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Sample records for scurvy

  1. Scurvy and Vitamin C

    OpenAIRE

    Mayberry, Jason A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of scurvy and vitamin C. The first section of the paper outlines the science of vitamin C. The second discusses outlines the medical progression of vitamin C deficiency and scurvy. The third section gives a brief timeline of scurvy throughout human history. The fourth section discusses the conditions during the age of sail that combined to make scurvy the greatest killer of sailors. The final section follows the scientific drive to find a cure and eventual elim...

  2. Infantile Scurvy: Two Case Reports

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    Leila Ghedira Besbes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ascorbic acid (vitamin C is necessary for the formation of collagen, reducing free radicals, and aiding in iron absorption. SCURVY, a disease of dietary ascorbic acid deficiency, is uncommon today. It still exists in high risk groups including economically disadvantaged populations with poor nutrition. The incidence of SCURVY in the pediatric population is very low. Cases Report. Here we report two cases of SCURVY revealed by subperiosteal hematoma in children with cerebral palsy and developmental delay. Conclusion. SCURVY is extremely rare in children. Musculoskeletal manifestations are prominent in pediatric SCURVY. Multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for diagnosis.

  3. Osteoskeletal manifestations of scurvy: MRI and ultrasound findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ahmet Veysel; Bekci, Tumay; Selcuk, Mustafa Bekir [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Say, Ferhat [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey); Bolukbas, Emrah [Ondokuz Mayis University, Kurupelit, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Samsun (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Scurvy has become very rare in the modern world. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is extremely low. In the pediatric population, musculoskeletal manifestations are more common and multiple subperiosteal hematomas are an important indicator for the diagnosis of scurvy. Although magnetic resonance imaging findings of scurvy are well described in the literature, to our knowledge, ultrasound findings have not yet been described. In this article, we report a case of scurvy with associated magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound findings. (orig.)

  4. The case of scurvy from Singidunum

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    Miladinović-Radmilović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, at the Belgrade Fortress, the bones of a female individual, aged 3-4 years were discovered in Grave no. 1, in sondage 2/2014. Dental and paleopathological analysis revealed traces of enamel hypoplasia on the teeth, while the bones of the cranial and postcranial skeleton showed traces of scurvy and tuberculosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177007: The text results from the projects Romanization, urbanization and transformation of urban centres of civil, military and residential character in Roman provinces in the territory of Serbia i br. 177021: Urbanization processes and development of medieval society

  5. Navigation and history of science: Scurvy

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    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of scurvy might be summarized in terms of mystery, death, tenacity and finally success. In this history three very important people deserve special mention, two of them were doctors, the other one was a famous navigator: Lind, Blane and Cook. The first one had the glory of having been the author of the first clinical trial, as we understand it nowadays, with all the criticisms that could be done at present. However, the joint effort of these three men led to the solution of something, which seemed to be an irresolvable mystery.

  6. Unilateral proptosis and extradural hematoma in a child with scurvy

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    Verma, Sumit; Sivanandan, Sindhu; Seth, Rachna; Kabra, Shushil [All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Pediatrics, New Delhi (India); Aneesh, Mangalasseril K.; Gupta, Vaibhav [All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India)

    2007-09-15

    We report a 3-year-old boy with unilateral proptosis, painful swelling of the right thigh and aphasia. He had radiographic evidence of scurvy in the limbs and bilateral frontal extradural hematomas with a mass lesion in the left orbit on MRI. He was treated with vitamin C and on follow-up 8 weeks later had recovered with no evidence of the orbital mass on clinical or radiological study. Scurvy manifesting as proptosis and extradural hematoma is rare. (orig.)

  7. Skeletal Manifestations of Scurvy: A Case Report from Dubai

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    Shahryar Noordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nutritional deficiencies are rarely reported in developed countries. We report a child of Pakistani origin brought up in Dubai who developed skeletal manifestations of scurvy due to peculiar dietary habits. Case Presentation. A 4.5 year old boy presented with pain and swelling of multiple joints for three months and inability to walk for two months. Dietary history was significant for exclusive meat intake for the preceding two years. On examination the child’s height and weight were below the 5th percentile for his age. He was pale and tachycardic. There was significant swelling and tenderness over the wrist, knee and ankle joints, along with painful restriction of motion. Basic blood workup was unremarkable except for anemia. However, X-rays showed delayed bone age, severe osteopenia of the long bones, epiphyseal separation, cortical thinning and dense zone of provisional calcification, suggesting a radiological diagnosis of scurvy. The child was started on vitamin C replacement therapy. Over the following two months, the pain and swelling substantially reduced and the child became able to walk. Repeat X-rays showed improvement in the bony abnormalities. Conclusion. Although scurvy is not a very commonly encountered entity in the modern era, inappropriate dietary intake can lead to skeletal abnormalities which may be confused with rickets. A high index of suspicion is thus required for prompt diagnosis of scurvy in patients with bone and joint symptoms.

  8. Pediatric Scurvy: When Contemporary Eating Habits Bring Back the Past

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    Alice Brambilla

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C deficiency is anecdotal in developed countries, mainly associated with underling clinical morbidities as autism or neurological impairment. Chronic insufficient dietary supply is responsible for vascular fragility and impaired bone formation, resulting in gingival bleeding, petechial lesions, articular and bone pain or limb swelling. Children may present anorexia, irritability, failure to thrive, limping or refusal to walk. Accordingly, pediatric scurvy is frequently misdiagnosed with osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, bone and soft tissue tumor, leukemia, bleeding disorders, and rheumatologic conditions. We report the case of a 3-years old child developing scurvy as consequence of strict selective diet; extensive and invasive investigations were undertaken before the correct diagnosis was considered. Despite being considered a rare condition, scurvy still exists nowadays, even in children with no apparent risk factors living in wealthy families. The increasing popularity of dietary restriction for children, especially those with allergies, may potentially enhance the occurrence of scurvy in apparently healthy children. Appropriate dietary anamnesis is fundamental in order to highlight potential nutritional deficit and to avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. Patients without considerable risk factors may benefit from psychological support in order to investigate possible eating disorders.

  9. Multiple fractures in infancy: scurvy or nonaccidental injury?

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    Colin R Paterson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Colin R PatersonFormerly of Department of Medicine, University of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland, UKAbstract: The child with unexplained fractures has a differential diagnosis that includes nonaccidental injury but also a number of bone disorders including osteogenesis imperfecta and rickets. This paper reports a 14-month-old girl who was found to have seven fractures, several hematomas and widespread sub-periosteal reactions. She was found to have biochemical evidence of vitamin C deficiency. While nonaccidental injury could not be excluded, it seemed likely that the major cause of the fractures was scurvy. It is important to consider the whole differential diagnosis in a child with unexplained fractures.Keywords: scurvy, vitamin C deficiency, nonaccidental injury, fractures, ascorbic acid

  10. Scurvy and cloudberries: a chapter in the history of nutritional sciences.

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    De Luca, Luigi M; Norum, Kaare R

    2011-12-01

    We translated two Latin texts about scurvy. One is by Ambrosius Rhodius, who in 1635 published his doctoral thesis on scurvy. This contains aspects of 16th- and 17th-century folklore medicine. The other is a 1593 letter by Henrik Høyer (Hoierus), a German physician in Bergen, Norway. The letter states that in Norway grew a plant, Chamaemorus Norvegicus, whose berries had curative abilities against scurvy. Rhodius lists symptoms of scurvy and suggests ingestion of fatty and smoked foods as etiological agents. He thought that a malfunction of the spleen was involved in this disease, so that the undigested parts of the chylus perturbed liver function. Plants with curative abilities were "those that abound in volatile salts." He listed seven facilitating causes of scurvy and its therapies. These included blood-letting after laxatives and root extracts. The star of the show was the cloudberry, which had miraculous effects on scurvy patients. Palliative care included a bath containing decoction of brooklime, water cress, mallow, hogweed, roman chamomile, and similar plants. Before bathing, the person was to drink an extract of wormwood, scurvy grass, or elder. As medication for gums and teeth, Rhodius recommended rosemary, hyssop, bistort, sage, nasturtium, waterweed, creeping Jenny, and scurvy grass. He referred to medications described by Albertus, Sennertus, and in antiquity by Hippocrates and Galenus. We discuss the manuscripts by Høyer and Rhodius in light of earlier treatments and opinions about scurvy.

  11. The Dutch East India Company, scurvy and the victualling station at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-02

    Feb 2, 2006 ... country's Golden Age were traumatic injury, scurvy, malaria and gastrointestinal infections. Scurvy .... by polished rice. Bontius seemed to have good luck or insight in dealing with deficiency diseases, as happened when he prescribed raw shark's liver for the treatment of night blindness in sailors.7. By 1648 ...

  12. Severe scurvy after gastric bypass surgery and a poor postoperative diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben P K; Metzsche, Carsten; Henningsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    After bariatric gastric bypass surgery patients are at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. If gastric bypass surgery is followed by a vitamin deficient diet the patients have a risk of developing vitamin-C deficiency. When spontaneous ecchymosis is observed in the skin, in at......-risk patients, scurvy must be considered. When treated with large doses of vitamin-C the symptoms of scurvy rapidly improve even if the patient has developed multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. KEYWORDS: Scurvy; Gastric bypass surgery; Multiorgan dysfunction....

  13. Radiographic changes in rhesus macaques affected by scurvy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Eisele, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Spontaneous vitamin C deficiency, or scurvy, was recognized in juvenile rhesus monkeys maintained in a research center as a result of being fed a commercial diet for 2 to 3 months with low levels of vitamin C. Most severely affected animals (13) were radiographed repeatedly up to day 300 following detection of the disease. Early radiographic changes consisted of widened, lucent metaphyses with lateral flaring and radiopaque metaphyseal lines at the junction of the metaphyses and physes. Physeal slippage was noted commonly. Following institution of vitamin C therapy, calcification of subperiosteal hemorrhage occurred in the metaphyseal regions. Metaphyses and physes returned to normal radiographic appearance within 15 to 30 days. Initially, the subperiosteal hemorrhage progressed and a longer time was required for solution of the calcified hematomas. The macaques improved clinically and were released from the hospital when fractures were stable at 4-5 weeks after admission. Of the 13 macaques studied, all but one returned as normal members of the colony

  14. Rickets and/or scurvy-like skeletal lesions in Cooley's anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; De Sanctis, V.; Vullo, C.; Castaldi, G.; Scutellari, P.N.; Ciaccio, C.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, a new type of skeletal lesions has been described in Cooley's anemia as a possible complication secondary to therapy. In 12 children affected with thalassemia major, who received an intensive transfusional regiment combined with continuous iron chelation therapy (desferoxamine-B: 50-80 mg/kg/day), some radiological abnormalities of the long bones were observed similar to those described in rickets and scurvy. These rickets and/or scurvy-like lesions had never been reported before the introduction of high-dose desferoxamine therapy. The pathogenesis of these lesions is uncertain, but the toxic effect of desferoxamine probably plays an important role in their development. The association of growth retardation and rickets and/or scurvy-like skeletal lesions in Cooley's anemia patients may be used as a valuable clinical criterion in long-term chelation management

  15. Brief Report: Scurvy as a Manifestation of Food Selectivity in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nina S.; Thompson, Cynthia; Weston, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Scurvy was diagnosed in seven children at Boston Children's Hospital. All of the children had a developmental disorder and autism was the most common. They had a long-standing history of food selectivity with diets devoid of fruits and vegetables, and none of the children were supplemented with a multivitamin. They presented with limp, and an…

  16. Analysis of nutritional disease in prehistory: The search for scurvy in antiquity and today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armelagos, George J; Sirak, Kendra; Werkema, Taylor; Turner, Bethany L

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we discuss the issues surrounding the study of scurvy, or vitamin C deficiency, in paleopathology, and highlight the work of Donald Ortner in advancing this area of research. This micronutrient deficiency impacts collagen formation and results in damage to a variety of bodily tissues. While clinical manifestations are observed routinely, the lack of specific signatures on bone makes paleopathological diagnosis difficult. Rapid growth in infants, children, and subadults provides abundant remodeled tissue and an increase in vascularization that makes identification possible in younger segments of the population. However, diagnosis of scurvy in adults remains problematic, given that diagnostic lesions are strikingly similar to those associated with rickets, osteomalacia, and other conditions. We argue that this confounding factor underscores the need for a broader anthropological approach to scurvy research that expands beyond differential diagnosis to include more accurate reconstruction of diets and available resources, greater consideration of the possibility - even likelihood - of multiple nutrient deficiencies simultaneously affecting an individual, and the patterning of these deficiencies along lines of status, sex, and age. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modern American scurvy - experience with vitamin C deficiency at a large children's hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golriz, Farahnaz; Donnelly, Lane F.; Krishnamurthy, Raj; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-01-01

    Until recently scurvy has been viewed in developed countries as a disease of the past. More recently there have been reports of case series of children with scurvy who have had a delayed diagnosis after an extensive diagnostic workup that included imaging. Most of these children have had underlying neurologic conditions such as autism. To review the medical records of children diagnosed with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency based on serum ascorbic acid levels at a large pediatric health care system, to determine imaging findings and utility of imaging in management, and to identify at-risk pediatric populations. We retrospectively identified cases of vitamin C deficiency in children tested for serum ascorbic acid levels during the last 5 years. We used the criteria of normal ascorbic acid >23 μmol/L and included children with ascorbic acid levels <23 μmol/L. We evaluated their clinical history, underlying medical condition, imaging studies obtained and imaging findings. We identified 32 children with vitamin C deficiency. All of these children had underlying medical conditions, most commonly iron overload from multiple transfusions related to sickle cell anemia or thalassemia (20), neurologic disorders (4) and bone marrow transplant/chemotherapy (3). No cases of scurvy from dietary deficiency in otherwise normal children were identified. All except two children had multiple imaging studies, primarily related to their underlying conditions. Three of these children had extensive imaging workups related to diffuse musculoskeletal pain. Imaging findings included ill-defined sclerotic and lucent metaphyseal bands (mainly at the knee) on radiography and MRI studies that showed diffuse increased T2-weighted signal in the bilateral lower-extremity long-bone metaphyses, periosteal reaction and adjacent soft-tissue edema. Vitamin C deficiency is not uncommon in large pediatric health care facilities, and it is frequently missed on clinical evaluation and diagnostic

  18. Modern American scurvy - experience with vitamin C deficiency at a large children's hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golriz, Farahnaz; Donnelly, Lane F.; Krishnamurthy, Raj [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Devaraj, Sridevi [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-02-15

    Until recently scurvy has been viewed in developed countries as a disease of the past. More recently there have been reports of case series of children with scurvy who have had a delayed diagnosis after an extensive diagnostic workup that included imaging. Most of these children have had underlying neurologic conditions such as autism. To review the medical records of children diagnosed with vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency based on serum ascorbic acid levels at a large pediatric health care system, to determine imaging findings and utility of imaging in management, and to identify at-risk pediatric populations. We retrospectively identified cases of vitamin C deficiency in children tested for serum ascorbic acid levels during the last 5 years. We used the criteria of normal ascorbic acid >23 μmol/L and included children with ascorbic acid levels <23 μmol/L. We evaluated their clinical history, underlying medical condition, imaging studies obtained and imaging findings. We identified 32 children with vitamin C deficiency. All of these children had underlying medical conditions, most commonly iron overload from multiple transfusions related to sickle cell anemia or thalassemia (20), neurologic disorders (4) and bone marrow transplant/chemotherapy (3). No cases of scurvy from dietary deficiency in otherwise normal children were identified. All except two children had multiple imaging studies, primarily related to their underlying conditions. Three of these children had extensive imaging workups related to diffuse musculoskeletal pain. Imaging findings included ill-defined sclerotic and lucent metaphyseal bands (mainly at the knee) on radiography and MRI studies that showed diffuse increased T2-weighted signal in the bilateral lower-extremity long-bone metaphyses, periosteal reaction and adjacent soft-tissue edema. Vitamin C deficiency is not uncommon in large pediatric health care facilities, and it is frequently missed on clinical evaluation and diagnostic

  19. Adult scurvy in New France: Samuel de Champlain's "Mal de la terre" at Saint Croix Island, 1604-1605.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Thomas A; Sorg, Marcella H

    2014-06-01

    Diagnosing scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) in adult skeletal remains is difficult despite documentary evidence of its past prevalence. Analysis of 20 European colonists buried at Saint Croix Island in New France during the winter of 1604-1605, accompanied by their leader Samuel de Champlain's eyewitness account of their symptoms, provided the opportunity to document lesions of adult scurvy within a tightly dated historical context. Previous diagnoses of adult scurvy have relied predominantly on the presence of periosteal lesions of the lower limbs and excessive antemortem tooth loss. Our analysis suggests that, when observed together, reactive lesions of the oral cavity associated with palatal inflammation and bilateral lesions at the mastication muscle attachment sites support the differential diagnosis of adult scurvy. Antemortem loss of the anterior teeth, however, is not a reliable diagnostic indicator. Employing a biocultural interpretive approach, analysis of these early colonists' skeletal remains enhances current understanding of the methods that medical practitioners used to treat the disorder during the Age of Discovery, performing rudimentary oral surgery and autopsies. Although limited by a small sample and taphonomic effects, this analysis strongly supports the use of weighted paleopathological criteria to diagnose adult scurvy based on the co-occurrence of specific porotic lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scurvy in the Great Irish Famine: evidence of vitamin C deficiency from a mid-19th century skeletal population.

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    Geber, Jonny; Murphy, Eileen

    2012-08-01

    Scurvy has increasingly been recognized in archaeological populations since the 1980s but this study represents the first examination of the paleopathological findings of scurvy in a known famine population. The Great Famine (1845-1852) was a watershed in Irish history and resulted in the death of one million people and the mass emigration of just as many. It was initiated by a blight which completely wiped out the potato-virtually the only source of food for the poor of Ireland. This led to mass starvation and a widespread occurrence of infectious and metabolic diseases. A recent discovery of 970 human skeletons from mass burials dating to the height of the famine in Kilkenny City (1847-1851) provided an opportunity to study the skeletal manifestations of scurvy-a disease that became widespread at this time due to the sudden lack of Vitamin C which had previously almost exclusively been provided by the potato. A three-scale diagnostic reliance approach has been employed as a statistical aid for diagnosing the disease in the population. A biocultural approach was adopted to enable the findings to be contextualized and the etiology and impact of the disease explored. The results indicate that scurvy indirectly influenced famine-induced mortality. A sex and stature bias is evident among adults in which males and taller individuals displayed statistically significantly higher levels of scorbutic lesions. The findings have also suggested that new bone formation at the foramen rotundum is a diagnostic criterion for the paleopathological identification of scurvy, particularly among juveniles. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2pr

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    Edith Y. Ho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat.

  2. Ascorbic acid deficiency stimulates hepatic expression of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Fumihiko; Kiyama, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Misato; Kawai, Kaori; Tsuda, Takanori

    2006-02-01

    ODS rat has a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid biosynthesis and is a useful animal model for elucidating the physiological role of ascorbic acid. We previously demonstrated by using ODS rats that ascorbic acid deficiency changes the hepatic gene expression of acute phase proteins, as seen in acute inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on the production of inflammatory chemokine, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), in ODS rats. Male ODS rats (6 wk of age) were fed a basal diet containing ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg diet) or a diet without ascorbic acid for 14 d. Obvious symptoms of scurvy were not observed in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the serum concentration of CINC-1 on d 14. The liver and spleen CINC-1 concentrations in the ascorbic acid-deficient rats were significantly elevated to 600% and 180% of the respective values in the control rats. However, the lung concentration of CINC-1 was not affected by ascorbic acid deficiency. Ascorbic acid deficiency significantly elevated the hepatic mRNA level of CINC-1 (to 480% of the value in the control rats), but not the lung mRNA level. These results demonstrate that ascorbic acid deficiency elevates the serum, liver and spleen concentrations of CINC-1 as seen in acute inflammation, and suggest that ascorbic acid deficiency stimulate the hepatic CINC-1 gene expression.

  3. Scurvy in a tropical paradise? Evaluating the possibility of infant and adult vitamin C deficiency in the Lapita skeletal sample of Teouma, Vanuatu, Pacific islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Hallie R; Kinaston, Rebecca; Halcrow, Siân E; Foster, Aimee; Spriggs, Matthew; Bedford, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    The Neolithic colonisation of the Pacific islands was one of the most challenging migration events in human history. The regions east of the Solomon Islands were colonised relatively recently by a people known as the Lapita. The Lapita brought with them a 'transported landscape' of domesticated plants and animals that had to be established upon arrival for the survival of these fledgling communities. Colonisation of these previously uninhabited islands was potentially perilous, and could leave colonisers vulnerable to periods of resource stress. The largest cemetery sample of Lapita people from the site of Teouma in Vanuatu offers a unique opportunity to assess the impact of colonisation on the health of pioneering populations. This paper explores the possibility that Teouma people experienced vitamin C deficiency as one of the consequences of the agricultural subsistence practices during the initial phases of island colonisation. Skeletal lesions in infants and adults indicative of scurvy suggest that initial colonisation phases in the Pacific islands involved precarious times involving deficiencies of key nutrients. Colonisation of the Pacific islands may share similar frameworks and problems as periods of subsistence transition in other parts of the world. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreases hepatic cytochrome P-450, especially CYP2B1/2B2, and simultaneously induces heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in scurvy-prone ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Misato; Hoshinaga, Yukiko; Miura, Natsuko; Tokuda, Yuki; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Murai, Atsushi; Horio, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the decrease in hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) content in ascorbic acid deficiency was investigated in scurvy-prone ODS rats. First, male ODS rats were fed a diet containing sufficient ascorbic acid (control) or a diet without ascorbic acid (deficient) for 18 days, with or without the intraperitoneal injection of phenobarbital. Ascorbic acid deficiency decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX) complex IV subunit I protein, and simultaneously increased heme oxygenase-1 protein in microsomes and mitochondria. Next, heme oxygenase-1 inducers, that is lipopolysaccharide and hemin, were administered to phenobaribital-treated ODS rats fed sufficient ascorbic acid. The administration of these inducers decreased hepatic microsomal total CYP content, CYP2B1/2B2 protein, and mitochondrial COX complex IV subunit I protein. These results suggested that the stimulation of hepatic heme oxygenase-1 expression by ascorbic acid deficiency caused the decrease in CYP content in liver.

  5. MR Imaging in a Child with Survey: a Case Report

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    Choi, Seung Woo; Park, Sun Won; Kwon, Young Se; Oh, In Suk; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae [College of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    Scurvy is very rare disease in industrialized societies. Nevertheless, it still exists in higher risk groups including economically disadvantaged populations with poor nutrition, such as the elderly and chronic alcoholics. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is very low. This study reports a case of scurvy in a 5-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and developmental delay based on MRI findings. curvy results from a deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). A marked reduction in the occurrence of scurvy has occurred over the last 100 years due to improved knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment of scurvy. However, the disease still exists even in industrialized countries. Because scurvy is rare in modern society, reported magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings associated with scurvy are very rare. We report a case of scurvy in a 5-year-old girl with associated MRI findings. The diagnosis of scurvy is made by clinical and radiographic findings and may be supported by additional findings such as reduced levels of vitamin C in the serum or Buffy-coat of leukocytes. The MRI findings of scurvy are not well known; however, when the MRI findings include subperiosteal hematoma with periostitis, metaphyseal changes, and heterogeneous bone marrow signal intensity, scurvy should be included in the differential diagnosis. Clinicians and radiologists must be aware of this extremely rare but still present condition, because it is potentially fatal and easily cured with vitamin C supplementation.

  6. MR Imaging in a Child with Survey: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Woo; Park, Sun Won; Kwon, Young Se; Oh, In Suk; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Won Hong; Suh, Chang Hae

    2007-01-01

    Scurvy is very rare disease in industrialized societies. Nevertheless, it still exists in higher risk groups including economically disadvantaged populations with poor nutrition, such as the elderly and chronic alcoholics. The incidence of scurvy in the pediatric population is very low. This study reports a case of scurvy in a 5-year-old girl with cerebral palsy and developmental delay based on MRI findings. curvy results from a deficiency of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). A marked reduction in the occurrence of scurvy has occurred over the last 100 years due to improved knowledge about the pathophysiology and treatment of scurvy. However, the disease still exists even in industrialized countries. Because scurvy is rare in modern society, reported magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings associated with scurvy are very rare. We report a case of scurvy in a 5-year-old girl with associated MRI findings. The diagnosis of scurvy is made by clinical and radiographic findings and may be supported by additional findings such as reduced levels of vitamin C in the serum or Buffy-coat of leukocytes. The MRI findings of scurvy are not well known; however, when the MRI findings include subperiosteal hematoma with periostitis, metaphyseal changes, and heterogeneous bone marrow signal intensity, scurvy should be included in the differential diagnosis. Clinicians and radiologists must be aware of this extremely rare but still present condition, because it is potentially fatal and easily cured with vitamin C supplementation

  7. Dermatology case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Moreira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, with advances in the understanding of the disease, general improvement in health standards and nutrition, scurvy is now rarely encountered. Dermatologic signs may be the only manifestation and are often misdiagnosed. Awareness of manifestations and prompt diagnosis are essential because, with appropriate vitamin replacement, scurvy is readily treated. We report the case of an adolescent whose diagnosis of scurvy was based on the recognition of dietary risk factors, the presence of dermatologic manifestations and the rapid resolution of skin lesions when vitamin C supplements were initiated.

  8. Disease: H01580 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available l features and dietary history, and there is rapid resolution of signs and symptoms after vitamin C suppleme...because alcohol decreases the absorption of vitamin C. The diagnosis of scurvy is generally based on clinica

  9. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  10. [Dental aspects of general symptoms in the 18th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrai, Judit

    2009-05-24

    In the 18th century, numerous diseases with symptoms of oral cavity were cured by chirurgien-dentist, barber-surgeons, or tooth drawer. The so called "dentitio difficilis" was blamed for the high children mortality, therefore gum cut or use of leeches was advised as a treatment. Both acute and chronic type of gum inflammation was called scurvy. It seems that the mechanical removal of plaque was enough to cure the scurvy as it was written in advertisements from that time. Syphilis was present in the everyday life throughout centuries, and assumed to cause different stigmas in the oral cavity. Today we consider theses stigmas as the toxic signs of mercury treatment.

  11. Does vitamin C deficiency result in impaired brain development in infants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Scurvy, the rare but potentially mortal manifestation of severe and prolonged lack of vitamin C, is often confused with hypovitaminosis C, i.e. the mere definition of vitamin C deficiency. While the latter condition can be diagnosed in millions, the clinical consequences-if they exist......-remain largely unknown, since only a tiny fraction of those deficient in vitamin C actually develop clinical scurvy. Is hypovitaminosis C itself a problem at all then? Yes, it may well be in some cases. Recent data by us suggest that the neonatal brain is particularly susceptible to vitamin C deficiency...

  12. effect of vitamin c on serum lipids and electrolyte profile of albino

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    animal tissues. Prolonged deficiency in man results to a condition known as scurvy. Essentially, there are no storage forms of this vitamin in animal tissues but ... metabolism, formation of active tetrahydrofolate, formation of ferritin as cellular antioxidant, iron absorption, electron transport system, catecholamine synthesis,.

  13. 21 CFR 101.93 - Certain types of statements for dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... leading to such dysfunctioning (e.g., hypertension); except that diseases resulting from essential nutrient deficiencies (e.g., scurvy, pellagra) are not included in this definition. (2) FDA will find that... an ingredient that is an article included in the definition of “dietary supplement” under 21 U.S.C...

  14. Methotrexate osteopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, A.M.; Leonidas, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Methotrexate osteopathy is an uncommon complication of long-term oral maintenance therapy for childhood neoplasms, most commonly acute lymphocytic leukemia. It is characterized by severe lower extremity pain and by osteoporosis particularly involving the lower extremities and thick dense provisional zones of calcification and growth arrest lines resembling scurvy. Fractures may occur. The appearance must be distinguished from recurrent or metastatic disease.

  15. Methotrexate osteopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, A.M.; Leonidas, J.C.; Tufts Univ., Boston, MA

    1984-01-01

    Methotrexate osteopathy is an uncommon complication of long-term oral maintenance therapy for childhood neoplasms, most commonly acute lymphocytic leukemia. It is characterized by severe lower extremity pain and by osteoporosis particularly involving the lower extremities and thick dense provisional zones of calcification and growth arrest lines resembling scurvy. Fractures may occur. The appearance must be distinguished from recurrent or metastatic disease. (orig.)

  16. Elufioye and Awosika Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    the treatment of scurvy as well as for skin care, eye care, digestion, constipation, respiratory disorders, gout, weight loss, and urinary disorders due to presence of a large amount of vitamin-C and flavonoids, both of which are class-1 antioxidants, antibiotic and disinfectants (Agrawal and. Paridhavi , 2007). Honey is used as ...

  17. Blauwe plekken, uitvallende tanden en vermoeidheid bij een patiënte met schizofrenie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, J.; Kalk, W.W.I.; Van Assen, S.; Van Der Wouden, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman was referred because of progressive haematomas of the lower extremities and fatigue. Her medical history included hyperplastic gums and tooth loss. Scurvy was diagnosed; this was the result of an insufficient diet due to a paranoid psychosis. There was a dramatic improvement

  18. Effect of Ascorbic Acid on Lipoprotein Lipase Activity | Kotze | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baboons kept on hypovitaminotic C diets, but without clinical signs of scurvy, had significantly higher heart muscle lipoprotein lipase activity than baboons on vitamin C 34 mg/kg body mass/day. When the serum vitamin C levels were above 0,35 mg/100 ml the heart muscle lipoprotein lipase was repressed. Serum vitamin C ...

  19. Volume 9 No. 4 2009 June 2009 992 MICRONUTRIENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficiencies in zinc, folate (particularly in pregnancy), vitamins B-12, C, and D, thiamine .... for zinc deficiency is likely high in pregnant women in developing countries, as ..... Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) – Clinical vitamin C deficiency (scurvy) has been .... micronutrient delivery to beneficiaries of U.S. food aid commodities.

  20. Lesson of the month 1: Massive spontaneous haematomas in an elderly man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Francesco; Braddick, Louise; Hashim, Hasnain; Ayto, Robert M; Jacobs, Alana; Baoku, Yetunde; Hamdulay, Shahir S

    2018-03-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with bilateral leg pain and swelling, and no history of trauma or bleeding disorders. Clinical examination, biochemistry and magnetic resonance imaging of the thighs were suggestive of muscle haematomas. These progressed significantly during the admission, requiring blood transfusion. Normal vascular anatomy on computed tomography, renal and liver function, and absence of infection made a bleeding diathesis more likely. This may be caused by coagulation defects, platelet disorders and vascular fragility. An undetectable serum ascorbic acid level confirmed the clinical suspicion of scurvy, and administration of vitamin C resulted in rapid improvement. Our case provides a structured approach to the diagnosis of bleeding disorders and scurvy, a treatable and potentially fatal disease which is often forgotten. © Royal College of Physicians 2018. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y; Sanada, H; Suzue, R; Kawada, S [National Inst. of Nutrition, Tokyo (Japan)

    1976-10-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO/sub 4/ to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe/sup 2 +/. These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe/sup 2 +/.

  2. Role of ascorbic acid on tyrosine hydroxylase activity in the adrenal gland of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoko; Sanada, Hiroo; Suzue, Ryokuero; Kawada, Shoji

    1976-01-01

    The decrease of tyrosine hydroxylase activity in adrenal homogenate in scurvy was recovered after the administration of ascorbic acid. The causes of the increase in the enzyme activity after the administration of ascorbic acid have been studied. 1. No significant elevation in the enzyme activity was observed after the administration of reserpine to the scorbutic guinea pig. 2. A dose of metal chelating agent, α, α'-dipyridyl, prevented the ascorbic acid-induced or reserpine-induced increase in enzyme activity in the scorbutic and the nonscorbutic guinea pigs, respectively. 3. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was partially recovered by the administration of FeSO 4 to the scorbutic guinea pig. From these results, it became clear that the induction of tyrosine hydroxylase which was not observed in scurvy was due to the deficiency of Fe 2+ . These results suggested that ascorbic acid affected the induction of this enzyme via Fe 2+ . (auth.)

  3. Pionerer bag vitamin K, dikumarol og warfarin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith

    2014-01-01

    . The discovery was initiated by Dam, by a lucky choice of chicks in the dissertation of sterol metabolism, since the vitamin is not formed by intestinal bacteria in these animals. In these experiments the lack of an unknown factor in the synthetic diet caused internal bleeding similar to that found in scurvy......- through in the treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Today new oral anticoagulants are competing with warfarin....

  4. Evaluation of the Erythrocyte Malondialdehyde (MDA) Release Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    MDA vs. Cholesterol A It.M U Control indicated that there was alsc: a p-sit ive .. r i Piat i r, 0.58) between cholestetol an’] I I asma ::im E...N Engl J Med 310, 1209-1212(1984). 58. Hess AF. Involvement of the blood and blood vessels in infantile scurvy. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 11, 130-132

  5. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2014-01-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer’s disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this stud...

  6. Single Nutrients and Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    leukocytosis purpura Drug therapy: corticosteroids cytotoxic drugs other immunosuppressive drugs contraceptive drugs Pregnancy Maleness Aging Scurvy...Muindi JM, Swai GBR. Infections 211. Kos WL, Loria RM, Snodgrass MJ. et al. Inhibition in iron deficiency and other types of anaemia in the of host...hemopoietic tissue. Blood deficiency anaemia . J Clin Pathol 1974:27:973-9. 1970;36:32 1-9. 244. Bhaskaram C, Siva Prasad J, Krishnamachari 264

  7. Navigation and History of Science: Beriberi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of beriberi is an example of national pride, different social classes, research efforts and also luck. All histories have their main protagonists. In this case, perhaps the most significant people were Christiaan Eijkman, William Fletcher and Kanehiro Takaki. Infection, toxicity and feeding, among other factors, were the starting points to support the initial etiopathogenic bases of the disease. The experimental and epidemiological work of these authors gave the key about the cause of beriberi and its effective treatment. As in the case of scurvy, the mystery was solved not without very hard work and many previous mistakes.

  8. THE INCORPORATION OF ACETATE-1-C14 INTO CHOLESTEROL AND FATTY ACIDS BY SURVIVING TISSUES OF NORMAL AND SCORBUTIC GUINEA PIGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, H. I.; Fishman, S.; Heard, R. D. H.; O'Donnell, V. J.; Webb, J. L.; Willis, G. C.

    1956-01-01

    The synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids from acetate-l-C14 by the isolated liver, adrenal, and aorta of scorbutic and pair-fed control guinea pigs has been studied. It was found that ascorbic acid deficiency does not affect the rate of incorporation of C14-acetate into cholesterol and fatty acids by the tissues investigated, under our experimental conditions. The relatively high metabolic activity of the artery with regard to cholesterogenesis and lipogenesis was noted. The elevation of serum cholesterol and hexosamine in scurvy has been confirmed. PMID:13286427

  9. Titrimetric application of 2-bromo-bis-1,10-phenanthroline-copper (II) bromide as a titrant in determination of ascorbic acid in pure form, fruits and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oladeji, O.

    2016-01-01

    Ascorbic acid is very important to man and the consumption has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases such as scurvy and serves as an antioxidants. There have been different approaches in the determination of ascorbic acid in fruits and vegetable. In recent times, new methods were introduced by scientists. Therefore, in order to prove the authenticity of these methods, the concentrations obtained were compared with the conventional methods. The results show that orange has maximum ascorbic acid content when compared to cashew and in vegetables Vermonia baldwinii has maximum and Solanium incanum has low ascorbic acid content. The amount of ascorbic acid determined by 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol and copper (II) complex (2-bromo-bis-1, 10 phenanthroline-copper (II) bromide) are comparable.Therefore, 2-bromo-bis-1, 10-phenanthroline-copper (II) bromide can serve as a titrant in titrimetric determination of ascorbic acid in pure form, fruits and vegetables. (author)

  10. Does vitamin C matter? A quest for in vivo effects of vitamin C deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Vitamin C has long been recognized as an important dietary micronutrient based on its ability to prevent scurvy in humans. Moreover, over the past decades, ascorbate has been identified as a powerful redox modulator and named ‘‘the most important antioxidant in plasma''. Several investigators have...... shown ascorbate to be an excellent biomarker of ‘‘oxidative stress'' in a variety of biological settings from isolated cells to humans. However, in spite of the amazing redox powers of ascorbate, little evidence has been presented until now demonstrating that vitamin C deficiency results in any clinical...... problem has prompted discussions on the possible beneficial effect of supplementation to humans as a preventive measure but so far large clinical trials have shown no clinical relevance of antioxidant supplementation in general. Two possible pathological consequences of marginal vitamin C deficiency...

  11. Sailing on the "C": A Vitamin Titration with a Twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, S.; Kondo, A. E.

    2003-05-01

    The experiment takes the traditional redox titration of vitamin C using iodine with starch as an indicator, and presents it to the student as a challenge in guided-inquiry format. Two versions, with different levels of difficulty, are provided, to accommodate students with varying levels of problem-solving skills. The "challenge" is both quantitative and qualitative: if you were an eighteenth-century sea captain packing for a voyage to the New World, would you take oranges, lemons, limes, or grapefruits to prevent your crew from getting scurvy? The challenge ties in history, nutrition, and health with chemistry, and provides students an opportunity to work with familiar food products in the laboratory.

  12. Vitamin C deficiency in early postnatal life impairs spatial memory and reduces the number of hippocampal neurons in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille Yde; Johansen, Louise Kruse; Raida, Zindy

    2009-01-01

    C deficiency and neuronal damage in newborn guinea pigs. DESIGN: Thirty 6- to 7-d-old guinea pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups to receive either a vitamin C-sufficient diet or the same diet containing a low concentration of vitamin C (but adequate to prevent scurvy) for 2 mo. Spatial memory...... was assessed by the Morris Water Maze, and hippocampal neuron numbers were quantified by stereologic techniques. RESULTS: The results showed a reduction in spatial memory (P ... a lower total number of neurons in hippocampal subdivisions (dentate gyrus, cornu ammonis 1, and cornu ammonis 2-3) than did the normal controls (P impaired neuronal development and a functional decrease...

  13. Osteoporosis and hydronephrosis of young lambs following the ingestion of lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clegg, F G; Rylands, J M

    1966-01-01

    Lead poisoning is described in young lambs which were reared near lead mining areas in North Derbyshire, England. A brief history of the poisoning of stock which has occurred in the past near lead workings is given. The clinical results and post-mortem findings are reported together with descriptions of radiographical, histological and biochemical findings. A striking feature of all post-mortem examinations was an emaciated carcase with grossly abnormal kidneys. The bones were fragile and easily broken or cut. Kidney cortex and liver lead estimations were carried out in every case. The response of affected lambs to treatment with ascorbic acid is described and the similarities of the clinical signs and the skeletal lesions to scurvy in man and the guinea pig are discussed. 31 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Therapeutic effects of amla in medicine and dentistry: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Singh Grover

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis (Amla is widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. Amla is called amalaki in Sanskrit. It is one of the oldest oriental medicines mentioned in Ayurveda as potential remedy for assorted ailments. A wide range of phytochemical components present in amla including alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids have been shown to procure useful biological activities. It is an ingredient of many Ayurvedic medicines and tonics as it removes excessive salivation and internal body heat. Research has been done with amla evaluating its role as an antioxidant. Amla is useful in ulcer prevention, for diabetic patients, and for memory effects. Amla Tonic has a hematinic and lipalytic function useful in scurvy, prevents indigestion, and controls acidity as well as it is a natural source of anti-aging.

  15. Evidence Report: Risk Factor of Inadequate Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of nutrition in exploration has been documented repeatedly throughout history, where, for example, in the period between Columbus' voyage in 1492 and the invention of the steam engine, scurvy resulted in more sailor deaths than all other causes of death combined. Because nutrients are required for the structure and function of every cell and every system in the body, defining the nutrient requirements for spaceflight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are primary issues for crew health and mission success. Unique aspects of nutrition during space travel include the overarching physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme and remote environments, and the ability of nutrition and nutrients to serve as countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of spaceflight on the human body. Key areas of clinical concern for long-duration spaceflight include loss of body mass (general inadequate food intake), bone and muscle loss, cardiovascular and immune system decrements, increased radiation exposure and oxidative stress, vision and ophthalmic changes, behavior and performance, nutrient supply during extravehicular activity, and general depletion of body nutrient stores because of inadequate food supply, inadequate food intake, increased metabolism, and/or irreversible loss of nutrients. These topics are reviewed herein, based on the current gap structure.

  16. Dietary Vitamin C in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Matthew; Eck, Peter

    Vitamin C is essential to prevent scurvy in humans and is implicated in the primary prevention of common and complex diseases such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and cancer. This chapter reviews the latest knowledge about dietary vitamin C in human health with an emphasis on studies of the molecular mechanisms of vitamin C maintenance as well as gene-nutrient interactions modifying these relationships. Epidemiological evidence indicates 5% prevalence for vitamin C deficiency and 13% prevalence for suboptimal status even in industrialized countries. The daily intake (dose) and the corresponding systemic concentrations (response) are related in a saturable relationship, and low systemic vitamin C concentrations in observational studies are associated with negative health outcomes. However, there is no evidence that vitamin C supplementation impacts the risks for all-cause mortality, impaired cognitive performance, reduced quality of life, the development of eye diseases, infections, cardiovascular disease, and cancers. This might be related to the fact that prevention would not be realized by supplementation in populations already adequately supplied through dietary sources. Recent genetic association studies indicate that the dietary intake might not be the sole determinant of systemic concentrations, since variations in genes participating in redox homeostasis and vitamin C transport had been associated with lowered plasma concentrations. However, impact sizes are generally low and these phenomena might only affect individual of suboptimal dietary supply. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Strategies to increase Vitamin C in plants: from plant defence perspective to food biofortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria eLocato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by classical breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defence responses.

  18. Strategies to increase vitamin C in plants: from plant defense perspective to food biofortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locato, Vittoria; Cimini, Sara; Gara, Laura De

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin C participates in several physiological processes, among others, immune stimulation, synthesis of collagen, hormones, neurotransmitters, and iron absorption. Severe deficiency leads to scurvy, whereas a limited vitamin C intake causes general symptoms, such as increased susceptibility to infections, fatigue, insomnia, and weight loss. Surprisingly vitamin C deficiencies are spread in both developing and developed countries, with the latter actually trying to overcome this lack through dietary supplements and food fortification. Therefore new strategies aimed to increase vitamin C in food plants would be of interest to improve human health. Interestingly, plants are not only living bioreactors for vitamin C production in optimal growing conditions, but also they can increase their vitamin C content as consequence of stress conditions. An overview of the different approaches aimed at increasing vitamin C level in plant food is given. They include genotype selection by "classical" breeding, bio-engineering and changes of the agronomic conditions, on the basis of the emerging concepts that plant can enhance vitamin C synthesis as part of defense responses.

  19. History of health in the Indian Ocean: care, prevention, teaching, and research from the 17(th) to the mid-20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, P; Gaüzère, B-A

    2016-05-01

    In 1498, the Portuguese crossed the Cape of Good Hope. It was not until the period of 1633 and 1666, dates of the founding, respectively, of the Compagnie de l'Orient and the Compagnie des Indes orientales, that the way was definitively opened for trade between France and India. Because so many sailors developed scurvy after voyages that lasted 4 to 5 months, the French settled on Bourbon Island (Réunion) and Ile de France (Mauritius), to provide them with medical care. Created in 1689 by Louis XIV, the Navy Health Service was responsible for health in the colonies until it was replaced in 1890 by the Colonial Health Service. European medicine began its slow diffusion around the Indian Ocean in Pondicherry (India). The naval doctors reported their experiences in the Archives de médecine navale (1864-1889), and the colonial doctors afterwards in the Archives de médecine navale et coloniale (1890-1896). The health system in Madagascar developed strongly during 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, and the subsequent development of health care in the other Indian Ocean islands became closely linked to that of Madagascar. On Bourbon, the two navy hospitals in Saint-Paul and Saint-Denis treated only naval and military personnel. The colony had no hospital providing care for civilians and poor people until three civilian doctors opened a maison de santé (health house) in 1846.

  20. Metabolic profiling of vitamin C deficiency in Gulo-/- mice using proton NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Gavin E. [University of Calgary, Biochemistry Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences (Canada); Joan Miller, B.; Jirik, Frank R. [University of Calgary, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health (Canada); Vogel, Hans J., E-mail: vogel@ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Biochemistry Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Nutrient deficiencies are an ongoing problem in many populations and ascorbic acid is a key vitamin whose mild or acute absence leads to a number of conditions including the famously debilitating scurvy. As such, the biochemical effects of ascorbate deficiency merit ongoing scrutiny, and the Gulo knockout mouse provides a useful model for the metabolomic examination of vitamin C deficiency. Like humans, these animals are incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid but with dietary supplements are otherwise healthy and grow normally. In this study, all vitamin C sources were removed after weaning from the diet of Gulo-/- mice (n = 7) and wild type controls (n = 7) for 12 weeks before collection of serum. A replicate study was performed with similar parameters but animals were harvested pre-symptomatically after 2-3 weeks. The serum concentration of 50 metabolites was determined by quantitative profiling of 1D proton NMR spectra. Multivariate statistical models were used to describe metabolic changes as compared to control animals; replicate study animals were used for external validation of the resulting models. The results of the study highlight the metabolites and pathways known to require ascorbate for proper flux.

  1. Mortality disparities among groups participating in an East Africa surveying expedition: the Herbert Henry Austin expedition of 1900-1901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperato, Pascal James; Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Austin C

    2013-10-01

    In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, a number of European expeditions traveled to the region of Lake Rudolf, now largely in northern Kenya. Although diverse in intent, many of these were undertaken in the interests of furthering colonial territorial claims. In 1900-1901, Major Herbert Henry Austin led a British expedition down to the lake from Khartoum in the north. Of the 62 African, Arab, and European members of this expedition, only 18 (29 %) arrived at its final destination at Lake Baringo in Kenya. Because of a confluence of adverse climatic, social, and political conditions, the expedition ran short of food supplies when it arrived at the northern end of the lake in April 1901. For the next 4 months, the members of the expedition struggled down the west side of the lake and beyond. The greatest mortality (91 %) occurred among the 32 African transport drivers who were the most marginally nourished at the outset of the trip. The lowest mortality among the Africans on the expedition (15 %) occurred among the members of the Tenth Sudanese Rifles Battalion, who had an excellent nutritional status at the start of the expedition. Major Austin himself suffered from severe scurvy with retinal hemorrhages which left him partially blind in his right eye. An analysis of the mortality rates among the groups that participated in this expedition was undertaken. This revealed that poor nutritional status at the start of the trip was predictive of death from starvation.

  2. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2004-01-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  3. The acrophysis: a unifying concept for understanding enchondral bone growth and its disorders. II. Abnormal growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, OH 45229-3039, Cincinnati (United States)

    2004-03-01

    In order to discuss and illustrate the effects common to normal and abnormal enchondral bone at the physes and at all other growth plates of the developing child, the term ''acrophysis'' was proposed. Acrophyses include the growth plates of secondary growth centers including carpals and tarsals and apophyses, and the growth plates at the nonphyseal ends of small tubular bones. Abnormalities at acrophyseal sites are analogous to those at the physeal growth plates and their metaphyses. For example, changes relating to the zone of provisional calcification (ZPC) are often important to the demonstration of such similarities. Lead lines were an early example of the concept of analogy from abnormality due to physeal and to acrophyseal disturbance. The ZPC is a key factor in understanding patterns of rickets and its healing. Examples (including hypothyroidism, scurvy and other osteoporosis, Ollier disease, achondroplasia, and osteopetrosis, as well as the family of frostbite, Kashin-Beck disease, and rat bite fever) illustrate the acrophysis principle and in turn their manifestations are explained by that principle. (orig.)

  4. Metabolic profiling of vitamin C deficiency in Gulo−/− mice using proton NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, Gavin E.; Joan Miller, B.; Jirik, Frank R.; Vogel, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient deficiencies are an ongoing problem in many populations and ascorbic acid is a key vitamin whose mild or acute absence leads to a number of conditions including the famously debilitating scurvy. As such, the biochemical effects of ascorbate deficiency merit ongoing scrutiny, and the Gulo knockout mouse provides a useful model for the metabolomic examination of vitamin C deficiency. Like humans, these animals are incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid but with dietary supplements are otherwise healthy and grow normally. In this study, all vitamin C sources were removed after weaning from the diet of Gulo−/− mice (n = 7) and wild type controls (n = 7) for 12 weeks before collection of serum. A replicate study was performed with similar parameters but animals were harvested pre-symptomatically after 2–3 weeks. The serum concentration of 50 metabolites was determined by quantitative profiling of 1D proton NMR spectra. Multivariate statistical models were used to describe metabolic changes as compared to control animals; replicate study animals were used for external validation of the resulting models. The results of the study highlight the metabolites and pathways known to require ascorbate for proper flux.

  5. Diet in dermatology: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimal Sowmya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet has an important role to play in many skin disorders, and dermatologists are frequently faced with the difficulty of separating myth from fact when it comes to dietary advice for their patients. Patients in India are often anxious about what foods to consume, and what to avoid, in the hope that, no matter how impractical or difficult this may be, following this dictum will cure their disease. There are certain disorders where one or more components in food are central to the pathogenesis, e.g. dermatitis herpetiformis, wherein dietary restrictions constitute the cornerstone of treatment. A brief list, although not comprehensive, of other disorders where diet may have a role to play includes atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, pemphigus, urticaria, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis, fish odor syndrome, toxic oil syndrome, fixed drug eruption, genetic and metabolic disorders (phenylketonuria, tyrosinemia, homocystinuria, galactosemia, Refsum′s disease, G6PD deficiency, xanthomas, gout and porphyria, nutritional deficiency disorders (kwashiorkar, marasmus, phrynoderma, pellagra, scurvy, acrodermatitis enteropathica, carotenemia and lycopenemia and miscellaneous disorders such as vitiligo, aphthous ulcers, cutaneous vasculitis and telogen effluvium. From a practical point of view, it will be useful for the dermatologist to keep some dietary information handy to deal with the occasional patient who does not seem to respond in spite of the best, scientific and evidence-based therapy.

  6. Variations in plasma ceruloplasmin and whole body retention of 67Cu in guinea pigs recovering from vitamin C deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosestenbach, R.D. Jr.; Harris, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Parallels may be drawn between the symptoms of scurvy and copper deficiency. This realization led the authors to examine the effects of ascorbic acid supplementation on plasma ceruloplasmin and whole body turnover of copper in scorbutic guinea pigs. Weanling guinea pigs were fed an ascorbate free semi-purified diet for 10-14 days then randomly divided into 3 treatment groups receiving oral supplementation of ascorbic acid at levels: deficient, normal, and excess. In two experiments with different groups of animals, the plasma ceruloplasmin IU, measured by p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity, was significantly higher in the deficient groups, 53.5 ± 7.7 and 41.2 ± 9.2, than in the normal and excess groups, 18.3 ± 7.7, 21.6 ± 2.6 and 30.2 ± 9.2, 18.3 ± 2.6, respectively. 67 Cu was administered intraperitoneally and whole body gamma radiation was measured at 24 h intervals to determine excretion and retention rates of the 3 treatment groups. A higher retention of 67 Cu was observed in the deficient group, t1/2 = 4.8 days compared to 2.6 and 1.6 in the normal and excess groups, respectively. The affect of ascorbic acid on the regulatory mechanism of copper retention, either directly or indirectly, and the increase in plasma ceruloplasmin activity indicates ascorbic acid may perform a functional role in copper utilization in a biological system

  7. The Medicinal Usage and Restriction of Ginseng in Britain and America, 1660-1900*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heasim SUL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the medicinal usage of ginseng in the West from 1660 to 1914. Asian[Korea] ginseng was first introduced into England in the early 17th century, and North American ginseng was found in the early 18th century. Starting from the late 17th century doctors prescribed ginseng to cure many different kinds of ailments and disease such as: fatigue general lethargy, fever, torpidity, trembling in the joints, nervous disorder, laughing and crying hysteria, scurvy, spermatic vessel infection, jaundice, leprosy, dry gripes and constipation, strangury, yellow fever, dysentery, infertility and addictions of alcohol, opium and tobacco, etc. In the mid-18th century Materia Medica began to specify medicinal properties of ginseng and the patent medicines containing ginseng were widely circulated. However, starting in the late 18th century the medicinal properties of ginseng began to be disparaged and major pharmacopoeias removed ginseng from their contents. The reform of the pharmacopoeia, influenced by Linnaeus in botany and Lavoisier in chemistry, introduced nomenclature that emphasized identifying ingredients and active constituents. Western medicine at this period, however, failed to identify and to extract the active constituents of ginseng. Apart from the technical underdevelopment of the period, the medical discourses reveal that the so-called chemical experiment of ginseng were conducted with unqualified materials and without proper differentiation of various species of ginseng.

  8. The historical evolution of thought regarding multiple micronutrient nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Multiple micronutrient nutrition is an idea that originated in the 1940s and exemplifies the iterative nutritional paradigm. In the first four decades of the 20th century, scientists sought to separate and characterize the vitamins that were responsible for xerophthalmia, rickets, pellagra, scurvy, and beriberi. The dietary requirements of the different micronutrients began to be established in the early 1940s. Surveys showed that multiple micronutrient deficiencies were widespread in industrialized countries, and the problem was addressed by use of cod-liver oil, iodized salt, fortified margarine, and flour fortification with multiple micronutrients, and, with rising living standards, the increased availability and consumption of animal source foods. After World War II, surveys showed that multiple micronutrient deficiencies were widespread in developing countries. Approaches to the elimination of multiple micronutrient deficiencies include periodic vitamin A supplementation, iodized salt, targeted iron/folate supplementation, fortified flour, other fortified foods, home fortification with micronutrient powders, and homestead food production. The prevention of multiple micronutrient malnutrition is a key factor in achieving the Millennium Development Goals, given the important effects of micronutrients on health and survival.

  9. MRI findings of serous atrophy of bone marrow and associated complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutin, Robert D. [Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States); White, Lawrence M. [University of Toronto, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, ON (Canada); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Spitz, Damon J. [New England Baptist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Lopez-Ben, Robert R. [Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte Radiology, Diagnostic Radiology, Charlotte, NC (United States); Stevens, Kathryn J. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To report the MRI appearance of serous atrophy of bone marrow (SABM) and analyse clinical findings and complications of SABM. A retrospective search of MRI examinations of SABM was performed. Symptoms, underlying conditions, MRI findings, delay in diagnosis and associated complications were recorded. We identified 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age: 46 ± 21 years) with MRI findings of SABM. Underlying conditions included anorexia nervosa (n = 10), cachexia from malignant (n = 5) and non-malignant (n = 7) causes, massive weight loss after bariatric surgery (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), AIDS (n = 3), endocrine disorders (n = 2) and scurvy (n = 1). MRI showed mildly hypointense signal on T1- weighted and hyperintense signal on fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images of affected bone marrow in all cases and similar signal abnormalities of the adjacent subcutaneous fat in 29/30 cases. Seven patients underwent repeat MRI due to initial misinterpretation of bone marrow signal as technical error. Superimposed fractures of the hips and lower extremities were common (n = 14). SABM occurs most commonly in anorexia nervosa and cachexia. MRI findings of SABM are often misinterpreted as technical error requiring unnecessary repeat imaging. SABM is frequently associated with fractures of the lower extremities. (orig.)

  10. Methemoglobinemia and ascorbate deficiency in hemoglobin E β thalassemia: metabolic and clinical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Angela; Fisher, Christopher; Premawardhena, Anuja; Bandara, Dayananda; Perera, Ashok; Allen, Stephen; St Pierre, Timothy; Olivieri, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    During investigations of the phenotypic diversity of hemoglobin (Hb) E β thalassemia, a patient was encountered with persistently high levels of methemoglobin associated with a left-shift in the oxygen dissociation curve, profound ascorbate deficiency, and clinical features of scurvy; these abnormalities were corrected by treatment with vitamin C. Studies of erythropoietin production before and after treatment suggested that, as in an ascorbate-deficient murine model, the human hypoxia induction factor pathway is not totally dependent on ascorbate levels. A follow-up study of 45 patients with HbE β thalassemia showed that methemoglobin levels were significantly increased and that there was also a significant reduction in plasma ascorbate levels. Haptoglobin levels were significantly reduced, and the high frequency of the 2.2 haptoglobin genotype may place an additional pressure on ascorbate as a free-radical scavenger in this population. There was, in addition, a highly significant correlation between methemoglobin levels, splenectomy, and factors that modify the degree of globin-chain imbalance. Because methemoglobin levels are modified by several mechanisms and may play a role in both adaptation to anemia and vascular damage, there is a strong case for its further study in other forms of thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia, particularly when splenic function is defective. PMID:22885163

  11. MRI findings of serous atrophy of bone marrow and associated complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, Robert D.; White, Lawrence M.; Laor, Tal; Spitz, Damon J.; Lopez-Ben, Robert R.; Stevens, Kathryn J.; Bredella, Miriam A.

    2015-01-01

    To report the MRI appearance of serous atrophy of bone marrow (SABM) and analyse clinical findings and complications of SABM. A retrospective search of MRI examinations of SABM was performed. Symptoms, underlying conditions, MRI findings, delay in diagnosis and associated complications were recorded. We identified 30 patients (15 male, 15 female; mean age: 46 ± 21 years) with MRI findings of SABM. Underlying conditions included anorexia nervosa (n = 10), cachexia from malignant (n = 5) and non-malignant (n = 7) causes, massive weight loss after bariatric surgery (n = 1), biliary atresia (n = 1), AIDS (n = 3), endocrine disorders (n = 2) and scurvy (n = 1). MRI showed mildly hypointense signal on T1- weighted and hyperintense signal on fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive images of affected bone marrow in all cases and similar signal abnormalities of the adjacent subcutaneous fat in 29/30 cases. Seven patients underwent repeat MRI due to initial misinterpretation of bone marrow signal as technical error. Superimposed fractures of the hips and lower extremities were common (n = 14). SABM occurs most commonly in anorexia nervosa and cachexia. MRI findings of SABM are often misinterpreted as technical error requiring unnecessary repeat imaging. SABM is frequently associated with fractures of the lower extremities. (orig.)

  12. [The medical literature of the Egyptian campaign].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutin, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Bonaparte's Egyptian Campaign (1798 - 1801), like all other episodes from the Napoleonic era, gave rise to an extensive literature on the subject, but most of all a significant medical literature. This fact is due to many reasons:--an important health service for this expeditionary corps of more than 36.000 men, with two main figures at its hea, Desgenettes and Larrey--but also with valuable subordinates like Assalini, Savaresi, Balme, Pugnet or Barbès.--A Commission for Science and Art, of which a few doctors and surgeons were members, but most of all pharmacists like Boudet or Rouyer--The presence in the field of Ludwig Frank, the nephew of the famous Johann Peter Frank.--The creation in Cairo of an Egyptian Institute and the publication of the masterly Description of Egypt and the establishment of printing houses.--The emergence of the myth of the Orient and its mysteries.--An extensive array of indigenous pathologies, which is characteristic of those countries. For instance: plague, dysentery, yellow fever, Egyptian ophthalmia, as well as more common diseases like tetanus, scurvy or venereal diseases. The main medical works that cover this period and its pathologies are skimmed.

  13. Pyrophosphate levels strongly influence ascorbate and starch content in tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate (vitamin C deficiency leads to low immunity, scurvy, and other human diseases and is therefore a global health problem. Given that plants are major ascorbate sources for humans, biofortification of this vitamin in our foodstuffs is of considerable importance. Ascorbate is synthetized by a number of alternative pathways: (i from the glycolytic intermediates D-glucose-6P (the key intermediates are GDP-D-mannose and L-galactose, (ii from the breakdown of the cell wall polymer pectin which uses the methyl ester of D-galacturonic acid as precursor and (iii from myo-inositol as precursor via myo-inositol oxygenase. We report here the engineering of fruit-specific overexpression of a bacterial pyrophosphatase, which hydrolyzes the inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi to orthophosphate (Pi. This strategy resulted in increased vitamin C levels up to 2.5 fold in ripe fruit as well as increasing in the major sugars, sucrose and glucose, yet decreasing the level of starch. When considered together, these finding indicate an intimate linkage between ascorbate and sugar biosynthesis in plants. Moreover, the combined data reveal the importance of PPi metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development.

  14. Morphological assessment of bone mineralization in tibial metaphyses of ascorbic acid-deficient ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Li, Minqi; Hara, Kuniko; Sasaki, Muneteru; Tabata, Chihiro; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Hongo, Hiromi; Suzuki, Reiko; Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Kiichiro; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oohata, Noboru; Oda, Kimimitsu; Akiyama, Yasuhiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2011-08-01

    Osteogenic disorder shionogi (ODS) rats carry a hereditary defect in ascorbic acid synthesis, mimicking human scurvy when fed with an ascorbic acid-deficient (aa-def) diet. As aa-def ODS rats were shown to feature disordered bone formation, we have examined the bone mineralization in this rat model. A fibrous tissue layer surrounding the trabeculae of tibial metaphyses was found in aa-def ODS rats, and this layer showed intense alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferating cell nuclear antigen-immunopositivity. Many osteoblasts detached from the bone surfaces and were characterized by round-shaped rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), suggesting accumulation of malformed collagen inside the rER. Accordingly, fine, fragile fibrillar collagenous structures without evident striation were found in aa-def bones, which may result from misassembling of the triple helices of collagenous α-chains. Despite a marked reduction in bone formation, ascorbic acid deprivation seemed to have no effect on mineralization: while reduced in number, normal matrix vesicles and mineralized nodules could be seen in aa-def bones. Fine needle-like mineral crystals extended from these mineralized nodules, and were apparently bound to collagenous fibrillar structures. In summary, collagen mineralization seems unaffected by ascorbic acid deficiency in spite of the fine, fragile collagenous fibrils identified in the bones of our animal model.

  15. Evolution of clinical research: A history before and beyond james lind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Bhatt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of clinical research traverses a long and fascinating journey. From the first recorded trial of legumes in biblical times to the first randomized controlled of trial of streptomycin in 1946, the history of clinical trial covers a wide variety of challenges - scientific, ethical and regulatory. The famous 1747 scurvy trial conducted by James Lind contained most elements of a controlled trial. The UK Medical Research Council′s (MRC trial of patulin for common cold in 1943 was the first double blind controlled trial. This paved the way for the first randomized control trial of streptomycin in pulmonary tuberculosis carried out in 1946 by MRC of the UK. This landmark trial was a model of meticulousness in design and implementation, with systematic enrolment criteria and data collection compared with the ad hoc nature of other contemporary research. Over the years, as the discipline of controlled trials grew in sophistication and influence, the streptomycin trial continues to be referred to as ground breaking. The ethical advances in human protection include several milestones - Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, and 1996, International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice guidance. In parallel to ethical guidelines, clinical trials started to become embodied in regulation as government authorities began recognizing a need for controlling medical therapies in the early 20th century. As the scientific advances continue to occur, there will be new ethical and regulatory challenges requiring dynamic updates in ethical and legal framework of clinical trials.

  16. Increasing Vitamin C Content in Plant Foods to Improve Their Nutritional Value—Successes and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Gallie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  17. Increasing vitamin C content in plant foods to improve their nutritional value-successes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallie, Daniel R

    2013-08-30

    Vitamin C serves as a cofactor in the synthesis of collagen needed to support cardiovascular function, maintenance of cartilage, bones, and teeth, as well as being required in wound healing. Although vitamin C is essential, humans are one of the few mammalian species unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it through dietary sources. Only low levels of the vitamin are required to prevent scurvy but subclinical vitamin C deficiency can cause less obvious symptoms such as cardiovascular impairment. Up to a third of the adult population in the U.S. obtains less than the recommended amount of vitamin C from dietary sources of which plant-based foods constitute the major source. Consequently, strategies to increase vitamin C content in plants have been developed over the last decade and include increasing its synthesis as well as its recycling, i.e., the reduction of the oxidized form of ascorbic acid that is produced in reactions back into its reduced form. Increasing vitamin C levels in plants, however, is not without consequences. This review provides an overview of the approaches used to increase vitamin C content in plants and the successes achieved. Also discussed are some of the potential limitations of increasing vitamin C and how these may be overcome.

  18. Vitamin C and Heart Health: A Review Based on Findings from Epidemiologic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Moser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C is a powerful dietary antioxidant that has received considerable attention in the literature related to its possible role in heart health. Although classical vitamin C deficiency, marked by scurvy, is rare in most parts of the world, some research has shown variable heart disease risks depending on plasma vitamin C concentration, even within the normal range. Furthermore, other studies have suggested possible heart-related benefits to vitamin C taken in doses beyond the minimal amounts required to prevent classically defined deficiency. The objective of this review is to systematically review the findings of existing epidemiologic research on vitamin C and its potential role in cardiovascular disease (CVD. It is well established that vitamin C inhibits oxidation of LDL-protein, thereby reducing atherosclerosis, but the cardiovascular outcomes related to this action and other actions of vitamin C are not fully understood. Randomized controlled trials as well as observational cohort studies have investigated this topic with varying results. Vitamin C has been linked in some work to improvements in lipid profiles, arterial stiffness, and endothelial function. However, other studies have failed to confirm these results, and observational cohort studies are varied in their findings on the vitamin’s effect on CVD risk and mortality. Overall, current research suggests that vitamin C deficiency is associated with a higher risk of mortality from CVD and that vitamin C may slightly improve endothelial function and lipid profiles in some groups, especially those with low plasma vitamin C levels. However, the current literature provides little support for the widespread use of vitamin C supplementation to reduce CVD risk or mortality.

  19. [Nutrition and individual defense--historical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadewaldt, H

    1991-03-01

    The first scientific understandings on the value of nutrition and the assimilation of food, in the Greek language "metabole" (metabolism), are published in the Corpus Hippocraticum. But the conception of metabolism was introduced in scientific literature not earlier than 1839 by Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) and 1842 by Justus von Liebig (1803-1873). The antique ideas were completed in the 17th century by the theory of ferments, introduced by the iatro-chemist Johann Baptist van Helmont (1577-1644), and the Italian priest Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) could proof the existence of such processes in the living organism by animal experiments in 1776. Then Schwann could discover in the gastric juice a substance in 1835 which he called "pepsin". In the time of the voyages of discovery new, not yet known malnutritions on the ships were known as scurvy, beriberi and in the northern countries rickets. Then it became clear that not only the three groups of food, but also supplementary materials, known in 1912 as vitamines by Casimir Funk (1884-1967), could develop determined effects. The starvation in the first and the second world war showed clearly, that deterioration of food supply diminished the condition of immunity. Failed food experiments with gelatin, synthetically produced citric acid and the discussions of malnutrition diseases, based on a deficiency of zinc, of toddlers, are discussed as the malnutrition illness kwashiorkor in the third world. In conclusion a citation of the famous American physiologist Graham Lusk (1866-1932) is mentioned from the year 1906, who praised the scientific priority of the German medical research.

  20. The use of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium in the growth of three months saga seedling (Adenanthera pavonina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Kurniaty

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Kurniaty R. 2016. The use of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium in the growth of three months saga seedling (Adenanthera pavonina. Pros Sem Nas Masy Biodiv Indon 2: 6-9. Plants saga tree (Adenanthera pavonina having benefits versatile because almost all parts of crop can be used so that economically valuable high. Wood saga can be used as building material and furniture . Seeds saga have the potential who has a promising as renewable energy source of them because the seeds his containing 14-28% fatty oil who could be classified as non food . In addition oil derived from the seeds of the saga is also very good to treat a disease in, scurvy, injuries, making candles, batik industry, and materials making soap. Research aims to understand the influence of the use of mycorrhizal and Rhizobium in growth seedlings saga age 3 months. Inoculating Rhizobium liquid as many as 1 mL by means of injecting on roots and plants surrounding the hole . The provision of mycorrhizal done by entering 2 g mycorrhizal (Glomus sp into a hole plant at the same time as Rhizobium. Design used is a random factorials consisting of two factors treatment. The first is Rhizobium (A namely: A1 = control and A2= Rhizobium sp. The second factor is mycorrhizal (B consisting of two the standard: B1 = control and B2 = Glomus sp (2 g/ polybag. The results showed that the treatment A2B2 (Rhizobium + mycorrhizal put a value colonization roots highest namely 68,88% with live percent 99,26%, height 10,08 cm, diameter 1.67mm, biomass 0,56 g, TR ratio 2.01 and IMB 0,06 . Nutrient absorption, treatment A2B2 is the nutrient in N 60,30% compared to control, the nutrient P 66,66% compared to control and the nutrient K 123,17% compared to control.

  1. The challenge of increasing vitamin C content in plant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Rus, Eduardo; Amaya, Iraida; Valpuesta, Victoriano

    2012-09-01

    The term "vitamin" is used to define a number of organic compounds that have to be obtained from different foods because the organism itself cannot synthesize them in the quantities needed to sustain life. Vitamin C is the common name for L-ascorbic acid. In humans, the principal role of this molecule is to scavenge reactive oxygen species, due to its antioxidant capacity, and to serve as cofactor for many enzymes. A deficiency of L-ascorbic acid is traditionally linked to human diseases such as scurvy. Plant foods are the principal source of L-ascorbic acid for humans. There is a high variability of L-ascorbic acid content in the various plant organs that are used for human consumption. This diversity is related to the specific functions played by L-ascorbic acid in the different plant tissues. The net content of L-ascorbic acid in plants is determined through a balance of the activities of different biosynthetic, recycling, and catabolic pathways. Here we review the importance of L-ascorbic acid for human health, the current knowledge on its metabolism and function in plants, and the efforts that have already been made by genetic modification to improve its content in plant organs used for human food. We provide a current and forward looking perspective of how plant science can contribute to improving the L-ascorbic acid content in crop species using gene transformation, quantitative trait loci and association mapping-based approaches. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Metabolic cooperation of ascorbic acid and glutathione in normal and vitamin C-deficient ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Kashiba, M; Kasahara, E; Tsuchiya, M; Sato, E F; Utsumi, K; Inoue, M

    2001-01-01

    Although the coordination of various antioxidants is important for the protection of organisms from oxidative stress, dynamic aspects of the interaction of endogenous antioxidants in vivo remain to be elucidated. We studied the metabolic coordination of two naturally occurring water-soluble antioxidants, ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), in liver, kidney and plasma of control and scurvy-prone osteogenic disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats that hereditarily lack the ability to synthesize AA. When supplemented with AA, its levels in liver and kidney of ODS rats increased to similar levels of those in control rats. Hepato-renal levels of glutathione were similar with the two animal groups except for the slight increase in its hepatic levels in AA-supplemented ODS rats. Administration of L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of GSH synthesis, rapidly decreased the hepato-renal levels of glutathione in a biphasic manner, a rapid phase followed by a slower phase. Kinetic analysis revealed that glutathione turnover was enhanced significantly in liver mitochondria and renal cytosol of ODS rats. Administration of BSO significantly increased AA levels in the liver and kidney of control rats but decreased them in AA-supplemented ODS rats. Kinetic analysis revealed that AA is synthesized by control rat liver by some BSO-enhanced mechanism and the de novo synthesized AA is transferred to the kidney. Such a coordination of the metabolism of GSH and AA in liver and kidney is suppressed in AA-deficient ODS rats. These and other results suggest that the metabolism of AA and GSH forms a compensatory network by which oxidative stress can be decreased.

  3. Low brain ascorbic acid increases susceptibility to seizures in mouse models of decreased brain ascorbic acid transport and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Timothy A; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Kennard, John A; Harrison, Fiona E

    2015-02-01

    Seizures are a known co-occurring symptom of Alzheimer's disease, and they can accelerate cognitive and neuropathological dysfunction. Sub-optimal vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficiency, that is low levels that do not lead the sufferer to present with clinical signs of scurvy (e.g. lethargy, hemorrhage, hyperkeratosis), are easily obtainable with insufficient dietary intake, and may contribute to the oxidative stress environment of both Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to test whether mice that have diminished brain ascorbic acid in addition to carrying human Alzheimer's disease mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PSEN1) genes, had altered electrical activity in the brain (electroencephalography; EEG), and were more susceptible to pharmacologically induced seizures. Brain ascorbic acid was decreased in APP/PSEN1 mice by crossing them with sodium vitamin C transporter 2 (SVCT2) heterozygous knockout mice. These mice have an approximately 30% decrease in brain ascorbic acid due to lower levels of SVCT2 that supplies the brain with ASC. SVCT2+/-APP/PSEN1 mice had decreased ascorbic acid and increased oxidative stress in brain, increased mortality, faster seizure onset latency following treatment with kainic acid (10 mg/kg i.p.), and more ictal events following pentylenetetrazol (50 mg/kg i.p.) treatment. Furthermore, we report the entirely novel phenomenon that ascorbic acid deficiency alone increased the severity of kainic acid- and pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. These data suggest that avoiding ascorbic acid deficiency may be particularly important in populations at increased risk for epilepsy and seizures, such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cornelian Cherry Germplasm Resource and Physicochemical Characterization of Its Fruit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hassanpour

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cornus is a very large genus which comprises 40 species of shrubs and trees native to Central and Southern Europe and parts of Western Asia. Many species are grown as ornamentals. Only a few species are grown for their fruits, chief among which is the cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.. Study on the nutritional value of the cornelian cherry has focused on nutrients which play a role in preventing diseases such as scurvy. Fresh cornelian cherry fruits contain twice as much vitamin C as oranges. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution and physicochemical properties of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. fruits in Iran. Materials and Methods: Distribution of cornelian cherry was traced on the map according to the visitation of the different provinces. In order to study the characteristics of the fruit, samples were taken from five different areas and various parameters were evaluated. Fruit and seed weight (g were measured by a digital balance with a sensitivity of 0.001 g (Scaltec Company, Gottingen, Germany; model SPB31. Fruit length (mm, fruit diameter (mm, seed diameter (mm and seed length (mm were measured using a digital vernier caliper with a sensitivity of 0.01 mm. TSS was determined by refrectometry of one drop extracted juice of each fruit at 25°C (Kyoto Electronics Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Japan, and Model RA-250HE. TA was determined by titration and the pH value was indicated by pH meter (HBJ-260. In addition, total ascorbic acid content was determined by the dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH method. Data were subjected to calculate of descriptive statistics by SPPSS and means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range test at p

  5. Systematic reviews in context: highlighting systematic reviews relevant to Africa in the Pan African Medical Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tsague, Landry

    2016-01-01

    Health research serves to answer questions concerning health and to accumulate facts (evidence) required to guide healthcare policy and practice. However, research designs vary and different types of healthcare questions are best answered by different study designs. For example, qualitative studies are best suited for answering questions about experiences and meaning; cross-sectional studies for questions concerning prevalence; cohort studies for questions regarding incidence and prognosis; and randomised controlled trials for questions on prevention and treatment. In each case, one study would rarely yield sufficient evidence on which to reliably base a healthcare decision. An unbiased and transparent summary of all existing studies on a given question (i.e. a systematic review) tells a better story than any one of the included studies taken separately. A systematic review enables producers and users of research to gauge what a new study has contributed to knowledge by setting the study's findings in the context of all previous studies investigating the same question. It is therefore inappropriate to initiate a new study without first conducting a systematic review to find out what can be learnt from existing studies. There is nothing new in taking account of earlier studies in either the design or interpretation of new studies. For example, in the 18th century James Lind conducted a clinical trial followed by a systematic review of contemporary treatments for scurvy; which showed fruits to be an effective treatment for the disease. However, surveys of the peer-reviewed literature continue to provide empirical evidence that systematic reviews are seldom used in the design and interpretation of the findings of new studies. Such indifference to systematic reviews as a research function is unethical, unscientific, and uneconomical. Without systematic reviews, limited resources are very likely to be squandered on ill-conceived research and policies. In order to

  6. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    the requirement in infants and that is 3 times higher than the amount necessary to prevent scurvy (7 mg/day). © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Anthropological and palaeopathological analysis of the human remains from three "Tombs of the Nobles" of the necropolis of Thebes-west, upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerlich, A; Zink, A; Hagedorn, H G; Szeimies, U; Weyss, C

    2000-12-01

    During several recent excavation campaigns at the necropolis of Sheikh-Abd-el-Gurna, Thebes-West, Upper Egypt, we investigated the human remains of three "Tombs of the Nobles" totalling at least 273 individuals. The investigation covered the human material (skeletons and mummy residues) from the tombs TT-84, TT-85 and TT-95. These tombs had been built in the New Kingdom (approx. 1500-1000 B.C.) and used until the Late period (up to 330 BC). All samples were analyzed macroscopically, isolated findings were further investigated by endoscopic and radiological techniques. The at least 273 individuals covered an age range from newborns to senile individuals with a main age of death between 20 and 40 years of age. The rate of infants and subadults was at 20.2% of all individuals and there was a slight male predominance comprising 54.5% of the adults. In this population a fairly high rate of pathological lesions was seen. Thus, dental conditions generally were poor with a high degree of dental abrasion, an also high rate of carious dental lesions (affecting between 13.8% and 27.7% of the yaws) and consequently a significant number of dental abscesses (mean 15.9%). Residues of trauma were observed in a considerable number of individuals ranging between 12.3% and 22.6% depending on the burial place (mean 15.8%). Inflammatory bone reactions (except the dental abscesses) were present to variable extent, in some locations ranging up to 6.8% of the cases (mean 5.1%). In addition, we noted several cases showing cribra orbitalia (mean 29.2%) and porotic hyperostosis (15.4% of cases), mild to severe osteopenia (7.5%) and in several cases subperiosteal new bone formation suggestive of chronic vitamin D-deficiency ("scurvy") (9.5%). The data support the notion of a significant impairment of living conditions in a high number of individuals. The rates of osteoarthrotic joint alterations were considerably variable depending on the burial places (between 1.9% and 18.5%) providing

  8. Mapping vulnerability to climate change and its repercussions on human health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sadia Mariam; Awan, Haroon; Khan, Niazullah

    2012-09-03

    Pakistan is highly vulnerable to climate change due to its geographic location, high dependence on agriculture and water resources, low adaptive capacity of its people, and weak system of emergency preparedness. This paper is the first ever attempt to rank the agro-ecological zones in Pakistan according to their vulnerability to climate change and to identify the potential health repercussions of each manifestation of climate change in the context of Pakistan. A climate change vulnerability index is constructed as an un-weighted average of three sub-indices measuring (a) the ecological exposure of each region to climate change, (b) sensitivity of the population to climate change and (c) the adaptive capacity of the population inhabiting a particular region. The regions are ranked according to the value of this index and its components. Since health is one of the most important dimensions of human wellbeing, this paper also identifies the potential health repercussions of each manifestations of climate change and links it with the key manifestations of climate change in the context of Pakistan. The results indicate that Balochistan is the most vulnerable region with high sensitivity and low adaptive capacity followed by low-intensity Punjab (mostly consisting of South Punjab) and Cotton/Wheat Sindh. The health risks that each of these regions face depend upon the type of threat that they face from climate change. Greater incidence of flooding, which may occur due to climate variability, poses the risk of diarrhoea and gastroenteritis; skin and eye Infections; acute respiratory infections; and malaria. Exposure to drought poses the potential health risks in the form of food insecurity and malnutrition; anaemia; night blindness; and scurvy. Increases in temperature pose health risks of heat stroke; malaria; dengue; respiratory diseases; and cardiovascular diseases. The study concludes that geographical zones that are more exposed to climate change in ecological and

  9. Diseases and disorders of muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, A M; Young, R B

    1993-01-01

    periodic paralysis, and malignant hyperexia). Diseases of the connective tissues discussed include those of nutritional origin (scurvy, lathyrism, starvation, and protein deficiency), the genetic diseases (dermatosparaxis, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, Marfan syndrome, homocystinuria, alcaptonuria, epidermolysis bullosa, rheumatoid arthritis in humans, polyarthritis in swine, Aleutian disease of mink, and the several types of systemic lupus erythematosus) and the acquired diseases of connective tissues (abnormal calcification, systemic sclerosis, interstitial lung disease, hepatic fibrosis, and carcinomas of the connective tissues). Several of the diseases of connective tissues may prove to be useful models for determining the relationship of collagen to meat tenderness and its other physical properties. Several other promising models for studying the nutrition-related disorders and the quality-related characteristics of meat are also reviewed.

  10. Growth and health status of children and adolescents in medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krenz-Niedbała Marta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Subadult growth and health have been analyzed in three cemetery samples from medieval Poland, including two early-urban sites: Cedynia dated to the 10t-14th centuries AD, and Ostrów Lednicki dated to the 13th-15th centuries AD, and a rural site Słaboszewo dated to the 14th-17th centuries AD. The nutritional status was not expected to have substantially differed among the settlements, due to the culturally induced undiversified diet of children, and predominant share of medium-to-low status individuals. However, city life and village life were supposed to differ in factors correlated with the spread of infections, and as such it was expected to find significant differences in respiratory health among early-urban and rural dwellers.The prevalences of diet-dependent diseases, scurvy and rickets, were found to be statistically indistinguishable among the three studied populations, while higher frequency of skeletal signs of poor respiratory health was observed in early-urban Cedynia than rural Słaboszewo. Slightly lower prevalences of skeletal stress indicators were found for the rural than the early-urban site. Skeletal growth profiles and the dynamics of long bone growth were found to be remarkably similar for the early-urban samples (Cedynia and Ostrów Lednicki, with the rural subadults having the shortest diaphyseal lengths, and lower growth dynamics.It can be concluded that adverse factors associated with the urban settlement were more detrimental to respiratory health than those in the village. A variety of factors are potentially responsible for this pattern, including population density, building structure, quality of air and water, sanitation, and occupation. Perhaps, the key factor in response to environmental and socio-cultural constraints was the stability of living conditions in the village, which allowed the inhabitants to develop sufficient adaptive mechanisms. In contrast, the history of strongholds such as Cedynia was changeable

  11. Chapter 29: historical aspects of the major neurological vitamin deficiency disorders: overview and fat-soluble vitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, Douglas J

    2010-01-01

    The vitamine doctrine: Although diseases resulting from vitamin deficiencies have been known for millennia, such disorders were generally attributed to toxic or infectious causes until the "vitamin doctrine" was developed in the early 20th century. In the late-19th century, a physiologically complete diet was believed to require only sufficient proteins, carbohydrates, fats, inorganic salts, and water. From 1880-1912, Lunin, Pekelharing, and Hopkins found that animals fed purified mixtures of known food components failed to grow or even lost weight and died, unless the diet was supplemented with small amounts of milk, suggesting that "accessory food factors" are required in trace amounts for normal growth. By this time, Funk suggested that deficiencies of trace dietary factors, which he labeled "vitamines" on the mistaken notion that they were "vital amines," were responsible for such diseases as beriberi, scurvy, rickets, and pellagra. Vitamin A deficiency eye disease: Night blindness was recognized by the ancient Egyptians and Greeks, and many authorities from Galen onward advocated liver as a curative. Outbreaks of night blindness were linked to nutritional causes in the 18th and 19th centuries by von Bergen, Schwarz, and others. Corneal ulceration was reported in 1817 by Magendie among vitamin A-deficient dogs fed for several weeks on a diet limited to sugar and water, although he erroneously attributed this to a deficiency of dietary nitrogen (i.e. protein). Subsequently, corneal epithelial defects, often in association with night blindness, were recognized in malnourished individuals subsisting on diets now recognizable as deficient in vitamin A by Budd, Livingstone, von Hubbenet, Bitot, Mori, Ishihari, and others. During World War I, Bloch conducted a controlled clinical trial of different diets among malnourished Danish children with night blindness and keratomalacia and concluded that whole milk, butter, and cod-liver oil contain a fat-soluble substance