical burden on the continent, particularly in under five children and pregnant women. In this review, we have attempted to ...

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  3. ANALISIS REKRUITMEN TENAGA PENDIDIK PADA SD KALAM KUDUS PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murnawati Murnawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui sistem rekrutmen tenaga pendidik pada SD kalam kudus kota Pekanbaru. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah tenaga pendidik di SD Kalam Kudus Kota Pekanbaru, kebutuhan guru sebanyak 65 sedangkan guru tetap sebanyak 40 guru dan sisanya guru honor sebanyak 25 guru. Dalam penelitian ini penulis mengambil sampel seluruh populasi. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara sensus. Data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang diperoleh dari wawancara langsung dan penyebaran kuesioner. Analisis data dalam penelitian ini adalah menggunakan metode deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa persyaratan administrasi dalam rekruitmen guru diperoleh rata – rata skor sebesar 3,49. Artinya persyaratan administrasi dalam rekruitmen guru pada SD Kalam Kudus Pekanbaru dinilai baik. Abstract: This research aimed to determine the system of teachers’s recruitment in Kalam Kudus elementary school of Pekanbaru. The population in this study were educators in in Kalam Kudus elementary school of Pekanbaru, the teacher needs as much as 65 while the teacher remains as much as 40 teachers and teacher salaries remaining 25 teachers. In this study the authors took samples of the entire population. Sampling was done by census. The data used is primary data obtained from interviews and questionnaires. Data analyzed by descriptive method. Based on the results of this study concluded that the administrative requirements for the recruitment of teachers obtained average - average score of 3.49. This means that the administrative requirements for the recruitment of teachers in elementary Holy Kalam Pekanbaru considered good. Kata Kunci : Rekruitmen, Tenaga Pendidik

  4. A weak magnetic field inhibits hippocampal neurogenesis in SD rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, L.; Cai, Y.; Pan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Geomagnetic field is an important barrier that protects life forms on Earth from solar wind and radiation. Paleomagnetic data have well demonstrated that the strength of ancient geomagnetic field was dramatically weakened during a polarity transition. Accumulating evidence has shown that weak magnetic field exposures has serious adverse effects on the metabolism and behaviors in organisms. Hippocampal neurogenesis occurs throughout life in mammals' brains which plays a key role in brain function, and can be influenced by animals' age as well as environmental factors, but few studies have examined the response of hippocampal neurogenesis to it. In the present study, we have investigated the weak magnetic field effects on hippocampal neurogenesis of adult Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Two types of magnetic fields were used, a weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) and the geomagnetic fields (51 μT).The latter is treated as a control condition. SD rats were exposure to the weak magnetic field up to 6 weeks. We measured the changes of newborn nerve cells' proliferation and survival, immature neurons, neurons and apoptosis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus in SD rats. Results showed that, the weak magnetic field (≤1.3 μT) inhibited their neural stem cells proliferation and significantly reduced the survival of newborn nerve cells, immature neurons and neurons after 2 or 4 weeks continuous treatment (i.e. exposure to weak magnetic field). Moreover, apoptosis tests indicated the weak magnetic field can promote apoptosis of nerve cells in the hippocampus after 4 weeks treatment. Together, our new data indicate that weak magnetic field decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through inhibiting neural stem cells proliferation and promoting apoptosis, which provides useful experimental constraints on better understanding the mechanism of linkage between life and geomagnetic field.

  5. Plasmodium knowlesi in travellers, update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattia; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial discovery of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia, cases have been reported from several neighbouring countries. Tourism has also resulted in an increasing number of cases diagnosed in Europe, America, and Oceania. In this review we focus on the risk of the travel-associated acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. A search of the literature in PubMed was carried out to identify articles and literature on the distribution of P. knowlesi infections in Southeast Asia and details of its acquisition and importation by travellers to other continents. The cut-off date for the search was December 1, 2013. Search words used were: "Plasmodium knowlesi", "Plasmodium knowlesi infections", "Plasmodium knowlesi travellers", "Plasmodium knowlesi prevalence", "Plasmodium knowlesi host", "Plasmodium knowlesi vector" "Plasmodium knowlesi RDT", and "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaysia". Traveller numbers to Malaysia were obtained from the Tourism Malaysia website. A total of 103 articles were found. Using a selection of these and others identified from the reference lists of the papers, we based our review on a total of 66 articles. P. knowlesi malaria appears to be the most common malaria species in Malaysian Borneo and is also widely distributed on the Malaysian mainland. Furthermore, locally transmitted cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been reported in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesian Borneo, and Cambodia. Two cases have been reported from non-endemic countries in Asia (Japan and Taiwan) in people with a history of travel to Malaysia and the Philippines. Twelve cases were imported to their home countries by travellers from other continents: two from the USA, two from the Netherlands, two from Germany, and one each from Spain, France, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand. In most cases, the infection was associated with a trip to or near forested areas. The symptoms were fever (n=12), headache (n=6), chills (n=6), nausea (n=4), myalgia (n

  6. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of traumatic brain in SD rats model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ke; Li Yangbin; Li Zhiming; Huang Yong; Li Bin; Lu Guangming

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value and prospect of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in early diagnosis of traumatic brain with traumatic brain model in SD rats. Methods: Traumatic brain modal was established in 40 male SD rats utilizing a weigh-drop device, and MRS was performed before trauma and 4,8,24 and 48 hours after trauma. The ratio of N-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Ct) and choline/creatine (Cho/Cr) were calculated and compared with pathological findings respectively. Results: Axonal changes were confirmed in microscopic study 4 hours after injury. The ratio of NAA/Ct decreased distinctly at 4 hours after trauma, followed by a steadily recover at 8 hours, and no significant change from 24h to 48h. There was no significant change in the ratio of Cho/Cr before and after trauma. Conclusion: MRS can be used to monitor the metabolic changes of brain non-invasively. MRS could play a positive role in early diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of traumatic brain. (authors)

  7. Discovering regulatory motifs in the Plasmodium genome using comparative genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Gervin, Joshua; Xie, Xiaohui S.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Understanding gene regulation in Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is an important step in deciphering its complex life cycle as well as leading to possible new targets for therapeutic applications. Very little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium, and in particular, few regulatory elements have been identified. Such discovery has been significantly hampered by the high A-T content of some of the genomes of Plasmodium species, as well as the challenge in associat...

  8. Clustering aspects of sd shell nuclei studied by AMD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Masaaki [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yasutaka [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); En' yo, Yoshiko [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Horiuchi, Hisashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2006-10-10

    The new clustering aspects of sd-shell nuclei found by the recent application of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics are reported. In this paper we present two topics, 'superdeformed band of {sup 32}S and {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O clustering' and 'molecular-orbital and di-nuclei states in {sup 22}Ne'. In the first topic, it will be shown that the superdeformed band of 32S has a considerable amount of {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O cluster component, and can be regarded as to belong to a family of the {sup 16}O + {sup 16}O molecular bands. In the second topic, the presence of the molecularorbital band which has an {alpha} + {sup 16}O cluster core surrounded by two covalently neutrons is suggested together with an {alpha} + {sup 18}O di-nuclei band.

  9. Clustering aspects of sd shell nuclei studied by AMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Masaaki; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; En'yo, Yoshiko; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2006-01-01

    The new clustering aspects of sd-shell nuclei found by the recent application of the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics are reported. In this paper we present two topics, 'superdeformed band of 32 S and 16 O + 16 O clustering' and 'molecular-orbital and di-nuclei states in 22 Ne'. In the first topic, it will be shown that the superdeformed band of 32S has a considerable amount of 16 O + 16 O cluster component, and can be regarded as to belong to a family of the 16 O + 16 O molecular bands. In the second topic, the presence of the molecularorbital band which has an α + 16 O cluster core surrounded by two covalently neutrons is suggested together with an α + 18 O di-nuclei band

  10. Clustering correlations and triaxiality in the sd-shell region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Kimura, Masaaki; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Horiuchi, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    Effects of cluster correlations on triaxiality have been studied using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics. Low-lying states in 28 Si and 40 Ca are obtained by the generator coordinate method (GCM), and the GCM basis are calculated by energy variations with constraints on quadrupole deformation parameter β and inter-cluster distance. The GCM obtain prolate superdeformed (SD) states in 28 Si and triaxial normal-deformed (ND) states in 40 Ca, which contain prolate α- 24 Mg and triaxial α- 36 Ar cluster structure components, respectively. Different shapes of prolate 24 Mg and oblate 36 Ar clusters cause difference of triaxiality of total systems. Cluster correlations which have oblate cluster enhance triaxiality in excited states. (author)

  11. SATUS GIZI TIDAK SIGNIFIKAN MENENTUKAN PRESTASI SISWA SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Vista

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : The low Human Development Index (HDI ranking in Indonesia compared withneighboring countries affected by the low nutritional status and health problems of Indonesia’a populationfactor.One of the factor’s facing the health problem’s of Indonesian society is the problem of nutrition,undertrition and obessitas. They both have a negative impact on the quality of health. Government’sefforts to improve nutrition in school children by providing the Food Supplement Program School Children(PMT-AS. Good nutritional status is necessary for physical growth, brain development, employability andoptimal health. Abnormalities that occur in the brain due to malnutritional have one impact is the declinein brain function that affects the ability to learn, resulting in lower children’s learning outcome.Objective :To determine the relationship of nutritional status and student achievement in elementaryschool Bangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul Yogyakarta.Methods :This study used non-experimental research methods with cross sectional approach. Thepopulation in this study were student in grade 6 in SD Negeri Bangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul. The samplesused were 43 students. Engineering samples of the total samplingobtained a total sample of 43 studentsand analize using Spearman.Results :Nutritional status in elementary school Bangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul there are 36 students(83,7% in the normal category of 43 respondents. A grade students achievement 6 in SD NegeriBangunjiwo Kasihan Bantul most in categories as many 28 students (65,1% of the 43 respondent.Conclusion :There was no significant association between nutritional status of student performance,with a value of (p>0,05.

  12. The sub-genera of Avian Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landau I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the morphology of a species of Plasmodium is difficult because these organisms have relatively few characters. The size of the schizont, for example, which is easy to assess is important at the specific level but is not always of great phylogenetic significance. Factors reflecting the parasite’s metabolism provide more important evidence. Thus the position of the parasite within the host red cell (attachment to the host nucleus or its membrane, at one end or aligned with it has been shown to be constant for a given species. Another structure of essential significance that is often ignored is a globule, usually refringent in nature, that was first described in Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, 1904 and that we consider to be characteristic of the sub-genus Novyella. Species without this structure, previously classified in this sub-genus, are now included in the new sub-genus Papernaia n. sg.

  13. Das Selenoproteom des Malariaerregers Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Röseler, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Die Protozoen des Genus Plasmodium verursachen weltweit rund 247 Millionen Malariafälle jedes Jahr. Da der Malariaparasit schnell und effektiv Resistenzen gegen neue Antimalaria-Medikamente entwickelt, ist es notwendig, stets innovative Wirkstoffe zu finden. Dabei spielen das Verständnis der grundlegenden Stoffwechselfunktionen und die Entdeckung neuer potenzieller drug targets wichtige Rollen in der präklinischen Forschung. Während ihrer Lebensphasen in menschlichen Erythrozyten und dem ...

  14. An alternative method for Plasmodium culture synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, J; Berry, A; Benoit-Vical, F

    2005-03-01

    Since the synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum has become an essential tool in research, we have investigated the use of a commercial gelatine solution, Plasmion, to replace Plasmagel, which is now difficult to obtain. This method also avoids the use of techniques based on Percoll-glucose gradients. The Plasmion-based technique proved to be a good method and could become an alternative to Plasmagel.

  15. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  16. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  17. Plasmodium vivax: is it changing course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Qadir, A.; Shaheen, N.; Babar, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the haematological parameters in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology, Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan from 1st June 2010 to 30th September 2010. Methodology: Two hundred and sixteen patients were with confirmed Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) infection. Demographic and malariometric data of all patients suffering from P.vivax was collected on a patient data form. The diagnosis of P.vivax malaria was established by peripheral blood film (PBF) and Rapid diagnostic test (RDT). All haematological parameters e.g. white blood cells (WBCs), platelet count, bilirubin levels were noted. Results: The mean age was 25.10 +- 5.35 years. Out of 216 patients 183 patients (84.7%) were males and thirty three patients (15.3%) were females. Thrombocytopenia was found in 186 patients (86.1%). Leucopoenia was noted in 37 patients (17.1%). Anaemia was found in 17 patients (7.8%). Increased bilrubin levels were noted in 65 patients (30%). Increased alanine transaminase levels were present in 32 patients (14.8%). Nine patients had serum creatinine levels more than 1.2 mg/dl (4.1%). Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax malaria although considered benign has the potential to cause serious haematological derangements in affected individuals. (author)

  18. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  19. PEMBELAJARAN TEMATIK YANG IDEAL DI SD/MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Haji

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anak usia sekolah / 6-12 tahun disebut masa sekolah, karena anak sudah menamatkan taman kanak-kanak sebagai lembaga persiapan bersekolah yang sebenarnya. Disebut masa matang untuk belajar, Karena anak sudah berusaha untuk mencapai sesuatu, tetapi, perkembangan aktivitas bermain yang hanya bertujuan untuk mendapatkan kesenangan pada waktu melakukan aktivitas itu sendiri. Disebut masa matang untuk sekolah, karena anak sudah menginginkan kecakapan-kecakapan baru, yang dapat diberikan oleh sekolah (Nasution Noehi, 1993: 44. Menurut Banett, dkk., karakteristik anak usia SD, antara lain sebagai berikut. (1 Mereka secara alamiah memiliki rasa ingin tahu yang kuat dan tertarik akan dunia sekitar yang mengelilingi diri mereka sendiri. (2 Senang bermain dan lebih suka bergembira. (3 Suka mengatur dirinya untuk menangani berbagai hal, mengeksplorasi suatu situasi dan mencoba usaha-usaha baru. (4 biasanya tergetar perasaannya dan terdorong untuk berprestasi sebagaimana mereka tidak suka mengalami ketidakpuasan dan menolak kegagalan-kegagalan. (5 Belajar secara efektif ketika merasa puas dengan situasi yang terjadi. (6 Belajar dengan cara bekerja, mengobservasi, berinisiatif dan mengajar anak-anak lainnya ( Mulyani Sumantri & Nana Syaodih, 2000: 12.

  20. Chemical fingerprints of He-sdO stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schindewolf Markus

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of helium-rich hot subluminous O stars plays an important role to understand and model their formation history. We present a spectroscopic analysis of four He-sdO stars,CD-31° 4800, [CW83] 0904- 02, LSS 1274 and LS IV +10° 9. The analysis is based on archival optical and UV high-resolution spectra. We used Tlusty200/Synspec48 to compute line blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres and their corresponding synthetic spectra and derive the atmospheric parameters as well as the abundances of the most prominent elements. All stars have helium-dominated atmospheres with hardly any hydrogen and temperatures between 42000 K and 47000 K while their surface gravity spans between log g = 5.4 and 5.7. CD-31° 4800 shows an enrichment of nitrogen and the characteristic pattern of hydrogen burning via the CNO-cycle, while the rest of the elements have about the solar abundance. This points to the slow merger of two helium white dwarfs as the most likely origin for this system. The other three stars are enriched in carbon, nitrogen and neon while their intermediate mass element’s abundance scatters around the solar value. They were possibly formed in the deep mixing late hot flasher scenario.

  1. Chemical fingerprints of He-sdO stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindewolf, Markus; Németh, Peter; Heber, Ulrich; Battich, Tiara; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Latour, Marilyn

    2018-02-01

    The chemical composition of helium-rich hot subluminous O stars plays an important role to understand and model their formation history. We present a spectroscopic analysis of four He-sdO stars,CD-31° 4800, [CW83] 0904- 02, LSS 1274 and LS IV +10° 9. The analysis is based on archival optical and UV high-resolution spectra. We used Tlusty200/Synspec48 to compute line blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres and their corresponding synthetic spectra and derive the atmospheric parameters as well as the abundances of the most prominent elements. All stars have helium-dominated atmospheres with hardly any hydrogen and temperatures between 42000 K and 47000 K while their surface gravity spans between log g = 5.4 and 5.7. CD-31° 4800 shows an enrichment of nitrogen and the characteristic pattern of hydrogen burning via the CNO-cycle, while the rest of the elements have about the solar abundance. This points to the slow merger of two helium white dwarfs as the most likely origin for this system. The other three stars are enriched in carbon, nitrogen and neon while their intermediate mass element's abundance scatters around the solar value. They were possibly formed in the deep mixing late hot flasher scenario.

  2. Plasmodium Infection In Man: A Review | Ekpenyong | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man. It adversely affectsman's health, strength and productivity. Here, a review of Plasmodium infection in man including the life cycle transmisson, ...

  3. Artemisinin resistance marker of Plasmodium falciparum in Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisinin derivatives constitute a key component of the present-day treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance with artemisinins is generally associated with S769N point mutation in the sarco-endoplasmic reticulumdependant ATPase6 (SERCA ATPase6) gene of Plasmodium falciparum, few studies have ...

  4. Population genomics diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous malaria parasite species to humans remains an important public health concern in Okelele, a rural community in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. There is however little information about the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Objective: To determine ...

  5. KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KREATIF SISWA SD DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Jamaluddin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Elementary School Studens' Creative Thinking Skills in Science Learning. This study aims (1 to investigate the differences of creative thinking skills among elementary school students who applied various learning methods (questioning, Think-Pair-Share, and Numbered-Head together and those who applied conventional learning methods; (2 to find out the differences in creative thinking skills between students of high and low academic ability; (3 to investigate the differences of creative thinking skills as influ­enced by learning methods and academic ability. Using a quasi -experimental design, this study found out that there are differences in creative thinking skills among students applying different learning methods and among students of different academic abilities and that these differences in creative thinking are skills as influenced by learning methods and academic abilities. Abstrak: Kemampuan Berpikir Kreatif Siswa SD dalam Pembelajaran IPA. Artikel ini didasarkan pada laporan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif, antara siswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran PBMP, PBMPTPS, PBMPNHT, dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional; (2 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dan rendah; (3 perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif akibat dari interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dengan kemampuan akademik siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan (1 ada perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif antara siswa yang belajar dengan strategi PBMP, PBMPTPS, PBMPNHT, dan strategi Konven­sional; (2 ada perbedaan keterampilan berpikir kreatif, antara siswa berkemampuan akademik tinggi dengan siswa berkemampuan akademik rendah; (3 interaksi strategi pembelajaran PBMP, PBMP.TPS, PBMP.NHT, dan konvensional dengan kemampuan akademik siswa tidak berpengaruh signifikan terhadap keterampilan berpikir kreatif.

  6. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pinzn; Juan C Pineda; Fernando Rosso; Masaru Shinchi; Fabio Bonilla-Abada

    2013-01-01

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method.

  7. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli. (paper)

  8. Product of the SNPP VIIRS SD Screen Transmittance and the SD BRDF (RSB) From Both Yaw Maneuver and Regular On-Orbit Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Ning; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    To assure data quality, the Earth-observing Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) regularly performs on-orbit radiometric calibrations of its 22 spectral bands. The primary calibration radiance source for the reflective solar bands (RSBs) is a sunlit solar diffuser (SD). During the calibration process, sunlight goes through a perforated plate (the SD screen) and then strikes the SD. The SD scattered sunlight is used for the calibration, with the spectral radiance proportional to the product of the SD screen transmittance and the SD bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The BRDF is decomposed to the product of its value at launch and a numerical factor quantifying its change since launch. Therefore, the RSB calibration requires accurate knowledge of the product of the SD screen transmittance and the BRDF (RSB; launch time). Previously, we calculated the product with yaw maneuver data and found that the product had improved accuracy over the prelaunch one. With both yaw maneuver and regular on orbit data, we were able to improve the accuracy of the SDSM screen transmittance and the product for the solar diffuser stability monitor SD view. In this study, we use both yaw maneuver and a small portion of regular on-orbit data to determine the product for the RSB SD view.

  9. Perfil clínico y parasitológico de la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicada en Córdoba, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Knudson Ospina; Ricardo Sánchez Pedraza; Manuel Alberto Pérez Mazorra; Liliana Jazmín Cortés Cortés; Ángela Patricia Guerra Vega; Rubén Santiago Nicholls Orejuela

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax.  Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandariz...

  10. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  11. Penerapan Metoda Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI pada Rancang Bangun Data Logger berbasis SD card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATNA SUSANA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI adalah protokol komunikasi yang dapat digunakan sebagai interface komunikasi antara mikrokontroler dengan SD Card. Dengan menerapkan metoda SPI pada data logger berbasis SD Card, maka dapat diketahui karakteristik protokol komunikasi SPI antara mikrokontroler dengan SD Card. SD Card diformat dengan tipe FAT 16, dan data di dalam SD Card berupa sekumpulan paket data sensor yang diambil secara periodik dan disimpan dalam bentuk file dengan format.csv. Berdasarkan format paket data sensor yang dibuat, dapat dihitungwaktu perekaman data yang diperlukan agar kapasitas SD Card terisi penuh oleh data sensor. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan,bahwa metoda SPI yang diterapkan pada penelitian ini memiliki sifat akan melakukan pemeriksaan berulang pada pin MISO terhadap command yang dikirimkan oleh mikrokontroler melalui pin MOSI. Proses read/write data pada SD Card data logger memiliki keberhasilan 100%, karena SD Card telah terinisialisasi dalam mode SPI melalui perintah reset dan init SD Card. Komunikasi ini dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan crystal 4 Mhz – 20 Mhz. Untuk pengujian konfigurasi SPI, hanya Independent Slave Configuration yang dapat digunakan pada komunikasi SPI dengan 2 SD card sebagai slave. Kata kunci: Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI, Data Logger, SD card, FAT16 ABSTRACT Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI is a communication protocol that can be applied as a communication interface between microcontroller to SD Card. By implementing the SPI method to a data logger based on SD Card, it can be known the characteristics of the SPI communications protocol between microcontroller to SD Card. SD Card formatted in FAT 16 type, and data on the SD Card is the form of sensor data packets collection which be captured periodically and saved in .csv format file. Based on the sensor data packet format is created, it can be calculated recording time data required so that the SD Card capacity completely filled by the

  12. Perfil clínico y parasitológico de la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicada en Córdoba, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Knudson Ospina

    2015-10-01

    Conclusión. Se identificaron algunas diferencias clínicas entre los enfermos con Plasmodium vivax y los enfermos con Plasmodium falciparum, y las variables estudiadas se agruparon en cuatro perfiles que permiten una variedad de interpretaciones.

  13. The shape of the iceberg: quantification of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in five low endemic settings in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, F.G.; Hoogen, L. van den; Lanke, K.H.; Schildkraut, J.; Tetteh, K.; Aseffa, A.; Mamo, H.; Sauerwein, R.; Felger, I.; Drakeley, C.; Gadissa, E.; Bousema, T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of low-density asymptomatic infections with concurrent gametocytes may be a stumbling block for malaria elimination. This study investigated the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in schoolchildren from five settings in

  14. Screening of Kenyan medicinal plants for antimalarial effects on Plasmodium falciparum in vitror. Final report for the period 15 December 1993 - 31 December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofulla, A V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The antimalarial activities of extracts of Albizia gummifera and Aspilia mossambicensis against culture adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum were evaluated using an in citro {sup 3}H-hypoxanthine uptake technique. Chloroquine was used as a standard antimalarial drug for comparison with the plant extracts. The plant extracts showed various levels of activities (expressed as 50% inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}s) in ug/ml of test culture) against P. falciparum in vitro, with Al gummifera showing the highest activity (eman IC{sub 50} of 5.98 {+-} 2.9 SD, n=6), followed by A. mossambicensis (mean IC{sub 50} 73.36 {+-} 59.3 SD, n=18). The mean antimalarial activity of chloroquine (in ug/ml) was 0.037 ({+-} 0.04 SD, n=10), far higher than that of the plant extracts. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs.

  15. Screening of Kenyan medicinal plants for antimalarial effects on Plasmodium falciparum in vitror. Final report for the period 15 December 1993 - 31 December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofulla, A.V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The antimalarial activities of extracts of Albizia gummifera and Aspilia mossambicensis against culture adapted isolates of Plasmodium falciparum were evaluated using an in citro 3 H-hypoxanthine uptake technique. Chloroquine was used as a standard antimalarial drug for comparison with the plant extracts. The plant extracts showed various levels of activities (expressed as 50% inhibitory concentration (IC 50 s) in ug/ml of test culture) against P. falciparum in vitro, with Al gummifera showing the highest activity (eman IC 50 of 5.98 ± 2.9 SD, n=6), followed by A. mossambicensis (mean IC 50 73.36 ± 59.3 SD, n=18). The mean antimalarial activity of chloroquine (in ug/ml) was 0.037 (± 0.04 SD, n=10), far higher than that of the plant extracts. (author). 5 refs, 2 tabs

  16. Field application of SD bioline malaria Ag Pf/Pan rapid diagnostic test for malaria in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Rachiotis, George; Pinaka, Ourania; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Vakali, Annita; Dionysopoulou, Martha; Terzaki, Irene; Marka, Andriani; Detsis, Marios; Evlampidou, Zafiroula; Mpimpa, Anastasia; Vassalou, Evdokia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Greece, a malaria-free country since 1974, has experienced re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax autochthonous malaria cases in some agriculture areas over the last three years. In early 2012, an integrated control programme (MALWEST Project) was launched in order to prevent re-establishment of the disease. In the context of this project, the rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan that detects hrp-2 and pan-LDH antigens were used. The aim of this study was to assess the field application of the RDT for the P. vivax diagnosis in comparison to light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 955 samples were tested with all three diagnostic tools. Agreement of RDT against microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of P. vivax was satisfactory (K value: 0.849 and 0.976, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against PCR was 95.6% (95% C.I.: 84.8-99.3), 100% (95% C.I.: 99.6-100.0) and 100% (95% CI: 91.7-100.0) respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against microscopic examination was 97.4% (95% C.I.: 86.1-99.6), 99.4% (95% C.I.: 98.6-99.8) and 86.1% (95% CI: 72.1-94.7), respectively. Our results indicate that RDT performed satisfactory in a non-endemic country and therefore is recommended for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where health professionals lack experience on light microscopy.

  17. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean-François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-07-24

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans.

  18. Mosquito transmission of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence Philip J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial blood passage of Plasmodium increases virulence, whilst mosquito transmission inherently regulates parasite virulence within the mammalian host. It is, therefore, imperative that all aspects of experimental malaria research are studied in the context of the complete Plasmodium life cycle. Methods Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi displays many characteristics associated with human Plasmodium infection of natural mosquito vectors and the mammalian host, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of malaria in a single infection setting. An optimized protocol that permits efficient and reproducible vector transmission of P. c. chabaudi via Anopheles stephensi was developed. Results and conclusions This protocol was utilized for mosquito transmission of genetically distinct P. c. chabaudi isolates, highlighting differential parasite virulence within the mosquito vector and the spectrum of host susceptibility to infection initiated via the natural route, mosquito bite. An apposite experimental system in which to delineate the pathogenesis of malaria is described in detail.

  19. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions...

  20. Seasonal variations in antibody response to a Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing a recombinant peptide capture antigen (R32tet32) was used to detect antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in 169 ...

  1. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-01-18

    Saharan Africa and they increase the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy with resultant poor pregnancy outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on.

  2. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective ...

  3. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF P AGAINST Plasmodium falcipa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    researched protective vaccine for the diseas but there are ... o growth of plasmodium falciparum in asexual erythrocyte stage a of fourteen .... different brands specified by W.H.O were purchased ... Preparation of the thin smear was carried out.

  4. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum .... Materials and methods. The DNA ... the order and location of genes (as per the PlasmoDB data resources, available at ... There is currently an. Figure 5.

  5. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  6. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  7. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contri...

  8. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariey Frédéric

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-02-09

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information on malaria drug resistance in Angola, is reviewed and discussed. The review aims to inform but also to encourage future research studies that monitor and update the information on anti-malarial drug efficacy and prevalence of molecular markers of drug resistance, key fields in the context and objectives of elimination.

  10. Wanted Plasmodium falciparum, dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Sow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of cell death in unicellular parasites have been subjects of debate for the last decade, with studies demonstrating evidence of apoptosis or non-apoptosis like mechanisms, including necrosis, and autophagy. Recent clarifications on the definition of regulated or accidental cell death by The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death provides an opportunity to reanalyze some data, re-evaluate conclusions in the light of parasite diversity, and to propose alternative arguments in the context of malaria drug resistance, considering lack of really new drugs in the pipeline. Deciphering the mechanisms of death may help in detection of new drug targets and the design of innovative drugs. However, classifications have been evolving rapidly since initial description of “programmed cell death”, leading to some uncertainty as to whether Plasmodium cell death is accidental or regulated.

  11. Rheopathologic Consequence of Plasmodium vivax Rosette Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites dramatically alter the rheological properties of infected red blood cells. In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite rapidly decreases the shear elastic modulus of the invaded RBC, enabling it to avoid splenic clearance. This study highlights correlation between rosette formation and altered membrane deformability of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes, where the rosette-forming infected erythrocytes are significantly more rigid than their non-rosetting counterparts. The adhesion of normocytes to the PvIRBC is strong (mean binding force of 440pN resulting in stable rosette formation even under high physiological shear flow stress. Rosetting may contribute to the sequestration of PvIRBC schizonts in the host microvasculature or spleen.

  12. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sharipov, Azizullo S; Kadamov, Dilshod S; Karimov, Saifuddin S; Gasimov, Elkhan; Baranova, Alla M; Morozova, Lola F; Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-05-30

    Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan. During the 1970s and 1980s local outbreaks of malaria were reported in the southern districts bordering Afghanistan. The malaria situation dramatically changed during the 1990s following armed conflict and civil unrest in the newly independent Tajikistan, which paralyzed health services including the malaria control activities and a large-scale malaria epidemic occurred with more than 400,000 malaria cases. The malaria epidemic was contained by 1999 as a result of considerable financial input from the Government and the international community. Although Plasmodium falciparum constituted only about 5% of total malaria cases, reduction of its incidence was slower than that of Plasmodium vivax. To prevent increase in P. falciparum malaria both in terms of incidence and territory, a P. falciparum elimination programme in the Republic was launched in 200, jointly supported by the Government and the Global Fund for control of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The main activities included the use of pyrethroids for the IRS with determined periodicity, deployment of mosquito nets, impregnated with insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes as a biological larvicide, implementation of small-scale environmental management, and use of personal protection methods by population under malaria risk. The malaria surveillance system was strengthened by the use of ACD, PCD, RCD and selective use of mass blood surveys. All detected cases were timely epidemiologically investigated and treated based on the results of laboratory diagnosis. As a result, by 2009, P. falciparum malaria was eliminated from all of Tajikistan, one year ahead of the originally targeted date. Elimination of P. falciparum also contributed towards

  14. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  15. Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei model

    OpenAIRE

    Tipsuwan, Wachiraporn; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Uthaipibull, Chairat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistance amongst the human malaria Plasmodium species has most commonly been associated with genomic mutation within the parasites. This phenomenon necessitates evolutionary predictive studies of possible resistance mutations, which may occur when a new drug is introduced. Therefore, identification of possible new Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) mutants that confer resistance to antifolate drugs is essential in the process of...

  16. Linkage relationship between semi-dwarfing gene sd-1 and gene for grain shattering in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, S.; Kikuchi, F.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Most semidwarf rice cultivars carry the same gene sd-1. We observed an association between semi-dwarfness and grain shattering in isogenic lines carrying sd-1 from different sources in the background of the Japanese tall cultivar 'Norin 28'. The shattering was found to be caused by a single recessive gene, sh-2, linked to the sd-1 locus. The shattering gene seems to have been transmitted to many semi-dwarf cultivars together with sd-1, not only from 'Dee-geo-woo-gen' but also from the indica-cultivar 'Ai-jio-nan-te' and the japonica cultivar 'Shiranui'. (author)

  17. STUDI KOMPARASI BUDAYA SEKOLAH SDSN DAN SD EKS RSBI DI DAERAH ISTIMEWA YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Muhtarom

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mengetahui perbedaan budaya sekolah di SDSN dan SD Eks RSBI DIY, (2 memaparkan perbedaan masing-masing aspek budaya sekolah antara SDSN dengan SD Eks RSBI. Jenis penelitian ini adalah komparasi. Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua kepala sekolah, guru, dan staf SDSN dan SD RSBI di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta yang berjumlah 797 orang untuk SDSN dan 155 orang untuk SD Eks RSBI. Sampel dari SDSN berjumlah 256 orang dan sampel dari SD Eks RSBI sebanyak 116 orang ditentukan menggunakan teknik proportional sampling. Pengumpulan data dilakukan menggunakan kuesioner. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis univariat, bivariat, dan uji-t. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa: (1 tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara budaya sekolah SDSN dengan SD Eks RSBI di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta; (2 ditemukan perbedaan skor dari masing-masing aspek budaya sekolah di SDSN dan SD Eks RSBI DIY. Aspek budaya sekolah yang lebih baik di SDSN adalah kolaborasi profesional, hubungan kolegial, self determination, visi-misi, konsensus, dan disiplin. Sedangkan aspek budaya sekolah yang lebih unggul pada SD Eks RSBI adalah aspek komitmen, hormat, empati, bebas bullying dan artefak fisik. Kata kunci: budaya sekolah, SDSN, SD Eks RSBI

  18. Primate malarias: Diversity, distribution and insights for zoonotic Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Faust

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Protozoans within the genus Plasmodium are well-known as the causative agents of malaria in humans. Numerous Plasmodium species parasites also infect a wide range of non-human primate hosts in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Studying this diversity can provide critical insight into our understanding of human malarias, as several human malaria species are a result of host switches from non-human primates. Current spillover of a monkey malaria, Plasmodium knowlesi, in Southeast Asia highlights the permeability of species barriers in Plasmodium. Also recently, surveys of apes in Africa uncovered a previously undescribed diversity of Plasmodium in chimpanzees and gorillas. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to quantify the global distribution, host range, and diversity of known non-human primate malaria species. We used published records of Plasmodium parasites found in non-human primates to estimate the total diversity of non-human primate malarias globally. We estimate that at least three undescribed primate malaria species exist in sampled primates, and many more likely exist in unstudied species. The diversity of malaria parasites is especially uncertain in regions of low sampling such as Madagascar, and taxonomic groups such as African Old World Monkeys and gibbons. Presence–absence data of malaria across primates enables us to highlight the close association of forested regions and non-human primate malarias. This distribution potentially reflects a long coevolution of primates, forest-adapted mosquitoes, and malaria parasites. The diversity and distribution of primate malaria are an essential prerequisite to understanding the mechanisms and circumstances that allow Plasmodium to jump species barriers, both in the evolution of malaria parasites and current cases of spillover into humans.

  19. Comparison of three molecular methods for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Ric N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. is essential for the rational treatment of malaria. Despite its many disadvantages, microscopic examination of blood smears remains the current "gold standard" for malaria detection and speciation. PCR assays offer an alternative to microscopy which has been shown to have superior sensitivity and specificity. Unfortunately few comparative studies have been done on the various molecular based speciation methods. Methods The sensitivity, specificity and cost effectiveness of three molecular techniques were compared for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from dried blood spots collected from 136 patients in western Thailand. The results from the three molecular speciation techniques (nested PCR, multiplex PCR, and real-time PCR were used to develop a molecular consensus (two or more identical PCR results as an alternative gold standard. Results According to the molecular consensus, 9.6% (13/136 of microscopic diagnoses yielded false negative results. Multiplex PCR failed to detect P. vivax in three mixed isolates, and the nested PCR gave a false positive P. falciparum result in one case. Although the real-time PCR melting curve analysis was the most expensive method, it was 100% sensitive and specific and least time consuming of the three molecular techniques investigated. Conclusion Although microscopy remains the most appropriate method for clinical diagnosis in a field setting, its use as a gold standard may result in apparent false positive results by superior techniques. Future studies should consider using more than one established molecular methods as a new gold standard to assess novel malaria diagnostic kits and PCR assays.

  20. Evaluation of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test against double ELISA with SD H. pylori Ag ELISA and EZ-STEP H. pylori Ag ELISA tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negash, Markos; Kassu, Afework; Amare, Bemnet; Yismaw, Gizachew; Moges, Beyene

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori antibody titters fall very slowly even after successful treatment. Therefore, tests detecting H. pylori antibody lack specificity and sensitivity. On the other hand, H. pylori stool antigen tests are reported as an alternative assay because of their reliability and simplicity. However, the comparative performance of H. pylori stool antigen tests for detecting the presence of the bacterium in clinical specimens in the study area is not assessed. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test with reference to the commercially available EZ- STEP ELISA and SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag ELISA tests. Stool samples were collected to analyse the diagnostic performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test kit using SD H. pylori Ag ELISA kit and EZ- STEP ELISA tests as a gold standard. Serum samples were also collected from each patient to test for the presence of H. pylori antibodies using dBest H. pylori Test Disk. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and kappa value are assessed. P values H. pylori Ag rapid test were: 95.6% (95% CI, 88.8-98.8), 92.5% (95%CI, 89-94.1%), 86.7% (95% CI, 80.5-89.6), and 97.6% (95% CI, 993.9-99.3) respectively. The performance of SD BIOLINE H. pylori Ag rapid test was better than the currently available antibody test in study area. Therefore, the SD BIOLINE Ag rapid stool test could replace and be used to diagnose active H. pylori infection before the commencement of therapy among dyspeptic patients.

  1. Penelitian Serologis Polio pada Anak SD Pasca Bias-polio di Kabupaten Bogor

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrowahyuhono, Gendrowahyuhono; Yulitasari, Yulitasari; Purnamawati, Sinta; Klino, Klino

    2003-01-01

    Program BIAS-Polio sudah dilaksanakan pada bulan Nopember 1999 di seluruh SD di Indonesia dari kelas III sampai dengan kelas VI. Tujuan BIAS-Polio adalah untuk meningkatkan status imunitas anak terhadap infeksi virus polio sebingga dapat menghambat sirkulasi virus polio liar di masyarakat. Bias polio diberikan pada anak SD sebanyak 1 kali dosis.

  2. Automated Segmentability Index for Layer Segmentation of Macular SD-OCT Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, K.; Buitendijk, G.H.; Bogunovic, H.; Springelkamp, H.; Hofman, A.; Wahle, A.; Sonka, M.; Vingerling, J.R.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Abramoff, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To automatically identify which spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans will provide reliable automated layer segmentations for more accurate layer thickness analyses in population studies. METHODS: Six hundred ninety macular SD-OCT image volumes (6.0 x 6.0 x 2.3 mm3)

  3. Proxy support for service discovery using mDNS/DNS-SD in low power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolikj, M.; Verhoeven, R.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a solution for service discovery of resource constrained devices based on mDNS/DNS-SD. We extend the mDNS/DNS-SD service discovery protocol with support for proxy servers. Proxy servers temporarily store information about services offered on resource constrained devices and respond on

  4. HOW TO MAKE A SINGLETON sdB STAR VIA ACCELERATED STELLAR EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Drew; Wade, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Many hot subdwarf B stars (sdBs) are in close binaries, and the favored formation channels for subdwarfs rely on mass transfer in a binary system to strip a core He-burning star of its envelope. However, these channels cannot account for sdBs that have been observed in long-period binaries nor the narrow mass distribution of isolated (or 'singleton') sdBs. We propose a new formation channel involving the merger of a helium white dwarf and a low-mass, hydrogen-burning star, which addresses these issues. Hierarchical triples whose inner binaries merge and form sdBs by this process could explain the observed long-period subdwarf+main-sequence binaries. This process would also naturally explain the observed slow rotational speeds of singleton sdBs. We also briefly discuss the implications of this formation channel for extreme horizontal branch morphology in globular clusters and the UV upturn in elliptical galaxies.

  5. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  6. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löscher Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assessed. Results P. falciparum and P. vivax were observed in 69% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Pfdhfr triple mutations and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutations occurred in 87% and 86% of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was seen in all and pfmdr1 Y86 in 81% of P. falciparum. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations N117 and R58 were present in 94% and 74%, respectively. Conclusion These data point to an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia, and strongly support that both SP and CQ are inadequate drugs for this region.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum secretome in erythrocyte and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani eSoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of deadly malaria disease. It is an intracellular eukaryote and completes its multi-stage life cycle spanning the two hosts viz, mosquito and human. In order to habituate within host environment, parasite conform several strategies to evade host immune responses such as surface antigen polymorphism or modulation of host immune system and it is mediated by secretion of proteins from parasite to the host erythrocyte and beyond, collectively known as, malaria secretome. In this review, we will discuss about the deployment of parasitic secretory protein in mechanism implicated for immune evasion, protein trafficking, providing virulence, changing permeability and cyto-adherence of infected erythrocyte. We will be covering the possibilities of developing malaria secretome as a drug/vaccine target. This gathered information will be worthwhile in depicting a well-organized picture for host-pathogen interplay during the malaria infection and may also provide some clues for development of novel anti-malarial therapies.

  8. Frequency of thrombocytopenia in plasmodium vivax malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Malik, T.M.; Malik, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) malaria cases at two hospitals. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the departments of Pathology, Combined Military Hospitals Malir and Sibi, Pakistan from Jul 2011 to Mar 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 2709 samples were collected from febrile patients for detection of malaria parasite (944 from CMH Malir and 1765 from CMH Sibi). Cases having infection with P. falciparum alone or having mixed infection with P. Vivax and P. falciparum were excluded from the study. Both thick and thin film microscopy and immunochromatographic method (OptiMA L-IT) were used for detection of malarial parasite. Platelet counts were done using automated haematology analyser (Sysmex KX 21) with re-evaluation of low counts with manual methods. Results: Total of 170 patients were found positive for P. vivax malaria (44 from CMH Malir and 126 from CMH Sibi). Platelet counts ranged from 21 - 457 * 10/sub 9/ with a mean of 134 * 10/sub 9/. Ninety five (2.1%) from CMH Malir and 4.2% from CMH Sibi out of 170 patients had thrombocytopenia, and the difference in thrombocytopenia at the two hospitals was insignificant (0.017). Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia in patients with P. vivax infection is equally prevalent in the two hospitals, representing a widely different geographical area and should prompt a more thorough search for malaria parasite. (author)

  9. Proteomics methods applied to malaria: Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuesta Astroz, Yesid; Segura Latorre, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a parasitic disease that has a high impact on public health in developing countries. The sequencing of the plasmodium falciparum genome and the development of proteomics have enabled a breakthrough in understanding the biology of the parasite. Proteomics have allowed to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the parasite s expression of proteins and has provided information on protein expression under conditions of stress induced by antimalarial. Given the complexity of their life cycle, this takes place in the vertebrate host and mosquito vector. It has proven difficult to characterize the protein expression during each stage throughout the infection process in order to determine the proteome that mediates several metabolic, physiological and energetic processes. Two dimensional electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have been useful to assess the effects of antimalarial on parasite protein expression and to characterize the proteomic profile of different p. falciparum stages and organelles. The purpose of this review is to present state of the art tools and advances in proteomics applied to the study of malaria, and to present different experimental strategies used to study the parasite's proteome in order to show the advantages and disadvantages of each one.

  10. Phenomics, Genomics and Genetics in Plasmodium vinckei

    KAUST Repository

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay

    2017-11-01

    Rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) serve as tractable models for experimental genetics, and as valuable tools to study malaria parasite biology and host-parasitevector interactions. Plasmodium vinckei, one of four RMPs adapted to laboratory mice, is the most geographically widespread species and displays considerable phenotypic and genotypic diversity amongst its subspecies and strains. The phenotypes and genotypes of P. vinckei isolates have been relatively less characterized compared to other RMPs, hampering its use as an experimental model for malaria. Here, we have studied the phenotypes and sequenced the genomes and transcriptomes of ten P. vinckei isolates including representatives of all five subspecies, all of which were collected from wild thicket rats (Thamnomys rutilans) in sub-Saharan Central Africa between the late 1940s and mid 1960s. We have generated a comprehensive resource for P. vinckei comprising of five high-quality reference genomes, growth profiles and genotypes of P. vinckei isolates, and expression profiles of genes across the intra-erythrocytic developmental stages of the parasite. We observe significant phenotypic and genotypic diversity among P. vinckei isolates, making them particularly suitable for classical genetics and genomics-driven studies on malaria parasite biology. As part of a proof of concept study, we have shown that experimental genetic crosses can be performed between P. vinckei parasites to potentially identify genotype-phenotype relationships. We have also shown that they are amenable to genetic manipulation in the laboratory.

  11. Dibenzylideneacetone analogues as novel Plasmodium falciparum inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aher, Rahul Balasaheb; Wanare, Gajanan; Kawathekar, Neha; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar; Chauhan, Virander Singh

    2011-05-15

    A series of dibenzylideneacetones (A1-A12) and some of their pyrazolines (B1-B4) were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for blood stage antiplasmodial properties in Plasmodium falciparum culture using SYBR-green-I fluorescence assay. The compound (1E, 4E)-1,5-bis(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one (A9) was found to be the most active with IC(50) of 1.97 μM against chloroquine-sensitive strain (3D7) and 1.69 μM against chloroquine-resistant field isolate (RKL9). The MTT based cytotoxicity assay on HeLa cell line has confirmed that A9 is selective in its action against malaria parasite (with a therapeutic index of 166). Our results revealed that these compounds exhibited promising antiplasmodial activities which can be further explored as potential leads for the development of cheaper, safe, effective and potent drugs against chloroquine-resistant malarial parasites. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuthavong Yongyuth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistance amongst the human malaria Plasmodium species has most commonly been associated with genomic mutation within the parasites. This phenomenon necessitates evolutionary predictive studies of possible resistance mutations, which may occur when a new drug is introduced. Therefore, identification of possible new Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR mutants that confer resistance to antifolate drugs is essential in the process of antifolate anti-malarial drug development. Methods A system to identify mutations in Pfdhfr gene that confer antifolate drug resistance using an animal Plasmodium parasite model was developed. By using error-prone PCR and Plasmodium transfection technologies, libraries of Pfdhfr mutant were generated and then episomally transfected to Plasmodium berghei parasites, from which pyrimethamine-resistant PfDHFR mutants were selected. Results The principal mutation found from this experiment was S108N, coincident with the first pyrimethamine-resistance mutation isolated from the field. A transgenic P. berghei, in which endogenous Pbdhfr allele was replaced with the mutant PfdhfrS108N, was generated and confirmed to have normal growth rate comparing to parental non-transgenic parasite and also confer resistance to pyrimethamine. Conclusion This study demonstrated the power of the transgenic P. berghei system to predict drug-resistant Pfdhfr mutations in an in vivo parasite/host setting. The system could be utilized for identification of possible novel drug-resistant mutants that could arise against new antifolate compounds and for prediction the evolution of resistance mutations.

  13. Patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria underscore importance of data collection from private health care facilities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Gunter, James T; Novak, Robert J; Regens, James L

    2009-10-12

    This study describes patterns of falciparum and vivax malaria in a private comprehensive-care, multi-specialty hospital in New Delhi from July 2006 to July 2008. Malarial morbidity by Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, or Plasmodium sp.) was confirmed using microscopy and antigen tests. The influence of seasonal factors and selected patient demographics on morbidity was evaluated. The proportions of malaria cases caused by P. falciparum at the private facility were compared to data from India's National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) during the same period for the Delhi region. In New Delhi, P. faciparum was the dominant cause of cases requiring treatment in the private hospital during the period examined. The national data reported a smaller proportion of malaria cases caused by P. falciparum in the national capital region than was observed in a private facility within the region. Plasmodium vivax also caused a large proportion of the cases presenting clinically at the private hospital during the summer and monsoon seasons. The proportion of P. falciparum malaria cases tends to be greatest during the post-monsoon season while the proportion of P. vivax malaria cases tends to be greatest in the monsoon season. Private hospital data demonstrate an under-reporting of malaria case incidences in the data from India's national surveillance programme during the same period for the national capital region.

  14. Plasmodium knowlesi: from severe zoonosis to animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Singh, Janet; Culleton, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi malaria is a newly described zoonosis in Southeast Asia. Similarly to Plasmodium falciparum, P. knowlesi can reach high parasitaemia in the human host and both species cause severe and fatal illness. Interpretation of host-parasite interactions in studies of P. knowlesi malaria adds a counterpoint to studies on P. falciparum. However, there is no model system for testing the resulting hypotheses on malaria pathophysiology or for developing new interventions. Plasmodium knowlesi is amenable to genetic manipulation in vitro and several nonhuman primate species are susceptible to experimental infection. Here, we make a case for drawing on P. knowlesi as both a human pathogen and an experimental model to lift the roadblock between malaria research and its translation into human health benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Delay-controlled primary and stochastic resonances of the SD oscillator with stiffness nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Cao, Qingjie

    2018-03-01

    This work presents analytical studies of the stiffness nonlinearities SD (smooth and discontinuous) oscillator under displacement and velocity feedback control with a time delay. The SD oscillator can capture the qualitative characteristics of quasi-zero-stiffness and negative-stiffness. We focus mainly on the primary resonance of the quasi-zero-stiffness SD oscillator and the stochastic resonance (SR) of the negative-stiffness SD oscillator. Using the averaging method, we have been analyzed the amplitude response of the quasi-zero-stiffness SD oscillator. In this regard, the optimum time delay for changing the control intensity according to the optimization standard proposed can be obtained. For the optimum time delay, increasing the displacement feedback intensity is advantageous to suppress the vibrations in resonant regime where vibration isolation is needed, however, increasing the velocity feedback intensity is advantageous to strengthen the vibrations. Moreover, the effects of time-delayed feedback on the SR of the negative-stiffness SD oscillator are investigated under harmonic forcing and Gaussian white noise, based on the Langevin and Fokker-Planck approaches. The time-delayed feedback can enhance the SR phenomenon where vibrational energy harvesting is needed. This paper established the relationship between the parameters and vibration properties of a stiffness nonlinearities SD which provides the guidance for optimizing time-delayed control for vibration isolation and vibrational energy harvesting of the nonlinear systems.

  16. From malaria parasite point of view – Plasmodium falciparum evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Zerka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by infection with protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium, which have arguably exerted the greatest selection pressure on humans in the history of our species. Besides humans, different Plasmodium parasites infect a wide range of animal hosts, from marine invertebrates to primates. On the other hand, individual Plasmodium species show high host specificity. The extraordinary evolution of Plasmodium probably began when a free-living red algae turned parasitic, and culminated with its ability to thrive inside a human red blood cell. Studies on the African apes generated new data on the evolution of malaria parasites in general and the deadliest human-specific species, Plasmodium falciparum, in particular. Initially, it was hypothesized that P. falciparum descended from the chimpanzee malaria parasite P. reichenowi, after the human and the chimp lineage diverged about 6 million years ago. However, a recently identified new species infecting gorillas, unexpectedly showed similarity to P. falciparum and was therefore named P. praefalciparum. That finding spurred an alternative hypothesis, which proposes that P. falciparum descended from its gorilla rather than chimp counterpart. In addition, the gorilla-to-human host shift may have occurred more recently (about 10 thousand years ago than the theoretical P. falciparum-P. reichenowi split. One of the key aims of the studies on Plasmodium evolution is to elucidate the mechanisms that allow the incessant host shifting and retaining the host specificity, especially in the case of human-specific species. Thorough understanding of these phenomena will be necessary to design effective malaria treatment and prevention strategies.

  17. Molecular identification of the chitinase genes in Plasmodium relictum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Longoria, Luz; Hellgren, Olof; Bensch, Staffan

    2014-06-18

    Malaria parasites need to synthesize chitinase in order to go through the peritrophic membrane, which is created around the mosquito midgut, to complete its life cycle. In mammalian malaria species, the chitinase gene comprises either a large or a short copy. In the avian malaria parasites Plasmodium gallinaceum both copies are present, suggesting that a gene duplication in the ancestor to these extant species preceded the loss of either the long or the short copy in Plasmodium parasites of mammals. Plasmodium gallinaceum is not the most widespread and harmful parasite of birds. This study is the first to search for and identify the chitinase gene in one of the most prevalent avian malaria parasites, Plasmodium relictum. Both copies of P. gallinaceum chitinase were used as reference sequences for primer design. Different sequences of Plasmodium spp. were used to build the phylogenetic tree of chitinase gene. The gene encoding for chitinase was identified in isolates of two mitochondrial lineages of P. relictum (SGS1 and GRW4). The chitinase found in these two lineages consists both of the long (PrCHT1) and the short (PrCHT2) copy. The genetic differences found in the long copy of the chitinase gene between SGS1 and GRW4 were higher than the difference observed for the cytochrome b gene. The identification of both copies in P. relictum sheds light on the phylogenetic relationship of the chitinase gene in the genus Plasmodium. Due to its high variability, the chitinase gene could be used to study the genetic population structure in isolates from different host species and geographic regions.

  18. Comparative Genomics and Systems Biology of Malaria Parasites Plasmodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Zhou, Zhan; Gu, Jianying; Wang, Yufeng

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is a serious infectious disease that causes over one million deaths yearly. It is caused by a group of protozoan parasites in the genus Plasmodium. No effective vaccine is currently available and the elevated levels of resistance to drugs in use underscore the pressing need for novel antimalarial targets. In this review, we survey omics centered developments in Plasmodium biology, which have set the stage for a quantum leap in our understanding of the fundamental processes of the parasite life cycle and mechanisms of drug resistance and immune evasion. PMID:24298232

  19. Therapeutic principles of primaquine against relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax causes tens of millions of clinical attacks annually all across the malarious globe. Unlike the other major cause of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax places dormant stages called hypnozoites into the human liver that later awaken and provoke multiple clinical attacks in the weeks, months, and few years following the infectious anopheline mosquito bite. The only available treatment to prevent those recurrent attacks is primaquine (hypnozoitocide), and it must be administered with the drugs applied to end the acute attack (blood schizontocides). This paper reviews the therapeutic principles of applying primaquine to achieve radical cure of acute vivax malaria.

  20. Antiplasmodial activity of two medicinal plants against clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attemene, Serge David Dago; Beourou, Sylvain; Tuo, Karim; Gnondjui, Albert Alloh; Konate, Abibatou; Toure, Andre Offianan; Kati-Coulibaly, Seraphin; Djaman, Joseph Alico

    2018-03-01

    Malaria is an infectious and deadly parasitic disease, associated with fever, anaemia and other ailments. Unfortunately the upsurge of plasmodium multidrug resistant constrained researchers to look for new effective drugs. Medicinal plants seem to be an unquenchable source of bioactive principles in the treatment of various diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the antiplasmodial activity of two Ivorian medicinal plants. The in vitro activity was evaluated against clinical isolates and Plasmodium falciparum K1 multidrug resistant strain using the fluorescence based SYBR green I assay. The in vivo bioassay was carried out using the classical 4 day suppressive and curative tests on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Results showed that the in vitro bioassay of both plant extracts were found to exhibit a promising and moderate antiparasitic effects on clinical isolates (5 µg/mL plant extracts need to be investigated.

  1. Close-In Substellar Companions and the Formation of sdB-Type Close Binary Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Zhu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The sdB-type close binaries are believed to have experienced a common-envelope phase and may evolve into cataclysmic binaries (CVs. About 10% of all known sdB binaries are eclipsing binaries consisting of very hot subdwarf primaries and low-mass companions with short orbital periods. The eclipse profiles of these systems are very narrow and deep, which benefits the determination of high precise eclipsing times and makes the detection of small and close-in tertiary bodies possible. Since 2006 we have monitored some sdB-type eclipsing binaries to search for the close-in substellar companions by analyzing the light travel time effect. Here some progresses of the program are reviewed and the formation of sdB-type binary is discussed.

  2. Transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation focused on the transcriptional analysis of heterologous gene expression using the endogenous sD promoter from Bacillus halodurans. It concludes to a successful implementation of a high throughput mRNA sandwich hybridisation...

  3. The dynamics of natural Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Felger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural immunity to Plasmodium falciparum has been widely studied, but its effects on parasite dynamics are poorly understood. Acquisition and clearance rates of untreated infections are key elements of the dynamics of malaria, but estimating these parameters is challenging because of frequent super-infection and imperfect detectability of parasites. Consequently, information on effects of host immune status or age on infection dynamics is fragmentary. METHODS: An age-stratified cohort of 347 individuals from Northern Ghana was sampled six times at 2 month intervals. High-throughput capillary electrophoresis was used to genotype the msp-2 locus of all P. falciparum infections detected by PCR. Force of infection (FOI and duration were estimated for each age group using an immigration-death model that allows for imperfect detection of circulating parasites. RESULTS: Allowing for imperfect detection substantially increased estimates of FOI and duration. Effects of naturally acquired immunity on the FOI and duration would be reflected in age dependence in these indices, but in our cohort data FOI tended to increase with age in children. Persistence of individual parasite clones was characteristic of all age-groups. Duration peaked in 5-9 year old children (average duration 319 days, 95% confidence interval 318;320. CONCLUSIONS: The main age-dependence is on parasite densities, with only small age-variations in the FOI and persistence of infections. This supports the hypothesis that acquired immunity controls transmission mainly by limiting blood-stage parasite densities rather than changing rates of acquisition or clearance of infections.

  4. Role of antisymmetric spin-orbit component in effective interactions in the sd-shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinada, K.

    1981-10-01

    The antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction (ALS) proposed for sd-shell nuclei is investigated. It is shown that the centroid energy of the d sub(5/2) - d sub(3/2) interactions plays a crucial role in reproducing the excited band spectra of A = 18 - 24 nuclei. An empirical effective interaction without ALS component is proposed to reproduce the observed spectra of light sd-shell nuclei. (author)

  5. The persistence and oscillations of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections over time in Vietnam: an open cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Nhien; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Nguyen, Tuong-Vy; Truong, Phuc-Nhi; Hung, Son Do; Pham, Huong-Thu; Nguyen, Tam-Uyen; Le, Thanh Dong; Dao, Van Hue; Mukaka, Mavuto; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Thwaites, Guy E; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2018-05-01

    A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period. In this open cohort study, inhabitants of four villages in Vietnam were invited to participate in baseline and subsequent 3-monthly surveys up to 24 months, which included the collection of venous blood samples. Samples were batch-screened using ultra-sensitive (u)PCR (lower limit of detection of 22 parasites per mL). Participants found to be infected by uPCR during any of these surveys were invited to join a prospective cohort and provide monthly blood samples. We estimated the persistence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections and changes in parasite densities over a study period of 24 months. Between Dec 1, 2013, and Jan 8, 2016, 356 villagers participated in between one and 22 surveys. These study participants underwent 4248 uPCR evaluations (11·9 tests per participant). 1874 (32%) of 4248 uPCR tests indicated a plasmodium infection; 679 (36%) of 1874 tests were P falciparum monoinfections, 507 (27%) were P vivax monoinfections, 463 (25%) were co-infections with P falciparum and P vivax, and 225 (12%) were indeterminate species of Plasmodium. The median duration of P falciparum infection was 2 months (IQR 1-3); after accounting for censoring, participants had a 20% chance of having parasitaemia for 4 months or longer. The median duration of P vivax infection was 6 months (3-9), and participants had a 59% chance of having parasitaemia for 4 months or longer. The parasite densities of persistent infections oscillated; following ultralow

  6. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  7. G eobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Dan

    2014-07-16

    © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Summary: An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G.sulfurreducensPCA and Geobacter metallireducensGS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290±29Am-3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189±44Am-3) or the type strains (<70Am-3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50mM PBS and 650mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158±4Am-3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50mM PBS (220±4Am-3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147±19Am-3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  8. An evaluation of the SD Bioline HIV/syphilis duo test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Jeffrey; Goheen, Joshua; Jett-Goheen, Mary; Barnes, Mathilda; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2018-01-01

    Many health agencies now recommend routine HIV and syphilis testing for pregnant women and most-at-risk populations such as men who have sex with men. With the increased availability of highly sensitive, low cost rapid point-of-care tests, the ability to meet those recommendations has increased, granting wider access to quick and accurate diagnoses. Using blood specimens collected from a Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) sexually transmitted infection clinic, we evaluated the SD Bioline HIV/Syphilis Duo, a rapid test that simultaneously detects antibodies to HIV and syphilis and has the potential to further benefit clinics and patients by reducing costs, testing complexity, and patient wait times. SD DUO HIV sensitivity and specificity, when compared to BCHD results, were 91.7 and 99.5%, respectively. SD DUO syphilis sensitivity and specificity, when compared to rapid plasma reagin, were 85.7 and 96.8%, respectively, and 69.7 and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA). SD DUO syphilis sensitivity and specificity, when compared to a traditional screening algorithm, improved to 92.3 and 100%, respectively, and improved to 72.9 and 99.7%, respectively, when compared to a reverse screening algorithm. The HIV component of the SD DUO performed moderately well. However, results for the SD DUO syphilis component, when compared to TPPA, support the need for further testing and assessment.

  9. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor A; Wright, Jim A; Nahzat, Sami M; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W; Atkinson, Peter M; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  10. Modelling the Incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Afghanistan 2006–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor A.; Wright, Jim A.; Nahzat, Sami M.; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W.; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. Methods To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. Findings From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours’ travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes’ travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2–9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4–2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. Conclusion This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan. PMID:25033452

  11. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Irina T; Mejía, Rosa E; Banegas, Engels; Piedade, Rita; Alger, Jackeline; Fontecha, Gustavo; Ferreira, Pedro E; Veiga, Maria I; Enamorado, Irma G; Bjorkman, Anders; Ursing, Johan

    2011-12-19

    In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospitals, two health centres and one regional laboratory during 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes and in P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr1) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes were detected using PCR based methods. Thirty seven P. falciparum and 64 P. vivax samples were collected. All P. falciparum infections acquired in Honduras carried pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr alleles associated with chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity only. One patient with parasites acquired on a Pacific Island had pfcrt 76 T and pfmdr1 86Y alleles. That patient and a patient infected in West Africa had pfdhfr 51I, 59 R and 108 N alleles. Pvmdr1 976 F was found in 7/37 and two copies of pvmdr1 were found in 1/37 samples. Pvdhfr 57 L + 58 R was observed in 2/57 samples. The results indicate that P. falciparum from Honduras remain sensitive to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This suggests that chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine should be efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, supporting current national treatment guidelines. However, genetic polymorphisms associated with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine tolerance were detected in local P. vivax and imported P. falciparum infections. Continuous monitoring of the prevalence of drug resistant/tolerant P

  12. Mechanisms of Plasmodium-Enhanced Attraction of Mosquito Vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busula, A.O.; Verhulst, N.O.; Bousema, J.T.; Takken, W.; Boer, J.G. de

    2017-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that Plasmodium-infected vertebrates are more attractive to mosquitoes than noninfected hosts, particularly when high levels of gametocytes are present. Changes in host odour have been suggested as a likely target for parasite manipulation because olfactory cues are crucial

  13. A comparison of rapid diagnostic testing (by plasmodium lactate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) considers early and rapid diagnosis as one of the strategies to control malaria. This study compared the performance of Quantitative Buffy Coat (QBC) test and the Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with microscopy as the gold ...

  14. A rodent malarial model of Plasmodium berghei for the development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A rodent malarial model of Plasmodium berghei for the development of pyrimethamine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine resistant malaria in mice. ... course approach with 125/6.25mg/kg S/P. The stability of resistance phenotypes, parasite pathogenic disposition and host leukocyte response were also investigated.

  15. Carriage of sub-microscopic sexual and asexual Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Background: We investigated the prevalence of sub-microscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections and gameto- cyte carriage in asymptomatic individuals in Navrongo in northern Ghana, an area of seasonal malaria transmission. Design: A cross sectional study of 209 randomly selected participants of all ...

  16. Interleukin-10 regulates hepcidin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Honglei; Lamikanra, Abigail A.; Alkaitis, Matthew S.; Thé zé nas, Marie L.; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Moussa, Ehab; Roberts, David J.; Casals-Pascual, Climent

    2014-01-01

    . falciparum malaria. Methods: We have measured secretion of hepcidin by primary macrophages and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 stimulated with IL-10, IL-6 and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Findings: We have observed that IL-10 and IL-6 production

  17. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2008 Academic Journals. Full Length Research Paper. Variation of nitric oxide levels in imported Plasmodium falciparum malaria episodes. De Sousa, Karina*, Silva, Marcelo S. and Tavira, Luís T. Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Centro de Malária e outras Doenças Tropicais, ...

  18. Studies On the Incidence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium Infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection among orphans between age groups, gender and blood groups was investigated. Standard microscopic methods were used to screen for malaria parasites in the blood specimens obtained from eighty-five (85) subjects in three orphanages in Kaduna and ...

  19. Genomics and epigenetics of sexual commitment in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtsi, D P; Waters, A P

    2017-06-01

    Malaria is the disease caused by the apicomplexan parasites belonging to the genus Plasmodium. Expanding our arsenal to include transmission-blocking agents in our fight against malaria is becoming increasingly important. Such an implementation requires detailed understanding of the biology of the Plasmodium life cycle stages that are transmissible. Plasmodium gametocytes are the only parasite stage that can be transmitted to the mosquito vector and are the product of sexual development in a small percentage of parasites that continually proliferate in host blood. The critical decision made by asexual erythrocytic stages to cease further proliferation and differentiate into gametocytes, as well as the first steps they take into maturity, have long remained unknown. Recent studies have contributed to a breakthrough in our understanding of this branch point in development. In this review, we will discuss the findings that have allowed us to make this major leap forward in our knowledge of sexual commitment in Plasmodium. We will further propose a model for the mechanism triggering the switch to sexual development, constructed around the proteins currently known to regulate this process. Further insight into sexual commitment and gametocyte development will help identify targets for the development of transmission-blocking malaria therapies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Positive blood culture with Plasmodium falciparum : Case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Jutte J. C.; Van Assen, Sander; Mulder, André B.; Kampinga, Greetje A.

    2007-01-01

    An adult traveler presented with fever and malaise after returning from Sierra Leone. Young trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum were seen in a blood smear, with parasitemia being 10%. Moreover, blood cultures drawn on admission signaled as "positive" after 1 day of incubation, but no bacteria were

  1. Origin of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Learn, Gerald H; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Robertson, Joel D; Keele, Brandon F; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Locatelli, Sabrina; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Delaporte, Eric; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Shaw, George M; Peeters, Martine; Sharp, Paul M; Rayner, Julian C; Hahn, Beatrice H

    2010-09-23

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most prevalent and lethal of the malaria parasites infecting humans, yet the origin and evolutionary history of this important pathogen remain controversial. Here we develop a single-genome amplification strategy to identify and characterize Plasmodium spp. DNA sequences in faecal samples from wild-living apes. Among nearly 3,000 specimens collected from field sites throughout central Africa, we found Plasmodium infection in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), but not in eastern gorillas (Gorilla beringei) or bonobos (Pan paniscus). Ape plasmodial infections were highly prevalent, widely distributed and almost always made up of mixed parasite species. Analysis of more than 1,100 mitochondrial, apicoplast and nuclear gene sequences from chimpanzees and gorillas revealed that 99% grouped within one of six host-specific lineages representing distinct Plasmodium species within the subgenus Laverania. One of these from western gorillas comprised parasites that were nearly identical to P. falciparum. In phylogenetic analyses of full-length mitochondrial sequences, human P. falciparum formed a monophyletic lineage within the gorilla parasite radiation. These findings indicate that P. falciparum is of gorilla origin and not of chimpanzee, bonobo or ancient human origin.

  2. Plasmodium falciparum transcriptome analysis reveals pregnancy malaria associated gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Proux, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) causing maternal anemia and low birth weight is among the multiple manifestations of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Infected erythrocytes (iEs) can acquire various adhesive properties that mediate the clinical severity of malaria. Recent advances...

  3. Unusual Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, Bordeaux, France, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareil, Marc-Olivier; Tandonnet, Olivier; Chemoul, Audrey; Bogreau, Hervé; Saint-Léger, Mélanie; Micheau, Maguy; Millet, Pascal; Koeck, Jean-Louis; Boyer, Alexandre; Rogier, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is usually transmitted by mosquitoes. We report 2 cases in France transmitted by other modes: occupational blood exposure and blood transfusion. Even where malaria is not endemic, it should be considered as a cause of unexplained acute fever. PMID:21291597

  4. Inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum in whole body by riboflavin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Malaria parasites are frequently trans- mitted by unscreened blood transfusions in Africa. Pathogen reduction methods in whole blood would thus greatly improve blood safety. We aimed to determine the efficacy of riboflavin plus irradiation for treatment of whole blood infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

  5. Exploring Anopheles gut bacteria for Plasmodium blocking activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahia, Ana C; Dong, Yuemei; Blumberg, Benjamin J; Mlambo, Godfree; Tripathi, Abhai; BenMarzouk-Hidalgo, Omar J; Chandra, Ramesh; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria parasite transmission requires the successful development of Plasmodium gametocytes into flagellated microgametes upon mosquito blood ingestion, and the subsequent fertilization of microgametes and macrogametes for the development of motile zygotes, called ookinetes, which invade and transverse the Anopheles vector mosquito midgut at around 18-36 h after blood ingestion. Within the mosquito midgut, the malaria parasite has to withstand the mosquito's innate immune response and the detrimental effect of its commensal bacterial flora. We have assessed the midgut colonization capacity of 5 gut bacterial isolates from field-derived, and 2 from laboratory colony, mosquitoes and their effect on Plasmodium development in vivo and in vitro, along with their impact on mosquito survival. Some bacterial isolates activated the mosquito's immune system, affected the mosquito's life span, and were capable of blocking Plasmodium development. We have also shown that the ability of these bacteria to inhibit the parasites is likely to involve different mechanisms and factors. A Serratia marcescens isolate was particularly efficient in colonizing the mosquitoes’ gut, compromising mosquito survival, and inhibiting both sexual- and asexual-stage Plasmodium through secreted factors, thereby rendering it a potential candidate for the development of a malaria transmission intervention strategy. PMID:24428613

  6. Dhfr and dhps mutations in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), the current first line antimalarial drug in Tanzania, is compromised by evolution and spread of mutations in the parasite's dhfr and dhps genes. In the present study we established the baseline frequencies of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate ...

  7. Population genomics diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous malaria parasite species to ... tigen for subunit malaria vaccine.10 It comprises highly ... were also prepared for Giemsa staining as described by ... parasites with different alleles at a given locus and ranges ..... surface protein 1, immune evasion and vaccines against.

  8. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...... during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease....

  9. Different apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether the apoptotic responses to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in spleen and liver via mRNA expression of three genes involved in apoptosis (Bax, Bcl-2 and. Caspase-3) are similar or not and to detect if these genes could be a good marker for apoptosis due to.

  10. High prevalence of asymptomatic plasmodium infection in a suburb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Malaria is endemic in many parts of the world. Various strategies have been planned to control malaria from time to time in many places. Whatever may be the strategy the prevalence of symptomatic and asymptomatic plasmodium parasitaemics has been of prime importance as useful parameter for its control.

  11. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have initiated such a study and presented herewith the results from the in silico understanding of a seventh chromosomal region of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum encompassing the antigenic var genes (coding pfemp1) and the drug-resistant gene pfcrt located at a specified region of the chromosome 7.

  12. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnancy in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, F. P.; Rong, B.; Till, H.; Eggelte, T. A.; Beck, S.; Gyasi-Sarpong, C.; Thompson, W. N.; Bienzle, U.

    2000-01-01

    Malarial parasitaemia below the threshold of microscopy but detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays is common in endemic regions. This study was conducted to examine prevalence, predictors, and effects of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnancy. In a cross-sectional

  13. High prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are major public health problems in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their overlapping geographical distribution and co-existence often result into high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV ...

  14. HLA-A alleles differentially associate with severity to Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), particularly HLA-B and class II alleles have been differentially associated with disease outcomes in different populations following infection with the malaria Plasmodium falciparum. However, the effect of HLA-A on malaria infection and/or disease is not fully understood. Recently, HLA-A ...

  15. Plasmodium falciparum multiplicity correlates with anaemia in symptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Markert, Miriam; Anemana, Sylvester; Otchwemah, Rowland; Bienzle, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    In 366 Ghanaian children with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria, low haemoglobin levels and severe anaemia were associated with a high multiplicity of infection (MOI) and with distinct merozoite surface protein alleles. High MOI not only reflects premunition but may also contribute to

  16. Antibodies reactive to Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen in children with Burkitt lymphoma from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guech-Ongey, Mercy; Yagi, Masanori; Palacpac, Nirianne Marie Q; Emmanuel, Benjamin; Talisuna, Ambrose O; Bhatia, Kishor; Stefan, D Cristina; Biggar, Robert J; Nkrumah, Francis; Neequaye, Janet; Tougan, Takahiro; Horii, Toshihiro; Mbulaiteye, Sam M

    2012-04-15

    The role of protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is unknown. We investigated the association between BL and antibodies reactive to SE36 antigen, a recombinant protein based on P. falciparum serine repeat antigen 5 gene, targeted by protective malaria immune responses. Cases were children (0-14 years) enrolled at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana, during 1965-1994 with BL confirmed by histology or cytology (92% of cases). Controls were apparently healthy children enrolled contemporaneous to the cases from the nearest neighbor house to the case house and were age,- sex-frequency-matched to the cases. Anti-SE36 IgG antibodies were measured using enzyme-linked absorbent immunoassays (ELISAs). SE36 titers were estimated by extrapolating ELISA optical density readings to a standard fitting curve. Anti-SE36 titers were log-transformed for analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and two-sided 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The mean log endpoint dilution titers were 0.63 logs lower in cases than in controls (8.26 [SD 1.68] vs. 8.89 [SD 1.75], Student's t-test, p = 0.019). Lower titers were observed in cases than controls aged 0-4 years (p = 0.05) and in those aged 5-14 years (p = 0.06). Low and medium tertiles of anti-SE36 IgG antibodies were associated with increased OR for BL ([OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.21-2.31] and [OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.96-1.86], respectively, p(trend) = 0.002) in analyses adjusting for age, sex, calendar period and test plate. Our findings suggest that compared to similarly aged children enrolled from the same community, children with BL in Ghana have lower antibodies to SE36 antigen. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  17. Small Molecule Screen for Candidate Antimalarials Targeting Plasmodium Kinesin-5*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Richard, Jessica; Kim, Sunyoung; Wojcik, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and vivax are responsible for the majority of malaria infections worldwide, resulting in over a million deaths annually. Malaria parasites now show measured resistance to all currently utilized drugs. Novel antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The Plasmodium Kinesin-5 mechanoenzyme is a suitable “next generation” target. Discovered via small molecule screen experiments, the human Kinesin-5 has multiple allosteric sites that are “druggable.” One site in particular, unique in its sequence divergence across all homologs in the superfamily and even within the same family, exhibits exquisite drug specificity. We propose that Plasmodium Kinesin-5 shares this allosteric site and likewise can be targeted to uncover inhibitors with high specificity. To test this idea, we performed a screen for inhibitors selective for Plasmodium Kinesin-5 ATPase activity in parallel with human Kinesin-5. Our screen of nearly 2000 compounds successfully identified compounds that selectively inhibit both P. vivax and falciparum Kinesin-5 motor domains but, as anticipated, do not impact human Kinesin-5 activity. Of note is a candidate drug that did not biochemically compete with the ATP substrate for the conserved active site or disrupt the microtubule-binding site. Together, our experiments identified MMV666693 as a selective allosteric inhibitor of Plasmodium Kinesin-5; this is the first identified protein target for the Medicines of Malaria Venture validated collection of parasite proliferation inhibitors. This work demonstrates that chemical screens against human kinesins are adaptable to homologs in disease organisms and, as such, extendable to strategies to combat infectious disease. PMID:24737313

  18. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Paupy

    Full Text Available During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  19. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by oral Lactobacillus paracasei SD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannun, P; Piwat, S; Teanpaisan, R

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to purify and characterize the antimicrobial protein from Lactobacillus paracasei SD1, which is a strain from the human oral cavity. Antimicrobial activity was obtained from purifying the culture supernatant of L. paracasei SD1. Purification of the active compound was achieved with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by chloroform and gel filtration chromatography. As revealed by SDS-PAGE, the active fraction was homogeneous, showing a protein with an approximate molecular weight of 25,000 Da. It was confirmed as having a molecular mass of 24,028.2 Da by mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial compound, named "paracasin SD1", exhibited a broad spectrum against oral pathogens. Paracasin SD1 was stable in a pH range between 3.0 and 8.0 at 100 °C for 5 min, and showed resistance to α-amylase, catalase, lysozyme and whole saliva. However, its activity was lost after proteinase K and trypsin treatment. The results obtained suggest the possibility of using paracasin SD1 for application in prevention/treatment of oral diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PENYELENGGARAAN PROGRAN SD-SMP SATU ATAP DALAM LATAR BUDAYA RUMAH BETANG KALIMANTAN TENGAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hasan

    2014-06-01

    Abstrak: Penyelenggaraan Progran SD-SMP Satu Atap dalam Latar Budaya Rumah Betang Kali­mantan Tengah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan penyelengaaraan program SD-SMP Satu Atap dalam latar budaya rumah Betang Kalimantan Tengah yang dikaitkan dengan struktur birokrasi, sumber daya, dan komunikasi. Penelitian kualitatif dilaksanakan di tiga lokasi, yaitu pada SMPN Satu Atap 1 Mihing Raya, SMPN Satu Atap 2 Kurun, dan SMPN Satu Atap 3 Tewah di Kabupaten Gunung Mas, Propinsi Kalimantan Tengah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa acuan standar yang jelas, koordinasi yang intensif, dan pemberdayaan sumber daya manusia yang tepat sesuai dengan pendekatan nilai-nilai budaya rumah Betang dapat mencapai penyelenggaraan program SD-SMP Satu Atap yang efektif. Hal itu juga didukung oleh pengelolaan sumberdaya dan komunikasi yang mendasarkan diri pada nilai kekeluargaan, kebersamaan, loyalitas, dan keakraban.

  1. TEKNIK DAN STRATEGI TINDAK KESANTUNAN DIREKTIF DI KALANGAN ANDIK SD BERLATAR BELAKANG BUDAYA JAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Joko Prayitno

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini bertujuan untuk merumuskan taksonomi tindak kesantunan direktif dikalangan andik SD yang berlatar belakang budaya Jawa. Tujuan spesifik studi iniadalah untuk merumuskan taksonomi dan pola semestaan realisasi tindakkesantunan direktif andik SD dalam hubungannya dengan prinsip dasar berbahasa PKS dan PSS; prinsip harmoni sosial PI dan PK. Objek penelitian ini adalah skala kelangsungan dan peringkat tindak kesantunandirektif dalam kaitannya PKS, PSS, prinsip harmoni sosial PI, PK, dn prinsip kultural budaya Jawa. Sumber data penelitian meliputi keseluruhan aktivitas berbahasa andik SD yang direfleksikan oleh guru kelas SD melalui FGD, baik dalam suasana formal maupun nonformal. Data penelitian berupa skala kelangsungan dan peringkat kesantunan pertuturan menurut PKS, PSS, PI, PK, dan Pk. Interpretasi perwujudan tindak kesantunan direktif dilakukan dengan kerja analisis pragmatik yang mengacu pada analisis heuristik model Grice, skala kelangsungan dan peringkat kesantunan model BrownLevinson. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa (1 perwujudan tindak kesantunan direktif (TKD di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa berkecenderungan diwujudkan melaui tipe menyuruh pada kategori memerintah dan tipe meminta pada kategori memohon. Temuan ini menggambarkah bahwa sesuai dengan kodratnya sebagai anak pada dasarnya masih memerlukan suri tauladan dari orang tuanya di rumah, gurunya di sekolah, dan panutannya sebagai yang difigurkan atau ditokohkan di lingkungan masyarakatnya masing-masing. (2 realisasi TKD di kalangan andik SD berlatar belakang budaya Jawa berkecenderungan dinyatakan dengan cara-cara tak langsung dan modus-modus nonliteral daripada dengan cara-cara langsung atau modus literal. Realisasi ini menggambarkan bahwa andik SD pada hakikatnya masih dalam masa perkembangan mental lingual sehingga masih memerlukan bimbingan yang bernilai positif, santun, dan berkarakter dari orang tua, guru, dan lingkungan

  2. MR imaging pulse sequence rationale: SD-, T1-, and T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sax, S.; Weathers, S.W.; Schneiders, N.J.; Horowitz, B.L.; Mawad, M.E.; Sandlin, M.E.; Blackwell, R.; Bryan, R.N.

    1986-01-01

    Over 500 patients have been examined with a pulse sequence designed to provide spin-density (SD)-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=35 msec), T1-weighted images (TR=0.3 sec, TE=35msec), and T2-weighted images (TR=3 sec, TE=105 msec) from which calculated ''synthesized'' images and SD, T1, and T2 calculated images could be obtained. Each image contributes unique information. SD-weighted images optimally display anatomy and often best highlight pathology. T1-weighted images are critical in assessing cerebral hemorrhages. T2-weighted images best display most lesions, but yield incomplete information in 35% of cases. All three types of ''weighted'' images are necessary to optimally display anatomy and fully characterize a lesion. Computerized calculations and simulations suggest that no other combination of pulse sequences yields equal information for a given examination time

  3. Revisiting PSS and service design in the light of the SD-logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    are only means to an end. Also, different approaches, methods and tools have been developed to design value propositions however they still lack to explicit the SDlogic principles. The design of solutions that provide value-in-use is at the centre of both Product Service System (PSS) approach and service...... comprehensive discussion about these two approaches and proposes a conceptual framework for integrating PSS organizational point of view; and SD human-centred focus to design better service.......Researchers and practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of offering value propositions to customers that enable value co-creation as discussed in the service dominant logic (SD-logic). SD-logic recognizes customers as active co-creators and posits that products and services...

  4. Physarum Boats: If Plasmodium Sailed It Would Never Leave a Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Adamatzky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is a single huge (visible by naked eye cell with a myriad of nuclei. The plasmodium is a promising substrate for non-classical, nature-inspired computing devices. It is capable of approximation of the shortest path in a maze, computation of planar proximity graphs and plane tessellations, primitive memory and decision making. The unique properties of the plasmodium make it an ideal candidate for a role of amorphous biological robots with massive parallel information processing and distributed inputs and outputs. We show that when adhered to a lightweight object resting on a water surface the plasmodium can propel the object by oscillating its protoplasmic pseudopodia. In experimental laboratory conditions and computational experiments we study phenomenology of the plasmodium-floater system, and possible mechanisms of controlling motion of objects propelled by on-board plasmodium.

  5. From novel mathematics to efficient algorithms. Do we have proper SD foundation to build future?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachov, Fyodor V. [INR RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-08-01

    Computer implementation of sophisticated algorithms for physics applications is greatly facilitated by the new generation of component-oriented SD technologies pioneered by Wirth's Oberon and embraced by the software industry (Sun's Java and Microsoft's C no.). In a stark contrast with the deeply flawed C++, the Oberon technologies (specifically, the Component Pascal and the BlackBox development environment) offer an unparalleled SD platform for building scientific applications from sophisticated data processing to demanding symbolic calculations. Specific examples are discussed. (author)

  6. Microscopic descriptions of collective SD bands in the A=190 mass region with the Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, M.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of microscopic models, we present two methods for describing superdeformed (SD) band properties. The first one is the cranked Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) method, without and with inclusion of particle number projection. The second one is the Gaussian overlap approximation to the generator coordinate method (GCM+GOA) with which we treat the five quadrupole collective coordinates. Both methods use the Gogny force. Moments of inertia and excitation energies of SD bands are calculated and compared with experimental results. (orig.). With 1 fig

  7. Nuclear structure of s-d shell nuclei: what is new?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, G.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the shape evolution of the even-even s-d shell nuclei with temperature and spin is studied using Landau theory of phase transitions. The most important thermal fluctuations are incorporated in this study. The ground state pairing is also included in the calculations. Both the summation and Strutinsky methods are used for extracting the Landau constants. Both yield qualitatively similar results. To conclude, Landau theory of phase transitions can be effectively and economically used to study the structure of excited s-d shell nuclei. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Merozoite surface protein-1 genetic diversity in Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium brasilianum from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Lilian O; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Alves, João M P; Bueno, Marina G; Röhe, Fabio; Catão-Dias, José L; Neves, Amanda; Malafronte, Rosely S; Curado, Izilda; Domingues, Wilson; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2015-11-16

    The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) gene encodes the major surface antigen of invasive forms of the Plasmodium erythrocytic stages and is considered a candidate vaccine antigen against malaria. Due to its polymorphisms, MSP1 is also useful for strain discrimination and consists of a good genetic marker. Sequence diversity in MSP1 has been analyzed in field isolates of three human parasites: P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. ovale. However, the extent of variation in another human parasite, P. malariae, remains unknown. This parasite shows widespread, uneven distribution in tropical and subtropical regions throughout South America, Asia, and Africa. Interestingly, it is genetically indistinguishable from P. brasilianum, a parasite known to infect New World monkeys in Central and South America. Specific fragments (1 to 5) covering 60 % of the MSP1 gene (mainly the putatively polymorphic regions), were amplified by PCR in isolates of P. malariae and P. brasilianum from different geographic origin and hosts. Sequencing of the PCR-amplified products or cloned PCR fragments was performed and the sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree by the maximum likelihood method. Data were computed to give insights into the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships of these parasites. Except for fragment 4, sequences from all other fragments consisted of unpublished sequences. The most polymorphic gene region was fragment 2, and in samples where this region lacks polymorphism, all other regions are also identical. The low variability of the P. malariae msp1 sequences of these isolates and the identification of the same haplotype in those collected many years apart at different locations is compatible with a low transmission rate. We also found greater diversity among P. brasilianum isolates compared with P. malariae ones. Lastly, the sequences were segregated according to their geographic origins and hosts, showing a strong genetic and geographic structure. Our data

  9. Comparative population structure of Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum under different transmission settings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molyneux Malcolm E

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Described here is the first population genetic study of Plasmodium malariae, the causative agent of quartan malaria. Although not as deadly as Plasmodium falciparum, P. malariae is more common than previously thought, and is frequently in sympatry and co-infection with P. falciparum, making its study increasingly important. This study compares the population parameters of the two species in two districts of Malawi with different malaria transmission patterns - one seasonal, one perennial - to explore the effects of transmission on population structures. Methods Six species-specific microsatellite markers were used to analyse 257 P. malariae samples and 257 P. falciparum samples matched for age, gender and village of residence. Allele sizes were scored to within 2 bp for each locus and haplotypes were constructed from dominant alleles in multiple infections. Analysis of multiplicity of infection (MOI, population differentiation, clustering of haplotypes and linkage disequilibrium was performed for both species. Regression analyses were used to determine association of MOI measurements with clinical malaria parameters. Results Multiple-genotype infections within each species were common in both districts, accounting for 86.0% of P. falciparum and 73.2% of P. malariae infections and did not differ significantly with transmission setting. Mean MOI of P. falciparum was increased under perennial transmission compared with seasonal (3.14 vs 2.59, p = 0.008 and was greater in children compared with adults. In contrast, P. malariae mean MOI was similar between transmission settings (2.12 vs 2.11 and there was no difference between children and adults. Population differentiation showed no significant differences between villages or districts for either species. There was no evidence of geographical clustering of haplotypes. Linkage disequilibrium amongst loci was found only for P. falciparum samples from the seasonal transmission

  10. The System Dynamics Model User Sustainability Explorer (SD-MUSE): a user-friendly tool for interpreting system dynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    System Dynamics (SD) models are useful for holistic integration of data to evaluate indirect and cumulative effects and inform decisions. Complex SD models can provide key insights into how decisions affect the three interconnected pillars of sustainability. However, the complexi...

  11. Molecular characterization of misidentified Plasmodium ovale imported cases in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Tan, Sarah Bee Hui; Snounou, Georges; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine

    2015-11-14

    Plasmodium ovale, considered the rarest of the malaria parasites of humans, consists of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct sympatric species, Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri. These parasites resemble morphologically to Plasmodium vivax with which they also share a tertian periodicity and the ability to cause relapses, making them easily misidentified as P. vivax. Plasmodium ovale infections are rarely reported, but given the likelihood of misidentification, their prevalence might be underestimated. Morphological and molecular analysis of confirmed malaria cases admitted in Singapore in 2012-2014 detected nine imported P. ovale cases that had been misidentified as P. vivax. Since P. ovale had not been previously officially reported in Singapore, a retrospective analysis of available, frozen, archival blood samples was performed and returned two additional misidentified P. ovale cases in 2003 and 2006. These eleven P. ovale samples were characterized with respect to seven molecular markers (ssrRNA, Potra, Porbp2, Pog3p, dhfr-ts, cytb, cox1) used in recent studies to distinguish between the two sympatric species, and to a further three genes (tufa, clpC and asl). The morphological features of P. ovale and the differential diagnosis with P. vivax were reviewed and illustrated by microphotographs. The genetic dimorphism between P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri was assessed by ten molecular markers distributed across the three genomes of the parasite (Genbank KP050361-KP050470). The data obtained for seven of these markers were compared with those published and confirmed that both P. ovale species were present. This dimorphism was also confirmed for the first time on: (1) two genes from the apicoplast genome (tufA and clpC genes); and, (2) the asl gene that was used for phylogenetic analyses of other Plasmodium species, and that was found to harbour the highest number of dimorphic loci between the two P. ovale species

  12. Construction of a system for heterologous production of carbonic anhydrase from Plasmodium falciparum in Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Gullberg, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is one of the biggest current global health problems, and with the increasing occurance of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains, there is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs. Given the important role of carbonic anhydrase in Plasmodium falciparum (PfCA), it is a potential novel drug target. Heterologous expression of malaria proteins is problematic due to the unusual codon usage of the Plasmodium genome, so to overcome this problem a synthetic PfCA gene was designed, opt...

  13. Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfano, Alessandra S; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Duarte, Ana P M; Villegas, Luis M; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Pinto, Luciana C; Campos, Keillen M M; Pinilla, Yudi T; Chaves, Bárbara; Barbosa Guerra, Maria G V; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Smith, Ryan C; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Secundino, Nágila F C; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-08-02

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected mosquito delivers Plasmodium sporozoites into a vertebrate host. There are many species of Plasmodium and, in general, the infection is host-specific. For example, Plasmodium gallinaceum is an avian parasite, while Plasmodium berghei infects mice. These two parasites have been extensively used as experimental models of malaria transmission. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most important agents of human malaria, a life-threatening disease of global importance. To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must traverse the mosquito midgut and form an oocyst that will divide continuously. Mature oocysts release thousands of sporozoites into the mosquito haemolymph that must reach the salivary gland to infect a new vertebrate host. The current understanding of the biology of oocyst formation and sporozoite release is mostly based on experimental infections with P. berghei, and the conclusions are generalized to other Plasmodium species that infect humans without further morphological analyses. Here, it is described the microanatomy of sporozoite escape from oocysts of four Plasmodium species: the two laboratory models, P. gallinaceum and P. berghei, and the two main species that cause malaria in humans, P. vivax and P. falciparum. It was found that sporozoites have species-specific mechanisms of escape from the oocyst. The two model species of Plasmodium had a common mechanism, in which the oocyst wall breaks down before sporozoites emerge. In contrast, P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites show a dynamic escape mechanism from the oocyst via polarized propulsion. This study demonstrated that Plasmodium species do not share a common mechanism of sporozoite escape, as previously thought, but show complex and species-specific mechanisms. In addition, the knowledge of this phenomenon in human Plasmodium can facilitate transmission-blocking studies and not those ones only based on the murine and avian models.

  14. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax in the Saharan zone in Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Mohamed Lemine, Yeslim Ould; Deida, Jemila Mint; Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly Ould; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Ba, Mamadou dit Dialaw; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem; Khairy, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Boubacar; Ringwald, Pascal; Basco, Leonardo K; Niang, Saidou Doro; Lebatt, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health adopted a new therapeutic strategy based on the systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine, for the first-and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively, regardless of Plasmodium spp. In the Saharan zone of the country, recent studies have shown that Plasmodium vivax largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum. Anti-malarial drug response of P. v...

  15. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos-Ciminera, Patricia D

    2005-01-01

    .... In Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, atypical cases of Plasmodium vivax infections, including patients presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding, led to the hypothesis that severe disease...

  16. Gene disruption reveals a dispensable role for plasmepsin VII in the Plasmodium berghei life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastan, Babu S; Kumari, Anchala; Gupta, Dinesh; Mishra, Satish; Kumar, Kota Arun

    2014-06-01

    Plasmepsins (PM), aspartic proteases of Plasmodium, comprises a family of ten proteins that perform critical functions in Plasmodium life cycle. Except VII and VIII, functions of the remaining plasmepsin members have been well characterized. Here, we have generated a mutant parasite lacking PM VII in Plasmodium berghei using reverse genetics approach. Systematic comparison of growth kinetics and infection in both mosquito and vertebrate host revealed that PM VII depleted mutants exhibited no defects in development and progressed normally throughout the parasite life cycle. These studies suggest a dispensable role for PM VII in Plasmodium berghei life cycle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasmodium spp. in raptors on the Eurasian-African migration route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperna, I; Yosef, R; Landau, I

    2007-12-01

    Examination of blood smears obtained from raptors trapped while on migration at Eilat, Israel, demonstrated Plasmodium infection in Accipiter brevipes and Buteo buteo. The following species are described, from A. brevipes: Plasmodium alloelongatum n. sp., P. accipiteris n. sp. and from B. buteo: P. buteonis n. sp. and Plasmodium sp. for which we lack sufficient data for adequate species description. Overall prevalence of infection with Plasmodium spp. was very low: among 38 examined A. brevipes 5% and among 56 B. buteo 3.6%.

  18. Is sdLDL a valuable screening tool for cardiovascular disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radwa Momtaz Abdelsamie Zaki Khalil

    Lipoprotein Cholesterol; LDL I, large buoyant LDL; LDL II, intermediate density LDL; LDL III, smaller dense LDL; .... triglycerides >_150 mg, high density lipoprotein (HDL) <40 mg/dl in men ... sion of phenotype B.4,12 For a given triglyceride level, women were .... that sdLDL /LDL ratio is a very strong predictor of CHD in men;.

  19. 75 FR 31464 - Certification of the Attorney General; Shannon County, SD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Certification of the Attorney General; Shannon County, SD In accordance with... within the scope of the determinations of the Attorney General and the Director of the Census made under...., Attorney General of the United States. [FR Doc. 2010-13285 Filed 6-2-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE P ...

  20. Positron annihilation and pressure-induced electronic s-d transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, A.K.; Skriver, H.L.

    1985-06-01

    The polycrystalline, partial annihilation rates for positrons in compressed cesium have been calculated using the linear muffin-tin orbitals method. These results suggest that the pressure-induced electronic s-d transition in Cs should be directly observable by momentum sensitive positron annihilation experiments

  1. 76 FR 1985 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA..., at an average labor rate of $85 per work hour. Required parts cost about $10 per product. Based on.... The average labor rate is $85 per work-hour. Based on these figures, we estimate the cost of the AD on...

  2. Semi-automatic geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; de Sisternes, Luis; Leng, Theodore; Zheng, Luoluo; Kutzscher, Lauren; Rubin, Daniel L

    2013-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a condition that is associated with retinal thinning and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. It appears in advanced stages of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and can lead to vision loss. We present a semi-automated GA segmentation algorithm for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. The method first identifies and segments a surface between the RPE and the choroid to generate retinal projection images in which the projection region is restricted to a sub-volume of the retina where the presence of GA can be identified. Subsequently, a geometric active contour model is employed to automatically detect and segment the extent of GA in the projection images. Two image data sets, consisting on 55 SD-OCT scans from twelve eyes in eight patients with GA and 56 SD-OCT scans from 56 eyes in 56 patients with GA, respectively, were utilized to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the proposed GA segmentation method. Experimental results suggest that the proposed algorithm can achieve high segmentation accuracy. The mean GA overlap ratios between our proposed method and outlines drawn in the SD-OCT scans, our method and outlines drawn in the fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF) images, and the commercial software (Carl Zeiss Meditec proprietary software, Cirrus version 6.0) and outlines drawn in FAF images were 72.60%, 65.88% and 59.83%, respectively.

  3. Context based service discovery in unmanaged networks using MDNS/DNS-SD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolikj, M.; Cuijpers, P.J.L.; Lukkien, J.J.; Buchina, N.; Bellido, F.J.; Vun, N.C.H.; Dolar, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, D.; Ling, W.-K.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the mDNS/DNS-SD service discovery protocol, which enables service clients to discover and select services based on their context. The extension improves scalability in large networks, which is of particular importance in future Internet of Things deployments.

  4. Peran modal sosial dalam implementasi konsep pemikiran Ki Hadjar Dewantara di SD Taman Muda Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukma Wijayanto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan: (1 implementasi pendidikan Ki Hadjar Dewantara; dan (2 modal sosial di SD Taman Siswa Jetis. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus. Unit analisis penelitian adalah SD Tamansiswa Jetis. Penentuan subjek dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling dengan subjek penelitian adalah pamong, kepala sekolahdan ketua yayasan Majelis Luhur Persatuan Tamansiswa cabang Jetis. Teknik pengumpulan data menggunakan observasi partisipatif, wawancara dan dokumentasi. Teknik analisis penelitian ini menggunakan model interaktif Milles & Huberman. Berdasarkan penelitian diperoleh sebagai berikut: (1 Konsep pemikiran Ki Hadjar terlaksana di SD Taman Siswa Jetis yakni sistem among tidak dapat dipisahkan prinsip kemerdekaan dan kodrat alam. Pelaksanaan sistem among dilaksanakan dengan keteladanan, pembiasaan, pengajaran, serta hukumam, paksaan dan perintah. (2 Trust, Jaringan, dan norm dalam melaksanakan konsep Ki Hadjar Dewantara menggunakan nilai-nilai kekeluargaan. Kekeluargaan modal sosial yang menjadi kekuatan dalam melaksanakan konsep pendidikan Ki Hadjar di SD Taman Siswa Jetis.Kata kunci: Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Konsep Pendidikan Ki Hadjar Dewantara, Modal Sosial

  5. EVALUASI IMPLEMENTASI TQM PADA SDN KARANGREJEK II DAN SD MUHAMMADIYAH AL MUJAHIDIN WONOSARI GUNUNGKIDUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Pramono

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui: (1 seberapa besar tingkat implementasi TQM, (2 perbandingan implementasi, (3 aspek-aspek yang perlu mendapatkan perbaikan untuk ditingkatkan. Penelitian evaluasi dengan model descrepancy. Instrumen pengumpul data berupa angket jawaban skala 2 terdiri atas 69 butir. Teknik analisis data menggunakan teknik persentase. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 implementasi TQM di SD Negeri Karangrejek II rata-rata sebesar 87,73%, aspek-aspek yang mendekati standar: mutu pembelajaran, organisasi terbalik, perubahan kultur, kolega sebagai pelanggan, profesionalisme, dan pemasaran internal. Implementasi TQM di SD Muhammadiyah Al Mujahidin rata-rata sebesar 94,42%. Aspek-aspek yang mendekati standar: organisasi terbalik, mutu pembelajaran, perubahan kultur, profesionalisme, kaizen dan menjaga hubungan dengan pelanggan. (2 Perbandingan implementasi TQM sebagai berikut: aspek mutu pembelajaran, organisasi terbalik dan perubahan kultur merupakan aspek dengan rata-rata tertinggi di SD Karangrejek II, sedangkan di SD Muhammadiyah Al Mujahidin: aspek organisasi terbalik, mutu pembelajaran, dan perubahan kultur. (3 Aspek yang perlu mendapatkan perbaikan di kedua sekolah adalah perbaikan terus-menerus.

  6. Learning from CDM SD tool experience for Article 6.4 in the Paris Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Arens, Christof; Mersmann, Florian

    2017-01-01

    The Paris Agreement (PA) emphasizes the intrinsic relationship between climate change and sustainable development (SD) and welcomes the 2030 agenda for the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Yet, there is a lack of assessment approaches to ensure that climate and development goals...

  7. Canister storage building compliance assessment SNF project NRC equivalency criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DB-003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with the SNF Project NRC Equivalency Criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DE-003, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Path Forward Additional NRC Requirements. No non-compliances are shown. The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion

  8. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Carlton, Jane M; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax.

  9. An Atlantic streamer in stratospheric ozone observations and SD-WACCM simulation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocke, Klemens; Schranz, Franziska; Maillard Barras, Eliane; Moreira, Lorena; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2017-03-01

    Observation and simulation of individual ozone streamers are important for the description and understanding of non-linear transport processes in the middle atmosphere. A sudden increase in mid-stratospheric ozone occurred above central Europe on 4 December 2015. The GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer (GROMOS) and the Stratospheric Ozone MOnitoring RAdiometer (SOMORA) in Switzerland measured an ozone enhancement of about 30 % at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from 1 to 4 December. A similar ozone increase is simulated by the Specified Dynamics Whole Atmosphere Community Climate (SD-WACCM) model. Further, the global ozone fields at 34 km altitude (8.3 hPa) from SD-WACCM and the satellite experiment Aura/MLS show a remarkable agreement for the location and timing of an ozone streamer (large-scale tongue-like structure) extending from the subtropics in northern America over the Atlantic to central Europe. This agreement indicates that SD-WACCM can inform us about the wind inside the Atlantic ozone streamer. SD-WACCM shows an eastward wind of about 100 m s-1 inside the Atlantic streamer in the mid-stratosphere. SD-WACCM shows that the Atlantic streamer flows along the edge of the polar vortex. The Atlantic streamer turns southward at an erosion region of the polar vortex located above the Caspian Sea. The spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapour indicates a filament outgoing from this erosion region. The Atlantic streamer, the polar vortex erosion region and the water vapour filament belong to the process of planetary wave breaking in the so-called surf zone of the northern midlatitude winter stratosphere.

  10. Involvement of Fenton chemistry in rice straw degradation by the lignocellulolytic bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiangshan; Zhang, Keke; Huang, Mei; Hector, Stanton B; Liu, Bin; Tong, Chunyi; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Jiarui; Gao, Yan; Xu, Ting; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhu, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    Lignocellulolytic bacteria have revealed to be a promising source for biofuel production, yet the underlying mechanisms are still worth exploring. Our previous study inferred that the highly efficient lignocellulose degradation by bacterium Pantoea ananatis Sd-1 might involve Fenton chemistry (Fe 2+  + H 2 O 2  + H +  → Fe 3+  + OH· + H 2 O), similar to that of white-rot and brown-rot fungi. The aim of this work is to investigate the existence of this Fenton-based oxidation mechanism in the rice straw degradation process of P. ananatis Sd-1. After 3 days incubation of unpretreated rice straw with P. ananatis Sd-1, the percentage in weight reduction of rice straw as well as its cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components reached 46.7, 43.1, 42.9, and 37.9 %, respectively. The addition of different hydroxyl radical scavengers resulted in a significant decline ( P  Fenton reagent treatment. In addition to the increased total iron ion concentration throughout the rice straw decomposition process, the Fe 3+ -reducing capacity of P. ananatis Sd-1 was induced by rice straw and predominantly contributed by aromatic compounds metabolites. The transcript levels of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase gene related to hydrogen peroxide production were significantly up-regulated (at least P  Fenton-like reactions. Our results confirmed the Fenton chemistry-assisted degradation model in P. ananatis Sd-1. We are among the first to show that a Fenton-based oxidation mechanism exists in a bacteria degradation system, which provides a new perspective for how natural plant biomass is decomposed by bacteria. This degradative system may offer an alternative approach to the fungi system for lignocellulosic biofuels production.

  11. Mosquito Vectors and the Globalization of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Zilversmit, Martine M; Neafsey, Daniel E; Hartl, Daniel L; Barillas-Mury, Carolina

    2016-11-23

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria remains a devastating public health problem. Recent discoveries have shed light on the origin and evolution of Plasmodium parasites and their interactions with their vertebrate and mosquito hosts. P. falciparum malaria originated in Africa from a single horizontal transfer between an infected gorilla and a human, and became global as the result of human migration. Today, P. falciparum malaria is transmitted worldwide by more than 70 different anopheline mosquito species. Recent studies indicate that the mosquito immune system can be a barrier to malaria transmission and that the P. falciparum Pfs47 gene allows the parasite to evade mosquito immune detection. Here, we review the origin and globalization of P. falciparum and integrate this history with analysis of the biology, evolution, and dispersal of the main mosquito vectors. This new perspective broadens our understanding of P. falciparum population structure and the dispersal of important parasite genetic traits.

  12. Host AMPK Is a Modulator of Plasmodium Liver Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida T. Grilo Ruivo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of the master regulator of energy homeostasis AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity is a strategy used by many intracellular pathogens for successful replication. Infection by most pathogens leads to an activation of host AMPK activity due to the energetic demands placed on the infected cell. Here, we demonstrate that the opposite is observed in cells infected with rodent malaria parasites. Indeed, AMPK activity upon the infection of hepatic cells is suppressed and dispensable for successful infection. By contrast, an overactive AMPK is deleterious to intracellular growth and replication of different Plasmodium spp., including the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. The negative impact of host AMPK activity on infection was further confirmed in mice under conditions that activate its function. Overall, this work establishes the role of host AMPK signaling as a suppressive pathway of Plasmodium hepatic infection and as a potential target for host-based antimalarial interventions.

  13. RIFINs are adhesins implicated in severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goel, Suchi; Palmkvist, Mia; Moll, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum–encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs—preferentiall......Rosetting is a virulent Plasmodium falciparum phenomenon associated with severe malaria. Here we demonstrate that P. falciparum–encoded repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) are expressed on the surface of infected red blood cells (iRBCs), where they bind to RBCs......—preferentially of blood group A—to form large rosettes and mediate microvascular binding of iRBCs. We suggest that RIFINs have a fundamental role in the development of severe malaria and thereby contribute to the varying global distribution of ABO blood groups in the human population....

  14. Evolution of Resistance to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Gatton, Michelle L.; Martin, Laura B; Cheng, Qin

    2004-01-01

    The development of resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine by Plasmodium parasites is a major problem for the effective treatment of malaria, especially P. falciparum malaria. Although the molecular basis for parasite resistance is known, the factors promoting the development and transmission of these resistant parasites are less clear. This paper reports the results of a quantitative comparison of factors previously hypothesized as important for the development of drug resistance, drug dosag...

  15. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, MEM; Christophides; Linenberg, Inbar

    2016-01-01

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii . We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clar...

  16. Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, Philip J; Cunningham, Deirdre; Jarra, William; Lawton, Jennifer; Langhorne, Jean; Thompson, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi shares many features with human malaria species, including P. falciparum, and is the in vivo model of choice for many aspects of malaria research in the mammalian host, from sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, to antigenic variation and host immunity and immunopathology. this protocol describes an optimized method for the transformation of mature blood-stage P.c. chabaudi and a description of a vector that targets efficient, sing...

  17. [Morphology, biology and life-cycle of Plasmodium parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Laveran first discovered that an infectious agent was responsible for malaria by using a simple microscope, without the assistance of specific stains. Our knowledge of the Plasmodium life cycle and cellular biology has progressed with each technological advance, from Romanovsky staining and histology to electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, molecular methods and modern imaging techniques. The use of bird, primate and rodent models also made a major contribution, notably in the development of antimalarial drugs that are still in use today.

  18. In vitro adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum reveal variations in cultivability

    OpenAIRE

    White, John; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Pereira, Ligia; Dash, Rashmi; Walke, Jayashri T.; Gawas, Pooja; Sharma, Ambika; Manoharan, Suresh Kumar; Guler, Jennifer L.; Maki, Jennifer N.; Kumar, Ashwani; Mahanta, Jagadish; Valecha, Neena; Dubhashi, Nagesh; Vaz, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background Culture-adapted Plasmodium falciparum parasites can offer deeper understanding of geographic variations in drug resistance, pathogenesis and immune evasion. To help ground population-based calculations and inferences from culture-adapted parasites, the complete range of parasites from a study area must be well represented in any collection. To this end, standardized adaptation methods and determinants of successful in vitro adaption were sought. Methods Venous blood was collected f...

  19. Serological evidence of discrete spatial clusters of Plasmodium falciparum parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejon, Philip; Turner, Louise; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Malaria transmission may be considered to be homogenous with well-mixed parasite populations (as in the classic Ross/Macdonald models). Marked fine-scale heterogeneity of transmission has been observed in the field (i.e., over a few kilometres), but there are relatively few data on the degree...... of mixing. Since the Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) is highly polymorphic, the host's serological responses may be used to infer exposure to parasite sub-populations....

  20. Plasmodium falciparum uses vitamin E to avoid oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sussmann, Rodrigo A. C.; Fotoran, Wesley L.; Kimura, Emilia A.; Katzin, Alejandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum is sensitive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, and many drugs such as artemisinin, chloroquine and cercosporin interfere in the parasite’s redox system. To minimize the damage caused by reactive radicals, antioxidant enzymes and their substrates found in parasites and in erythrocytes must be functionally active. It was shown that P. falciparum synthesizes vitamin E and that usnic acid acts as an inhibitor of its biosynthesis. Vitamin E is a potent anti...

  1. Interleukin-10 regulates hepcidin in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Honglei

    2014-02-10

    Background: Acute malarial anemia remains a major public health problem. Hepcidin, the major hormone controlling the availability of iron, is raised during acute and asymptomatic parasitemia. Understanding the role and mechanism of raised hepcidin and so reduced iron availability during infection is critical to establish evidence-based guidelines for management of malaria anemia. Our recent clinical evidence suggests a potential role of IL-10 in the regulation of hepcidin in patients with acute P. falciparum malaria. Methods: We have measured secretion of hepcidin by primary macrophages and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 stimulated with IL-10, IL-6 and Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Findings: We have observed that IL-10 and IL-6 production increased in primary macrophages when these cells were co-cultured with Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes. We found that IL-10 induced hepcidin secretion in primary macrophages in a dose-dependent manner but not in HepG2 cells. These effects were mediated through signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3-phosphorylation and completely abrogated by a specific STAT3 inhibitor. Conclusion: IL-10 can directly regulate hepcidin in primary macrophages but not in HepG2 cells. This effect can be modulated by Plasmodium falciparum. The results are consistent with a role for IL-10 in modulating iron metabolism during acute phase of infection. 2014 Huang et al.

  2. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  3. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Case W.; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; McCormack, Susan L.; Manary, Micah J.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J.; Kumar, T. R. Santha; Henrich, Philipp P.; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M.; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Glynne, Richard J.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A.; Diagana, Thierry T.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2013-12-01

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  4. Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Patricia M; Gelband, Hellen; Garner, Paul

    2012-09-12

    Mosquitoes become infected with malaria when they ingest gametocyte stages of the parasite from the blood of a human host. Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes are sensitive to the drug primaquine (PQ). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends giving a single dose or short course of PQ alongside primary treatment for people ill with P. falciparum infection to reduce malaria transmission. Gametocytes themselves cause no symptoms, so this intervention does not directly benefit individuals. PQ causes haemolysis in some people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency so may not be safe.   To assess whether a single dose or short course of PQ added to treatments for malaria caused by P. falciparum infection reduces malaria transmission and is safe. We searched the following databases up to 10 April 2012 for studies: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in The Cochrane Library; MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) and the WHO trials search portal using 'malaria*', 'falciparum', and 'primaquine' as search terms. In addition, we searched conference proceedings and reference lists of included studies, and we contacted likely researchers and organizations for relevant trials. Trials of mass treatment of whole populations (or actively detected fever or malaria cases within such populations) with antimalarial drugs, compared to treatment with the same drug plus PQ; or patients with clinical malaria being treated for malaria at health facilities randomized to short course/single dose PQ versus no PQ. Two authors (PMG and HG) independently screened all abstracts, applied inclusion criteria, and abstracted data. We sought data on the effect of PQ on malaria transmission intensity, participant infectiousness, the number of participants with gametocytes, and gametocyte density over time. We stratified results by primary treatment drug as

  5. Close relationship of Plasmodium sequences detected from South American pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus to Plasmodium spp. in North American white-tailed deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Asada

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We report, for the first time, the presence of ungulate malaria parasites in South America. We conducted PCR-based surveys of blood samples of multiple deer species and water buffalo from Brazil and detected Plasmodium sequences from pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus samples. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the obtained sequences are closely related to the Plasmodium odocoilei clade 2 sequence from North American white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. Nucleotide differences suggest that malaria parasites in South American pampas deer and North American P. odocoilei clade 2 branched more recently than the Great American Interchange. Keywords: Malaria, Pampas deer, South America, Plasmodium odocoilei, Brazil

  6. Plasmodium falciparum ookinete expression of plasmepsin VII and plasmepsin X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengwu; Bounkeua, Viengngeun; Pettersen, Kenneth; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-02-24

    Plasmodium invasion of the mosquito midgut is a population bottleneck in the parasite lifecycle. Interference with molecular mechanisms by which the ookinete invades the mosquito midgut is one potential approach to developing malaria transmission-blocking strategies. Plasmodium aspartic proteases are one such class of potential targets: plasmepsin IV (known to be present in the asexual stage food vacuole) was previously shown to be involved in Plasmodium gallinaceum infection of the mosquito midgut, and plasmepsins VII and plasmepsin X (not known to be present in the asexual stage food vacuole) are upregulated in Plasmodium falciparum mosquito stages. These (and other) parasite-derived enzymes that play essential roles during ookinete midgut invasion are prime candidates for transmission-blocking vaccines. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used to determine timing of P. falciparum plasmepsin VII (PfPM VII) and plasmepsin X (PfPM X) mRNA transcripts in parasite mosquito midgut stages. Protein expression was confirmed by western immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays (IFA) using anti-peptide monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against immunogenic regions of PfPM VII and PfPM X. These antibodies were also used in standard membrane feeding assays (SMFA) to determine whether inhibition of these proteases would affect parasite transmission to mosquitoes. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyse mosquito transmission assay results. RT-PCR, western immunoblot and immunofluorescence assay confirmed expression of PfPM VII and PfPM X in mosquito stages. Whereas PfPM VII was expressed in zygotes and ookinetes, PfPM X was expressed in gametes, zygotes, and ookinetes. Antibodies against PfPM VII and PfPM X decreased P. falciparum invasion of the mosquito midgut when used at high concentrations, indicating that these proteases play a role in Plasmodium mosquito midgut invasion. Failure to generate genetic knockouts of these genes limited determination of the precise role of

  7. A bioinformatic survey of RNA-binding proteins in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, B P Niranjan; Shrestha, Sony; Hart, Kevin J; Liang, Xiaoying; Kemirembe, Karen; Cui, Liwang; Lindner, Scott E

    2015-11-02

    The malaria parasites in the genus Plasmodium have a very complicated life cycle involving an invertebrate vector and a vertebrate host. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are critical factors involved in every aspect of the development of these parasites. However, very few RBPs have been functionally characterized to date in the human parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Using different bioinformatic methods and tools we searched P. falciparum genome to list and annotate RBPs. A representative 3D models for each of the RBD domain identified in P. falciparum was created using I-TESSAR and SWISS-MODEL. Microarray and RNAseq data analysis pertaining PfRBPs was performed using MeV software. Finally, Cytoscape was used to create protein-protein interaction network for CITH-Dozi and Caf1-CCR4-Not complexes. We report the identification of 189 putative RBP genes belonging to 13 different families in Plasmodium, which comprise 3.5% of all annotated genes. Almost 90% (169/189) of these genes belong to six prominent RBP classes, namely RNA recognition motifs, DEAD/H-box RNA helicases, K homology, Zinc finger, Puf and Alba gene families. Interestingly, almost all of the identified RNA-binding helicases and KH genes have cognate homologs in model species, suggesting their evolutionary conservation. Exploration of the existing P. falciparum blood-stage transcriptomes revealed that most RBPs have peak mRNA expression levels early during the intraerythrocytic development cycle, which taper off in later stages. Nearly 27% of RBPs have elevated expression in gametocytes, while 47 and 24% have elevated mRNA expression in ookinete and asexual stages. Comparative interactome analyses using human and Plasmodium protein-protein interaction datasets suggest extensive conservation of the PfCITH/PfDOZI and PfCaf1-CCR4-NOT complexes. The Plasmodium parasites possess a large number of putative RBPs belonging to most of RBP families identified so far, suggesting the presence of extensive post

  8. Computational identification of signalling pathways in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyelade, Jelili; Ewejobi, Itunu; Brors, Benedikt; Eils, Roland; Adebiyi, Ezekiel

    2011-06-01

    Malaria is one of the world's most common and serious diseases causing death of about 3 million people each year. Its most severe occurrence is caused by the protozoan Plasmodium falciparum. Reports have shown that the resistance of the parasite to existing drugs is increasing. Therefore, there is a huge and urgent need to discover and validate new drug or vaccine targets to enable the development of new treatments for malaria. The ability to discover these drug or vaccine targets can only be enhanced from our deep understanding of the detailed biology of the parasite, for example how cells function and how proteins organize into modules such as metabolic, regulatory and signal transduction pathways. It has been noted that the knowledge of signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium is fundamental to aid the design of new strategies against malaria. This work uses a linear-time algorithm for finding paths in a network under modified biologically motivated constraints. We predicted several important signalling transduction pathways in Plasmodium falciparum. We have predicted a viable signalling pathway characterized in terms of the genes responsible that may be the PfPKB pathway recently elucidated in Plasmodium falciparum. We obtained from the FIKK family, a signal transduction pathway that ends up on a chloroquine resistance marker protein, which indicates that interference with FIKK proteins might reverse Plasmodium falciparum from resistant to sensitive phenotype. We also proposed a hypothesis that showed the FIKK proteins in this pathway as enabling the resistance parasite to have a mechanism for releasing chloroquine (via an efflux process). Furthermore, we also predicted a signalling pathway that may have been responsible for signalling the start of the invasion process of Red Blood Cell (RBC) by the merozoites. It has been noted that the understanding of this pathway will give insight into the parasite virulence and will facilitate rational vaccine design

  9. The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Lai, Shengjie; Zheng, Canjun; Zhang, Honglong; Zhou, Sheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Weizhong; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Zhongjie

    2014-11-03

    In China, the national malaria elimination programme has been operating since 2010. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological changes in patterns of malaria in China from intensified control to elimination stages. Data on nationwide malaria cases from 2004 to 2012 were extracted from the Chinese national malaria surveillance system. The secular trend, gender and age features, seasonality, and spatial distribution by Plasmodium species were analysed. In total, 238,443 malaria cases were reported, and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum increased drastically from population. The areas affected by Plasmodium vivax malaria shrunk, while areas affected by P. falciparum malaria expanded from 294 counties in 2004 to 600 counties in 2012. This study demonstrated that malaria has decreased dramatically in the last five years, especially since the Chinese government launched a malaria elimination programme in 2010, and areas with reported falciparum malaria cases have expanded over recent years. These findings suggest that elimination efforts should be improved to meet these changes, so as to achieve the nationwide malaria elimination goal in China in 2020.

  10. Molecular Detection of Plasmodium malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum in Non-Human Primates in Captivity in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramírez, Alicia; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Castro, Ruth; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Dolz, Gaby

    2017-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two blood samples of non-human primates of thirteen rescue centers in Costa Rica were analyzed to determine the presence of species of Plasmodium using thick blood smears, semi-nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SnM-PCR) for species differentiation, cloning and sequencing for confirmation. Using thick blood smears, two samples were determined to contain the Plasmodium malariae parasite, with SnM-PCR, a total of five (3.3%) samples were positive to P. malariae, cloning and sequencing confirmed both smear samples as P. malariae. One sample amplified a larger and conserved region of 18S rDNA for the genus Plasmodium and sequencing confirmed the results obtained microscopically and through SnM-PCR tests. Sequencing and construction of a phylogenetic tree of this sample revealed that the P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite (GenBank KU999995) found in a howler monkey (Alouatta palliata) is identical to that recently reported in humans in Costa Rica. The SnM-PCR detected P. malariae/P. brasilianum parasite in different non-human primate species in captivity and in various regions of the southern Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The similarity of the sequences of parasites found in humans and a monkey suggests that monkeys may be acting as reservoirs of P.malariae/P. brasilianum, for which reason it is important, to include them in control and eradication programs.

  11. Critical current oscillations in S/F heterostructures in the presence of s-d scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedyayev, A.V.; Ryzhanova, N.V.; Pugach, N.G.

    2006-01-01

    Josephson current is investigated in the superconductor/ferromagnet/superconductor junction. It was shown that the current exhibited damping oscillations as a function of the ferromagnetic layer thickness. Previous theories based on Usadel or Eilenberger equations have predicted that the damping length and oscillation period divided by 2π were the same for weak ferromagnetic spacer. This contradicts past experiments. A new calculation of the Josephson current is proposed. The Gorkov equations are solved taking into account s-d scattering in ferromagnet. It is shown that the oscillation period depends only on the exchange magnetic field in the spacer, whereas the damping length is connected to the ferromagnetic mean free path. The concordance with the former experiment allows one to conclude that s-d scattering as a pair-breaking mechanism plays a significant role in the proximity effect in S/F heterostructures

  12. Somatoform abdominal pain in surgery: is SD worthy of surgical attention? Case reports and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abd Elwahab, Sami Medani

    2012-08-01

    Somatoform disorders (SD) or medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are a group of disorders that represent a group of symptoms that cannot be explained by an organic or physical pathology. These disorders are widely prevalent, and, if unrecognised, SD may lead medical professionals to embark on tests or procedures which may inflict unnecessary iatrogenic complications. Despite the high prevalence, they are only poorly included in medical training curricula, at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. In this article, we review the literature and present two cases. The first one presented with a recurrent acute abdomen had an unnecessary CT abdomen. The second case had laparoscopy for acute right-sided abdominal pain which turned out to be normal, and was readmitted again after a short period with acute urine retention which resolved spontaneously following discussion with the patient and family. Both cases were referred for psychiatric assessment and their family doctors were informed.

  13. Complex dynamics of an archetypal self-excited SD oscillator driven by moving belt friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi-Xin; Cao Qing-Jie; Alain, Léger

    2016-01-01

    We propose an archetypal self-excited system driven by moving belt friction, which is constructed with the smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator proposed by the Cao et al. and the classical moving belt. The moving belt friction is modeled as the Coulomb friction to formulate the mathematical model of the proposed self-excited SD oscillator. The equilibrium states of the unperturbed system are obtained to show the complex equilibrium bifurcations. Phase portraits are depicted to present the hyperbolic structure transition, the multiple stick regions, and the friction-induced asymmetry phenomena. The numerical simulations are carried out to demonstrate the friction-induced vibration of multiple stick-slip phenomena and the stick-slip chaos in the perturbed self-excited system. The results presented here provide an opportunity for us to get insight into the mechanism of the complex friction-induced nonlinear dynamics in mechanical engineering and geography. (paper)

  14. Pengembangan Instrumen Penilaian Mapel Sains melalui Pendekatan Keterampilan Proses Sains SD/MI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Arif

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penulisan artikel ini bertujuan untuk memberikan format pengembangan intrumen penilaian keterampilan proses sains SD yang masih menjadi problematika untuk menentukan pengembangan instrumen. Di samping itu, artikel ini ditulis untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan beberpa prosedur pelaksanaan penilaian proses sains SD dengan memberikan format pengembangan instrumen penialaian proses sains yang meliputi penyusunan rencana penelitian, penyusunan kisi-kisi, pembuatan soal sampai pada penganalisian butir soal. Konsep dasar penilaian yang perlu ditekankan adalah keefektivan instrumen penilaian, yang terdiri dari tiga unsur utama yakni valid (validity, reliabel (reliability, dan praktis (practicality. Berdasarkan tujuan dan perbedaan waktu pelaksanaanya, terdapat tiga jenis bentuk penilaian proses sains pada siswa Sekolah Dasar: Penilaian Diagnostik, Penilaian formatif dan Penilaian sumatif. Tes akan dianalisis secara kualitatif baik dari segi materi, konstruksi maupun bahasa. Analisis secara kuantitatif dengan pendekatan teori tes klasik yakni dengan Iteman dan analisis secara kuantitatif menggunakan pendekatan teori tes modern yakni program Bigstep.

  15. PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM PERILAKU HIDUP BERSIH DAN SEHAT (PUBS DI SD NEGERI 001 TANJUNG BALAI KARIMUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fivi Melva Diana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Laporan Tahunan Tahun 2011 Dinas kesehatan Kabupaten Karimun, sekolah yang telah melaksanakan PHBS hanya 22,5% dengan target 65% sedangkan target nasional intitusi pendidikan yang melaksanakanPHBS adalah 70% ditahun 2014. Rendahnya cakupan ini berdampak juga terhadap tingginya angka kesakitan yang berhubungan dengan penyakit yang berorientasi lingkungan dan perilaku. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui hubungan sikap, pengetahuan dan peran guru dengan pelaksanaan PHBS di SD negeri 001 Tanjung Balai Karimun Tahun 2013. Desain Crossectional Study, populasi adalah seluruh murid kelas IV, V dan IV, sedangkan sampel sebanyak 64 orang dan dibagi secara proporsionaluntuk masing-masingkelas. Data dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner, diolah dengan uji Chi-square. Darihasil uji statistik terdapat hubunganbermakna antara pengetahuan, dan peran guru dengan pelaksanan program PHBS pada anak sekolah di SD Negeri 001 Tanjung Balai Karimun Tahun 2013 (p>0,05.Disarankan untuk meningkatan pengetahuan melalui pelatihan, penyuluhan dan memperbanyak mediapromosi seperti poster, leaflet dll.

  16. Spectral analysis of the He-enriched sdO-star HD 127493

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, Matti; Latour, Marilyn; Heber, Ulrich

    2018-02-01

    The bright sdO star HD127493 is known to be of mixed H/He composition and excellent archival spectra covering both optical and ultraviolet ranges are available. UV spectra play a key role as they give access to many chemical species that do not show spectral lines in the optical, such as iron and nickel. This encouraged the quantitative spectral analysis of this prototypical mixed H/He composition sdO star. We determined atmospheric parameters for HD127493 in addition to the abundance of C, N, O, Si, S, Fe, and Ni in the atmosphere using non-LTE model atmospheres calculated with TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. A comparison between the parallax distance measured by Hipparcos and the derived spectroscopic distance indicate that the derived atmospheric parameters are realistic. From our metal abundance analysis, we find a strong CNO signature and enrichment in iron and nickel.

  17. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  18. Gene Profiling in Late Blight Resistance in Potato Genotype SD20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Late blight caused by the oomycete fungus Phytophthora infestans (Pi is the most serious obstacle to potato (Solanum tuberosum production in the world. A super race isolate, CN152, which was identified from Sichuan Province, China, could overcome nearly all known late blight resistance genes and caused serious damage in China. The potato genotype SD20 was verified to be highly resistant to CN152; however, the molecular regulation network underlying late blight resistance pathway remains unclear in SD20. Here, we performed a time-course experiment to systematically profile the late blight resistance response genes using RNA-sequencing in SD20. We identified 3354 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, which mainly encoded transcription factors and protein kinases, and also included four NBS-LRR genes. The late blight responsive genes showed time-point-specific induction/repression. Multi-signaling pathways of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways involved in resistance and defense against Pi in SD20. Gene Ontology and KEGG analyses indicated that the DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic process, protein serine/threonine kinase activity, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. Forty-three DEGs were involved in immune response, of which 19 were enriched in hypersensitive response reaction, which could play an important role in broad-spectrum resistance to Pi infection. Experimental verification confirmed the induced expression of the responsive genes in the late blight resistance signaling pathway, such as WRKY, ERF, MAPK, and NBS-LRR family genes. Our results provided valuable information for understanding late blight resistance mechanism of potato.

  19. Inversion for Eigenvalues and Modes Using Sierra-SD and ROL.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aquino, Wilkins [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ridzal, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kouri, Drew Philip [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In this report we formulate eigenvalue-based methods for model calibration using a PDE-constrained optimization framework. We derive the abstract optimization operators from first principles and implement these methods using Sierra-SD and the Rapid Optimization Library (ROL). To demon- strate this approach, we use experimental measurements and an inverse solution to compute the joint and elastic foam properties of a low-fidelity unit (LFU) model.

  20. Semi-automatic geographic atrophy segmentation for SD-OCT images

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qiang; de Sisternes, Luis; Leng, Theodore; Zheng, Luoluo; Kutzscher, Lauren; Rubin, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic atrophy (GA) is a condition that is associated with retinal thinning and loss of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer. It appears in advanced stages of non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and can lead to vision loss. We present a semi-automated GA segmentation algorithm for spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. The method first identifies and segments a surface between the RPE and the choroid to generate retinal projection images in wh...

  1. The threshold anomaly in the interaction of s-d shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilwes, B.

    1990-01-01

    The energy dependence of the potential near the Coulomb barrier is studied by precise measurements of elastic scattering and quasi elastic reactions between s-d shell nuclei. The analyses with semi-microscopic (M3Y-folding model) and microscopic (closure approximation model) potentials allow us to demonstrate the generality of the threshold anomaly and the ability of these models to well reproduce the experimental data

  2. PERAN ORANG TUA TERADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR SISWA SD AL-FURQAN JEMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan Rofi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study : (1 to know how far parents’ role student learning achievement at Al-furqan Jember, (2 how to correlation between parent of student and school at SD Al-Furqan Jember. This study was done at SD Al-Furqan Jember, by using qualitative approach. Data collecting technique was done by : (1 deep interview, (2 documentation. While checking up data validity was done by cross check with triangulation technique and colleagues discussion. Data analysis was done by (1 data reduction, (2 data presentation, (3 withdrawal of conclusion. From data analysis was found that parent has so central to student learning achievement, because education in school is still not enough increase student learning achievement. With the parents’ role so not just teacher wo strive to increase student learning achievement however parent does advising to their child by join the course. While relation between student old fellow with school intertwin intensive communications with meeting of pupil sponsor mothers in majelis ta’lim that conducted by institution of Al-Furqan Jember. From all data and the result of research finding is found that parents’ role is so necessary to student learning achievement of SD Al-Furqan Jember and relation among student old fellow with school is very good and communicative. As for researcher suggestion is school have to be more improve role of old fellow to student learning process, in order to student achievement progressively mount.       Key word : Parent, learning achievement

  3. IMPLEMENTASI KEPEMIMPINAN TRANSFORMASIONAL KEPALA SEKOLAH DALAM MENINGKATKAN MUTU SEKOLAH DI SD KANISIUS SENGKAN KABUPATEN SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tukiman Tukiman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan implementasi kepemimpinan transformasional kepala sekolah dalam meningkatkan mutu sekolah SD Kanisius Sengkan, Kabupaten Sleman. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian studi kasus. Pengumpulan data menggunakan metode kajian dokumen, observasi, dan wawancara. Analisis data menggunakan analisis model interaktif dari Miles dan Huberman yang meliputi empat tahap analisis yaitu: pengumpulan data, reduksi data, penyajian data, dan penarikan kesimpulan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kepemimpinan transformasional kepala sekolah SD Kanisius Sengkan mampu menciptakan perubahan dan membawa SD Kanisius mencapai prestasi yang baik. Kepala sekolah menjadi tokoh panutan yang dihormati, dihargai, dan dipercaya. Kepala sekolah mampu membangun semangat kebersamaan dan kedisiplinan serta memotivasi para guru dan karyawan untuk bekerja secara optimal. Kepala sekolah berani melakukan perubahan melalui tindakan-tindakan yang kreatif dan inovatif. Akhirnya kepala sekolah mampu membangun kesadaran berorganisasi pada para guru dan karyawan dengan mengembangkan sikap rasa memiliki dan rasa bertanggung jawab untuk meraih prestasi setinggi-tingginya.Kata kunci: kepala sekolah, kepemimpian transformasional, mutu sekolah.

  4. Fragmentation of stretched spin strength in N=Z sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.A.; Bloom, S.D.; Petrovich, F.; Philpott, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to explore the effect of configuration mixing in a large basis on the fragmentation of ''stretched'' M6 strength in the sd-shell nuclei 20 Ne, 24 Mg, 28 Si, 32 S, and 36 Ar. This work elaborates on results for 28 Si given previously, extends those calculations to neighboring N=Z nuclei with the same basis restriction (one particle in the 1f 7/2 orbit and up to four particles in the 1d 3/2 orbit) used in that earlier paper, and examines all self-conjugate sd-shell nuclei in a basis with one particle in the 1f 7/2 orbit and unrestricted occupancy of the sd-shell orbits. It is found that configuration mixing in a large basis reproduces interesting features of the spectrum for 28 Si and 32 S and gives an improved description of other properties of the observed 6 - states, but fails to describe the observed spectrum in 24 Mg. Emphasis is placed on the location of additional observable fragments of the M6 response

  5. Importance of prumycin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SD-32 in biocontrol against cucumber powdery mildew disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Keijitsu; Fukuda, Mutsumi; Amaki, Yusuke; Sakaguchi, Takatoshi; Inai, Koji; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2017-12-01

    Powdery mildew disease of cucurbits is caused mainly by Podosphaera fusca, which is one of the most important limiting factors in cucurbit production worldwide. Previously we reported that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strain SD-32 produces C 17 bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin, and that these metabolites play important roles in SD-32's biocontrol over cucumber gray mold disease. Our further investigation demonstrated that the culture broth and its supernatant suppressed cucumber powdery mildew disease in greenhouse experiments. However, the active principle(s) remained unknown. The active compound was isolated from the culture supernatant after anti-powdery mildew disease activity-guided purification and identified as prumycin. Prumycin significantly suppressed the disease, whereas bacillomycin D and [Ile 2002]surfactin did not. Prumycin did not induce the expression of plant defense genes (PR1a and VSP1), suggesting that it does not act via plant defense response. Light microscopic observations of prumycin-treated cucumber cotyledon suggested that prumycin inhibits the conidial germination of P. fusca. This study demonstrates that prumycin is a major factor in SD-32's suppression of cucumber powdery mildew disease. Our findings shed light for the first time on prumycin's role in biocontrol by Bacillus against this disease. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. The Traffic Signal Acquisition System Based on GPS and SD Card Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chang-yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the issues where traffic lights’ positions and traffic status information cannot be managed automatically,in this system,STC12C5A60S2 microcontroller can be used as the master chip in conjunction with the GPS position module,Neo-5Q. The wireless transceiver module,PT2262 /2272 and the portable installing SD card are used to design a new type of real-time information acquisition solution for positions of traffic lights and signal status. And the system can determine the traffic lights’ positions and the process of lighting in a real time. Then the data will be stored in SD card by the SD card module. Furthermore,the equipment can be implemented on existing facilities with a simple circuit. According to the result of experiments,the system contains a convenient storage,works in a real time and it is also advisable to help with the data reading and analysis. Thus, implementation of the system is of great significance to acquire and analyze the traffic status information in recent times.

  7. Multimodal segmentation of optic disc and cup from stereo fundus and SD-OCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Lee, Kyungmoo; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Kwon, Young H.; Garvin, Mona K.

    2013-03-01

    Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness worldwide. One important structural parameter for the diagnosis and management of glaucoma is the cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), which tends to become larger as glaucoma progresses. While approaches exist for segmenting the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs, and more recently, within spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, no approaches have been reported for the simultaneous segmentation of these structures within both modalities combined. In this work, a multimodal pixel-classification approach for the segmentation of the optic disc and cup within fundus photographs and SD-OCT volumes is presented. In particular, after segmentation of other important structures (such as the retinal layers and retinal blood vessels) and fundus-to-SD-OCT image registration, features are extracted from both modalities and a k-nearest-neighbor classification approach is used to classify each pixel as cup, rim, or background. The approach is evaluated on 70 multimodal image pairs from 35 subjects in a leave-10%-out fashion (by subject). A significant improvement in classification accuracy is obtained using the multimodal approach over that obtained from the corresponding unimodal approach (97.8% versus 95.2%; p < 0:05; paired t-test).

  8. PENTINGNYA PENDIDIKAN ANTI KEKERASAN BAGI ANAK SD DALAM MEWUJUDKAN WARGA NEGARA YANG BAIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit dk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kekerasan  yang terjadi di Indonesia dari hari ke sehari angkanya semakin meningkat, kekerasan itu terjadi terhadap perempuan, anak-anak,  dan kekerasan  biasanya  lebih  banyak dalam rumah tangga (KDRT. Data yang dilansir Komnas Perempuan paska diundangkan UU-PKDRT tahun 2004 menunjukkan angka yang sangat memprihatinkan. Oleh karena itu masalah  kekerasan terhadap istri (KTI  tahun 2004 mencapai 1.782 kasus, sedang tahun 2005 terdapat 4.889 kasus, dan tahun 2007  mencapai 17.772 kasus  dan angka tersebut cenderung meningkat (Kedaulatan Rakyat 29 Nov. 2008; 1. Dalam peringatan 16 hari anti kekerasan terhadap perempuan yang dimulai tanggal 25 November 2008 sampai dengan 10 Desember 2008, hari AIDS 1 Desember dan hari Hak Azasi Manusia (HAM  jatuh  pada tanggal 10 Desember masih terdapat kekerasan masif,  dan agaknya bangsa ini perlu meratifikasi kembali pelbagai kekerasan yang terjadi di Indonesia. Kekerasan virtual juga disuguhkan di layar TV melalui film anak-anak seperti Naruto, Avatar dan media elektronika melalui komputer, geme onliene dan tersosialisasi pada anak-anak SD (Sekolah Dasar.  Akibatnya anak-anak SD akrab dengan kekerasan dan mengimplementasikan dalam bentuk perilaku yang distruktif. Melalui Pendidikan anti kekerasan diharapkan dapat memberikan secercah harapan agar generasi muda khususnya anak SD menjadi warga negara yang baik, cinta damai mengasihi sesama mengabdikan diri pada anti kekerasan.   Kata Kunci: Pendididikan, Kekerasan, Sekolah Dasar.

  9. PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ILUSTRASI POP-UP SEJARAH DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS DI SD NEGERI BATURSARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulita Dewi Purmintasari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: (1to know the process of learning social science in SD Negeri Batursari, (2 to know the use of illustration pop-up media in relieve the teacher to foster student‟s understanding toward the social science subject. This study was conducted in SD Negeri Batursari by using qualitative research strategies. The technique in collecting data were interview, direct observation, questionnaires and research document. The data validated by using triangulation researcher, theoretical and methodological. The technique using data collection, data reduction, and data presentation and conclusion/ verification. The result showed that fourth and rade students SD Negeri Batursari very anthusiastic in participating learning social science, students were formed into small groups and students talk to each other discussing visula messages in pop-up media. Illustration pop-up media is very helpful the teacher inleraning social science, it can be seen when students most easily to understand the material by looking at the illustration in the material. The syudents helped with the media as if the were in the illustration. Keywords: Pop-Up Media, Social Science Learning

  10. Penerapan Model Pembelajaran TPS Untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar IPA Siswa Kelas V SD No 1 Mengwitani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I W Daniel Winantara

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui peningkatan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD No. 1 Mengwitani setelah diterapkannya model pembelajaran think pair share (TPS. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian tindakan kelas yang dilakukan dalam dua siklus. Subjek dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas V yang berjumlah 32 orang. Data penelitian ini tentang hasil belajar yang dikumpulkan dengan menggunakan metode tes. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan statistik kuantitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan terhadap hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD No. 1 Mengwitani. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan hasil penelitian yang diperoleh yaitu persentase rata-rata hasil belajar pada siklus I sebesar 75,31% yang berada pada kategori sedang dan pada siklus II menjadi 80,15% yang berada pada kategori tinggi. Dengan ketuntasan belajar siswa pada siklus I sebesar 65,62% dan pada siklus II mencapai 87,5%. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian tersebut dapat disimpulkan penerapan model pembelajaran think pair share dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar IPA siswa kelas V SD No. 1 Mengwitani.

  11. New approach for high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gego, A.; Silvie, O.; Franetich, J.F.; Farhati, K.; Hannoun, L.; Luty, A.J.F.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Boucheix, C.; Rubinstein, E.; Mazier, D.

    2006-01-01

    Plasmodium liver stages represent potential targets for antimalarial prophylactic drugs. Nevertheless, there is a lack of molecules active on these stages. We have now developed a new approach for the high-throughput screening of drug activity on Plasmodium liver stages in vitro, based on an

  12. Ultra-Widefield Steering-Based SD-OCT Imaging of the Retinal Periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Netan; Golding, John; Manry, Matthew W.; Rao, Rajesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features of peripheral retinal findings using an ultra-widefield (UWF) steering technique to image the retinal periphery. Design Observational study. Participants 68 patients (68 eyes) with 19 peripheral retinal features. Main Outcome Measures SD-OCT-based structural features. Methods Nineteen peripheral retinal features including: vortex vein, congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE), pars plana, ora serrata pearl, typical cystoid degeneration (TCD), cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degeneration, retinal hole, retinal tear, rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), typical degenerative senile retinoschisis, peripheral laser coagulation scars, ora tooth, cryopexy scars (retinal tear and treated retinoblastoma scar), bone spicules, white without pressure, and peripheral drusen were identified by peripheral clinical examination. Near infrared (NIR) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images and SD-OCT of these entities were registered to UWF color photographs. Results SD-OCT resolved structural features of all peripheral findings. Dilated hyporeflective tubular structures within the choroid were observed in the vortex vein. Loss of retinal lamination, neural retinal attenuation, RPE loss or hypertrophy were seen in several entities including CHRPE, ora serrata pearl, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, lattice and cobblestone degenerations. Hyporeflective intraretinal spaces, indicating cystoid or schitic fluid, were seen in ora serrata pearl, ora tooth, TCD, cystic retinal tuft, meridional fold, retinal hole, and typical degenerative senile retinoschisis. The vitreoretinal interface, which often consisted of lamellae-like structures of the condensed cortical vitreous near or adherent to the neural retina, appeared clearly in most peripheral findings, confirming its association with many low-risk and vision-threatening pathologies

  13. A comprehensive survey of the Plasmodium life cycle by genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Neil; Karras, Marianna; Raine, J Dale; Carlton, Jane M; Kooij, Taco W A; Berriman, Matthew; Florens, Laurence; Janssen, Christoph S; Pain, Arnab; Christophides, Georges K; James, Keith; Rutherford, Kim; Harris, Barbara; Harris, David; Churcher, Carol; Quail, Michael A; Ormond, Doug; Doggett, Jon; Trueman, Holly E; Mendoza, Jacqui; Bidwell, Shelby L; Rajandream, Marie-Adele; Carucci, Daniel J; Yates, John R; Kafatos, Fotis C; Janse, Chris J; Barrell, Bart; Turner, C Michael R; Waters, Andrew P; Sinden, Robert E

    2005-01-07

    Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium chabaudi are widely used model malaria species. Comparison of their genomes, integrated with proteomic and microarray data, with the genomes of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii revealed a conserved core of 4500 Plasmodium genes in the central regions of the 14 chromosomes and highlighted genes evolving rapidly because of stage-specific selective pressures. Four strategies for gene expression are apparent during the parasites' life cycle: (i) housekeeping; (ii) host-related; (iii) strategy-specific related to invasion, asexual replication, and sexual development; and (iv) stage-specific. We observed posttranscriptional gene silencing through translational repression of messenger RNA during sexual development, and a 47-base 3' untranslated region motif is implicated in this process.

  14. Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with Plasmodium berghei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    or the early liver-stages of the mammalian life cycle . One of these antigens is the cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS...Immunization with Pre-Erythrocytic Antigen CelTOS from Plasmodium falciparum Elicits Cross-Species Protection against Heterologous Challenge with... Plasmodium berghei Elke S. Bergmann-Leitner1*, Ryan M. Mease1, Patricia De La Vega1, Tatyana Savranskaya2, Mark Polhemus1, Christian Ockenhouse1, Evelina

  15. FRET imaging of hemoglobin concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-infected red cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Esposito

    Full Text Available During its intraerythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle Plasmodium falciparum consumes up to 80% of the host cell hemoglobin, in large excess over its metabolic needs. A model of the homeostasis of falciparum-infected red blood cells suggested an explanation based on the need to reduce the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host cell to prevent its premature lysis. Critical for this hypothesis was that the hemoglobin concentration within the host cell be progressively reduced from the trophozoite stage onwards.The experiments reported here were designed to test this hypothesis by direct measurements of the hemoglobin concentration in live, infected red cells. We developed a novel, non-invasive method to quantify the hemoglobin concentration in single cells, based on Förster resonance energy transfer between hemoglobin molecules and the fluorophore calcein. Fluorescence lifetime imaging allowed the quantitative mapping of the hemoglobin concentration within the cells. The average fluorescence lifetimes of uninfected cohorts was 270+/-30 ps (mean+/-SD; N = 45. In the cytoplasm of infected cells the fluorescence lifetime of calcein ranged from 290+/-20 ps for cells with ring stage parasites to 590+/-13 ps and 1050+/-60 ps for cells with young trophozoites and late stage trophozoite/early schizonts, respectively. This was equivalent to reductions in hemoglobin concentration spanning the range from 7.3 to 2.3 mM, in line with the model predictions. An unexpected ancillary finding was the existence of a microdomain under the host cell membrane with reduced calcein quenching by hemoglobin in cells with mature trophozoite stage parasites.The results support the predictions of the colloid-osmotic hypothesis and provide a better understanding of the homeostasis of malaria-infected red cells. In addition, they revealed the existence of a distinct peripheral microdomain in the host cell with limited access to hemoglobin molecules indicating the

  16. SD-EAR: Energy Aware Routing in Software Defined Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Banerjee

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In today’s internet-of-things (IoT environment, wireless sensor networks (WSNs have many advantages, with broad applications in different areas including environmental monitoring, maintaining security, etc. However, high energy depletion may lead to node failures in WSNs. In most WSNs, nodes deplete energy mainly because of the flooding and broadcasting of route-request (RREQ packets, which is essential for route discovery in WSNs. The present article models wireless sensor networks as software-defined wireless sensor networks (SD-WSNs where the network is divided into multiple clusters or zones, and each zone is controlled by a software-defined network (SDN controller. The SDN controller is aware of the topology of each zone, and finds out the optimum energy efficient path from any source to any destination inside the zone. For destinations outside of the zone, the SDN controller of the source zone instructs the source to send a message to all of the peripheral nodes in that zone, so that they can forward the message to the peripheral nodes in other zones, and the process goes on until a destination is found. As far as energy-efficient path selection is concerned, the SDN controller of a zone is aware of the connectivity and residual energy of each node. Therefore, it is capable of discovering an optimum energy efficient path from any source to any destination inside as well as outside of the zone of the source. Accordingly, flow tables in different routers are updated dynamically. The task of route discovery is shifted from individual nodes to controllers, and as a result, the flooding of route-requests is completely eliminated. Software-defined energy aware routing (SD-EARalso proposes an innovative sleeping strategy where exhausted nodes are allowed to go to sleep through a sleep request—sleep grant mechanism. All of these result in huge energy savings in SD-WSN, as shown in the simulation results.

  17. Color suppressed contributions to the decay modes B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sub s,d}, B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sup *}{sub s,d} D{sup *}{sub s,d}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eeg, J.O. [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, Blindern, Oslo (Norway); Fajfer, S. [University of Ljubljana, Department of Physics, Ljubljana (Slovenia); J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Prapotnik, A. [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-07-01

    The amplitudes for decays of the type B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sub s,d}, have no factorizable contributions, while B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d}, and B{sub d,s}{yields}D{sup *}{sub s,d}D{sup *}{sub s,d} have relatively small factorizable contributions through the annihilation mechanism. The dominant contributions to the decay amplitudes arise from chiral loop contributions and tree level amplitudes which can be obtained in terms of soft gluon emissions forming a gluon condensate. We predict that the branching ratios for the processes anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}, anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +*} D{sub s}{sup -} and anti B{sup 0}{sub d}{yields}D{sub s}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -*} are all of order (2-3) x 10{sup -4}, while anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +}D{sub d}{sup -}, anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +*}D{sub d}{sup -} and anti B{sup 0}{sub s}{yields}D{sub d}{sup +}D{sub d}{sup -*} are of order (4-7) x 10{sup -3}. We obtain branching ratios for two D{sup *}'s in the final state of order two times bigger. (orig.)

  18. Cell based assays for anti-Plasmodium activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgethi-Morule, Thabang; N'Da, David D

    2016-03-10

    Malaria remains one of the most common and deadly infectious diseases worldwide. The severity of this global public health challenge is reflected by the approximately 198 million people, who were reportedly infected in 2013 and by the more than 584,000 related deaths in that same year. The rising emergence of drug resistance towards the once effective artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has become a serious concern and warrants more robust drug development strategies, with the objective of eradicating malaria infections. The intricate biology and life cycle of Plasmodium parasites complicate the understanding of the disease in such a way that would enhance the development of more effective chemotherapies that would achieve radical clinical cure and that would prevent disease relapse. Phenotypic cell based assays have for long been a valuable approach and involve the screening and analysis of diverse compounds with regards to their activities towards whole Plasmodium parasites in vitro. To achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of malaria eradication by 2020, new generation drugs that are active against all parasite stages (erythrocytic (blood), exo-erythrocytic (liver stages and gametocytes)) are needed. Significant advances are being made in assay development to overcome some of the practical challenges of assessing drug efficacy, particularly in the liver and transmission stage Plasmodium models. This review discusses primary screening models and the fundamental progress being made in whole cell based efficacy screens of anti-malarial activity. Ongoing challenges and some opportunities for improvements in assay development that would assist in the discovery of effective, safe and affordable drugs for malaria treatments are also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology and Control of Plasmodium vivax in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Toby; Nahzat, Sami; Sediqi, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease—in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80–95% of malaria is P. vivax. Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts. Pressure on the disease is maintained through case management, surveillance, and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Plasmodium vivax treatment is hampered by the inability to safely treat latent hypnozoites with primaquine because G6PD deficiency affects up to 10% of males in some ethnic groups. The risk of vivax malaria recurrence (which may be as a result of reinfection or relapse) is around 30–45% in groups not treated with primaquine but 3–20% in those given 14-day or 8-week courses of primaquine. Greater access to G6PD testing and radical treatment would reduce the number of incident cases, reduce the infectious reservoir in the population, and has the potential to reduce transmission as a result. Alongside the lack of G6PD testing, under-resourcing and poor security hamper the control of malaria. Recent gains in reducing the burden of disease are fragile and at risk of reversal if pressure on the disease is not maintained. PMID:27708189

  20. The NFI TOKAI SD System - management of the capabilities of operators in fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, T.

    2008-01-01

    Since the JCO criticality accident occurred in 1999, even more emphasis has been placed on the management of nuclear safety in Japan. This is particularly true for the education of operators and the observance of operational procedures. Even prior to this accident, Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., NFI, regarded the education and development of skilled operators very seriously and we have developed an education system, called the SD system (Skill Development system), to assure the careful education of the operators and the improvement of their skill in order to prevent human error events. Our education system in the Tokai works, is explained. (author)

  1. KEEFEKTIFAN BUDAYA LITERASI DI SD N 3 BANJAR JAWA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN MINAT BACA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Mas Dewantara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana keefektifan budaya literasi di SD N 3 Banjar Jawa untuk meningkatkan minat baca siswa. Metode atau teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini meliputi: wawancara, observasi, angket, dan kuisioner. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah model Miles dan Huberman, yaitu: reduksi, sajian data, dan penarikan simpulan. Dari hasil penelitian terjadi peningkatan minat baca siswa sebesar 27%. Program budaya literasi ini dikemas dengan kegiatan 15 menit membaca sebelum jam pelajaran, melaksanakan sabtu literasi, menata perpustakaan, dan menciptakan lingkungan yang kaya teks.

  2. Nitrogen Source Stabilization of Quorum Sensing in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bioaugmentation Strain SD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Zhen; Lai, Bai-Min; Dandekar, Ajai A; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Na; Yin, Jun; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2017-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa SD-1 is efficient at degrading aromatic compounds and can therefore contribute to the bioremediation of wastewater. P. aeruginosa uses quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the production of numerous secreted "public goods." In wastewater bioaugmentation applications, there are myriad nitrogen sources, and we queried whether various nitrogen sources impact the stabilities of both QS and the bacterial populations. In a laboratory strain of P. aeruginosa , PAO1, the absence of a nitrogen source has been shown to destabilize these populations through the emergence of QS mutant "cheaters." We tested the ability of SD-1 to grow in casein broth, a condition that requires QS for growth, when the nitrogen source with either NH 4 Cl, NaNO 3 , or NaNO 2 or with no added nitrogen source. There was great variability in susceptibility to invasion by QS mutant cheaters and, by extension, the stability of the SD-1 population. When grown with NH 4 Cl as an extra nitrogen source, no population collapse was observed; by contrast, two-thirds of cultures grown in the presence of NaNO 2 collapsed. In the populations that collapsed, the frequency of social cheaters exceeded 40%. NaNO 3 and NaNO 2 directly favor QS mutants of P. aeruginosa SD-1. Although the mechanism by which these nitrogen sources act is not clear, these data indicate that the metabolism of nitrogen can affect the stability of bacterial populations, an important observation for continuing industrial applications with this species. IMPORTANCE Bioaugmentation as a method to help remediate wastewater pollutant streams holds significant potential to enhance traditional methods of treatment. Addition of microbes that can catabolize organic pollutants can be an effective method to remove several toxic compounds. Such bioaugmented strains of bacteria have been shown to be susceptible to competition from the microbiota that are present in wastewater streams, limiting their potential effectiveness. Here, we

  3. Parity dependence in the optical potential of sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Ruiz, J.A.; Bilwes, B.; Bilwes, R.

    1989-01-01

    Elastic scattering between sd-shell nuclei differing by one, two, three and four nucleons has been measured. The oscillating pattern of the angular distributions, when it is observed, is attributed to the interference between direct elastic scattering and elastic transfer. Explicit DWBA treatment of the elastic transfer or parity dependent real potential analysis allow both a good reproduction of the data. The sign and the importance of the parity potential deduced by fitting the data are in good agreement with the predictions of microscopic calculations in the two centre shell-model

  4. Test of the fermion dynamical symmetry model microscopy in the sd shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halse, P.

    1987-01-01

    The recently formulated fermion dynamical symmetry model treats low-lying collective levels as states classified in a pseudo-orbit pseudo-spin (k-i) basis having either k = 1 and zero i seniority, or i = (3/2) and zero k seniority. The validity of this suggestion, which has not previously been subjected to a microscopic examination, is determined for even-even nuclei in the sd shell, for which the model is phenomenologically successful, by comparing these states with the eigenfunctions of a realistic Hamiltonian. Most low-lying levels are almost orthogonal to the fermion dynamical symmetry model zero seniority subspaces

  5. Holter con memorias SD y sistema experto de evaluación cardíaca

    OpenAIRE

    Pfarher, Iván; Reula, Germán; Tovorosky, Pablo; Zanin, Miguel; Caballero, Raúl M.; Maggiolo, Gustavo Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Este desarrollo se enmarca dentro de las actividades de la cátedra de Técnicas Digitales de Ingeniería en Electrónica en UTN-FRP y tiene como objeto potenciar la capacidad de diseño de los alumnos. En este caso se ha desarrollado un sistema holter utilizando memorias SD comunes en el mercado de las cámaras fotográficas implementando además un sistema ordenador de control a partir del uso de un microcontrolador con el sistema de operación y de captura embebido correspondiente para la captura, ...

  6. Development of safety function assessment trees for pressurized heavy water reactor LP/SD operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ki Yong; Jee, Moon Hak; Sung, Chang Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The objective of Configuration Risk Management Program(CRMP) is to maintain the safety level by assuring the defense-in-depth of nuclear power plant while the configurations are changed during plant operations, especially for the LP/SD. Such a safety purpose can be achieved by establishing the risk monitoring programs with both quantitative and qualitative features. Generally, the quantitative risk evaluation models, i.e., PRA models are used for the risk evaluation during full power operation, and the qualitative risk evaluation models such as safety function assessment trees are used. Through this study, safety function assessment trees were developed

  7. Modification of Iraqi Asphalt 40/50 Properties Using Saw Dust (SD and Natural Rubber Latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul l M. Darwesh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to enhance the fundamental properties for asphalt binder as those spec-ifications relate to performance of asphalt mixtures. In this paper studied the effect of add (2, 4 % SD in different sizes and (3, 5 and 7% Natural rubber latex to the straight asphalt 40/50 produced from Al-Dura refinery at 160C, it was added each additive separately and then added together to asphalt in same temperature, then tested physically and mechanically according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM, the result showed largely improvement.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER KEJUJURAN DAN KEPEDULIAN SISWA SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hariyati Qodriyah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran berupa SSP Tematik yang dapat mengembangkan karakter siswa kelas 2 sekolah dasar, meliputi karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian dan pengembangan yang terdiri dari tujuh tahap, yaitu studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, mengembangkan produk awal, uji coba awal, revisi produk utama, uji coba lapangan, dan revisi terhadap produk operasional. SSP yang dikembangkan dievaluasi oleh seorang ahli materi dan media untuk mengetahui validitasnya. Subjek uji coba berjumlah 90 siswa terdiri dari 23 siswa SD Sonosewu, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY sebagai subjek uji coba terbatas dan 33 siswa untuk kelas control dan 34 siswa untuk kelas eksperimen SD 1 Kadipiro, Kasihan, Bantul, DIY. Hasil penelitian ini berupa SSP yang meliputi: silabus, RPP, LKS, dan lembar penilaian. Hasil evaluasi dari ahli materi dan ahli media untuk menguji tingkat kevalidan SSP menyatakan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan adalah valid dan berkategori “baik”. Hasil uji coba menunjukkan bahwa SSP yang dikembangkan dinyatakan layak serta memenuhi kriteria praktis dan efektif dalam mengembangkan karakter siswa. Pembelajaran dengan SSP yang dikembangkan mampu mengembangkan karakter kejujuran dan kepedulian. Kata Kunci: SSP, karakter jujur dan peduli   DEVELOPING THEMATIC INTEGRATIVE SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF HONESTY AND CARE GRADE II STUDENT OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Abstract This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of honesty and care of grade II students of elementary school. This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, i.e. preliminary study, planning, preliminary product development, preliminary tryout, main product revision, field tryout, revision of operational product, operational product revision, and revision of the final product. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess

  9. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan C; Vega-Rodríguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission. PMID:25185005

  10. Penemuan Baru Plasmodium Knowlesi pada Manusia di Kalimantan Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahat Ompusunggu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractUntil 2012, four Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases had been found in South Kalimantan. Objectives of this study were to determine the proporsion of P. knowlesi among microscopically positive malaria cases, clinical symptoms and morphology of P. knowlesi. This study is conductedin Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan in 2013-2014. Samples were microscopically positive malaria cases obtained by surveys and passive case findings. Finger’s blood absorbed on filter papers or scraping of thick blood films were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were also examined clinically and interviewed to investigate the history of infections. The results showed that among the 287 samples examined, three samples (1.05% positive P. knowlesi. All of the three cases were infected locally, which consist of two in Central Kalimantan and one in South Kalimantan. The cases in Central Kalimantan were the first finding of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases in the province. Clinical symptoms in two cases were mild but in another case was rather severe. Morphology of P. knowlesi has a special characteristic although it resembles P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. Further research is needed in order to find other spreading area of P. knowlesi malaria in Indonesia.Keywords : Plasmodium knowlesi, human, clinical symptoms, morphology, Central Kalimantan.AbstrakSampai tahun 2012, empat kasus malaria Plamodium knowlesi pada manusia yang penularannya di sekitar hutan telah ditemukan di Kalimantan Selatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya proporsi P. knowlesi di antara kasus malaria positif mikroskopis, gejala klinis dan morfologi P. knowlesi. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kalimantan Tengah dan Kalimantan Selatan pada tahun 2013-2014. Sampel adalah kasus malaria positif mikroskopis yang diperoleh melalui survei dan penemuan kasus secara pasif. Serapan darah pada kertas saring atau kerokan sediaan apus darah tebal diperiksa dengan

  11. The Plasmodium bottleneck: malaria parasite losses in the mosquito vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Smith

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nearly one million people are killed every year by the malaria parasite Plasmodium. Although the disease-causing forms of the parasite exist only in the human blood, mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are the obligate vector for transmission. Here, we review the parasite life cycle in the vector and highlight the human and mosquito contributions that limit malaria parasite development in the mosquito host. We address parasite killing in its mosquito host and bottlenecks in parasite numbers that might guide intervention strategies to prevent transmission.

  12. PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: DISTRIBUSI, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS, GEJALA PENDERITA DAN VEKTOR POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi Pertama Ambarita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria in humans is caused by an infection of genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum, P. vivax.P.mulariae and P. ovate. Types of Plasmodium in animals that can inject humans is P. knowlesi. Animalswhich are found parasites in their body are long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailedmacaques (Macaca nemestrina. .There have been many cases with positive malaria knowlesi as ithappened in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Studyof P. knowlesi aims to give an overview of the • case distribution, microscopic. features, patient characteristic, potential vector, as well as potential spread of malaria knowlesi in Indonesia. The methodused in this study is study literature from various sources. The microscopic features of the parasite inpatient blood films is pretty similar to P. falciparum and P. malariae in certain stadium. Therefore more awareness are needed regarding the spread of this parasite, especially in border areas of malaria endemiccountries and newly arrived immigrants in endemic areas of P. knowlesi.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, malaria, parasite, vector ABSTRAKMalaria pada manusia selama ini disebabkan oleh infeksi genusPlasmodiumkhususnyaP. falciparum, P.vivax, P. malariaedanP. ovate. JenisPlasmodiumpada hewan yang dapat menginfeksi manusia adalahP.knowlesi.Hewan yang banyak ditemukan parasit ini dalam tubuhnya adalah kera ekor panjang(Macacajascicularisdan kera ekor babi(Macaca nemestrina.Sudah banyak kasus penderita malaria yang positif parasit ini seperti yang terjadi di Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, Filipina, Myanmar, Cina, Vietnam danIndonesia. Kajian tentangP. knowlesiini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penyebarankasus, gambaran mikroskopis, karakteristik penderita, vektor potensial serta potensi penyebaran malaria knowlesidi Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan (literatur dariberbagai sumber. Secara

  13. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for...

  14. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  15. Testing refined shell-model interactions in the sd shell: Coulomb excitation of Na26

    CERN Document Server

    Siebeck, B; Blazhev, A; Reiter, P; Altenkirch, R; Bauer, C; Butler, P A; De Witte, H; Elseviers, J; Gaffney, L P; Hess, H; Huyse, M; Kröll, T; Lutter, R; Pakarinen, J; Pietralla, N; Radeck, F; Scheck, M; Schneiders, D; Sotty, C; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wenander, F

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shell-model calculations crucially depend on the residual interaction used to approximate the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Recent improvements to the empirical universal sd interaction (USD) describing nuclei within the sd shell yielded two new interactions—USDA and USDB—causing changes in the theoretical description of these nuclei. Purpose: Transition matrix elements between excited states provide an excellent probe to examine the underlying shell structure. These observables provide a stringent test for the newly derived interactions. The nucleus Na26 with 7 valence neutrons and 3 valence protons outside the doubly-magic 16O core is used as a test case. Method: A radioactive beam experiment with Na26 (T1/2=1,07s) was performed at the REX-ISOLDE facility (CERN) using Coulomb excitation at safe energies below the Coulomb barrier. Scattered particles were detected with an annular Si detector in coincidence with γ rays observed by the segmented MINIBALL array. Coulomb excitation cross sections...

  16. Anisotropic SD2 brane: accelerating cosmology and Kasner-like space-time from compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India)

    2017-07-15

    Starting from an anisotropic (in all directions including the time direction of the brane) non-SUSY D2 brane solution of type IIA string theory we construct an anisotropic space-like D2 brane (or SD2 brane, for short) solution by the standard trick of a double Wick rotation. This solution is characterized by five independent parameters. We show that compactification on six-dimensional hyperbolic space (H{sub 6}) of a time-dependent volume of this SD2 brane solution leads to accelerating cosmologies (for some time t ∝ t{sub 0}, with t{sub 0} some characteristic time) where both the expansions and the accelerations are different in three spatial directions of the resultant four-dimensional universe. On the other hand at early times (t << t{sub 0}) this four-dimensional space, in certain situations, leads to four-dimensional Kasner-like cosmology, with two additional scalars, namely, the dilaton and a volume scalar of H{sub 6}. Unlike in the standard four-dimensional Kasner cosmology here all three Kasner exponents could be positive definite, leading to expansions in all three directions. (orig.)

  17. A framework for classification and segmentation of branch retinal artery occlusion in SD-OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingyun; Shi, Fei; Zhu, Weifang; Chen, Haoyu; Chen, Xinjian

    2016-03-01

    Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) is an ocular emergency which could lead to blindness. Quantitative analysis of BRAO region in the retina is very needed to assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, a fully automatic framework was proposed to classify and segment BRAO based on 3D spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first automatic 3D BRAO segmentation framework. First, a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier is designed to differentiate BRAO into acute phase and chronic phase, and the two types are segmented separately. To segment BRAO in chronic phase, a threshold-based method is proposed based on the thickness of inner retina. While for segmenting BRAO in acute phase, a two-step segmentation is performed, which includes the bayesian posterior probability based initialization and the graph-search-graph-cut based segmentation. The proposed method was tested on SD-OCT images of 23 patients (12 of acute and 11 of chronic phase) using leave-one-out strategy. The overall classification accuracy of SVM classifier was 87.0%, and the TPVF and FPVF for acute phase were 91.1%, 5.5%; for chronic phase were 90.5%, 8.7%, respectively.

  18. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, D.A.; Rautman, C.A.

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation

  19. EFEKTIVITAS PENGEMBANGAN MEDIA PERMAINAN ULAR TANGGA SEBAGAI SARANA BELAJAR TEMATIK SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch. Chabib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Playing by learning is a way of learning that appropriate with the characteristics of elementary school children today. Which (1 Start of critical thinking. (2 Start emerging competition between friends. (3 Having a deep curiosity. (4 Love asked and (5 Likes groups. This is supported by the results of the field observations showed that when the class is still a lot of students were busy playing and tend to be passive, when the teacher was giving a lesson. Traditional game of snakes and ladders is familiar with elementary school children. Therefore we need a through study on how to take advantage of this game help the studen learning, so it is can solve the problem of declining motivation and involvement of the student in the classroom. Bermain sambil belajar merupakan sebuah pendekatan pembelajaran yang sangat sesuai dengan karakteristik belajar anak SD saat ini, yaitu (1 mulai berpikir kritis, (2 mulai muncul persaingan antar teman, (3 mempunyai rasa ingin tahu yang mendalam, (4 suka bertanya, dan (5 suka berkelompok. Hal ini didukung dengan hasil pengamatan di lapangan yang menunjukkan bahwa ketika dikelas masih banyak siswa yang asyik bermain dan cenderung pasif, padahal guru sedang memberikan penjelasan.Permainan ular tangga merupakan permainan tradisional yang sudah akrab dengan anak SD. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan sebuah kajian yang mendalam tentang bagaimana cara memanfaatkan permainan ini dalam pembelajaran sehingga dapat mengatasi masalah tentang menurunnya motivasi dan keaktifan siswa di kelas.

  20. Anisotropic SD2 brane: accelerating cosmology and Kasner-like space-time from compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji

    2017-01-01

    Starting from an anisotropic (in all directions including the time direction of the brane) non-SUSY D2 brane solution of type IIA string theory we construct an anisotropic space-like D2 brane (or SD2 brane, for short) solution by the standard trick of a double Wick rotation. This solution is characterized by five independent parameters. We show that compactification on six-dimensional hyperbolic space (H_6) of a time-dependent volume of this SD2 brane solution leads to accelerating cosmologies (for some time t ∝ t_0, with t_0 some characteristic time) where both the expansions and the accelerations are different in three spatial directions of the resultant four-dimensional universe. On the other hand at early times (t << t_0) this four-dimensional space, in certain situations, leads to four-dimensional Kasner-like cosmology, with two additional scalars, namely, the dilaton and a volume scalar of H_6. Unlike in the standard four-dimensional Kasner cosmology here all three Kasner exponents could be positive definite, leading to expansions in all three directions. (orig.)

  1. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TWO STAY TWO STRAY DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS KELAS V SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf Setia Wardana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of mathematics are to equip students with the ability to think logically, analytical, systematically, critically, and creatively, as well as the ability to cooperate. Based on observations in elementary school, there are 40% of students have not reached KKM and students have lack of critical abilities to understand math problems, and they have low activity of the study. One of models that can be applied is Two Stay Two Stray. The study used True Experimental Design with Posttest-Only Control Design. The population in this study was all fifth grade students of SD Negeri Semarang Rejosari 03. Data of critical thinking skills of the students in average on test of critical thinking skills mastery was 3.31 ≥ 2.67, it can be said to have a complete description. The conclusion is a model of Two Stay Two Stray being effective for critical thinking skills and mathematics learning outcomes of fifth grade students in SD Negeri Rejosari 03 Semarang. Keywords: two stay two stray model, critical thinking ability.

  2. Mechanical Properties Variation of B500SD High Ductility Reinforcement Regarding its Corrosion Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cobo, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion effects on reinforcement become evident in the bar section reduction and in the variation of mechanical properties related to ductility. In this research work, 96 B500SD steel bars, previously subjected to different corrosion variables, have been tested. Results show that the elongation of the bars diminishes and the ratio between the maximum tensile stress and the elastic limit increases as the corrosion degree advances. These phenomena can be explained by studying the necking effect and the different steel composition through the manufacture process.

    Los efectos de la corrosión sobre las armaduras se manifiestan por la pérdida de sección y la variación de las propiedades mecánicas relacionadas con la ductilidad. En este trabajo se han ensayado a tracción 96 barras de acero B500SD que previamente se han sometido a niveles variables de corrosión. Los resultados muestran que los alargamientos de las barras disminuyen y el cociente entre la tensión máxima y el límite elástico aumenta conforme el nivel de corrosión avanza. A partir del estudio del efecto de entalla y de la distinta constitución metalográfica del acero a nivel de sección debido a su procedimiento de fabricación, se pueden explicar los fenómenos anteriores.

  3. Geology of the USW SD-9 drill hole, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engstrom, D.A. [Spectra Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rautman, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Drill hole USW SD-9 is one of several holes drilled under Site Characterization Plan Study as part of the characterization program at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which has been proposed as the potential location of a repository for high-level nuclear waste. The SD-9 drill hole is located in the northern part of the potential repository area. Quantitative and semiquantitative data are included in this report for cover recovery, rock-quality designation (RQD), lithophysal cavity abundance, and fracturing. These data are spatially variable, both within and among the major formational-level stratigraphic units. Nonwelded intervals in general exhibit higher recoveries and more intact (higher) RQD values than welded intervals. The most intact, highest-RQD materials encountered within the Topopah Spring belong to the lower 33.3 ft of the middle nonlithophysal zone. This report includes quantitative data for the framework material properties of porosity, bulk and particle density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Graphical analysis of variations in these laboratory hydrologic properties indicates first-order control of material properties by the degree of welding and the presence of zeolite minerals. Many major lithostratigraphic contacts are not well expressed in the material-property profiles; contacts of material-property units are related more to changes in the intensity of welding. Approximate in-situ saturation data of samples preserved immediately upon recovery from the hole are included in the data tabulation.

  4. frequency and seasonal variation of plasmodium species in southern districts of Khyber pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of malaria and seasonal variation of Plasmodium species in southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of study: Department of Pathology Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Bannu, from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011. Patients and Methods: Five thousand eight hundred and seventy eight (5878) patients with symptoms of fever, nausea, malaise and body aches irrespective of age and gender were included in the study. Samples were collected, thin and thick smears of the samples were prepared and stained with Giemsa's stain. Thick film was used for screening for malaria parasites and species identification was done on thin smears. Results: Out of 5878 patients, 1962 (28.8%) were found to be positive for malaria. Of them 1524 (90%) had plasmodium vivax infection, while 119 (7.0%) patients were infected with plasmodium falciparum, 49 (3.0%) of the patients were infected with both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax was most common in the months of August 203 (12.3%) patients, September 235 (14.3%) patients and October 317 (20%), whereas plasmodium falciparum infection was most common in the months of October 34 (28.6%) patients, November 19 (16%) patients and December 30 (25.2%) patients. Conclusion: Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in Pakistan, in the Southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhaw and tribal areas of North and South Waziristan. It is prevalent throughout the year and most noticeably from May to November. (author)

  5. Plasmodium species differentiation by non-expert on-line volunteers for remote malaria field diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ruiz, Alejandra; Postigo, María; Gil-Casanova, Sara; Cuadrado, Daniel; Bautista, José M; Rubio, José Miguel; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Linares, María

    2018-01-30

    Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers. 88 volunteers have performed a series of questionnaires over 110 images to differentiate species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi) and parasite staging from thin blood smear images digitalized with a smartphone camera adapted to the ocular of a conventional light microscope. Visual cues evaluated in the surveys include texture and colour, parasite shape and red blood size. On-line volunteers are able to discriminate Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi) and stages in thin-blood smears according to visual cues observed on digitalized images of parasitized red blood cells. Friendly textual descriptions of the visual cues and specialized malaria terminology is key for volunteers learning and efficiency. On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour). While the accuracy of a single on-line expert is far from perfect, a single parasite classification obtained by combining the opinions of multiple on-line volunteers over the same smear, could improve accuracy and reliability of Plasmodium species

  6. Muerte materna por malaria grave por Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Arróspide

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años con 29 semanas de gestación, procedente de Llumpe (Ancash con antecedentes de viajes a las localidades de Chanchamayo (Junín y Rinconada (Ancash. Ingresó al Hospital de Chacas (Ancash por presentar mal estado general, deshidratación, dificultad respiratoria, ictericia, sensación de alza térmica y dolor abdominal, tuvo reporte de: hemoparásitos 60% en frotis sanguíneo. Fue transferida al Hospital Ramos Guardia (Huaraz donde presentó mayor dificultad respiratoria, coluria, hematuria, disminución del débito urinario y reporte de Plasmodium (+, luego fue transferida al Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima donde ingresó a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI, con evolución a falla multiorgánica, óbito fetal y muerte materna. Se confirmó infección por Plasmodium vivax. Destacamos la importancia de mejorar nuestras capacidades de diagnóstico y manejo para brindar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno.

  7. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636

  8. Larval diet affects mosquito development and permissiveness to Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linenberg, Inbar; Christophides, George K; Gendrin, Mathilde

    2016-12-02

    The larval stages of malaria vector mosquitoes develop in water pools, feeding mostly on microorganisms and environmental detritus. Richness in the nutrient supply to larvae influences the development and metabolism of larvae and adults. Here, we investigated the effects of larval diet on the development, microbiota content and permissiveness to Plasmodium of Anopheles coluzzii. We tested three fish diets often used to rear mosquitoes in the laboratory, including two pelleted diets, Dr. Clarke's Pool Pellets and Nishikoi Fish Pellets, and one flaked diet, Tetramin Fish-Flakes. Larvae grow and develop faster and produce bigger adults when feeding on both types of pellets compared with flakes. This correlates with a higher microbiota load in pellet-fed larvae, in agreement with the known positive effect of the microbiota on mosquito development. Larval diet also significantly influences the prevalence and intensity of Plasmodium berghei infection in adults, whereby Nishikoi Fish Pellets-fed larvae develop into adults that are highly permissive to parasites and survive longer after infection. This correlates with a lower amount of Enterobacteriaceae in the midgut microbiota. Together, our results shed light on the influence of larval feeding on mosquito development, microbiota and vector competence; they also provide useful data for mosquito rearing.

  9. Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion: combining function with immune evasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin J Wright

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available All the symptoms and pathology of malaria are caused by the intraerythrocytic stages of the Plasmodium parasite life cycle. Because Plasmodium parasites cannot replicate outside a host cell, their ability to recognize and invade erythrocytes is an essential step for both parasite survival and malaria pathogenesis. This makes invasion a conceptually attractive vaccine target, especially because it is one of the few stages when the parasite is directly exposed to the host humoral immune system. This apparent vulnerability, however, has been countered by the parasite, which has evolved sophisticated molecular mechanisms to evade the host immune response so that parasites asymptomatically replicate within immune individuals. These mechanisms include the expansion of parasite invasion ligands, resulting in multiple and apparently redundant invasion "pathways", highly polymorphic parasite surface proteins that are immunologically distinct, and parasite proteins which are poorly immunogenic. These formidable defences have so far thwarted attempts to develop an effective blood-stage vaccine, leading many to question whether there really is an exploitable chink in the parasite's immune evasion defences. Here, we review recent advances in the molecular understanding of the P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion field, discuss some of the challenges that have so far prevented the development of blood-stage vaccines, and conclude that the parasite invasion ligand RH5 represents an essential pinch point that might be vulnerable to vaccination.

  10. Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thiruventhiran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However further analysis using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of P. ovale. Given that Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles dirus, vectors of P. ovale are found in Malaysia, this finding has significant implication on Malaysia's public health sector. Conclusions The current finding should serve as an alert to epidemiologists, clinicians and laboratory technicians in the possibility of finding P. ovale in Malaysia. P. ovale should be considered in the differential diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Malaysia due to the exponential increase in the number of visitors from P. ovale endemic regions and the long latent period of P. ovale. It is also timely that conventional diagnosis of malaria via microscopy should be coupled with more advanced molecular tools for effective diagnosis.

  11. Traffic pathways of Plasmodium vivax antigens during intraerythrocytic parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Carmen; Dunia, Irene; De, La Rosa Mercedes; Benedetti, Ennio-Lucio; Perez, Hilda A

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the secretory traffic of a Plasmodium vivax antigen (Pv-148) synthesised by the parasite during the blood cycle, exported into the host cell cytosol and then transported to the surface membrane of the infected erythrocyte. Studies of the ultrastructure of erythrocytes infected with P. vivax showed that intracellular schizogony is accompanied by the generation of parasite-induced membrane profiles in the erythrocyte cytoplasm. These structures are detectable soon after the parasite invades the erythrocyte and develop an elaborate organisation, leading to a tubovesicular membrane (TVM) network, in erythrocytes infected with mature trophozoites. Interestingly, the clefts formed stacked, flattened cisternae resembling a classical Golgi apparatus. The TVM network stained with the fluorescent Golgi marker Bodipy-ceramide. Specific immunolabelling showed that Pv-148 was transferred from the parasite to the erythrocyte surface membrane via the clefts and the TVM network. These findings suggest that the TVM network is part of the secretory pathways involved in parasite protein transport across the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte and that Pv- 148 may represent a marker that links the parasite with the host cell cytoplasm and, in turn, with the extracellular milieu.

  12. Plasmodium vivax Biology: Insights Provided by Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgard, Catarina; Albrecht, Letusa; Kayano, Ana C. A. V.; Sunnerhagen, Per; Costa, Fabio T. M.

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the vast omics field has revolutionized biological research, especially the genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics branches, as technological tools become available to the field researcher and allow difficult question-driven studies to be addressed. Parasitology has greatly benefited from next generation sequencing (NGS) projects, which have resulted in a broadened comprehension of basic parasite molecular biology, ecology and epidemiology. Malariology is one example where application of this technology has greatly contributed to a better understanding of Plasmodium spp. biology and host-parasite interactions. Among the several parasite species that cause human malaria, the neglected Plasmodium vivax presents great research challenges, as in vitro culturing is not yet feasible and functional assays are heavily limited. Therefore, there are gaps in our P. vivax biology knowledge that affect decisions for control policies aiming to eradicate vivax malaria in the near future. In this review, we provide a snapshot of key discoveries already achieved in P. vivax sequencing projects, focusing on developments, hurdles, and limitations currently faced by the research community, as well as perspectives on future vivax malaria research. PMID:29473024

  13. Gene copy number variation throughout the Plasmodium falciparum genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Lindsay B

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene copy number variation (CNV is responsible for several important phenotypes of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, including drug resistance, loss of infected erythrocyte cytoadherence and alteration of receptor usage for erythrocyte invasion. Despite the known effects of CNV, little is known about its extent throughout the genome. Results We performed a whole-genome survey of CNV genes in P. falciparum using comparative genome hybridisation of a diverse set of 16 laboratory culture-adapted isolates to a custom designed high density Affymetrix GeneChip array. Overall, 186 genes showed hybridisation signals consistent with deletion or amplification in one or more isolate. There is a strong association of CNV with gene length, genomic location, and low orthology to genes in other Plasmodium species. Sub-telomeric regions of all chromosomes are strongly associated with CNV genes independent from members of previously described multigene families. However, ~40% of CNV genes were located in more central regions of the chromosomes. Among the previously undescribed CNV genes, several that are of potential phenotypic relevance are identified. Conclusion CNV represents a major form of genetic variation within the P. falciparum genome; the distribution of gene features indicates the involvement of highly non-random mutational and selective processes. Additional studies should be directed at examining CNV in natural parasite populations to extend conclusions to clinical settings.

  14. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-04-23

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for eight months. She was diagnosed with vivax malaria after a thin blood smear revealed the presence of plasmodial trophozoites and gametocytes and treated accordingly. Due to the onset of oligohydramnios, she underwent caesarian section at the 31st week of pregnancy with no further complications. Histological examination of the placenta showed no evidence of plasmodial infection, but was inconclusive. It is unclear whether oligohydramnios is a complication of pregnancy-related Plasmodium vivax malaria. Given the long latency of hypnozoites, every febrile pregnant patient with a previous stay in an endemic area should be screened for malaria with a thick and a thin blood smear.

  15. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L; Barnwell, John W; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C; Shanks, G Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-12-28

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment.

  17. Case report: spontaneous rupture of spleen in patient with Plasmodium ovale malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerer, Raphael; Unger, Manuel; Voßen, Matthias; Forstner, Christina; Jalili, Ahmad; Starzengruber, Peter; Werzowa, Johannes; Ramharter, Michael; Winkler, Stefan; Thalhammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Malaria may lead to spontaneous splenic rupture as a rare but potentially lethal complication. Most frequently, this has been reported in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, while other parasitic agents are less likely to be the cause.We report a 29-year-old British Caucasian, who after returning from a business trip in Democratic Republic Congo was diagnosed with tertian malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale.During his in-patient stay, the patient suffered a splenic rupture requiring immediate surgical intervention and splenectomy. Following this surgical intervention, there was an uneventful recovery, and the patient was discharged in a good general condition.

  18. Purification, characterization and anti-aging capacity of mycelia zinc polysaccharide by Lentinus edodes SD-08.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqin; Wang, Cuiqin; Gao, Xia; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Lin; Zhao, Huajie; Jia, Shouhua; Jia, Le

    2015-04-09

    In the modern society, aging had been a major problem. People may rely on many medicines to delay it. However, lots of medicines were chemosynthetic, and they would do a bad side-effect on human body. Microbial sources could be used as a potential means of producing natural antioxidants. Lentinus edodes, commercial obtained in daily life, had recently become more attractive in physiological research. Zinc was now considered as a major element in assuring the correct functioning of an organism and essential for maintaining coordination of the major homeostatic networks. To investigate the bioconversion of zinc and the physiological effects of their complex (MZPS), the present studies were processed. Mycelia polysaccharides (MPS) and mycelia zinc polysaccharides (MZPS) of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted by hot water leaching and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately. The zinc content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The evaluation of monosaccharide compositions and proportions used gas chromatogram. The analysis of molecular weight used HPGPC chromatogram. The typical structure of polysaccharide was evaluated by IR spectrum. The antioxidant activities in vitro measured through reducing power, the scavenging effects on hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The anti-aging activities in vivo measured through the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), GSH peroxide (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). MPS and MZPS of Lentinus edodes SD-08 were extracted and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion-exchange column chromatography separately, and four fractions (MPS-1, MPS-2, MZPS-1 and MZPS-2) were obtained. In addition, MPS composing of rhamnose, arabinose and mannose (molar proportion = 1.75:1.00:3.02) and MZPS containing rhamnose, arabinose, mannose and glucose (molar proportion = 7.19:2.26:1.00:8.39) were investigated by gas chromatography

  19. PENGEMBANGAN SSP TEMATIK-INTEGRATIF UNTUK MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DISIPLIN DAN KREATIF SISWA KELAS I SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Wahyu Setyawan

    2015-01-01

    DEVELOPING THEMATIC-INTEGRATED SSP FOR BUILDING THE CHARACTERS OF DISCIPLINE AND CREATIVE OF GRADE I STUDENT ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ABSTRACT This study aims to produce integrated learning sets in the form of thematic SSP that can develop the characters of discipline and creative of grade I students of elementary school.This was a research and development study consisting of seven steps, namely: preliminary study and data collection, planning, product draft development, preliminary field tryout, revision of the tryout result, field tryout, product finalization based the field tryout result, field implementation testing, final product finalization, and dissemination. The developed SSP was evaluated by a science subject expert to assess the validity. The tryout subjects comprised 82 students consisting of 26 students of SD Baran, Pundong, Bantul, DIY in the small-scale tryout, 25 students in the control class of SD Manding Tengah, Bantul, DIY and 31 students in the experimental class of SD 1 Tulung, Bantul, DIY. The results of this study are in the form of SSP consisting of: a syllabus, lesson plans, course sheets, student worksheets, and evaluation sheets. The results of the evaluation show that the developed syllabus is good score of 47. The developed lesson plans score of 67, student course sheets score of 65, student worksheets score of 47, and assessment instruments, are very good , while the developed learning media are good score of 66. The results of the tryout show that the developed SSP otherwise meet the criteria for the practical views of teacher assessment score of 281 and a score of 730 student responses. In field trials the results obtained for the control class average pretest score of 70.8 and an average posttest score of 80.8. While the experimental class scored an average of 74.1 pretest and posttest score of 90.9. Improved control class scores of 10 and an increase of 16.8 experimental class. Teaching using developed SSP is capable of developing

  20. High spin structure of {sup 35}Cl and the sd-fp shell gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kshetri, Ritesh [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Saha Sarkar, M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)]. E-mail: maitrayee.sahasarkar@saha.ac.in; Ray, Indrani [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Banerjee, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Sarkar, S. [Department of Physics, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Raut, Rajarshi [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Goswami, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chatterjee, J.M. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Chattopadhyay, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Datta Pramanik, U. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Mukherjee, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dey, C.C. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dasmahapatra, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhowal, Samit [Department of Physics, Surendranath Evening College, Kolkata 700009 (India); Gangopadhyay, G. [University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700009 (India); Datta, P. [Anandamohan College, 102/1, Raja Rammohan Sarani, Kolkata 700009 (India); Jain, H.C. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India)

    2007-01-15

    The high spin states of {sup 35}Cl have been studied by in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopy following the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 12}C({sup 28}Si,{alpha}p){sup 35}Cl at E{sub lab}=70 and 88 MeV, using the Indian National Gamma (Clover) Array (INGA). Lifetimes of six new excited states have been estimated for the first time. To understand the underlying structure of the levels and transition mechanisms, experimental results have been compared with those from the large basis cross-shell shell model calculations. Involvement of orbitals from fp shell and squeezing of the sd-fp shell gap seem to be essential for reliable reproduction of high spin states.

  1. High spin structure of 35Cl and the sd-fp shell gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kshetri, Ritesh; Saha Sarkar, M.; Ray, Indrani; Banerjee, P.; Sarkar, S.; Raut, Rajarshi; Goswami, A.; Chatterjee, J.M.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Mukherjee, A.; Dey, C.C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Dasmahapatra, B.; Bhowal, Samit; Gangopadhyay, G.; Datta, P.; Jain, H.C.; Bhowmik, R.K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R.P.; Kumar, R.

    2007-01-01

    The high spin states of 35 Cl have been studied by in-beam γ-spectroscopy following the fusion-evaporation reaction 12 C( 28 Si,αp) 35 Cl at E lab =70 and 88 MeV, using the Indian National Gamma (Clover) Array (INGA). Lifetimes of six new excited states have been estimated for the first time. To understand the underlying structure of the levels and transition mechanisms, experimental results have been compared with those from the large basis cross-shell shell model calculations. Involvement of orbitals from fp shell and squeezing of the sd-fp shell gap seem to be essential for reliable reproduction of high spin states

  2. KEEFEKTIFAN MULTIMEDIA BERBASIS KOMPUTER UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN SOSIAL KELAS IV SD PERCOBAAN II DEPOK SLEMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Budyartati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at: (1 identifying the effecteiveness of multi media-based learning on Social Science; (2 describing the attractiveness of multi media-based learning on Social Science; which is carried out at SD Percobaan II Caturtunggal Depok Sleman Yogyakarta, term 2007/2008. The research design is pretest-posttest control group design. The data are drwan through tests which are analized quantitatively; and questionaire to measure the attractiveness of multimedia-based learning model, which will be analized qualitatavely. The treatment is carried out out by using storyboard, which is approved by experts of multimedia and teaching method. The result of the analysis shows that multi media-based learning model significantly influence the students’ achievement in Social Science. While the attractivemess of multi media-based learning relatively high, which is shown by 4.2 of average (in 1-5 scale measure.

  3. Intercomparison of natural radionuclide measurements in marine sediment sample SD-N-1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This intercomparison exercise was organized with the aim of providing to the participating laboratories a possibility of testing the performance of their analytical methods and to acquire basic data for establishing reference values for a number of natural radionuclides in the sediment material SD-N-1/2 from the North Sea floor. In tables are presented results expressed in mBq.g -1 on potassium, uranium isotopes, thorium-232 with the respective decay products, thorium-230, radium-226 and lead-210. Altogether 98 laboratories from 42 Member States joined this intercomparison. The results show generally good agreement, but more analytical work is needed to improve the present status of the lead-210 certification. Gamma and alpha spectroscopy were the most frequently used as the analytical techniques

  4. Source identification in acoustics and structural mechanics using Sierra/SD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Aquino, Wilkins [Duke University Durham, NC; Ross, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In this report we derive both time and frequency-domain methods for inverse identification of sources in elastodynamics and acoustics. The inverse/design problem is cast in a PDE-constrained optimization framework with efficient computation of gradients using the adjoint method. The implementation of source inversion in Sierra/SD is described, and results from both time and frequency domain source inversion are compared to actual experimental data for a weapon store used in captive carry on a military aircraft. The inverse methodology is advantageous in that it provides a method for creating ground based acoustic and vibration tests that can reduce the actual number of flight tests, and thus, saving costs and time for the program.

  5. Charge radii of magnesium isotopes by laser spectroscopy a structural study over the $sd$ shell

    CERN Multimedia

    Schug, M; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the evolution of nuclear sizes and shapes over the magnesium chain by measuring the root-mean-square charge radii of $^{21 - 32}$Mg, essentially covering the entire $\\textit{sd}$ shell. Our goal is to detect the structural changes, which in the neutron-deficient isotopes may originate from clustering, in a way similar to neon, and on the neutron-rich side would characterize the transition to the "island of inversion". We will combine, for the first time, the sensitive $\\beta$-detection technique with traditional fluorescence spectroscopy for isotope-shift measurements and in such a way gain access to the exotic species near the ${N}$ = 8 and ${N}$ = 20 shell closures.

  6. Simulation and Optimization of One Live Pig Low-Carbon Industry Chain Using SD-RCCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuping Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The destruction of the natural environment has been drawing more and more attention. Developing low-carbon industry chains is an effective solution to the conflict between rapid economic growth and high CO2 emissions. Summarizing various traditional and new industry chain sustainable development, live pig industry was chosen as a typical industry chain to study low-carbon development using a system dynamics and random chance-constrained model (SD-RCCM. Leshan, a world natural and cultural heritage area in China, was selected as a typical city to analyze the low-carbon pig industry. Three different programs based on distribution ratios were selected to study this industry. The results showed that program 1, which considers both environmental and economic benefits, realizes sustainable development. In order to extend the pig industry chain and fully utilize pig ordure and other waste, introducing a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM and household biogas exploitation program is recommended.

  7. ECOLITERACY SISWA SD DALAM KEGIATAN PENGELOLAAN SAMPAH MELALUI GROUP INVESTIGATION BERBASIS OUTDOOR STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Karlina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to improve the student’s ecoliteracy in waste managing activities on social studies trough group investigation based outdoor study. This research is Classroom Action Research toward fourth graders have been held on two cycles. The conclusion of this research is student’s ecoliteracy cognitive aspect increases is 20%, application aspect increases is 49,6%, and attitude aspect increases is 19,4% after the two cycle action with group investigation based outdoor study. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan peningkatan ecoliteracy siswa dalam kegiatan pengelolaan sampah dalam pembelajaran IPS melalui group investigation berbasis outdoor study. Penelitian ini menerapkan jenis Penelitian Tindakan Kelas (PTK terhadap siswa kelas IV SD yang dilaksanakan dalam dua siklus. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan adanya peningkatan ecoliteracy siswa dari aspek pengetahuan sebesar 20%, aspek aplikasi sebesar 49,6%, dan aspek sikap sebesar 19,4% setelah mengikuti dua siklus pembelajaran dengan group investigation berbasis outdoor study.

  8. An automated approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy using SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElTanboly, Ahmed H; Palacio, Agustina; Shalaby, Ahmed M; Switala, Andrew E; Helmy, Omar; Schaal, Shlomit; El-Baz, Ayman

    2018-01-01

      This study was to demonstrate the feasibility of an automatic approach for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR) from SD-OCT images. These scans were prospectively collected from 200 subjects through the fovea then were automatically segmented, into 12 layers. Each layer was characterized by its thickness, tortuosity, and normalized reflectivity. 26 diabetic patients, without DR changes visible by funduscopic examination, were matched with 26 controls, according to age and sex, for purposes of statistical analysis using mixed effects ANOVA. The INL was narrower in diabetes (p = 0.14), while the NFL (p = 0.04) and IZ (p = 0.34) were thicker. Tortuosity of layers NFL through the OPL was greater in diabetes (all p diabetes. In turn, carries the promise to a reliable non-invasive diagnostic tool for early detection of DR.

  9. Penelitian tentang ukuran acuan sepatu pelajar wanita indonesia tingkat SD, SLTP dan SLTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Bandi

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was subjected to 500 Indonesia School girls from North Sumatra Province (Medan, West Java Province (Bandung, Central – Java Province (Semarang, East-Java Province (Surabaya and DKI Jaya. 100 samples of foot sizes which represented foot sizes of SD, SLTP and SLTA School girls werw taken from each province. By analyzing the data of foot sizes of the school girls, a suggestion on design of shoe lasts seritable with the shape and type of foot, fits and conform the requirements to be used as lost in shoe manufacturing could be proposed. The results of data analyse shown that : 1. The length of soles ranged from 30-35, 5 PS, the mean of which was 33 PS. 2. Instep girth ranged withim E, F, G, I.3. The foot sizes scattered between (4-17 years of age at (32-35 PS.

  10. Spectral Analysis of the sdO Standard Star Feige 34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latour, M.; Chayer, P.; Green, E. M.; Fontaine, G.

    2017-03-01

    We present our current work on the spectral analysis of the hot sdO star Feige 34. We combine high S/N optical spectra and fully-blanketed non-LTE model atmospheres to derive its fundamental parameters (Teff, log g) and helium abundance. Our best fits indicate Teff = 63 000 K, log g = 6.0 and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.8. We also use available ultraviolet spectra (IUE and FUSE) to measure metal abundances. We find the star to be enriched in iron and nickel by a factor of ten with respect to the solar values, while lighter elements have subsolar abundances. The FUSE spectrum suggests that the spectral lines could be broadened by rotation.

  11. The novel oxygenated chalcone, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone, exhibits potent activity against human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and rodent parasites Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium yoelii in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, M; Brøgger Christensen, S; Zhai, L

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, exhibits antileishmanial and antimalarial activities. The present study was designed to examine the antimalarial activity of an analog of licochalcone A, 2,4-dimethoxy-4'-butoxychalcone (2,4mbc). 2,4mbc inhibited the in vitro...... activity and might be developed into a new antimalarial drug....... growth of both a chloroquine-susceptible (3D7) and a chloroquine-resistant (Dd2) strain of Plasmodium falciparum in a [3H]hypoxanthine uptake assay. The in vivo activity of 2,4mbc was tested in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei or Plasmodium yoelii and in rats infected with P. berghei. 2,4mbc...

  12. Sustainable development business case report : renewable electricity generation : SD business case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This investment report is the first in a series that will be released by Sustainable Development Technology Canada as part of the SD Business Case. It focuses primarily on generating electricity from renewable energy sources and examines 4 primary technology groups or sub-sectors including wind generated electricity; solar PV generated electricity; stationary fuel cell generated electricity; and electricity generated from biological sources. Each sub-sector has been assessed in terms of its market dynamics, technology makeup and conditions, sustainability impacts, and investment risk. A selection of the leading technologies in each technology area are brought forward and rated in terms of their respective investment potential. The report first presents an overview of the SD business case plan. It defines the primary audience of the report, lists the sectors and investment categories to be assessed by the business case and provides some background information on Sustainable Development Technology Canada. The report presents the framework for data collection and analysis and an executive summary of the complete report. It then presents the results of the market assessment report for each of the 4 sectors. This includes demand, infrastructure renewal, environmental commitments, renewable energy value proposition, and future market potential. The section covering the technology assessment report discusses the various technologies and ranks them. The sustainability assessment report section provides an economic, environmental and societal assessment of each sub-sector. Risk assessment is conducted in terms of technology and non-technology related risk. Last, the report presents conclusions and investment priorities. 11 tabs., 7 figs

  13. PENERAPAN SUPERVISI KUNJUNGAN KELAS UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KINERJA GURU SD NEGERI 2 KALIMANGGIS KECAMATAN KALORAN, TEMANGGUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprih Danurwati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Suprih Danurwati, 942013161. Implementation of supervision class visiting to increase teacher’s performance of SD Negeri 2 Kalimanggis District of Kaloran. Thesis. The graduatiton Program Master of Management Education Satya Wacana Christian University Salatiga. Supervisor Prof. Dr. Slameto, M.Pd. This study is to determine that through the implementation of supervision class visiting can improve the performance of teachers in the learning management. The subjects of this study are teachers in SD Negeri 2 Kalimanggis, Kaloran, Temanggung.  The procedure used in this study consists of a series of three main activities undertaken in a repeating cycle, including (a plan, (b action by observation, and (c reflection. research approach using action research methods, while the method of data collection using the study documentation, observations, questionnaires, and interviews. The results showed an increasing in the ability of teachers to prepare lesson plans and manage the learning of the first act, second, until the third act. The inference that supervision class visiting that can improve the performance of teachers in the learning management. Suggestions given to teachers, is taking  advantage of supervision activities as a source of information to improve the competence and performance, for principals use the results of this study as a reference in conducting research, while for school superintendent will use the results of this study as one of the references in activity guidance to the heads of schools and teachers to improve their performance.

  14. Culture Optimization and Amino Acid Composition of Cr-Enriched Mycelia of Pleurotus cornucopiae SD-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Yun Meng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromium(III is an essential trace element for humans and animals. Pleutorus cornucopiae SD-01 is a nutritional and functional mushroom containing many kinds of bioactive ingredients. The aims of this work are to optimize the conditions of P. cornucopiae SD-01 cultivation with Cr enrichment in submerged culture by determining the dry cell mass, Cr content in mycelia and the rate of Cr enrichment, and to analyze the amino acid composition of Cr-enriched mycelia. The optimal medium contained (in g/L: potato 200, sucrose 25, yeast extract 4, KH2PO4 1 and MgSO4·7H2O 1. The optimum parameters of liquid culture were temperature 25 °C, cultivation time 6 days, the volume of the medium 100 mL, rotation speed 160 rpm and initial pH=6.5. Under the optimized conditions, the values of the dry cell mass, Cr content in mycelia and the rate of Cr enrichment were (6.63±0.35 g/L, (3670±211 μg/g and (12.15±1.01 % respectively, which were by (23.23±1.22, (18.19±1.06 and (45.68±2.67 % respectively, higher than those in the control. Chromium(III in Cr-enriched mycelia was mainly combined with protein and polysaccharide. The contents of total amino acids and essential amino acids in Cr-enriched mycelia were increased by (31.25±0.58 and (44.26±0.76 %, respectively.

  15. INTERVENSI ERGONOMI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN SAINS MENGURANGI KELUHAN MUSKULOSKELETAL SISWA SD 1 SANGSIT KECAMATAN SAWAN KABUPATEN BULELENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyoman Wijana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui peranan intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains untuk menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD. Jenis penelitian ini termasuk jenis penelitian quasi eksperimental dengan rancangan randomized pre-test and post-test control group design. Pada kelompok kontrol pembelajarannya dengan cara konvensional (tanpa intervensi ergonomi dan kelompok eksperimen dengan intervensi ergonomi. Intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran sains mengacu pada pendekatan ergonomi (PE yakni gabungan antara SHIP dan TTG. Implementasi dari hal ini adalah melakukan perbaikan dan atau penataan terhadap instrumental input, environmental input dan porcess, sedangkan untuk di kelompok kontrol tidak dilakukan intervensi ergonomi, di mana kondisi instrumental input, environmental input dan process berlangsung secara konvensional. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara random. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Mann-Whitney dengan taraf signifikansi 5 %. Simpulan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah (1 intervensi ergonomi dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal siswa SD  (p < 0,05; (2 Hasil pengukuran dengan nordic body map pada kelompok kontrol terjadi keluhan pada otot pinggang (86,1%, otot pantat (86,1%, otot punggung (84,8%, otot lengan atas kiri (78,8%, otot lengan atas kanan (67,9%, otot siku kanan (78,2%, otot siku kiri (74,6%, paha kanan (76,9%, paha kiri (75,7%, otot betis kanan  (66,1%, otot betis kiri (64,2%, otot pergelangan kaki kanan (67,3%, dan otot pergelangan kaki kiri (65,5%. Dengan demikian dapat disarankan bahwa intervensi ergonomi dalam pembelajaran dengan menggunakan PE sebaiknya diterapkan dalam pembelajaran sains di SD karena telah terbukti dapat menurunkan keluhan muskuloskeletal.[MEDICINA 2009;40:11-20].  

  16. Peningkatan Pengetahuan Dan Keterampilan Guru SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu Dalam Mengelola Pembelajaran ABK melalui Lesson Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Poerwanti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus (ABK yang dikenal sebagai anak-anak cacat, atau anak-anak yang luar biasa, anak-anak yaitu yang menyimpang secara signifikan dari kriteria normal, baik dari aspek fisik, psikologis, emosional dan sosial. Mulai tahun 2001, pemerintah mulai program pendidikan inklusif, pendidikan inklusif adalah untuk memasukkan anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus belajar bersama dengan anak normal di kelas dan sekolah reguler. Masalahnya, guru di sekolah reguler tidak berpendidikan dan dipersiapkan khusus untuk mengelola proses belajar mengajar untuk ABK. Masalah juga dialami oleh SD Muhammadiyah 4 Batu, untuk membantu memecahkan masalah tim FKIP menerapkan aktivitas Lesson Study untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan guru dan keterampilan dalam mengelola ABK pembelajaran individual Lesson study yang dilakukan dalam tiga siklus yang dikemas dalam tiga model pembelajaran; ABK belajar sendiri di kelas khusus, pengajaran dan pembelajaran di kelas reguler dan pengajaran dan pembelajaran ABK di kelas reguler dengan bantuan GPK. Setiap siklus terdiri dari beberapa kegiatan. Studi pelajaran terdiri dari empat kegiatan yang disingkat PDCA; P (rencana atau perencanaan, D (lakukan adalah pelaksanaan pembelajaran oleh seorang guru sebagai model dan diamati oleh guru lainnya, C (cek merupakan cerminan dari perbaikan lebih lanjut proses pembelajaran, dan A (tindak adalah tindak lanjut.  Dari tiga tahapan pelaksanaan proses belajar mengajar ABK dapat memberikan manfaat bagi para guru untuk meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan untuk mengelola pembelajaran untuk ABK. Melalui Lesson Study diharapkan ABK mendapatkan layanan yang tepat dan belajar yang optimal. Beberapa temuan dampak pada perilaku siswa di kelas adalah bahwa siswa dapat menerima keberadaan ABK di. Meskipun keterbatasan kelas fasilitas guru mendapatkan pengalaman berharga yang terkait dengan pengembangan pembelajaran melalui forum ABK Lesson Study. Jadi kebutuhan untuk pelaksanaan tindak

  17. Validated automatic segmentation of AMD pathology including drusen and geographic atrophy in SD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Izatt, Joseph A; O'Connell, Rachelle V; Winter, Katrina P; Toth, Cynthia A; Farsiu, Sina

    2012-01-05

    To automatically segment retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) images of eyes with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and various levels of image quality to advance the study of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)+drusen complex (RPEDC) volume changes indicative of AMD progression. A general segmentation framework based on graph theory and dynamic programming was used to segment three retinal boundaries in SD-OCT images of eyes with drusen and geographic atrophy (GA). A validation study for eyes with nonneovascular AMD was conducted, forming subgroups based on scan quality and presence of GA. To test for accuracy, the layer thickness results from two certified graders were compared against automatic segmentation results for 220 B-scans across 20 patients. For reproducibility, automatic layer volumes were compared that were generated from 0° versus 90° scans in five volumes with drusen. The mean differences in the measured thicknesses of the total retina and RPEDC layers were 4.2 ± 2.8 and 3.2 ± 2.6 μm for automatic versus manual segmentation. When the 0° and 90° datasets were compared, the mean differences in the calculated total retina and RPEDC volumes were 0.28% ± 0.28% and 1.60% ± 1.57%, respectively. The average segmentation time per image was 1.7 seconds automatically versus 3.5 minutes manually. The automatic algorithm accurately and reproducibly segmented three retinal boundaries in images containing drusen and GA. This automatic approach can reduce time and labor costs and yield objective measurements that potentially reveal quantitative RPE changes in longitudinal clinical AMD studies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00734487.).

  18. Lactogenic Activity of an Enzymatic Hydrolysate from Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya in SD Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Bingna; Chen, Hua; Sun, Han; Sun, Huili; Wan, Peng; Chen, Deke; Pan, Jianyu

    2015-11-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine theory believes that octopus papaya soup can stimulate milk production in lactating women. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with an enzymatic hydrolysate of Octopus vulgaris and Carica papaya (EHOC) could increase milk production and nutritional indexes in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Female SD rats (n = 24) were fed a control diet (n = 8), EHOC-supplemented diet, or a positive control diet (Shengruzhi) from day 10 of pregnancy to day 10 of lactation. Maternal serum, mammary gland (day 10 of lactation), milk, and pup weight (daily) were collected for analysis. Results showed that the EHOC diet obviously elevated daily milk yield and pup weight compared to the control group (P < .05). The EHOC diet was found to increase the concentration of prolactin (PRL), progesterone (P), estradiol (E2), and growth hormone (GH) significantly in the circulation and mammary gland. Mammary glands of EHOC-treated dams showed clear lobuloalveolar development and proliferation of myoepithelial cells, but no striking variations were observed among the groups. Furthermore, the nutrition content and immune globulin concentration in the milk of EHOC-supplemented dams were higher than those of the control group, especially the cholesterol, glucose, and IgG were higher by 44.98% (P < .001), 42.76% (P < .01), and 42.23% (P < .01), respectively. In conclusion, this article demonstrates that EHOC administration has beneficial effects on milk production in the dams and on performance of the dam and pup. These results indicate that EHOC could be explored as a potentially lactogenic nutriment for lactating women.

  19. MODEL PEMBELAJARAN PENJAS MELALUI PERMAINAN UNTUK PEMBENTUKAN KARAKTER KERJA SAMA, TANGGUNG JAWAB DAN KEJUJURAN SISWA SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiyatno Rubiyatno

    2013-09-01

    Abstract This study aims at delivering game models for especially top grade elementary school students to build character, cooperation, responsibility and honesty that are ready to use. The teachers are expected to use this game model as one of integrated character value instructional forms that is appropriate and effective through enjoyable playing activities.This educational research and development (R & D was conducted by adapting R & D steps consisting of: (1 collecting information and information analysis, (2 developing initial product, (3 expert validation and revision, (4 preliminary field test and revision, (5 main field test and revision, and (6 making the final product. The preliminary field test was conducted to 14 students year 5 of SD.N.Pantaran Kulon Progo and the main field test was conducted to 40 students Class 4 and 5 of SD.N.2 Kalipetir Pengasih Kulon Progo. Data collecting instrument used were: (1 interview guide, (2 rating scale, (3 observation guide for games observation, (4 observation guide for games effectiveness, and (5 observation guide for perpetrator teachers. The data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis and qualitative descriptive analysis.The result of this study is in the form of a game guidance book of integrated character building for corporation, responsibility, and honesty in the form of physical activities for upper grade elementary school students, consisting of six games: (1 blast fishing game, (2 ball war game, (3 shoot the ball to the hula hoop game, (4 my goal and basket game, (5 volley throw and catch, and (6 touching ball to the body game. As a conclusion, the game models are very good and effective to transfer character value, corporation, responsibility, and honesty Keywords: model of learning, character and elemantary students.

  20. [Choroidal thickness assessment with SD-OCT in high myopia with dome-shaped macula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebil, A; Ben Achour, B; Chaker, N; Jedidi, L; Mghaieth, F; El Matri, L

    2014-03-01

    To measure macular choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula (DSM), and to investigate whether the choroid is thicker in these eyes compared to highly myopic eyes without MB. A cross-sectional study of 200 eyes was performed between January 2010 and June 2012. Twenty-four highly myopic eyes (12%) had a dome-shaped macula. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmological examination, SD-OCT (TOPCON 2000), and B-scan ultrasonography. OCT scans were analyzed in 7 sections, and subfoveal CT was measured manually between the Bruch's membrane and the internal aspect of the sclera. The 20 eyes with isolated dome-shaped macular were paired by age and axial length (AL) with 20 eyes without macular involvement. In the subgroup with isolated MB, the mean subfoveal CT was 101.86 μm (± 21.35 μm). A statistically significant negative correlation was found between CT and AL (r=-0.623, P=0.0001). The regression equation demonstrated a decrease of 8.3 μm per mm of AL. In the subgroup without MB, matched with the subgroup with MB by age (P=0.591), and AL (P=0.815), the mean subfoveal CT was 89.54 μm (± 20.12 μm). The comparison between the two subgroups found a statistically significant difference in subfoveal CT (Pmacula compared to highly myopic eyes without dome-shaped macula. These findings suggest that abnormalities of the choroid may play a role in the pathogenesis of dome-shaped macula. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of mutation and phenotypic expression associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakai, Haytham A; Khan, Wajihullah; Asma, Umme

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), which is commonly used to treat falciparum malaria, was assessed in isolates of Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) and Plasmodium vivax (Grassi et Feletti, 1890) ofAligarh, Uttar Pradesh, North India and Taif, Saudi Arabia during 2011-2012. Both the species showed mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as they have common biochemical drug targets. Mutation rate for pfdhfr was higher compared to pvdhfr because the drug was mainly given to treat falciparum malaria. Since both the species coexist, P. vivax was also exposed to SP due to faulty species diagnosis or medication without specific diagnosis. Low level of mutations against SP in P. falciparum of Saudi isolates indicates that the SP combination is still effective for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Since SP is used as first-line of treatment because of high level of resistance against chloroquine (CQ), it may result in spread of higher level of mutations resulting in drug resistance and treatment failure in near future. Therefore, to avoid further higher mutations in the parasite, use of better treatment regimens such as artesunate combination therapy must be introduced against SP combination.

  2. The Plasmodium PI(4)K inhibitor KDU691 selectively inhibits dihydroartemisinin-pretreated Plasmodium falciparum ring-stage parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, L; Ang, X; Chavchich, M; Bonamy, G M C; Selva, J J; Lim, M Yi-Xiu; Bodenreider, C; Yeung, B K S; Nosten, F; Russell, B M; Edstein, M D; Straimer, J; Fidock, D A; Diagana, T T; Bifani, P

    2017-05-24

    Malaria control and elimination are threatened by the emergence and spread of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Experimental evidence suggests that when an artemisinin (ART)-sensitive (K13 wild-type) Plasmodium falciparum strain is exposed to ART derivatives such as dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a small population of the early ring-stage parasites can survive drug treatment by entering cell cycle arrest or dormancy. After drug removal, these parasites can resume growth. Dormancy has been hypothesized to be an adaptive physiological mechanism that has been linked to recrudescence of parasites after monotherapy with ART and, possibly contributes to ART resistance. Here, we evaluate the in vitro drug sensitivity profile of normally-developing P. falciparum ring stages and DHA-pretreated dormant rings (DP-rings) using a panel of antimalarial drugs, including the Plasmodium phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI4K)-specific inhibitor KDU691. We report that while KDU691 shows no activity against rings, it is highly inhibitory against DP-rings; a drug effect opposite to that of ART. Moreover, we provide evidence that KDU691 also kills DP-rings of P. falciparum ART-resistant strains expressing mutant K13.

  3. The evolution and diversity of a low complexity vaccine candidate, merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP-9), in Plasmodium vivax and closely related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenet, Stella M; Pacheco, M Andreína; Bacon, David J; Collins, William E; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A

    2013-12-01

    The merozoite surface protein-9 (MSP-9) has been considered a target for an anti-malarial vaccine since it is one of many proteins involved in the erythrocyte invasion, a critical step in the parasite life cycle. Orthologs encoding this antigen have been found in all known species of Plasmodium parasitic to primates. In order to characterize and investigate the extent and maintenance of MSP-9 genetic diversity, we analyzed DNA sequences of the following malaria parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium gonderi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium simiovale, Plasmodium fieldi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium vivax and evaluated the signature of natural selection in all MSP-9 orthologs. Our findings suggest that the gene encoding MSP-9 is under purifying selection in P. vivax and closely related species. We further explored how selection affected different regions of MSP-9 by comparing the polymorphisms in P. vivax and P. falciparum, and found contrasting patterns between these two species that suggest differences in functional constraints. This observation implies that the MSP-9 orthologs in human parasites may interact differently with the host immune response. Thus, studies carried out in one species cannot be directly translated into the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 on oral microbiota of healthy volunteers: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsri, P; Akkarachaneeyakorn, N; Wongsuwanlert, M; Piwat, S; Nantarakchaikul, P; Teanpaisan, R

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate whether short-term consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 affected levels of oral microbiota in vivo and whether L. rhamnosus SD11 could colonize in the human mouth. We also monitored for potential side effects of the probiotic. The applicability of using L. rhamnosus SD11 compared with Lactobacillus bulgaricus as a starter culture for fermented milk was evaluated. After informed consent, 43 healthy young adults were recruited and randomly assigned to either the probiotic or control group and received fermented milk containing L. rhamnosus SD11 or L. bulgaricus, respectively, once daily for 4 wk. The numbers of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli, and total bacteria in saliva were counted at baseline and then after 4 and 8 wk. An oral examination was performed at baseline and after 8 wk. The persistence of L. rhamnosus SD11 was investigated by DNA fingerprinting using arbitrary primer-PCR. Results demonstrated that statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci and total bacteria were observed in the probiotic group compared with the control group, and the number of lactobacilli was significantly increased in both groups after receiving fermented milks. Lactobacillus rhamnosus SD11 could be detected (in >80% of subjects) up to 4 wk following cessation of dosing among subjects in the probiotic group. No side effects were reported. Thus, L. rhamnosus SD11 could be used as a starter culture for fermented milk. Daily consumption of L. rhamnosus SD11-containing fermented milk for 4 wk may have beneficial effects on oral health by reducing salivary levels of mutans streptococci. The probiotic was apparently able to colonize the oral cavity for a longer time than previously reported. However, the potential benefits of probiotic L. rhamnosus SD11 on oral health require further evaluation with a larger group of volunteers in a longer-term study. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  5. Memory B-Cell and Antibody Responses Induced by Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoite Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahrendorf, W.; Scholzen, A.; Bijker, E.M.; Teirlinck, A.C.; Bastiaens, G.J.H.; Schats, R.; Hermsen, C.C.; Visser, L.G.; Langhorne, J.; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunization of healthy volunteers during receipt of chemoprophylaxis with Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (CPS-immunization) induces sterile protection from malaria. Antibody responses have long been known to contribute to naturally acquired immunity against malaria, but their

  6. Molecular detection of Plasmodium in free-ranging birds and captive flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Mary Irene; Gamble, Kathryn C; Krebs, Bethany; Goldberg, Tony L

    2014-12-01

    Frozen blood samples from 13 species of free-ranging birds (n = 65) and captive Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis) (n = 46) housed outdoors in the Chicago area were screened for Plasmodium. With the use of a modified polymerase chain reaction, 20/65 (30.8%) of free-ranging birds and 26/46 (56.5%) of flamingos were classified as positive for this parasite genus. DNA sequencing of the parasite cytochrome b gene in positive samples demonstrated that eight species of free-ranging birds were infected with five different Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages, and all positive Chilean flamingos were infected with Plasmodium spp. cytochrome b lineages most closely related to organisms in the Novyella subgenus. These results show that Chilean flamingos may harbor subclinical malaria infections more frequently than previously estimated, and that they may have increased susceptibility to some Plasmodium species.

  7. Loading of erythrocyte membrane with pentacyclic triterpenes inhibits Plasmodium falciparum invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Hanne L; Staalsø, Trine; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-01-01

    Lupeol and betulinic acid inhibit the proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum parasites by inhibition of the invasion of merozoites into erythrocytes. This conclusion is based on experiments employing parasite cultures synchronized by magnetic cell sorting (MACS). Identical inhibitory effects were...

  8. Intra-specific diversity of Serratia marcescens in Anopheles mosquito midgut defines Plasmodium transmission capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Hironori; Okado, Kiyoshi; Guelbeogo, Wamdaogo M.; Badolo, Athanase; Aonuma, Hiroka; Nelson, Bryce; Fukumoto, Shinya; Xuan, Xuenan; Sagnon, N'Fale; Kanuka, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    A critical stage in malaria transmission occurs in the Anopheles mosquito midgut, when the malaria parasite, Plasmodium, ingested with blood, first makes contact with the gut epithelial surface. To understand the response mechanisms within the midgut environment, including those influenced by resident microbiota against Plasmodium, we focus on a midgut bacteria species' intra-specific variation that confers diversity to the mosquito's competency for malaria transmission. Serratia marcescens isolated from either laboratory-reared mosquitoes or wild populations in Burkina Faso shows great phenotypic variation in its cellular and structural features. Importantly, this variation is directly correlated with its ability to inhibit Plasmodium development within the mosquito midgut. Furthermore, this anti-Plasmodium function conferred by Serratia marcescens requires increased expression of the flagellum biosynthetic pathway that is modulated by the motility master regulatory operon, flhDC. These findings point to new strategies for controlling malaria through genetic manipulation of midgut bacteria within the mosquito. PMID:23571408

  9. Defining the protein interaction network of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    KAUST Repository

    Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Pain, Arnab; Ravasi, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Malaria, caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, affects around 225. million people yearly and a huge international effort is directed towards combating this grave threat to world health and economic development. Considerable

  10. Molecular Modelling of Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase 4 (CDPK4) from Plasmodium falciparum

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tsekoa, Tsepo L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria continues to be one of the most serious global health challenges. The increasing incidence of drug resistant Plasmodium strains has emphasised the need for urgent action in the development of new therapeutic strategies against this disease...

  11. Plasmodium falciparum population dynamics in a cohort of pregnant women in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guitard, Juliette; Andersen, Pernille; Ermont, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Background: Pregnant women acquire protective antibodies that cross-react with geographically diverse placental Plasmodium falciparum isolates, suggesting that surface molecules expressed on infected erythrocytes by pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) parasites have conserved epitopes and, that de...

  12. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection following intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Ulrike; Kobbe, Robin; Danquah, Ina; Zanger, Philipp; Reither, Klaus; Abruquah, Harry H.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Ziniel, Peter; May, Jürgen; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria morbidity by 20% to 33%. Potentially, however, this intervention may compromise the acquisition of immunity, including the tolerance towards multiple infections with Plasmodium falciparum.

  13. Multiplicity of Plasmodium falciparum infection following intermittent preventive treatment in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, U.; Kobbe, R.; Danquah, I.; Zanger, P.; Reither, K.; Abruquah, H.H.; Grobusch, M.P.; Ziniel, P.; May, J.; Mockenhaupt, F.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Intermittent preventive treatment in infants with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) reduces malaria morbidity by 20% to 33%. Potentially, however, this intervention may compromise the acquisition of immunity, including the tolerance towards multiple infections with Plasmodium

  14. [Application of Nested PCR in the Diagnosis of Imported Plasmodium Ovale Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-cheng; Xu, Chao; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Liu, Gong-zhen; Wang, Wei-yan; Zhao, Gui-hua; Wei, Yan-bin; Wang, Yong-bin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Wei, Qing-kuan

    2015-02-01

    To identity Plasmodium ovale infection by 18S rRNA gene nested PCR. Whole blood and filter paper blood samples of malaria patients in Shandong Province were collected during 2012-2013. The parasites were observed under a microscope with Giemsa staining. The genome DNA of blood samples were extracted as PCR templates. Genus- and species-specific primers were designed according to the Plasmodium 18S rRNA gene sequences. Plasmodium ovale-positive specimens were identified by nested PCR as well as verified by sequencing. There were 7 imported cases of P. ovale infection in the province during 2012-2013. Nested PCR results showed that the P. ovale specific band (800 bp) was amplified in all the 7 specimens. Blast results indicated that the PCR products were consistent with the Plasmodium ovale reference sequence in GenBank. Seven imported cases of ovale malaria in Shandong Province in 2012-2013 are confirmed by nested PCR.

  15. Chromosome Gene Orientation Inversion Networks (GOINs) of Plasmodium Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo-Tumailli, Viviana F; Ortega-Tenezaca, Bernabé; González-Díaz, Humbert

    2018-03-02

    The spatial distribution of genes in chromosomes seems not to be random. For instance, only 10% of genes are transcribed from bidirectional promoters in humans, and many more are organized into larger clusters. This raises intriguing questions previously asked by different authors. We would like to add a few more questions in this context, related to gene orientation inversions. Does gene orientation (inversion) follow a random pattern? Is it relevant to biological activity somehow? We define a new kind of network coined as the gene orientation inversion network (GOIN). GOIN's complex network encodes short- and long-range patterns of inversion of the orientation of pairs of gene in the chromosome. We selected Plasmodium falciparum as a case of study due to the high relevance of this parasite to public health (causal agent of malaria). We constructed here for the first time all of the GOINs for the genome of this parasite. These networks have an average of 383 nodes (genes in one chromosome) and 1314 links (pairs of gene with inverse orientation). We calculated node centralities and other parameters of these networks. These numerical parameters were used to study different properties of gene inversion patterns, for example, distribution, local communities, similarity to Erdös-Rényi random networks, randomness, and so on. We find clues that seem to indicate that gene orientation inversion does not follow a random pattern. We noted that some gene communities in the GOINs tend to group genes encoding for RIFIN-related proteins in the proteome of the parasite. RIFIN-like proteins are a second family of clonally variant proteins expressed on the surface of red cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum. Consequently, we used these centralities as input of machine learning (ML) models to predict the RIFIN-like activity of 5365 proteins in the proteome of Plasmodium sp. The best linear ML model found discriminates RIFIN-like from other proteins with sensitivity and

  16. Chromosome End Repair and Genome Stability in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susannah F; Reed, Jake; Alexander, Noah; Mason, Christopher E; Deitsch, Kirk W; Kirkman, Laura A

    2017-08-08

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates within circulating red blood cells, where it is subjected to conditions that frequently cause DNA damage. The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) is thought to rely almost exclusively on homologous recombination (HR), due to a lack of efficient nonhomologous end joining. However, given that the parasite is haploid during this stage of its life cycle, the mechanisms involved in maintaining genome stability are poorly understood. Of particular interest are the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, which contain the majority of the multicopy variant antigen-encoding genes responsible for virulence and disease severity. Here, we show that parasites utilize a competitive balance between de novo telomere addition, also called "telomere healing," and HR to stabilize chromosome ends. Products of both repair pathways were observed in response to DSBs that occurred spontaneously during routine in vitro culture or resulted from experimentally induced DSBs, demonstrating that both pathways are active in repairing DSBs within subtelomeric regions and that the pathway utilized was determined by the DNA sequences immediately surrounding the break. In combination, these two repair pathways enable parasites to efficiently maintain chromosome stability while also contributing to the generation of genetic diversity. IMPORTANCE Malaria is a major global health threat, causing approximately 430,000 deaths annually. This mosquito-transmitted disease is caused by Plasmodium parasites, with infection with the species Plasmodium falciparum being the most lethal. Mechanisms underlying DNA repair and maintenance of genome integrity in P. falciparum are not well understood and represent a gap in our understanding of how parasites survive the hostile environment of their vertebrate and insect hosts. Our work examines DNA repair in real time by using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing focused on the subtelomeric

  17. Complement Receptor 1 Is a Sialic Acid-Independent Erythrocyte Receptor of Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    Sciences, Bethesda, MD, ...... 14. ABSTRACT Plasmodium falciparum is a highly lethal malaria parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is...parasite of humans. A major portion of its life cycle is dedicated to invading and multiplying inside erythrocytes. The molecular mechanisms of...Complement Receptor 1 Is a Sialic Acid-Independent Erythrocyte Receptor of Plasmodium falciparum Carmenza Spadafora1,2,3, Gordon A. Awandare4

  18. The role of cGMP signalling in regulating life cycle progression of Plasmodium.

    OpenAIRE

    Hopp, CS; Bowyer, PW; Baker, DA

    2012-01-01

    The 3′-5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is the main mediator of cGMP signalling in the malaria parasite. This article reviews the role of PKG in Plasmodium falciparum during gametogenesis and blood stage schizont rupture, as well as the role of the Plasmodium berghei orthologue in ookinete differentiation and motility, and liver stage schizont development. The current views on potential effector proteins downstream of PKG and the mechanisms that may regu...

  19. Enlightening the malaria parasite life cycle: bioluminescent Plasmodium in fundamental and applied research

    OpenAIRE

    Siciliano, Giulia; Alano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The unicellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium impose on human health worldwide the enormous burden of malaria. The possibility to genetically modify several species of malaria parasites represented a major advance in the possibility to elucidate their biology and is now turning laboratory lines of transgenic Plasmodium into precious weapons to fight malaria. Amongst the various genetically modified plasmodia, transgenic parasite lines expressing bioluminescent reporters have bee...

  20. Molecular machinery of signal transduction and cell cycle regulation in Plasmodium

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Fernanda C.; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Garcia, Célia R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of the Plasmodium cell cycle is not understood. Although the Plasmodium falciparum genome is completely sequenced, about 60% of the predicted proteins share little or no sequence similarity with other eukaryotes. This feature impairs the identification of important proteins participating in the regulation of the cell cycle. There are several open questions that concern cell cycle progression in malaria parasites, including the mechanism by which multiple nuclear divisions is co...

  1. Potentiation of Artemisinin Activity against Chloroquine-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Strains by Using Heme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Robert, Anne; Meunier, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    The influence of different metalloporphyrin derivatives on the antimalarial activity of artemisinin was studied with two chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum (FcB1-Colombia and FcM29-Cameroon) cultured in human erythrocytes. This potentiation study indicates that the manganese complex of meso-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin has a significant synergistic effect on the activity of artemisinin against both Plasmodium strains. PMID:10508044

  2. Increased detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sandakan division, Sabah as revealed by PlasmoNex?

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Xiang Ting; Lim, Yvonne AL; Vythilingam, Indra; Chew, Ching Hoong; Lee, Ping Chin; Ngui, Romano; Tan, Tian Chye; Yap, Nan Jiun; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Chua, Kek Heng

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is a simian malaria parasite that is widespread in humans in Malaysian Borneo. However, little is known about the incidence and distribution of this parasite in the Sandakan division, Malaysian Borneo. Therefore, the aim of the present epidemiological study was to investigate the incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi as well as other Plasmodium species in this division based on a most recent developed hexaplex PCR system (PlasmoNex?). Methods A total of 189 ...

  3. EFEKTIVITAS PROJECT BASED LEARNING TERHADAP KETERAMPILAN MENULIS BAHAN AJAR IPA CALON GURU SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Susilawati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effectiveness of Project Based Learning (PjBL of writing skills on Science teaching materials to elementary school teachers candidates.This research used experimental methods (single-one group pretest-posttest design with instruments such as portofolio assessment sheets, observation sheets, and  questionnaire sheets .The effectiveness of analyzing used n-gain and t-test .The subject of this research is elementary school teachers candidates who contracted “Science Learning”subject  in a program study teacher education of elementary school at University Muhammadiyah Cirebon. The findings of this study has produced a contextual book for Science teaching material. In addition, there is an increased of elementary school teachers candidates who prepared the teaching materials in a printed form relevant to the needs and characters of the students as well as the curriculum. It is proven by assessments that the ability rose significantly from 2,71 (category  is adequate skill to 3,83 (category is skilled and supported by the n-gain value  at 0,87. Based on the t-test count of 8,050 larger than t-table 2,045. Recommendations from this research is that PjBL as a learning model could become one of the alternative learning models to improve writing skills material for elementary school teachers candidates. Keyword: Project-Based-Learning, science-materials-teaching, elementary-schoo-teachers- candidates.   Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menganalisis efektivitas Project Based Learning (PjBL terhadap keterampilan menulis bahan ajar IPA Calon Guru SD. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksperimen (Single-One Group Pretest-Posttest Design dengan menggunakan instrumen berupa lembar penilaian portofolio, lembar observasi, dan lembar angket. Efektivitas dianalisis menggunakan n-gain dan uji T. Subjek penelitian ini adalah mahasiswa calon guru yang mengontrak matakuliah Pembelajaran IPA di

  4. SISTEM INFORMASI COMMUNICATION BOOK BERBASIS WEB (Studi Kasus : SD Salman Al Farisi Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyani Fitriyani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Communication Book kini sudah menjadi istilah yang akrab di kalangan murid SD. Sebagian sekolah sudah menerapkannya sebagai sarana komunikasi antara guru dengan orangtua. Communication Book berbeda dengan rapor atau laporan reguler. Rapor dan laporan reguler biasanya diberikan pada jangka waktu tertentu, sedangkan communication book bisa digunakan kapan saja saat diperlukan. Misalnya untuk menyampaikan pengumuman yang berkaitan dengan kegiatan proses belajar-mengajar. Communication book ini bertujuan agar orangtua mengetahui kejadian di sekolah atau hal-hal yang memang harus diketahui orangtua. Misalnya, alat-alat apa yang harus dibawa anak pada hari tertentu, dan sebagainya. Namun sistem komunikasi ini masih bersifat konvensional, dimana guru menulis informasi mengenai kegiatan belajar siswa di communication book yang harus dibawa setiap hari oleh siswa, sehingga jika siswa lupa untuk membawa communication book, maka guru tidak dapat menulis informasi yang akan disampaikan. Sistem informasi ini bertujuan untuk membuat sistem informasi communication book secara online di SD Salman Al Farisi Bandung. Sistem yang dibuat berbasis PHP dan menggunakan MySQL sebagai databasenya. Sistem informasi communication book terdapat menu-menu yang dapat mendukung komunikasi antara guru dan orangtua seperti menu informasi, kegiatan, tugas, ujian, surat panggilan dan lain-lain. Diharapkan dengan penerapan sistem ini di SD Salman Al Farisi Bandung dapat membantu komunikasi secara online dan real time. Sistem informasi ini dimulai dengan merancang hubungan antara database dan proses bisnis yang terjadi di dalam web. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan desain tampilan dan pembuatan program. Kata Kunci : Web, Php, Mysql, Communication Book. ABSTRACT The Communication book has now become a familiar term among the elementary school students. Some schools have implemented it as a means of communication between teachers and parents. Different the communication book with

  5. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN MATERI PECAHAN BERBASIS TEORI BRUNER DI KELAS IV SD LABSCHOOL UNESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Wijayanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan perangkat pembelajaran pada materi pecahan tema 3 berbasis teori Bruner ditinjau dari kualitas produk secara umum (kevalidan, kepraktisan, dan keefektifan dan dalam peningkatan kemampuan pemecahan masalah dan prestasi belajar peserta didik di kelas IV SD Labschool Unesa. Penelitian ini termasuk penelitian dan pengembangan yang menggunakan model yang dikembangkan oleh Borg & Gall. Subjek penelitian dalam uji coba terbatas berjumlah 4 siswa, sedangkan dalam uji coba lapangan berjumlah 8 siswa. Subjek uji coba produk operasional pada kelas eksperimen sebanyak 17 siswa dan kelas kontrol sebanyak 18 siswa. Pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan lembar penilaian produk perangkat pembelajaran, lembar observasi guru, lembar observasi peserta didik, tes hasil belajar, angket respon guru, dan agket respon peserta didik. Analisis data menggunakan independent sample t-test dengan taraf signifikansi 0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perangkat pembelajaran hasil pengembangan dinyatakan valid dengan kategori sebagai berikut: silabus berkategori baik, RPP berkategori sangat baik, tes hasil belajar berkategori baik, dan media berkategori sangat baik, sehingga rerata hasil semua perangkat pembelajaran adalah berkategori baik. Penerapan perangkat pembelajaran secara umum dapat terlaksana dengan baik. Berdasarkan hasil uji coba kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol, terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada ketercapaian hasil belajar sehingga perangkat pembelajaran dikatakan efektif, sedangkan untuk kemampuan pemecahan masalah dan prestasi belajar siswa yang mengikuti pembelajaran menggunakan perangkat pembelajaran berbasis teori Bruner hasil pengembangan mengalami peningkatan. Kata Kunci: perangkat pembelajaran, teori Bruner, kemampuan pemecahan masalah, prestasi belajar DEVELOPING TEACHING KIT BASED ON THE THEORY OF BRUNER IN GRADE FOUR STUDENTS OF SD LABSCHOOL UNESA Abstract This study aims to develop a

  6. Clinical, hematological and genetic data of a cohort of children with hemoglobin SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo do Val Rezende

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The hemoglobin FSD is very uncommon in newborn screening programs for sickle cell disease. In the program of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the clinical course of children with hemoglobin SD was observed to be heterogeneous. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence (1999-2012 and to describe the natural history of a cohort of newborns with hemoglobin SD. METHODS: Isoelectric focusing was the primary method used in newborn screening. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and gene sequencing were used to identify mutant alleles and for haplotyping. Gap-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect alpha-thalassemia. RESULTS: Eleven cases of hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and eight of Hb S-Korle Bu were detected. Other variants with hemoglobin D mobility were not identified. All hemoglobin D-Punjab and hemoglobin Korle Bu alleles were associated with haplotype I. Among the children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab, there were four with the ßS CAR haplotype, six with the Benin haplotype, and one atypical. Results of laboratory tests for hemoglobin S/D-Punjab and hemoglobin S-Korle Bu were: hemoglobin 8.0 and 12.3 g/dL (p-value <0.001, leukocyte count 13.9 × 109/L and 10.5 × 109/L (p-value = 0.003, reticulocytes 7.5% and 1.0% (p-value <0.001, hemoglobin F concentration 16.1% and 6.9% (p-value = 0.001 and oxygen saturation 91.9% and 97% (p-value = 0.002, respectively. Only hemoglobin S/D-Punjab children had acute pain crises and needed blood transfusions or hydroxyurea. Those with the Benin ßS haplotype had higher total hemoglobin and hemoglobin F concentrations compared to the CAR haplotype. Transcranial Doppler was normal in all children. CONCLUSION: The clinical course and blood cell counts of children with hemoglobin S/D-Punjab were very similar to those of hemoglobin SS children. In contrast, children with hemoglobin S-Korle Bu had clinical course and blood cell counts like children with the sickle

  7. DESCRIPTION OF THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STUDENTS IN SD NEGERI 3 PELIATAN, SUBDISTRICT UBUD, GIANYAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Indah Hapsari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Elementary school student are the group of student that potentialy having problem with nutrition due to their eating patern and development status. The cases of malnutrition in Ubud is still highly noted even if Ubud is kown as well-developed subdistrict. The aimed of the study is to descript the nutritional status and other factors related to among the students of SD Negeri 3 Peliatan, Subdistrict Ubud, Gianyar. This study was done on August 19th 2011 until August 20th 2011 and the study design was a cross-sectional. Subjects were the grade 5th and 6th students with a total of 70 student, were chosen by quota sampling technique. Every subject was asked to administer questionnaire, to get the informaton on characteristic, eating pattern and breakfast habit. Antropometric measurements were done to gain the nutritional status of sampel. History of low birth weight was collected from the parents through administering self-administered questionnaires. The data was analysed descriptively. Result showed that subjects tend to have high malnutrition cases, in whom 25.7% were undernutrition and 24.3% were overnutrition 24.3%. Majority of subjects who have good nutritional status were those who admitted to have balanced eating pattern and breakfast habit. In addition, subjects with good nutrition status tended to have good academic scores and those with history of low birth weight seemed to have good and over nutritional status. As the students of SD Negeri 3 Peliatan seemed to have remarkable problem of malnutrition, it is suggested to inform their parents regarding the best eating pattern and to emphasize the importance of berakfast habit to achieve and maintain the good nutritional status for their children. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso

  8. New excited states in sd-shell nucleus {sup 33}P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, B.; Reiter, P.; Arnswald, K.; Hess, H.; Hirsch, R.; Lewandowski, L.; Schneiders, D.; Seidlitz, M.; Siebeck, B.; Steinbach, T.; Vogt, A.; Wendt, A.; Wolf, K. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Isospin-symmetry breaking in nuclear physics is mainly described by Mirror-Energy Differences (MED) for mirror nuclei or Triplet-Energy Differences (TED) for isobaric triplets. Modified USD-calculations successfully reproduce MED for T=1,3/2,2 sd-shell nuclei. Refined tests of theory are given by lifetime measurements in order to deduce transition-strength values. In order to study the mirror pair {sup 33}Ar and {sup 33}P, the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 13}C+{sup 26}Mg at 46 MeV was measured at the Cologne tandem accelerator and the HORUS spectrometer employing the Doppler-Shift-Attenuation-Method (DSAM). First results yielded new γ-ray transitions in {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S. The level scheme of {sup 33}P was extended up to excitation energies of 10 MeV. Spins and parities of the new levels were determined exploiting γγ-angular correlations. Together with values from the proton-rich T{sub z} = - 3/2 partner, the levels are compared to shell model calculations, describing excitation energies of sd -shell mirror pairs. The understanding of isospin symmetry and isospin-symmetry breaking is a fundamental question in nuclear physics. Isospin-symmetry breaking is mainly described by Mirror-Energy Differences (MED) for mirror nuclei or Triplet-Energy Differences (TED) for isobaric triplets. Modified USD{sup m}{sub 1,2,3}-calculations successfully reproduced MED for the mirror nuclei {sup 33}Ar and {sup 33}P. Both {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S were produced at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator employing the fusion-evaporation reaction {sup 13}C+{sup 26}Mg at 46 MeV and spectroscopically investigated using 14 HPGe detectors. Several new energy states (in {sup 33}P) and γ-ray transitions (in {sup 33}P and {sup 33}S) were detected. Spins and parities of the new levels in {sup 33}P were determined exploiting γγ-angular correlations. The level scheme of {sup 33}P was extended up to excitation energies of 10 MeV.

  9. PEMBERDAYAAN ANAK SD DALAM UPAYA PENINGKATAN KONSUMSI GARAM BERYODIUM DI DESA APUAN KECAMATAN SUSUT KABUPATEN BANGLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Adhi K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD is the most single common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Apuan Village, Bangli Regency is categorized as endemic areas (TGR=20,3% according to the definition from Health Office reports of Bali Province in 2008. One of the approaches that might be worth considering in alleviating the problem is the empowerment of elementary school children in an effort to increase the consumption of iodized salt in household. This approach aimed at empowering children to provide information to their parents on iodized salt consumption. Community services activities were conducted from December 16 to 21 October 2010 in SD 1 and SD 3 Apuan involving 62 elementary school children. The main activities were the provision of knowledge and guidance to elementary school children about the benefits of iodized salt. The first phase of the activities consists of examining the level of iodine in salt. This phase was then followed by giving the students a pre-test prior to the guidance and a post-test after the guidance for measuring the level of improvement on knowledge of elementary school children about iodized salt. The second phase was conducted one week after the first phase by measuring the level of iodine in the household salt of the same respondents. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical by computer program. Results pre-test and post-tests showed an increase in the knowledge for good knowledge category (0% to 31%, and moderate knowledge category (3.2% to 40.3% and while a decrease in the limited knowledge category (96.8% to 9.7%. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p <0.05. Test results that contain iodine salt showed increased percentage of 72.6% in the first phase to 96.7% in the second phase. It can be concluded that elementary school children might become a good initiator to improve

  10. Proses Berpikir Siswa SD dalam Melakukan Estimasi Masalah Berhitung Berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Rizal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Thinking Process of Primary-school Students of Different Sexes in Estimating Arithmetic Problems. This case study is intended to explore the thinking process of the fifth-year students of different sexes in estimating arithmetic problems. Two students, one male and one female, belonging to the high achievers in a mathematics test were selected for the study and then interviewed, assigned to solve arithmetic problems, and finally asked to think aloud their thinking process. The study reveals that the thinking process of both the male and female subjects is in the form of accommodation as they ap­proached the arithmetic problems by repeatedly reading the tasks. Though employing the same thinking process, in the planning stage, the male subject made use of rounding and compatible number strategies, whereas the female one used only rounding strategy. In implementing the plan, the male subject em­ployed mental counting through assimilation, but the female one used algorithm through accommoda­tion. In the evaluating stage, the male subject traced back his work through mental counting, while the female one utilized reverse operations. Abstrak: Proses Berpikir Siswa SD dalam Melakukan Estimasi Masalah Berhitung Berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin. Penelitian ini ingin mendeskripsikan proses berpikir siswa laki-laki dan perempuan yang berkemampuan matematika tinggi dalam melakukan estimasi. Penelitian dilakukan di kelas V SD, dengan subjek satu siswa laki-laki dan satu siswa perempuan yang memiliki skor 75 ke atas dalam tes kemampuan matematika. Data dikumpulkan dengan wawancara, pemberian tes dan think aloud. Analisis dilakukan dengan menelaah seluruh data, reduksi data, pengolompokan data, kategorisasi, pengkodean, dan pemeriksaan kredibilitas data dengan triangulasi waktu. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa proses berpikir keduanya adalah akomodasi. Dalam membuat rencana, laki-laki menggunakan rounding dan compatible number strategy, sedangkan

  11. EVALUASI PEMBELAJARAN ANAK BERKEBUTUHAN KHUSUS (ABK DI KELAS INKLUSIF DI SD PLUS DARUL 'ULUM JOMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Maftuhatin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi permasalahan belum ada standar evaluasi pembelajaran yang pasti untuk anak yang memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan, walaupun mereka mendapat pelayanan pendidikan di kelas inklusif. Karena itu penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari solusi pemecahan masalah bagaimana sistem perencanaan evaluasi pembelajaran, bentuk evaluasi, bentuk pelaporan hasil evaluasi yang terdapat di kelas inklusif. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada  perencanaan evaluasi pembelajaran, bentuk evaluasi yang dilakukan, dan bentuk laporan evaluasi yang telah dilakukan di kelas inklusif yang terdapat di SD Plus Darul Ulum. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode interview,observasi dan dokumentasi. Obyek penelitian adalah kepala sekolah, guru-guru pendamping ABK, serta koordinator kelas inklusi disertai dengan data-data di lapangan yang dapat mendukung penelitian ini. Hasil penelitian menyimpulkan bahwa evaluasi pembelajaran sudah cukup bagus karena guru sudah menerapkan dua metode dalam evaluasi yaitu dengan soal yang disamakan dengan reguler dan yang kedua dengan soal sesuai dengan kebutuhan mereka, disertai dengan portofolio yang mencatat perkembangan mereka selama pembelajaran.This research is based on the lack of learning evaluation standard  for the children with special education need. It is based on the fact that inclusive class for them has no evaluation standard yet. Therefore, the research was used to figure out; the problem, method and the form of learning evaluation planning system. It also used to find out the result report form of learning evaluation at inclusive class, SD Plus  Darul Ulum. The focus of the research were the problem, method and the form of learning evaluation planning system. This research was done by interviewing, observation and documentation. Meanwhile the targets of the research were teachers for children with special needs, inclusion class coordinator and the supporting data.Based on the research, it can be

  12. Checks and balances? DNA replication and the cell cycle in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Holly; Duffy, Craig W; Merrick, Catherine J

    2018-03-27

    It is over 100 years since the life-cycle of the malaria parasite Plasmodium was discovered, yet its intricacies remain incompletely understood - a knowledge gap that may prove crucial for our efforts to control the disease. Phenotypic screens have partially filled the void in the antimalarial drug market, but as compound libraries eventually become exhausted, new medicines will only come from directed drug development based on a better understanding of fundamental parasite biology. This review focusses on the unusual cell cycles of Plasmodium, which may present a rich source of novel drug targets as well as a topic of fundamental biological interest. Plasmodium does not grow by conventional binary fission, but rather by several syncytial modes of replication including schizogony and sporogony. Here, we collate what is known about the various cell cycle events and their regulators throughout the Plasmodium life-cycle, highlighting the differences between Plasmodium, model organisms and other apicomplexan parasites and identifying areas where further study is required. The possibility of DNA replication and the cell cycle as a drug target is also explored. Finally the use of existing tools, emerging technologies, their limitations and future directions to elucidate the peculiarities of the Plasmodium cell cycle are discussed.

  13. 77 FR 27417 - Foreign-Trade Zone 220-Sioux Falls, SD; Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Rosenbauer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... is used for the production of emergency vehicles and firefighting equipment (pumps, tankers, rescue... drives, DC motors, static converters, rechargeable flashlights, flashlight parts, electrical foam..., LLC, (Emergency Vehicles/Firefighting Equipment), Lyons, SD The Sioux Falls Development Foundation...

  14. The Implications for the Royal Marines Command (RMC) of Operational Manoeuvre From the Sea (OMFTS) and Sea Dragon (SD)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maynard, A. T

    1997-01-01

    .... The United States Marine Corps, as part of a United States initiative, is developing OMFTS, a new amphibious power projection strategy, and has established SD, an experimental process to test its new...

  15. Anti-phospholipid antibodies in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S D; Hviid, L

    1993-01-01

    Plasma levels of antibodies against phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cardiolipin (CL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in patients from malaria endemic area of Sudan and The Gambia. Some Sudanese adults produced IgM antibodies against all three types...... of phospholipids (PL) during an acute Plasmodium falciparum infection. The anti-PL antibody titre returned to preinfection levels in most of the donors 30 days after the disease episode. IgG titres against PI, PC and CL were low. In Gambian children with malaria, IgM antibody titres against PI and PC were...... significantly higher in those with severe malaria than in those with mild malaria. These results show that a proportion of malaria patients produce anti-PL antibodies during infection and that titres of these antibodies are associated with the severity of disease....

  16. Current status of Plasmodium knowlesi vectors: a public health concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vythilingam, I; Wong, M L; Wan-Yussof, W S

    2018-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi a simian malaria parasite is currently affecting humans in Southeast Asia. Malaysia has reported the most number of cases and P. knowlesi is the predominant species occurring in humans. The vectors of P. knowlesi belong to the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles mosquitoes. These are generally described as forest-dwelling mosquitoes. With deforestation and changes in land-use, some species have become predominant in farms and villages. However, knowledge on the distribution of these vectors in the country is sparse. From a public health point of view it is important to know the vectors, so that risk factors towards knowlesi malaria can be identified and control measures instituted where possible. Here, we review what is known about the knowlesi malaria vectors and ascertain the gaps in knowledge, so that future studies could concentrate on this paucity of data in-order to address this zoonotic problem.

  17. Transformation of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Philip J; Cunningham, Deirdre; Jarra, William; Lawton, Jennifer; Langhorne, Jean; Thompson, Joanne

    2011-04-01

    The rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi shares many features with human malaria species, including P. falciparum, and is the in vivo model of choice for many aspects of malaria research in the mammalian host, from sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes, to antigenic variation and host immunity and immunopathology. This protocol describes an optimized method for the transformation of mature blood-stage P.c. chabaudi and a description of a vector that targets efficient, single crossover integration into the P.c. chabaudi genome. Transformed lines are reproducibly generated and selected within 14-20 d, and show stable long-term protein expression even in the absence of drug selection. This protocol, therefore, provides the scientific community with a robust and reproducible method to generate transformed P.c. chabaudi parasites expressing fluorescent, bioluminescent and model antigens that can be used in vivo to dissect many of the fundamental principles of malaria infection.

  18. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewaldt Engelbrecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction.

  19. On Programmed Cell Death in Plasmodium falciparum: Status Quo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Dewaldt; Durand, Pierre Marcel; Coetzer, Thérèsa Louise

    2012-01-01

    Conflicting arguments and results exist regarding the occurrence and phenotype of programmed cell death (PCD) in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Inconsistencies relate mainly to the number and type of PCD markers assessed and the different methodologies used in the studies. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge and empirical evidence for PCD in the intraerythrocytic stages of P. falciparum. We consider possible reasons for discrepancies in the data and offer suggestions towards more standardised investigation methods in this field. Furthermore, we present genomic evidence for PCD machinery in P. falciparum. We discuss the potential adaptive or nonadaptive role of PCD in the parasite life cycle and its possible exploitation in the development of novel drug targets. Lastly, we pose pertinent unanswered questions concerning the PCD phenomenon in P. falciparum to provide future direction. PMID:22287973

  20. Variant Plasmodium ovale isolated from a patient infected in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Eskild

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data have found that Plasmodium ovale can be separated in two distinct species: classic and variant P. ovale based on multilocus typing of different genes. This study presents a P. ovale isolate from a patient infected in Ghana together with an analysis of the small subunit RNA, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, cysteine protease and lactate dehydrogenase genes, which show that the sample is a variant P. ovale and identical or highly similar to variant P. ovale isolated from humans in South-East Asia and Africa, and from a chimpanzee in Cameroon. The split between the variant and classic P. ovale is estimated to have occurred 1.7 million years ago.

  1. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Learn, Gerald H; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Malenke, Jordan A; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Ramirez, Miguel A; Crystal, Patricia A; Smith, Andrew G; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Piel, Alex K; Stewart, Fiona A; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A; Hart, Terese B; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L; Shaw, George M; Rayner, Julian C; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.

  2. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  3. Genetic polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Loreto, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijar, Gisely; Padilla, Carlos; Marquiño, Wilmer; Falconi, Eduardo; Montoya, Ysabel

    2002-04-01

    Eight genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum were detected after analysing blood samples obtained from 30 Peruvian jungle-dwelling patients in Loreto, a high transmission area for P. falciparum, using amplification of the polymorphic marker gene GLURP (glutamate-rich protein). Genotypes I (GLURP450) and VIII (GLURP800) were the most common (15/30 and 13/30, respectively). This single copy gene showed 15 patients to be infected with a single genotype of P. falciparum; the other 15 were infected with mixed genotypes, one of them with 4 genotypes. These findings are compatible with a high genetic complexity of P. falciparum. Further investigations are needed, using this and other markers, in order to design malaria control measures in Peru.

  4. Antibodies to a recombinant glutamate-rich Plasmodium falciparum protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Petersen, E; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1992-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum antigen gene coding for a 220-kD glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) has been cloned, and the 783 C-terminal amino acids of this protein (GLURP489-1271) have been expressed as a beta-galactosidase fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The encoded 783 amino acid residues contain two...... areas of repeated amino acid sequences. Antibodies against recombinant GLURP489-1271, as well as against a synthetic peptide corresponding to GLURP899-916, and against a synthetic peptide representing the major glutamate rich repeat sequence from the P. falciparum ring erythrocyte surface antigen (Pf155...... between the anti-GLURP489-1271 and anti-(EENV)6 antibody responses. The data provide indirect evidence for a protective role of antibodies reacting with recombinant GLURP489-1271 as well as with the synthetic peptide (EENV)6 from the Pf155/RESA....

  5. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Plasmodium vivax Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael T; Yeung, Shunmay; Patouillard, Edith; Cibulskis, Richard

    2016-12-28

    The continued success of efforts to reduce the global malaria burden will require sustained funding for interventions specifically targeting Plasmodium vivax The optimal use of limited financial resources necessitates cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of strategies for diagnosing and treating P. vivax and vector control tools. Herein, we review the existing published evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for controlling P. vivax, identifying nine studies focused on diagnosis and treatment and seven studies focused on vector control. Although many of the results from the much more extensive P. falciparum literature can be applied to P. vivax, it is not always possible to extrapolate results from P. falciparum-specific cost-effectiveness analyses. Notably, there is a need for additional studies to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of radical cure with primaquine for the prevention of P. vivax relapses with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase testing. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Infection by Plasmodium falciparum parasites can lead to substantial protective immunity to malaria, and available evidence suggest that acquisition of protection against some severe malaria syndromes can be fairly rapid. Although these facts have raised hopes that the development of effective...... protective immunity to P. falciparum malaria is acquired following natural exposure to the parasites is beginning to emerge, not least thanks to studies that have combined clinical and epidemiological data with basic immunological research. This framework involves IgG with specificity for clonally variant...... antigens on the surface of the infected erythrocytes, can explain some of the difficulties in relating particular immune responses with specificity for well-defined antigenic targets to clinical protection, and suggests a radically new approach to controlling malaria-related morbidity and mortality...

  7. Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527

  8. Molecular monitoring of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genton Blaise

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs are recommended for use against uncomplicated malaria in areas of multi-drug resistant malaria, such as sub-Saharan Africa. However, their long-term usefulness in these high transmission areas remains unclear. It has been suggested that documentation of the S769N PfATPase6 mutations may indicate an emergence of artemisinin resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in the field. The present study assessed PfATPase6 mutations (S769N and A623E in 615 asymptomatic P. falciparum infections in Tanzania but no mutant genotype was detected. This observation suggests that resistance to artemisinin has not yet been selected in Tanzania, supporting the Ministry of Health's decision to adopt artemether+lumefantrine as first-line malaria treatment. The findings recommend further studies to assess PfATPase6 mutations in sentinel sites and verify their usefulness in monitoring emergency of ACT resistance.

  9. Nuclear ground state properties and self-consistent calculations with the Skyrme interaction. II. S-D shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    1975-04-01

    Hartree-Fock results concerning the ground state properties of some S-D shell nuclei are discussed. Two different Skyrme interactions have been used. They both lead to good agreement with the experimental total binding energies, charge radii and multipole moments. In particular the observed prolate-oblate transitions occuring in the S-D shell are reproduced. The calculated spectroscopic factors are also shown to be consistent with experimental data [fr

  10. The transcriptome of the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Bozdech

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum is the causative agent of the most burdensome form of human malaria, affecting 200-300 million individuals per year worldwide. The recently sequenced genome of P. falciparum revealed over 5,400 genes, of which 60% encode proteins of unknown function. Insights into the biochemical function and regulation of these genes will provide the foundation for future drug and vaccine development efforts toward eradication of this disease. By analyzing the complete asexual intraerythrocytic developmental cycle (IDC transcriptome of the HB3 strain of P. falciparum, we demonstrate that at least 60% of the genome is transcriptionally active during this stage. Our data demonstrate that this parasite has evolved an extremely specialized mode of transcriptional regulation that produces a continuous cascade of gene expression, beginning with genes corresponding to general cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, and ending with Plasmodium-specific functionalities, such as genes involved in erythrocyte invasion. The data reveal that genes contiguous along the chromosomes are rarely coregulated, while transcription from the plastid genome is highly coregulated and likely polycistronic. Comparative genomic hybridization between HB3 and the reference genome strain (3D7 was used to distinguish between genes not expressed during the IDC and genes not detected because of possible sequence variations. Genomic differences between these strains were found almost exclusively in the highly antigenic subtelomeric regions of chromosomes. The simple cascade of gene regulation that directs the asexual development of P. falciparum is unprecedented in eukaryotic biology. The transcriptome of the IDC resembles a "just-in-time" manufacturing process whereby induction of any given gene occurs once per cycle and only at a time when it is required. These data provide to our knowledge the first comprehensive view of the timing of transcription throughout the

  11. New Pulse Timing Measurements of the sdBV Star CS 1246

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchens Zackary L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available CS 1246 is a hot subdwarf B star discovered in 2009 to exhibit a single, large-amplitude radial pulsation. An O-C diagram constructed from this mode revealed reflex motion due to the presence of a low-mass M dwarf, as well as a long-term trend consistent with a decrease in the pulsational period. The orbital reflex motion was later confirmed with radial velocity measurements. Using eight years of data collected with the Skynet Robotic Telescope Network, we show that the pulsation amplitude of CS 1246 is decaying nonlinearly. We also present an updated O-C diagram, which might now indicate a positive Ṗ and a new 2.09 ± 0.05 yr oscillation consistent with orbital reflex motion of the entire inner sdB+dM binary, possibly due to the gravitational influence of a circumbinary planet with minimum mass . However, unlike the presence of the M dwarf, we hesistate to claim this object as a definitive detection since intrinsic variability of the pulsation phase could theoretically produce a similar effect.

  12. PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA MELAYU DI SD AMANASAK KABUPATEN MUANG PATTANI THAILAND SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasuenah Dumeedae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkap pelaksanaan proses pembelajaran bahasa Melayu di SD Amanasak Kabupaten Muang Pattani Thailand Selatan, meliputi pendekatan, metode, strategi tek-nik dan media pembelajaran, interaksi guru dan siswa, serta peran guru, siswa, dan materi. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif. Subjek adalah guru, para siswa dan wakil kepala seko-lah, objek adalah pelaksanaan pembelajaran bahasa Melayu di lembaga tersebut. Teknik pengumpulan data adalah observasi berpartisipasi, wawancara, dan studi dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian ini menun-jukkan bahwa pendekatan, metode, strategi dan teknik pembelajaran yang digunakan cukup membuat siswa antusias untuk mempelajari bahasa Melayu. Media pembelajaran yang digunakan dalam labora-torium telah digunakan dengan maksimal, namun tidak sering digunakan. Interaksi guru dan siswa berjalan dengan baik, meskipun belum seluruhnya menggunakan bahasa Melayu dan bahkan penggu-naan bahasa Thai masih lebih banyak daripada bahasa Melayu. Guru telah menjalani tugasnya sebagai fasilitator, perencana, dan pengontrol dengan baik. Siswa telah diberi kesempatan untuk mencari sum-ber belajar tambahan, sementara materi yang ada cukup membuat siswa bersemangat mengikuti pem-belajaran. Pengelolaan kelas dalam belajar mengajar sudah meningkatkan hasil pembelajaran dengan efektif, dan efisien. Evaluasi proses pelajaran menggunakan tes berbahasa dari membaca, berbicara, menyimak dan menulis. Alat evaluasi sudah sesuai dengan rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran dan kemampuan siswa yang berhubungan dengan aspek kognitif, sosial, afektif, dan personal. Pengukur ini sudah mencakup materi dan keterampilan berbahasa siswa. Kata kunci: bahasa Melayu, pelaksanaan pembelajaran

  13. De weg van Vlaamse 'daders' naar de Gestapo. De tolken van de Antwerpse Sipo-SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robby Van Eetvelde

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Flemish Collaborators and their Route to the Gestapo. The Translators of the Sipo-SD in AntwerpDuring the Second World War, Nazi-Germany used the Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo in its occupied territories and at the home front to maintain order and execute the racial policy of the regime. With a head office in Brussels and branches in Antwerp, Ghent, Liège and Charleroi, the Gestapo was also present in military occupied Belgium. The German agents were not completely up to their task. They lacked the knowledge of the regional languages and circumstances. The help of the local Belgian populace was therefore a necessity. What motivated these men to collaborate so assiduously with the German occupier? This research is based on the postwar criminal case files, compiled by the military courts in the context of the prosecution of those who collaborated. Several biographies of Flemish collaborators with the Gestapo office in Antwerp have been reconstructed. In this way, four major motivational groups can be distinguished: opportunists, ideological perpetrators, ‘traditional’ collaborators and former members of the resistance. Contrary to existing research into similar groups of men, financial or material gain was not their primary motive. Various psychological factors played a greater role.

  14. Designing laboratory activities in elementary school oriented to scientific approach for teachers SD-Kreatif Bojonegoro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwikoranto; Surasmi, W. A.; Suparto, A.; Tresnaningsih, S.; Sambada, D.; Setyowati, T.; Faqih, A.; Setiani, R.

    2018-03-01

    Important science lessons are introduced to elementary school students through inquiry. This training is important to do because one key determinant of succesful laboratory activities is teachers. This course aims to enable teachers to design an inquiry-based Laboratory Activity and be able to apply it in the classroom. The training was conducted at SD-Kreatif Bojonegoro by Modeling, Design Laboratory activities and Implementing. The results of Laboratory Activities designed to trace the seven aspects that can support the development of inquiry skills in either category. The teacher's response in this activity is positive. The conclusion of this training can improve the ability of teachers in designing and implementing laboratory activities of Science and then expected to positively affect the frequency of science laboratory activities. Usually teachers use learning by using this Laboratory Activity, it will be affected on the pattern of inquiry behavior to the students as well so that will achieve the expected goals. Teachers are expected to continue for other topics, even for other similarly characterized subjects. This habitation is important so that the teacher's skill in making Laboratory Activity continues to be well honed and useful for the students.

  15. DESAIN MATERI BANGUN DATAR MENGGUNAKAN ORIGAMI BERKONTEKS TANGRAM DI SD KELAS II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisnani Lisnani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The study aims to improve the ability of mathematical communication in recognizing, grouping various types of flat wake. The subjects of the study were elementary school students Class IIA in SD Negeri 43 Palembang amounted to 27 people. Data collection is done through observation sheets, interviews, tests, documentation, and field notes. The research method used is a research design consisting of three stages: First stage, preliminary design / preparing for the experiment; The second stage, design experiment consisting of pilot and teaching experiment. The third stage, retrospective analysis. This study develops a series of activities and strategies that learners do on a flat wake material. The results of this study in the form of learning trajectory (learning path in each activity are: First activity, learners recognize various shapes and characteristics of wake up flat with conventional way. Then, on the second activity, learners can recognize the types and characteristics of the wake up trained by using the model match a make. Furthermore, the third activity, enhances its mathematical communication ability by using origang tangram context. Keywords : Design research, mathematical communication, make a match, origami

  16. PEMBELAJARAN SAINS SD UNTUK SISWA TUNANETRA DI SLB-A YAKETUNIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Eki Saputri

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pelaksanaan pembelajaran sains SD di SLB-A Yaketunis. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan jenis penelitian etnografi kelas. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis data Miles dan Huberman yaitu: reduksi, penyajian, dan verifikasi data. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran sains di SLB-A Yaketunis diawali dengan analisis kebutuhan siswa. Materi pembelajaran yang dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk konkrit dan media pembelajaran tersedia atau dapat disediakan guru, maka indera perabaanlah yang dimaksimalkan oleh guru. Sedangkan materi pembelajaran yang tidak dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk konkrit, hanya diampaikan dengan memanfaatkan komunikasi verbal yang bersifat kontekstual. Budaya kelas di dalam pembelajaran sains di SLB-A Yaketunis adalah menumbuhkan rasa ingin tahu siswa terhadap fenomena-fenomena yang ada di alam semesta, pemanfaatan indera perabaan, dan pendengaran siswa di dalam belajar sains. Budaya tersebut dikembangkan dan dimanfaatkan sepanjang pembelajaran sains agar siswa menguasai keterampilan proses sains dasar (observasi, klasifikasi, mengukur, komunikasi, prediksi, dan inferensi untuk mempelajari fakta, konsep, prinsip, dan teori dalam mata pelajaran sains. Kata kunci: pembelajaran sains dan siswa tunanetra.

  17. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  18. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Karaman, Isa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L -1 HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L -1 HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g -1 . The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L -1 . Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  19. PROBLEMATIKA PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA INDONESIA DI MI/SD DAN ALTERNATIF PEMECAHANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuentie Sova Puspidalia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The ultimate goal of Indonesian teaching is to help learners able to integrate themselves into the society successfully. This aim is in line with the development of science and technology in the globalization era, in which the role of the Indonesian language as a mean of personal development is inevitably challenged by the rapid changes and the need of international languages. For this reason, it is worried that learners face any negative wash back of the existence of International language, in instance, the lost of their own identity. To this end, the role of Indonesian teaching is getting more and more obviously important. In reality, however, the Indonesian teaching is generally assumed as the easiest subject if it is compared with other subjects. As a result of this case, learners pretend not to learn Indonesian seriously. Ironically, many students get low grade although the Indonesian lesson is seen easily to learn. In fact, elementary school (SD/MI is regarded as basis for the formation of the noble values of the nation. The study had identified several sources of problems in learning Indonesian both from the educators or learners. Besides, it was revealed that the result of learning was affected by some aspects, such as the goals, materials, methods, school facilities and infrastructure.

  20. PENGELOLAAN AKREDITASI SEKOLAH (STUDI SITUS SD NEGERI 2 MRANTI KECAMATAN PURWOREJO KABUPATEN PURWOREJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyatno Supriyatno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The onjectives of this research are to describe (1 the preparation of school self-evaluation in improving school accreditation; (2 The visitation in improving school accreditation; (3 The results of school accreditation. The type of the research is qualitative and uses ethnography design. The site of the study is SD Negeri 2 Mranti Purworejo District, Purworejo. Techniques for collecting data used are interviews, observations, and documentation. The results of this research are as follows: (1 Preparation of school self-evaluation is conducted by a special team formed by the principal. The preparation done before the new school year, it takes place by collecting data from the SNP. EDS is consisting of EDS instrument and the physical evidence for each item SNP. The preparation is conducted byhaving a checklist for each item in the SNPs form that describes the real condition of the school; (2 the visitation process in improving schools accreditation runs smoothly and according to the procedure. The process begins with the submission of the letter that comes with the implementation of the accreditation document to School Accreditation Association (BAS of district; (3 the accreditation result increases from 79 in 2005 to 86.81 in 2010.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU PENGAYAAN APRESIASI DONGENG YANG BERMUATAN CLIL BAGI PESERTA DIDIK SD KELAS TIGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Febriani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara membelajarkan muatan budaya dan ilmu pengetahuan yakni dengan kegiatan apresiasi dongeng. Dongeng sebagai salah satu karya sastra memiliki potensi untuk menghela muatan Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL dan ungkapan Jawa. Setelah mempelajari buku-buku apresiasi dongeng yang sudah ada, ditemukan fakta bahwa buku-buku tersebut masih belum sesuai harapan, baik dari aspek isi, penyajian, bahasa dan keterbacaan, maupun grafika. Relevan dengan situasi tersebut, diperlukan buku pengayaan apresiasi dongeng yang bermuatan CLIL yang sesuai bagi peserta didik SD kelas 3, baik dari aspek isi, penyajian, bahasa dan keterbacaan, maupun grafika. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Research andDevelopment (penelitian dan pengembangan dari Borg dan Gall. One way to learn culture and science that is the fabled appreciation activities. Fairy tale as one of the literary works have the potential to haul cargo Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL and Java expression. After studying the books offairy tale sexisting appreciation, it was found that these books is not as expected, both from the aspect of content, presentation, language and readability, and graphics. Relevant to the situation, necessary book-laden fairy tale appreciation enrichment CLIL suitable for grade 3 students, both fromthe aspect of content, presentation, language and readability, and graphics. The method used in this study is the research and development (research and development of the Borg and Gall.

  2. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  3. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-12-15

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  4. Scanning PIV investigation of the laminar separation bubble on a SD7003 airfoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Braunschweig (Germany); Iowa State University, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Ames, IA (United States); Hain, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Braunschweig (Germany); Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Stroemungstechnik, Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Braunschweig (Germany); Kaehler, Christian J. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik, Braunschweig (Germany); Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Institut fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Aerodynamik, Neubiberg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A laminar separation bubble occurs on the suction side of the SD7003 airfoil at an angle of attack {alpha}=4-8 and a low Reynolds number less than 100,000, which brings about a significant adverse aerodynamic effect. The spatial and temporal structure of the laminar separation bubble was studied using the scanning PIV method at {alpha}=4 and Re=60,000 and 20,000. Of particular interest are the dynamic vortex behavior in transition process and the subsequent vortex evolution in the turbulent boundary layer. The flow was continuously sampled in a stack of parallel illuminated planes from two orthogonal views with a frequency of hundreds Hz, and PIV cross-correlation was performed to obtain the 2D velocity field in each plane. Results of both the single-sliced and the volumetric presentations of the laminar separation bubble reveal vortex shedding in transition near the reattachment region at Re=60,000. In a relatively long distance vortices characterized by paired wall-normal vorticity packets retain their identities in the reattached turbulent boundary layer, though vortices interact through tearing, stretching and tilting. Compared with the restricted LSB at Re=60,000, the flow at Re=20,000 presents an earlier separation and a significantly increased reversed flow region followed by ''huge'' vortical structures. (orig.)

  5. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Streptococcus pyogenes loaded Dowex Optipore SD-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa, E-mail: m.tuzen@gmail.com [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Karaman, Isa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Biology Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-30

    A solid phase extraction procedure based on speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury on Streptococcus pyogenes immobilized on Dowex Optipore SD-2 has been established. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HCl for methyl mercury and 2 mol L{sup -1} HCl for mercury(II) were performed at pH 8. The determination of mercury levels was performed by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes, etc., were investigated. The influences of the some alkaline and earth alkaline ions and some transition metals on the recoveries were also investigated. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 4.8 and 3.4 mg g{sup -1}. The detection limit (3 sigma) of the reagent blank for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 2.1 and 1.5 ng L{sup -1}. Preconcentration factor was calculated as 25. The relative standard deviations of the procedure were below 7%. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material (NRCC-DORM 2 Dogfish Muscle). The procedure was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and environmental samples.

  6. Important operational parameters of membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system for zero excess sludge production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seong-Hoon

    2003-04-01

    In order to prevent excess sludge production during wastewater treatment, a membrane bioreactor-sludge disintegration (MBR-SD) system has been introduced, where the disintegrated sludge is recycled to the bioreactor as a feed solution. In this study, a mathematical model was developed by incorporating a sludge disintegration term into the conventional activated sludge model and the relationships among the operational parameters were investigated. A new definition of F/M ratio for the MBR-SD system was suggested to evaluate the actual organic loading rate. The actual F/M ratio was expected to be much higher than the apparent F/M ratio in MBR-SD. The kinetic parameters concerning the biodegradability of organics hardly affect the system performance. Instead, sludge solubilization ratio (alpha) in the SD process and particulate hydrolysis rate constant (k(h)) in biological reaction determine the sludge disintegration number (SDN), which is related with the overall economics of the MBR-SD system. Under reasonable alpha and k(h) values, SDN would range between 3 and 5 which means the amount of sludge required to be disintegrated would be 3-5 times higher for preventing a particular amount of sludge production. Finally, normalized sludge disintegration rate (q/V) which is needed to maintain a certain level of MLSS in the MBR-SD system was calculated as a function of F/V ratio.

  7. New quinoline derivatives demonstrate a promising antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro and Plasmodium berghei in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Roberta Reis; da Silva, José Marcio Fernandes; Carlos, Bianca Cecheto; da Fonseca, Camila Campos; de Souza, Laila Salomé Araújo; Lopes, Fernanda Valério; de Paula Dias, Rafael Mafra; Moreira, Paulo Otávio Lourenço; Abramo, Clarice; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; de Pila Varotti, Fernando; da Silva, Adilson David; Scopel, Kézia Katiani Gorza

    2015-06-01

    Malaria continues to be an important public health problem in the world. Nowadays, the widespread parasite resistance to many drugs used in antimalarial therapy has made the effective treatment of cases and control of the disease a constant challenge. Therefore, the discovery of new molecules with good antimalarial activity and tolerance to human use can be really important in the further treatment of the disease. In this study we have investigated the antiplasmodial activity of 10 synthetic compounds derived from quinoline, five of them combined to sulfonamide and five to the hydrazine or hydrazide group. The compounds were evaluated according to their cytotoxicity against HepG2 and HeLa cell lines, their antimalarial activity against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains and, finally, their schizonticide blood action in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei NK65. The compounds exhibited no cytotoxic action in HepG2 and HeLa cell lines when tested up to a concentration of 100 μg/mL. In addition, the hydrazine or hydrazide derivative compounds were less cytotoxic against cell lines and more active against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant P. falciparum strains, showing high SI (>1000 when SI was calculated using the CC50 from the 3D7 strain as reference). When tested in vivo, the hydrazine derivative 1f compound showed activity against the development of blood parasites similar to that observed with CQ, the reference drug. Interestingly, the 1f compound demonstrated the best LipE value (4.84) among all those tested in vivo. Considering the in vitro and in vivo activities of the compounds studied here and the LipE values, we believe the 1f compound to be the most promising molecule for further studies in antimalarial chemotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A molecular survey of acute febrile illnesses reveals Plasmodium vivax infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sow, Abdourahmane; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Fode; Diouf, Babacar; Niass, Oumy; Mansourou, Annick; Varela, Marie Louise; Perraut, Ronald; Sall, Amadou A; Toure-Balde, Aissatou

    2015-07-19

    Control efforts towards malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum significantly decreased the incidence of the disease in many endemic countries including Senegal. Surprisingly, in Kedougou (southeastern Senegal) P. falciparum malaria remains highly prevalent and the relative contribution of other Plasmodium species to the global malaria burden is very poorly documented, partly due to the low sensitivity of routine diagnostic tools. Molecular methods offer better estimate of circulating Plasmodium species in a given area. A molecular survey was carried out to document circulating malaria parasites in Kedougou region. A total of 263 long-term stored sera obtained from patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Kedougou between July 2009 and July 2013 were used for malaria parasite determination. Sera were withdrawn from a collection established as part of a surveillance programme of arboviruses infections in the region. Plasmodium species were characterized by a nested PCR-based approach targeting the 18S small sub-unit ribosomal RNA genes of Plasmodium spp. Of the 263 sera screened in this study, Plasmodium genomic DNA was amplifiable by nested PCR from 62.35% (164/263) of samples. P. falciparum accounted for the majority of infections either as single in 85.97% (141/164) of Plasmodium-positive samples or mixed with Plasmodium ovale (11.58%, 19/164) or Plasmodium vivax (1.21%, 2/164). All 19 (11.58%) P. ovale-infected patients were mixed with P. falciparum, while no Plasmodium malariae was detected in this survey. Four patients (2.43%) were found to be infected by P. vivax, two of whom were mixed with P. falciparum. P. vivax infections originated from Bandafassi and Ninefesha villages and concerned patients aged 4, 9, 10, and 15 years old, respectively. DNA sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that sequences from Kedougou corresponded to P. vivax, therefore confirming the presence of P. vivax infections in Senegal. The results confirm the

  9. Hubungan Konsumsi Junk Food dengan Status Gizi Lebih pada Siswa SD Pertiwi 2 Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Nur Amalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakGizi lebih adalah keadaan tubuh seseorang yang mengalami berat badan berlebih karena kelebihan jumlah asupan energi yang disimpan dalam bentuk cadangan berupa lemak. Prevalensi gizi lebih pada anak di Indonesia mencapai 10,4. Salah satu faktor risiko terjadinya gizi lebih adalah kebiasaan mengonsumsi junk food. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara konsumsi junk food dengan status gizi lebih pada anak usia sekolah. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian analitik dengan rancangan cross sectional terhadap populasi penelitian yaitu siswa kelas 1 – 5 di SD Pertiwi 2 Padang sebanyak 250 siswa. Teknik pengambilan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan kuesioner semi kuantitatif FFQ.  Status gizi ditentukan dengan pengukuran berat badan dan tinggi badan yang hasilnya dikategorikan menggunakan standar antropometri penilaian status gizi anak menurut Depkes Indonesia. Pada hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa siswa yang memiliki status gizi lebih hanya 23,6% dengan rata – rata IMT 16,9±3,69. Rata – rata frekuensi konsumsi junk food 4,6±2,9 kali per hari dan rata – rata asupan energi junk food 1046,5±918,4 kkal per hari. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara konsumsi frekuensi konsumsi junk food dengan kejadian gizi lebih (p = 0,013 dan tidak terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara asupan energi junk food dengan kejadian gizi lebih (p = 0,120.Kata kunci: gizi lebih, junk food, FFQ AbstractOverweight is a condition of an individual who suffer from excessive weight due to an excess of energy intake stored in fat tissue. Prevalence of overweight in children in Indonesia reaches 10,4 %. One of the risk factors contributing to this condition is consuming junk food. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship of junk food consumption and overweight in students. This research is an analytic study conducted in a cross sectional design using 250  students of class 1-5 in SD Pertiwi 2 Padang

  10. Anti-jugular vein thrombotic effect of Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] in male SD rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian-Ying Wang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a common and serious medical condition, which is estimably responsible for more than 300,000 hospital admissions annually in the USA. Pulmonary embolism (PE is a major complication of VTE, which contributes to 12% death of hospitalized patients. Heparin is the most common anti-coagulant, but severe allergic reactions, bleeding, and thrombocytopenia limit its use. Thus, seeking a botanical, nontoxic antithrombotic alternative is an interesting area. Morinda citrifolia L. [noni] is a medicinal plant used in folk remedies by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have a broad range of therapeutic and preventive effects. The bioactivities of NJ have been continuously discovered with antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and immune modifying activities. Our novel hypothesis is whether NJ has an anti-venous thrombotic effect in rodents. To examine our hypothesis, this study was designed to examine the anti-thrombotic effect of NJ on the jugular vein thrombosis model induced by ferric chloride in SD rats.Material and Methods: NJ and placebo used in this study were donated by Morinda Holding Inc. NJ was formulated with grape juice and blue berry juice. Placebo was prepared by using the same procedure of NJ preparation, but without NJ in it. Thirty-six male SD rats were divided into six groups. Anti-venous thrombotic activities of 5% NJ, 10% NJ, heparin, and 10% NJ plus heparin were examined and compared with the positive and blank controls. Thrombosis was induced by application of a filter paper soaked in 50% ferric chloride on the right jugular vein. AFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 9:297-3092-cm fragment of the occluded vein (thrombus was removed and weighed after 1-hour maturation. Blood samples were collected for platelet count, aPTT, and PT tests.Results: The weight of a 2-cm fragment of normal jugular vein was 9.9 ± 2.1 mg, while the weight of the occluded vein in

  11. Stable, geochemically mediated biospheres in the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory, SD, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, M. R.; Casar, C. P.; Kruger, B.; Flynn, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The terrestrial subsurface is a vast reservoir of life, hosting diverse microbial ecosystems with varying levels of connectivity to surface inputs. Understanding long term ecosystem dynamics within the subsurface biosphere is very challenging due to limitations in accessibility, sample availability, and slow microbial growth rates. The establishment of the Deep Mine Microbial Observatory (DeMMO) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility, SD, USA has allowed for bimonthly sampling for nearly two years at six sites spanning 250 to 1500 m below the surface. Here we present a time-resolved analysis of the geomicrobiology of the six DeMMO sites, which have been created from legacy mine boreholes modified to allow for controlled sampling. Our interdisciplinary approach includes analysis of passively draining fracture fluid for aqueous and gas geochemistry, DNA sequencing, microscopy, and isotopic measurements of organic and inorganic substrates. Fluid geochemistry varies significantly between sites, but is relatively stable over time for a given site, even through significant external perturbations such as drilling and installation of permanent sampling devices into the boreholes. The fluid-hosted microbial diversity follows these trends, with consistent populations present at each site through time, even through drilling events. For instance, the shallowest site (DeMMO 1) consistently hosts >30% uncharacterized phyla and >25% Omnitrophica whereas the deepest site (DeMMO 6) is dominated by Firmicutes and Bacterioidetes. Microbial diversity appears to respond to the availability of energy sources such as organic carbon, sulfate, sulfide, hydrogen, and iron. Carbon isotopic measurements reveal closed system behavior with significant recycling of organic carbon into the DIC pool. Together these observations suggest DeMMO hosts isolated subsurface microbial populations adapted to local geochemistry that are stable on yearlong timescales.

  12. Intelligent simulation of aquatic environment economic policy coupled ABM and SD models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Jiarui; Zeng, Weihua

    2018-03-15

    Rapid urbanization and population growth have resulted in serious water shortage and pollution of the aquatic environment, which are important reasons for the complex increase in environmental deterioration in the region. This study examines the environmental consequences and economic impacts of water resource shortages under variant economic policies; however, this requires complex models that jointly consider variant agents and sectors within a systems perspective. Thus, we propose a complex system model that couples multi-agent based models (ABM) and system dynamics (SD) models to simulate the impact of alternative economic policies on water use and pricing. Moreover, this model took the constraint of the local water resources carrying capacity into consideration. Results show that to achieve the 13th Five Year Plan targets in Dianchi, water prices for local residents and industries should rise to 3.23 and 4.99 CNY/m 3 , respectively. The corresponding sewage treatment fees for residents and industries should rise to 1.50 and 2.25 CNY/m 3 , respectively, assuming comprehensive adjustment of industrial structure and policy. At the same time, the local government should exercise fine-scale economic policy combined with emission fees assessed for those exceeding a standard, and collect fines imposed as punishment for enterprises that exceed emission standards. When fines reach 500,000 CNY, the total number of enterprises that exceed emission standards in the basin can be controlled within 1%. Moreover, it is suggested that the volume of water diversion in Dianchi should be appropriately reduced to 3.06×10 8 m 3 . The reduced expense of water diversion should provide funds to use for the construction of recycled water facilities. Then the local rise in the rate of use of recycled water should reach 33%, and 1.4 CNY/m 3 for the price of recycled water could be provided to ensure the sustainable utilization of local water resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  13. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN MEDIA ANIMASI DALAM PEMBELAJARAN IPS TERHADAP MOTIVASI BELAJAR SISWA KELAS IV SD NEGERI MANNURUKI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyullah Alannasir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of study at manuruki elementari schole greade are (1 to now the student learning motivation in social study. (2 to she if the animation media usage in social study learning of class IV SD Negeri Mannuruki? (2 how the students' motivation in learning IPS with the use of animation media Elementary School fourth grade students Mannuruki? (3 whether there is influence of media use animation in teaching social studies to students' motivation Mannuruki Elementary School fourth grade?. This research uses experimental research (true experimental design. Data collection  techniques used were: observation, interviews, and questionnaires. The analisis of the data use is deskriptif to describe to proces of learning by using animation media and the student motivation, and inferential analisis is  used to teks the risert hipotesis by using tetest. and  The results showed that: (1 The use of animation media in teaching social studies have stages of learning in which, every meeting there are three main stages were carried out by teachers namely planning, implementation and evaluation are then designed in accordance with the steps for using media animation with both categories. (2 learning motivation of students in social study on student learning motivation, before and after learning by using animation media has increased significantly ie before the treatment is in the category enough and after treatment increased student motivation with very good category. (3 the use of the animation media influence the studens’ motivation to learn at the fourth grade of mannuruki elementary school.    

  14. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2013-04-15

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP.

  15. Alleviating anastrozole induced bone toxicity by selenium nanoparticles in SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekariya, Kiritkumar K.; Kaur, Jasmine; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole play an undisputed key role in the treatment of breast cancer, but on the other hand, various side effects like osteoporosis and increased risk of bone fracture accompany the chronic administration of these drugs. Here we show for the first time that selenium nanoparticles, when given in conjugation to anastrozole, lower the bone toxicity caused by anastrozole and thus reduce the probable damage to the bone. Selenium nanoparticles at a dose of 5 μg/ml significantly reduced the cell death caused by anastrozole (1 μM) in HOS (human osteoblast) cells. In addition, our results also highlighted that in female SD rat model, SeNPs (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg/day) significantly prevented the decrease in bone density and increase in biochemical markers of bone resorption induced by anastrozole (0.2 mg/kg/day) treatment. Histopathological examination of the femurs of SeNP treated group revealed ossification, mineralization, calcified cartilaginous deposits and a marginal osteoclastic activity, all of which indicate a marked restorative action, suggesting the protective action of the SeNPs. Interestingly, SeNPs (1 mg/kg/day) also exhibited protective effect in ovariectomized rat model, by preventing osteoporosis, which signifies that bone loss due to estrogen deficiency can be effectively overcome by using SeNPs. - Highlights: ► SeNPs significantly reduce bone toxicity in anastrozole treated rats. ► SeNPs successfully prevented osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. ► SeNP treatment lowered the levels of TRAP and increased the levels of ALKP

  16. [Over-expression of BDNF inhibits angiotensin II-induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in SD rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingli; Wu, Yingfeng; Liu, Geming; Li, Zhenlong

    2018-03-01

    Objective To investigate the role and molecular mechanism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) against the process of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. Methods Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy were estabolished by angiotensin II (Ang II) in neonatal cardiomyocytes in vitro and incomplete ligature of abdominal aorta of SD rats in vivo. BDNF over-expressing recombinant vector pcDNA5-BDNF was transfected into cardiomyocytes by liposomes. Immunofluorescence staining was used to detect the effect of BDNF transfection on the surface area of myocardial cells. The effect of BDNF transfection on the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes was assayed by flow cytometry. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was performed to detect the effect of over-expression of BDNF on the expressions of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) mRNAs in cardiomyocytes. Western blot assay was used to observe the changes of BDNF, ANP and BNP, calmodulin kinase 2 (CaMK2) and phosphorylated calmodulin kinase 2 (p-CaMK2), calcineurin (CaN), p-CaN, nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 (NFATC3) and p-NFATC3 protein expressions in the myocardial tissues and cardiomyocytes. Results The expression of BDNF protein increased significantly in cardiac hypertrophy animal and cell models in a time-dependent manner. Compared with the untransfected control cardiomyocytes, the surface area of cardiomyocytes, the rate of apoptosis, the levels of ANP and BNP mRNA and protein expression, the levels of p-CaMK2 and CaN protein in the BDNF over-expressed cardiomyocytes were remarkably reduced, while the level of p-NFATC3 protein rose significantly. Conclusion BDNF inhibits the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by Ang II, and it plays the role by inhibiting CaMK2 and CaN signaling pathways.

  17. READING, PREPROCESSING OF ACCELERATIONS AND CORNERS INCLINATION WITH MPU-6050 I RECORD THEM ON SD-CARD THE ARDUINO DUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Mikhailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The short review of microcontrollers of family Arduino, their characteristics and application fields is given. Importance of record of parameters of researched object is marked to produce debugging of control systems on microcontrollers Arduino. Unique possibility of registration of parameters in family Arduino is record on SD a card in an alpha mode with usage of functions print (, write (. The problems connected to record of the binary data on SD a card on microcontroller Arduino Due are considered. The analysis of methods of record of the binary data on SD-card Arduino Due, originating problems with neocleaning of memory from the previous program leading to possibility of duplication of the data on SD to a card, presence of the erratic point of view about restriction of volumes of data record and necessity of usage become outdated SD-cards is carried out. Ways of elimination of the marked lacks are considered. The estimation of high-speed performance of various approaches of a data recording on SD a card is led. On the basis of the led researches the approach of multiplexing of the writeable information at the expense of conversion of the binary data is offered is byte-serial in a character array in code ASCI without magnification of their volume and record by units on 240 byte. It allows to use as much as possible standard function possibilities write ( Arduino and specificity of the organization of memory SD of cards and to increase high-speed performance more than in 1100 times in comparison with record in a character type on one byte.It is marked that usage of decisions of an exception of duplication of the data offered at forums does not provide completeness of their elimination. For Arduino Due for storage cleaning it is necessary usages of the special programmator or setting of the new program of loading.

  18. Analysis of nevirapine (NVP) resistance in Ugandan infants who were HIV infected despite receiving single-Dose (SD) NVP versus SD NVP plus daily NVP up to 6 weeks of age to prevent HIV vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jessica D; Omer, Saad B; Guay, Laura A; Huang, Wei; Lidstrom, Jessica; Musoke, Philippa; Mmiro, Francis; Jackson, J Brooks; Eshleman, Susan H

    2008-10-01

    Single-dose nevirapine (SD NVP) at birth plus NVP prophylaxis for the infant up to 6 weeks of age is superior to SD NVP alone for prevention of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through breastfeeding. We analyzed NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants who received either SD NVP or extended NVP prophylaxis. We tested plasma HIV by using a genotyping assay (ViroSeq; Celera Diagnostics), a phenotypic resistance assay (PhenoSense; Monogram Biosciences), and sensitive point mutation assay (LigAmp, for K103N, Y181C, and G190A). When infants were 6 weeks old, ViroSeq detected NVP resistance in a higher proportion of infants in the extended NVP arm than in the SD NVP arm (21 of 25 [84%] vs. 12 of 24 [50%]; P = .01). Similar results were obtained with LigAmp and PhenoSense. In both study arms, infants who were HIV infected at birth frequently had NVP resistance detected. In contrast, infants in the extended NVP arm who were HIV infected after birth were more likely to have resistance detected at 6 weeks, compared with infants in the SD NVP arm. The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was also associated with detection of NVP resistance by ViroSeq at 6 months (7 of 7 [100%] infants in the extended NVP arm had resistance detected, compared with 1 of 6 [16.7%] infants in the SD NVP arm; P = .005). The use of extended NVP prophylaxis was associated with increased selection for and persistence of NVP resistance in HIV-infected Ugandan infants.

  19. Leveraging master-slave OpenFlow controller arrangement to improve control plane resiliency in SD-EONs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Bin; Ma, Shoujiang; Chen, Cen; Hu, Daoyun; Zhou, Wenshuang; Zhu, Zuqing

    2015-03-23

    In this paper, we study how to improve the control plane resiliency of software-defined elastic optical networks (SD-EONs) and design a master-slave OpenFlow (OF) controller arrangement. Specifically, we introduce two OF controllers (OF-Cs), i.e., the master and slave OF-Cs, and make them work in a collaborative way to protect the SD-EON against controller failures. We develop a controller communication protocol (CCP) to facilitate the cooperation of the two OF-Cs. With the CCP, the master OF-C (M-OF-C) can synchronize network status to the slave OF-C (S-OF-C) in real time, while S-OF-C can quickly detect the failure of M-OF-C and take over the network control and management (NC&M) tasks timely to avoid service disruption. We implement the proposed framework in an SD-EON control plane testbed built with high-performance servers, and perform NC&M experiments with different network failure scenarios to demonstrate its effectiveness. Experimental results indicate that the proposed system can restore services in both the data and control planes of SD-EON jointly while maintaining relatively good scalability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that realizes control plane resiliency in SD-EONs.

  20. Análisis proteómico de Plasmodium, el agente causal de la malaria Proteomic analysis of Plasmodium, the causal agent of Malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Castro R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Los plasmodios son protozoarios cuyo complejo ciclo de vida se lleva a cabo en dos hospederos, el vertebrado y el mosquito. La infección de los seres humanos produce la enfermedad conocida como malaria. La secuenciación del genoma de Plasmodium falciparum y el desarrollo de la proteómica han permitido un gran avance en el conocimiento de la biología de este letal parásito. La presente revisión se centra en describir los logros recientes en el estudio del proteoma de Plasmodium falciparum y algunas de las implicaciones en la búsqueda de nuevos fármacos antimaláricos, así como en la generación de vacunas para el control de la enfermedad.Plasmodia are protozoa whose complex life cycle takes place in two different hosts, the vertebrate and the mosquito. The human infection produces the malaria disease. The genome sequence of Plasmodium falciparum and the proteomic tools have enabled a huge advance in knowledge of the biology of this parasite. This review will focus on the recent advances in proteomic studies of Plasmodium falciparum and some implications for the search of new antimalarial drugs as well as vaccines for the control of the disease.

  1. Synthesis of 9-phosphonoalkyl and 9-phosphonoalkoxyalkyl purines: Evaluation of their ability to act as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Dračínský, Martin; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; de Jersey, J.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2012), s. 1076-1089 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Plasmodium * malaria * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.903, year: 2012

  2. IMPLEMENTASI KEBIJAKAN SEKOLAH DASAR INKLUSI ( Studi Kualitatif Deskriptif pada SD Inklusif di Jakarta Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan *

    2017-06-01

    . Implementation of inclusion policies relating dengaan good that the management of inclusion can work well. Obstacles encountered in the implementation of policies and management penyelnggaraan inclusion operationally related standards. To that end, the government should formulate a policy SD. Inclusion in accordance with the needs of the community. Step - steps to address implementation bottlenecks inclusion policy administration and management to increase and improve learning facilities and infrastructure, providing special anggran maximum inclusion, increase the quality and quantity of teachers in accordance with department inclusions. To be recommended in order to implement the policy administration and management should be the maximum.

  3. PFOS prenatal exposure induce mitochondrial injury and gene expression change in hearts of weaned SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Wei; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuan-yuan; Zeng, Huaicai; Lv, Ziquan; Li, Gengqi; Wei, Zhengzheng; Xu, Shun-qing

    2011-01-01

    Xenobiotics exposure in early life may have adverse effects on animals' development through mitochondrial injury or dysfunction. The current study demonstrated the possibility of cardiac mitochondrial injury in prenatal PFOS-exposed weaned rat heart. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) at doses of 0.1, 0.6 and 2.0 mg/kg/d and 0.05% Tween 80 as control by gavage from gestation days 2-21. The dams were allowed to give nature delivery and then heart tissues from weaned (postnatal day 21) offspring rats were analyzed for mitochondrial injury through ultrastructure observation by electron microscope, global gene expression profile by microarray, as well as related mRNA and proteins expression levels by quantitative PCR and western blot. Ultrastructural analysis revealed significant vacuolization and inner membrane injury occurred at the mitochondria of heart tissues from 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group. Meanwhile, the global gene expression profile showed significant difference in level of some mRNA expression associated with mitochondrial function at 2.0 mg/kg/d dosage group, compared to the control. Furthermore, dose-response trends for the expression of selected genes were analyzed by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis. The selected genes were mainly focused on those encoding for proteins involved in energy production, control of ion levels, and maintenance of heart function. The down-regulation of mitochondrial ATP synthetase (ATP5E, ATP5I and ATP5O) implicated a decrease in energy supply. This was accompanied by down-regulation of gene transcripts involved in energy consumption such as ion transporting ATPase (ATP1A3 and ATP2B2) and inner membrane protein synthesis (SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A10, SLC25A29). The up-regulation of gene transcripts encoding for uncoupling proteins (UCP1 and UCP3), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), was probably a protective process to maintain

  4. Radioprotective effect of calorie restriction in Hela cells and SD rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yang; Chong Yu; Jiao Yang; Xu Jiaying; Fan Saijun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of low calorie metabolism on the survival of HeLa cells exposed to X-rays, and the influence of starvation on the antioxidative factors in the blood of rats after irradiation. Methods: MTT method was used to evaluate the impact of different concentration glucose on the proliferation of HeLa cells. Colony formation assay was employed to detect the influence of glucose (1, 5, 10 and 25 mmol/L) on radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Flow cytometry assay was used to analyze distribution of cell cycle and apoptosis. 60 male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups with 10 rats each. Rats in every two groups were fed ad libitum, fasted for 24 h and fasted for 48 h, respectively. Rats in one group of each approach were respectively exposed to whole-body X-rays at 11 Gy. At 2 h after irradiation,all of rats were sacrificed and their venous blood was collected. Elisa kits were used to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). Results: An increased viability was observed in HeLa cells treated with the glucose at low concentration (<25 mmol/L), while HeLa cell growth was inhibited by glucose at doses of >25 mmol/L. Relevant to cells treated with 1 mmoL/L glucose, SERs (sensitive enhancement ratio) in cells exposed to 5, 10 and 25 mmol/L glucose were 1.07, 1.10 and 1.23,respectively. A reduction of G 2 /M and S arrests and apoptosis caused by 6 Gy X-ray irradiation were observed [(49.68 ±1.88)% and (35.54±1.45)% at G 2 /M phase, (16.88 ±1.22)% and (10.23 ±1.65)% at S phase, t=10.42, 5.61, P<0.05] and in the cells treated with 1 mmol/L glucose compared with cells treated with 25 mmol/L glucose [(25.50 ± 0.95)% and (7.56 ± 1.07)%, t=21.72, P<0.05].Without irradiation, calorie restriction exhibited a negligible influence on SOD and T-AOC in rats. However, after 11 Gy irradiation, compared with rats fed ad libitum, the levels of SOD and T-AOC were significantly increased in rats with calorie restriction (t=40

  5. The relationship between Plasmodium infection, anaemia and nutritional status in asymptomatic children aged under five years living in stable transmission zones in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maketa, Vivi; Mavoko, Hypolite Muhindo; da Luz, Raquel Inocêncio; Zanga, Josué; Lubiba, Joachim; Kalonji, Albert; Lutumba, Pascal; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre

    2015-02-18

    Malaria is preventable and treatable when recommended interventions are properly implemented. Thus, diagnosis and treatment focus on symptomatic individuals while asymptomatic Plasmodium infection (PI) plays a role in the sustainability of the transmission and may also have an impact on the morbidity of the disease in terms of anaemia, nutritional status and even cognitive development of children. The objective of this study was to assess PI prevalence and its relationship with known morbidity factors in a vulnerable but asymptomatic stratum of the population. A simple random sample, household survey in asymptomatic children under the age of five was conducted from April to September 2012 in two health areas of the health zone of Mont Ngafula 1, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. The PI prevalence were 30.9% (95% CI: 26.5-35.9) and 14.3% (95% CI: 10.5-18.1) in Cité Pumbu and Kindele health areas, respectively, (OR: 2.7; p <0.001). All were Plasmodium falciparum infected and 4% were co-infected with Plasmodium malariae. In Cité Pumbu and Kindele, the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <11 g/dL) was 61.6% (95% CI: 56.6-66.5) and 39.3% (95% CI: 34.0-44.6), respectively, (OR: 2.5; p <0.001). The health area of Cité Pumbu had 32% (95% CI: 27.5-37.0) of chronic malnutrition (HAZ score ≤ -2SD) compared to 5.1% (95% CI: 2.8-7.6) in Kindele. PI was predictor factor for anaemia (aOR: 3.5, p =0.01) and within infected children, there was an inverse relationship between parasite density and haemoglobin level (β = -5*10(-5), p <0.001). Age older than 12 months (aOR: 3.8, p = 0.01), presence of anaemia (aOR: 3.4, p =0.001), chronic malnutrition (aOR: 1.8, p = 0.01), having a single parent/guardian (aOR: 1.6, p =0.04), and the non-use of insecticide-treated nets (aOR: 1.7, p = 0.04) were all predictors for PI in the overall population. PI in asymptomatic children was correlated with anaemia and chronic malnutrition and was thus a harmful condition in the study

  6. In vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum in neonatal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerzopf, Ulrich; Honkpehedji, Yabo J; Adgenika, Ayôla A; Feugap, Elianne N; Ngoma, Ghyslain Mombo; Mackanga, Jean-Rodolphe; Lötsch, Felix; Loembe, Marguerite M; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael

    2014-11-18

    Children below the age of six months suffer less often from malaria than older children in sub-Saharan Africa. This observation is commonly attributed to the persistence of foetal haemoglobin (HbF), which is considered not to permit growth of Plasmodium falciparum and therefore providing protection against malaria. Since this concept has recently been challenged, this study evaluated the effect of HbF erythrocytes and maternal plasma on in vitro parasite growth of P. falciparum in Central African Gabon. Umbilical cord blood and peripheral maternal blood were collected at delivery at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital in Gabon. Respective erythrocyte suspension and plasma were used in parallel for in vitro culture. In vitro growth rates were compared between cultures supplemented with either maternal or cord erythrocytes. Plasma of maternal blood and cord blood was evaluated. Parasite growth rates were assessed by the standard HRP2-assay evaluating the increase of HRP2 concentration in Plasmodium culture. Culture of P. falciparum using foetal erythrocytes led to comparable growth rates (mean growth rate = 4.2, 95% CI: 3.5 - 5.0) as cultures with maternal red blood cells (mean growth rate =4.2, 95% CI: 3.4 - 5.0) and those from non-malaria exposed individuals (mean growth rate = 4.6, 95% CI: 3.8 - 5.5). Standard in vitro culture of P. falciparum supplemented with either maternal or foetal plasma showed both significantly lower growth rates than a positive control using non-malaria exposed donor plasma. These data challenge the concept of HbF serving as intrinsic inhibitor of P. falciparum growth in the first months of life. Erythrocytes containing HbF are equally permissive to P. falciparum growth in vitro. However, addition of maternal and cord plasma led to reduced in vitro growth which may translate to protection against clinical disease or show synergistic effects with HbF in vivo. Further studies are needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of innate and acquired

  7. In silico discovery of transcription regulatory elements in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Roch Karine G

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum genome and several global mRNA and protein life cycle expression profiling projects now completed, elucidating the underlying networks of transcriptional control important for the progression of the parasite life cycle is highly pertinent to the development of new anti-malarials. To date, relatively little is known regarding the specific mechanisms the parasite employs to regulate gene expression at the mRNA level, with studies of the P. falciparum genome sequence having revealed few cis-regulatory elements and associated transcription factors. Although it is possible the parasite may evoke mechanisms of transcriptional control drastically different from those used by other eukaryotic organisms, the extreme AT-rich nature of P. falciparum intergenic regions (~90% AT presents significant challenges to in silico cis-regulatory element discovery. Results We have developed an algorithm called Gene Enrichment Motif Searching (GEMS that uses a hypergeometric-based scoring function and a position-weight matrix optimization routine to identify with high-confidence regulatory elements in the nucleotide-biased and repeat sequence-rich P. falciparum genome. When applied to promoter regions of genes contained within 21 co-expression gene clusters generated from P. falciparum life cycle microarray data using the semi-supervised clustering algorithm Ontology-based Pattern Identification, GEMS identified 34 putative cis-regulatory elements associated with a variety of parasite processes including sexual development, cell invasion, antigenic variation and protein biosynthesis. Among these candidates were novel motifs, as well as many of the elements for which biological experimental evidence already exists in the Plasmodium literature. To provide evidence for the biological relevance of a cell invasion-related element predicted by GEMS, reporter gene and electrophoretic mobility shift assays

  8. Exitoso cultivo in vitro de gametocitos de Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Blair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los estadios sexuales de Plasmodium falciparum han sido menos estudiados que los estadios asexuales. Al parecer, esto se debe a la carencia de cultivos estandarizados in vitro y a la dificultad de reconocer sus estadios de desarrollo. Estos hechos no permiten el estudio de aspectos biológicos, aspectos metabólicos, expresión de genes y síntesis de proteínas durante los estadios sexuales, temas de interés en la investigación de nuevos medicamentos antipalúdicos, principalmente los aislados de plantas, y la identificación de un potencial blanco contra Plasmodium. Objetivos. Establecer un cultivo in vitro de gametocitos, con la identificación de sus cinco estadios de desarrollo, y asegurar su continua producción. Materiales y métodos. El cultivo in vitro de gametocitos se realizó a partir de la cepa NF54 de P. falciparum en medio RPMI, con determinación de la parasitemia asexual y sexual, adición de glóbulos rojos A-Rh+ sólo el primer día de cultivo y cambio diario del medio con adición de mezcla de gases (90% N2, 5% O2; 5% CO2, asegurándose que el cultivo se mantuviera a 37 °C. Cuando la parasitemia asexual estuvo entre 3% y 5%, se comenzó a agregar el doble de volumen de medio. Resultados. Se obtuvieron gametocitos en estadios I, II y III a partir del día 11 de cultivo y estadios IV y V a partir del día 14 de cultivo. Conclusiones. Se estandarizó un cultivo in vitro para estadios sexuales de P. falciparum que puede usarse para futuros estudios de evaluación de compuestos, naturales o sintéticos, que actúen sobre los gametocitos, lo cual podría permitir el desarrollo de nuevas estrategias de control contra el paludismo.

  9. Identification of O-GlcNAcylated proteins in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferschmid, Mattis; Aquino-Gil, Moyira Osny; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schmidt, Jörg; Yamakawa, Nao; Krzewinski, Frédéric; Schwarz, Ralph T; Lefebvre, Tony

    2017-11-29

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) constitute a huge group of chemical modifications increasing the complexity of the proteomes of living beings. PTMs have been discussed as potential anti-malarial drug targets due to their involvement in many cell processes. O-GlcNAcylation is a widespread PTM found in different organisms including Plasmodium falciparum. The aim of this study was to identify O-GlcNAcylated proteins of P. falciparum, to learn more about the modification process and to understand its eventual functions in the Apicomplexans. The P. falciparum strain 3D7 was amplified in erythrocytes and purified. The proteome was checked for O-GlcNAcylation using different methods. The level of UDP-GlcNAc, the donor of the sugar moiety for O-GlcNAcylation processes, was measured using high-pH anion exchange chromatography. O-GlcNAcylated proteins were enriched and purified utilizing either click chemistry labelling or adsorption on succinyl-wheat germ agglutinin beads. Proteins were then identified by mass-spectrometry (nano-LC MS/MS). While low when compared to MRC5 control cells, P. falciparum disposes of its own pool of UDP-GlcNAc. By using proteomics methods, 13 O-GlcNAcylated proteins were unambiguously identified (11 by click-chemistry and 6 by sWGA-beads enrichment; 4 being identified by the 2 approaches) in late trophozoites. These proteins are all part of pathways, functions and structures important for the parasite survival. By probing clicked-proteins with specific antibodies, Hsp70 and α-tubulin were identified as P. falciparum O-GlcNAc-bearing proteins. This study is the first report on the identity of P. falciparum O-GlcNAcylated proteins. While the parasite O-GlcNAcome seems close to those of other species, the structural differences exhibited by the proteomes provides a glimpse of innovative therapeutic paths to fight malaria. Blocking biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc in the parasites is another promising option to reduce Plasmodium life cycle.

  10. Preliminary screening of Ni(II metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing by Nocardiopsis sp. SD8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Thangaraj

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To reveal the screening of metal tolerance and dye-decolorizing of Nocardiopsis sp. Methods: NiSO4 and Congo red dye were used for evaluating the metal tolerance and dyedecolorizing of the randomly selected actinobacterial isolates. Results: Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 showed a better efficiency in Ni(II tolerance, though a longer lag phase was observed for this microorganism grown for 7 days in integrated mismatch negativity. Interestingly, we also found that Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 had dye-decolorizing, hemolytic, lipase and protease activity. Conclusions: The present results revealed the bioremediation of metal resistant and diverse properties of Nocardiopsis sp. SD8 and further investigations are needed to extract and identify the potent molecule.

  11. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J; Douglass, Alexander P; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J P; Kaindama, Mbinda L; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S; Wheatley, Sally P; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-11-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  12. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes

    KAUST Repository

    Roques, Magali; Wall, Richard J.; Douglass, Alexander P.; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Ferguson, David J. P.; Kaindama, Mbinda L.; Brusini, Lorenzo; Joshi, Nimitray; Rchiad, ‍ Zineb; Brady, Declan; Guttery, David S.; Wheatley, Sally P.; Yamano, Hiroyuki; Holder, Anthony A.; Pain, Arnab; Wickstead, Bill; Tewari, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  13. Enlightening the malaria parasite life cycle: bioluminescent Plasmodium in fundamental and applied research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eSiciliano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The unicellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium impose on human health worldwide the enormous burden of malaria. The possibility to genetically modify several species of malaria parasites represented a major advance in the possibility to elucidate their biology and is now turning laboratory lines of transgenic Plasmodium into precious weapons to fight malaria. Amongst the various genetically modified plasmodia, transgenic parasite lines expressing bioluminescent reporters have been essential to unveil mechanisms of parasite gene expression and to develop in vivo imaging approaches in mouse malaria models. Mainly the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei have been engineered to express bioluminescent reporters in almost all the developmental stages of the parasite along its complex life cycle between the insect and the vertebrate hosts. Plasmodium lines expressing conventional and improved luciferase reporters are now gaining a central role to develop cell based assays in the much needed search of new antimalarial drugs and to open innovative approaches for both fundamental and applied research in malaria.

  14. Protein O-fucosylation in Plasmodium falciparum ensures efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaticki, Sash; Yang, Annie S P; John, Alan; Scott, Nichollas E; Lingford, James P; O'Neill, Matthew T; Erickson, Sara M; McKenzie, Nicole C; Jennison, Charlie; Whitehead, Lachlan W; Douglas, Donna N; Kneteman, Norman M; Goddard-Borger, Ethan D; Boddey, Justin A

    2017-09-15

    O-glycosylation of the Plasmodium sporozoite surface proteins CSP and TRAP was recently identified, but the role of this modification in the parasite life cycle and its relevance to vaccine design remain unclear. Here, we identify the Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase (POFUT2) responsible for O-glycosylating CSP and TRAP. Genetic disruption of POFUT2 in Plasmodium falciparum results in ookinetes that are attenuated for colonizing the mosquito midgut, an essential step in malaria transmission. Some POFUT2-deficient parasites mature into salivary gland sporozoites although they are impaired for gliding motility, cell traversal, hepatocyte invasion, and production of exoerythrocytic forms in humanized chimeric liver mice. These defects can be attributed to destabilization and incorrect trafficking of proteins bearing thrombospondin repeats (TSRs). Therefore, POFUT2 plays a similar role in malaria parasites to that in metazoans: it ensures the trafficking of Plasmodium TSR proteins as part of a non-canonical glycosylation-dependent endoplasmic reticulum protein quality control mechanism.The role of O-glycosylation in the malaria life cycle is largely unknown. Here, the authors identify a Plasmodium protein O-fucosyltransferase and show that it is important for normal trafficking of a subset of surface proteins, particularly CSP and TRAP, and efficient infection of mosquito and vertebrate hosts.

  15. Long-term pathogenic response to Plasmodium relictum infection in Culex pipiens mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeault, Romain; Villa, Manon

    2018-01-01

    The transmission of Plasmodium within a vertebrate host population is strongly associated with the life history traits of its vector. Therefore the effect of malaria infection on mosquito fecundity and longevity has traditionally received a lot of attention. Several species of malaria parasites reduce mosquito fecundity, nevertheless almost all of the studies have focused only on the first gonotrophic cycle. Yet, during their lifetime, female mosquitoes go through several gonotrophic cycles, which raises the question of whether they are able to compensate the fecundity costs induced by the parasite. The impact of Plasmodium infection on female longevity is not so clear and has produced conflicting results. Here we measured the impact of Plasmodium relictum on its vector's longevity and fecundity during three consecutive gonotrophic cycles. In accordance with previous studies, we observed a negative impact of Plasmodium infection on mosquito (Culex pipiens) fecundity in the first gonotrophic cycle. Interestingly, despite having taken two subsequent uninfected blood meals, the negative impact of malaria parasite persisted. Nevertheless no impact of infection on mosquito longevity was observed. Our results are not in line with the hypothesis that the reduction of fecundity observed in infected mosquitoes is an adaptive strategy of Plasmodium to increase the longevity of its vector. We discuss the different underlying mechanisms that may explain our results.

  16. Antimalarial efficacy of MMV390048, an inhibitor of Plasmodium phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Tanya; Le Manach, Claire; Cabrera, Diego González; Younis, Yassir; Henrich, Philipp P; Abraham, Tara S; Lee, Marcus C S; Basak, Rajshekhar; Ghidelli-Disse, Sonja; Lafuente-Monasterio, María José; Bantscheff, Marcus; Ruecker, Andrea; Blagborough, Andrew M; Zakutansky, Sara E; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; White, Karen L; Shackleford, David M; Mannila, Janne; Morizzi, Julia; Scheurer, Christian; Angulo-Barturen, Iñigo; Martínez, María Santos; Ferrer, Santiago; Sanz, Laura María; Gamo, Francisco Javier; Reader, Janette; Botha, Mariette; Dechering, Koen J; Sauerwein, Robert W; Tungtaeng, Anchalee; Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lim, Chek Shik; Burrows, Jeremy; Witty, Michael J; Marsh, Kennan C; Bodenreider, Christophe; Rochford, Rosemary; Solapure, Suresh M; Jiménez-Díaz, María Belén; Wittlin, Sergio; Charman, Susan A; Donini, Cristina; Campo, Brice; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Hanson, Kirsten K; Drewes, Gerard; Kocken, Clemens H M; Delves, Michael J; Leroy, Didier; Fidock, David A; Waterson, David; Street, Leslie J; Chibale, Kelly

    2017-04-26

    As part of the global effort toward malaria eradication, phenotypic whole-cell screening revealed the 2-aminopyridine class of small molecules as a good starting point to develop new antimalarial drugs. Stemming from this series, we found that the derivative, MMV390048, lacked cross-resistance with current drugs used to treat malaria. This compound was efficacious against all Plasmodium life cycle stages, apart from late hypnozoites in the liver. Efficacy was shown in the humanized Plasmodium falciparum mouse model, and modest reductions in mouse-to-mouse transmission were achieved in the Plasmodium berghei mouse model. Experiments in monkeys revealed the ability of MMV390048 to be used for full chemoprotection. Although MMV390048 was not able to eliminate liver hypnozoites, it delayed relapse in a Plasmodium cynomolgi monkey model. Both genomic and chemoproteomic studies identified a kinase of the Plasmodium parasite, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, as the molecular target of MMV390048. The ability of MMV390048 to block all life cycle stages of the malaria parasite suggests that this compound should be further developed and may contribute to malaria control and eradication as part of a single-dose combination treatment. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  17. Plasmodium P-Type Cyclin CYC3 Modulates Endomitotic Growth during Oocyst Development in Mosquitoes

    KAUST Repository

    Roques, Magali

    2015-11-13

    Cell-cycle progression and cell division in eukaryotes are governed in part by the cyclin family and their regulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). Cyclins are very well characterised in model systems such as yeast and human cells, but surprisingly little is known about their number and role in Plasmodium, the unicellular protozoan parasite that causes malaria. Malaria parasite cell division and proliferation differs from that of many eukaryotes. During its life cycle it undergoes two types of mitosis: endomitosis in asexual stages and an extremely rapid mitotic process during male gametogenesis. Both schizogony (producing merozoites) in host liver and red blood cells, and sporogony (producing sporozoites) in the mosquito vector, are endomitotic with repeated nuclear replication, without chromosome condensation, before cell division. The role of specific cyclins during Plasmodium cell proliferation was unknown. We show here that the Plasmodium genome contains only three cyclin genes, representing an unusual repertoire of cyclin classes. Expression and reverse genetic analyses of the single Plant (P)-type cyclin, CYC3, in the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei, revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear location of the GFP-tagged protein throughout the lifecycle. Deletion of cyc3 resulted in defects in size, number and growth of oocysts, with abnormalities in budding and sporozoite formation. Furthermore, global transcript analysis of the cyc3-deleted and wild type parasites at gametocyte and ookinete stages identified differentially expressed genes required for signalling, invasion and oocyst development. Collectively these data suggest that cyc3 modulates oocyst endomitotic development in Plasmodium berghei.

  18. Detection of avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) in native land birds of American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Farias, M.E.M.; Baker, H.; Freifeld, H.B.; Baker, P.E.; Van Gelder, E.; Massey, J.G.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the presence of Plasmodium spp. in landbirds of central Polynesia. Blood samples collected from eight native and introduced species from the island of Tutuila, American Samoa were evaluated for the presence of Plasmodium spp. by nested rDNA PCR, serology and/or microscopy. A total of 111/188 birds (59%) screened by nested PCR were positive. Detection of Plasmodium spp. was verified by nucleotide sequence comparisons of partial 18S ribosomal RNA and TRAP (thrombospondin-related anonymous protein) genes using phylogenetic analyses. All samples screened by immunoblot to detect antibodies that cross-react with Hawaiian isolates of Plasmodium relictum (153) were negative. Lack of cross-reactivity is probably due to antigenic differences between the Hawaiian and Samoan Plasmodium isolates. Similarly, all samples examined by microscopy (214) were negative. The fact that malaria is present, but not detectable by blood smear evaluation is consistent with low peripheral parasitemia characteristic of chronic infections. High prevalence of apparently chronic infections, the relative stability of the native land bird communities, and the presence of mosquito vectors which are considered endemic and capable of transmitting avian Plasmodia, suggest that these parasites are indigenous to Samoa and have a long coevolutionary history with their hosts.

  19. Influence of the method of optimizing adjustments of ARV-SD on attainable degree of system stability. Vliyaniye metoda optimizatsii nastroyek ARV-SD na dostizhimuyu stepen ustoychivosti sistemy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Trudospekova, G.Kh.

    1983-01-01

    An examination is made of the efficiency of the methods of successive and simultaneous optimization of adjustments of ARV-SD (ARV of strong action) of several PP. It is shown that with the use of the method of simultaneous optimization for an idealized model of complex EPS, it is possible to attain absolute controllability of the degree of stability.

  20. Sharing of antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus Antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Wide

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of common antigens between Plasmodium falciparum and Anopheles albimanus was demonstrated. Different groups of rabbits were immunized with: crude extract from female An. albimanus (EAaF, red blood cells infected with Plasmodium falciparum (EPfs, and the SPf66 synthetic malaria vaccine. The rabbit's polyclonal antibodies were evaluated by ELISA, Multiple Antigen Blot Assay (MABA, and immunoblotting. All extracts were immunogenic in rabbits according to these three techniques, when they were evaluated against the homologous antigens. Ten molecules were identified in female mosquitoes and also in P. falciparum antigens by the autologous sera. The electrophoretic pattern by SDS-PAGE was different for the three antigens evaluated. Cross-reactions between An. albimanus and P. falciparum were found by ELISA, MABA, and immunoblotting. Anti-P. falciparum and anti-SPf66 antibodies recognized ten and five components in the EAaF crude extract, respectively. Likewise, immune sera against female An. albimanus identified four molecules in the P. falciparum extract antigen. As far as we know, this is the first work that demonstrates shared antigens between anophelines and malaria parasites. This finding could be useful for diagnosis, vaccines, and the study of physiology of the immune response to malaria.Epítopes de antígenos compartidos entre Plasmodium falciparum y Anopheles albimanus fueron identificados. Diferentes grupos de conejos fueron inmunizados con: extracto crudo de mosquito hembra de An. albimanus (EAaH, glóbulos rojos infectados con P. falciparum (EPfs y la vacuna antimalárica sintética SPf66. Los anticuerpos policlonales producidos en conejos fueron evaluados por ELISA, inmunoensayo simultáneo de múltiples antígenos (MABA e Immunoblotting. Todos los extractos resultaron inmunogénicos cuando se evaluaron por ELISA, MABA e Immunoblotting. Diez moléculas fueron identificadas en los mosquitos hembras y diez en los antígenos de

  1. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

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    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  2. Antimalarial efficacy of Pongamia pinnata (L) Pierre against Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain) and Plasmodium berghei (ANKA).

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    Satish, P V V; Sunita, K

    2017-09-11

    The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain), cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). The plant Pongamia pinnata was collected from the herbal garden of Acharya Nagarjuna University of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Sequentially crude extracts of methanol (polar), chloroform (non-polar), hexane (non-polar), ethyl acetate (non-polar) and aqueous (polar) of dried leaves, bark, flowers and roots of Pongamia pinnata were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The extracts were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against P. falciparum 3D7 strain. The cytotoxicity studies of crude extracts were conducted against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts was carried out by following the standard methods. The chemical injury to erythrocytes due to the plant extracts was checked. The in vivo study was conducted on P. berghei (ANKA) infected BALB/c albino mice by following 4-Day Suppressive, Repository, and Curative tests. Out of all the tested extracts, the methanol extract of the bark of Pongamia pinnata had shown an IC 50 value of 11.67 μg/mL with potent in vitro antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that this extract was not toxic against Brine shrimp and THP-1 cells. The injury to erythrocytes analysis had not shown any morphological alterations and damage to the erythrocytes after 48 h of incubation. Because methanolic bark extract of Pongamia pinnata has shown good antimalarial activity in vitro, it was also tested in vivo. So the extract had exhibited an excellent activity against P. berghei malaria parasite while decrement of parasite counts was moderately low and

  3. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants.

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    Khaireh, Bouh Abdi; Briolant, Sébastien; Pascual, Aurélie; Mokrane, Madjid; Machault, Vanessa; Travaillé, Christelle; Khaireh, Mohamed Abdi; Farah, Ismail Hassan; Ali, Habib Moussa; Abdi, Abdul-Ilah Ahmed; Ayeh, Souleiman Nour; Darar, Houssein Youssouf; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Waiss, Mohamed Killeh; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno

    2012-11-28

    Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which should encourage authorities to

  4. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants

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    Khaireh Bouh Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. Methods The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. Conclusions This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum

  5. Simultaneous detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in clinical isolates by multiplex-nested RT-PCR.

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    Kuamsab, Napaporn; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-06-10

    Gametocyte carriage is essential for malaria transmission and endemicity of disease; thereby it is a target for malaria control strategies. Malaria-infected individuals may harbour gametocytes below the microscopic detection threshold that can be detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting gametocyte-specific mRNA. To date, RT-PCR has mainly been applied to the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but very limited for that of Plasmodium vivax. A multiplex-nested RT-PCR targeting Pfs25 and Pvs25 mRNA specific to mature gametocytes of P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, was developed. The assay was evaluated using blood samples collected in rainy and dry seasons from febrile patients,in a malaria-endemic area in Thailand. Malaria diagnosis was performed by Giemsa-stained blood smears and 18S rRNA PCR. The multiplex-nested RT-PCR detected Pfs25 mRNA in 75 of 86 (87.2%) P. falciparum-infected individuals and Pvs25 mRNA in 82 of 90 (91.1%) P. vivax malaria patients diagnosed by 18S rRNA PCR. Gametocytes were detected in 38 (eight P. falciparum and 30 P. vivax) of 157 microscopy positive samples, implying that a large number of patients harbour sub-microscopic gametocytaemia. No seasonal differences in gametocyte carriage were observed for both malaria species diagnosed by multiplex-nested RT-PCR. With single-nested RT-PCR targeting Pfs25 or Pvs25 mRNA as standard, the multiplex-nested RT-PCR offered sensitivities of 97.4% and 98.9% and specificities of 100% and 98.8% for diagnosing mature gametocytes of P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. The minimum detection limit of the multiplex-nested PCR was 10 copies of templates. The multiplex-nested RT-PCR developed herein is useful for simultaneous assessment of both P. falciparum and P. vivax gametocyte carriage that is prevalent and generally sympatric in several malaria-endemic areas outside Africa.

  6. Plasmodium vivax molecular diagnostics in community surveys: pitfalls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Maria; Moniz, Clara Antunes; Hofmann, Natalie Ellen; Wampfler, Rahel; Koepfli, Cristian; Mueller, Ivo; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus; de Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Kuehn, Andrea; Siqueira, Andre M; Felger, Ingrid

    2018-01-30

    A distinctive feature of Plasmodium vivax infections is the overall low parasite density in peripheral blood. Thus, identifying asymptomatic infected individuals in endemic communities requires diagnostic tests with high sensitivity. The detection limits of molecular diagnostic tests are primarily defined by the volume of blood analysed and by the copy number of the amplified molecular marker serving as the template for amplification. By using mitochondrial DNA as the multi-copy template, the detection limit can be improved more than tenfold, compared to standard 18S rRNA targets, thereby allowing detection of lower parasite densities. In a very low transmission area in Brazil, application of a mitochondrial DNA-based assay increased prevalence from 4.9 to 6.5%. The usefulness of molecular tests in malaria epidemiological studies is widely recognized, especially when precise prevalence rates are desired. Of concern, however, is the challenge of demonstrating test accuracy and quality control for samples with very low parasite densities. In this case, chance effects in template distribution around the detection limit constrain reproducibility. Rigorous assessment of false positive and false negative test results is, therefore, required to prevent over- or under-estimation of parasite prevalence in epidemiological studies or when monitoring interventions.

  7. Targeting NAD+ metabolism in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Jessica K O'Hara

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is an essential metabolite utilized as a redox cofactor and enzyme substrate in numerous cellular processes. Elevated NAD+ levels have been observed in red blood cells infected with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, but little is known regarding how the parasite generates NAD+. Here, we employed a mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach to confirm that P. falciparum lacks the ability to synthesize NAD+ de novo and is reliant on the uptake of exogenous niacin. We characterized several enzymes in the NAD+ pathway and demonstrate cytoplasmic localization for all except the parasite nicotinamidase, which concentrates in the nucleus. One of these enzymes, the P. falciparum nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (PfNMNAT, is essential for NAD+ metabolism and is highly diverged from the human homolog, but genetically similar to bacterial NMNATs. Our results demonstrate the enzymatic activity of PfNMNAT in vitro and demonstrate its ability to genetically complement the closely related Escherichia coli NMNAT. Due to the similarity of PfNMNAT to the bacterial enzyme, we tested a panel of previously identified bacterial NMNAT inhibitors and synthesized and screened twenty new derivatives, which demonstrate a range of potency against live parasite culture. These results highlight the importance of the parasite NAD+ metabolic pathway and provide both novel therapeutic targets and promising lead antimalarial compounds.

  8. More than just immune evasion: Hijacking complement by Plasmodium falciparum.

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    Schmidt, Christoph Q; Kennedy, Alexander T; Tham, Wai-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Malaria remains one of the world's deadliest diseases. Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for the most severe and lethal form of human malaria. P. falciparum's life cycle involves two obligate hosts: human and mosquito. From initial entry into these hosts, malaria parasites face the onslaught of the first line of host defence, the complement system. In this review, we discuss the complex interaction between complement and malaria infection in terms of hosts immune responses, parasite survival and pathogenesis of severe forms of malaria. We will focus on the role of complement receptor 1 and its associated polymorphisms in malaria immune complex clearance, as a mediator of parasite rosetting and as an entry receptor for P. falciparum invasion. Complement evasion strategies of P. falciparum parasites will also be highlighted. The sexual forms of the malaria parasites recruit the soluble human complement regulator Factor H to evade complement-mediated killing within the mosquito host. A novel evasion strategy is the deployment of parasite organelles to divert complement attack from infective blood stage parasites. Finally we outline the future challenge to understand the implications of these exploitation mechanisms in the interplay between successful infection of the host and pathogenesis observed in severe malaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface-expressed enolases of Plasmodium and other pathogens

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    Anil Kumar Ghosh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Enolase is the eighth enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, a reaction that generates ATP from phosphoenol pyruvate in cytosolic compartments. Enolase is essential, especially for organisms devoid of the Krebs cycle that depend solely on glycolysis for energy. Interestingly, enolase appears to serve a separate function in some organisms, in that it is also exported to the cell surface via a poorly understood mechanism. In these organisms, surface enolase assists in the invasion of their host cells by binding plasminogen, an abundant plasma protease precursor. Binding is mediated by the interaction between a lysine motif of enolase with Kringle domains of plasminogen. The bound plasminogen is then cleaved by specific proteases to generate active plasmin. Plasmin is a potent serine protease that is thought to function in the degradation of the extracellular matrix surrounding the targeted host cell, thereby facilitating pathogen invasion. Recent work revealed that the malaria parasite Plasmodium also expresses surface enolase, and that this feature may be essential for completion of its life cycle. The therapeutic potential of targeting surface enolases of pathogens is discussed.

  11. Chromosome End Repair and Genome Stability in Plasmodium falciparum

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    Susannah F. Calhoun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates within circulating red blood cells, where it is subjected to conditions that frequently cause DNA damage. The repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs is thought to rely almost exclusively on homologous recombination (HR, due to a lack of efficient nonhomologous end joining. However, given that the parasite is haploid during this stage of its life cycle, the mechanisms involved in maintaining genome stability are poorly understood. Of particular interest are the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes, which contain the majority of the multicopy variant antigen-encoding genes responsible for virulence and disease severity. Here, we show that parasites utilize a competitive balance between de novo telomere addition, also called “telomere healing,” and HR to stabilize chromosome ends. Products of both repair pathways were observed in response to DSBs that occurred spontaneously during routine in vitro culture or resulted from experimentally induced DSBs, demonstrating that both pathways are active in repairing DSBs within subtelomeric regions and that the pathway utilized was determined by the DNA sequences immediately surrounding the break. In combination, these two repair pathways enable parasites to efficiently maintain chromosome stability while also contributing to the generation of genetic diversity.

  12. The dynamics of naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection.

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    Mykola Pinkevych

    Full Text Available Severe malaria occurs predominantly in young children and immunity to clinical disease is associated with cumulative exposure in holoendemic settings. The relative contribution of immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle that results in controlling infection and limiting disease is not well understood. Here we analyse the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages in order to model naturally acquired immunity. We find that both delayed time-to-infection and reductions in asymptomatic parasitaemias in older age groups can be explained by immunity that reduces the growth of blood stage as opposed to liver stage parasites. We found that this mechanism would require at least two components - a rapidly acting strain-specific component, as well as a slowly acquired cross-reactive or general immunity to all strains. Analysis and modelling of malaria infection dynamics and naturally acquired immunity with age provides important insights into what mechanisms of immune control may be harnessed by malaria vaccine strategists.

  13. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

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    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  14. Comparative transcriptional and genomic analysis of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates.

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    Margaret J Mackinnon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms for differential regulation of gene expression may underlie much of the phenotypic variation and adaptability of malaria parasites. Here we describe transcriptional variation among culture-adapted field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malarial disease. It was found that genes coding for parasite protein export into the red cell cytosol and onto its surface, and genes coding for sexual stage proteins involved in parasite transmission are up-regulated in field isolates compared with long-term laboratory isolates. Much of this variability was associated with the loss of small or large chromosomal segments, or other forms of gene copy number variation that are prevalent in the P. falciparum genome (copy number variants, CNVs. Expression levels of genes inside these segments were correlated to that of genes outside and adjacent to the segment boundaries, and this association declined with distance from the CNV boundary. This observation could not be explained by copy number variation in these adjacent genes. This suggests a local-acting regulatory role for CNVs in transcription of neighboring genes and helps explain the chromosomal clustering that we observed here. Transcriptional co-regulation of physical clusters of adaptive genes may provide a way for the parasite to readily adapt to its highly heterogeneous and strongly selective environment.

  15. Adaptation of Plasmodium falciparum to its transmission environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rono, Martin K; Nyonda, Mary A; Simam, Joan J; Ngoi, Joyce M; Mok, Sachel; Kortok, Moses M; Abdullah, Abdullah S; Elfaki, Mohammed M; Waitumbi, John N; El-Hassan, Ibrahim M; Marsh, Kevin; Bozdech, Zbynek; Mackinnon, Margaret J

    2018-02-01

    Success in eliminating malaria will depend on whether parasite evolution outpaces control efforts. Here, we show that Plasmodium falciparum parasites (the deadliest of the species causing human malaria) found in low-transmission-intensity areas have evolved to invest more in transmission to new hosts (reproduction) and less in within-host replication (growth) than parasites found in high-transmission areas. At the cellular level, this adaptation manifests as increased production of reproductive forms (gametocytes) early in the infection at the expense of processes associated with multiplication inside red blood cells, especially membrane transport and protein trafficking. At the molecular level, this manifests as changes in the expression levels of genes encoding epigenetic and translational machinery. Specifically, expression levels of the gene encoding AP2-G-the transcription factor that initiates reproduction-increase as transmission intensity decreases. This is accompanied by downregulation and upregulation of genes encoding HDAC1 and HDA1-two histone deacetylases that epigenetically regulate the parasite's replicative and reproductive life-stage programmes, respectively. Parasites in reproductive mode show increased reliance on the prokaryotic translation machinery found inside the plastid-derived organelles. Thus, our dissection of the parasite's adaptive regulatory architecture has identified new potential molecular targets for malaria control.

  16. Harvest of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites from continuous culture.

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    Mrema, J E; Campbell, G H; Jaramillo, A L; Miranda, R; Rieckmann, K H

    1979-01-01

    Spontaneously released merozoites were harvested from cultures in which 42-90% of the erythrocytes had been infected with mature forms of Plasmodium falciparum at the start of incubation. The mature forms had been extracted from asynchronous cultures by the use of Ficoll and Plasmagel gradients. As the mature forms consisted of both trophozoites and schizonts, merozoites were released into the culture medium over a long period of time. The synchrony of merozoite release did not appear to be improved by prior exposure of parasites to sorbitol. Over this prolonged period of incubation, the yield of merozoites was disappointingly low in cultures containing 2.5% of erythrocytes. At erythrocyte concentrations of 0.01-0.25%, 3-10 times more merozoites were released into the medium; 0.4-2.3 merozoites per initial mature form were harvested over a 15-19-hour period. In addition to merozoites, contents of the culture medium included intact erythrocytes, ghost cells, and other cellular fragments. Only intact erythrocytes were effectively removed from the medium by simple or Ficoll gradient centrifugation. Merozoite preparations that are free from host cellular material are important in the development of a human malaria vaccine.

  17. Polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemand, J; Louw, A I; Birkholtz, L; Kirk, K

    2012-09-01

    Polyamines and the enzymes involved in their biosynthesis are present at high levels in rapidly proliferating cells, including cancer cells and protozoan parasites. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in asexual blood-stage malaria parasites causes cytostatic arrest of parasite development under in vitro conditions, but does not cure infections in vivo. This may be due to replenishment of the parasite's intracellular polyamine pool via salvage of exogenous polyamines from the host. However, the mechanism(s) of polyamine uptake by the intraerythrocytic parasite are not well understood. In this study, the uptake of the polyamines, putrescine and spermidine, into Plasmodium falciparum parasites functionally isolated from their host erythrocyte was investigated using radioisotope flux techniques. Both putrescine and spermidine were taken up into isolated parasites via a temperature-dependent process that showed cross-competition between different polyamines. There was also some inhibition of polyamine uptake by basic amino acids. Inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis led to an increase in the total amount of putrescine and spermidine taken up from the extracellular medium. The uptake of putrescine and spermidine by isolated parasites was independent of extracellular Na(+) but increased with increasing external pH. Uptake also showed a marked dependence on the parasite's membrane potential, decreasing with membrane depolarization and increasing with membrane hyperpolarization. The data are consistent with polyamines being taken up into the parasite via an electrogenic uptake process, energised by the parasite's inwardly negative membrane potential. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct genomic architecture of Plasmodium falciparum populations from South Asia.

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    Kumar, Shiva; Mudeppa, Devaraja G; Sharma, Ambika; Mascarenhas, Anjali; Dash, Rashmi; Pereira, Ligia; Shaik, Riaz Basha; Maki, Jennifer N; White, John; Zuo, Wenyun; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Duraisingh, Manoj T; Gomes, Edwin; Chery, Laura; Rathod, Pradipsinh K

    Previous whole genome comparisons of Plasmodium falciparum populations have not included collections from the Indian subcontinent, even though two million Indians contract malaria and about 50,000 die from the disease every year. Stratification of global parasites has revealed spatial relatedness of parasite genotypes on different continents. Here, genomic analysis was further improved to obtain country-level resolution by removing var genes and intergenic regions from distance calculations. P. falciparum genomes from India were found to be most closely related to each other. Their nearest neighbors were from Bangladesh and Myanmar, followed by Thailand. Samples from the rest of Southeast Asia, Africa and South America were increasingly more distant, demonstrating a high-resolution genomic-geographic continuum. Such genome stratification approaches will help monitor variations of malaria parasites within South Asia and future changes in parasite populations that may arise from in-country and cross-border migrations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic architecture of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum

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    Miotto, Olivo; Amato, Roberto; Ashley, Elizabeth A; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Mead, Daniel; Oyola, Samuel O; Dhorda, Mehul; Imwong, Mallika; Woodrow, Charles; Manske, Magnus; Stalker, Jim; Drury, Eleanor; Campino, Susana; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Thanh, Thuy-Nhien Nguyen; Tran, Hien Tinh; Ringwald, Pascal; Bethell, Delia; Nosten, Francois; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Chuor, Char Meng; Nguon, Chea; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Newton, Paul N; Mayxay, Mayfong; Khanthavong, Maniphone; Hongvanthong, Bouasy; Htut, Ye; Han, Kay Thwe; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Faiz, Md Abul; Fanello, Caterina I; Onyamboko, Marie; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Jacob, Christopher G; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Plowe, Christopher V; Day, Nicholas P; Dondorp, Arjen M; Spencer, Chris C A; McVean, Gilean; Fairhurst, Rick M; White, Nicholas J; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2015-01-01

    We report a large multicenter genome-wide association study of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin, the frontline antimalarial drug. Across 15 locations in Southeast Asia, we identified at least 20 mutations in kelch13 (PF3D7_1343700) affecting the encoded propeller and BTB/POZ domains, which were associated with a slow parasite clearance rate after treatment with artemisinin derivatives. Nonsynonymous polymorphisms in fd (ferredoxin), arps10 (apicoplast ribosomal protein S10), mdr2 (multidrug resistance protein 2) and crt (chloroquine resistance transporter) also showed strong associations with artemisinin resistance. Analysis of the fine structure of the parasite population showed that the fd, arps10, mdr2 and crt polymorphisms are markers of a genetic background on which kelch13 mutations are particularly likely to arise and that they correlate with the contemporary geographical boundaries and population frequencies of artemisinin resistance. These findings indicate that the risk of new resistance-causing mutations emerging is determined by specific predisposing genetic factors in the underlying parasite population. PMID:25599401

  20. Plasmodium falciparum dolichol phosphate mannose synthase represents a novel clade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Santos de Macedo, Cristiana; Niehus, Sebastian; Dorn, Caroline; Kimmel, Juergen; Azzouz, Nahid; Schwarz, Ralph T.

    2008-01-01

    Dolichol phosphate mannose synthase (DPM) catalyzes the reaction between dolichol phosphate (Dol-P) and guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-Man) to form dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man). This molecule acts as mannose donor for N-glycosylation and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. The Plasmodium falciparum DPM1 (Pfdpm1) possesses a single predicted transmembrane region near the N-, but not the C-terminus. Here we show that the cloned Pfdpm1 gene failed to complement a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant indicating that the parasite gene does not belong to the baker's yeast group, as was previously assumed. Furthermore, Pfdpm1 was unable to complement a mouse mutant deficient in DPM but efficiently complements the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast mutant, indicating a difference between fission yeast and mammalian DPM genes. Therefore, we reanalyzed the hydrophobicity scales of all known DPMs and consequently reclassify the DPM clade into six major novel subgroups. Furthermore, we show that Pfdpm1 represents a unique enzyme among these subgroups

  1. Plasmodium sporozoites trickle out of the injection site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Coppi, Alida; Snounou, Georges; Sinnis, Photini

    2007-05-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites make a remarkable journey from the skin, where they are deposited by an infected Anopheline mosquito, to the liver, where they invade hepatocytes and develop into exoerythrocytic stages. Although much work has been done to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which sporozoites invade hepatocytes, little is known about the interactions between host and parasite before the sporozoite enters the blood circulation. It has always been assumed that sporozoites rapidly exit the injection site, making their interactions with the host at this site, brief and difficult to study. Using quantitative PCR, we determined the kinetics with which sporozoites leave the injection site and arrive in the liver and found that the majority of infective sporozoites remain in the skin for hours. We then performed sub-inoculation experiments which confirmed these findings and showed that the pattern of sporozoite exit from the injection site resembles a slow trickle. Last, we found that drainage of approximately 20% of the sporozoite inoculum to the lymphatics is associated with a significant enlargement of the draining lymph node, a response not observed after intravenous inoculation. These findings indicate that there is ample time for host and parasite to interact at the inoculation site and are of relevance to the pre-erythrocytic stage malaria vaccine effort.

  2. Characterization of an eukaryotic peptide deformylase from Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracchi-Ricard, V; Nguyen, K T; Zhou, Y; Rajagopalan, P T; Chakrabarti, D; Pei, D

    2001-12-15

    Ribosomal protein synthesis in eubacteria and eukaryotic organelles initiates with an N-formylmethionyl-tRNA(i), resulting in N-terminal formylation of all nascent polypeptides. Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the subsequent removal of the N-terminal formyl group from the majority of bacterial proteins. Until recently, PDF has been thought as an enzyme unique to the bacterial kingdom. Searches of the genomic DNA databases identified several genes that encode proteins of high sequence homology to bacterial PDF from eukaryotic organisms. The cDNA encoding Plasmodium falciparum PDF (PfPDF) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein is catalytically active in deformylating N-formylated peptides, shares many of the properties of bacterial PDF, and is inhibited by specific PDF inhibitors. Western blot analysis indicated expression of mature PfPDF in trophozoite, schizont, and segmenter stages of intraerythrocytic development. These results provide strong evidence that a functional PDF is present in P. falciparum. In addition, PDF inhibitors inhibited the growth of P. falciparum in the intraerythrocytic culture. (c)2001 Elsevier Science.

  3. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  4. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achieving adequate antimalarial drug exposure is essential for curing malaria. Day 7 blood or plasma lumefantrine concentrations provide a simple measure of drug exposure that correlates well with artemether-lumefantrine efficacy. However, the 'therapeutic' day 7 lumefantrine concentr......BACKGROUND: Achieving adequate antimalarial drug exposure is essential for curing malaria. Day 7 blood or plasma lumefantrine concentrations provide a simple measure of drug exposure that correlates well with artemether-lumefantrine efficacy. However, the 'therapeutic' day 7 lumefantrine......-lumefantrine for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to define therapeutic day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and identify patient factors that substantially alter these concentrations. A systematic review of PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov and conference proceedings identified all relevant studies...... lumefantrine concentrations ≥200 ng/ml and high cure rates in most uncomplicated malaria patients. Three groups are at increased risk of treatment failure: very young children (particularly those underweight-for-age); patients with high parasitemias; and patients in very low transmission intensity areas...

  5. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples. PMID:20435038

  6. Plasmodium falciparum uses vitamin E to avoid oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, Rodrigo A C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Kimura, Emilia A; Katzin, Alejandro M

    2017-10-10

    Plasmodium falciparum is sensitive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, and many drugs such as artemisinin, chloroquine and cercosporin interfere in the parasite's redox system. To minimize the damage caused by reactive radicals, antioxidant enzymes and their substrates found in parasites and in erythrocytes must be functionally active. It was shown that P. falciparum synthesizes vitamin E and that usnic acid acts as an inhibitor of its biosynthesis. Vitamin E is a potent antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids from lipid peroxidation, and this activity can be measured by detecting its oxidized product and by evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Here, we demonstrated that ROS levels increased in P. falciparum when vitamin E biosynthesis was inhibited by usnic acid treatment and decreased to basal levels if exogenous vitamin E was added. Furthermore, we used metabolic labelling to demonstrate that vitamin E biosynthesized by the parasite acts as an antioxidant since we could detect its radiolabeled oxidized product. The treatment with chloroquine or cercosporin of the parasites increased the ratio between α-tocopherolquinone and α-tocopherol. Our findings demonstrate that vitamin E produced endogenously by P. falciparum is active as an antioxidant, probably protecting the parasite from the radicals generated by drugs.

  7. Characterization of mitochondrion-targeted GTPases in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Ankit; Haider, Afreen; Habib, Saman

    2018-04-12

    Ribosome assembly is critical for translation and regulating the response to cellular events and requires a complex interplay of ribosomal RNA and proteins with assembly factors. We investigated putative participants in the biogenesis of the reduced organellar ribosomes of Plasmodium falciparum and identified homologues of two assembly GTPases - EngA and Obg that were found in mitochondria. Both are indispensable in bacteria and P. berghei EngA is among the 'essential' parasite blood stage proteins identified recently. PfEngA and PfObg1 interacted with parasite mitoribosomes in vivo. GTP stimulated PfEngA interaction with the 50S subunit of Escherichia coli surrogate ribosomes. Although PfObg1-ribosome interaction was independent of nucleotide binding, GTP hydrolysis by PfObg1 was enhanced upon ribosomal association. An additional function for PfObg1 in mitochondrial DNA transactions was suggested by its specific interaction with the parasite mitochondrial genome in vivo. Deletion analysis revealed that the positively-charged OBG (spoOB-associated GTP-binding protein) domain mediates DNA-binding. A role for PfEngA in mitochondrial genotoxic stress response was indicated by its over-expression upon methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage. PfEngA had lower sensitivity to an E. coli EngA inhibitor suggesting differences with bacterial counterparts. Our results show the involvement of two important GTPases in P. falciparum mitochondrial function, with the first confirmed localization of an EngA homologue in eukaryotic mitochondria.

  8. Antibody and B cell responses to Plasmodium sporozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna N Dups

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies are capable of blocking infection of the liver by Plasmodium sporozoites. Accordingly the induction of anti-sporozoite antibodies is a major aim of various vaccine approaches to malaria. In recent years our knowledge of the specificity and quantities of antibodies required for protection has been greatly expanded by clinical trials of various whole sporozoite and subunit vaccines. Moreover, the development of humanized mouse models and transgenic parasites have also aided our ability to assess the specificity of antibodies and their ability to block infection. Nonetheless, considerable gaps remain in our knowledge - in particular in understanding what antigens are recognized by infection blocking antibodies and in knowing how we can induce robust, long-lived antibody responses. Maintaining high levels of circulating antibodies is likely to be of primary importance, as antibodies must block infection in the short time it takes for sporozoites to reach the liver from the skin. It is clear that a better understanding of the development of protective B cell-mediated immunity will aid the development and refinement of malaria vaccines.

  9. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using 125 T-antibodies were done

  10. Plasmodium yoelii: induction of attenuated mutants by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1986-01-01

    When erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, which is invariably fatal in mice, were exposed to X rays, the dose to reduce surviving parasites to one millionth was 100 gray (10 Krad). A suspension of 5 X 10(6) per ml of parasitized erythrocyte was irradiated at 100 gray, and 0.2 ml aliquots were inoculated into 22 mice. Eleven mice showed patent parasitemia, and in these the growth curves were less steep than that found in nonirradiated parasites. The infections of 8 mice of the 11 were self-resolving, and the attenuated feature of the parasites maintained following a limited number of blood passages. The parasites were slowly growing even in nude mice and cause self-resolving infections in intact mice. BALB/c mice immunized with the attenuated parasites were protected against subsequent challenge infections with the original virulent erythrocytic and sporogonic forms. These findings indicate that attenuated mutants of malaria parasites can be readily induced by this method

  11. Erythrocytic Adenosine Monophosphate as an Alternative Purine Source in Plasmodium falciparum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassera, María B.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Riegelhaupt, Paul M.; Merino, Emilio F.; Luo, Minkui; Akabas, Myles H.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph, salvaging purines from erythrocytes for synthesis of RNA and DNA. Hypoxanthine is the key precursor for purine metabolism in Plasmodium. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-forming reactions in both erythrocytes and parasites is lethal to cultured P. falciparum. We observed that high concentrations of adenosine can rescue cultured parasites from purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase blockade but not when erythrocyte adenosine kinase is also inhibited. P. falciparum lacks adenosine kinase but can salvage AMP synthesized in the erythrocyte cytoplasm to provide purines when both human and Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylases and adenosine deaminases are inhibited. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the P. falciparum nucleoside transporter PfNT1 established that this transporter does not transport AMP. These metabolic patterns establish the existence of a novel nucleoside monophosphate transport pathway in P. falciparum. PMID:18799466

  12. Plasmodium durae Herman from the introduced common peafowl in northern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, M

    1978-02-01

    Plasmodium (Giovannolaia) durae Herman was originally described from Kenya, the type host being the common turkey, Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus. There are no field records of this association outside of Africa, where the parasite, herein reported from another introduced and domesticated bird (the common peafowl, Pavo cristatus Linnaeus), was recently listed from 2 native Phasianidae of the genus Francolinus. The justification for the present identification is submitted against background data concerning malaria parasites from turkeys and other Galliformes in Africa and elsewhere, and restraint is urged in describing yet more "new species" of avian Plasmodium belonging to morphologically close taxa within Novyella and Giovannolaia. A near relative of P. durae, Plasmodium dissanaikei de Jong, is transferred from the former subgenus to the latter one.

  13. First evidence and predictions of Plasmodium transmission in Alaskan bird populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Loiseau

    Full Text Available The unprecedented rate of change in the Arctic climate is expected to have major impacts on the emergence of infectious diseases and host susceptibility to these diseases. It is predicted that malaria parasites will spread to both higher altitudes and latitudes with global warming. Here we show for the first time that avian Plasmodium transmission occurs in the North American Arctic. Over a latitudinal gradient in Alaska, from 61°N to 67°N, we collected blood samples of resident and migratory bird species. We found both residents and hatch year birds infected with Plasmodium as far north as 64°N, providing clear evidence that malaria transmission occurs in these climates. Based on our empirical data, we make the first projections of the habitat suitability for Plasmodium under a future-warming scenario in Alaska. These findings raise new concerns about the spread of malaria to naïve host populations.

  14. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pain, A; Böhme, U; Berry, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite...... species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood...... cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or 'hypnozoite' in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described...

  15. Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile for Sexual Disorders: KAPP-SD. A proposal for a psychodynamic rating scale for sexual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo; Köhl, John; Abraham, Georges; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Wilczek, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our first objective in this paper was to review the literature on psychodynamic rating scales of sexual disorders. Our second objective, based on the findings from our review, was to develop a psychodynamic rating scale for people with sexual disorders: the KAPP-SD. We developed the KAPP-SD by modifying an existing psychodynamic rating scale, which assesses stable modes of mental functioning and character traits, the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP). We removed items 13 and 14 of the KAPP and replaced them with three other items-sexual fantasies, conceptions and role of gender identity, and conceptions and role of sexual orientation. These items are part of the assessment of an individual's sexuality and are used to evaluate a person with a sexual disorder psychodynamically. The KAPP-SD, a modified version of the KAPP, can be found in the Appendix. We developed the KAPP-SD in order to help sex therapists make a rigorous psychodynamic evaluation of persons with sexual disorders, which would give information on the prognosis and on the type of treatment to offer.

  16. Densities, form factors, transitions and multipole moments in the s-d shell, with the Skyrme force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, D.R. de; Mizrahi, S.S.

    1977-09-01

    The nuclear densities, radii, multipole moments, form-factors and transition probabilities obtained for the A = 4n type of nuclei in the s-d shell are reported, using the Hartree-Fock wave functions calculated with the Skyrme force. Experimental data and theoretical values derived by others are shown for comparison [pt

  17. Reducing mutans streptococci and caries development by Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 in preschool children: a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Piwat, Supatcharin; Chankanka, Oitip; Akkarachaneeyakorn, Nuchnaree; Rangsitsathian, Karnrawee; Teanpaisan, Rawee

    2018-03-22

    To examine a reducing effect of Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 on MS and caries in preschool children. A total of 124 children, aged 1.5-5 years old, participated and were randomly assigned to the probiotic or control group. The probiotic group received L. paracasei SD1-milk and the control group received standard-milk once daily for 3 months. MS/lactobacilli were enumerated and the caries score was examined. Association between probiotic consumption and bacterial level, or caries progression was assessed by a multivariate logistic regression. This study was registered at the Thai-Clinical-Trials-Registry (TCTR20140903001). Probiotic was found to be a factor associated with the MS level. Children in the probiotic group had a significantly lower risk of an increase in the MS level than in the control group after receiving the probiotic milk at 3- and 4-months with p < .001 and p = .040, respectively. Probiotic significantly reduced the risk for caries compared to the control group (p = .016). There were no adverse effects or non-compliance reported in either group. Consumption of milk powder containing L. paracasei SD1 resulted in a reduction of both salivary MS and delayed new caries development, and the strain is safe for use in young children. Results suggest that L. paracasei SD1 may be an alternative way for caries prevention in young children.

  18. Identification and characterization of a liver stage-specific promoter region of the malaria parasite Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helm

    Full Text Available During the blood meal of a Plasmodium-infected mosquito, 10 to 100 parasites are inoculated into the skin and a proportion of these migrate via the bloodstream to the liver where they infect hepatocytes. The Plasmodium liver stage, despite its clinical silence, represents a highly promising target for antimalarial drug and vaccine approaches. Successfully invaded parasites undergo a massive proliferation in hepatocytes, producing thousands of merozoites that are transported into a blood vessel to infect red blood cells. To successfully develop from the liver stage into infective merozoites, a tight regulation of gene expression is needed. Although this is a very interesting aspect in the biology of Plasmodium, little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium parasites in general and in the liver stage in particular. We have functionally analyzed a novel promoter region of the rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei that is exclusively active during the liver stage of the parasite. To prove stage-specific activity of the promoter, GFP and luciferase reporter assays have been successfully established, allowing both qualitative and accurate quantitative analysis. To further characterize the promoter region, the transcription start site was mapped by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE. Using promoter truncation experiments and site-directed mutagenesis within potential transcription factor binding sites, we suggest that the minimal promoter contains more than one binding site for the recently identified parasite-specific ApiAP2 transcription factors. The identification of a liver stage-specific promoter in P. berghei confirms that the parasite is able to tightly regulate gene expression during its life cycle. The identified promoter region might now be used to study the biology of the Plasmodium liver stage, which has thus far proven problematic on a molecular level. Stage-specific expression of dominant-negative mutant proteins and

  19. Plasmodium parasites in reptiles from the Colombia Orinoco-Amazon basin: a re-description of Plasmodium kentropyxi Lainson R, Landau I, Paperna I, 2001 and Plasmodium carmelinoi Lainson R, Franco CM, da Matta R, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Nubia E; González, Leydy P; Pacheco, M Andreína; Escalante, Ananías A; Moreno, Andrea M; González, Angie D; Calderón-Espinosa, Martha L

    2018-05-01

    Colombia is a megadiverse country with about 600 species of reptiles; however, there are few studies on species of hemoparasites found in this taxonomic group. Here, we document the presence of Plasmodium spp. in four species of reptiles from the northern part of the Orinoco-Amazon region in Colombia. Individuals analyzed in this study were captured in localities between 200 and 500 m altitude, in the department of Guaviare. Each sample was screened for haemosporidian parasites by using morphology and a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol that targets the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene. Four morphotypes of the genus Plasmodium were found; two of these species are re-described using morphological and molecular data (cytb). For the other two morphotypes, it was not possible to assign a described species. Among those, Plasmodium screened one species was only detected by microscopy. Considering the potential species diversity, it is possible that commonly used primers may not detect all species, reinforcing the importance of using microscopy in haematozoa surveys. There was no correspondence between the morphological traits associated with the subgenera and the phylogenetic relationships that we found in our analyses. Additionally, we found an expansion in the geographical distribution of these two species, and a new host for P. kentropyxi, demonstrating that studies of tropical herpetofauna and their parasites deserve more attention.

  20. The role of cGMP signalling in regulating life cycle progression of Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Christine S; Bowyer, Paul W; Baker, David A

    2012-08-01

    The 3'-5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is the main mediator of cGMP signalling in the malaria parasite. This article reviews the role of PKG in Plasmodium falciparum during gametogenesis and blood stage schizont rupture, as well as the role of the Plasmodium berghei orthologue in ookinete differentiation and motility, and liver stage schizont development. The current views on potential effector proteins downstream of PKG and the mechanisms that may regulate cyclic nucleotide levels are presented. Copyright © 2012 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Capture ELISA for IgM antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum glutamate rich protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, M; Borre, Mette; Petersen, E

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a novel mu chain capture ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen. A fragment of the 220 kDa P. falciparum glutamate rich protein containing amino acid residues 489-1271 was expressed in E. coli as a recombinant chimeric beta-galactos......This report describes a novel mu chain capture ELISA for the detection of IgM antibodies against a Plasmodium falciparum antigen. A fragment of the 220 kDa P. falciparum glutamate rich protein containing amino acid residues 489-1271 was expressed in E. coli as a recombinant chimeric beta...

  2. In vitro activity of wALADin benzimidazoles against different life cycle stages of Plasmodium parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Christian S; Sattler, Julia M; Fendler, Martina; Gottwalt, Simon; Halls, Victoria S; Strassel, Silke; Arriens, Sandra; Hannam, Jeffrey S; Specht, Sabine; Famulok, Michael; Mueller, Ann-Kristin; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2015-01-01

    wALADin1 benzimidazoles are specific inhibitors of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase from Wolbachia endobacteria of filarial nematodes. We report that wALADin1 and two derivatives killed blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (50% inhibitory concentrations, 39, 7.7, and 12.8 μM, respectively). One of these derivatives inhibited gliding motility of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infectious sporozoites with nanomolar affinity and blocked invasion into hepatocytes but did not affect intrahepatocytic replication. Hence, wALADin1 benzimidazoles are tools to study gliding motility and potential antiplasmodial drug candidates. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Clements, Archie C A; Gething, Peter W; Moloney, Grainne; Borle, Mohammed; Shewchuk, Tanya; Hay, Simon I; Snow, Robert W

    2008-08-21

    Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of or = 5% prevalence were predominantly in the south. The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  4. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  5. Release of hepatic Plasmodium yoelii merozoites into the pulmonary microvasculature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Baer

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium undergoes one round of multiplication in the liver prior to invading erythrocytes and initiating the symptomatic blood phase of the malaria infection. Productive hepatocyte infection by sporozoites leads to the generation of thousands of merozoites capable of erythrocyte invasion. Merozoites are released from infected hepatocytes as merosomes, packets of hundreds of parasites surrounded by host cell membrane. Intravital microscopy of green fluorescent protein-expressing P. yoelii parasites showed that the majority of merosomes exit the liver intact, adapt a relatively uniform size of 12-18 microm, and contain 100-200 merozoites. Merosomes survived the subsequent passage through the right heart undamaged and accumulated in the lungs. Merosomes were absent from blood harvested from the left ventricle and from tail vein blood, indicating that the lungs effectively cleared the blood from all large parasite aggregates. Accordingly, merosomes were not detectable in major organs such as brain, kidney, and spleen. The failure of annexin V to label merosomes collected from hepatic effluent indicates that phosphatidylserine is not exposed on the surface of the merosome membrane suggesting the infected hepatocyte did not undergo apoptosis prior to merosome release. Merosomal merozoites continued to express green fluorescent protein and did not incorporate propidium iodide or YO-PRO-1 indicating parasite viability and an intact merosome membrane. Evidence of merosomal merozoite infectivity was provided by hepatic effluent containing merosomes being significantly more infective than blood with an identical low-level parasitemia. Ex vivo analysis showed that merosomes eventually disintegrate inside pulmonary capillaries, thus liberating merozoites into the bloodstream. We conclude that merosome packaging protects hepatic merozoites from phagocytic attack by sinusoidal Kupffer cells, and that release into the lung microvasculature enhances the

  6. Standardizing estimates of the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate

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    Smith David L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR is a commonly reported index of malaria transmission intensity. PfPR rises after birth to a plateau before declining in older children and adults. Studies of populations with different age ranges generally report average PfPR, so age is an important source of heterogeneity in reported PfPR data. This confounds simple comparisons of PfPR surveys conducted at different times or places. Methods Several algorithms for standardizing PfPR were developed using 21 studies that stratify in detail PfPR by age. An additional 121 studies were found that recorded PfPR from the same population over at least two different age ranges; these paired estimates were used to evaluate these algorithms. The best algorithm was judged to be the one that described most of the variance when converting the PfPR pairs from one age-range to another. Results The analysis suggests that the relationship between PfPR and age is predictable across the observed range of malaria endemicity. PfPR reaches a peak after about two years and remains fairly constant in older children until age ten before declining throughout adolescence and adulthood. The PfPR pairs were poorly correlated; using one to predict the other would explain only 5% of the total variance. By contrast, the PfPR predicted by the best algorithm explained 72% of the variance. Conclusion The PfPR in older children is useful for standardization because it has good biological, epidemiological and statistical properties. It is also historically consistent with the classical categories of hypoendemic, mesoendemic and hyperendemic malaria. This algorithm provides a reliable method for standardizing PfPR for the purposes of comparing studies and mapping malaria endemicity. The scripts for doing so are freely available to all.

  7. Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum to artesunate in southern Myanmar.

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    Myat P Kyaw

    Full Text Available Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinins, the first line treatment for malaria worldwide, has been reported in western Cambodia. Resistance is characterized by significantly delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin treatment. Artemisinin resistance has not previously been reported in Myanmar, which has the highest falciparum malaria burden among Southeast Asian countries.A non-randomized, single-arm, open-label clinical trial of artesunate monotherapy (4 mg/kg daily for seven days was conducted in adults with acute blood-smear positive P. falciparum malaria in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar. Parasite density was measured every 12 hours until two consecutive negative smears were obtained. Participants were followed weekly at the study clinic for three additional weeks. Co-primary endpoints included parasite clearance time (the time required for complete clearance of initial parasitemia, parasite clearance half-life (the time required for parasitemia to decrease by 50% based on the linear portion of the parasite clearance slope, and detectable parasitemia 72 hours after commencement of artesunate treatment. Drug pharmacokinetics were measured to rule out delayed clearance due to suboptimal drug levels.The median (range parasite clearance half-life and time were 4.8 (2.1-9.7 and 60 (24-96 hours, respectively. The frequency distributions of parasite clearance half-life and time were bimodal, with very slow parasite clearance characteristic of the slowest-clearing Cambodian parasites (half-life longer than 6.2 hours in approximately 1/3 of infections. Fourteen of 52 participants (26.9% had a measurable parasitemia 72 hours after initiating artesunate treatment. Parasite clearance was not associated with drug pharmacokinetics.A subset of P. falciparum infections in southern Myanmar displayed markedly delayed clearance following artemisinin treatment, suggesting either emergence of artemisinin resistance in southern Myanmar or spread

  8. Production of recombinant proteins from Plasmodium falciparum in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Ángela Patricia; Calvo, Eliana Patricia; Wasserman, Moisés; Chaparro-Olaya, Jacqueline

    2016-02-23

    The production of recombinant proteins is essential for the characterization and functional study of proteins from Plasmodium falciparum. However, the proteins of P. falciparum are among the most challenging to express, and when expression is achieved, the recombinant proteins usually fold incorrectly and lead to the formation of inclusion bodies.  To obtain and purify four recombinant proteins and to use them as antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. The production efficiency and solubility were evaluated as the proteins were expressed in two genetically modified strains of Escherichia coli to favor the production of heterologous proteins (BL21-CodonPlus (DE3)-RIL and BL21-pG-KJE8).  The four recombinant P. falciparum proteins corresponding to partial sequences of PfMyoA (Myosin A) and PfGAP50 (gliding associated protein 50), and the complete sequences of PfMTIP (myosin tail interacting protein) and PfGAP45 (gliding associated protein 45), were produced as glutathione S-transferase-fusion proteins, purified and used for immunizing mice.  The protein expression was much more efficient in BL21-CodonPlus, the strain that contains tRNAs that are rare in wild-type E. coli, compared to the expression in BL21-pG-KJE8. In spite of the fact that BL21-pG-KJE8 overexpresses chaperones, this strain did not minimize the formation of inclusion bodies.  The use of genetically modified strains of E. coli was essential to achieve high expression levels of the four evaluated P. falciparum proteins and lead to improved solubility of two of them. The approach used here allowed us to obtain and purify four P. falciparum proteins in enough quantity to produce polyclonal antibodies in mice, and a fair amount of two pure and soluble recombinant proteins for future assays.

  9. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Khadime; Tine, Roger Clément Kouly; Ndiaye, Magatte; Sow, Doudou; Sarr, Aïssatou; Mbuyi, Marie Louise Tshibola; Diouf, Ibrahima; Lô, Amy Colé; Abiola, Annie; Seck, Mame Cheikh; Ndiaye, Mouhamadou; Badiane, Aïda Sadikh; N'Diaye, Jean Louis A; Ndiaye, Daouda; Faye, Oumar; Dieng, Thérèse; Dieng, Yémou; Ndir, Oumar; Gaye, Oumar; Faye, Babacar

    2015-07-16

    In Senegal, a significant decrease of malaria transmission intensity has been noted the last years. Parasitaemia has become lower and, therefore, more difficult to detect by microscopy. In the context of submicroscopic parasitaemia, it has become relevant to rely on relevant malaria surveillance tools to better document malaria epidemiology in such settings. Serological markers have been proposed as an essential tool for malaria surveillance. This study aimed to evaluate the sero-epidemiological situation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in two sentinel sites in Senegal. Cross-sectional surveys were carried out in Velingara (south Senegal) and Keur Soce (central Senegal) between September and October 2010. Children under 10 years old, living in these areas, were enrolled using two-level, random sampling methods. P. falciparum infection was diagnosed using microscopy. P. falciparum antibodies against circumsporozoite protein (CSP), apical membrane protein (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1_42 (MSP1_42) were measured by ELISA method. A stepwise logistic regression analysis was done to assess factors associated with P. falciparum antibodies carriage. A total of 1,865 children under 10 years old were enrolled. The overall falciparum malaria prevalence was 4.99% with high prevalence in Velingara of 10.03% compared to Keur Soce of 0.3%. Symptomatic malaria cases (fever associated with parasitaemia) represented 17.37%. Seroprevalence of anti-AMA1, anti-MSP1_42 and anti-CSP antibody was 38.12, 41.55 and 40.38%, respectively. The seroprevalence was more important in Velingara and increased with age, active malaria infection and area of residence. The use of serological markers can contribute to improved malaria surveillance in areas with declining malaria transmission. This study provided useful baseline information about the sero-epidemiological situation of malaria in Senegal and can contribute to the identification of malaria hot spots in order to concentrate

  10. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

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    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.

  11. Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vrushali; Colah, Roshan; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-06-01

    The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years. This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. falciparum parasites. P. falciparum parasites of four different strains (3D7, 7G8, Dd2 and RKL9) were co-cultured with erythrocytes of blood group 'A', 'B', 'O' (n = 10 for each) and 'O(h)' (Bombay group) (n = 7) for 5 days. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' ('A' and 'B') and 'O(h)' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from 12.23 to 14.66, 11.68 to 13.24, 16.89 to 22.3, and 7.37 to 11.27 % in 'A', 'B', 'O' and Bombay group cultures, respectively. As the expression of H antigen decreased from 'O' blood group to 'A' and 'B' and then to Bombay blood group, parasite invasion (percent parasitemia) also decreased significantly (p Ulex europaeus seeds. Mean percent parasitemia of lectin-treated cultures on the fourth day was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of non-treated cultures and was found to be similar with the mean percent parasitemia demonstrated by the Bombay group erythrocyte cultures, thus further strengthening the hypothesis.

  12. Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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    Ofori Michael F

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Severe anaemia (SA, intravascular haemolysis (IVH and respiratory distress (RD are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism leading to excess anaemia in acute P. falciparum infection. Methods The direct Coombs test (DCT and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3bαβ and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35 and decay accelerating factor (CD55] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb levels and RD were investigated. Results Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27% were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8% were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2% were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2–6.7, p Conclusion These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement regulatory proteins, CD35 and CD55 and malarial anaemia. These findings suggest that complement activation could also be involved in the pathogenesis of RD but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  13. Interaction of an atypical Plasmodium falciparum ETRAMP with human apolipoproteins

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    Sahasrabudhe Sudhir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to establish a successful infection in the human host, the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum must establish interactions with a variety of human proteins on the surface of different cell types, as well as with proteins inside the host cells. To better understand this aspect of malaria pathogenesis, a study was conducted with the goal of identifying interactions between proteins of the parasite and those of its human host. Methods A modified yeast two-hybrid methodology that preferentially selects protein fragments that can be expressed in yeast was used to conduct high-throughput screens with P. falciparum protein fragments against human liver and cerebellum libraries. The resulting dataset was analyzed to exclude interactions that are not likely to occur in the human host during infection. Results An initial set of 2,200 interactions was curated to remove proteins that are unlikely to play a role in pathogenesis based on their annotation or localization, and proteins that behave promiscuously in the two-hybrid assay, resulting in a final dataset of 456 interactions. A cluster that implicates binding between P. falciparum PFE1590w/ETRAMP5, a putative parasitophorous vacuole membrane protein, and human apolipoproteins ApoA, ApoB and ApoE was selected for further analysis. Different isoforms of ApoE, which are associated with different outcomes of malaria infection, were shown to display differential interactions with PFE1590w. Conclusion A dataset of interactions between proteins of P. falciparum and those of its human host was generated. The preferential interaction of the P. falciparum PFE1590w protein with the human ApoE ε3 and ApoE ε4 isoforms, but not the ApoE ε2 isoform, supports the hypothesis that ApoE genotype affects risk of malaria infection. The dataset contains other interactions of potential relevance to disease that may identify possible vaccine candidates and drug targets.

  14. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection in pregnant women in Gabon

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    Kendjo Eric

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.

  15. Heterologous Protection against Malaria after Immunization with Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites.

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    Remko Schats

    Full Text Available Sterile protection in >90% of volunteers against homologous Plasmodium falciparum infection has been achieved only using the controlled human malaria infection (CHMI model. This efficient model involves whole parasite immunizations under chloroquine prophylaxis (CPS-immunization, requiring only 30-45 mosquitoes bites infected with P. falciparum-sporozoites. Given the large diversity of P. falciparum parasites, it is essential to assess protection against heterologous parasite strains.In an open-label follow-up study, 16 volunteers previously CPS-immunized and challenged with P. falciparum NF54 (West-Africa in a dose de-escalation and challenge trial were re-challenged with clone NF135.C10 (Cambodia at 14 months after the last immunization (NCT01660854.Two out of thirteen NF54 protected volunteers previously fully protected against NF54 were also fully protected against NF135.C10, while 11/13 showed a delayed patency (median prepatent period of 10.5 days (range 9.0-15.5 versus 8.5 days in 5 malaria-naïve controls (p = 0.0005. Analysis of patency by qPCR indicated a 91 to >99% estimated reduction of liver parasite load in 7/11 partially protected subjects. Three volunteers previously not protected against NF54, were also not protected against NF135.C10.This study shows that CPS-immunization can induce heterologous protection for a period of more than one year, which is a further impetus for clinical development of whole parasite vaccines.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01660854.

  16. Spatial prediction of Plasmodium falciparum prevalence in Somalia

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    Shewchuk Tanya

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maps of malaria distribution are vital for optimal allocation of resources for anti-malarial activities. There is a lack of reliable contemporary malaria maps in endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa. This problem is particularly acute in low malaria transmission countries such as those located in the horn of Africa. Methods Data from a national malaria cluster sample survey in 2005 and routine cluster surveys in 2007 were assembled for Somalia. Rapid diagnostic tests were used to examine the presence of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in finger-prick blood samples obtained from individuals across all age-groups. Bayesian geostatistical models, with environmental and survey covariates, were used to predict continuous maps of malaria prevalence across Somalia and to define the uncertainty associated with the predictions. Results For analyses the country was divided into north and south. In the north, the month of survey, distance to water, precipitation and temperature had no significant association with P. falciparum prevalence when spatial correlation was taken into account. In contrast, all the covariates, except distance to water, were significantly associated with parasite prevalence in the south. The inclusion of covariates improved model fit for the south but not for the north. Model precision was highest in the south. The majority of the country had a predicted prevalence of Conclusion The maps showed that malaria transmission in Somalia varied from hypo- to meso-endemic. However, even after including the selected covariates in the model, there still remained a considerable amount of unexplained spatial variation in parasite prevalence, indicating effects of other factors not captured in the study. Nonetheless the maps presented here provide the best contemporary information on malaria prevalence in Somalia.

  17. Simultaneous consideration of TQM and TPM influence on production performance: A case study on multicolor offset machine using SD Model

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    Nagaraj H. Kamath

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An attempt is made in this research to show the relevance of System Dynamics (SD as a tool for simultaneously considering TQM and TPM environment in a offset machine of a commercial printing press. By controlling the TQM and TPM variables, this model will attempt to simulate or predict the behavior of an efficient printing operation. Identifying other scenarios pertaining to Human factors, affecting the socio-technical variables is the future research work of this paper. The practical implication concerns the efficient decision making system in multi-colour sheet feed offset printing, by controlling the socio-technical variables. This is a novel approach of combining different socio-technical variables SD and Cased based approach for obtaining a productive environment in print operation called “Total Production Management”.

  18. [SD-OCT As screening test for hydroxychloroquine retinopathy: The «flying saucer» sign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M

    2015-07-01

    Two asymptomatic women treated with hydroxychloroquine 200mg every day for 8 and 16 years developed retinal toxicity. Patient 1 was found to have a normal fundus and autofluorescence examination. Patient 2 was found to have a completely normal fundus examination. Fluorescein angiography shows parafoveal hyperfluorescence, and autofluorescence shows a minimal decrease in signal in the same region. In both patients the SD-OCT shows disruption of the ellipsoid zone in parafoveal region («flying saucer» sign). SD-OCT findings in the retina can identify hydroxychloroquine retinopathy in asymptomatic patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Ying; Wang Shanju; Xu Tingting; Jiang Miaona; Jia Yujie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Ganfukang on liver function and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels in SD rats with experimental hepatic fibrosis. Methods: SD rat models of liver fibrosis was induced by CCl 4 (n=57). Liver function (GPT, GOT) and serum hepatic fibrosis markers levels (HA, LN, C-IV, PC-III, with RIA) were tested in these models and 10 control rats. Eleven model rats were left untreated, the others were treated with Ganfukang of different concentrations and the above hepatic parameters were again determined after completion of treatment. Results: Lever function was much deteriorated and serum markers levels significantly increased in the model rats (vs controls, P<0.01). After treatment with Ganfukang, the improvement was significant (vs untreated models, P<0.01). Conclusion: Ganfukang is of definite therapeutic value for experimental hepatic fibrosis in rat models. (authors)

  20. Characteristics of Travel-Related Severe Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Individuals Hospitalized at a Tertiary Referral Center in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  1. Paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum adquirido en África subsahariana Plasmodium falciparum malaria acquired in Subsaharian Africa

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    Ricardo Durlach

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar los casos de paludismo por Plasmodium falciparum ocurridos en viajeros provenientes del África tropical, atendidos en el Hospital Alemán. Se definió paludismo de origen africano como la infección adquirida en un país del África subsahariana, diagnosticado y tratado en la Argentina. El diagnóstico se realizó por la clínica y la microscopía óptica en frotis de sangre periférica coloreados con Giemsa. Se revieron las historias clínicas de 11 pacientes adultos -cinco turistas y seis marineros mercantes- no oriundos de área endémica, sin condición inmunosupresora, ni morbilidad asociada, internados entre 1993 y 2007. El rango de edad fue de 21 a 48 años; nueve hombres y dos mujeres. Los pacientes fueron clasificados retrospectivamente en malaria grave (seis o no grave (cinco según cumplieran con uno o más de los criterios de gravedad de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Todos presentaron fiebre como signo más significativo. Como complicaciones graves se observaron casos de insuficiencia renal, epistaxis, hemoglobinuria, hipoglucemia, edema pulmonar, acidosis y coma. Tres pacientes requirieron internación en la unidad de terapia intensiva. Todos sobrevivieron y solamente tres habían recibido la quimioprofilaxis correcta antes de viajar. El tratamiento se realizó con una o más de las siguientes drogas: mefloquina, quinidina, clindamicina y cotrimoxazol.The purpose of this paper is to present the cases of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum in travelers coming from tropical Africa, who were treated at the Hospital Alemán (Buenos Aires. African malaria was defined as an infection acquired in any country within Africa, diagnosed and treated in Argentina. Diagnostic tools included clinical features and optic microscopy with Giemsa stained peripheral blood films. We reviewed the medical records of 11 adult patients -five tourists and six sailors- with no history of malaria

  2. Uniaxial Pressure Effect on the SdH Oscillations in Heavy-Fermion Semimetal CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, S. R.; Kobayashi, M.; Sugawara, H.; Namiki, T.; Abe, K.; Aoki, Y.; Sato, H.

    2003-01-01

    We report the first successful Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) experiment under uniaxial pressure in the anomalous heavy-fermion semimetal CeRu 4 Sb 12 . The nature of the quantum oscillations in the magnetoresistance is found to be significantly sensitive to uniaxial pressure. The results reveal that the nearly spherical Fermi surface elongates along the direction of the uniaxial pressure. (author)

  3. TINJAUAN KRIMINOLOGIS TERHADAP KEJAHATAN PENYEBARAN VIDEO PORNO (Studi Kasus di Kota Makassar Tahun 2010 s/d 2013)

    OpenAIRE

    DEVANI. K, PUTRI

    2014-01-01

    - PUTRI DEVANI. K. (B 111 06 644). Tinjauan Kriminologis Terhadap Kejahatan Penyebaran Video Porno (Studi Kasus di Kota Makassar Tahun 2010 s/d 2013). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan terjadinya penyebaran video porno di kota Makassar serta untuk mengetahui upaya pemberantasan penyebaran video porno di kota Makassar. Pelaksanaan penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Polrestabes Makassar dan Makassar Trade Centre (MTC). Untuk Polrestabes karena pada le...

  4. Implementasi Kebijakan Pembelajaran Tematik Terpadu Kurikulum 2013 di SDN Kauman 1 Malang dan SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Mulyadin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Implementasi Kebijakan Pembelajaran Tematik Terpadu Kurikulum 2013 di SDN Kauman 1 Malang dan SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis implementasi kebijakan pembelajaran tematik terpadu yang dilihat dari perencanaan pembelajaran, pelaksanaan pembelajaran, penilaian hasil pembelajaran, dan pengawasan pembelajaran di SDN Kauman 1 Malang dan SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah pendekatan kualitatif dan dibantu menggunakan data statistitik dengan rancangan penelitian deskriptif. Data dalam penelitian ini diambil dari hasil kuesioner dan wawancara pada responden dan observasi pelaksanaan pembelajarannya. Subjek penelitian ini adalah Kepala Sekolah, Wakil Kepala Sekolah Bidang Kurikulum dan Guru. Berdasarkan data hasil penelitian bahwa implementasi kebijakan pembelajaran tematik terpadu kurikulum 2013 di SDN Kauman 1 Malang dan SD Muhammadiyah 1 Malang sudah dikategorikan baik, hal ini dilihat dari aspek penguasaan, pemahaman dan kemampuan guru dalam proses perencanaan pembelajaran, pelaksanaan pembelajaran, dan penilaian hasil belajar begitupun pada proses pengawasan yang dilakukan oleh kepala sekolah sudah berjalan maksimal sesuai dengan tugas dan tanggung jawabnya seperti yang ada pada Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Permendikbud Republik Indonesia Nomor 65 Tahun 2013 tentang Standar Proses Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah. Kata Kunci: Implementasi, Pembelajaran Tematik Terpadu dan Kurikulum 2013

  5. SD OCT Features of Macula and Silicon Oil–Retinal Interface in Eyes Status Post Vitrectomy for RRD

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    Manish Nagpal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To objectively document findings at the Silicon oil-Retinal interface, macular status and tamponade effect in Silicon Oil (SO filled eyes using SD OCT. Methods: 104 eyes of 104 patients underwent SD OCT examination, horizontal and vertical macular scans, in silicone oil filled eyes which underwent silicone oil injection post vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Findings were divided into 3 Groups; Group A: Findings at silicon oil retinal interface, Group B: Macular pathology and Group C: Tamponade effect. Group C was further divided into two groups; Group 1: Complete tamponade and Group 2: Incomplete tamponade. Results: Group A: subsilicon epiretinal membranes N = 17 (16.3%, emulsified silicon oil N = 16 (15.4% Group B: foveal thickening N = 22 (21.2%, foveal thinning N = 6 (5.7%, subfoveal fluid N = 8 (7.6%, macular hole N = 2 (1.9%; Group C: Incomplete tamponade was noted in N = 12 (11.5%, complete tamponade N = 92 (88.5%.10 out of 104 eyes (9.6% had recurrent retinal detachment post silicon oil removal. 8 of these eyes had complete tamponade and 2 had incomplete tamponade. Conclusion: SD OCT is a useful tool to assess the SO–Retina interface, tamponade effect and macular pathology in SO filled eyes. There is lesser incidence of redetachment with incomplete tamponade in OCT.

  6. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita; Straschil, Ursula; Bateman, Alex; Bö hme, Ulrike; Cherevach, Inna; Gong, Peng; Pain, Arnab; Billker, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  7. The Use of Highly Sensitive Detection Methods for Eradication of Plasmodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2017-01-01

    The key to a successful malaria eradication program is highly efficient detection of Plasmodium infected people followed by appropriate treatment to avoid spreading of the parasite. We will discuss some of the demands that such a detection method needs to fulfill and review some of the advantages...... and disadvantages of currently available detection methods...

  8. The heat shock protein 90 of Plasmodium falciparum and antimalarial activity of its inhibitor, geldanamycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barik Sailen

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The naturally occurring benzoquinone ansamycin compound, geldanamycin (GA, is a specific inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 and is a potential anticancer agent. Since Plasmodium falciparum has been reported to have an Hsp90 ortholog, we tested the possibility that GA might inhibit it and thereby display antiparasitic activity. Results We provide direct recombinant DNA evidence for the Hsp90 protein of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of fatal malaria. While the mRNA of Hsp90 was mainly expressed in ring and trophozoite stages, the protein was found in all stages, although schizonts contained relatively lower amounts. In vitro the parasitic Hsp90 exhibited an ATP-binding activity that could be specifically inhibited by GA. Plasmodium growth in human erythrocyte culture was strongly inhibited by GA with an IC50 of 20 nM, compared to the IC50 of 15 nM for chloroquine (CQ under identical conditions. When used in combination, the two drugs acted synergistically. GA was equally effective against CQ-sensitive and CQ-resistant strains (3D7 and W2, respectively and on all erythrocytic stages of the parasite. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that an active and essential Hsp90 chaperone cycle exists in Plasmodium and that the ansamycin antibiotics will be an important tool to dissect its role in the parasite. Additionally, the favorable pharmacology of GA, reported in human trials, makes it a promising antimalarial drug.

  9. The systematic functional analysis of plasmodium protein kinases identifies essential regulators of mosquito transmission

    KAUST Repository

    Tewari, Rita

    2010-10-21

    Although eukaryotic protein kinases (ePKs) contribute to many cellular processes, only three Plasmodium falciparum ePKs have thus far been identified as essential for parasite asexual blood stage development. To identify pathways essential for parasite transmission between their mammalian host and mosquito vector, we undertook a systematic functional analysis of ePKs in the genetically tractable rodent parasite Plasmodium berghei. Modeling domain signatures of conventional ePKs identified 66 putative Plasmodium ePKs. Kinomes are highly conserved between Plasmodium species. Using reverse genetics, we show that 23 ePKs are redundant for asexual erythrocytic parasite development in mice. Phenotyping mutants at four life cycle stages in Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes revealed functional clusters of kinases required for sexual development and sporogony. Roles for a putative SR protein kinase (SRPK) in microgamete formation, a conserved regulator of clathrin uncoating (GAK) in ookinete formation, and a likely regulator of energy metabolism (SNF1/KIN) in sporozoite development were identified. 2010 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Tan, Lian-Huat; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Fong, Mun-Yik; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-11-04

    Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient's condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission.

  11. Protein export marks the early phase of gametocytogenesis of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestrini, F.; Lasonder, E.; Olivieri, A.; Camarda, G.; Schaijk, B.C.L. van; Sanchez, M.; Younis Younis, S.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Alano, P.

    2010-01-01

    Despite over a century of study of malaria parasites, parts of the Plasmodium falciparum life cycle remain virtually unknown. One of these is the early gametocyte stage, a round shaped cell morphologically similar to an asexual trophozoite in which major cellular transformations ensure subsequent

  12. Cytometric quantification of singlet oxygen in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzloff, Sabine; Groves, Matthew R; Wrenger, Carsten; Müller, Ingrid B

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum proliferates within human erythrocytes and is thereby exposed to a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and highly reactive singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). While most ROS are already well studied

  13. Identification of vital and dispensable sulfur utilization factors in the Plasmodium apicoplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana M Haussig

    Full Text Available Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are ubiquitous and critical cofactors in diverse biochemical processes. They are assembled by distinct [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways, typically in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, harbor two separate [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways in the their mitochondrion and apicoplast. In this study, we systematically targeted the five nuclear-encoded sulfur utilization factors (SUF of the apicoplast [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathway by experimental genetics in the murine malaria model parasite Plasmodium berghei. We show that four SUFs, namely SUFC, D, E, and S are refractory to targeted gene deletion, validating them as potential targets for antimalarial drug development. We achieved targeted deletion of SUFA, which encodes a potential [Fe-S] transfer protein, indicative of a dispensable role during asexual blood stage growth in vivo. Furthermore, no abnormalities were observed during Plasmodium life cycle progression in the insect and mammalian hosts. Fusion of a fluorescent tag to the endogenous P. berghei SUFs demonstrated that all loci were accessible to genetic modification and that all five tagged SUFs localize to the apicoplast. Together, our experimental genetics analysis identifies the key components of the SUF [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathway in the apicoplast of a malarial parasite and shows that absence of SUFC, D, E, or S is incompatible with Plasmodium blood infection in vivo.

  14. Identification of vital and dispensable sulfur utilization factors in the Plasmodium apicoplast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haussig, J.M.; Matuschewski, K.; Kooij, T.W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur [Fe-S] clusters are ubiquitous and critical cofactors in diverse biochemical processes. They are assembled by distinct [Fe-S] cluster biosynthesis pathways, typically in organelles of endosymbiotic origin. Apicomplexan parasites, including Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria,

  15. Enlightening the malaria parasite life cycle: bioluminescent Plasmodium in fundamental and applied research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Giulia; Alano, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    The unicellular protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium impose on human health worldwide the enormous burden of malaria. The possibility to genetically modify several species of malaria parasites represented a major advance in the possibility to elucidate their biology and is now turning laboratory lines of transgenic Plasmodium into precious weapons to fight malaria. Amongst the various genetically modified plasmodia, transgenic parasite lines expressing bioluminescent reporters have been essential to unveil mechanisms of parasite gene expression and to develop in vivo imaging approaches in mouse malaria models. Mainly the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and the rodent parasite P. berghei have been engineered to express bioluminescent reporters in almost all the developmental stages of the parasite along its complex life cycle between the insect and the vertebrate hosts. Plasmodium lines expressing conventional and improved luciferase reporters are now gaining a central role to develop cell based assays in the much needed search of new antimalarial drugs and to open innovative approaches for both fundamental and applied research in malaria.

  16. A plant-produced Pfs230 vaccine candidate blocks transmission of Plasmodium falciparum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farrance, C.E.; Rhee, A.; Jones, R.M.; Musiychuk, K.; Shamloul, M.; Sharma, S.; Mett, V.; Chichester, J.A.; Streatfield, S.J.; Roeffen, W.F.G.; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Sauerwein, R.W.; Tsuboi, T.; Muratova, O.V.; Wu, Y.; Yusibov, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted to a new host after completing its sexual cycle within a mosquito. Developing vaccines against the parasite sexual stages is a critical component in the fight against malaria. We are targeting multiple proteins of P. falciparum which are found only on the

  17. Vital and dispensable roles of Plasmodium multidrug resistance transporters during blood- and mosquito-stage development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpma, S.R.; Velden, M. van der; Annoura, T.; Matz, J.M.; Kenthirapalan, S.; Kooij, T.W.; Matuschewski, K.; Gemert, G.J.A. van; Vegte-Bolmer, M.G. van de; Siebelink-Stoter, R.; Graumans, W.; Ramesar, J.; Klop, O.; Russel, F.G.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Janse, C.J.; Franke-Fayard, B.M.; Koenderink, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins belong to the B subfamily of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters, which export a wide range of compounds including pharmaceuticals. In this study, we used reverse genetics to study the role of all seven Plasmodium MDR proteins during the life cycle of

  18. Assessing Subunit Dependency of the Plasmodium Proteasome Using Small Molecule Inhibitors and Active Site Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, H.; Linden, W.A. van der; Verdoes, M.; Florea, B.I.; McAllister, F.E.; Govindaswamy, K.; Elias, J.E.; Bhanot, P.; Overkleeft, H.S.; Bogyo, M.

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is a potential pathway for therapeutic intervention for pathogens such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. However, due to the essential nature of this proteolytic pathway, proteasome inhibitors must avoid inhibition of the host enzyme complex to

  19. The Plasmodium protein P113 supports efficient sporozoite to liver stage conversion in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offeddu, Vittoria; Rauch, Manuel; Silvie, Olivier; Matuschewski, Kai

    2014-02-01

    Invasive stages of Plasmodium parasites possess distinct integral and peripheral membrane proteins that mediate host cell attachment and invasion. P113 is an abundant protein in detergent-resistant high molecular weight complexes in Plasmodium schizonts, but is unusual since expression extends to gametocytes and sporozoites. In this study, we tested whether P113 performs important functions for parasite propagation in Plasmodium berghei. We show that pre-erythrocytic expression of P113 displays key signatures of upregulated in infectious sporozoites (UIS) genes, including control by the liver stage master regulator SLARP. Targeted gene deletion resulted in viable blood stage parasites that displayed no signs of blood stage growth defects. p113(-) parasites propagated normally through the life cycle until mature sporozoites, but displayed defects during natural sporozoite transmission, leading to a delay to patency in infected animals. By comparative in vitro and in vivo analysis of pre-erythrocytic development and using a xeno-diagnostic test we show that ablation of P113 results in lower sporozoite to liver stage conversion and, as a consequence, reduced merozoite output in vivo, without delaying liver stage development. We conclude that p113 is dispensable for Plasmodium life cycle progression and plays auxiliary roles during pre-erythrocytic development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inference of the oxidative stress network in Anopheles stephensi upon Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrinet, Jatin; Nandal, Umesh Kumar; Adak, Tridibes; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Sunil, Sujatha

    2014-01-01

    Ookinete invasion of Anopheles midgut is a critical step for malaria transmission; the parasite numbers drop drastically and practically reach a minimum during the parasite's whole life cycle. At this stage, the parasite as well as the vector undergoes immense oxidative stress. Thereafter, the vector undergoes oxidative stress at different time points as the parasite invades its tissues during the parasite development. The present study was undertaken to reconstruct the network of differentially expressed genes involved in oxidative stress in Anopheles stephensi during Plasmodium development and maturation in the midgut. Using high throughput next generation sequencing methods, we generated the transcriptome of the An. stephensi midgut during Plasmodium vinckei petteri oocyst invasion of the midgut epithelium. Further, we utilized large datasets available on public domain on Anopheles during Plasmodium ookinete invasion and Drosophila datasets and arrived upon clusters of genes that may play a role in oxidative stress. Finally, we used support vector machines for the functional prediction of the un-annotated genes of An. stephensi. Integrating the results from all the different data analyses, we identified a total of 516 genes that were involved in oxidative stress in An. stephensi during Plasmodium development. The significantly regulated genes were further extracted from this gene cluster and used to infer an oxidative stress network of An. stephensi. Using system biology approaches, we have been able to ascertain the role of several putative genes in An. stephensi with respect to oxidative stress. Further experimental validations of these genes are underway.